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1

Advanced steel reheat furnace  

SciTech Connect

Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1997-10-01

2

Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1999-01-14

3

A SCADA-based expert system to provide delay strategies for a steel billet reheat furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacturing of steel bar products in mini-mills involves continuous casting of billet sections, cooling of the billets, reheating to rolling temperatures and final shaping and size reduction in rolling mills. The operation of the reheat furnaces is a significant challenge due to the dynamic nature of both the reheating and rolling processes. The operation of a furnace was analyzed

Clifford Mui; Edmund Osinski; John A. Meech; Peter V. Barr

1999-01-01

4

OXYFUEL COMBUSTION OF LOW CALORIFIC BLAST FURNACE GAS FOR STEEL REHEATING FURNACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot trials at MEFOS have proven that a new S3 blast furnace gas (BFG)-oxyfuel burner can give high performance, low NOx, low cost reheating for the steel industry. The S3 burner has been developed by AGA-Linde based on REBOX® flameless combustion technology with the optional use of a booster fuel. This burner was tested in a series of trials in

John Niska; Anders Rensgard

5

4. CLOSEUP VIEW INTO A REHEATING FURNACE IN THE No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CLOSE-UP VIEW INTO A REHEATING FURNACE IN THE No. 2 FORGE SHOP. THE FURNACE IS MISSING ITS REFRACTORY BRICK LINING. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

6

7. NO. 2 CONTINUOUS SLAB REHEATING FURNACE OF THE 160' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. NO. 2 CONTINUOUS SLAB REHEATING FURNACE OF THE 160' PLATE MILL. INTERIOR REFRACTORY LINING VISIBLE BECAUSE OF DEMOLITION. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 160" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

7

DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOROPERATED PEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOR-OPERATED PEEL BAR PUSHER WITH PINCH ROLLS FOR MOVING BILLETS ENDWISE OUT THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE FURNACE TOWARD THE CONTINUOUS ROUGHING TRAIN. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

8

Steel project fact sheet: Steel reheating for further processing  

SciTech Connect

Steel reheating is an energy-intensive process requiring uniform temperature distribution within reheating furnaces. Historically, recuperators have ben used to preheat combustion air, thereby conserving energy. More recent innovations include oxygen enrichment and the use of regenerative burners, which provide higher preheat air temperatures than recuperators. These processes have limitations such as equipment deterioration, decreasing energy efficiency over time, high maintenance costs, and increased NO{sub x} emissions with increased air preheat temperature, unless special equipment is used. Praxair, Inc., supplier of oxygen and other industrial gases to the steel industry, proposes to introduce an innovative oxy-fuel burner technology (using 100% oxygen) to the steel reheating industry. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces or eliminates nitrogen in combustion air and substantially reduces waste heat carried out with flue gas. Based on technology currently used in the glass, hazardous waste, and aluminum industries, Praxair has developed and patented low temperature, oxy-fuel burners that can be used in high temperature industrial furnaces where temperature uniformity is critical and extremely low NO{sub x} emissions are desired. The technical goal of the project is to demonstrate the use of oxy-fuel burners in a slab reheat furnace while reducing energy consumption by 45% and NO{sub x} emissions by 90% within the converted furnace zones. Successful implementation of this technology also will eliminate the need to periodically replace recuperators and install NO{sub x} removal equipment.

NONE

1998-04-01

9

Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating  

SciTech Connect

The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

2011-01-27

10

A finite element method for solution of the three-dimensional time-dependent heat-conduction equation with application for heating of steels in reheating furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional mathematical model is presented that is tailor made for calculation of the nonstationary temperature field in rectangular stocks of steel heated in a reheating furnace. Discretization of the governing equation is done by means of a finite element method where the time integration is performed by an exponential transformation of the heat equation combined with an alternating-direction-implicit method. The boundary conditions are assumed time dependent. The temperature uniformity of the heated stock is of great importance for the subsequent rolling. Nonuniformity of the stock discharge temperature may cause unacceptable thickness variations during the rolling and thus influences the quality of the final product. The proposed model is validated with respect to an analytical solution, to a numerical solution, as well as to full-scale experimental data. It is concluded that the three-dimensional finite element code is capable of taking into account nonuniform heating of the stocks caused by radiation shadowing of the skid pipes, the contact between the wearer bars and the stocks, baffles in the furnace, and end effects in the stocks.

Lindholm, D. [Inst. for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Leden, B. [MEFOS, Luleaa (Sweden). Metal Working Research Plant

1999-02-12

11

Benefits of ceramic fiber for saving energy in reheat furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Refractory ceramic fiber products offer thermal insulation investment in reheat furnaces by helping to keep operating cost low and product quality high. These products are used in a range of applications that include: furnace linings; charge and discharge door insulation; skidpipe insulation; and furnace repair and maintenance. The many product forms (blankets, modules, boards, textiles, and coatings) provide several key benefits: faster cycling, energy savings and personnel protection.

Norris, A. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States))

1993-07-01

12

Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities shows that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is in very good agreement with the Hottel and Sarofim's database. The 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is then integrated into AnsysFluent® Discrete Ordinates method under User Defined Function and CFD simulations are performed using these combined models. The simulations are done, with full combustion-radiation coupling, for steel reheating furnaces firing on three types of gases: BFG, COG and NG. The results are compared with the simulations realized with the 1-gray-gas WSGG model available in AnsysFluent®. The comparison shows that the 1-gray-gas WSGG model highly overestimates the steel discharging temperature as compared to the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model. Significant temperature differences are observed between the two radiative models, i.e. 116°C, 55°C and 67°C for the BFG, COG and NG cases, respectively. It can be concluded that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model should be used to calculate the radiation heat transfer in large industrial furnaces with more accuracy not only for low heating value gases such as BFG but also for high heating value gases such as COG and NG.

Nguyen, P. D.; Danda, A.; Embouazza, M.; Gazdallah, M.; Evrard, P.; Feldheim, V.

2012-06-01

13

Competitive position of natural gas: Steel reheat applications: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is by far the preferred fuel for steel reheat applications, accounting for approximately 135 x 10¹² Btu per year of a 187 x 10¹² Btu per year total reheat fuels market based on 1984 production figures. However, changes in the steel industry over the next 20 years could substantially reduce the traditional steel reheat market and affect the

J. H. Williams; G. S. Koch; H. McDermott; F. H. Klareich

1986-01-01

14

Temperature control of a continuous, push type, five zone, slab reheating furnace, for minimum fuel usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem under investigation is the temperature control of a continuous, push type, slab reheat furnace for minimum fuel consumption. An existing computer simulation of the reheat furnace was tested and enhanced for the purpose of developing an on-line temperature control scheme. The results obtained include: an on-line temperature control scheme using off-line model generated data; the development of a

1981-01-01

15

A numerical analysis of slab heating characteristics in a walking beam type reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical analysis of slab heating characteristics in a reheating furnace has been accomplished using FLUENT, a commercial software. The phenomena in the furnace are periodically transient because the slabs are transported toward a rolling mill with every time interval controlled. Unsteady calculation has been performed to obtain a periodically transient solution. A User-Defined Function (UDF) program has been developed to

Sang Heon Han; Daejun Chang; Chang Young Kim

2010-01-01

16

The development, verification, and application of a steady-state thermal model for the pusher-type reheat furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article outlines the development of a steady-state thermal model for the pusher-type steel reheating furnace. Problems commonly encountered with this furnace type are skidmark generation, scale formation, and high energy consumption. The objective of the work is to provide a means by which furnace users might assess the effectiveness of changes to current operating practice, proposed furnace modifications, or new furnace designs in controlling these difficulties. Since a requirement imposed on the model is to operate on current PC hardware, the assumptions and modeling procedures necessary to achieve this goal are discussed. The operation of the model, which develops the thermal history of an individual slab or billet as it passes through the furnace, is presented, and each of the three modules that comprise the model is described. Initial verification of the model has been carried out using data obtained in a separate campaign of plant trials on several 32-m furnace reheating slabs, and model predictions for steel temperatures at six locations within the steel are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The model is used to examine the influence of two skid designs and several placement strategies on skidmark severity and energy losses to the skid system. Although skidmark severity at the intermediate stages of heating is shown to be dependent on both the skid type and the location of any offsets, it is demonstrated that the skidmark present in the discharged steel is determined primarily by the skid type employed over the final section of the furnace. The inclusion of a hearth in the furnace soak zone was found to impose the least severe skidmark on the product, reducing the temperature variation over the bottom face from the level of 130 °C incurred by the best of the soak zone skid configurations examined, to the level of ~85 °C. The results suggest that, in the absence of a hearth section, the use of a well-insulated, cold-rider skid system over the majority of the furnace length, followed by a single offset of all skids occurring at the transition to a short section of hot-rider skids near the furnace discharge, is sufficient to suppress the final skidmark to a level very close to the minimum achievable with that particular skid design. When assessed on the basis of minimizing both the final skidmark and the energy loss to the skid system, this configuration was found to be the best of the skid layouts examined.

Barr, P. V.

1995-08-01

17

Temperature control of a continuous, push-type, five-zone, slab-reheating furnace for minimum-fuel usage. Volume II. Program (Appendices B, C, D)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appendices B, C, and D are presented of a report on investigations for a continuous, five zone, pusher type, slab reheat furnace. Appendix B presents computer documentation of the slab reheating furnace program (33 subroutines). Appendix C presents the slab reheating furnace computer program. Appendix D presents the shape factor program (introduction and program limitations). (MCW)

D. J. Purdy; T. J. Williams

1981-01-01

18

A thermal system model for a radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal system mathematical model developed for a gas-fired radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace is discussed. The mathematical model of the furnace integrates submodels for combustion and heat transfer within the radiant tube with models for the furnace enclosure. The transport processes occurring in the radiant tube are treated using a one-dimensional scheme, and the radiation exchange between the load, the radiant-tube surfaces, and the furnace refractories are analyzed using the radiosity method. The continuous furnace operation is simulated under steady-state conditions. Model simulations of load surface temperature variation compare well with measurements in an industrial galvannealing furnace. The scope and flexibility of the model are assessed by performing extensive parametric studies using furnace geometry, material properties, and operating conditions as input parameters in the model and predicting the thermal performance of the furnace. The various parameters studied include the effects of load and refractory emissivities, load velocities, properties of the stock material, and variations in the radiant-tube designs.

Ramamurthy, H.; Ramadhyani, S.; Viskanta, R.

1995-10-01

19

Walking beam furnace well-way slot covers at Rouge Steel  

SciTech Connect

Rouge Steel's 68-in. hot strip mill is served by three walking beam slab reheat furnaces. The first two were commissioned in 1974 and the third was installed in 1980. During the period 1979 to 1981, an intensive plant-wide energy management program to reduce energy consumption was undertaken. A major part of that program involved a comprehensive upgrading of refractory and insulation systems utilized in the walking beam reheat furnaces. A durable system for reducing heat losses through the well-way floor openings associated with walking beam slab reheat furnaces has, in addition to 4 to 5% savings in fuel consumption, reduced maintenance costs. Payback is achieved in four to five months.

Campbell, F. Jr. (Steel Service Engineering, Inc., Bridgeville, PA (United States)); Meinzinger, A.D.; Faust, C.H. (Rouge Steel Co., Dearborn, MI (United States))

1993-07-01

20

SCC of Stainless Steel Furnace Tubes in a Heating Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some furnace tubes made of the austenitic stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti for heating crude oil exhibited leakage and were on fire in a refinery. Corrosion failure analysis was conducted to explore the cause of failure. Macro- and microexamination indicated th...

Z. Y. Zhu X. Zhou J. Gu W. Ke

1994-01-01

21

30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING CREW, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Colletion, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

22

INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL AND REFRACTORY BRICK SUPPORT SYSTEM. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

23

Robust nonlinear slab temperature control design for an industrial reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop a nonlinear model-based controller for optimally tracking a prespecified slab temperature trajectory of a finite time reheating process. The slab temperature controller is guaranteed to have a robustness property to cope with the uncertainty. We validate, and then compare, the nonlinear controller with the current industrial practice by means of simulation studies utilizing sets of

Hatopan Sibarani; Yudi Samyudia

2004-01-01

24

Temperature control of a continuous, push type, five zone, slab reheating furnace for minimum fuel usage. Volume I. Text and Appendix A  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report treats the reheat furnace used to heat slabs from the slabbing mill up to the rolling temperature for the hot strip mill. It determines the minimum fuel rates needed to achieve required outlet temperatures as a function of production rate. It also presents a scheme carrying out the transition from one steady state operating level to another with

D. J. Purdy; T. J. Williams

1981-01-01

25

Temperature control of a continuous, push-type, five-zone, slab-reheating furnace for minimum-fuel usage. Volume I. Text and Appendix A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations are made of temperature control for a continuous, five zone, pusher type, reheat furnace used to heat slabs from the slabbing mill up to the rolling temperature needed for the hot strip mill. Minimum fuel rates needed to achieve required outlet temperature as a function of production rate are determined. A scheme is presented for carrying out the transition

D. J. Purdy; T. J. Williams

1981-01-01

26

28. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACES UNDER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACES UNDER CONSTRUCTION, 1909. (From the Robert Teagle Private collecton, Port Townsend, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

27

Reheat cracking studies on simulated heat-affected zones of CrMoV turbine rotor steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reheat cracking susceptibility of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a CrMoV turbine rotor steel was investigated. Two base materials, one with a coarse-grain (155 µxm) and the other with a fine-grain (55 µim @#@) microstructure, were submitted to Gleeble HAZ weld simulations. Three peak temperatures were utilized: 1350,1150, and 950 °. Some samples were single cycled, and others were exposed to a double cycle. The samples that were double cycled experienced a second peak temperature 150 to 250 ° lower than the first peak temperature. The samples were then stressed in bending for different amounts and stress relieved under load to determine their reheat cracking susceptibility. All samples were metallurgically evaluated before and after the reheat cracking test. It was found that the prior-austenite grain size of the original base metal did not influence the reheat cracking susceptibility, but increases in peak temperature did. It was observed that the grain size and grain matrix microhardness that developed after the Gleeble cycles affected reheat cracking. It was found that reheat cracking did not occur when the microhardness was below 350 DPH and the prior-austenite grain size was less than about 80 µm.

Indacochea, J. E.; Kim, G. S.

1996-06-01

28

Microstructural modification due to reheating in multipass manual metal arc welds of 9Cr–1Mo steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes the modification of the primary solidification structure of the weld region of a 9Cr–1Mo steel weldment, due to reheating during multipass welding. The ‘primary’ microstructure is represented by that region of the weld, solidified from the liquid state. In a multipass weld, this microstructure is considerably modified as further layers are deposited on the top and

R. Mythili; V Thomas Paul; S Saroja; M Vijayalakshmi; V. S Raghunathan

2003-01-01

29

A heat transfer model for the analysis of transient heating of the slab in a direct-fired walking beam type reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical heat transfer model for the prediction of heat flux on the slab surface and temperature distribution in the slab has been developed by considering the thermal radiation in the furnace chamber and transient heat conduction governing equations in the slab, respectively. The furnace is modeled as radiating medium with spatially varying temperature and constant absorption coefficient. The steel

Man Young Kim

2007-01-01

30

Phosphorus removal by electric arc furnace steel slag and serpentinite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag and serpentinite were tested in columns either alone or mixed with limestone to determine their capacity to remove phosphorus (P) from a solution containing initially 20mg P\\/L (for 114 days) than 400mg P\\/L (for 21 days). EAF steel slag was nearly 100% efficient due to specific P adsorption onto metal hydroxides and precipitation of

Aleksandra Drizo; Christiane Forget; Robert P. Chapuis; Yves Comeau

2006-01-01

31

Recycling of Electric Arc Furnace Dust: Jorgensen Steel Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is an evaluation of the Ek Glassification(TM) Process to recycle and convert K061-listed waste (Electric Arc Furnace or EAF dust) and other byproducts of the steel-making industry into usable products. The Process holds potential for replaci...

T. W. Jackson J. S. Chapman

1995-01-01

32

The Effect of Mold Flux on Reheat Scale -- Austenitic Stainless Steel Slabs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the characteristics of the subscale were investigated with respect to alloy composition, oxidizing environment, and surface treatment. Samples were tested isothermally under simulated reheating conditions with regards to time, temperature and oxidizing gas composition. Findings suggest that water vapor is a key variable in dictating the scale growth mechanisms during reheating of type 304 stainless steel. The volatilization of CrO 2(OH)2 in the presence of water vapor is one factor which can prevent stainless steel from forming a continuous external eskolaite layer; mold flux can influence this behavior. FactSage calculations were done to compare the maximum equilibrium solubilities of major oxide species in mold flux and the maximum equilibrium partial pressure of volatilized chromium oxide species in atmospheres with and without water vapor content. FactSage results also helped to model expected local equilibrium oxide formation as a function extent of oxidation. From that work, a mechanism was developed to explain deep subscale formation. A mechanism is proposed to explain how mold flux avoids deep subscale formation due to its low solubility of chromium oxide, promoting the formation of a continuous eskolaite oxide layer by preventing chromium loss by volatilization. A series of Fe-xCr binary alloys with x ranging from 14 to 24 wt% were used to investigate the isolated effects of chromium content on oxidation behavior and scale morphology as a function of surface treatment and oxidizing environment. Type 304L stainless steel was also tested. These tests were specifically aimed at investigating the effect of chromium volatilization on continuous external eskolaite formation during high temperature oxidation and to elucidate the mechanism involved in how the presence of mold flux influences this behavior. The samples were oxidized either in a wet atmosphere (laboratory air and 18%H 2O content simulated reheating atmosphere) or dry N2-O 2 gas mixtures at 1250°C, for two hours. The post-oxidation microstructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) technique was used to measure chemical compositions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was also used to verify the dominant phases present. A binary Fe-15Ni alloy was also tested in air at 1280°C to test for any direct effect mold flux might have (in the absence of chromium) on elimination of the network of nickel enriched metal inherent in subscale. For oxidized Fe-15Ni, the presence of mold flux worsened the oxidation attack, supporting the idea that the effect of mold flux is not to promote oxidation of nickel (from the unoxidized metallic networks) as such. Fe-Cr alloys oxidized in wet air revealed the formation of a continuous external eskolaite layer for an 18%Cr and 19%Cr steel in the flux treated case, where none was observed in the non-flux treated case, supporting the proposed mechanism regarding the ability of the molten flux to promote the growth of a protective Cr2O3 layer. Dry gas oxidation tests reveal that volatilization of chromium oxide is likely a major contributor in preventing protective continuous eskolaite formation at high temperature. This was shown when deep subscale formation was avoided for a 304L sample oxidized in a dry N2-20%O2 mixture, resulting in the formation of a continuous external eskolaite layer. Furthermore, eskolaite formation was observed for Fe-14Cr and Fe-18Cr alloys oxidized in dry gas where none formed in wet air. The change in chromium depletion profiles in wet environments versus dry environments supports the idea of increased chromium loss due to volatilization. Results from this work support the proposed mechanism explaining how enhanced chromium loss can occur due to volatilization in water containing gas and how mold flux affects this behavior. Mold flux serves to prevent chromium loss by acting as a solubility barrier to chromium transport through the molten silicate, hence preventing chromium loss due to v

Cheung, Kelvin H.

33

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry  

SciTech Connect

An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

2003-01-20

34

Evaluation of steel furnace slags as cement additives  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and physical properties and strength development have been studied for six granulated steel furnace slags from the normal steelmaking process. This paper reports results of research performed to develop cement mixture proportions using these slags. The influence of slag proportions, specific surface, and water demand on compressive strength and bulk density of cement blends are presented in this paper. The different test results, which were compared with the Turkish Standards, in general, were found to be within the limits.

Tuefekci, M.; Demirbas, A.; Genc, H. [Technical Univ. of the Black Sea, Trabzon (Turkey)

1997-11-01

35

Development of micro alloyed structural steels in secondary steel sector using induction melting furnace and controlled rolling route  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro alloyed steels with mild steel base were produced through induction furnace and controlled rolling route to produce ribbed bars used in constructions. The aim was to introduce micro alloyed steels in the secondary steel sector to produce all sections of structural steels, thus countering the limitation of TMT process which is considered to be suitable only for round sections.

Robin K Bagchi; Rakesh Sehgal; Suresh Dhiman

36

Reheat response and accelerated cooling of a microalloyed steel with an air\\/water atomizer: Effect on microstructure and mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an atomizer for accelerated cooling is discussed. An atomizer is an effective tool for controlling the microstructure and properties of a microalloyed steel because of its flexibility of operation and control of cooling rate over a broad range of temperatures. Some basic issues regarding heat transfer in pool boiling and in spray cooling also are presented. Reheating

S. R. Pejavar; P. B. Aswath

1994-01-01

37

Reheat response and accelerated cooling of a microalloyed steel with an air\\/water atomizer: Effect on microstructure and mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an atomizer for accelerated cooling is discussed. An atomizer is an effective tool for controlling the microstructure\\u000a and properties of a microalloyed steel because of its flexibility of operation and control of cooling rate over a broad range\\u000a of temperatures. Some basic issues regarding heat transfer in pool boiling and in spray cooling also are presented. Reheating

S. R. Pejavar; P. B. Aswath

1994-01-01

38

Effects of flexible power cables on harmonic generation of an arc furnace steel plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-phase dynamic arc furnace model is presented to investigate the effect of flexible power cables oscillations on harmonic generation of an arc-furnace steel plant. In this model, the flexible cables are presented by a varying three-phase inductor bank connected in series to the arc furnace. The self and mutual inductances of the inductors are calculated at each time step,

H. Khoshkhoo; S. H. H. Sadeghi; R. Moini; M. Jabbari

2008-01-01

39

Second law analysis of thermodynamics in the electric arc furnace at a steel producing company  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, energy and conservation analyses are applied to the production of steel process in the electric arc furnace. The scrap pre-heating system, stack gas and cooling water leaving the furnace are investigated, and the obtained results are compared with experimental ones.

Ünal Çamdali; Murat Tunç; Ahmet Karaka?

2003-01-01

40

Electrical conductivity of the roof of electric arc steel melting furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The authors test for the relationship between temperature and electrical conductivity in the refractory liners of arc furnaces used by the steel industry in the Soviet Union in order to minimize the degradation of these refractories by electrical and thermal processes, to maximize their service life, and to optimize their insulating properties and the consequent efficiency of the furnaces in which they are utilized.

Osipenko, V.D.; Garbuz, S.S.; Khromov, A.P.

1987-01-01

41

Sprayed-on fiber linings for continuous stainless steel strip furnaces increase their efficiency  

SciTech Connect

A new refractory furnace relining technique utilized at Washington Steel Corp., Washington, Pa., has not only relieved the possibility of early equipment failure, but has produced a 15% fuel saving as well.

Kyne, W.P.

1984-11-01

42

Microstructural characterisation of as-deposited and reheated weld metal — High Strength Steel Weld Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems encountered with the interpretation of martensite and the various forms of bainite that are found in high strength steel weld metals have been addressed. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy was found to overcome resolution difficulties often met with light optical microscopy and conventional scanning electron microscopy. The various microstructural constituents were characterised both in the as-deposited and

Enda Keehan; Leif Karlsson; Mattias Thuvander; Eva-Lena Bergquist

43

Upgrading of zinc from galvanic sludge and steel furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

Mining of zinc demands the upgrading of different residues of the refining process. A method, which had been used over a period of several years, was based on the so-called Doerschel process. From the chemical point of view, the Doerschel process is a high-temperature redox process, combined with a flash distillation (sublimation) step. This process is based on the reduction of zinc compounds with coke at elevated temperature. The metal is then evaporated, reoxidized, precipitated by filtration, and refined hydro-/electrochemically. Zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, germanium, and copper can be refined from solid feed material by this process. Modern waste management also needs such methods for the treatment of hazardous waste from different industrial processes, and the applicability of the Doerschel process in the upgrading of galvanic sludge, dust from steel furnaces, and scrap of portable batteries has been investigated. The feed material used for investigation has a mean zinc content of 15 to 25 wt% and a mean lead content up to 10 wt%. The presence of sulfate determines the anionic nature of feed material from galvanic sludge. The capacity of the kiln used in the investigation is about 10,000 metric tons per year. The efficiency of zinc recovery is about 95% to 98%. The matrix substances of the feed were dissolved in neutral to caustic slag. Sulfur dioxide was recovered by absorption, purification, and condensation.

Siebenhofer, M.; Schweiger, H. [VTU Engineering GmbH, Graz (Austria); Lorber, K. [Inst. fuer Entsorgungs- und Deponietechnik, Leoben (Austria)

1997-01-01

44

Bag filter for cleaning gases after electric arc steel-melting furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a large capacity bag filter for cleaning gases of electric arc steel-melting furnaces from highly dispersed dust particles. A sketch of the filter is provided and its technical characteristics are listed. Tests with the filter showed that in the process of cleaning the steel-melting shop exhaust gases, the dust content of gases at the filter exit is

I. K. Goryachev; V. P. Korsakov; A. D. Novikov

1987-01-01

45

Characterization of electroslag remelted and ladle refined, electric furnace melted 4340 steel armor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army Materials Technology Laboratory (MTL) selected electroslag remelted (ESR) 4340 steel as a candidate steel armor\\u000a on the Mobile Protected Gun System (MPGS). This investigation characterizes the material in terms of mechanical properties\\u000a and microstructure. Also, a ladle refined, electric furnace (EF) 4340 steel was brought into this characterization for evaluation\\u000a as a less costly alternative with respect

T. S. Thomas; A. A. Anctil

1986-01-01

46

To the problem of steel desulfurization in a ladle-furnace unit and a chamber degasser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laws of deep steel desulfirization in a ladle upon treatment in a ladle-furnace unit and after degassing are considered. On the basis of experiments, a mechanism is proposed for extraction refining by slag with allowance for the role of drop formation in the zone of gas jet outlet. The mechanism consists of several consecutive stages. Under vacuum, the process of stirring with an inert gas substantially enhances the desulfurization rate and can be restricted only by too intense steel cooling and in the absence of a free wall margin in a steel-teeming ladle.

Safonov, V. M.; Smirnov, A. N.; Pismarev, K. E.; Proskurenko, D. V.

2010-12-01

47

Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

2013-04-01

48

Thermal and structural response of two-storey two-bay composite steel frames under furnace loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapse of the World Trade Center Towers and other recent fires in tall buildings has motivated this study to understand the performance of structural frames under fire loading. Three two-storey, two-bay composite steel frames were constructed and subjected to dead loads by applying weight blocks, and to thermal load by placing the frame in a furnace. The furnace was

Y. L. Dong; E. C. Zhu; K. Prasad

2009-01-01

49

Harmonic Filter Analysis and Redesign for a Modern Steel Facility with Two Melt Furnaces Using Dedicated Capacitor Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This modern steel making facility relies on reactive compensation at the substation level in the form of harmonic filtering to support voltage for casting operations, and at the melt furnace level in the form of capacitor banks to support LMF operations. A history of harmonic filter failures at the substation, and intermittent capacitor unit failures at the melt furnace banks,

T. J. Dionise; V. Lorch

2006-01-01

50

Physicochemical grounds for the substitution of nitrogen for argon during out-of-furnace treatment of high-carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicochemical grounds for the possibility of replacing of argon with nitrogen during blowing a metal in the course of degassing and in a ladle-furnace unit are obtained using a mathematical model of degassing steel for out-of-furnace treatment. According to the data of examining the model for adequacy, the calculation error does not exceed 1%. A numerical experiment demonstrates that the

I. V. Golub; A. P. Stovpchenko; L. V. Kamkina; Yu. S. Proydak

2009-01-01

51

Physicochemical grounds for the substitution of nitrogen for argon during out-of-furnace treatment of high-carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicochemical grounds for the possibility of replacing of argon with nitrogen during blowing a metal in the course of degassing\\u000a and in a ladle-furnace unit are obtained using a mathematical model of degassing steel for out-of-furnace treatment. According\\u000a to the data of examining the model for adequacy, the calculation error does not exceed 1%. A numerical experiment demonstrates\\u000a that the

I. V. Golub; A. P. Stovpchenko; L. V. Kamkina; Yu. S. Proydak

2009-01-01

52

Articulation and codification of collective know-how in the steel industry: evidence from blast furnace control in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we use the implementation of an expert system to improve blast furnace control in the French steel industry to illustrate the problem of knowledge articulation\\/codification. Blast furnace related knowledge still largely takes the form of empirical know-how in general and expert know-how tied to specific individuals in particular. Therefore, the articulation\\/codification of knowledge in this field is

Nathalie Lazaric; Pierre-André Mangolte; Marie-Laure Massué

2003-01-01

53

Various methods for the deoxidation of a Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel during out-of-furnace treatment and their effect on the formation of nonmetallic inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of various methods of deoxidation during out-of-furnace treatment on the content and composition of nonmetallic inclusions in 15Kh2NMFA steel measured after out-of-furnace treatment and in forged pieces made from large ingots of this steel is studied.

Titova, T. I.; Afanas'eva, L. T.; Chernyakhovskii, S. A.; Zenkov, I. B.; Batov, Yu. M.; Afanas'ev, S. Yu.

2011-12-01

54

RECENT EXPERIENCES IN THE APPLICATION OF PLS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides results from a series of projects investigating the application of PLS to provide process engineering solutions in the steel industry. These applications involve the prediction of final product quality in a LD converter, the prediction of NOx in a reheating furnace and an analysis of the effects that changing scrap types have on final product quality in

Barry Lennox; Ognjen Marjanovic; Erik Sandberg

55

Improvement of the technology of the out-of-furnace treatment of wheel steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various versions of the deoxidation and out-of-furnace treatment of wheel steel under the OAO VMZ conditions are analyzed. The effective partial pressure of carbon monoxide over a melt in a 130-t ladle degasser is found to be 54 ± 9 kPa. Thermodynamic analysis of the deoxidation demonstrates that low oxygen concentrations in the melt of wheel steel can be achieved when it is deoxidized by aluminum, silicocalcium, aluminocalcium, or carbon in vacuum. Experiments and a thermodynamic calculation show that the vacuum-carbon deoxidation of a high-strength wheel steel provides oxygen concentrations in the metal that are comparable with the concentrations obtained by silicocalcium deoxidation (0.0023 ± 0.0005 wt %) and ensures the optimum morphology and concentration of oxide inclusions. The causes of the formation of the defects revealed by ultrasonic inspection in railway wheel templates are studied. The level of rejection controlled by these defects depends on the deoxidation method and is related to the number and morphology of the oxide inclusions that form during secondary oxidation.

Shibaev, S. S.; Garber, A. K.; Grigorovich, K. V.; Arsenkin, A. M.; Shishov, A. A.; Demin, Yu. S.; Moskovoi, K. A.

2008-12-01

56

Experience of high chromium ferritic steel tubes in power plant  

SciTech Connect

A new steel low C-9Cr-2Mo steel has been developed for use as superheater and reheater tubes in power boilers. The steel has higher strength than 2 1/4 Cr-lMo or 9Cr-lMo steel and fills the gap in elevated temperature strength between these ferritic grades and the austenitic stainless grades. Because of the steel's strength and its good oxidation resistance up to 1202 /sup 0/F (650 /sup 0/C), it may provide an economic alternative for austenitic stainless tubes. The steel has been installed in a number of power boilers. This paper reports on the examination of 9Cr-2Mo reheater and superheater tubes removed from the oil and blast furnace gas fired 156 MW power boiler.

Yukitoshi, T.; Daikoku, T.; Masuyama, F.; Yoshikawa, K.

1982-09-01

57

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing ir...

1990-01-01

58

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

59

Low pressure r.f. nitriding of austenitic stainless steel in an industrial-style heat-treatment furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitriding efficiency of a low pressure r.f. plasma is investigated in an industrial style hot-wall furnace in which the component is heated by thermal radiation from the walls of the vacuum chamber. The role of degassed impurities is also addressed. Samples of AISI 316 stainless steel were treated at a relatively low temperature of 400°C to avoid loss of

J. M. Priest; M. J. Baldwin; M. P. Fewell; S. C. Haydon; G. A. Collins; K. T. Short; J. Tendys

1999-01-01

60

An approach for phosphate removal with quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag as seed crystal.  

PubMed

The phosphate removal abilities and crystallization performance of quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag were investigated. The residual phosphate concentrations in the reaction solutions were not changed by addition of the ceramsite, quartz sand and blast furnace slag. The steel slag could provide alkalinity and Ca(2+) to the reaction solution due to its hydration activity, and performed a better phosphate removal performance than the other three. Under the conditions of Ca/P 2.0, pH 8.5 and 10 mg P/L, the phosphate crystallization occurred during 12 h. The quartz sand and ceramsite did not improve the phosphate crystallization, but steel slag was an effective seed crystal. The phosphate concentration decreased drastically after 12 h after addition of steel slag, and near complete removal was achieved after 48 h. The XRD analysis showed that the main crystallization products were hydroxyapatite (HAP) and the crystallinity increased with the reaction time. Phosphate was successfully recovered from low phosphate concentration wastewater using steel slag as seed material. PMID:22378001

Qiu, Liping; Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Shoubin; Yang, Zhongxi; Li, Yanbo

2012-01-01

61

Reheating closed string inflation  

SciTech Connect

Protecting the inflationary potential from quantum corrections typically requires symmetries that constrain the form of couplings of the inflaton to other sectors. We will explore how these restrictions affect reheating in models with UV completions. In particular, we look at how reheating occurs when inflation is governed by closed strings, using N-flation as an example. We find that coupling the inflaton preferentially to the standard modelis difficult, and hidden sectors are typically reheated. Observational constraints are only met by a fraction of the models. In some working models, relativistic relics in the hidden sector provide dark matter candidates with masses that range from keV to PeV, with lighter masses being preferred.

Green, Daniel [SLAC and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4060 (United States)

2007-11-15

62

STACK GAS REHEAT EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of technical and economic evaluations of stack gas reheat (SGR) following wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired power plants. The evaluations were based on information from literature and a survey of FGD users, vendors, and architect/engineer ...

63

Stack Gas Reheat Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of technical and economic evaluations of stack gas reheat (SGR) following wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired power plants. The evaluations were based on information from literature and a survey of FGD users, vendors...

W. R. Menzies C. A. Muela G. P. Behrens

1980-01-01

64

Vacuum furnaces for heat treatment of tool steels (from foreign technology)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1320°C is made of molybdenum plates covered with ins~ulating material of h-~h-purity ceramic fiber. The inner chamber may also be lined with an insulating layer of fibrous graphite material. Radiation screens are used in both cases. The heating elements of low-voltage graphite rods in the standard furnace are placed so as to ensure an even temperature throughout the furnace. Single-chamber

L. G. Satanovskii

1978-01-01

65

Characterization of Electroslag Remelted and Ladle Refined, Electric Furnace Melted 4340 Steel Armor,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Materials Technology Laboratory (MTL) selected electroslag remelted (ESR) 4340 steel as a candidate steel armor on the Mobile Protected Gun System (MPGS). This investigation characterizes the material in terms of mechanical properties and mi...

T. S. Thomas A. A. Anctil

1987-01-01

66

Effect of pre-strain on creep of three AISI 316 austenitic stainless steels in relation to reheat cracking of weld-affected zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructural modifications induced by welding of 316 stainless steels and their effect on creep properties and relaxation crack propagation were examined. Cumulative strain due to multi-pass welding hardens the materials by increasing the dislocation density. Creep tests were conducted on three plates from different grades of 316 steel at 600°C, with various carbon and nitrogen contents. These plates were tested

Q. Auzoux; L. Allais; C. Caës; I. Monnet; A. F. Gourgues; A. Pineau

2010-01-01

67

Furnace veneering systems of special design help achieve energy reduction goals at Armco  

SciTech Connect

A steel company conserves energy by veneering reheat furnaces with a ceramic fiber modular system. The furnace lining system incorporates several grades of veneering materials (modules, cements, coatings) whose application is matched to the exact conditions in the furnace. Zoned linings utilize a combination of grades of alumina-silica modules to achieve thermally efficient yet durable performance. High temperature cements exhibit good tackiness, easy module penetration and high strength retention after firing. A protective coating is sprayed in a thin layer over the modules and can be easily reapplied at a later date should it be necessary. Benefits include greater thermal control (temperature responsiveness and heating uniformity), less over-firing, less fuel use, and less heat loss. Fuel efficiency is increased by 20 to 50%.

Caspersen, L.J.

1982-12-01

68

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

69

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

1990-12-31

70

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

1990-01-01

71

34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace operator on platform measures temperature inside bottle car. Looking southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

72

Applications of fluidized bed furnaces for the heat treatment of tool steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper techniques applying a fluidized bed furnace for the neutral hardening of carbon and medium alloy tools are described,\\u000a the application being based on a production unit handling a wide range of sizes. Versatility of the unit and ease of control\\u000a are also discussed. Carburizing and carbonitriding of tools and components are proven techniques and control of case

G. N. Shepherd

1982-01-01

73

The role of a vacuum furnace in heat treating coated tool steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the retained austenite, grain size, hardness, and carbide precipitates was made on M-2 and M-4 high\\u000a speed steels coated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and hardened by the salt bath method and vacuum gas quench method.\\u000a Critical process parameters were identified. Hard coating of HSS and tool steel tooling with titanium carbide and titanium\\u000a nitride by

Mel Vagle

1981-01-01

74

Large-Scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rools In A Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethlehem Steel's (now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill  

SciTech Connect

At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system.

John Mengel; Anthony Martocci; Larry Fabina; RObert Petrusha; Ronald Chango

2003-09-01

75

Study on steel furnace slags with high MgO as additive in Portland cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, usability of Basic Oxygen Process (BOP) slags of Kardemir Iron and Steel Plant, Karabük, Turkey as an additive into cement was investigated. Slags were ground to 4000 and 4700 cm2\\/g levels, and added in ratios 15, 30 and 45 wt.%. Volume expansion, setting time, compressive strength and bending strength tests were measured according to Turkish standards. Due

?. Ak?n Altun; ?smail Y?lmaz

2002-01-01

76

Vacuum Furnace Brazing Open Cell Reticulated Foam to Stainless Steel Tubing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A heat exchanging device for separating hydrogen isotopes was designed using open cell reticulated copper foam that was brazed to stainless steel tubing. It is anticipated that the copper foam in the annular space of a tube-in-tube (TnT) style heat exchan...

S. R. Howard P. S. Korinko

2002-01-01

77

Large-scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rolls in a Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethelehem Steel's (Now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill  

SciTech Connect

At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system. Many challenges were involved in this project, including developing welding procedures for joining nickel aluminide intermetallic alloys with H-series austenitic alloys, developing commercial cast roll manufacturing specifications, working with several commercial suppliers to produce a quantity of high quality, reproducible nickel aluminide rolls for a large steel industrial annealing furnace, installing and demonstrating the capability of the rolls in this furnace, performing processing trials to evaluate the benefits of new equipment and processes, and documenting the findings. Updated furnace equipment including twenty-five new automated furnace control dampers have been installed replacing older design, less effective units. These dampers, along with upgraded flame-safety control equipment and new AC motors and roll-speed control equipment, are providing improved furnace control and additional energy efficiency. Energy data shows up to a 34% energy reduction from baseline after the installation of upgraded furnace damper controls along with up to a 34% reduction in greenhouse gases, potential for an additional 3 to 6% energy reduction per campaign of light-up and shutdown, and a 46% energy reduction from baseline for limited trials of a combination of improved damper control and straight-through plate processing. The straight-through processing is now possible because of the nickel aluminide rolls which also provided plate product surface quality improvement that will allow the additional processing of surface critical material. Benefits also include associated large reductions in maintenance, reduction in spare rolls and associated component costs, and potential for greater through-put and productivity. Estimated project fuel cost reductions alone for processing 100,000 tons/yr through this furnace are almost $0.5 million/yr with the new dampers, and more than $600,000/yr with straight-through processing and new damper control, assuming natural gas prices of $6.00/MMBtu. The nickel aluminide rolls are competitively priced with conventional H series alloy rolls.

Mengel, J.

2003-12-16

78

Energy audit of three energy-conserving devices in a steel-industry demonstration program. Task I. Hague forge furnaces. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A program to demonstrate to industry the benefits of installing particular types of energy-conserving devices and equipment was carried out. One of these types of equipment and the results obtained under production conditions in commercial plants are described. The equipment under consideration includes improved forge furnaces and associated heat-recovery components. They are used to heat steel to about 2300 F prior to hot forging. The energy-conserving devices include improved insulation, automatic air-fuel ratio control, and a ceramic recuperator that recovers heat from hot combustion gases and delivers preheated air to high-temperature recirculating burners. Twelve Hague furnaces and retrofit packages were purchased and installed by eleven host forge shops that agree to furnish performance data for the purpose of demonstrating the energy and economic savings that can be achieved in comparison with existing equipment. Fuel savings were reported by comparing the specific energy consumption (Btu's per pound of steel heated) for each Hague furnace with that of a comparison furnace. Economic comparisons were made using payback period based on annual after-tax cash flow. Payback periods for the Hague equipment varied from less than two years to five years or more. In several cases, payback times were high only because the units were operated at a small fraction of their available capacity.

Lownie, H.W.; Holden, F.C.

1982-06-01

79

The kinematics of cosmic reheating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the relaxation rate of a scalar field in a plasma of other scalars and fermions with gauge interactions using thermal quantum field theory. It yields the rate of cosmic reheating and thereby determines the temperature of the "hot big bang" in inflationary cosmology. The total rate originates from various processes, including decays and inverse decays as well as Landau damping by scatterings. It involves quantum statistical effects and off-shell transport. Its temperature dependence can be highly non-trivial, making it impossible to express the reheating temperature in terms of the model parameters in a simple way. We pay special attention to the temperature dependence of the phase space due to the modified dispersion relations in the plasma. We find that it can have a drastic effect on the efficiency of perturbative reheating, which depends on the way particles in the primordial plasma interact. For some interactions thermal masses can effectively close the phase space for the dominant dissipative processes and thereby impose an upper bound on the reheating temperature. In other cases they open up new channels of dissipation, hence increase the reheating temperature. At high temperatures we find that the universe can even be heated through couplings to fermions, which are often assumed to be negligible due to Pauli-blocking. These effects may also be relevant for baryogenesis, dark matter production, the fate of moduli and in scenarios of warm inflation.

Drewes, Marco; Kang, Jin U.

2013-10-01

80

[Health surveillance in a steel making industry with electric arc furnace: 15 years of experience].  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the results of health surveillance carried out in an electric steel mill for 15 years. We have analyzed the trend of audiometry, spirometry and main indicators of exposure to chemical risk: serum lead, urinary OH-pyrene, erythrocyte ZPP, and the results of risk assessment of stress work related. The analyses of the trend of audiometry, spirometry and biological monitoring shows an important improving in the working environment due to the progressive automation of production steps in the course of several years, consistent and correct use of DPI, information and training. PMID:23405576

Corti, P

81

Microstructure and properties of quenched-and-aged plates produced from a copper-bearing HSLA steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time in India, quenched-and-tempered (Q&T) plates of a copper-bearing high-strength lowalloy (HSLA) steel have\\u000a been commercially developed for naval structural applications. A 50 ton production heat was made through electric arc furnace\\u000a (EAF)-vacuum arc degassing (VAD) route and continuously cast into 170 mm thick slabs. These slabs were conditioned, reheated\\u000a in walking-beam furnace and hot rolled in

S. K. Sen; A. Ray; R. Avtar; S. K. Dhua; M. S. Prasad; P. Jha; P. P. Sengupta; S. Jha

1998-01-01

82

Enhanced humification by carbonated basic oxygen furnace steel slag--I. Characterization of humic-like acids produced from humic precursors.  

PubMed

Carbonated basic oxygen furnace steel slag (hereinafter referred to as "steel slag") is generated during iron and steel manufacturing and is often classified as waste. The effect of steel slag on humification process was investigated. Catechol, glycine and glucose were used as model humic precursors from degraded biowastes. To verify that humification occurred in the system, humic-like acids (HLAs) were isolated and characterized structurally by elemental analysis, FTIR spectra, solid-state CP-MAS (13)C NMR spectra, and TMAH-Py-GC/MS. Characteristics of the steel slag-HLA were compared with those of HLAs formed in the presence of zeolite and birnessite, and with that of mature compost humic acid. The results showed that steel slag-HLA, like zeolite- and birnessite-HLA, is complex organic material containing prominent aromatic structures. Steel slag substantially accelerated the humification process, which would be highly significant for accelerating the stabilization of biowastes during composting (e.g. municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and food waste). PMID:22130079

Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Fukushima, Masami; Fukuchi, Shigeki; Nie, Yongfeng

2011-11-16

83

Diagnostics and Control of Natural Gas-Fired furnaces via Flame Image Analysis using Machine Vision & Artificial Intelligence Techniques  

SciTech Connect

A new approach for the detection of real-time properties of flames is used in this project to develop improved diagnostics and controls for natural gas fired furnaces. The system utilizes video images along with advanced image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to provide virtual sensors in a stand-alone expert shell environment. One of the sensors is a flame sensor encompassing a flame detector and a flame analyzer to provide combustion status. The flame detector can identify any burner that has not fired in a multi-burner furnace. Another sensor is a 3-D temperature profiler. One important aspect of combustion control is product quality. The 3-D temperature profiler of this on-line system is intended to provide a tool for a better temperature control in a furnace to improve product quality. In summary, this on-line diagnostic and control system offers great potential for improving furnace thermal efficiency, lowering NOx and carbon monoxide emissions, and improving product quality. The system is applicable in natural gas-fired furnaces in the glass industry and reheating furnaces used in steel and forging industries.

Shahla Keyvan

2005-12-01

84

50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

85

Recuperative burners for metal melting, heat treatment and reheating furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document examines the role of recuperation in waste heat recovery and details the main characteristics and results of six demonstration projects partly funded and independently monitored under the Energy Efficiency Office's Energy Efficiency Demonstr...

E. Ford

1985-01-01

86

Reheating for closed string inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N = 1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation.

Cicoli, Michele; Mazumdar, Anupam

2010-09-01

87

Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-12-31

88

GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and\\/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In

D. M. Bachovchin; R. A. Newby P. G. A. Cizmas

2004-01-01

89

Thermal reconstruction behavior of the quenched hydroxyapatite powder during reheating in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial hydroxyapatite (HAP) powders were quenched from 1500°C to room temperature and reheated at different temperatures by a program controlled SiC-heated furnace to investigate the reconstruction behavior of quenched HAP powder in air. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) analysis were used to examine changes in crystalline phases and functional groups of quenched HAP powders at different temperatures. Weight

Feng-Huei Lin; Liao Chun-Jen; Chen Ko-Shao; Sun Jui-Sheng

2000-01-01

90

Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag—An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of

Ha-Won Song; Velu Saraswathy

2006-01-01

91

Mechanism of Graphite Electrode Consumption in Electric Arc Steel Furnaces. Session 2.2A N.2.2.3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Graphite electrodes account for a significant portion of the cost of steelmaking by the electric arc furnace process. Electrode consumption can be divided into two types: 1) side loss caused by oxidation, and 2) tip loss caused by spalling, erosion in met...

S. Kiyono Y. Inoue

1984-01-01

92

The use of high-temperature electric furnace process technology for the 18–8 stainless steel sensitized effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our experiment focuses on exploring the effects of the carbide precipitation on the mechanical properties and strain shape of type 18-8 within the sensitizing temperatures (475-850°C) in the hope of providing a helpful reference to the stainless steel industry when producing the stainless steel manufactures. We first heat up some specimens of 18-8(304) stainless steel individually in a high-temperature electric

Longtsong Ju; Shrliang Ju; Naiyee Lin

2010-01-01

93

Inflationary reheating classes via spectral methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inflationary reheating is almost completely controlled by the Floquet indices, ?k. Using spectral theory, we demonstrate that the stability bands (where ?k=0) of the Mathieu and Lamé equations are destroyed even in Minkowski spacetime, leaving a fractal Cantor set or a measure zero set of stable modes in the cases, where the inflaton evolves in an almost-periodic or stochastic manner, respectively. These two types of potential model the expected multi-field and quantum back reaction effects during reheating.

Bassett, Bruce A.

1998-07-01

94

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPENHEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPEN-HEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 AND CAST HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

95

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSEUP, IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSE-UP, IRON NOTCH IN CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

96

22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL CONSTRUCTION. CONCRETE PAD AT LEFT IS SITE OF FORMER FURNACE USED TO HEAT URANIUM BILLETS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

97

13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

98

12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

99

15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

100

14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

101

3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE BATCH FURNACES ON LEFT AND 5 TON CAPACITY CHARGING MACHINE ON RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

102

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

103

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

104

Direct measurement of solids: High temperature sensing: Phase 2, Experimental development and testing on furnace-heated steel blocks  

SciTech Connect

Using average velocity measurements to estimate average profile temperature shows promise and merits further investigation. The current generation of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) can transmit and detect signals in steel below the magnetic transition temperature. Techniques for calibrating ultrasonic velocity to internal temperature need further development. EMATs are inadequate ultrasonic transmitters for these applications. A high-energy, pulsed laser capable of generating more intense ultrasonic signals should be investigated as a transmitter. Recommendations are given for further work.

Lemon, D.K.; Daly, D.S.

1985-12-01

105

Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold\\/indium alloy plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The

Stanley R. Howard; Paul S. Korinko

2008-01-01

106

Blast furnace stove control  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

107

MicroNiobium Alloy Approach in Medium and High Carbon Steel Bar, Plate and Sheet Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently developed application of the MicroNiobium Alloy Approach® in medium- and high-carbon steel long products, sheets, and plate steels enhances both the metallurgical properties and processability, as well as reducing the operational cost per tonne of production. The process and product metallurgy improvements relate to the Nb-pinning effect of the austenite grain boundaries. The metallurgical mechanism of the MicroNiobium Alloy Approach is related to the retardation of austenite grain coarsening during reheat furnace soaking of the billets, slabs, or shapes before rolling. Variable grain size is induced by temperature fluctuations and inhomogeneity during the heating of the slabs in the reheat furnace. Such fluctuations can occur because of variations in the air- to gas-ratio, directly affecting the adiabatic flame temperature and heat input into the slabs. This approach contributes to the achievement of an ultrafine grain, homogeneous higher carbon microstructures that exhibit superior toughness, high strength, less mechanical property variation in the final hot-rolled product, and reduced cost of quality. The reduced cost of quality far exceeds the additional alloy cost for the Nb addition.

Jansto, Steven G.

2013-04-01

108

Development of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for use as transfer rolls in hot processing of steels. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this cooperative effort was to evaluate the potential of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys, such as IC221M and IC396M, for use as transfer rolls in heating treating furnaces and slab reheating furnaces used during the normal hot processing of steel ingots into rolled products. Rolls consist of three parts: the center tube section which forms the roll surface in direct contact with the steel, and the sections welded at each end of the tube, called trunnions, which bear the load. The work in this CRADA focused on weldments and base materials. The transfer rolls in the furnaces used in the hot processing of steel have been made, almost exclusively, from iron-chromium-nickel heat resistant alloys for over 35 years. The iron-based heat resistant alloys experience a variety of problems when exposed to temperatures above 760 C including: cracking, dimensional instability, and excessive oxidation. Many defects in rolled steel products can be traced directly to rolls used in the processing. Also the demand for higher quality products, spurred in part by competition from foreign producers, requires that various avenues for improving overall quality of rolled steel products be pursued. Initial work done by the Contractor and Metallamics indicated that Ni{sub 3}Al alloys may perform better than existing iron-chromium-nickel alloys do as transfer rolls in heat treating furnaces. The use of Ni{sub 3}Al may lead to rolls with longer operational life, improved high temperature oxidation resistance and mechanical properties, higher quality rolled steel products, and improved energy and operational efficiencies in the hot processing of steel. The goal of the work was to test Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for the transfer roll application in order to improve process efficiency, minimize waste by virtue of producing rolled steel of higher quality and to enhance the competitiveness of US-based steel producers.

Santella, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); McDonald, R. [Metallamics, Transverse City, MI (United States)

1996-05-01

109

Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model  

SciTech Connect

The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

Seymour Katz

2004-12-31

110

Conformal inflation, modulated reheating, and WMAP5  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate density perturbations generated through modulated reheating while inflation is driven by a conformally coupled scalar field. A large running of the spectral index is obtained, which reflects the basic nature of conformal inflation that higher-order time derivatives of the Hubble parameter during inflation are not necessarily small. This feature may allow us to distinguish between conformal inflation models

Takeshi Kobayashi; Shinji Mukohyama

2009-01-01

111

Inflation from strings 2; Reheating and baryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

The authors study the reheating process which takes place after the two periods of inflation that arise from a string-inspired cosmological model. In this paper baryogenesis mechanisms and a possible solution for the magnetic monopole problem that are compatible with string-motivated inflationary scenarios are discussed.

Bento, M.C.; Bertolami, O.; Sa, P.M. (Centro de Fisica da Materia Condensada, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1699 Lisboa Codex (PT))

1992-04-10

112

Curvaton reheating in a logamediate inflationary model  

SciTech Connect

In a logamediate inflationary universe model we introduce the curvaton field in order to bring this inflationary model to an end. In this approach we determine the reheating temperature. We also outline some interesting constraints on the parameters that describe our models. Thus, we give the parameter space in this scenario.

Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Saavedra, Joel; Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; Rojas, Efrain [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Valparaiso (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000, Xalapa Veracruz (Mexico)

2009-12-15

113

High temperature corrosion in aluminum reclamation furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Turbines Incorporated, under contract to Gas Research Institute, has performed extensive materials testing in the stack of an aluminum furnace. A wide variety of stainless steels, superalloys, and advanced ceramics were tested under controlled conditions in the stack gases of an aluminum reclamation furnace and analyzed for resistance to those conditions. The materials selected for testing were chosen based

A. D. Russell; C. E. Smeltzer; M. E. Ward; C. J. Dobos; W. W. Liang

2008-01-01

114

Radiation characteristics of electric furnace arcs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric arc furnace uses the energy radiated from high-power electric arcs to melt steel. A disadvantage of the process is that the intense radiation can erode the refractory lining of the furnace. Empirical work has shown that refractory erosion depends on arc power and voltage and their product has been used as an index of this erosion. However, no

Munroe

1982-01-01

115

An intelligent ladle furnace control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an intelligent ladle furnace control system is presented. The main functions and system structure is introduced. The system applied combined artificial intelligent technology for ladle furnace heat balance calculation and steel temperature prediction, dynamic energy input optimization and intelligent electrode control. The application results achieved are given to demonstrate the capability or this intelligent control system

Sun Yanguang; Wang Daixian; Tao Baisheng; Yan Tao; Shi Yang; Fang Shubiao; Wang Yuanhou

2000-01-01

116

Low Cost Oxygen for Blast Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low cost process is examined which provides oxygen enrichment of blast air for blast furnaces to increase steel production without increasing the steelmaking or final finishing facilities. The proposed process is designed to separate the oxygen from nit...

R. Jablin

1980-01-01

117

Perturbative reheating and gravitino production in inflationary models  

SciTech Connect

The low reheat temperature at the end of inflation from the gravitino bound constrains the creation of heavy Majorana neutrinos associated with models of leptogenesis. However, a detailed view of the reheating of the Universe at the end of inflation implies that the maximum temperature during reheating, T{sub max}, can be orders of magnitude higher than the final reheat temperature. This then allows for the production of the heavy Majorana neutrinos needed for leptogenesis. We carry out the complementary calculation of the gravitino production during reheating and its dependence on T{sub max}. We find that the gravitino abundance generated during reheating for a quartic potential is comparable to the standard estimate of the abundance generated after reheating and study its consequences for leptogenesis.

Rangarajan, Raghavan; Sahu, Narendra [Theoretical Physics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

2009-05-15

118

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE)/ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, WITH SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS & TRANSFER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

119

6. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES ARE THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

120

Intracluster Medium Reheating by Relativistic Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galactic jets are powerful energy sources reheating the intra-cluster medium in galaxy clusters. Their crucial role in the cosmic puzzle, motivated by observations, has been established by a great number of numerical simulations missing the relativistic nature of these jets. We present a set of relativistic simulations of the very long term evolution of realistic galactic jets. Unexpectedly, our results show no buoyant bubbles, but large cocoon regions compatible with the observed X-ray cavities. The reheating is more efficient and faster than in previous scenarios, and it is produced by the shock wave driven by the jet, that survives for several hundreds of Myrs. Therefore, the X-ray cavities in clusters produced by relativistic jets would remain confined by weak shocks for extremely long periods, whose detection could be an observational challenge.

Quilis, V.; Perucho, M.; Marti, J. M.

2012-07-01

121

Production of massive particles during reheating  

SciTech Connect

What is commonly called the reheat temperature, T[sub RH], is not the maximum temperature obtained after inflation. The maximum temperature is, in fact, much larger than T[sub RH]. As an application of this we consider the production of massive stable dark-matter particles of mass M[sub X] during reheating, and show that their abundance is suppressed as a power of T[sub RH]/M[sub X] rather than exp([minus]M[sub X]/T[sub RH]). We find that particles of mass as large as 2[times]10[sup 3] times the reheat temperature may be produced in interesting abundance. In addition to dark matter, our analysis is relevant for baryogenesis if the baryon asymmetry is produced by the baryon (or lepton) number violating decays of superheavy bosons, and also for relic ultra-high energy cosmic rays if decays of superheavy particles are responsible for the highest energy cosmic rays. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

Chung, D.J. (NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 (United States) Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1433 (United States)); Kolb, E.W. (NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 (United States) Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1433 (United States)); Riotto, A. (Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland))

1999-09-01

122

The d-c shaft furnace  

SciTech Connect

A recent projection of world steel production by process through the year 2000 illustrates a general consensus that electric arc furnace production will continue to increase and represent a greater proportion of total steel produced. State of the art technology is being applied to meet the increasing volume and quality demands with the continuing objectives being the production of high-quality product at the lowest possible cost. In this article, the integration of two state-of-the-art technologies into the d-c shaft furnace process is discussed: the direct current arc furnace; and scrap preheating. The d-c shaft furnace, with scrap preheating capability, provides the potential for not only major increases in production rate but also significant reductions in energy and electrode consumption in comparison with a conventional d-c furnace of similar physical and electrical characteristics.

Haissig, M. (Fuchs Systems Inc., Salisbury, NC (United States))

1994-05-01

123

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building to the right is the crucible steel building - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

124

Gas Turbine Reheat Using In-Situ Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) is developing in-situ reheat (fuel injection via airfoil injection) as a means for increasing cycle efficiency and power output, with possibly reduced emissions. This report discusses engineering cycle evaluations on various reheat approaches, using GateCycle and ChemCad software simulations of typical F-class and G-class engines, modified for alternative reheat cycles. The conclusion that vane 1 reheat offers the most advantageous design agrees with the conclusions of the detailed chemical kinetics (Task 2) as verified by high temperature testing (Task 3) and Blade path CFD (Task 1) tasks. The second choice design option (vane 2 reheat after vane 1 reheat) is also validated in all tasks. A conceptual design and next recommended development tasks are presented.

R.A. Newby; D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert

2004-04-29

125

Austenite grain coarsening in microalloyed steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A uniform, fine-grain structure is essential in steels, particularly for strip and plate, that are to meet demands for high\\u000a strength and toughness. To produce such microstructures, every step of the high-temperature processing of the steel must be\\u000a carefully controlled, beginning with grain coarsening that occurs during reheating for slab rolling. Extremely coarse or nonuniform\\u000a grain structures in the reheated

L. J. Cuddy; J. C. Raley

1983-01-01

126

Design and Prototype Development of a Mini-Electric Arc Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnaces (EAF) have the capabilities required for furnaces used for metallurgical research. An electric arc furnace was designed and constructed to melt approximately 5kg of steel\\/cast iron scraps, using locally produced Soderberg electrodes. Tests carried out showed that it required about 60 minutes to heat up the furnace to the melting temperature of cast iron (1150C - 1400C).

F. A. Oyawale; D. O. Olawale

127

Current trends in the production of railroad wheels and the effect of out-of-furnace treatment of the steel on their properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current trends in the production of railroad wheels show the use of some promising techniques: a reduction in the carbon content\\u000a of the finished steel; degassing the steel in a vacuum to decrease its hydrogen content; more efficient deoxidation and alloying\\u000a of the steel. When used together, these measures are ensuring that the finished steel has the mechanical and service

V. V. Tyagnii; A. P. Stovpchenko; L. V. Chuprina; G. A. Pol’skii; Yu. N. Grishchenko; A. D. Rozhkova

2006-01-01

128

Leptogenesis and reheating in complex hybrid inflation  

SciTech Connect

We study the transformation into a baryon asymmetry of a charge initially stored in a complex (waterfall) scalar field at the end of a hybrid inflation phase as described by Delepine, Martinez, and Urena-Lopez [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 161302 (2007)]. The waterfall field is coupled to right-handed neutrinos, and is also responsible for their Majorana masses. The charge is finally transferred to the leptons of the standard model through the decay of the right-handed neutrinos without introducing new CP violating interactions. Other needed processes, like the decay of the inflaton field and the reheating of the Universe, are also discussed in detail.

Martinez-Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas de la Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 2-82, 58040, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Delepine, David; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo [Departamento de Fisica, DCI, Campus Leon, Universidad de Guanajuato, Codigo Postal 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

2010-02-01

129

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD TO THE CENTER, HEYL & PATTERSON CAR DUMPER TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

130

Injection of natural gas in the blast furnace at high rates: Field experiments at Armco Steel Company. Topical technical report, January 1990-September 1992  

SciTech Connect

A study of the benefits of the injection of natural gas as a supplemental fuel for commercial blast furnaces is presented. Tests were carried out for sustained periods at natural gas injection levels of 150 and 200 pounds per therm (lb/thm). Average coke replacement ratios of 1.30 pounds of coke per pound of natural gas injected and productivity increases of about 10% were achieved at a gas injection rate of 200 lb/thm. The results were obtained without adverse effects on hot metal chemistry or furnace operability. The ability of natural gas to effectively replace an appreciable amount of coke should enable a decrease in coke production levels.

Agarwall, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Frydenlund, A.R.

1993-04-01

131

Slag treatment at Kardemir integrated iron and steel works  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated iron- and steelmaking plants generate large amounts of solid wastes, which are mainly blast furnace and steel furnace slags, dusts, sludges, etc. The main problem faced at Kardemir integrated iron and steel works is with the steelmaking slags, i.e. open-hearth furnace slag and more recently basic oxygen furnaces (BOF) slag. Over the last 50 years of operation, more than

Y. Topkaya; N. Sevinç; A. Günayd?n

2004-01-01

132

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING QBOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING Q-BOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL GAS ARE BLOWN INTO THE FURNACE THROUGH THE TUYERES TO CHARGE 460,000 LBS. OF HOT METAL, 100,000 LBS. OF SCRAP WITH 30,000 LBS. OF LIME. BLOW TIME IS 16 MINUTES. THE TIME TO BLOW AND TAP THE FURNACES OF THE RESULTING 205,000 TONS OF STEEL AND SLAG IS 35 MINUTES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

133

Waste product profile: Steel cans  

SciTech Connect

Steel cans are made from tinplate steel, which is produced in basic oxygen furnaces. A thin layer of tin is applied to the can`s inner and outer surfaces to prevent rusting and protect food and beverage flavors. As a result, steel cans are often called tin cans. Steel mills are the largest market for steel cans. Integrated mills use the basic oxygen process to manufacture tinplate, appliances, car bodies, and steel framing. Electric arc furnaces use 100% scrap to produce steel shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans. Electric arc furnaces are more geographically diverse and tend to have smaller capacities than basic oxygen furnaces. Detinners remove the tin from steel cans for resale to tin using industries. Continued decreases in the amount of tin used in steel cans has lessened the importance of this market. Foundries use scrap as a raw material in making castings and molds for industrial users.

Miller, C. [Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-07-01

134

TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates  

SciTech Connect

Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

2005-04-15

135

Shougang No. 2 blast furnace enlargement  

SciTech Connect

Shougang is expanding to become a 10 million ton/year steel plant in 1995. In 1990, the capacity of Shougang No. 2 blast furnace was enlarged from 1,327 to 1,726 cu meters. The project consisted of building a new furnace on the old site while maintaining the operation of the old furnace. The project was completed in 188 calendar days, 3 days ahead of schedule. Shougang has a large, comprehensive technical force that includes design, construction and production. Most of the equipment and instrumentation, both mechanical and electrical, were fabricated by Shougang personnel. The future increase in capacity of No. 1, 3 and 4 blast furnaces will exceed that of No. 2 furnace.

Wang, Z.Z. (Shougang Iron and Steel Corp., Beijing (China))

1994-09-01

136

Stable operation for No. 1 blast furnace at Baosteel  

SciTech Connect

Until Sept. 1994, No. 1 blast furnace in Baoshan Steel (Group) Co. had been operating successfully with high productivity. At present, it still keeps its strong potential for production capacity. The philosophy and methodology of the efficient blast furnace operation will be described. The most important aspect for stable operation and long campaign life of a blast furnace is reasonable gas flow distribution in the furnace. The topics to be discussed include: introduction to ironmaking in Baosteel; operational results; experience of stable operation, philosophy, gas distribution control, stabilization raw material property, furnace maintenance and supervision system.

Cai, X.; Lu, S. [Baoshan Steel Corp., Shanghai (China)

1995-07-01

137

Partnering and the WCI blast furnace reline  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, WCI Steel entered into a partnership agreement to perform a blast furnace reline. The reline included a complete rebrick from the tuyere breast to the furnace top including the tapholes. Also included was the replacement of the Paul Wurth top equipment from the receiving hoppers through the gearbox and distribution chute, a skip incline replacement, and installation of tilting runners and a casthouse roof. The bustle pipe and hot blast main were repaired. One stove was also replaced. The reline was accomplished in 36 days, wind to wind, which allowed for 29 days of construction inside the blast furnace proper.

Musolf, D.W. [WCI Steel, Inc., Warren, OH (United States)

1997-11-01

138

Conformal inflation, modulated reheating, and WMAP5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate density perturbations generated through modulated reheating while inflation is driven by a conformally coupled scalar field. A large running of the spectral index is obtained, which reflects the basic nature of conformal inflation that higher-order time derivatives of the Hubble parameter during inflation are not necessarily small. This feature may allow us to distinguish between conformal inflation models and standard minimally coupled ones. We also investigate how the resulting fluctuations are modified when there is a deviation from an exact conformal coupling between the inflaton and gravity. Finally, we apply our results to the warped brane inflation model and see that observational bounds from the WMAP5 data suggest a blue tilted density perturbation spectrum.

Kobayashi, Takeshi; Mukohyama, Shinji

2009-04-01

139

Charge separation in reheating after cosmological inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New aspects of parametrically resonant heating of a relativistic scalar O(2)-symmetric self-interacting field are presented. This process is a candidate for reheating at the end of the early-universe epoch of inflation. Although a model with a fully symmetric ground state is used, transient, metastable spontaneous symmetry breaking can be observed. This manifests itself in the form of persistent regimes of opposite and, inside these, uniform charge overdensities separated by thin lines and walls similar to topological defects, in two and three spatial dimensions, respectively. The configuration is found to correspond to a non-thermal fixed point of the underlying dynamic equations for correlation functions which prevents thermalisation over an extended period of time. Our results establish a link between wave-turbulent phenomena and the appearance of quasi-topological defects in inflaton dynamics.

Gasenzer, Thomas; Nowak, Boris; Sexty, Dénes

2012-04-01

140

Leptogenesis and reheating in complex hybrid inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the transformation into a baryon asymmetry of a charge initially stored in a complex (waterfall) scalar field at the end of a hybrid inflation phase as described by Delepine, Martinez, and Urena-Lopez [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 98, 161302 (2007)10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.161302]. The waterfall field is coupled to right-handed neutrinos, and is also responsible for their Majorana masses. The charge is finally transferred to the leptons of the standard model through the decay of the right-handed neutrinos without introducing new CP violating interactions. Other needed processes, like the decay of the inflaton field and the reheating of the Universe, are also discussed in detail.

Martínez-Prieto, Carlos; Delepine, David; Ureña-López, L. Arturo

2010-02-01

141

Minimizing Reheat Energy Use in Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

HVAC systems that are designed without properly accounting for equipment load variation across laboratory spaces in a facility can significantly increase simultaneous heating and cooling, particularly for systems that use zone reheat for temperature control. This best practice guide describes the problem of simultaneous heating and cooling resulting from load variations, and presents several technological and design process strategies to minimize it. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

Frenze, David; Mathew, Paul; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr Jr., William

2005-11-29

142

Reheating and gravitino production in braneworld inflation  

SciTech Connect

We consider the constraints that can be imposed on a wide class of Inflation models in modified gravity scenarios in which the Friedmann equation is modified by the inclusion of {rho}{sup 2} terms, where {rho} is the total energy density. In particular we obtain the reheating temperature and gravitino abundance associated with the end of inflation. Whereas models of chaotic inflation and natural inflation can easily avoid the conventional gravitino overproduction problem, we show that supersymmetric hybrid inflation models (driven by both F and D terms) do not work in the {rho}{sup 2} dominated era. We also study inflation driven by exponential potentials in this modified background and show that the gravitino production is suppressed enough to avoid there being a problem, although other conditions severely constrain these models.

Copeland, Edmund J.; Seto, Osamu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

2005-07-15

143

New heat treating facility at Lukens Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lukens Conshohocken plant started operations in 1979 without any heat treating facility. In 1982, an 85-ft Drever furnace was placed in operation. This furnace was originally installed by Allen Wood Steel in the early 1950`s. Heat treating at the Drever furnace included normalizing, tempering, stress relieving and annealing as well as hot leveling, including stainless steel and titanium. As

G. H. Wilson; B. C. Irwin

1995-01-01

144

Enhanced humification by carbonated basic oxygen furnace steel slag--II. Process characterization and the role of inorganic components in the formation of humic-like substances.  

PubMed

Enhanced humification by abiotic catalysts is a potentially promising supplementary composting method for stabilizing organic carbon from biowastes. In this study, the role of steel slag in the transformation of humic precursors was directly characterized by measuring the variance in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), spectroscopic parameters (E(600)), and the concentration and molecular weight change of humic-like substances (HLS) during the process. In addition, a mechanistic study of the process was explored. The results directly showed that steel slag greatly accelerated the formation of HLS. The findings indicate that Fe(III)-and Mn(IV)-oxides in steel slag act as oxidants and substantially enhance the polycondensation of humic precursors. Moreover, the reaction appears to suppress the release of metals from steel slag to a certain extent under acidic conditions. This can be attributed to the cover of HLS on the external surface of steel slag, which is significant for its environmentally sound reuse. PMID:22497707

Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Fukushima, Masami; Fukuchi, Shigeki; Nishimoto, Ryo; Nie, Yongfeng

2012-03-29

145

Products of steel slags an opportunity to save natural resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Germany, and in the most industrial countries, the use of blast furnace and steel slags as an aggregate for civil engineering, for metallurgical use and as fertiliser has a very long tradition. Since the introduction of the basic oxygen steel making furnace (BOF) process and the electric arc furnace (EAF) process the German steel industry started extensive research on

H Motz; J Geiseler

2001-01-01

146

Influence of reheating on the trispectrum and its scale dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the evolution of the non-linear curvature perturbation during perturbative reheating, and hence how observables evolve to their final values which we may compare against observations. Our study includes the evolution of the two trispectrum parameters, gNL and ?NL, as well as the scale dependence of both fNL and ?NL. In general the evolution is significant and must be taken into account, which means that models of multifield inflation cannot be compared to observations without specifying how the subsequent reheating takes place. If the trispectrum is large at the end of inflation, it normally remains large at the end of reheating. In the classes of models we study, it remains very hard to generate ?NL Gt fNL2, regardless of the decay rates of the fields. Similarly, for the classes of models in which gNL simeq ?NL during slow-roll inflation, we find the relation typically remains valid during reheating. Therefore it is possible to observationally test such classes of models without specifying the parameters of reheating, even though the individual observables are sensitive to the details of reheating. It is hard to generate an observably large gNL however. The runnings, nfNL and n?NL, tend to satisfy a consistency relation n?NL = (3/2)nfNL regardless of the reheating timescale, but are in general too small to be observed for the class of models considered.

Leung, Godfrey; Tarrant, Ewan R. M.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Copeland, Edmund J.

2013-08-01

147

VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER STATION IN THE CASTING SHOP. (OTHER UNITS MELT BRASS ALLOYS.) THIS IS THE SOUTHERNMOST FURNACE OF THE FOUR PRESENTLY IN SITU. THE CURRENT CASTING SHOP WAS CONSTRUCTED DURING THE EARLY 1970'S, REPLACING THE ORIGINAL PRE-WWI FACILITY. STATIONS #02, 03, AND 04 EACH CONSIST OF A HOLDER FLANKED BY A PAIR OF 800 KW ELECTRIC MELTERS. THE HOLDER IS REHEATED AT 85,000 LBS. SHAKER BOX, LOCATED AT THE REAR OF EACH MELTER SUPPLY THE MIXTURE OF INGREDIENTS REQUIRED FOR EACH PARTICULAR ALLOY. ONE MEMBER OF THE THREE-MAN CASTING TEAMS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SHAKING METAL INTO THE MELTERS. IN THE LOWER RIGHT ARE SHOWN THE MOLD STORAGE AREA AND THE FURNACE BUILDERS' AREA FOR CHIPPING AND REBRICKING OFF-LINE UNITS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

148

Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas cleaning plants in foreground on the left and the right side of the furnace building. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

149

11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

150

12. INTERIOR VIEW OF SINGLE BAY SLOTTED TYPE FURNACE (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. INTERIOR VIEW OF SINGLE BAY SLOTTED TYPE FURNACE (LEFT) AND CHAMBERSBURG DROP HAMMER OPERATED BY JEFF HOHMAN (RIGHT); THE FURNACE IS USED TO PRE-HEAT THE STEEL PRIOR TO FORGING, TOOL IS POST HOLE DIGGER WITH TAMPING BAR - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

151

47. No. 4 hot blast stove, furnace "A", showing checkerwork ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. No. 4 hot blast stove, furnace "A", showing checkerwork askew after collapse of support posts. Note pattern of checkerwork refractories. looking west - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

152

44. View looking west down length of No. 2 Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. View looking west down length of No. 2 Furnace casting shed showing overhead traveling crane. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

153

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING LINE AT THE HEAT TREATMENT PLANT OF THE DUQUESNE WORKS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Heat Treatment Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

154

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

155

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DETAIL OF CABLES AND BUS BARS (which convey power to electrodes) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

156

25. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE UNDER RENOVATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE UNDER RENOVATION, 1901. (From the Asahel Curtis collection, Washington State Historical Societty, Tacoma, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

157

Moisture Separator Reheater for NPP Turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces the development of the current model Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR) for nuclear power plant (NPP) turbines, commercially placed in service in the period 1984-1997, focusing on the mist separation performance of the MSR along with drainage from heat exchanger tubes. A method of predicting the mist separation performance was devised first based on the observation of mist separation behaviors under an air-water test. Then the method was developed for the application to predict under the steam conditions, followed by the verification in comparison with the actual results of a steam condition test. The instability of tube drainage associated with both sub-cooling and temperature oscillation might adversely affect the seal welding of tubes to tube sheet due to thermal fatigue. The instability was measured on an existing unit to clarify behaviors and the development of a method to suppress them. Both methods were applied to newly constructed units and the effectiveness of the methods was demonstrated.

Manabe, Jun; Kasahara, Jiro

158

13. Blast furnace plant embraces the east bank of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Blast furnace plant embraces the east bank of the Cuyahoga River. Plant was established in 1881 by the Cleveland Rolling Mill Co. It was absorbed by the American Steel and Wire Co. in 1899 and, two years later, by the U.S. Steel Corp., which closed it in 1978. View looking north. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

159

Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: a historical perspective and future opportunities  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. steel industry has taken enormous strides over the past decades to reduce its energy consumption; since the end of World War II, the industry has reduced its energy intensity (energy use per shipped ton) by 60 percent. Between 1990 and 1998 alone, intensity has dropped from 20 to 18 million Btu (MBtu) per ton. This figure is projected to decrease to 15 MBtu/ton by 2010 with an asymptotic trend towards 14 MBtu/ton. Domestic shipments are projected to flatten out over the next decade to around 105 million tons which means that total energy consumption will also decrease. Historically, the steel industry has accounted for about 6 percent of U.S. energy consumption. Today, that figure is less than 2 percent and will decrease further to 1.5 percent by 2010. The primary causes for the decrease in energy consumption since WWII are: The use of pellets in the blast furnace and the application of new technology in the ironmaking process to further reduce fuel rates per net ton of hot metal (NTHM); The total replacement of the open hearth process by basic oxygen and electric furnaces; The almost total replacement of ingot casting by continuous casting (which improved yield dramatically and thus reduced the tons of raw steel required per ton of shipments); and The growth of the electric furnace sector of the industry at the expense of hot metal-based processes (which has also stimulated scrap recycling so that about 55 percent of ''new'' steel is now melted from scrap steel). This report focuses on the concept of good practices (i.e., those that are sustainable and can use today's technology). If all the industry could operate on this basis, the additional savings per ton could total 2 MBtu, As further restructuring occurs and the swing from hot metal-based to electric furnace-based production continues, the average consumption will approach the good practice energy per ton. Further savings will accrue through new technology, particularly in the areas of reduced blast furnace fuel rates and reheating efficiency, both of which relate to large tonnages of material.

Stubbles, John

2000-09-01

160

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

Unknown

1999-10-01

161

Radiation characteristics of electric furnace arcs  

SciTech Connect

The electric arc furnace uses the energy radiated from high-power electric arcs to melt steel. A disadvantage of the process is that the intense radiation can erode the refractory lining of the furnace. Empirical work has shown that refractory erosion depends on arc power and voltage and their product has been used as an index of this erosion. However, no theoretical basis has hitherto been presented for the refractory erosion index. This paper considers the electric arc as an ideal cylindrical radiator and proposes a theoretical basis for the observed empirical relationship. A similar index of arc energy into the furnace hearth is also derived. Computer simulation results are presented for a typical 80-ton electric arc furnace.

Munroe, M.M.

1982-08-01

162

Expanding Blast Furnace Slag Without Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion of blast furnace slag causes emissions of hydrogen sulfide, creating an air pollution problem common throughout the steel industry. This paper describes a new process, called pelletizing which eliminates the air pollution problem while at the same time producing a superior slag product.

Richard Jablin

1972-01-01

163

Reheating in supersymmetric high scale inflation  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by our earlier work, we analyze how the inflaton decay reheats the Universe within supersymmetry. In a nonsupersymmetric case the inflaton usually decays via preheating unless its couplings to other fields are very small. Naively one would expect that supersymmetry enhances bosonic preheating as it introduces new scalars such as squarks and sleptons. On the contrary, we point out that preheating is unlikely within supersymmetry. The reason is that flat directions in the scalar potential, classified by gauge-invariant combinations of slepton and squark fields, are generically displaced towards a large vacuum expectation value (VEV) in the early Universe. They induce supersymmetry preserving masses to the inflaton decay products through the standard model Yukawa couplings, which kinematically blocks preheating for VEVs>10{sup 13} GeV. The decay will become allowed only after the flat directions start oscillating, and once the flat direction VEV is sufficiently redshifted. For models with weak scale supersymmetry, this generically happens at a Hubble expansion rate: H{approx_equal}(10{sup -3}-10{sup -1}) TeV, at which time the inflaton decays in the perturbative regime. This is to our knowledge the first analysis where the inflaton decay to the standard model particles is treated properly within supersymmetry. There are a number of important consequences: no overproduction of dangerous supersymmetric relics (particularly gravitinos), no resonant excitation of superheavy dark matter, and no nonthermal leptogenesis through nonperturbative creation of the right-handed (s)neutrinos. Finally supersymmetric flat directions can even spoil hybrid inflation altogether by not allowing the auxiliary field to become tachyonic.

Allahverdi, Rouzbeh [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Mazumdar, Anupam [NORDITA, Blegdamsvej-17, Copenhagen-2100 (Denmark)

2007-11-15

164

Effect of Controlled Hot Rolling Parameters on Microstructure of a Nb-Microalloyed Steel Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of controlled rolling process of microalloyed steel sheets is affected by several factors. In this investigation, effect of the reheating, finishing and coiling temperatures of rolling, which are considered as the most effective parameters on microstructure of hot rolled products has been studied. For this purpose, seven different reheating temperatures between 1000 to 1300° C with 50° C

Daavood Mirahmadi Khaki; Amir Abedi

2011-01-01

165

SSSStudy on Combustion Characteristics of the Blast Furnace Gas in the Constant Volume Combustion Bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace gas is the byproduct of smelting steel production process, and is the important secondary energy source. It is can be used as fuel for engines to generate electricity for most middle and small steel enterprises. In order to understand the combustion mechanism and provide the basis for the design of blast furnace gas engine,premixed laminar combustion experiments of

LIU YONGQI; WANG HAIFENG; LI PING

166

On the Formation of Intermetallics during the Furnace Brazing of Pure Titanium to 304 Stainless Steel Using Ag (30–50%)–Cu Filler Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the effect of brazing parameters on the properties of the brazed joint of pure titanium and 304 stainless steel (304SS) was investigated. Three different Ag–Cu filler metals were used, while the temperature and time of brazing were in the range of 800–950°C and 5–45 minutes, respectively. The microstructural observations show that, depending on the brazing conditions,

A. Shafiei; P. Abachi; K. Dehghani; K. Pourazarang

2010-01-01

167

Microstructure and properties of quenched-and-aged plates produced from a copper-bearing HSLA steel  

SciTech Connect

For the first time in India, quenched-and-tempered (Q and T) plates of copper-bearing high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel have been commercially developed for naval structural applications. A 50 ton production heat was made through electric arc furnace (EAF)-vacuum are degassing (VAD) route and continuously cast into 170 mm thick slabs. These slabs were conditioned, reheated in walking-beam furnace and hot rolled in plate mill into plates of 10 to 16 mm thickness. The as-rolled plates were hardened through oil quenching and subsequently tempered (aged) at 630 C to achieve the combination of high-strength and good low-temperature impact toughness. The microstructures of heat treated plates showed fine acicular ferrite with grain sizes ranging between ASTM No. 9 and 10. From the standpoint of tensile properties, Q and T plates of all thicknesses exhibited significantly higher yield strengths than the minimum stipulated value of 552 MPa for HY-80/HSLA-80 steels. The elongation (22.20 to 26.00%) and reduction in area (62.12 to 67.62%) values achieved also exceeded the respective minimum requirements of 20 and 50% stipulated for such steels. The trend in variation of Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact energies at room temperature, {minus}18, and {minus}62 C not only showed significantly higher values than that stipulated for HY-80 and HSLA-100 steels at {minus}18 C, but also indicated that the CVN impact energies achieved (105.15 to 144.25 J) at {minus}62 C were higher than the estimated value of 90 J for HSLA-80/HSLA-100 steels at this temperature.

Sen, S.K.; Ray, A.; Avtar, R.; Dhua, S.K.; Prasad, M.S.; Jha, P.; Sengupta, P.P.; Jha, S. [Steel Authority of India Limited, Ranchi (India)

1998-08-01

168

Microstructure and properties of quenched-and-aged plates produced from a copper-bearing HSLA steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time in India, quenched-and-tempered (Q&T) plates of a copper-bearing high-strength lowalloy (HSLA) steel have been commercially developed for naval structural applications. A 50 ton production heat was made through electric arc furnace (EAF)-vacuum arc degassing (VAD) route and continuously cast into 170 mm thick slabs. These slabs were conditioned, reheated in walking-beam furnace and hot rolled in plate mill into plates of 10 to 16 mm thickness. The as-rolled plates were hardened through oil quenching and subsequently tempered (aged) at 630 ‡C to achieve the combination of highstrength and good low-temperature impact toughness. The microstructures of heat treated plates showed fine acicular ferrite with grain sizes ranging between ASTM No. 9 and 10. From the standpoint of tensile properties, Q&T plates of all thicknesses exhibited significantly higher yield strengths than the minimum stipulated value of 552 MPa for HY-80/HSLA-80 steels. The elongation (22.20 to 26.00%) and reduction in area (62.12 to 67.62%) values achieved also exceeded the respective minimum requirements of 20 and 50% stipulated for such steels. The trend in variation of Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact energies at room temperature, -18, and -62 ‡C not only showed significantly higher values than that stipulated for HY-80 and HSLA-100 steels at -18 ‡C, but also indicated that the CVN impact energies achieved (105.15 to 144.25 J) at -62 ‡C were higher than the estimated value of 90 J for HSLA-80/HSLA-100 steels at this temperature.

Sen, S. K.; Ray, A.; Avtar, R.; Dhua, S. K.; Prasad, M. S.; Jha, P.; Sengupta, P. P.; Jha, S.

1998-08-01

169

Stack gas reheat for wet flue gas desulfurization systems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the unit study was to provide the Electric Power Research Institute with detailed and coordinated information on stack gas reheat for wet scrubbers at power plants. One of the major problems to be dealt with in the wet scrubbing processes is the need for stack gas reheat. In many wet scrubber installations, the stack gas reheat system

P. S. K. Choi; S. G. Bloom; H. S. Rosenberg; S. T. DiNovo

1977-01-01

170

Analysis of standard reference materials after microwave-oven digestion in open vessels using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Zeeman-effect background correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heating-covered teflon digestion vials located inside a reheatable container in the presence of different acid mixtures with microwave oven dissolve the metals from biological and environmental certified reference materials. Pb, Cd, Cu, Mn and Fe from the dissolved samples are determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Zeeman-effect background correction. The method allows the treatment of about 100 samples

D. Chakraborti; M. Burguera; J. L. Burguera

1993-01-01

171

Electromelt furnace evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electromelt furnace was designed, built and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

Reimann, G. A.; Welch, J. M.

1981-09-01

172

Electromelt furnace evaluation  

SciTech Connect

An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

Reimann, G.A.; Welch, J.M.

1981-09-01

173

The changing face of radioactivity in steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of radioactivity in iron and steel is a matter of definition and limits of detectability. A broad statement could be made that all steel that started with blast furnace iron is radioactive. This statement is not due to the practice of using wear-indication sources in the refractory of blast furnaces. Rather, it is because of the nature of

LaMastra

1995-01-01

174

Aluminum nitride precipitation and texture development in batch-annealed bake-hardening steel  

SciTech Connect

A model is presented that describes the development of texture during the production process of bake-hardening steel recrystallized in a batch-annealing furnace. Proper conditions are analyzed to generate a pronounced {gamma}-fiber texture and a pancake microstructure that shows superior deep drawability. The {gamma}-fiber texture is assumed to be caused by the interaction between tertiary precipitating aluminum nitride particles and the recrystallization process during heating in the furnace. Deep drawability is presented in terms of the logarithmic {gamma}- and {alpha}-fiber X-ray intensity ratio. The computer simulation of the coupled aluminum nitride precipitation and recrystallization kinetics is based on an iterative procedure. A comparison between simulation results and available experimental data proves the ability of the model to predict the final deep drawability, taking into account the initial aluminum and nitrogen contents, the time/temperature history during slab reheating, hot rolling and coiling, the degree of cold reduction, and the heating rate during batch annealing.

Kozeschnik, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Technical Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. for Materials Science, Welding and Forming; Pletenev, V.; Zolotorevsky, N. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Metal Physics; Buchmayr, B. [Technical Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. for Materials Science, Welding and Forming

1999-06-01

175

Finite Element Modeling of Heat Transfer in Salt Bath Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat flow patterns in two salt bath furnaces were studied in this work using finite element(FE) analysis. The implications of the heat flows on long term stability of furnace performance were evaluated. One design had a purely silica brick back-up after the embedded heating element with asbestos and glass-wool fiber insulation just before the outer steel shell. The other had

O. O. Oluwole; P. O. Atanda; B. I. Imasogie

176

Experiences with computer systems in blast furnace operation control at Rautaruukki  

SciTech Connect

Low energy consumption, together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation, has been achieved at Rautaruukki's Raahe Steel Works as a result of the efficient use of computer technology in process control and improvements in raw materials quality. The blast furnace supervision system is designed to support the decision-making in medium and long-term process control. The information presenting the blast furnace operation phenomena is grouped so that little time is needed to obtain the current state of the process. Due to the complexity of the blast furnace process, an expert system to guide and diagnose the short and medium-term blast furnace operation has been developed.

Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. (Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland). Raahe Steel Works); Seppanen, M. (Rautaruukki Oy Engineering, Oulu (Finland))

1994-09-01

177

Process to eliminate hazardous components from the electric arc furnace flue dust and recovering of metals  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method to recover metals from flue dust generated in an electric arc furnace, the method comprising: charging pelletized or powder flue dust into an electric induction furnace between induction susceptors; sealing of the furnace top to prevent entry of air; injecting natural gas through the bottom of the electric induction furnace as a solitary reducing agent; heating the charge by electromagnetic induction of the susceptors to provide reduction energy; recovering of heavy metals as a zinclead-cadmium alloy in a condenser at the top of the furnace; burning and scrubbing exiting gases in the condenser; and melting the remaining iron to produce steel and slag.

Lazcano-Navarro, A.

1988-08-09

178

A Furnace Temperature Regulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis.-By making the heating coil of an electric furnace one arm of a wheatstone bridge, and combining this with a galvanometer regulator, thus keeping constant the resistance of the coil, we can, regardless of variations in the current supply, and with no attention, maintain constant the temperature of furnaces not too directly influenced by the temperature of the room, or

Walter P. White; Leason H. Adams

1919-01-01

179

Salt Bath Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A salt bath furnace is basically a ceramic or metal container filled with molten salt into which work is immersed for either heating or cooling. The furnace contains salt such as nitrates, nitrites, caustic soda, chlorides, carbonates, and cyanide. Mixtures of salt are selected to give a specific temperature range and a desired treatment (or lack of treatment) to the

Gordon W. Anderson

1974-01-01

180

Inflation, baryogenesis, and gravitino dark matter at ultralow reheat temperatures  

SciTech Connect

It is quite possible that the reheat temperature of the Universe is extremely low close to the scale of big bang nucleosynthesis, i.e. T{sub R}{approx}1-10 MeV. At such low reheat temperatures generating matter, antimatter asymmetry and synthesizing dark matter particles are challenging issues which need to be addressed within a framework of beyond the standard model physics. In this paper we point out that a successful cosmology can emerge naturally provided the R-parity violating interactions are responsible for the excess in baryons over antibaryons and at the same time they can explain the longevity of dark matter with the right abundance.

Kohri, Kazunori; Sahu, Narendra [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Mazumdar, Anupam [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej-17, Copenhagen, DK-2100 (Denmark)

2009-11-15

181

Gas Turbine Reheat Using In-Situ Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) is developing in-situ reheat (fuel injection via airfoil injection) as a means for increasing cycle efficiency and power output, with possibly reduced emissions. In addition to kinetic modeling and experimental task, CFD modeling (by Texas A&M) of airfoil injection and its effects on blade aerodynamics and turbine performance. This report discusses validation of the model against single-vane combustion test data from Siemens Westinghouse, and parametric studies of injection reheat in a modern turbine. The best location for injection is at the trailing edge of the inlet guide vane. Combustion is incomplete at trailing edges of subsequent vanes. Recommendations for further development are presented.

T.E. Lippert; D.M. Bachovchin

2004-03-31

182

Effect of oxide inclusions on the kinetics of the austenite to ferrite transformation in low alloy steel weld metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Isothermal transformation kinetics of austenite to acicular ferrite and allotriomorphic ferrite were measured in reheated low alloy steel weld deposits with similar weld compositions and austenite grain size but different inclusion characteristics. Accele...

S. S. Babu S. A. David J. M. Vitek T. DebRoy

1994-01-01

183

Gravitational wave background from reheating after hybrid inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reheating of the Universe after hybrid inflation proceeds through the nucleation and subsequent collision of large concentrations of energy density in the form of bubblelike structures moving at relativistic speeds. This generates a significant fraction of energy in the form of a stochastic background of gravitational waves, whose time evolution is determined by the successive stages of reheating: First, tachyonic preheating makes the amplitude of gravity waves grow exponentially fast. Second, bubble collisions add a new burst of gravitational radiation. Third, turbulent motions finally sets the end of gravitational waves production. From then on, these waves propagate unimpeded to us. We find that the fraction of energy density today in these primordial gravitational waves could be significant for grand unified theory (GUT)-scale models of inflation, although well beyond the frequency range sensitivity of gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA, or BBO. However, low-scale models could still produce a detectable signal at frequencies accessible to BBO or DECIGO. For comparison, we have also computed the analogous gravitational wave background from some chaotic inflation models and obtained results similar to those found by other groups. The discovery of such a background would open a new observational window into the very early universe, where the details of the process of reheating, i.e. the big bang, could be explored. Moreover, it could also serve in the future as a new experimental tool for testing the inflationary paradigm.

García-Bellido, Juan; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Sastre, Alfonso

2008-02-01

184

Linear versus nonlinear relaxation: Consequences for reheating and thermalization  

SciTech Connect

We consider the case of a scalar field, the inflaton, coupled to both lighter scalars and fermions, and study the relaxation of the inflaton via particle production in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. This has an immediate appilcation to the reheating problem in inflationary universe models. The linear regime analysis offers a rationale for the standard approach to the reheating problem, but we make a distinction between relaxation and thermalization. We find that particle production when the inflaton starts in the {ital nonlinear} region is typically a far more efficient way of transferring energy out of the inflaton zero mode and into the quanta of the lighter scalar than single particle decay. For the nonlinear regime we takn into account self-consistently the evolution of the expectation value of the inflaton field coupled to the evolution of the quantum fluctuations. An exhaustive numerical analysis of the renormalized equations reveals that the distribution of produced particles is far from thermal, and exhibits the effect associated with open channels. In the fermionic case, Pauli blocking begins to hinder the transfer of energy into the fermion modes very early on in the evolution of the inflaton. We discuss the issue of thermalization and estimate the reheating temperature to be proportional to the inflaton mass. Cosmological implications are discussed in particular for the Polonyi problem. {copyright} 1995 The American Physical Society.

Boyanovsky, D.; D`Attanasio, M.; de Vega, H.J.; Holman, R.; Lee, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Unviersity of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)]|[Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI), Tour 16, 1er. etage, 4 Place Jussieu 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)]|[Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Parma, Parma (Italy)

1995-12-15

185

Gravitational wave background from reheating after hybrid inflation  

SciTech Connect

The reheating of the Universe after hybrid inflation proceeds through the nucleation and subsequent collision of large concentrations of energy density in the form of bubblelike structures moving at relativistic speeds. This generates a significant fraction of energy in the form of a stochastic background of gravitational waves, whose time evolution is determined by the successive stages of reheating: First, tachyonic preheating makes the amplitude of gravity waves grow exponentially fast. Second, bubble collisions add a new burst of gravitational radiation. Third, turbulent motions finally sets the end of gravitational waves production. From then on, these waves propagate unimpeded to us. We find that the fraction of energy density today in these primordial gravitational waves could be significant for grand unified theory (GUT)-scale models of inflation, although well beyond the frequency range sensitivity of gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA, or BBO. However, low-scale models could still produce a detectable signal at frequencies accessible to BBO or DECIGO. For comparison, we have also computed the analogous gravitational wave background from some chaotic inflation models and obtained results similar to those found by other groups. The discovery of such a background would open a new observational window into the very early universe, where the details of the process of reheating, i.e. the big bang, could be explored. Moreover, it could also serve in the future as a new experimental tool for testing the inflationary paradigm.

Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Sastre, Alfonso [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain and Instituto de Fisica Teorica CSIC-UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

2008-02-15

186

Scale formation and descaling in hot rolling of low carbon steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the effects of gas composition, elapsed time of reaction and temperature on scale formation and descaling of low carbon steel were investigated and results were discussed from the viewpoint of the phase composition of the scales, oxidation rates, oxidation mechanisms, adhesion, fracture mechanics, porosity and residual scale. The phase composition and morphology of scales grown under conditions similar to those of reheating furnaces were analyzed. Low carbon steel was oxidized over the temperature range 1000-1250°C in gas mixtures of O 2-CO2-H2O-N2, O2-H 2O-N2 and O2-CO2-N2. The mole fraction of each phase, wustite (FeO), magnetite (Fe3O 4) and hematite (Fe2O3) was determined by the direct comparison method Two types of scales were observed. The first type was a crystalline scale with an irregular outer surface composed mostly of wustite, and a negligible amount of magnetite. The second type was the classical three-layer scale composed of wustite, magnetite and hematite. In general, the experiments showed that the furnace atmosphere, oxidation time and temperature influence the phase composition of the scales. Low carbon steel was oxidized in air over the temperature range 600-1200°C for 120 s to approximate the formation of secondary and tertiary scale in hot rolling. The mole fraction of wustite, magnetite and hematite was determined by the direct comparison method The phase composition of the scales changed with temperature and time. During the initial 30 s of oxidation, wustite was the predominant phase in the temperature range 800-1200°C, and as oxidation proceeded, the percentages of magnetite and hematite increased. In addition, the texture of the scales was investigated by orientation imaging microscopy (OIM); it was found that temperature influences the texture of the scales. The experiments indicated that 850°C is the ideal temperature for the finishing mill in order to reduce surface defects and work roll wear. The adhesion of scales formed in air on low carbon steel in continuous heating and isothermal conditions was investigated with a four-point bending test. The separation (crack) always occurred inside the scale indicating that the strength of the scale is lower than the strength of the scale/steel interface. It was found that scale adhesion is related to scale porosity, blister formation and stresses acting in the scale. A spallation process was observed when cooling from 800°C to room temperature. The microscopic observations revealed that spallation followed route 1 "strong interface and weak oxide." Low carbon steel was oxidized over the temperature range 1050-1250°C in O2-CO2H2O-N2 gas mixtures in order to study the hydraulic descaling process. The oxidation times were 15-120 min. and the scales were 130-2000 mum thick. The experimental parameters were chosen to approximate scale formation under conditions similar to those of reheating furnaces. In the hydraulic descaling tests, two modes of scale removal were observed. In the first mode, observed in classical three-layer scales that developed an inner porous layer with low or medium porosity, the horizontal undercutting occurred at the boundary of the inner porous layer and dense scale. The second mode was observed in classical three-layer scales that developed an inner porous layer with high porosity and in crystalline scales. In the second mode, the horizontal undercutting occurred at the first plane of large pores relative to the scale/steel interface. In general, the experiments showed that scale morphology controlled the removability of scale.

Basabe Mancheno, Vladimir Vinicio

187

Advanced Process Heater for the Steel, Aluminum and Chemical Industries of the Future  

SciTech Connect

The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: “Improved performance of high temperature materials; improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer”. Radiant tubes are used in almost every industry of the future. Examples include Aluminum re-heat furnaces; Steel strip annealing furnaces, Petroleum cracking/ refining furnaces, Metal Casting/Heat Treating in atmosphere and fluidized bed furnaces, Glass lair annealing furnaces, Forest Products infrared paper driers, Chemical heat exchangers and immersion heaters, and the indirect grain driers in the Agriculture Industry. Several common needs among the industries are evident: (1) Energy Reductions, (2) Productivity Improvements, (3) Zero Emissions, and (4) Increased Component Life. The Category I award entitled “Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future” met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) doubling the heat transfer rates (2) improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) improving temperature uniformity by 100oF (38 oC) and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH addresses EERE’s primary mission of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. The primary goal of this project was to design, manufacture and test a commercial APH prototype by integrating three components: (1) Helical Heat Exchanger, (2) Shared Wall Radiant U-tube, and (3) Helical Flame Stabilization Element. To accomplish the above, a near net shape powder ceramic Si-SiC low-cost forming process was used to manufacture the components. The project defined the methods for making an Advanced Process Heater that produced an efficiency between 70% to 80% with temperature uniformities of less than 5oF/ft (9oC/m). Three spin-off products resulted from this project: (1) a low-cost, high-temperature heat exchanger, (2) a new radiant heat transfer system, and (3) a hybrid or integral advanced process heater that incorporates a high surface area ceramic heat exchanger and burner combined with either a metallic or ceramic radiant tube and heat transfer elements.

Thomas D. Briselden

2007-10-31

188

Analysis of candidate silicon carbide recuperator materials exposed to industrial furnace environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several SiC ceramics were exposed to the combustion environment in six industrial furnaces to determine their corrosion resistance. The matrials were sintered-..cap alpha.. (Hexoloy SA), Sintride, recrystallized (NC-400), CVD SiC coated NC-400, siliconized (NC-430), reaction sintered (SC-X and KT), and SiâNâ-bounded (C\\/75 and CN-178). Tubes of these materials were exposed in two aluminum remelt furnaces, a forge furnace, a steel

J. I. Federer; T. N. Tiegs; D. M. Kotchick; D. Petrak

1985-01-01

189

Exothermic Furnace Module.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exothermic furnace module is disclosed for processing materials in space which includes an insulated casing and a sample support, carried within the casing which supports a sample container. An exothermic heat source includes a plurality of segments of...

R. M. Poorman

1982-01-01

190

Franklin Furnace Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

191

High temperature furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

Borkowski, Casimer J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-08-03

192

A study on energy saving of cooling\\/reheating system using compact heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

When circulated air passes through the cooling coil in an air-conditioning system, the air is over-cooled to eliminate the\\u000a moisture and decrease the temperature. The cooled air is then reheated to recover the temperature. The purpose of the present\\u000a study was to evaluate the performance of a cooling\\/reheating system with regard to both cooling and reheating energy savings\\u000a affected by

Seong-Yeon Yoo; Jin-Hyuck Kim; Myoung-Seok Jie

2010-01-01

193

Design of an experimental electric arc furnace. Report of investigations\\/1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instabilities in electric steelmaking furnace arcs cause electrical and acoustical noise, reduce operating efficiency, increase refractory erosion, and increase electrode usage. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has an ongoing research project investigating methods to stabilize these arcs to improve productivity in steel production. To perform experiments to test new hypotheses, researchers designed and instrumented an advanced, experimental single-phase furnace. The

A. D. Hartman; T. L. Ochs

1992-01-01

194

Waste stabilization\\/solidification of an electric arc furnace dust using fly ash-based geopolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilization\\/solidification (S\\/S) of a carbon steel electric arc furnace (EAF) dust containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr or Zn using geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolinite, metakaolinite and blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of EAF waste with these geopolymeric materials and

C. Fernández Pereira; Y. Luna; X. Querol; D. Antenucci; J. Vale

2009-01-01

195

Petrochemical feedstock from basic oxygen steel furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the development of alternate feedstock sources, and the recognition of coal as such an alternate energy and feedstock source. The process routes for converting coal to methanol, SNG, and oil are outlined. Such processes are energy inefficient and expensive, with less than half the energy being recovered as product. Coal-based petrochemical plants are shown to be more

C. W. Greenwood; W. E. Hardwick

1982-01-01

196

Gaseous cooling media used for heat treatment in vacuum furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Gases used for bright quench-hardening of steels after heating in vacuum furnaces have to meet the following requirements:a)in the hardening of steels whose austenitization temperature does not exceed 1000°C the oxygen content of the cooling gas has to be 0.007 vol.% at the most, and the water vapor content 0.020 vol.% at the most; this corresponds to a dew point

S. Kowal'ski

1983-01-01

197

Possible (p)reheating effects in subsequent cosmological stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A triple unification inflation-dark matter-dark energy model is possible if the dark matter/ energy of the Universe was originated during the reheating stage. In this scenario we must consider the impact of the interaction between the inflaton and dark components in subsequent cosmological stages. In this work we show that the energy density of the inflaton field after preheating represents an important fraction of initial energy density, this remnant energy can act as a dark component in subsequent cosmological stages. Finally, we consider the scalar perturbations of the metric during the preheating stage in synchronous gauge, and study their possible impact on early stages of structure formation.

Torres-Lomas, E.; Ureña-López, L. Arturo

2012-08-01

198

Recombination induced softening and reheating of the cosmic plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atomic recombination process leads to a softening of the matter equation of state as reflected by a reduced generalized adiabatic index, with accompanying heat release. We study the effects of this recombination softening and reheating of the cosmic plasma on the ionization history, visibility function, cold dark matter (CDM) transfer function and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectra. The resulting modification of the CMB spectrum is 1/10 of WMAP's current error and is comparable to Planck's error. Therefore, this effect should be considered when data with higher accuracy are analysed.

Leung, P. K.; Chan, C. W.; Chu, M.-C.

2004-04-01

199

Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States). Ironmaking Dept.)

1993-01-01

200

Voltage flicker prediction for two simultaneously operated ac arc furnaces  

SciTech Connect

An EMTP-based arc furnace model was developed for evaluation of flicker concerns associated with supplying a large integrated steel mill as they go from one to two furnace operation and as system changes are implemented that will affect the short circuit capacity at the 230 kV power supply substation. The model includes a dynamic arc representation which is designed to be characteristic of the initial portions of the melt cycle when the arc characteristics are the most variable (worst flicker conditions). The flicker calculations are verified using previous measurements with one furnace operation. Flicker simulations were then performed to evaluate a variety of different possible system strengths with both one and two furnaces in operation. The primary flicker measure used for this study is the unweighted rms value of the fluctuation envelope, expressed as a percentage of the rms line-to-ground voltage magnitude.

Tang, L. [ABB Power T and D Co., Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Kolluri, S. [Entergy Services, New Orleans, LA (United States); McGranaghan, M.F. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1997-04-01

201

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO. 25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE #2. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

202

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO. 25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE DETAIL. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

203

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO.25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE #1 DETAIL. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

204

FRACTIONAL EFFICIENCY OF AN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE BAGHOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the performance of a fabric filter system controlling emissions from either one or two 30-ton electric arc furnaces producing a high-strength, low-alloy specialty steel. The evaluation involved measuring the system's total mass collect...

205

Coal Injection in an Experimental Blast Furnace: A Comprehensive Reort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blast furnace coal injection tests conducted by the Bureau of Mines in cooperation with a consortium of 22 steel companies in 1963-64 are described. These tests were part of a program of extensive investigation of auxiliary fuel injection in the Bureau's ...

P. L. Woolf

1985-01-01

206

CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED CAST HOUSE LIES IN BETWEEN TWO SKIP INCLINES. HIP ROOF AT RIGHT COVERS BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

207

INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER ROOM FOR FURNACE NO. 2 LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER ROOM FOR FURNACE NO. 2 LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING BACK OF CONTROL PANEL AND TRANSFORMER (GE, 3000 KUA water cooled, 60 cycles, U.S. patent 1900585. Transformer dates from 1937, control panel GE resistors) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

208

Coke Oven and Blast Furnace Gas Control and Optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work fuel distribution in the Raahe Steel Works is discussed, the main target being the processes in which the by-product fuels, coke oven and blast furnace gas can be used. From this study a system for optimization and priority of fuel distributi...

P. Ruha J. Koskela

1989-01-01

209

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

210

Trinec Iron and Steel Works-Desk Study, Trinec, Czechoslovakia. Project Budget Analysis Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trinec Iron and Steel Works (Trinec) wishes to replace existing open hearth furnaces and conventional ingot pouring with a new high-powered electric arc furnace (EAF) and a continuous casting machine (CCM) for billets. This proposed facility will produce ...

1991-01-01

211

Collision of domain walls and reheating of the brane universe  

SciTech Connect

We study particle production at the collision of two domain walls in 5-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. This may provide the reheating mechanism of an ekpyrotic (or cyclic) brane universe, in which two BPS branes collide and evolve into a hot big bang universe. We evaluate a production rate of particles confined to the domain wall. The energy density of created particles is given as {rho}{approx_equal}20g{sup 4}N{sub b}m{sub {eta}}{sup 4} where g is a coupling constant of particles to a domain-wall scalar field, N{sub b} is the number of bounces at the collision and m{sub {eta}} is the fundamental mass scale of the domain wall. It does not depend on the width d of the domain wall, although the typical energy scale of created particles is given by {omega}{approx}1/d. The reheating temperature is evaluated as T{sub R}{approx_equal}0.88gN{sub b}{sup 1/4}. In order to have the baryogenesis at the electro-weak energy scale, the fundamental mass scale is constrained as m{sub {eta}} > or approx. 1.1x10{sup 7} GeV for g{approx}10{sup -5}.

Takamizu, Yu-ichi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Maeda, Kei-ichi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Waseda Institute for Astrophysics, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

2004-12-15

212

Thermodynamic performance evaluation of combustion gas turbine cogeneration system with reheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication presents thermodynamic methodology for the performance evaluation of combustion gas turbine cogeneration system with reheat. The energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been defined. The effects of process steam pressure and pinch point temperature used in the design of heat recovery steam generator, and reheat on energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been investigated. From the results obtained in graphs

A Khaliq; S. C Kaushik

2004-01-01

213

Reheating process of cast and wrought aluminum alloys for thixoforging and their globularization mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thixoforging process has numerous advantages compared to die casting, squeeze casting, and conventional forging. For the thixoforging process, beside a co-existing solidus–liquidus interval, the reheating conditions to obtain a fine globular microstructure are very important. During reheating, the eutectic must be remelted completely in order to obtain good mechanical properties. The solid fraction distribution over temperature, the phase distribution

H. K Jung; C. G Kang

2000-01-01

214

Improved graphite furnace atomizer  

DOEpatents

A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

Siemer, D.D.

1983-05-18

215

Grain growth behavior of coarse-grained austenite in a Nb–V–Ti microalloyed steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain growth of coarse-grained austenite during equalization in a simulated thin slab casting and direct rolling process (TSDR) has been studied on a Nb–V–Ti microalloyed steel. Coarse-grained austenite produced by reheating at 1350°C for 90min were reheated to four equalization temperatures (1100, 1150, 1200 and 1250°C) for 30min, then the austenite grain sizes and precipitates were examined. The experimental results

Qingyun Sha; Zuqing Sun

2009-01-01

216

Design Issues Affecting Pipings Associated with a New Moisture Separator Reheater  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the piping design effects on a New Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR) in Shin-Kori Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 (SKN 1 and 2) being under the construction in Korea. This SKN 1 and 2 has the same arrangement of a Turbine-Generator set as one of Korea Standard Nuclear Plant Units ( OPR 1000 ) in commercial operation. The Turbine-Generator Supplier has developed a new Moisture Separator Reheater which has first and second stage heating steam supply connections respectively, at both ends of the shell side of the vessel in comparison to MSR of OPR 1000 which has first and second stage heating steam supply connections at only one end. The different locations of reheaters in MSR cause changes in the associated pipings such as 2. stage reheater heating steam, 2. stage reheater drain, shell drain, drain tank location and tank condensate drainage pipings. (authors)

Hyung-Keun, Kim; Jae-Kyoung, Cho [Plant Design Department, Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., 360-9 Mabuk-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 449-713 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

217

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15

218

Blast furnace reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vast a dvances h ave b een m ade in blast-furnace t echnology d uring t he p ast two decades through p lant t rials and plant d evelopments a ssisted by research to provide b etter u nderstanding of physical and chemical w orkings of the blast f urnace. T he f ields of research have i ncluded

E. T. Turkdogan

1978-01-01

219

Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof  

DOEpatents

A system and method are disclosed for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom. 2 figs.

Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Bannister, R.L.

1999-08-10

220

Reheating-volume measure for random-walk inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently proposed “reheating-volume” (RV) measure promises to solve the long-standing problem of extracting probabilistic predictions from cosmological multiverse scenarios involving eternal inflation. I give a detailed description of the new measure and its applications to generic models of eternal inflation of random-walk type. For those models I derive a general formula for RV-regulated probability distributions that is suitable for numerical computations. I show that the results of the RV cutoff in random-walk type models are always gauge invariant and independent of the initial conditions at the beginning of inflation. In a toy model where equal-time cutoffs lead to the “youngness paradox,” the RV cutoff yields unbiased results that are distinct from previously proposed measures.

Winitzki, Sergei

2008-09-01

221

Tritium extraction furnace  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of apparatus for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having, negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible`s internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle`s volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of, the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused.

Heung, L.K.

1992-12-31

222

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection  

SciTech Connect

Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

NONE

1998-09-30

223

Use of Coal Injection and Oxygen in a Blast Furnace to Produce Fuel Gas. Final Report, November 26, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of operating a blast furnace with coal injection and oxygen to produce fuel gas has been evaluated. Probable operating conditions were based on United States Steel Corporation's experience with coal injection on an experimental blast furna...

1980-01-01

224

Effect of Calcium on the Quality of Tube Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The company Tagmet makes steel in 290-ton open-hearth furnaces by the pig-and-scrap process, tapping the metal into two ladles. The steel is then treated on a two-position “ladle-furnace” unit equipped with a pinch-roller system to introduce cored wire and aluminum wire rod. After the steel has been brought to the desired temperature and chemical composition on the unit and treated

D. A. Dyudkin; S. E. Grinberg; A. V. Grabov; S. N. Nazarov; S. A. Motrenko; I. G. Pogorelova

2002-01-01

225

49 CFR 180.211 - Repair, rebuilding and reheat treatment of DOT-4 series specification cylinders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...performed on the replaced part after heat treatment by lots defined in the applicable...section. (3) After reheat treatment, each cylinder in the lot must... (4) After all welding and heat treatment, a test of the new weld...

2012-10-01

226

49 CFR 180.211 - Repair, rebuilding and reheat treatment of DOT-4 series specification cylinders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...performed on the replaced part after heat treatment by lots defined in the applicable...section. (3) After reheat treatment, each cylinder in the lot must... (4) After all welding and heat treatment, a test of the new weld...

2011-10-01

227

Extremely long-lived charged massive particles as a probe for reheating of the Universe  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the impact of charged massive particle big bang nucleosynthesis to explore the nature of the reheating of the Universe in the case that a new extremely long-lived charged massive particle (CHAMP) exists. If the mass of the CHAMP is within collider reach and its lifetime is longer than 10{sup 4} s, the comparison between the charged big bang nucleosynthesis prediction and observed {sup 6}Li abundances may indicate nonstandard reheating in the early Universe without relying on details of the decay properties. Even if the CHAMP mass is outside the reach of colliders, the cosmological considerations may provide a nontrivial hint for the existence of such very heavy long-lived CHAMPs from the late Universe if the daughter particles are the dominant component of the present dark matter. We consider a low reheating temperature model as an example of the nonstandard reheating scenarios.

Takayama, Fumihiro [Institute for High Energy Phenomenology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

2008-06-01

228

HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE  

DOEpatents

A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

Olson, D.M.

1961-01-31

229

Experimental study of a low temperature heat driven re-heat two-stage adsorption chiller  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an advanced adsorption chiller, namely, ‘reheat two-stage’ has been investigated experimentally in the present study. The performances in terms of specific cooling power (SCP) and COP are compared with those of conventional single and two-stage chiller. Results show that the reheat two-stage chiller provides more SCP values than those provided by conventional single-stage chiller while it provides

K. C. A. Alam; M. Z. I. Khan; A. S. Uyun; Y. Hamamoto; A. Akisawa; T. Kashiwagi

2007-01-01

230

The effect of globular microstructure size on the mechanical properties in reheating process of aluminum alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important steps in semi-solid forming is the process of reheating raw materials to the semi-solid state. This process is not only necessary to achieve the required semi-solid state of the billet, but also to control the microstructure of the billet. In the reheating process, the globule size is determined by the holding time of the final reheating step. Therefore, some experiments to investigate the relationship between the mechanical properties and the holding time in the last heating step were performed. The alloys used in this experiment were 357, 319, and A390 alloys. The experiments of reheating were performed using an induction heating system with a capacity of 50 kW. This article shows the evolution of the microstructure according to the holding time of the last reheating stage. Furthermore, to evaluate the effect of globule size as determined by holding time of the final reheating step, uniaxial tension tests were performed. The stress-strain curves were plotted according to the holding time, and a relationship between the microstructure and the flow stress of semi-solid material was formulated.

Kang, C. G.; Youn, S. W.; Seo, P. K.

2004-04-01

231

Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification for Steel Castings  

SciTech Connect

Heat treatment practices used by steel foundries have been carefully studied as part of comprehensive heat treatment procedure qualification development trials. These studies highlight the relationships between critical heat treatment process control parameters and heat treatment success. Foundry heat treatment trials to develop heat treatment procedure qualifications have shed light on the relationship between heat treatment theory and current practices. Furnace load time-temperature profiles in steel foundries exhibit significant differences depending on heat treatment equipment, furnace loading practice, and furnace maintenance. Time-temperature profiles of furnace control thermocouples can be very different from the time-temperature profiles observed at the center of casting loads in the furnace. Typical austenitization temperatures and holding times used by steel foundries far exceed what is required for transformation to austenite. Quenching and hardenability concepts were also investigated. Heat treatment procedure qualification (HTPQ) schema to demonstrate heat treatment success and to pre-qualify other alloys and section sizes requiring lesser hardenability have been developed. Tempering success is dependent on both tempering time and temperature. As such, furnace temperature uniformity and control of furnace loading during tempering is critical to obtain the desired mechanical properties. The ramp-up time in the furnace prior to the establishment of steady state heat treatment conditions contributes to the extent of heat treatment performed. This influence of ramp-up to temperature during tempering has been quantified.

Mariol Charles; Nicholas Deskevich; Vipin Varkey; Robert Voigt; Angela Wollenburg

2004-04-29

232

Finite Element Modeling of Reheat Stretch Blow Molding of PET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly (ethylene terephthalate) or PET is a polymer used as a packaging material for consumer products such as beverages, food or other liquids, and in other applications including drawn fibers and stretched films. Key features that make it widely used are its transparency, dimensional stability, gas impermeability, impact resistance, and high stiffness and strength in certain preferential directions. These commercially useful properties arise from the fact that PET crystallizes upon deformation above the glass transition temperature. Additionally, this strain-induced crystallization causes the deformation behavior of PET to be highly sensitive to processing conditions. It is thus crucial for engineers to be able to predict its performance at various process temperatures, strain rates and strain states so as to optimize the manufacturing process. In addressing these issues; a finite element analysis of the reheat blow molding process with PET has been carried out using ABAQUS. The simulation employed a constitutive model for PET developed by Dupaix and Boyce et al.. The model includes the combined effects of molecular orientation and strain-induced crystallization on strain hardening when the material is deformed above the glass transition temperature. The simulated bottles were also compared with actual blow molded bottles to evaluate the validity of the simulation.

Krishnan, Dwarak; Dupaix, Rebecca B.

2004-06-01

233

On tunnelling in two-throat warped reheating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the energy transfer necessary for the warped reheating scenario in a two-throat geometry. We study KK mode wavefunctions of the full two-throat system in the Randall-Sundrum (RS) approximation and find an interesting subtlety in the calculation of the KK mode tunnelling rate. While wavepacket tunnelling is suppressed unless the Standard Model throat is very long, wavefunctions of modes localized in different throats have a non-zero overlap and energy can be transferred between the throats by interactions between such KK modes. The corresponding decay rates are calculated and found to be faster than the tunnelling rates found in previously published works. However, it turns out that the imaginary parts of the mode frequencies, induced by the decay, slow the decay rates themselves down. The self-consistent decay rate turns out to be given by the plane wave tunnelling rate considered previously in the literature. We then discuss mechanisms that may enhance the energy transfer between the throats over the RS rates. In particular, we study models in which the warp factor changes in the UV region less abruptly than in the RS model, and find that it is easy to build phenomenological models in which the plane wave tunnelling rate, and hence the KK mode interaction rates, are enhanced compared to the standard RS setup.

Langfelder, Peter

2006-06-01

234

Mathematical model of the electric arc furnace. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking is responsible for some 25% of the steel produced in the US and this proportion is likely to grow in the future. This operation consumes some 1.4 x 10¹° kWh annually at an overall process efficiency of about 60 to 75%. The purpose of this program has been to develop a mathematical model representing the energy

Szekely

1982-01-01

235

Sorption of heavy metals on blast furnace sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents was carried out. Gases produced in the blast furnace were washed and led towards a Dorr thickener where the sludge was obtained as a suspension. The sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on

A. López-Delgado; C. Pérez; F. A. López

1998-01-01

236

Reactivation of granular carbon in an infrared traveling-belt furnace  

SciTech Connect

An all-electrical Shirco carbon regeneration furnace and its air pollution control system were evaluated for cost and process effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The granular activated carbon used for the Shirco Furnace evaluation study was exhausted in three 1.8 m (6 ft) diameter steel carbon adsorption columns connected in series. The columns treated unchlorinated and unfiltered activated sludge effluent from the 0.44 cu m/sec (10 MGD) Ponoma Water Reclamation Plant. The Shirco carbon regeneration system was found to be as effective as the multiple hearth and rotary-kiln furnaces in reactivating the exhausted granular activated carbon. The operation and maintenance cost for the Shirco furnace was, however, found to be higher than those for both the multiple hearth and the rotary-kiln furnaces.

Nur, R.; Horvath, R.W.

1987-07-01

237

Processing electric arc furnace dust into saleable chemical products  

SciTech Connect

The modern steel industry uses electric arc furnace (EAF) technology to manufacture steel. A major drawback of this technology is the production of EAF dust, which is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The annual disposal of approximately 0.65 million tons of EAF dust in the United States and Canada is an expensive, unresolved problem for the steel industry. EAF dust byproducts are generated during the manufacturing process by a variety of mechanisms. The dust consists of various metals (e.g., zinc, lead, cadmium) that occur as vapors at 1,600{degrees}C (EAF hearth temperature); these vapors are condensed and collected in a baghouse. The production of one ton of steel will generate approximately 25 pounds of EAF dust as a byproduct, which is currently disposed of in landfills.

NONE

1998-04-01

238

Glass: Rotary Electric Glass Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Compared to conventional gas-fired furnaces, the new rotary electric furnace will increase energy efficiency while significantly reducing air emissions, product turnaround time, and labor costs. As this informative new fact sheet explains, the thousand different types of glass optical blanks produced for the photonics industry are used for lasers, telescopes, cameras, lights, and many other products.

Recca, L.

1999-01-29

239

Kinetics of the transformation of supercooled austenite in steel 12Kh1MF  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.For open hearth steel 12Kh1MF the stability of the austenite is higher in the pearlitic region and lower in the intermediate region than that of the steel melted in an electric furnace. The normalized open-hearth steel has a larger bainitic component than the steel melted in the electric furnace.2.A ferritic—bainitic structure with Widmanstatten arrangement of the carbides ensures a longer

M. B. Balakhovskaya; L. N. Davlyatova

1977-01-01

240

Steam-Reheat Option for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SuperCritical-Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are being developed as one of the Generation-IV nuclear-reactor concepts. Main objectives of the development are to increase thermal efficiency of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and to decrease capital and operational costs. The first objective can be achieved by introducing nuclear steam reheat inside a reactor and utilizing regenerative feedwater heaters. The second objective can be achieved by designing a steam cycle that closely matches that of the mature supercritical fossil-fuelled power plants. The feasibility of these objectives is discussed. As a part of this discussion, heat-transfer calculations have been performed and analyzed for SuperCritical-Water (SCW) and SuperHeated-Steam (SHS) channels of the proposed reactor concept. In the calculations a uniform and three non-uniform Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) were considered for six different fuels (UO2, ThO 2, MOX, UC2, UC, and UN) and at average and maximum channel power. Bulk-fluid, sheath, and fuel centerline temperatures as well as the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles were obtained along the fuel-channel length. The HTC values are within a range of 4.7--20 kW/m2·K and 9.7--10 kW/m2·K for the SCW and SHS channels respectively. The main conclusion is that while all the mentioned fuels may be used for the SHS channel, only UC2, UC, or UN are suitable for a SCW channel, because their fuel centerline temperatures are at least 1000°C below melting point, while that of UO2, ThO2 , and MOX may reach melting point.

Saltanov, Eugene

241

Chem I Supplement: Chemistry of Steel Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides information about the chemistry of steel making applicable to teaching secondary school science. Generalized chemical reactions describe the manufacture of steel from iron ore. Also discussed are raw materials, processing choices, and how various furnaces (blast, direct reduction, open hearth, basic oxygen, electric) work. (CS)|

Sellers, Neal

1980-01-01

242

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01

243

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01

244

High temperature furnace  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in combination, a high temperature furnace having an outer shell and adapted for being mounted in an upright position, a temperature resistant lining, comprising a dome constructed of refractory bricks and located at the upper end of the lining, a first layer of firebricks having sufficient strength to support the dome and having the dome resting thereon, a layer of insulating cement inside of and adjacent to the shell, layers of firebricks between the cement and the first layer of firebricks, a second layer of freestanding refractory bricks located inside of the first layer of firebricks for withstanding the high temperature, the second layer comprising replaceable bricks and extending vertically above the bottom of the dome to permit expansion without any upward thrust to the dome, and castable insulation filling spaces between the layer of insulating cement and the dome and the other layers of bricks.

Dach, M.M.

1987-01-20

245

Optimal path planning for material and products transfer in steel works using ACO  

Microsoft Academic Search

In steel works, steel production from raw material to final product includes several processes. In the processes, pit iron from blast furnace is transported from furnace to storing yards going through factories. For the transportation, because of weight and high temperature of pit iron, torpedo cars towed by a locomotive on a railway in the compounds are used. For effective

Mingcong Deng; Akira Inoue; Satoru Kawakami

2011-01-01

246

Development of mesoscale burner arrays for gas turbine reheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale burner arrays allow combustion to be conducted in a distributed fashion at a millimeter (meso) scale. At this scale, diffusive processes are fast, but not yet dominant, such that numerous advantages over conventional gas turbine combustion can be achieved without giving up the possibility to use fluid inertia to advantage. Since the scale of the reaction zone follows from the scale at which the reactants are mixed, very compact flames result. This compact, distributed form of combustion can provide the opportunity of inter-turbine reheat as well as the potential for lean premixed or highly vitiated combustion to suppress NOx emissions. As a proof-of-concept, a 4x4 array with burner elements on 5-mm centers was fabricated in silicon nitride via assembly mold SDM. Each burner element was designed in a single monolithic unit with its own combination of reactant inlets, fuel plenum and injection nozzles, and swirler to induce flame stabilization. Results using methane, including pressure drop, flame stability, temperature distribution in the burnt gas, and NO emissions are reported for both fully premixed (mixing prior to injection) and nonpremixed (mixing in the array) configurations. These results demonstrate the degree to which premixed performance can be achieved with this design and pointed to ways in which the array design could be improved over this first-generation unit. Given what was learned from the 4x4 array, a next-generation 6x6 array was developed. Major design changes include addition of a bluff-body stabilizer to each burner element to improve stability and use of a multilayer architecture to enhance the degree of reactant mixing. Tests using methane in both operating conditions were performed for two stabilization configurations---with and without the bluff bodies. The results for nonpremixed operation show that nearly complete air/fuel mixing was achieved using the 6x6 design, leading to NO emission levels obtainable under fully premixed conditions. However, the results also indicate that element-to-element fuel maldistribution of the array remains significant such that additional efforts to resolve manufacturing difficulties should be made in future applications. Elimination of maldistribution will reduce NO emissions even further as well as improve stability characteristics of the array.

Lee, Sunyoup

247

Mathematical model and its application of radial effective thermal conductivity for coil heat transfer in HPH furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature uniformity of steel coils in High Performance Hydrogen bell-type annealing furnace has a significant effect on their quality and production. The hot rolled coil can be considered as a periodically laminated material composed of steel layers and interface layers in radial direction. A new formula for the radial effective thermal conductivity has been proposed, which is based on surface characteristic, strip thickness and compressive stress of the rolled coil. Furthermore, it has been used to develop a heat transfer mathematical model for steel coils in the HPH furnace. The calculated annealing curves using this mathematical model are in good agreement with the experimental data.

Wu, Wenfei; Yu, Fan; Zhang, Xinxin; Zuo, Yi

2002-05-01

248

Storage and microwave reheating effects on lipid oxidation of roast beef.  

PubMed

Sensory analysis and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) tests were conducted on beef (Longissimus muscle) which had been roasted in a conventional electric oven at 163 degrees C (325 degrees F), sliced and stored in either a vacuum package or in a casserole at 4 degrees C (40 degrees F), for two or for seven days, and then reheated in a conventional or in a microwave oven. Methods of reheating, microwave or conventional oven, did not influence sensory scores for warmed-over aroma or flavor or TBA values. Method of packaging influenced both sensory scores and TBA values whereas length of storage affected only TBA values. PMID:6567670

Hsieh, J H; Baldwin, R E

1984-09-01

249

Minimal supersymmetric Higgs bosons with extra dimensions as the source of reheating and all matter.  

PubMed

We consider the possibility that the dark energy responsible for inflation is deposited into extra dimensions outside of our observable Universe. Reheating and all matter can then be obtained from the minimal supersymmetric standard model flat direction condensate involving the Higgs bosons Hu and Hd, which acquires large amplitude by virtue of quantum fluctuations during inflation. The reheat temperature is TRH < or = 10(9) GeV so that there is no gravitino problem. We find a spectral index ns 1 with a very weak dependence on the Higgs potential. PMID:15323616

Enqvist, Kari; Kasuya, Shinta; Mazumdar, Anupam

2004-08-03

250

Determining Reheating Temperature at LHC with Axino or Gravitino Dark Matter  

SciTech Connect

After a period of inflationary expansion, the Universe reheated and reached full thermal equilibrium at the reheating temperature T{sub R}. In this talk, based on [1], we point out that, in the context of effective low-energy supersymmetric models, LHC measurements may allow one to determine T{sub R} as a function of the mass of the dark matter particle assumed to be either an axino or a gravitino. An upper bound on their mass and on T{sub R} may also be derived.

Choi, Ki-Young; Ruiz de Austri, Roberto [Departamento de Fisica Teorica C-XI and Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Roszkowski, Leszek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

2009-04-17

251

Impact of different fules on reheat and nonreheat combined cycle plant performance  

SciTech Connect

The combustion turbine is capable of firing a variety of gaseous and/or liquid fuels. This ability offers the power industry the advantage of utilizing the most economical fuel available in the market. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate qualitative and quantitative performance differences of combined cycle reheat versus non-reheat configurations when burning three different fuels--natural gas, distillate fuel, and coal-derived gas (coal gas). The performance data include power output, heat rates, steam produced, stack temperatures and other associated design factors.

Tawney, R.K.; Kamali, K. (Bechtel Power Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Yeager, W.L. (Florida Power and Light Co., Juno Beach, FL (USA))

1988-01-01

252

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

1994-06-14

253

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

254

Kawasaki Steel Giho, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Pulverized coal injection system for blast furnace; Low-silicon operation of blast furnace; Combined blowing system (LD-KGC) with wide range of flow rate; Automatic control of molten steel temperature in Tundish and Application to stain...

1985-01-01

255

An EMTP study of flicker generation and transmission in power systems due to the operation of an AC electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many contributions have been presented to the international technical community dealing with flicker generation due to AC electric arc furnaces (EAF). This paper presents the results of measurements carried out in the AC arc furnace feeding system, inside and outside the factory. Because the steel making factory under consideration is fed with two different lines from the same electrical grid,

B. Novo Ramos; J. L. de C. Parga

2000-01-01

256

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

Crelling, J.C.

1993-12-31

257

Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr2O3, Ni, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency.

Mäkinen, A.; Niskanen, J.; Tikkala, H.; Aksela, H.

2013-04-01

258

POWDER METALLURGY. STAINLESS STEEL-BORON CARBIDE AND ZIRCONIUM-BORON- CARBIDE COMPACTS. Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder metallurgical compacts were prepared consisting of varying boron ; carbide-to-base metal ratios, the base metals in these investigations being types ; 347 and 302 stainless steels and zirconium. Systematic studies of the effects of ; sintering and reheat temperatures on the physical properties of compacts are ; described and the resultant data presented in tabular form. Thermal differential ;

P. G. Herold; T. J. Planje; J. M. ed. Cisar

1955-01-01

259

Weldability Study of the Structural Steel of the Angra II Reactor Containment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A weldability study of the German steel WSTE-51 based on mechanical, metallographic hardness as well as special tests such as the CTS, the Tekken, for cold cracking, and the Vinckier test for reheat cracking is presented. The welding process used was the ...

M. Santos Pinto

1980-01-01

260

Apparatus for cooling a vacuum furnace  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for cooling a vacuum furnace, comprising: (a) first means for injecting a first cooling gas into the furnace, (b) second means for injecting a second cooling gas into the furnace, (c) means for cooling the first and second cooling gases before injection into the furnace, (d) means for sensing the rate of change of temperature in the furnace, the sensing means being connected to a control means, the control means being operatively connected to the first and second injecting means, the control means being adapted to select the first or second cooling gas for injection into the furnace, and (e) means for venting the first or second cooling gases out of the furnace, wherein both of the first and second cooling gases are directed through the cooling means, into the furnace, and out of the furnace, in a non-recirculating path.

Obman, H.J.; Brodbeck, H.D.

1987-02-17

261

Stack Gas Reheat for Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the unit study was to provide the Electric Power Research Institute with detailed and coordinated information on stack gas reheat for wet scrubbers at power plants. One of the major problems to be dealt with in the wet scrubbing processes...

H. S. Rosenberg P. S. K. Choi S. G. Bloom S. T. DiNovo

1977-01-01

262

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

Not Available

1994-06-01

263

Advanced control of electric arc furnaces. Final report on phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of applying the concept of a self-adjusting model algorithmic control (MAC) for controlling energy input to the electric arc furnace is addressed. The development of a mathematical model which provides a physically realistic representation of the electric arc furnace is described. The model was based on first principles and implemented in a digital computer system. A MAC system was developed for the electric furnace and simulations were performed to evaluate its performance in comparison with an existing analog arc impedance control system. Simulation results show that the performance of MAC is significantly superior to that of the conventional control system. MAC yields improved responses over the analog control in terms of speed of response, settling time, overshoot, cumulative error, robustness, flexibility, etc. It is concluded that the implementation of MAC in the electric arc furnace will greatly increase the productivity of steel making.

Usoro, P.B.; Mehra, R.K.; Silletto, J.G.

1982-01-01

264

A Semianalytic Model for Cosmological Reheating and Reionization Due to the Gravitational Collapse of Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a semianalytic model for the thermal and ionization history of the universe at 1000>~z>~3. This model incorporates much of the essential physics included in full-scale hydrodynamical simulations, such as (1) gravitational collapse and virialization; (2) star/quasar formation and subsequent ionizing radiation; (3) heating and cooling; (4) atomic and molecular physics of hydrogen; and (5) the feedback relationships between these processes. In addition, we model the process of reheating and reionization using two separate phases, self-consistently calculating the filling factor of each phase. Thus, radiative transfer is treated more accurately than simulations published to date have done: we allow to lowest order for the inhomogeneity of the sources and the sinks of radiation. After calibrating and checking the results of this model against a hydrodynamical simulation, we apply our model to a variety of Gaussian (adiabatic power spectra) and non-Gaussian (texture and isocurvature) cold dark matter (CDM)-dominated cosmologies normalized to cluster abundances. Our model is also normalized to observations of the ionizing UV intensity J21~1 at redshift z=4. Our major conclusions include: (1) the epoch of reheating (starting late at z~30 or early at z~80) depends most strongly on the power spectrum (late: adiabatic; early: texture or isocurvature) (2) because of the effects of gas clumping, full reionization occurs at z~10 in all models; (3) the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) polarization anisotropy will be a strong discriminant between late and early reheating models; (4) the fraction of baryons sequestered in stars and quasars in early reheating models appears to be greater than the observational limit, while the fraction in late reheating models is well below it; (5) the average degree of nonlinearity for collapsing baryons remains roughly constant during reheating, a possible explanation of which is feedback, which regulates the pace of reheating through the Jeans criterion; and (6) the evolution of the bias of luminous objects can potentially discriminate strongly between Gaussian and non-Gaussian probability density functions.

Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

2000-05-01

265

Time, temperature and water pressure dependent reheating of volcanic plugs, conduits and domes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active lava domes show periodic magma supply and are frequently re-intruded and reheated. We propose that the timescale, temperature, and water pressure of reheating control whether crack and bubble networks open or close, and whether or not gas can escape. Interpretations of historic eruptions indicate open, permeable magmatic systems favour degassing and non-explosive eruptions, whereas, closed impermeable systems favour pressure build up and explosive eruptions. Despite the observations and interpretations mentioned above, the evolution of open and closed systems during reheating remains poorly understood. We reheated rhyolite dome and pumice samples under open (atmospheric pressure and dry) and closed (pressurized and wet) conditions. Open and closed porosity was measured before and after experiments by helium pycnometry, textures were examined with the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and bulk water contents were measured by infrared spectroscopy during loss on ignition. Open (atmospheric pressure, 200-1100°C) experiments show that (1) short timescales and low temperatures allow degassing without deformation, (2) intermediate timescales and temperatures favour bubble and crack growth, and (3) longer timescales and higher temperatures produce bubble collapse and crack healing. Closed experiments at (450C-750°C and 2-10 MPa) show that, (1) low temperatures and high pressures promote rehydration (regassing) without deformation, and (2) high temperatures at all pressures allow degassing with bubble collapse. Our results indicate that during reheating of an open silicic volcanic plug residual water will degas with little deformation, unless mafic magma temperatures and longer timescales occur. Bubble collapse in remelted enclaves of rhyolite supports that the explosivity of the 1886 basaltic eruption of Mt. Tarawera, New Zealand, may have been enhanced by extreme reheating and sealing of the rhyolite plug by reheating from hot basaltic magma. In contrast, our closed wet experiments show these systems allow rapid rehydration, and bubble collapse at silicic lava dome temperatures and timescales. Local variation in closed wet and open dry conditions explain the large gradients in porosity seen in lava domes and conduit wall material from Mt. Meager, Canada and other similar volcanoes. We propose that our experiments have additional implications for the interpretation of cyclic deformation and degassing patterns at active lava dome systems.

Kennedy, B. M.; Jellinek, M.; Russell, K.

2009-12-01

266

Respiratory Hazard From Removal of Ceramic Fiber Insulation From High Temperature Industrial Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic fiber insulation is being used increasingly as a refractory lining for heat treating and preheating furnaces in the iron and steel industry. This is largely due to its superior thermal resistance per unit thickness when compared to insulating fire brick, which was the previous mainstay of refractory linings. Although toxicity data to date have found these ceramic fibers to

BRUCE A. GANTNER

1986-01-01

267

Investigation of hydraulic activity of ground granulated blast furnace slag in concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product of the steel manufacturing industry, being used as an effective partial cement replacement material, has already been proven to improve several performance characteristics of concrete. The reactivity of GGBFS has been found to depend on the properties of slag, which vary with the source of slag, type of raw material used, method

S. C Pal; A Mukherjee; S. R Pathak

2003-01-01

268

Apparatus for determining the thermal conductance of carbon-containing blocks for blast furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions Apparatus was developed for determining the thermal conductance of graphitized and carbon-containing blast furnace blocks up to 1500°C. The thermal conductance values obtained on this apparatus for a reference material (steel grade 1Kh18N9T) and for graphitized blocks agree satisfactorily with published data.

D. M. Shakhtin; I. S. Bogatyrev; V. I. Pechenezhskii

1976-01-01

269

Corrosion problems in coal-fired boiler superheater and reheater tubes: steam-side oxidation and exfoliation. Review and results of laboratory tests. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The studies conducted in Task 2 of EPRI contract 644-1 included a laboratory test program in which the causes and controlling parameters of scale exfoliation were investigated and a literature review centered on steamside scale exfoliation in superheater and reheater tubes. Results of laboratory tests indicated the relationship of scale exfoliation to operating temperature cycles. Whereas small temperature changes had no effect on test specimens, a slow cool-down from temperatures above 1000 to 100/sup 0/F (540 to 40/sup 0/C) resulted in exfoliation from both ferritic steels and austenitic stainless steels. Differences in thermal expansion between the alloy and the oxide scale are believed to be responsible. Among the methods found to be effective in eliminating scale exfoliation are surface treatment of new steam generator components, high-temperature chromizing, and lower temperature aqueous chromate treatment which reduced the rate of scale formation. Shot-peening was found to eliminate (or substantially reduce) exfoliation from stainless steel. Other surface treatments and coatings which were not adequate or beneficial included electroless nickel plating, diffusion aluminizing, siliconizing, and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ coating.

Rehn, I.M.

1981-04-01

270

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

271

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

272

Calculation and Analysis of Heat Transfer Coefficients in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new way for the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler research is proposed by the supervisory information system (SIS) in power plant level. The heat transfer coefficient in CFB boiler furnace is calculated and analyzed by the SIS calculation analysis in a commercial CFB boiler, the way how to calculate the heat transfer coefficient in SIS is introduced, and the heat transfer coefficient is accurately received by calculating a large amount of data from database. The relation about the heat transfer coefficient to unit load, bed temperature, bed velocity, and suspension density is analyzed; the linear relation could be accepted for the commercial CFB design. A new calculating and simple way for the heat transfer coefficient of CFB boiler is proposed for CFB boiler design. Using this research result, the reheat spray water flux larger than the design value in lots of commercial CFB boilers is analyzed; the main reason is the designed heat transfer coefficient smaller than the actual value.

Wang, Zhiwei; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Qinghai

273

Carbon and carbon-containing refractory materials for blast-furnaces at the Chelyabinsk Electrode Plant Joint-Stock Co  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of SiC additives and the granular composition on porosity, abrasive resistance, and endurance of carbon refractory blocks used in the blast-furnace steel-making technology. The use of microporous refractory blocks makes it possible to extend the blast-furnace production campaign by several years. The high efficiency of low heat-conducting cold-rammed mixes and a carbon-containing concentrate (available from ChEP JSC) is

S. A. Podkopaev; L. N. Ruzhevskaya; I. V. Rybyanets

2004-01-01

274

8.EE Fixing the Furnace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Ivan�s furnace has quit working during the coldest part of the year, and he is eager to get it fixed. He decides to call some mechanics and furnace spe...

275

An analytical furnace model for optimizing aluminum melting furnaces  

SciTech Connect

An analytical furnace model, originally established by Essenhigh and Tsai, is developed and modified in this paper. The practical application of this modified model is to predict optimum furnace operating conditions, and has been verified by experimental tests conducted in the Experimental Research Furnace (ERF) at the Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy. The development of the modified Essenhigh/Tsai model is based on melting and holding tests with two main assumptions: thermal conduction loss in aluminum melting process is the same as that in holding processes, and the heat loss through flue gases is lineally proportional to the melting rate. The former is reasonable because thermal conduction loss is small as compared with firing rate, while the latter is quite accurate as shown in the test results. Tests of aluminum melting were conducted in the ERF furnace where the combustion space volume was changed by varying the roof height. The relations between firing rate, heat absorption rate, melting rate, and energy efficiency were developed from the tests, and the optimum operating conditions under which maximum energy efficiency can be achieved were predicted. In addition, the effect of roof height on the energy efficiency was determined. This model could be a valuable tool in diagnostic analysis of day-to-day operations in aluminum melting.

Li, Tianxiang (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); King, Paul E.; Hassan, Mohamed (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); Kuwana, Kazunori (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); Saito, Kozo (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY)

2005-02-01

276

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to

V. Dosaj; M. D. Brumels; C. M. Haines; J. B. May

1991-01-01

277

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

278

Crystal growth furnace with trap doors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use

Emanual M. Sachs; Brian H. Mackintosh

1982-01-01

279

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

2002-01-21

280

Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an industrial furnace for heating work which emits volatiles during heating. It comprises a generally cylindrical, closed end furnace section defining a sealable heat transfer chamber for heating work disposed therein; fan means for directing furnace atmosphere as a swirling wind mass about the interior of the furnace section over a portion thereof; heat means for heating the wind mass within the fan chamber; and an incineration track formed as a circumferentially extending groove about the exterior of the furnace section and in heat transfer relationship with and situated at least to extend about a portion of the fan chamber.

Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

1992-07-07

281

Big-bang nucleosynthesis with unstable gravitino and upper bound on the reheating temperature  

SciTech Connect

We study the effects of unstable gravitino on big-bang nucleosynthesis. If the gravitino mass is smaller than {approx}10 TeV, primordial gravitinos produced after inflation are likely to decay after big-bang nucleosynthesis starts, and light-element abundances may be significantly affected by hadro and photodissociation processes as well as by p{r_reversible}n conversion process. We calculate the light-element abundances and derive upper bounds on the reheating temperature after inflation. In our analysis, we calculate decay parameters of the gravitino (i.e. lifetime and branching ratios) in detail. In addition, we perform a systematic study of the hadron spectrum produced by the gravitino decay, taking account of all the hadrons produced by the decay products of the gravitino (including the daughter superparticles). We discuss model dependence of the upper bound on the reheating temperature.

Kohri, Kazunori [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Moroi, Takeo; Yotsuyanagi, Akira [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

2006-06-15

282

A Soup Model Study Comparing Flour Peak Viscosity During Heating and Viscosity of Flour Gels During Reheating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 72(3):233-236 A viscograph was used to study a model soft wheat flour-water gel of water) and consistently high reheated gel viscosities. Adding malted system that was based on the apparent viscosity of commercial soups flour to the model system, reduced the hot paste peak viscosity much when reheated to a serving temperature of 600C. Unless flours were more

CHARLES S. GAINES; ANITA KASSUBA; PATRICK L. FINNEY

283

54. STEEL COMPLEX FROM CLARK AVENUE BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. FOUNDRY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. STEEL COMPLEX FROM CLARK AVENUE BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. FOUNDRY IN FOREGROUND, INGOT MOLDS ON TRACK AT RIGHT, BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE ON TRACK AT RIGHT. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

284

Semisolid microstructure evolution during reheating of aluminum A356 alloy deformed severely by ECAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semi-solid metal forming is a new developing technology that has some advantages in relation to other forming and casting technologies like high pressure die casting. This process contains three main steps: feedstock manufacturing, reheating and forming. Producing feedstocks with non-dendritic and spherical microstructure is one of the considerable factors in semi-solid forming. Feedstock manufacturing can be carried out with casting

S. Ashouri; M. Nili-Ahmadabadi; M. Moradi; M. Iranpour

2008-01-01

285

Testing of heat exchanger systems for reheating flue gases from wet scrubbing desulfurization plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two heat exchanger systems: the cyclic process of GEA and, the plate heat exchanger of Kablitz/Thyssen, for reheating flue gases, which have been cooled to about 50 to 55 C due to wet scrubbing, to the required temperature at the outlet of the stack by extracting the sensible heat of the hot flue gases were tested. The problem of building materials and on keeping clean the heat exchanger surface are emphasized.

Than, K.

1982-09-01

286

Recrystallization behavior of ECAPed A356 alloy at semi-solid reheating temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructural evolution of A356 aluminum alloy during reheating was investigated. In this study, thermomechanical treatment (TMT) method was carried out to produce feed stock for semi-solid forming by using equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) in solid state at ambient temperature. In TMT processes, globular microstructure is obtained by a deformation–recrystallization technique followed by partial re-melting. This work is an

M. Moradi; M. Nili-Ahmadabadi; B. Poorganji; B. Heidarian; M. H. Parsa; T. Furuhara

2010-01-01

287

Development of heat exchangers for reheating scrubbed flue gas in a pilot plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of some reheating systems in flue gas desulphurization plants was studied. The following problems are examined: the influence of solid impurities in gas on the heat transfer coefficient, the different operational conditions to test clearing of the heat transfer surface, the rate of corrosion, and the partial gas recirculation. Measurements to increase the heat transfer coefficient and removing of liquid drops are suggested. Measurement techniques, insulation and prevention of leakage are discussed.

Michalak, S.

1982-09-01

288

The influence of external bending moments on the lifetime of bends in hot reheat pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of various factors (the initial pipe cross section ovality and external bending moments) on the lifetime of bends used in high-temperature pipelines is estimated using the techniques of continuum damage mechanics of metal. The investigation was carried out for two typical bends used in hot reheat pipelines. To this end, the bend lifetime was numerically analyzed taking into account the accumulated extent of damage based on the results of finite-element computations in geometrically nonlinear statement.

Kireev, O. B.; Saikova, M. S.; Danyushevskii, I. A.

2013-01-01

289

Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology  

SciTech Connect

The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

Dosaj, V.D. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Freeland, MI (United States); Arvidson, A.N. [Meadow Materials, Manitoba (Canada)

1994-05-01

290

Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing the disposal problems. Technical feasibility of a novel recycling method based on using hydrogen as the reductant was established under this project through laboratory experiments. Sponge iron produced was low in zinc, cadmium, and lead to permit its recycle, and nontoxic to permit its safe disposal as an alternative to recycling. Zinc oxide was analyzed to contain 50% to 58% zinc by weight, and can be marketed for recovering zinc and lead. A prototype system was designed to process 2.5 tons per day (600 tons/year) of EAF dust, and a preliminary economic analysis was conducted. The cost of processing dust by this recycling method was estimated to be comparable to or lower than existing methods, even at such low capacities.

Sresty, G.C.

1990-05-01

291

Study of structure formation and reheating in the D3/D7 brane inflation model  

SciTech Connect

We study the spectrum of cosmological fluctuations in the D3/D7 brane inflationary universe with particular attention to the parametric excitation of entropy modes during the reheating stage. The same tachyonic instability which renders reheating in this model very rapidly leads to an exponential growth of entropy fluctuations during the preheating stage which in turn may induce a large contribution to the large-scale curvature fluctuations. We take into account the effects of long wavelength quantum fluctuations in the matter fields. As part of this work, we perform an analytical analysis of the reheating process. We find that the initial stage of preheating proceeds by the tachyonic instability channel. An upper bound on the time it takes for the energy initially stored in the inflaton field to convert into fluctuations is obtained by neglecting the local fluctuations produced during the period of tachyonic decay and analyzing the decay of the residual homogeneous field oscillations, which proceeds by parametric resonance. We show that, in spite of the fact that the resonance is of the narrow-band type, it is sufficiently efficient to rapidly convert most of the energy of the background fields into matter fluctuations.

Brandenberger, Robert H.; Dasgupta, Keshav [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Davis, Anne-Christine [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2008-10-15

292

Enhance hydration properties of steel slag using grinding aids by mechanochemical effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic oxygen furnace steel slag is a kind of cementitious material with low activity and hard for grinding. The objective of this work was to validate specious grinding aids F1 made in lab which was effective for the grinding of steel slag, thus enhancing the hydration properties. By using 0.05% F1, the Blaine value of steel slag was added up

Xi Zhu; Haobo Hou; Xuquan Huang; Min Zhou; Weixin Wang

293

Trial Addition of Inoculants to the Steel Stream during Bottom-Pouring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out-of-furnace treatment methods are successfully being used to perform several operations involved in the finishing of steel ? finalizing its chemical composition, reducing the content of harmful impurities, and alleviating the contamination of the steel by nonmetallic inclusions. However, secondary oxidation can significantly reduce the effectiveness of these measures when they are performed in the ladle and the steel is

V. A. Golubtsov

2003-01-01

294

Adsorption Removal of Phosphorus from Aqueous Solution by Steel Slag Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution by steel slag column and the effects of the addition of boiler slag, furnace ash and quartz sand were investigated. After the adsorption treatment by the steel slag column, the residual phosphorus concentration was less than 0.5 mg\\/L. The adsorption performance of the steel slag column could be enhanced by the addition of quartz

Hua Zhang; Xuehong Zhang; Shaoyuan Bai; Yinian Zhu; Yuzhou Gong

2010-01-01

295

Structural characteristics and hydration kinetics of modified steel slag  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the structural characteristics and hydration kinetics of modified basic oxygen furnace steel slag. The basic oxygen furnace steel slag (BOFS) was mixed with electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS) in appropriate ratios and heated again at high temperature in the laboratory. The mineralogical and structural characteristics of both BOFS and modified steel slag (MSS) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. The results show that modification increases alite content in MSS and decreases alite crystal size with the formation of C{sub 6}AF{sub 2}. One more obvious heat evolution peak appears in MSS's heat-flow rate curves in comparison to BOFS, becoming similar to that of typical Portland cement paste. As a result, its cementitious activity is much improved.

Li Jianxin; Yu Qijun; Wei Jiangxiong, E-mail: jxwei@scut.edu.cn; Zhang Tongsheng

2011-03-15

296

Closure assembly for a furnace  

SciTech Connect

A closure assembly for an access opening in a furnace wall is described; the assembly comprising: a door shell; means for pivoting the door shell to the furnace wall; at least one shoulder formed on the shell; a clip angle having one leg portion extending over a face of the shoulder; bolt means extending through the one leg portion and the shoulder for securing the clip angle to the shoulder; an anchor member secured to another leg portion of the clip angle; a plug member having a portion extending in the shell, a recessed portion for receiving the shoulder, and a portion adapted to extend in the access opening when the door is closed; at least one opening extending through the plug member for receiving the anchor member; a cup extending in the opening and adapted to receive a corresponding anchor member; and a castable material extending in the cup and over the anchor member to secure the plug member to the shell.

Barkley, J.D.

1989-01-10

297

Behavior of Full-scale Frames with Slim Floor Slab Construction under Exposure in a Fire Resistance Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing and designing slim floor systems in steel-framed buildings. This article describes the results of a furnace test conducted on two full-scale composite steel frames with slim floor slab construction to understand their performance under fire loading. In one frame, the beam-to-column connections were protected, while in the second frame, the

Yuli Dong; Kuldeep Prasad

2009-01-01

298

Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

1992-12-29

299

Crystal growth furnace with trap doors  

DOEpatents

An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Lexington, MA)

1982-06-15

300

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is the first in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, ge...

301

Simulation of manufacturing operations: optimization of operations in a steel wire manufacturing company  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project was conducted in a high quality steel wire manufacturing company with the production capacity of over 120,000 tones\\/annum. The wire drawn from the high speed wire drawing (KOCH) machine is fed as the raw material for BEKEART (zinc coating galvanization) furnace. The problem faced by the company is the variability in the amount of input to the furnace,

Jai Thomas; Jayesh Todi; Asif Paranjpe

2002-01-01

302

Kawasaki Steel Giho, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1990. Special Issue on Hot Metal Pretreatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Total Hot Metal Pretreatment System at Kawasaki Steel; Desiliconization Process of Hot Metal at Blast Furnace Casthouse; Hot Metal Dephosphorization Treatment in Torpedo Car at Chiba Works; Desulphurization Treatment of Hot Metal in Torpedo Car;...

1990-01-01

303

Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces  

SciTech Connect

In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

2004-01-24

304

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal i...

J. C. Crelling E. R. Case

1993-01-01

305

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced b...

J. C. Crelling E. R. Case

1993-01-01

306

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced b...

J. C. Crelling

1995-01-01

307

Process Development for the Removal of Zinc and Cadmium from Wastewater Using Slag—A Blast Furnace Waste Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag, a waste generated in steel plants in India, has been converted into a low cost potential adsorbent. The resulting product has been characterized and used for the removal of zinc and cadmium. The effect of particle size, contact time, and surface loading of zinc and cadmium on the adsorbent for their removal have been studied at the

V. K. Gupta; Arshi Rastogi; M. K. Dwivedi; Dinesh Mohan

1997-01-01

308

VAPOR SHIELD FOR INDUCTION FURNACE  

DOEpatents

This patent relates to a water-cooled vapor shield for an inductlon furnace that will condense metallic vapors arising from the crucible and thus prevent their condensation on or near the induction coils, thereby eliminating possible corrosion or shorting out of the coils. This is accomplished by placing, about the top, of the crucible a disk, apron, and cooling jacket that separates the area of the coils from the interior of the cruclbIe and provides a cooled surface upon whlch the vapors may condense.

Reese, S.L.; Samoriga, S.A.

1958-03-11

309

Refractories for lining blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The authors develop and introduce a technology for the production of chamotte kaolin refractories with a porosity of not more than 12% and a mass proportion of not less than 42% A1/sub 2/O/sub 3/ on the basis of chamotte from high-grade Polozhe kaolin, and also additions to the batch of finely milled mullite-corundum chamotte. Using the new technology, a batch of goods designated ShPD-42 was produced for lining the shafts, bosh, and upper parts of blast furnaces of large capacity.

Fedoruk, R.M.; Baksheeva, V.S.; Karyakina, E.L.; Khmelenko, T.P.; Pitak, N.V.

1986-01-01

310

Fluidized-bed and salt-bath heat treating (AISI 4130 and 4340 alloy steels)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using commercial alloy steels AISI 4130 and AISI 4340, a series of heat-treating, parametric studies were performed on specimens in both an electric fluidized-bed furnace and an electric neutral salt-bath furnace. An evaluation of heat-treating methods was performed by comparing tensile test data for the two alloy steels. Surface characterization of test specimens was performed using Auger analyses to discern

Cyrus

1983-01-01

311

Fluidized-bed and salt-bath heat treating (AISI 4130 and 4340 alloy steels)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using commercial alloy steels AISI 4130 and AISI 4340, a series of heat treating parametric studies were performed on specimens in both an electric fluidized-bed furnace and an electric neutral-salt-bath furnace. An evaluation of heat treating methods was performed by comparing tensile-test data for the two alloy steels. Surface characterization of test specimens was performed using Auger analyses to discern

Cyrus

1983-01-01

312

Effects of free-cutting additives on the machinability of austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments conducted to determine the effects of free-cutting additives on the machinability of austenitic stainless steel are described. Work materials were SUS303, SUS303Cu, SUS304 and SUS316, the contents of the additives, such as S, Ca, Cu and Bi, were varied and the steels were melted in furnaces of a commercial scale and a vacuum induction furnace were used. Machining tests

T. Akasawa; H. Sakurai; M. Nakamura; T. Tanaka; K. Takano

2003-01-01

313

Microstructural studies of advanced austenitic steels  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the first complete microstructural and analytical electron microscopy study of Alloy AX5, one of a series of advanced austenitic steels developed by Maziasz and co-workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for their potential application as reheater and superheater materials in power plants that will reach the end of their design lives in the 1990's. The advanced steels are modified with carbide forming elements such as titanium, niobium and vanadium. When combined with optimized thermo-mechanical treatments, the advanced steels exhibit significantly improved creep rupture properties compared to commercially available 316 stainless steels, 17--14 Cu--Mo and 800 H steels. The importance of microstructure in controlling these improvements has been demonstrated for selected alloys, using stress relaxation testing as an accelerated test method. The microstructural features responsible for the improved creep strengths have been identified by studying the thermal aging kinetics of one of the 16Ni--14Cr advanced steels, Alloy AX5, in both the solution annealed and the solution annealed plus cold worked conditions. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams have been developed for the temperature range 600 C to 900 C and for times from 1 h to 3000 h. 226 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

Todd, J. A.; Ren, Jyh-Ching [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science

1989-11-15

314

Reheating of the universe after inflation with f({phi})R gravity  

SciTech Connect

We show that reheating of the universe occurs spontaneously in a broad class of inflation models with f({phi})R gravity ({phi} is the inflaton). The model does not require explicit couplings between {phi} and bosonic or fermionic matter fields. The couplings arise spontaneously when {phi} settles in the vacuum expectation value (vev) and oscillates, with coupling constants given by derivatives of f({phi}) at the vev and the mass of resulting bosonic or fermionic fields. This mechanism allows inflaton quanta to decay into any fields which are not conformally invariant in f({phi})R gravity theories.

Watanabe, Yuki; Komatsu, Eiichiro [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2007-03-15

315

Supersymmetric mass spectra for gravitino dark matter with a high reheating temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supersymmetric theories with gravitino dark matter generally do not allow the high reheating temperature required by thermal leptogenesis without running afoul of relic abundance or big bang nucleosynthesis constraints. We report on a search for parameter space that satisfies these requirements with neutralino as the next-to-lightest superpartner. The main implication is the near degeneracy of the gluino with the other neutralinos in the spectrum. The leading discovery channel at the LHC for this scenario is through monojet plus missing energy events.

Covi, Laura; Olechowski, Marek; Pokorski, Stefan; Turzy?ski, Krzysztof; Wells, James D.

2011-01-01

316

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to the furnace. The off-gas from the furnace, consisting of by-product CO as well as volatiles from the feeds, pass through a venturi scrubber, where water is introduced to scrub out the fume from the furnace and cool the gas. The mixed scrubber water and off-gas pass into a centrifugal mist eliminator where the water and fume disengage from the gas. The fume slurry is passed through bag filters where the fume is separated from the water. The clean off-gas from the furnace was evaluated for its calorific value and evaluated for conversion to useful products. A number of silicon smelting tests were conducted during this program. Various levels of charcoal and coal mixtures were evaluated to determine the optimum mix. A low volatile coal was preferred over typical Blue Gem coal. The coal amount in the mix was maximized without compromising the smelting performance. A raw material mix consisting of 30% charcoal and 70% low volatile coal was determined to be an optimum mix for closed furnace operation. Silicon recoveries in the low nineties were demonstrated using this mix. Four quartz sources were also evaluated in the closed furnace. The closed furnace operation for silicon smelting was identified to offer significant advantages over an open furnace from the standpoint of reduced carbon oxidation losses, electrode consumption, electrical energy consumption and silicon yield improvement. Other advantages in addition to process off-gas recovery included improved safety from reduced heat and fume exposure, and improved pollution control to the environment. 1 ref.

Dosaj, V.; Brumels, M.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B. (Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States))

1991-01-01

317

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to the furnace. The off-gas from the furnace, consisting of by-product CO as well as volatiles from the feeds, pass through a venturi scrubber, where water is introduced to scrub out the fume from the furnace and cool the gas. The mixed scrubber water and off-gas pass into a centrifugal mist eliminator where the water and fume disengage from the gas. The fume slurry is passed through bag filters where the fume is separated from the water. The clean off-gas from the furnace was evaluated for its calorific value and evaluated for conversion to useful products. A number of silicon smelting tests were conducted during this program. Various levels of charcoal and coal mixtures were evaluated to determine the optimum mix. A low volatile coal was preferred over typical Blue Gem coal. The coal amount in the mix was maximized without compromising the smelting performance. A raw material mix consisting of 30% charcoal and 70% low volatile coal was determined to be an optimum mix for closed furnace operation. Silicon recoveries in the low nineties were demonstrated using this mix. Four quartz sources were also evaluated in the closed furnace. The closed furnace operation for silicon smelting was identified to offer significant advantages over an open furnace from the standpoint of reduced carbon oxidation losses, electrode consumption, electrical energy consumption and silicon yield improvement. Other advantages in addition to process off-gas recovery included improved safety from reduced heat and fume exposure, and improved pollution control to the environment. 1 ref.

Dosaj, V.; Brumels, M.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States)

1991-12-31

318

A recuperative gas fired forge furnace  

SciTech Connect

To overcome the heat deficit and oxidizing atmosphere problems and to reduce fuel consumption, a small gas forge furnace has been developed which incorporates recuperative heating; as the combustion air is drawn into the furnace it is preheated by passing it through a simple heat exchanger which is heated by the exhaust gases from the furnace. This recuperative heating principle is the same used by blast and open hearth furnaces but they typically employ complex heat exchangers, and extensive blowers and valving to direct the flow of the intake and exhaust gases. In the furnace described in this article a chimney is provided at the rear of the furnace and the air intake ducts pass through the chimney before reaching the venturi where the fuel gas is injected. Thermocouples were place in the air intake ducts and the temperature of the recuperated air was 1000 F. Based on data in the Mechanical Engineers Handbook (Industrial Heating Furnaces) fuel savings are directly related to the temperature of the preheated air. The theoretical saving in fuel with 800 F. combustion air is about 19%. The furnace is very quiet, since no blowers are used and the venturi is located in the center of a long tube. To control the furnace atmosphere and to help reduce heat loss, a close fitting swing away door has been incorporated, and the entire furnace is insulated with lightweight high performance ceramic insulation. The resulting furnace easily achieves forge welding temperatures, has an oxygen depleted atmosphere and has proven to be very effective and capable for small machine and hand forging operations. 6 figs.

Gunter, R.; Schuler, K.W.; Ward, R.L.

1989-01-01

319

Effects of main transformer replacement on the performance of an electric arc furnace system  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the effects of transformer replacement on the electric arc furnace power system of an iron and steel plant have been investigated. The new operating strategy has been determined according to stable arc and maximum productivity requirements. Based on these new operating conditions, the sufficiency of the existing flicker compensation system in terms of the load balancing, power-factor correction, and flicker have been examined. All investigations made in this work are supported by real-time measurements.

Akdag, A.; Cadirci, I.; Nalcaci, E.; Tadakuma, Susumu

2000-04-01

320

Removal of lead and chromium by activated slag -- A blast-furnace waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blast-furnace waste generated in steel plants has been converted into a low-cost adsorbent. The resulting activated slag has been characterized and used for the removal of lead and chromium. The effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentrations, presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time on the sorption of lead and chromium were studied in batch experiments. Kinetic

S. K. Srivastava; V. K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan

1997-01-01

321

Optical Sensors for Post Combustion Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking (TRP 9851)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working in collaboration with Stantec Global Technologies, Process Metrix Corporation, and The Timken Company, Sandia National Laboratories constructed and evaluated a novel, laser-based off-gas sensor at the electric arc furnace facility of Timken's Faircrest Steel Plant (Canton, Ohio). The sensor is based on a mid-infrared tunable diode laser (TDL), and measures the concentration and temperature of specific gas species present

Sarah W. Allendorf; David K. Ottesen; Robert W. Green; Donald R. Hardesty; Robert Kolarik; Howard Goodfellow; Euan Evenson; Marshall Khan; Ovidiu Negru; Michel Bonin; Soren Jensen

2003-01-01

322

ELECTRODE EROSION IN SUBMERGED ARC FURNACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the electric arc in the consumption of electrodes in submerged arc furnaces has long been debated. The hostile environment in the furnace does not make direct measurement feasible, so simulation has been used to evaluate the arcs contribution to the erosion. Magnetofluiddynamic (MFD) electric arc simulations and a cathode \\/ anode sub-model developed in order to provide

G. Sævarsdóttir; H. Pálsson; M. Þ. Jónsson; J. A. Bakken

323

Combustion analysis of a vortex biomass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vortex type biomass furnace was tested for converting corn cobs into thermal energy. The performance of the furnace was determined by a series of 13 tests. Two independent variables were studied: corn cob feeding rate, and air damper opening. Response surface method of analysis was used to statistically analyze the results of the test. The results showed that three

Wahby; M. F. I

1982-01-01

324

Glass Furnace Project: April-September 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Glass Furnace Project is to evaluate the use of joule-heated glass furnace, fitted with a Mound-developed offgas system, to reduce the volume of contaminated waste typical of that from nuclear power plants. As part of the project, sever...

K. Armstrong L. M. Klingler

1981-01-01

325

Blast furnace coal injection in China  

SciTech Connect

The development of blast furnace coal injection in China will be summarized. The improvements in the technical process for pneumatic conveying, injection feed control, distribution and combustion of pulverized coal will be covered. Ideas are also described concerning the use of oxy-coal technology in a blast furnace.

Zhou, J.G. (Ministry of Metallurgical Industry, Beijing (China). Central Iron and Steel Research Inst.)

1994-09-01

326

Quartz Liner Tube Inside Tube Furnace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the American Physical Society, gives a brief description of a furnace at Kansas State University that is used in semiconductor research. An image shows heat radiation from the quartz liner in this furnace, which is used in silicon-doping experiments.

2008-09-10

327

Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors  

SciTech Connect

The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

2003-02-28

328

Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed an apparatus and method of recovering a portion of the waste heat produced in a high temperature industrial process, such as a glass melting furnace, where the furnace has at least a pair of regenerators which are alternately used to preheat the combustion air and serve as hot exhaust heat storage means. The hot exhaust gases from

Sturgill

1985-01-01

329

Design of a 165 MWe reheat coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler for Nova Scotia Power Corporation  

SciTech Connect

In October 1989, a contract was awarded to Pyropower Corporation for the design, supply and erection of the 165 MW{sub e} reheat coal fired circulating fluidized bed boiler for the Point Aconi site in Nova Scotia, Canada. This order represented the largest capacity circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler sold to date. This paper presents the boiler design parameters, design arrangement and specific, unique design features such as the reheat system and reheat temperature control. A particular concern with the boiler design was the relatively high chlorine content in the coal fuel. To resolve this concern, a test burn was conducted in Pyropower's Research and Development facility in December 1989. The test burn and it's results are also examined.

Schaller, B. (Pyropower Corp. (US)); Darguzas, J. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (USA)); Fraser, S. (Nova Scotia Power Corp., Halifax, NS (Canada))

1990-01-01

330

Steel: Lightweight Steel Containers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using NICE3 funds, Dispensing Containers Corporation has found an exciting new method for manufacturing steel dispensing containers with an average of 40% less raw material than conventional manufacturing processes. Order this new fact sheet now and disco...

Steve Blazek

1999-01-01

331

[Study on quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag].  

PubMed

Quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline and crystalline contents in blast furnace slag was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The process of quantificational analysis method includes standard samples preparation, samples preparation, X-ray diffraction measurement and data treatment. The data treatment includes integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks in certain diffraction angle range, linear fitting and quantificational coefficient determination. The preparation methods of standard samples for X-ray diffraction of blast furnace slag were proposed, including 100% crystalline sample and 100% non-crystalline sample. The 100% crystalline sample can be obtained by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1 000-1 200 degrees C, and the 100% non-crystalline sample can be obtained by quenching the molten slag with enough water. The X-ray diffraction method of quantificational analysis of non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag was proposed with the 100% non-crystalline and 100% crystalline standard samples, and the quantificational coefficient can be obtained by linear regression on the integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks of X-ray diffraction in the 2-theta range 20 degrees-40 degrees. This method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 80%. The non-crystalline and crystalline contents of original blast furnace slag are obtained by combining the X-ray diffraction results and mathematical treatment, and this method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 90%, whose process includes preparing the 100% crystalline standard sample by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1000-1200 degrees C, samples preparation with the 0.02 interval in the 0-0.1 mass ratio range of 100% crystalline to original slag, X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples prepared and data treatment using iterative linear regression. The quantificational analysis method for blast furnace slag can be applied to various kinds of blast furnace slag from different steel plants. PMID:18479048

Yan, Ding-Liu; Guo, Pei-Min; Qi, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Xia; Wang, Hai-Feng; Dai, Xiao-Tian

2008-02-01

332

WEST (FRONT) OF FURNACE COMPLEX, INCLUDING STACKS, WITH CHARGING BRIDGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST (FRONT) OF FURNACE COMPLEX, INCLUDING STACKS, WITH CHARGING BRIDGE AND TRESSLE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

333

Characterisation of creep cavitation damage in a stainless steel pressure vessel using small angle neutron scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grain-boundary cavitation is the dominant failure mode associated with initiation of reheat cracking, which has been widely observed in austenitic stainless steel pressure vessels operating at temperatures within the creep range (>450 °C). Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments at the LLB PAXE instrument (Saclay) and the V12 double-crystal diffractometer of the HMI-BENSC facility (Berlin) are used to characterise cavitation damage (in the size range R=10-2000 nm) in a variety of creep specimens extracted from ex-service plant. Factors that affect the evolution of cavities and the cavity-size distribution are discussed. The results demonstrate that SANS techniques have the potential to quantify the development of creep damage in type-316H stainless steel, and thereby link microstructural damage with ductility-exhaustion models of reheat cracking.

Bouchard, P. J.; Fiori, F.; Treimer, W.

334

Selection of stainless steel tubes to minimize hot corrosion in utility boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austenitic stainless steel tubes of AlSI 304, 316, 321, and 347 types are sometimes exposed to severe hot corrosion environments\\u000a in superheaters and reheaters of utility boilers. Hot corrosion depends on the existence of V2O5 and Na2SO4 in the oil-fired boilers, and of Na2SO4 and K2SO4 in the coal-fired boilers. Among various kinds of ash corrosions, the alkali sulphateside corrosion

H. Fujikawa; H. Makiura

1982-01-01

335

Combustion space modeling of an aluminum furnace  

SciTech Connect

Secondary aluminum production (melting from aluminum ingots, scraps, etc.) offers significant energy savings and environmental benefits over primary aluminum production since the former consumes only five percent of the energy used in the latter process. The industry, however, faces technical challenges of further improving furnace melting efficiency and has been lacking tools that can help understand combustion process in detail and that will facilitate furnace design. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has played increasingly important roles in evaluating industrial processes. As part of a larger program run by SECAT, a CFD model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to simulate fuel combustion, heat transfer (including thermal radiation), gaseous product flow (mainly CO2 and H2O), and production/transport of pollutant species/greenhouse gases in an aluminum furnace. Using this code, the surface heat fluxes are calculated and then transferred to a melt code. In order to have a high level of confidence in the computed results, the output from the code will be compared and validated against in-furnace measurements made in the Albany furnace. Once validated, the combustion code may be used to perform inexpensive parametric studies to investigate methods to optimize furnace performance. This paper will present results from the combustion modeling of an aluminum furnace as well as results from several parametric studies.

Golchert, Brian M. (ANL); Zhou, C.Q. (Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, IN); Quenette, Antoine (ANL).; Han, Quinyou (ORNL).; King, Paul E.

2005-02-01

336

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

Crelling, J.C.

1995-12-31

337

Thermal and structural response of a two-story, two bay composite steel frame under fire loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapse of the World Trade Center Towers and other recent fires in tall buildings has motivated a study to understand the performance of structural frames under fire loading. A two-storey, two-bay composite steel frame was constructed and was subjected to dead loads using load blocks, and to thermal load by placing the frame in a furnace. The furnace was

Yuli Dong; Kuldeep Prasad

2009-01-01

338

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposed study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. The Amanda furnace of Armco is the only one in North America currently using coal injection and is, therefore, the only full scale testing facility available. During this quarter complete petrographic analyses of all of the samples so far collected were completed.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-05-01

339

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the US Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I -- design; Phase II -- construction; and Phase III -- operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. A 100% construction review meeting was held in December and attended by representatives of DOE, Fluor Daniel and Bethlehem Steel. The coal preparation mills were started up in December, 1994, and the first coal was injected into ``D`` blast furnace on December 19, 1994. Near the end of the year, the grinding mills and injection facility were being prepared for performance testing during the first quarter of 1995. The demonstration test program (phase III) will start in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-07-01

340

Standard operating procedure: Gas atmosphere MELCO brazing furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible with the larger furnaces. Accelerator- and experimental-related components best assembled by atmosphere brazing techniques are routinely processed by this facility

Waller

1988-01-01

341

Protection of arc furnace supply systems from switching surges  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arc furnace supply system consists of one or several furnace transformers connected to a larger supply transformer through cables and overhead lines. In a conventional arc furnace, controlled arc between three phase electrodes heats a scrap material to the melting temperature. Due to the nature of the metallurgical processes involved, arc furnace transformers are very frequently energized and de-energized

Oguz A. Soysal

1999-01-01

342

20. Detail, Furnace A, shows the drill used to tap ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Detail, Furnace A, shows the drill used to tap the furnace (at center left) and the 'mud gun' used to close it up with a clay plug (at lower right). Metal chute at center (next to drill) was used to clean out furnace prior to its abandonment. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

343

Reheating and dangerous relics in pre-big-bang string cosmology  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the mechanism of reheating in pre-big-bang string cosmology and we calculate the amount of moduli and gravitinos produced gravitationally and in scattering processes of the thermal bath. We find that this abundance always exceeds the limits imposed by big-bang nucleosynthesis, and significant entropy production is required. The exact amount of entropy needed depends on the details of the high curvature phase between the dilaton-driven inflationary era and the radiation era. We show that the domination and decay of the zero-mode of a modulus field, which could well be the dilaton, or of axions, suffices to dilute moduli and gravitinos. In this context, baryogenesis can be accommodated in a simple way via the Affleck-Dine mechanism and in some cases the Affleck-Dine condensate could provide both the source of entropy and the baryon asymmetry.

Buonanno, Alessandra; Lemoine, Martin; Olive, Keith A.

2000-10-15

344

Planck constraints on Higgs modulated reheating of renormalization group improved inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of renormalization group improved inflationary cosmology motivated by asymptotically safe gravity, we study the dynamics of a scalar field which can be interpreted as the Higgs field. The background trajectories of this model can provide sufficient inflationary e-folds and a graceful exit to a radiation dominated phase. We study the possibility of generating primordial curvature perturbations through the Standard Model Higgs boson. This can be achieved under finely tuned parameter choices by making use of the modulated reheating mechanism. The primordial non-Gaussianity is expected to be sizable in this model. Though tightly constrained by the newly released Planck cosmic microwave background data, this model provides a potentially interesting connection between collider and early Universe physics.

Cai, Yi-Fu; Chang, Yu-Chiao; Chen, Pisin; Easson, Damien A.; Qiu, Taotao

2013-10-01

345

Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide  

SciTech Connect

A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

2012-03-13

346

Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of fur...

R. F. Lind

1992-01-01

347

Temperature measurement in fire test furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of errors associated with temperature measurement in fire endurance test furnaces has shown that conventionally used thermocouples are subject to large time constant errors in the first 20 minutes of a standard test.

Vytenis Babrauskas; Robert Brady Williamson

1978-01-01

348

Materials Evaluations in an Experimental Blast Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven evaluation tests with blast furnace iron-bearing burden materials are described. The effects of pellet strength, fines in the burden, decreasing slag volume, pellet size, eliminating stone with superfluxed sinter, and eliminating stone by prefluxing...

P. L. Woolf

1984-01-01

349

A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

1999-04-20

350

Antilisterial properties of marinades during refrigerated storage and microwave oven reheating against post-cooking inoculated chicken breast meat.  

PubMed

This study evaluated growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cooked chicken meat with different marinades and survival of the pathogen as affected by microwave oven reheating. During aerobic storage at 7 °C, on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7, samples were reheated by microwave oven (1100 W) for 45 or 90 s and analyzed microbiologically. L. monocytogenes counts on nonmarinated (control) samples increased (P < 0.05) from 2.7 ± 0.1 (day-0) to 6.9 ± 0.1 (day-7) log CFU/g during storage. Initial (day-0) pathogen counts of marinated samples were <0.5 log CFU/g lower than those of the control, irrespective of marinating treatment. At 7 d of storage, pathogen levels on samples marinated with tomato juice were not different (P ? 0.05; 6.9 ± 0.1 log CFU/g) from those of the control, whereas for samples treated with the remaining marinades, pathogen counts were 0.7 (soy sauce) to 2.0 (lemon juice) log CFU/g lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control. Microwave oven reheating reduced L. monocytogenes counts by 1.9 to 4.1 (45 s) and >2.4 to 5.0 (90 s) log CFU/g. With similar trends across different marinates, the high levels of L. monocytogenes survivors found after microwave reheating, especially after storage for more than 2 d, indicate that length of storage and reheating time need to be considered for safe consumption of leftover cooked chicken. PMID:23311403

Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Nychas, George-John; Sofos, John N

2013-01-11

351

Creating successful blast furnace refractory systems  

SciTech Connect

Successful lifetimes of the refractories utilized in the blast furnace are dependent on a variety of external factors such as operation, geometry, cooling capability, configuration and arrangement, as well as refractory properties. These external factors, as well as the properties required to withstand the main mechanisms of wear, combine to create the successful refractory system. These significant factors and properties are reviewed with the intention of providing guidelines required for successful refractory performance in the blast furnace.

Dzermejko, A.J. [UCAR Carbon Co., Inc., Columbia, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

352

DC extended arc plasma nitriding of stainless and high carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel (SS 302) and high carbon steel (HCS) substrates were nitrided in a pot type arc plasma furnace in the temperature range 1100–120 °C under different gas (Ar, N2, H2) mixture configurations for twenty minutes each. The nitrided surfaces were characterized by XRD, SEM, metallography and microhardness. Depth of the nitride layer grown was found between 40 to 50

A. Sahu; B. B. Nayak; N. Panigrahi; B. S. Acharya; B. C. Mohanty

2000-01-01

353

Sintering of tungsten carbide particles sputter-deposited with stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to study the sintering process of WC–stainless steel AISI 304 composite powders prepared by an innovative process, which consists in the use of a magnetron sputtering to coat WC powder particles with the stainless steel elements. The sintering of pressed compacts was performed in a conventional vacuum furnace using a heating rate of 5

C. M Fernandes; A. M. R Senos; M. T Vieira

2003-01-01

354

Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry — applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in sensitivity and signal processing opened a broad field of application for laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) in the steel making and processing industry. Analyzed substances range from top gas of the blast furnace, via liquid steel up to finished products. This paper gives an overview of R&D activities and first routine industrial applications of LIBS. The continuous knowledge

Reinhard Noll; Holger Bette; Adriane Brysch; Marc Kraushaar; Ingo Mönch; Laszlo Peter; Volker Sturm

2001-01-01

355

Behavior of phosphorus in DRI/HBI during electric furnace steelmaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In modern electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, ore based scrap substitute materials are often used to control the chemistry of the steel produced and/or improve the efficiency of the process. Metallographic investigation of commercial direct reduced iron/hot briquetted iron, DRI/HBI materials indicates that before melting, phosphorus in DRI/HBI is contained as a calcium phosphate phase in the unreduced oxide "gangue" portion of the material. It was assumed that the kinetics of phosphorus transfer between slag and metal are limited by liquid phase mass transfer of phosphorus in the slag, metal, or both phases. An overall mass transfer coefficient, ko, was defined, which includes the effects of mass transfer in both the slag and the metal. Fundamental laboratory kinetic experiments indicate that either the slag-metal interfacial area, A, and/or the overall liquid phase mass transfer coefficient, ko, change during dephosphorization experiments. Because the contributions of the reaction area and the mass transfer coefficient to the overall rate are difficult to separate, experimental results were analyzed in terms of the mass transfer parameter, A*ko. The liquid phase mass transfer parameter for dephosphorization was found to range between 10-7 to 1 x 10-3 cm3/s for different experimental conditions. Plant trials were conducted to directly evaluate the conditions of mass transfer in the electric furnace. Controlled mass transfer experiments were conducted on a 150 ton DC electric arc furnace. The mass transfer parameter, A*ko, for this furnace was determined to be between 1.7*104 and 3.5*105 cm3/s. An additional series of plant trials were conducted on a 150 ton AC electric furnace to examine the effects of different scrap substitute materials upon the slag chemistry, the behavior of phosphorus in the steel, and upon furnace yield. The data from these trials were also used to develop empirical models for the slag chemistry and furnace temperature as functions of time during a single heat. A numerical process model was used to evaluate the influence of various EAF operating parameters upon phosphorus mass transfer between the slag and metal. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Manning, Christopher Patrick

356

Austenite and ferrite grain size evolution in plain carbon steel  

SciTech Connect

Grain size evolution in a 0.17%C, 0.74%Mn plain carbon steel is investigated using a Gleeble 1500 thermomechanical simulator. Austenite grain growth measurements in the temperature range from 900 to 1150{degrees}C have been used to validate the Abbruzzese and Luecke model, which is recommended for simulating grain growth during reheating. For run-out table conditions, the ferrite grain size decreases from 1l{mu}m to 4{mu}m when the cooling rate from the austenite is increased from 1 to 80{degrees}C/s.

Militzer, M.; Giumelli, A.; Hawbolt, E.B.; Meadowcroft, T.R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

1995-01-01

357

Study of materials to resist corrosion in condensing gas fired furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a thorough review of background information on the performance of materials in condensing gas fired furnace heat exchangers and in similar corrosive environments candidate materials were selected and tested on one of two identical test rigs built to provide the varying corrosive conditions encountered in an actual gas fired condensing system heat exchanger. The 32 different materials tested in a one month screening test included: mild, low alloy, galvanized, solder coated and CaCO3 dipped galvanized steel, porcelain, epoxy, teflon and nylon coated and alonized mild steel; austenitic, ferritic, low interstitial Ti stabilized ferritic, and high alloy stainless steels; aluminum alloy anodized and porcelain coated aluminum; copper and cupronickel alloys, solder coated copper; and titanium.

Lahtvee, T.; Khoo, S. W.; Schaus, O. O.

1981-02-01

358

Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Projection. Annual Report, Jan 1 - Dec 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This 1997 annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at the Burns Harbor Plant of Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to use British Steel technology1*2 that uses granular coal to provide a portion of the fuel requirements of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical and economic issues associated with the use of coal for injection into blast furnaces. To achieve the progmm objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at the Burns Harbor Plant (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

None

1998-04-01

359

Development of technical solutions for securing stable operation of the intermediate separation and steam reheating system for the K-1000-60/3000 turbine unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intermediate separation and steam reheating system and its equipment are described. Problems concerned with the presence of condensate in the stack's lower chamber and in the removing chamber, with cavitation failure of the separated moisture pumps, with misalignment of heating steam flowrates, with unstable draining of heating steam condensate, with occurrence of self oscillations, etc. are considered. A procedure for determining the level in removing heating steam condensate from steam reheater elements is proposed. Technical solutions for ensuring stable operation of the intermediate separation and steam reheating system and for achieving smaller misalignment between the apparatuses are developed.

Trifonov, N. N.; Kovalenko, E. V.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Tren'kin, V. B.

2012-09-01

360

Metallurgical evaluation of recycled stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Recycled Type 304 stainless steel from both Carolina Metals Inc. (CMI) and Manufacturing Science Corporation (MSC) met all the requirements of ASTM A-240 required by Procurement Specification G-SPP-K-00005 Rev. 4. Mechanical strength and corrosion resistance of the material are adequate for service as burial boxes, overpacks, and drums. Inclusion content of both manufacturer`s material was high, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the corrosion resistance. Therefore, an evaluation of the service conditions should be performed before this material is approved for other applications. These heats of stainless steel are not suitable for fabricating DWPF glass canisters because the inclusion and carbon contents are high. However, MSC has recently installed a vacuum induction furnace capable of producing L grade material with a low inclusion content. Material produced from this furnace should be suitable for canister material if appropriate care is taken during the melting/casting process.

Imrich, K.J.

1997-01-22

361

Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals

Shan-Wen Du; Wei-Hsin Chen; John A. Lucas

2010-01-01

362

Profile of the iron and steel industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project  

SciTech Connect

The iron and steel industry is categorized by the Bureau of the Census under the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code 33, primary metal industries. The industry is further classified by the three-digit codes 331, Steel Works, Blast Furnaces, and Rolling and Finishing Mills, and 332 Iron and Steel Foundries. Since steel works, blast furnaces, and rolling and finishing mills account for the majority of environmental releases, employees, and value of shipments, this profile concentrates on the three-digit SIC 331. Some sections of the profile focus specifically on industries in the four-digit SIC 3312, since virtually all establishments producing primary products (iron and steel) under SIC 3312, also produce secondary products that fall under some of the other iron and steel SIC codes under SIC 331.

NONE

1995-09-01

363

Induction furnace testing of the durability of prototype crucibles in a molten metal environment  

SciTech Connect

Engineered ceramic crucibles are commonly used to contain molten metal. Besides high temperature stability, other desired crucible characteristics include thermal shock resistance, minimal reaction with the molten metal and resistance to attack from the base metal oxide formed during melting. When used in an induction furnace, they can be employed as a “semi-permanent” crucible incorporating a dry ram backup and a ceramic cap. This report covers several 250-lb single melt crucible tests in an air melt induction furnace. These tests consisted of melting a charge of 17-4PH stainless steel, holding the charge molten for two hours before pouring off the heat and then subsequently sectioning the crucible to review the extent of erosion, penetration and other physical characteristics. Selected temperature readings were made throughout each melt. Chemistry samples were also taken from each heat periodically throughout the hold. The manganese level was observed to affect the rate of chromium loss in a non-linear fashion.

Jablonski, Paul D.

2005-09-01

364

Coal injection in an experimental blast furnace: a comprehensive reort. Open File report  

SciTech Connect

Blast-furnace coal injection tests conducted by the Bureau of Mines in cooperation with a consortium of 22 steel companies in 1963-64 are described. These tests were part of a program of extensive investigation of auxiliary-fuel injection in the Bureau's experimental blast furnace located at Bruceton, PA. Seventeen coal tests are described on various coals ranging from anthracite to subbituminous. Factors affecting maximum rates of the injection were studied. These included coal size, coal type, and oxygen enrichment. The effect of high-sulfur-content coal and the means to control metal sulfur were investigated. An epilogue briefly describing the commercial experience with coal injection from 1960 to the present is included.

Woolf, P.L.

1985-08-01

365

Simultaneous and consistent analysis of NRA, RBS and ERDA data with the IBA DataFurnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in this paper, for the first time, the extension of the ion beam analysis DataFurnace to the analysis of non-resonant nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) data. The NRA routine is general and can be used to analyse data from any reaction with known Q and cross section. The shape of the cross section is taken into account and hence depth profiling using reactions with non-flat cross sections is easily done. We show different applications of the program, including profiling of deuterium with a 3He beam and profiling of N in a stainless steel matrix using a deuterium beam. In the latter case, we also performed 35 MeV Cl-ERDA and D-RBS experiments of the same sample. The Ion Beam Analysis DataFurnace allows to analyse all the data simultaneously, taking into account all the information present in the different data sets in a fully consistent manner.

Barradas, N. P.; Parascandola, S.; Sealy, B. J.; Grötzschel, R.; Kreissig, U.

2000-03-01

366

Reaction of iron and steel slags with refractories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Slag corrosion and erosion has been a major wear factor for refractories wear in contact with molten iron and steel. In blast furnace ironmaking, the slag/iron interface plays a more important role than does the slag/refractory interface. On the other han...

S. Banerjee M. W. Anderson J. P. Singh R. B. Poeppel

1993-01-01

367

Producing Portland cement from iron and steel slags and limestone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slags from blast furnace (iron making ) and converter (steel making) after magnetic separation are mixed with limestone of six different compositions. The ground materials are fired in a pilot plant scale rotary kiln to 1350 °C for 1 h. The clinker is cooled, crushed, mixed with 3% gypsum, and ground to fineness of more than 3300 cm2\\/g. Initial

Ahmad Monshi; Masoud Kasiri Asgarani

1999-01-01

368

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON ELECTROSTATIC SCRUBBER TESTS AT A STEEL PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a demonstration of the effectiveness of a 1700 cu m/hr (1000 acfm) University of Washington (UW) Electrostatic Spray Scrubber in controlling fine particle emissions from an electric-arc steel furnace. The two-stage portable pilot plant operates by comb...

369

Stickiness of Retorting Oil Shales on Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The stickiness of oil-shale particles was measured as the angle of tilt required to cause a thin layer of 6.4-mm particles to slide from rest on a stainless-steel surface. The test tray was enclosed in a heating chamber within an electric furnace and was ...

J. F. Carley

1982-01-01

370

The properties of a 0.45 Pct V steel pipe and the effects of some variation in composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  It can be concluded that 1219 mm (48 in) OD x 15 mm (0.60 in) pipe to API specification 5LS706 pipe for Arctic service can be produced from steel containing 0.06 pct C, 1.9 pct Mn, 0.45 pct V, and 0.06 pct Mo when the\\u000a plate is reheated to 1230 °C, rolled on a fairly light mill and made into

A. M. Sage; R. F. Dewsnap; D. B. McCutcheon

1982-01-01

371

Standard operating procedure: Gas atmosphere MELCO brazing furnace  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible with the larger furnaces. Accelerator- and experimental-related components best assembled by atmosphere brazing techniques are routinely processed by this facility in addition to special heat treatment and bakeout heats. The detailed operation sequence and description of the MELCO furnace system are covered by this report. This document is to augment LA-10231-SOP, which describes the operation of the large furnace systems. 6 figs.

Waller, C.R.

1988-08-01

372

Effects of Microstructure on Corrosion of X70 Pipe Steel in an Alkaline Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion of X70 steel with different heat treatments (quenching, air cooling, and furnace cooling) in an alkaline soil was investigated by weight-loss, surface characterization and electrochemical measurements. The cathodic\\/anodic reactions of X70 steel in alkaline soil are dominated by the oxygen reduction and formation of iron oxides that deposit on the steel surface. The protection of the oxide deposit is

C. W. Du; X. G. Li; P. Liang; Z. Y. Liu; G. F. Jia; Y. F. Cheng

2009-01-01

373

Effects of Microstructure on Corrosion of X70 Pipe Steel in an Alkaline Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion of X70 steel with different heat treatments (quenching, air cooling, and furnace cooling) in an alkaline soil was\\u000a investigated by weight-loss, surface characterization and electrochemical measurements. The cathodic\\/anodic reactions of X70\\u000a steel in alkaline soil are dominated by the oxygen reduction and formation of iron oxides that deposit on the steel surface.\\u000a The protection of the oxide deposit is

C. W. Du; X. G. Li; P. Liang; Z. Y. Liu; G. F. Jia; Y. F. Cheng

2009-01-01

374

Effects of experimental reheating of natural basaltic ash at different temperatures and redox conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of experiments have been performed on volcanic materials from Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius in order to evaluate how the exposure to thermal and redox conditions close to that of active craters affects the texture and composition of juvenile pyroclasts. Selected samples were placed within a quartz tube, in presence of air or under vacuum, and kept at T between 700 and 1,130 °C, for variable time (40 min to 12 h). Results show that reheating reactivates the melt, which, through processes of chemical and thermal diffusion, reaches new equilibrium conditions. In all the experiments performed at T = 700-750 °C, a large number of crystal nuclei and spherulites grows in the groundmass, suggesting conditions of high undercooling. This process creates textural heterogeneities at the scale of few microns but only limited changes of groundmass composition, which remains clustered around that of the natural glasses. Reheating at T = 1,000-1,050 °C promotes massive groundmass crystallization, with a different mineral assemblage as a function of the redox conditions. Morphological modifications of clasts, from softening to sintering as temperature increases, occur under these conditions, accompanied by progressive smoothing of external surfaces, and a reduction in size and abundance of vesicles, until the complete obliteration of the pre-existing vesicularity. The transition from sintering to welding, characteristic of high temperature, is influenced by redox conditions. Experiments at T = 1,100-1,130 °C and under vacuum produce groundmass textures and glass compositions similar to that of the respective starting material. Collapse and welding of the clasts cause significant densification of the whole charge. At the same temperature, but in presence of air, experimental products at least result sintered and show holocrystalline groundmass. In all experiments, sublimates grow on the external surfaces of the clasts or form a lining on the bubble walls. Their shape and composition is a function of temperature and fO2 and the abundance of sublimates shows a peak at 1,000 °C. The identification of the features recorded by pyroclasts during complex heating-cooling cycles allows reconstructing the complete clasts history before their final emplacement, during weakly explosive volcanic activity. This has a strong implication on the characterization of primary juvenile material and on the interpretation of eruption dynamics.

D'Oriano, C.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Cioni, R.; Pichavant, M.

2013-05-01

375

A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. (Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada))

1992-01-01

376

A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

1992-08-01

377

A study on reheating characteristics for thixo die casting process with electromagnetic stirring and extruded aluminum alloys and their mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the reheating process and mechanical properties of thixo die cast A356 alloy, using electromagnetic stirring\\u000a (EMS) and extrusion before thixo die casting, were discussed. The EMS is used mainly to manufacture raw materials with a globular\\u000a microstructure. If relevant reheating is carried out, products with excellent mechanical properties can be manufactured by\\u000a EMS. Contrarily, extruded material has

P. K. Seo; C. G. Kang; S. M. Lee

2009-01-01

378

Performance of coal-gasification-reheat combustion-turbine power cycles using dry cooling. Final report. [Texaco oxygen-blown gasifier and British Gas Corporation slagging gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to explore the near-term performance potential of coal-gasification combined cycles that use reheat combustion turbines and dry cooling. The major finding is that these cycles can have coal-to-bus-bar efficiencies close to 40% if the components are properly matched. The study assumes that reheat gas turbines with inlet temperatures of about 2370°F could be developed. The addition

Horazak

1983-01-01

379

The effect of preheat temperature and inter-pass reheating on microstructure and texture evolution during hot rolling of Ti–6Al–4V  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of preheat temperature and inter-pass reheating on microstructure and texture evolution during unidirectional hot rolling of Ti–6Al–4V in the alpha+beta field was investigated. Three different heating schedules were used to roll plates at 10% reduction per pass to a 3:1 total reduction (true strain=1.15): (1) preheat at 955°C with inter-pass reheating for 3min, (2) preheat at 955°C without

A. A. Salem; M. G. Glavicic; S. L. Semiatin

2008-01-01

380

Liquid formation and microstructural evolution during re-heating and partial melting of an extruded A356 aluminium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thixoforming processes require feedstock having a non-dendritic, equiaxed microstructure, which in some cases can be obtained by a deformation–recrystallisation technique followed by partial melting. From the study of an extruded, re-heated and partially re-melted A356 alloy, a number of phenomena were observed and analysed: grain and particle growth, texture and low angle grain boundary formation, primary phase coarsening during isothermal

A. M. Kliauga; M. Ferrante

2005-01-01

381

Infrared study for the phase transition of re-heated diphenyl carbazide C 13H 14N 4O  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature dependence of IR spectra of re-heated diphenyl carbazide C13H14N4O have been investigated under normal pressure. The data is reported here between room temperature and up to the melting point (? 160°C) of diphenyl carbazide (DPC) and the IR spectra are recorded up to 4000 cm?1. This study is an extensive of a recent one, which detected the presence

F. El-Kabbany; S. Taha; F. M. Mansey; A. Shehap

1997-01-01

382

Iron and Steel Foundaries Manual Emissions Testing of Cupola Baghouse at Waupaca Foundry in Tell City, Indiana. Volume 1 of 2. Report Text and Appendices A and B.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Emission Standards Division (ESD) is investigating iron and steel foundries to identify and quantify hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from cupolas; electric arc furnaces; and pouring, cooling and shake...

D. F. Scheffel F. Meadows

1999-01-01

383

Iron and Steel Foundries Manual Emissions Testing Cupola Wet Scrubber General Motors Corp., Saginaw, Michigan. Final Report. Volume 1 of 2. Report Text and Appendices A and B.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is investigating iron and steel foundries to identify and quantify hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from cupolas; electric arc furnaces; and pouring, cooling and shakedown operations of sand m...

1999-01-01

384

Structural characterization of Na 2O–CaO–SiO 2 glass ceramics reinforced with electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure of three different compositions of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) from steel scrap recycling facilities mixed with cheap raw materials (SiO2, Na2O, CaO), treated under the same conditions were examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Wollastonite-type crystals were identified as the major crystalline phases. The initial composition of

I. Tsilika; Ph. Komninou

2007-01-01

385

Removal of Arsenic(III) from Groundwater using Low-Cost Industrial By-products—Blast Furnace Slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag (BFS), a steel industrial by-product, was tested for the removal of As(III), which is a highly toxic, mobile and predominant species in anoxic groundwater. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to determine the feasibility of BFS as an adsorbent for removing As(III) from groundwater as As(III) concentration and the pH of water were varied. The maximum As(III) adsorption

Sushil Raj Kanel; Heechul Choi; Ju-Yong Kim; Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran; Wang Geun Shim

2006-01-01

386

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 March 1993--31 May 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. The basic program is designed to determine the reactivity of both coal and its derived char under blast furnace conditions and to compare the results to similar properties of blast furnace coke. The results of the first two experiments in which coal char pyrolyzed in nitrogen at 1000{degrees}C in an EPR were reacted isothermally in air at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. The reactivity values of the same char in these two experiments were different by an order of magnitude. The char reactivity at 1000{degrees}C was 9.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} grams per minute while the reactivity. of the char at 1200{degrees}C was 1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} grams per minute. These results suggest that the temperature of the blast air in the tuyere may be critical in achieving complete carbon burnout.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-09-01

387

Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces  

DOEpatents

A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

1994-07-26

388

Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

Brand, L.; Rose, W.

2012-10-01

389

High temperature furnace application of cryopumps  

SciTech Connect

The need to provide a water-free and low oxygen content insulating material for a long life thermal device made necessary a super clean vacuum furnace. The high throughput, large water capacity, and cleanliness of the cryopump seemed to make it an ideal choice for this application. The basic incompatibilities of a high temperature, 720/sup 0/C, furnace and the low temperature, 12/sup 0/K, cryopump were thoroughly investigated. After all the development pains, the performance of the completed system has been extensively investigated and is excellent. Cost comparisons are made with a duplicate diffusion pumped system.

McClellan, G.B.

1980-01-01

390

Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces  

DOEpatents

A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

Gorin, Andrew H. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

391

Reheated Palm Oil Consumption and Risk of Atherosclerosis: Evidence at Ultrastructural Level  

PubMed Central

Background. Palm oil is commonly consumed in Asia. Repeatedly heating the oil is very common during food processing. Aim. This study is aimed to report on the risk of atherosclerosis due to the reheated oil consumption. Material and Methods. Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control, fresh-oil, 5 times heated-oil and 10 times heated-oil feeding groups. Heated palm oil was prepared by frying sweet potato at 180°C for 10 minutes. The ground standard rat chows were fortified with the heated oils and fed it to the rats for six months. Results. Tunica intima thickness in aorta was significantly increased in 10 times heated-oil feeding group (P < 0.05), revealing a huge atherosclerotic plaque with central necrosis projecting into the vessel lumen. Repeatedly heated oil feeding groups also revealed atherosclerotic changes including mononuclear cells infiltration, thickened subendothelial layer, disrupted internal elastic lamina and smooth muscle cells fragmentation in tunica media of the aorta. Conclusion. The usage of repeated heated oil is the predisposing factor of atherosclerosis leading to cardiovascular diseases. It is advisable to avoid the consumption of repeatedly heated palm oil.

Xian, Tan Kai; Omar, Noor Azzizah; Ying, Low Wen; Hamzah, Aniza; Raj, Santhana; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Othman, Faizah; Hussan, Farida

2012-01-01

392

Reheated palm oil consumption and risk of atherosclerosis: evidence at ultrastructural level.  

PubMed

Background. Palm oil is commonly consumed in Asia. Repeatedly heating the oil is very common during food processing. Aim. This study is aimed to report on the risk of atherosclerosis due to the reheated oil consumption. Material and Methods. Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control, fresh-oil, 5 times heated-oil and 10 times heated-oil feeding groups. Heated palm oil was prepared by frying sweet potato at 180°C for 10 minutes. The ground standard rat chows were fortified with the heated oils and fed it to the rats for six months. Results. Tunica intima thickness in aorta was significantly increased in 10 times heated-oil feeding group (P < 0.05), revealing a huge atherosclerotic plaque with central necrosis projecting into the vessel lumen. Repeatedly heated oil feeding groups also revealed atherosclerotic changes including mononuclear cells infiltration, thickened subendothelial layer, disrupted internal elastic lamina and smooth muscle cells fragmentation in tunica media of the aorta. Conclusion. The usage of repeated heated oil is the predisposing factor of atherosclerosis leading to cardiovascular diseases. It is advisable to avoid the consumption of repeatedly heated palm oil. PMID:23320039

Xian, Tan Kai; Omar, Noor Azzizah; Ying, Low Wen; Hamzah, Aniza; Raj, Santhana; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Othman, Faizah; Hussan, Farida

2012-12-19

393

Energy Transfer in the Hearths of Submerged-Arc Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation on the transfer of energy by conduction in the hearths of submerged-arc furnaces is reported, the object being the development of a useful control parameter as an aid in the improvement of furnace performance. Preliminary investigations, ...

T. R. Curr P. L. van der Merwe G. A. Oosthuizen H. J. Griessel G. Salgado

1984-01-01

394

33. BOILER HOUSE FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. BOILER HOUSE - FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of the Dorward Engineering Company furnace and boiler which provided steam to the cooking retorts in the adjacent room. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

395

General view from north to south, showing brass melter, furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view from north to south, showing brass melter, furnace and crane. - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Foundry, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

396

46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...voltage stabilizer, specimen holder, specimen insertion device, and three thermocouples (a furnace thermocouple to measure furnace temperature, a surface thermocouple to measure temperature at the surface of a specimen, and a specimen...

2011-10-01

397

46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...voltage stabilizer, specimen holder, specimen insertion device, and three thermocouples (a furnace thermocouple to measure furnace temperature, a surface thermocouple to measure temperature at the surface of a specimen, and a specimen...

2012-10-01

398

Mathematical modeling of thermal operating regimes of electric resistance furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physicomathematical model making it possible to calculate thermal regimes of electric resistance furnaces has been proposed. The model is suitable for description of linings and heated products of different types. It includes, as components, the following models: those of thermal-radiation transfer in the furnace’s workspace, of nonstationary heating of target products, of nonstationary heating of the furnace lining, and of external heat exchange of the furnace’s enclosing structures. The distinctive features of a numerical method for solution of the proposed model are discussed. An example of calculation of a chamber electric resistance furnace for the cases where it is lined with fireclay brick and lightweight fibrous materials is discussed. It is shown that replacement of the lining by a fibrous one improves the thermal operating efficiency for this type of furnace 2-2.5 times.

Grinchuk, P. S.

2010-03-01

399

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS FROM GLASS MELTING FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this research was to identify the size fraction distribution of the various chemical constituents of glass furnace emissions. This would assist researchers in identifying emissions characteristic of glass furnaces; thus, providing design requirements for control te...

400

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

401

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF STEELMAKING FURNACE DUST DISPOSAL METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to examine the nature of steelmaking furnace residues and disposal techniques, and to assess potential problems associated with residue disposal, a potential multimedia environmental problem. Solubilization tests of 18 furnace residue samples s...

402

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING BUILDINGS SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Bessemer Foundry, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

403

VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2 AND CARPENTRY SHOP, LOOKING WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2 AND CARPENTRY SHOP, LOOKING WEST - Chambers Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

404

INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE BUILDING, SHOWING PINCONNECTED FINK ROOF TRUSSES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE BUILDING, SHOWING PIN-CONNECTED FINK ROOF TRUSSES - Chambers Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 1, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

405

GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF BOTH FURNACE STACKS LOOKING SOUTHWEST (STACK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF BOTH FURNACE STACKS LOOKING SOUTHWEST (STACK NO. 1 TO LEFT, NO. 2 TO RIGHT) - Greenwood Furnace, East of McAlevy's Fort on State Route 305, McAlevys Fort, Huntingdon County, PA

406

Power Usage and Electrical Circuit Analysis for Electric Arc Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power usage in ultrahigh-powered electric arc furnaces requires considerably more investigation into system parameters, furnace secondary circuit analysis, and operating characteristics than previously given to normal powered electric arc furnaces. The power input must be analyzed from the infinite electric utility bus to the arc at the electrode. All interested parties must participate in the analysis to assure a mutual

J. J. Trageser

1980-01-01

407

Thermal Energy Storage in Forced-Air Electric Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data are presented for heat storage in forced-air electric furnaces using magnesite as the heat storage material. Charge and discharge data for temperature and flow, obtained in the laboratory, are compared with models used for the design of the furnace. Experience with the furnace operating in homes for a heating season and being charged during the off peak is

W. Bruce H. Cooke; R. H. Stephen Hardy; Michael T. Sulatisky

1980-01-01

408

Standard Operating Procedure: Gas Atmosphere MELCO Brazing Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible wi...

C. R. Waller

1988-01-01

409

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Performance Improvement of Copper Melting Furnace using Air Preheater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to improve the performance of copper melting furnace using air preheater at a copper cable manufacturing factory. Before installation of the air preheater, the thermal efficiency of the copper furnace is approximately 47.11% where heat loss in the exhaust gas is nearly half of the energy input of copper melting furnace. After installation of

Tawatchai Sittisradoo; Sompong Putivisutisak

410

Holden gas-fired furnace baseline data. Revision 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Holden gas-fired furnace is used in the enriched uranium recovery process to dry and combust small batches of combustibles. The ash is further processed. The furnace operates by allowing a short natural gas flame to burn over the face of a wall of porous fire brick on two sides of the furnace. Each firing wall uses two main burners

Weatherspoon

1996-01-01

411

A Possible Macroscopic-Photo-Catalysis Mechanism in Solar Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the experimental results of Chen et al. to use the solar furnace and medium frequency induction furnace to extract boron impurity from metallurgical silicon, we propose a strong radiation catalysis mechanism to explain the difference of reaction rates in these two furnaces. The postulate assuming the photons striking on the material not only increase the thermal energy of

Tsohsiu Ho; Cheng-Rui Qing; Ying-Tian Chen

2011-01-01

412

Assessment of Atmospheric Emissions from Quenching of Blast Furnace Slag with Blast Furnace Blowdown Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of 15 emission measurements made on a laboratory scale facility simulating typical plant slag quenching practice. The measurements were made to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of blast furnace ...

G. Annamraju W. Kemner P. J. Schworer

1984-01-01

413

Phase chemical composition of slag from a direct nickel flash furnace and associated slag cleaning furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recovery of base metals from the Bushveld Igneous Complex ores, South Africa, a two-stage process is used to ensure complete recovery of nickel from the ore. A nickel flash smelting furnace is initially used to obtain the valuable metal but the loss of nickel in the slag amounts to about 4 % and thus an electric slag-cleaning furnace has to be subsequently used to reduce the loss of the valuable metal to less than 0.5 % nickel oxide in the slag. The Fe2 + /Fe3 + ratio and mineralogy in the two different furnaces differ and can be used as a tool to determine the efficiency of the nickel recovered in the two-stage process. By means of XRD, SEM/EDS and Mössbauer spectroscopy the Fe2 + /Fe3 + ratio and the amount of magnetite was determined in each furnace, which was then used as an indicator of the effectiveness of the whole process.

Waanders, F. B.; Nell, J.

2013-04-01

414

Use of Waste Oil in Blast Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project dealt with investigating the conditions under which waste oil could be used instead of heavy fuel oil to fire blast furnaces so as to permit cost savings. When using waste oil, the pumps in the feed line that were used to build up the supply p...

K. Goebel

1983-01-01

415

High-temperature carbon-furnace thermometer  

SciTech Connect

A thermometer for monitoring temperatures between 1500 and 2600/sup 0/K in industrial carbon furnaces is described. The instrument uses a calibrated broadband radiation sensor and incorporates features to minimize optical path attenuations which limit temperature measurement accuracy in practice. Errors can be substantially reduced to near instrument calibration uncertainty (+-1%) with an enclosed windowless optical path to a blackbody target.

Smith, D.D.

1982-01-01

416

Method of loading and unloading a furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of loading and unloading semiconductor wafer boats from a furnace having a processing tube provided with an opening through which the boats are transported, and having a door which is moveable by a control means for sealingly closing the opening when the wafers are being processed. The method comprises: (a) placing at least one of the

R. E. Aldridge; R. Elloway; W. O. Fritz; R. D. Goff; M. J. Herera

1987-01-01

417

SITE DEMONSTRATION OF MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The final report for this project has been published. (EPA/540/R-03/500) March 2004. This SITE project demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) evaluated the technology's ability to reduce polychlorinated biphenyl PCB and metal concentrati...

418

High Temperature Furnace Application of Cryopumps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need to provide a water-free and low oxygen content insulating material for a long life thermal device made necessary a super clean vacuum furnace. The high throughput, large water capacity, and cleanliness of the cryopump seemed to make it an ideal c...

G. B. McClellan

1980-01-01

419

Flame Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is one of the most widespread traditional analytical techniques for trace element determination, but it often suffers from poor sensitivity due to the low nebulization efficiency and the short residence time of free atoms in the flame. On the basis of conventional FAAS, flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (FF-AAS) is developed with a tube (flame

Peng Wu; Shaopan He; Bin Luo; Xiandeng Hou

2009-01-01

420

Simulation of Frozen Slag Inside Brickless Reaction Shaft of Flash Smelting Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the principle of heat transfer, a three-dimensional model of frozen slag in the brickless reaction shaft of a flash smelting furnace was established by computing the temperature field and judging the moving boundary. In the modeling process, a cylindrical coordinate system was adopted to specify the point positions according to the geometry of the brickless reaction shaft, and an improved method was proposed to discretize the three-dimensional control equations. The model was then applied to investigate the influence of the operational [gas temperature (GT), cooling water temperature (CWT), and melting temperature of frozen slag (MTFS)] and structural (steel shell thickness, steel nail thickness, steel nail length, and distance between nails) parameters on the thickness of the frozen slag. The results showed that the GT, CWT, and MTFS have a marked impact on the thickness of frozen slag, which decreases at high temperature and increases when cooled; the structural parameters have little effect on the thickness of frozen slag in terms of heat transfer. Consequently, to form a layer of frozen slag with a desired thickness inside a brickless reaction shaft, it is important to avoid localized ultra-high temperatures in the inner chamber and to cool the steel shell using a strong flow of low-temperature water; mechanical (and not thermal) factors should take precedence when designing the steel nails of a brickless reaction shaft.

Wang, Jinliang; Wang, Houqing; Tong, Changren; Zhang, Wenhai; Zhang, Chuanfu

2013-09-01

421

Adsorption of 2,4-D and carbofuran pesticides using fertilizer and steel industry wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and carbofuran from aqueous solution was studied by using fertilizer industry waste (carbon slurry) and steel industry wastes (blast furnace slag, dust, and sludge) as adsorbents in batch. Adsorption was found to be in decreasing order: carbon slurry, blast furnace sludge, dust, and slag, respectively. Carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from carbon slurry exhibited the uptake

Vinod K. Gupta; Imran Ali; Suhas; Vipin K. Saini

2006-01-01

422

Experimental studies of thermo-mechanical treatment on conventionally melted high nitrogen martensitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to produce high-nitrogen martensitic stainless steels (HNMSS) using a conventional induction furnace with better mechanical properties and to improve the properties by thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Production of two types of HNMSS alloys with Chromium – 8.22 and 15.84 wt% was carried out using a conventional melting furnace. The theoretical

V. Valasamudram; S. S. Mohamed Nazirudeen; P. Chandramohan; K. P. Thenmozhi

2008-01-01

423

High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steels Manufactured by Nitrogen Gas Alloying and Adding Nitrided Ferroalloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and feasible method for the production of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels involves nitrogen gas alloying and adding nitrided ferroalloys under normal atmospheric conditions. Alloying by nitrogen gas bubbling in Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo series alloys was carried out in MoSi2 resistance furnace and air induction furnace under normal atmospheric conditions. The results showed that nitrogen alloying could be accelerated by

Hua-bing LI; Zhou-hua JIANG; Ming-hui SHEN; Xiang-mi YOU

2007-01-01

424

Mechanisms of objectionable textural changes by microwave reheating of foods: a review.  

PubMed

Microwave reheating, compared to a conventional method, is notorious for lack of crust formation and severe toughening of flour and starch-based products. This review discusses how the typical thermal characteristics of microwave heating are involved in affecting the texture as well as the possible role of non-thermal effects. While low surface temperature is the well known mechanism why microwave heating is incapable of crust formation, the most severe toughening problems are caused by internal boiling. Beside moisture loss, the internally generated steam causes 2 main textural effects when it is vented out. The first is the replacing of non-condensable gases (air) in the product voids with a condensable one (steam). When the latter is condensed by cooling, a vacuum may be created in the voids causing their collapse and a formation of a more compact and tougher structure. The second textural effect involves amylose extraction from starch granules and its redistribution to eventually form a rich layer on the walls of the structural foam cells of the baked goods. Relatively fast crystallization of the amylose seems to be the main cause of toughening a short while after microwave heating. This mechanism is relevant mainly to products where starch is an important structural element. Structural disruptions by localize excessive steam pressure at hot-spots are also discussed in this review as well as methods of preventing or alleviating the most objectionable textural changes. The most effective ways of preventing these undesirable changes are by avoiding internal boiling and/or by manipulating the starch content and properties. PMID:22260126

Mizrahi, Shimon

2012-01-01

425

Acidic leaching both of zinc and iron from basic oxygen furnace sludge.  

PubMed

During the steel production in the basic oxygen furnace (BOF), approximately 7-15 kg of dust per tonne of produced steel is generated. This dust contains approximately 1.4-3.2% Zn and 54-70% Fe. Regarding the zinc content, the BOF dust is considered to be highly problematic, and therefore new technological processes for recycling dusts and sludge from metallurgical production are still searched for. In this study the hydrometallurgical processing of BOF sludge in the sulphuric acid solutions under atmospheric pressure and temperatures up to 100 °C is investigated on laboratory scale. The influence of sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio (L:S) on the leaching process was studied. The main aim of this study was to determine optimal conditions when the maximum amount of zinc passes into the solution whilst iron remains in a solid residue. PMID:21724325

Trung, Zuzana Hoang; Kukurugya, Frantisek; Takacova, Zita; Orac, Dusan; Laubertova, Martina; Miskufova, Andrea; Havlik, Tomas

2011-06-12

426

A simple high-pressure furnace for liquid-encapsulated Bridgman/Stockbarger crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a simple, internally-heated high pressure furnace for liquid-encapsulated synthesis and melt growth at temperatures up to 1200 C and pressures up to 100 bar. The hot zone is contained in a 102-mm-ID x 127-mm-OD x 508-mm-long tubular vessel made of 304-series stainless steel. The vessel is externally water cooled and has self-sealing O-ring end closures. A Kanthal A-1 wire heating element provides a uniform-temperature synthesis zone and a gradient for crystal growth. The 38-mm-ID hot zone requires less than 1 kW power for 1200 C operation. The furnace power level is varied by a triac circuit that operates from stabilized 110-V ac line voltage at less than 10 A current. Motor-driven power ramping is provided for stationary crystal growth in a moving temperature gradient. Alternatively, the temperature gradient can be maintained constant while the crucible is lowered with a steeper-motor driven lead screw. Some applications of the furnace for synthesis and crystal growth of Cu(x)Ag(1-x)InSe2 and crystal growth of InP are described.

Ciszek, T. F.; Evans, C. D.

1988-09-01

427

Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace  

SciTech Connect

A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

1999-09-01

428

Understanding environmental leachability of electric arc furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

Dust from production of steel in an electric arc furnace (EAF) contains a mixture of elements that pose a challenge for both recovery and disposal. This paper relates the leachability of six Canadian EAF dusts in four leaching tests [distilled water, Ontario Regulation 347 Leachate Extraction Procedure, Amount Available for Leaching (AALT), and pH 5 Stat] to their mineralogy. Chromium and nickel contaminants in EAF dust are largely unleachable (<5% available in AALT and pH 5 Stat), as they are found with the predominant spinel ferrite phase in EAF dust. However, even a small proportion of oxidized chromium can result in significant leachate concentrations of highly toxic chromate. The leachability of zinc (7--50% available), lead (2--17% available), and cadmium (9--55% available) can be significant, as large fractions of these contaminants are found as chlorides and oxides. The leaching of these metals is largely controlled by pH. The acid neutralization capacity of the EAF dusts appeared to be controlled by dissolution of lime and zincite, and results from regulatory leaching tests can be misleading because the variable acid neutralization capacity of EAF dusts can lead to very different final leachate pHs (5--12.4). A more informative approach would be to evaluate the total amounts of contaminants available in the long term, and the acid neutralization capacity.

Stegemann, J.A.; Roy, A.; Caldwell, R.J.; Schilling, P.J.; Tittsworth, R.

2000-02-01

429

Gas flow analysis in melting furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The flow structure inside round furnaces with various numbers of burners, burner arrangement, and exit conditions has been studied experimentally with the purpose of improving the flow conditions and the resulting heat transfer. Small-scale transparent models were built according to the laws of geometric and dynamic similarity. Various visualization and experimental techniques were applied. The flow pattern in the near-surface regions was visualized by the fluorescent minituft and popcorn techniques; the flow structure in the bulk was analyzed by smoke injection and laser sheet illumination. For the study of the transient effects, high-speed video photography was applied. The effects of the various flow patterns, like axisymmetric and rotational flow, on the magnitude and uniformity of the residence time, as well as on the formation of stagnation zones, were discussed. Conclusions were drawn and have since been applied for the improvement of furnace performance.

Kiss, L.I.; Bui, R.T.; Charette, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Chicoutimi, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Applied Science; Bourgeois, T. [Alcan International Limited, Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada). Arvida Research and Development Center

1998-12-01

430

Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.  

SciTech Connect

The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive basic research and the solution of proprietary glass production problems. As a consequence of the substantial increase in scale and scope of the initial furnace concept in response to industry recommendations, constraints on funding of industrial programs by DOE, and reorientation of the Department's priorities, the OIT Glass Program is unable to provide the support for construction of such a facility. However, it is the present investigators' hope that a group of industry partners will emerge to carry the project forward, taking advantage of the detailed furnace design presented in this report. The engineering, including complete construction drawings, bill of materials, and equipment specifications, is complete. The project is ready to begin construction as soon as the quotations are updated. The design of the research melter closely follows the most advanced industrial practice, firing by natural gas with oxygen. The melting area is 13 ft x 6 ft, with a glass depth of 3 ft and an average height in the combustion space of 3 ft. The maximum pull rate is 25 tons/day, ranging from 100% batch to 100% cullet, continuously fed, with variable batch composition, particle size distribution, and raft configuration. The tank is equipped with bubblers to control glass circulation. The furnace can be fired in three modes: (1) using a single large burner mounted on the front wall, (2) by six burners in a staggered/opposed arrangement, three in each breast wall, and (3) by down-fired burners mounted in the crown in any combination with the front wall or breast-wall-mounted burners. Horizontal slots are provided between the tank blocks and tuck stones and between the breast wall and skewback blocks, running the entire length of the furnace on both sides, to permit access to the combustion space and the surface of the glass for optical measurements and sampling probes. Vertical slots in the breast walls provide additional access for measurements and sampling. The furnace and tank are to be fully instrumented with standard measuring equipment, such as flow meters, thermocouples, continuous gas composition

Connors, John J. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); McConnell, John F. (JFM Consulting, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Henry, Vincent I. (Henry Technology Solutions, LLC, Ann Arbor, MI); MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Adams, Michael E. (Lilja Corp., Rochester, NY); Leadbetter, James M. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Tomasewski, Jack W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Operacz, Walter J. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Houf, William G.; Davis, James W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Marvin, Bart G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Gunner, Bruce E. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Farrell, Rick G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Bivins, David P. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Curtis, Warren (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Harris, James E. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA)

2004-08-01

431

A study of the processes during high temperature oxidation that control surface hot shortness in copper-containing low carbon steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper is a problematic residual element in electric arc furnace steel production because it leads to "surface hot shortness," a cracking defect that occurs during hot rolling of steel. The cracking arises from a liquid, copper-rich phase that penetrates into and embrittles the austenite grain boundaries. The liquid forms because copper is nobler than iron and enriches at the oxide/metal interface during oxidation of iron after casting and reheating prior to hot rolling. This cracking can be reduced or eliminated by controlling the distribution of the copper-rich layer, i.e. preventing it from penetrating down the austenite grain boundaries. This study investigated the effect of alloy chemistry on the oxidation behavior and copper-rich liquid phase evolution. Alloy compositions were selected such that effects of copper, nickel, and reactive impurities (manganese, aluminum, and silicon) can be isolated. Industrially produced low carbon steels with varying copper, nickel and silicon contents were also studied. Alloys were oxidized in air or water vapor for times up to one hour at 1150°C. Oxidizing heat treatments were conducted in a thermogravimetric setup where the weight change could be measured during oxidation. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate in detail the oxide/metal interfaces. The modeling work focused on describing the enrichment and subsequent growth of the copper-rich layer. A fixed grid finite difference model was developed that predicts the evolution of the enriched region from given oxidation kinetics. The model predictions were validated under a variety of conditions using an iron - 0.3 wt% copper alloy. Deviations from the model predictions in these alloys suggest a critical amount of separated copper is necessary for substantial grain boundary penetration to occur and the required amount decreases when the gas contains water vapor. The parabolic oxidation rate for the iron-copper alloy did not differ from that of pure iron, but the parabolic rate for the nickel-containing alloys decreased by a factor of two. The microstructure of the iron-copper alloy consisted of a thin, copper-rich layer at the oxide/metal interface. Both nickel-containing alloys had perturbed oxide/metal interfaces consisting of alternating solid/liquid regions. The perturbed interfaces arise from unequal copper and nickel diffusivities in the ternary alloy. These diffusion effects are discussed in detail. The oxidation rate decrease is justified by the interface microstructure assuming that iron can only be rapidly supplied to the oxide through the liquid regions. Additions of manganese or aluminum to an iron-copper-nickel alloy did not lead to significant changes in behavior. Oxidation kinetics, amount of separated material, and interface roughness were unchanged. There was slightly more material occluded in the samples containing manganese and aluminum due to increased internal oxidation. These internal oxides do not affect the oxidation behavior because manganese can dissolve in wustite and the aluminum internal oxides are extremely small and heterogeneously dispersed near the oxide/metal interface. Additions of silicon, however, to an iron-copper-nickel alloy led to a significant decrease in oxidation rate, amount separated, and amount occluded. The differences in behavior are attributed to the formation of a fayalite layer at the oxide/metal interface. This layer blocks iron transport in the wustite layer, decreasing the oxidation rate and therefore the enrichment rate. Formation of the fayalite layer was found not to depend on the amount of nickel in the samples. The results above were then used to explain the oxidation behavior of low carbon steels containing copper, nickel, silicon, manganese, and aluminum. Steels containing high amounts of silicon had lower oxidation rates and higher amounts occluded. The amount of occluded material is much higher in the steels than in the iron-copper-nickel-silicon alloys. This is attributed to competition among the easily oxidizable impurities resulting in smal

Webler, Bryan A.

432

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-05-01

433

Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains technical papers published as they were presented at a recent specialty conference sponsored by the Air & Waste Management Association, titled Waste Combustion in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces, held March 26-27, 1996, in Kansas City, Missouri. Papers touch on compilance concerns for air pollution, air monitoring methodologies, risk assessment, and problems related to public anxiety. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database from this proceedings.

NONE

1996-12-31

434

Downdraft channel gasifier furnace for biomass fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gasification of corn cobs in a furnace at temperatures ranging from 500°C to 1300°C is described. Equilibrium and heat-transfer characteristics are described. Preliminary results indicate that in absence of external oxygen, up to 23% of the initial cob weight can be obtained as CO. The development of a downdraft multi-channel gasifier for biomass fuels, starting in 1980, has resulted

M. R. Ladisch; R. Neuman; R. M. Peart; M. Voloch

1983-01-01

435

Drying powders for crucibles of induction furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 666.762.2.047.75 Powders used for ramming the crucibles of induction furnaces in the melting of iron at automobile factories are prepared from quartzites from the Karaul mountains. The properties of the powders are: weight proportion of SiO 2 not less than 97.5%, A1203 not more than 1.3%, Fe203 not more than 0.6%, refractoriness not less than 1730~ and moisture content

I. P. Tsibin; M. Z. Shvartsman; G. V. Orlov; M. Z. Naginskii; E. M. Grishpun

1980-01-01

436

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

Michael F. Riley

2002-10-21

437

Ultra-high vacuum compatible image furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the design of an optical floating-zone furnace for single-crystal growth under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible conditions. The system is based on a commercial image furnace, which has been refurbished to be all-metal sealed. Major changes concern the use of UHV rotary feedthroughs and bespoke quartz-metal seals with metal-O-rings at the lamp stage. As a consequence, the procedure of assembling the furnace for crystal growth is changed completely. Bespoke heating jackets permit to bake the system. For compounds with elevated vapor pressures, the ultra-high vacuum serves as a precondition for the use of a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 10 bar. In the ferromagnetic Heusler compound Cu2MnAl, the improvements of purity result in an improved stability of the molten zone, grain selection, and, hence, single-crystal growth. Similar improvements are observed in traveling-solvent floating-zone growth of the antiferromagnetic Heusler compound Mn3Si. These improvements underscore the great potential of optical float-zoning for the growth of high-purity single crystals of intermetallic compounds.

Neubauer, A.; Bœuf, J.; Bauer, A.; Russ, B.; Löhneysen, H. V.; Pfleiderer, C.

2011-01-01

438

Ultra-high vacuum compatible image furnace.  

PubMed

We report the design of an optical floating-zone furnace for single-crystal growth under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible conditions. The system is based on a commercial image furnace, which has been refurbished to be all-metal sealed. Major changes concern the use of UHV rotary feedthroughs and bespoke quartz-metal seals with metal-O-rings at the lamp stage. As a consequence, the procedure of assembling the furnace for crystal growth is changed completely. Bespoke heating jackets permit to bake the system. For compounds with elevated vapor pressures, the ultra-high vacuum serves as a precondition for the use of a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 10 bar. In the ferromagnetic Heusler compound Cu(2)MnAl, the improvements of purity result in an improved stability of the molten zone, grain selection, and, hence, single-crystal growth. Similar improvements are observed in traveling-solvent floating-zone growth of the antiferromagnetic Heusler compound Mn(3)Si. These improvements underscore the great potential of optical float-zoning for the growth of high-purity single crystals of intermetallic compounds. PMID:21280840

Neubauer, A; Boeuf, J; Bauer, A; Russ, B; Löhneysen, H v; Pfleiderer, C

2011-01-01

439

Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from the steel. The proposed work included physical and chemical characterization of DRI fines, pilot-scale injection into steel, and mathematical modeling to aid in scale-up of the process. Unfortunately, the pilot-scale injections were unsuccessful, but some full-scale data was obtained. Therefore, the original objectives were met, and presented in the form of recommendations to EAF steelmakers regarding: (1) The best composition and size of DRI fines to use; (2) The amount of DRI fines required to achieve a specific reduction in nitrogen content in the steel; and (3) The injection conditions. This information may be used by steelmakers in techno-economic assessments of the cost of reducing nitrogen with this technology.

Dr. Gordon A. Irons

2004-03-31

440

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

DOEpatents

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01

441

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Behavior of Phosphorus in DRI/HBI During Electric Furnace Steelmaking  

SciTech Connect

Many common scrap substitutes such as direct reduced iron pellets (DRI), hot briquetted iron (HBI), iron carbide, etc., contain significantly higher levels of phosphorus steelmaking for the production of higher quality steels, control of phosphorus levels in the metal will become a concern. This study has developed a more complete understanding of the behavior of phosphorus in DRI during EAF steelmaking, through a thorough investigation of the kinetics and thermodynamics of phosphorus transfer in the EAF based upon laboratory and plant experiments and trials. Laboratory experiments have shown that phosphorus mass transfer between oxide and metallic phases within commercial direct reduced iron pellets occurs rapidly upon melting according to the local equilibrium for these phases. Laboratory kinetic experiments indicate that under certain conditions, phosphorus mass transfer between slag and metal is influenced by dynamic phenomena, which affect the mass transfer coefficient for the reaction and/or the slag metal interfacial area. Plant trials were conducted to directly evaluate the conditions of mass transfer in the electric furnace and to determine the effects of different scrap substitute materials upon the slag chemistry, the behavior of phosphorus in the steel, and upon furnace yield. The data from these trials were also used to develop empirical models for the slag chemistry and furnace temperature as functions of time during a single heat. The laboratory and plant data were used to develop a numerical process model to describe phosphorus transfer in the EAF

Richard J. Frueham; Christopher P. Manning cmanning@bu.edu

2001-10-05

442

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

Crelling, J.C.

1995-12-31

443

Failure of a welded pressure vessel due to creep: damage initiation, evolution and reheat cracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuum damage mechanics (CDM)-based constitutive equations are reviewed and presented for austenitic AISI 316H stainless steels, which undergo creep deformation and damage at 550°C. Two multi-axial stress rupture functions\\/criteria have been utilised. Equations and the finite element computer code, DAMAGE XX, were used to carry out CDM studies of the weldment in an axi-symmetric equivalent of the flank section of

F. Vakili-Tahami; Hayhurst

2007-01-01

444

Weldability Evaluation of a Cu-Bearing High-Strength Blast-Resistant Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BlastAlloy160 (BA-160) steel, with a nominal composition of Fe-0.05C-3.65Cu-6.5Ni-1.84Cr-0.6Mo-0.1V (wt pct), is strengthened by Cu-rich precipitates and M2C carbides. This alloy was subjected to several weldability tests to assess its susceptibility to certain weld cracking mechanisms. Hot ductility testing revealed a liquation cracking temperature range (LCTR) of 148 K (-125 °C), which suggested moderate susceptibility to heat-affected zone (HAZ) liquation cracking. The enrichment of Ni and Cu was measured along the prior austenite grain boundaries in the simulated partially melted zone (PMZ) and was consistent with similar enrichment at interdendritic boundaries of the simulated fusion zone (FZ). Good wetting and penetration of liquid films along the austenite grain boundaries of the PMZ was also observed. Associated with that finding were thermodynamic calculations indicating a completely austenitic (face-centered cubic) microstructure at elevated temperatures. In testing to determine reheat cracking susceptibility, ductility values of 41 to 78 pct RA were established for the 723 K to 973 K (450 °C to 700 °C) temperature range. The good ductility values precluded susceptibility to reheat cracking according to the test criterion. Dilatometric measurements and thermodynamic calculations revealed the formation of austenite in the reheat cracking temperature range, which was attributed to the high Ni content of the BA-160 alloy.

Caron, Jeremy L.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Lippold, John C.

2011-12-01

445

Use of Multiple Reheat Helium Brayton Cycles to Eliminate the Intermediate Heat Transfer Loop for Advanced Loop Type SFRs  

SciTech Connect

The sodium intermediate heat transfer loop is used in existing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) plant design as a necessary safety measure to separate the radioactive primary loop sodium from the water of the steam Rankine power cycle. However, the intermediate heat transfer loop significantly increases the SFR plant cost and decreases the plant reliability due to the relatively high possibility of sodium leakage. A previous study shows that helium Brayton cycles with multiple reheat and intercooling for SFRs with reactor outlet temperature in the range of 510°C to 650°C can achieve thermal efficiencies comparable to or higher than steam cycles or recently proposed supercritical CO2 cycles. Use of inert helium as the power conversion working fluid provides major advantages over steam or CO2 by removing the requirement for safety systems to prevent and mitigate the sodium-water or sodium-CO2 reactions. A helium Brayton cycle power conversion system therefore makes the elimination of the intermediate heat transfer loop possible. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design of multiple reheat helium Brayton cycle for an advanced loop type SFR. This design widely refers the new horizontal shaft distributed PBMR helium power conversion design features. For a loop type SFR with reactor outlet temperature 550°C, the design achieves 42.4% thermal efficiency with favorable power density comparing with high temperature gas cooled reactors.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Samuel E. Bays

2009-05-01

446

Effects of cooking method, reheating, holding time, and holding temperature on beef longissimus lumborum and biceps femoris tenderness.  

PubMed

Effects of cooking method, holding temperature, holding time, and reheating on Warner-Bratzler peak shear force (WBPSF); Warner-Bratzler myofibrillar force (WBM-F), Warner-Bratzler connective tissue force (WBC-F) and cooking loss were investigated. Two muscles (longissimus lumborum and biceps femoris) from USDA Choice beef carcasses were used. Water-bath cooking resulted in higher WBPSF, WBM-F, and WBC-F than belt-grill cooking for longissimus lumborum. The biceps femoris muscle tenderness improved more with holding time after cooking on a belt than the longissimus lumborum due to its higher collagen content. Cooking biceps femoris steaks to 54 °C by a belt grill and holding them at 57 °C in a water bath for 15 min and subsequent reheating to 70 °C (best treatment combination) produced a 25% reduction in WBPSF, a 37% reduction in WBC-F, and a 12% reduction in WBM-F as compared to the control (cooking steaks directly to 70 °C without holding). Water-bath cooking resulted in lower WBPSF than belt-grill cooking for biceps femoris without any holding time, but further tenderization did not occur with holding. Water-bath cooking resulted in higher cooking losses than belt-grill cooking for both muscles. PMID:22063447

Obuz, E; Dikeman, M E; Loughin, T M

2003-10-01

447

Reaction of iron and steel slags with refractories  

SciTech Connect

Slag corrosion and erosion has been a major wear factor for refractories wear in contact with molten iron and steel. In blast furnace ironmaking, the slag/iron interface plays a more important role than does the slag/refractory interface. On the other hand in steelmaking, the slag in the ladles and tundish predominantly affect refractory wear. This paper presents the results of a detailed microstructural evaluation of (a) slag and slag/iron interactions with A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC-C refractories for ironmaking in blast furnaces, (b) basic oxygen furnace and ladle slag interactions with alumina spinel refractories for steelmaking, and (c) slag interactions with working refractory lining for continuous casting tundishes. Results will also be presented on refractory wear/failure due to simultaneous corrosion and penetration by the slag.

Banerjee, S.; Anderson, M.W. [Magneco/Metrel, Inc., Addison, IL (United States); Singh, J.P.; Poeppel, R.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-04-01

448

3D Numerical Analysis of the Arc Plasma Behavior in a Submerged DC Electric Arc Furnace for the Production of Fused MgO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three dimensional steady-state magnetohydrodynamic model is developed for the arc plasma in a DC submerged electric arc furnace for the production of fused MgO. The arc is generated in a small semi-enclosed space formed by the graphite electrode, the molten bath and unmelted raw materials. The model is first used to solve a similar problem in a steel making furnace, and the calculated results are found to be in good agreement with the published measurements. The behavior of arcs with different arc lengths is also studied in the furnace for MgO production. From the distribution of the arc pressure on the bath surface it is shown that the arc plasma impingement is large enough to cause a crater-like depression on the surface of the MgO bath. The circulation of the high temperature air under the electrode may enhance the arc efficiency, especially for a shorter arc.

Wang, Zhen; Wang, Ninghui; Li, Tie; Cao, Yong

2012-04-01

449

5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, SHOWING INTERIOR ELECTRODES. THE RAW MATERIALS FOR CALCIUM CARBIDE PRODUCTION--LIMESTONE AND COKE--WERE FED BY HOPPERS PLACED BETWEEN THESE ELECTRODES INTO THE ELECTRIC ARC. THE REMOVABLE PLATES ON THE EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCE OF THE HORRY FURNACE ARE SHOWN ON THE FIRST THREE FURNACES. (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

450

Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1992-03-01

451

Production of sheet rolled products made of a nitrogen-bearing high-strength corrosion-resistant steel using electroslag remelting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial electroslag remelting process is designed for the production of nitrogen-bearing steel. This process is shown to make a high-quality sheet product with higher strength characteristics and impact toughness as compared to rolled products of the nitrogen-bearing steel melted in an open electric arc furnace.

E. R. Gutman; V. A. Durynin; G. Yu. Kalinin; O. A. Khar'kov; V. V. Tsukanov

2009-01-01

452

Production of sheet rolled products made of a nitrogen-bearing high-strength corrosion-resistant steel using electroslag remelting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial electroslag remelting process is designed for the production of nitrogen-bearing steel. This process is shown\\u000a to make a high-quality sheet product with higher strength characteristics and impact toughness as compared to rolled products\\u000a of the nitrogen-bearing steel melted in an open electric arc furnace.

E. R. Gutman; V. A. Durynin; G. Yu. Kalinin; O. A. Khar’kov; V. V. Tsukanov

2009-01-01

453

Allowable gas temperature at outlet from furnace subject to slagging  

SciTech Connect

The paper is devoted to substantiation and prediction of the allowable gas temperature at the outlet from a furnace subject to slagging. The non-optimality of values recommended by effective methodical instructions regarding the design of furnace devices is demonstrated. Utilizing knowledge gained from temperature measurements in boilers, and the situation regarding the slagging of heating surfaces located at the outlet from the furnace, new, frequently higher values are proposed. A method for evaluating the allowable gas temperature at the outlet from a furnace subject to slagging is suggested on the basis of data regarding the chemical composition of the mineral portion of coals.

A.N. Alekhnovich; N.V. Artem'eva; V.V. Bogomolov [Ural Thermotechnical Laboratory, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

2007-03-15

454

Downdraft channel gasifier furnace for biomass fuels  

SciTech Connect

The gasification of corn cobs in a furnace at temperatures ranging from 500/sup 0/C to 1300/sup 0/C is described. Equilibrium and heat-transfer characteristics are described. Preliminary results indicate that in absence of external oxygen, up to 23% of the initial cob weight can be obtained as CO. The development of a downdraft multi-channel gasifier for biomass fuels, starting in 1980, has resulted in an efficient design which can be scaled up as desired. Development problems and solutions are described. Capacity, temperature, efficiency and emissions tests are described and results given.

Ladisch, M.R.; Neuman, R.; Peart, R.M.; Voloch, M.

1983-12-01

455

Influence of temperature in melting and casting on quality of medium-alloy steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of temperature conditions in the melting and pouring of a chromium nickel molybdenum steel on quality was studied on the basis of data obtained on industrial heats made in 50 t open hearth furnaces and cast into ingots. The steel concerned is often susceptible to the formation of fish eyes and cracks, and recommendations are given on changes in practice to avoid these defects.

Greshishchev, B. A.; Kozlov, S. A.

1984-03-01

456

Behavior of nitrogen in a nitrogen-containing chromium-manganese steel during electroslag remelting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroslag remelting of a high-alloyed steel with high contents of nitrogen, chromium, and manganese in an electroslag furnace has been studied. CaF2-MgO-SiO2 slag developed at TsNIITMASh and allowing remelting process at a temperature of 1520-1560°C is used as a flux. It is found that electroslag remelting of high-alloyed steels with a high nitrogen concentration does not change the nitrogen content.

Linchevskii, B. V.; Rigina, L. G.; Takhirov, A. A.

2013-06-01

457

The effect of cyclic loading on the mechanical properties of 16GNMA steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

treated steel. The chemical composition of the steel tested was 0.15 C, 0.27 St, 0.w Mn, 0.022 S, 1.0 Ni, 0.4% Mo. The primary mechanical properties are shown in Table 1. ?9 The pieces were heat treated as follows: normalizing by charging into the furnace at 780~ heating to 925~ holding at this temperature for 16 min, dropping to 500~

V. N. Rudenko; A. S. Spivakov

1975-01-01

458

Effect of cold rolling and annealing on mechanical properties of HSLA steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: was to examine effect of the parameters of cold deformation and recrystallization annealing on mechanical properties of a Nb-microalloyed HSLA steel. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: Research of strip steel QStE 420 was based on a combination of laboratory cold rolling, recrystallization annealing in vacuum furnace, mechanical (particularly tensile) tests and metallographic analyses. Findings: It was validated that by a sophisticated combination of

I. Schindler; M. Janošec; E. Místecký; L. A. Dobrzañski; S. Rusz

459

Comparison of properties of steel slag and crushed limestone aggregate concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel slag is produced as a by-product during the oxidation of steel pellets in an electric arc furnace. This by-product that mainly consists of calcium carbonate is broken down to smaller sizes to be used as aggregates in asphalt and concrete. They are particularly useful in areas where good-quality aggregate is scarce. This research study was conducted to evaluate the

M Maslehuddin; Alfarabi M Sharif; M Shameem; M Ibrahim; M. S Barry

2003-01-01

460

High Aluminum, Low Chromium Austenitic Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High aluminum, low chromium content austenitic stainless steel superalloys offer substantial cost savings for many applications at relatively high temperatures. The resulting protective Al2O3 adherent films provide an excellent oxidation resistance that is superior to that of commercially available alloys. In addition to the technological advantages gained through longer life in an oxidizing atmosphere, these alloys also show the dimensional stability that is desirable in high temperature furnace applications. Because of their aluminum content, the alloys are considerably less dense than commercial heat resistant alloys. The weight savings possible by using these alloys should be of interest to design engineers in aircraft propulsion and space power applications.

McGurty, J. A.; Nekkanti, R.; Moteff, J.

1986-05-01

461

Stickiness of retorting oil shales on stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stickiness of oil-shale particles was measured as the angle of tilt required to cause a thin layer of 6.4-mm particles to slide from rest on a stainless-steel surface. The test tray was enclosed in a heating chamber within an electric furnace and was heated through the retorting temperature range, 350 to 450°C, in an argon atmosphere at a rate

1982-01-01

462

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for particulate matter from glass melting furnace] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes. (a) An owner or operator of a glass melting furnaces with modified-...

2009-07-01

463

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2009-07-01

464

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2010-07-01

465

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2012-07-01

466

Furnace for burning particulate wood waste material  

SciTech Connect

A furnace for burning dry or wet wood waste products such as hogged bark and the like is provided with a grating therein comprised of aligned rows of bricks resting on supporting cross beams, with at least some of the rows of bricks maintained a uniform distance from other rows of bricks by spacers disposed between such spaced-apart rows of bricks. The furnace is charged by turbulent air entering both above and below the grating, with a select portion of such air being pre-heated. A temperature gradient is established between an area immediately beneath the grating and the area above the grating in the range of 2200/sup 0/ F and can be controlled by selected initial placement of the bricks and spacers to achieve an optimum cross sectional area for flow of heated, turbulent air through the grating to produce a temperature for efficient heating, drying and burning of wood waste products in an essentially pollution-free manner.

Kolze, B.A.; Kolze, M.W.

1983-03-22

467

Laser Ultrasonic Furnace Tube Coke Monitor  

SciTech Connect

This reports summarizes the technical progress achieved during the third quarter of the ERIP project entitled, ''Laser Ultrasonic Furnace Tube Coke Monitor.'' The focus of work during this reporting period was the construction of an automated probe that will be used to measure the thickness of coke deposits in thermal cracking furnaces. A discovery was made during the last reporting period, which indicated that a conventional NDE broadband transducer could be used in conjunction with a sacrificial standoff composed of a fusible alloy to efficiently couple the transducer to a rough surface operating at high temperature. A probe was constructed that incorporates the recent discovery and initial testing of the probe is now underway. Because of other project commitments, the manpower available to allocate to the coke detector project was limited during the most recent quarter. As a result, the project is somewhat behind the original schedule. However, project expenditures are consistent with the project progress to date. The total program budget is $98,670 and the current project expenditures are approximately $24,000. The original contract budget period ends on April 30, 1999. We intend to request a six-month no-cost extension to the contract so that we may complete the project objectives.

NONE

1999-02-15

468

Influences of Calcium Oxide Content in Marine Fuel Oil on Emission Characteristics of Marine Furnaces Under Varying Humidity and Temperature of the Inlet Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

A marine furnace made of stainless steel, combined with an automatic small-size oil-fired burner, was used to experimentally investigate the influences of calcium oxide content in fuel oil on the combustion and emission characteristics under varying temperatures and humidity of the inlet air. Marine fuel oil generally contains various extents of metallic oxides such as CaO, Fe2O3, V2O5, etc which

Cherng-Yuan Lin; Wei-Cheng Chen

2004-01-01

469

BLAST: a digital computer program for the dynamic simulation of the high temperature gas cooled reactor reheater-steam generator module  

Microsoft Academic Search

BLAST simulates the high temperature gas cooled reactor reheater-steam generator module with a multi-node, fixed boundary, homogenous flow model. The time dependent conservation of energy, mass, and momentum equations are solved by an implicit integration technique. The code contains equation of state formulations for both helium and water as well as heat transfer and friction factor correlations. Normal operational transients

R. A. Hedrick; J. C. Cleveland

1976-01-01

470

Effect of Preheat Temperature and Inter-Pass Reheating on Microstructure and Texture Evolution During Hot Rolling of Ti-6Al-4V (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of preheat temperature and inter-pass reheating on microstructure and texture evolution during unidirectional hot rolling of Ti- 6Al-4V in the alpha + beta field was investigated. Three different heating schedules were used to roll plates at 10...

A. A. Salem M. G. Glavicic S. L. Semiatin

2008-01-01

471

Method of making steel strapping and strip  

SciTech Connect

The technical progress obtained for this time frame consisted of the awarding of two contracts for determination of metallurgical parameters for heat treatment of strapping and strip which are unavailable from current technology and/or published data in this field. The two contractors were Bricmont, Inc. and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Technological Institute of Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. Phase 1 of the two stage contract with Bricmont, Inc. which provided a computer analysis of the cooling rates of a typical range of thickness' of strapping was completed. This study was developed for the purpose of determining the time parameters for quenching low carbon steels to a martensitic microstructure within the time frame of the design of the proposed process. It also provides design criteria for cooling to ambient for the total process. This data is required for Phase 2 of the Bricmont proposal which completes the design and specifications of the total heat treating and cooling system for the process. This becomes the basis for developing the cost and space requirements for this component of the production line. The authors do not intend to award Phase 2 until the work done at Northwestern University discussed hereafter is completed. On or about May 1, 1999 a contract for a project entitled ``Effects of Steel Composition and Quench Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Strapping'' to be performed at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering was awarded. The delay in initiating this project was due to the legal interpretation and final agreement of the intellectual provisions of the award by the author's attorneys, Northwestern's attorneys and the legal representative in the Chicago office of the DOE. The work to date includes rapid quenching of a number of different steel compositions and microstructure on an existing drop quench test apparatus. It was initially assumed that this procedure would simulate proposed processing line conditions however variations in test results have necessitated further investigations into the nature of cold rolled steel vs. hot rolled steel and electric furnace steel vs. basic oxygen furnace steel as it may apply to heat treating procedures and selection of appropriate steel chemistry for the process.

Robert D. Reilly

2000-02-16

472

The impact of energy prices on technology choice in the United States steel industry  

SciTech Connect

In the last thirty years US steel producers have replaced their aging open hearth steel furnaces with basic oxygen or large electric arc furnaces. This choice of technology leads to the opportunity to substitute electricity for fossil fuels as a heat source. We extend earlier research to investigate whether or not energy prices affect this type of technology adoption as predicted by economic theory. The econometric model uses the seemingly unrelated Tobit'' method to capture the effects of the industry's experience with both technologies, technical change, and potential cost reductions, as well as energy prices, on adoption. When we include the prices of electricity and coking coal as explanatory variables, the four energy price coefficients have the signs predicted by the law of demand. The two price coefficients have a statistically significant effect on adoption of basic oxygen furnaces. The inclusion of energy prices leads to significantly more efficient estimates of other coefficients in the model. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

Karlson, S.H. (Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Economics); Boyd, G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-01-01

473

Linear Hearth Furnace System and Methods Regarding Same.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systems and methods for use in processing raw material (e.g., iron bearing material) include a linear furnace apparatus extending along a longitudinal axis between a charging end and a discharging end (e.g., the linear furnace apparatus includes at least ...

D. J. Englund R. F. Kiesel R. L. Bleifuss

2005-01-01

474

Clay alumina brick used in anode baking furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the choice of refractory for use in the flue walls of a carbon baking furnace is dependent upon the degree of control achieved in the furnace. This article describes how this interrelationship has occurred and describes what refractory systems are in use.

Corliss, Glenn F.; Stett, Mark A.

1996-11-01

475

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

476

Automatic Thermocouple Positioner for Use in Vacuum Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted ...

D. K. Mee A. E. Stephens

1980-01-01

477

Method of and furnace for burning waste material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of and furnace for burning waste material are disclosed. The furnace has a central chute for receiving the waste material, and a combustion chamber which is arranged below the chute and has a closed bottom. The transition between the central chute and the combustion chamber is designed as a constriction. The waste material is accumulated above the constriction,

D. Ermisch; W. Jablonski; H. Mallek

1980-01-01

478

Halmpannor paa gaardsnivaa. (Straw furnaces on farm level).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For straw burning furnaces on farm level, the number of makes on the Swedish market is very limited. On this market there are today five well established products, all of them Danish. Three of these represent furnaces for burning of whole bales, while two...

O. Praks

1993-01-01

479

Model for blast furnace on-line simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blast furnace simulation model developed primarily for on-line application is presented. The model, which describes the steady-state operation of the furnace in one spatial dimension, is adapted to data from the real process by adjusting a set of parameters. A thermodynamic process interface provides the boundary conditions. The model, which is shown to act as an intelligent measurement device

H. Saxén; H. Uusi-Honko; A. Kilpinen

480

Carbon-Based Refractories for the Lining of Blast Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

General requirements placed on the operating properties of advanced carbon-based refractory materials intended for the lining of blast furnaces are formulated and technological routes for their achievement are outlined. Performance characteristics of refractory furnace blocks available from the ChEP JSC are given, their operational stability is characterized, and recommendations for use are proposed.

S. A. Podkopaev

2004-01-01

481

EMISSIONS FROM OUTDOOR WOOD-BURNING RESIDENTIAL HOT WATER FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a single-pass and a double-pass furnace at average heat outputs of 15,000 and 30,000 Btu/hr (4.4 and 8.8 kW) while burning typical oak cordwood fuel. One furnace was also tested once at each heat output while fitted with ...

482

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

Ensar Oguz

2004-01-01

483

Improvements in blast furnace operation at AHMSA Monclova  

SciTech Connect

Following the privatization of Altos Hornos de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (AHMSA) in Nov. 1991, four areas were chosen to improve blast furnace performance and hot metal costs. These areas included improvement of pellet quality, start of oil-gas co-injection, improved control of gas flow in the blast furnace and start of monitoring program to predict the remaining life of the hearth of No. 5 blast furnace. These efforts resulted in the following improvements in the first half of 1992: Production level increased to 2.4 tonnes/cu metre/24 hr with a 1992 annual production record from No. 5 furnace of 1.639 million tonnes; Coke rates decreased by 60 kg/tonne, half of which was due to process improvements and the other half to injection of oil; Silicon standard deviations decreased from 0.22% in 1991 to 0.20% in 1992; Hot metal costs decreased by 10.6%; and The major reline of No. 5 furnace postponed by at least 1.5 years. The improvement of the blast furnace process was not limited to the larger No. 5 furnace. Similar tends can be observed with No. 4 furnace which will also be equipped with oil injection. For the future, programs have been prepared to increase injection rates, improve casthouse operation and increase process stability.

Morales, J.M.; Dominguez, H. (Altos Hornos de Mexico S.A. de C.V., Monclova (Mexico). Monclova Works); Geerdes, M. (Hoogovens Technical Services B.V., Monclova (Mexico))

1994-10-01

484

A conveyer furnace for the reduction annealing of metal powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commissioned by the Sulinsk Metallurgical Plant, the Institute of Gas, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, has designed and constructed an experimental band belt conveyer furnace for the reduction annealing of metals powders. The furnace is now being used in a test program designed to establish the optimumprocessing parameters for the annealing of iron powders and provide a basis

V. F. Pekach; N. G. Krysov; B. I. Bondarenko; N. P. Kurganskii

1976-01-01

485

Energy-conservation effectiveness of furnace-retrofit devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a current account of potentially useful near-term technology for the modification, by retrofit, of existing gas-fired residential furnace installations to increase fuel utilization efficiency. Fuel input derate and automatic vent dampers represent two such approaches, with any efficiency improvement resulting from the impact of these retrofit technologies upon furnace design and operation and building structure characteristics. Results

Macriss

1981-01-01

486

Detection of cracked heat exchangers on warm air furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests conducted by Wisconsin Gas Co. have shown that a sodium carbonate test for detecting holes or cracks in the heat exchangers of warm-air furnaces is more reliable than conventional methods and avoids the usual side effects caused by corrosive test solutions, smoke, or odors. In a test furnace simulating residential conditions, only the sodium carbonate test detected holes as

Wunderlin

1979-01-01

487

8. VIEW OF FOUNDRY INDUCTION FURNACES, MODULE J. THE FOUNDRY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF FOUNDRY INDUCTION FURNACES, MODULE J. THE FOUNDRY CASTING PROCESS WAS CONDUCTED IN A VACUUM. PLUTONIUM METAL WAS MELTED IN ONE OF FOUR ELECTRIC INDUCTION FURNACES TO FORM INGOTS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

488

Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust  

SciTech Connect

An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2010-12-28

489

The effects of improved residential furnace filtration on airborne particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forced air furnaces with distributed ducting systems have always had an air filter, but traditionally the filter quality was only adequate to protect the furnace fan and heat exchanger from debris. In the past several years, there has been an increasing number of more effective particulate filters that are being marketed to reduce airborne particulate or dust. These include upgraded

D. Fugler; D. Bowser; W. Kwan

2000-01-01