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1

Advanced steel reheat furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology

D. Moyeda; M. Sheldon; R. Koppang; M. Lanyi; X. Li; B. Eleazer

1997-01-01

2

Energy Efficiency Improvement by Measurement and Control: A Case Study of Reheating Furnaces in the Steel Industry  

E-print Network

ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT BY MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL A case study of reheating furnaces in the steel industry Anders Mlirtensson Department of Environmental and Energy Systems Studies Lund University S-22362 Lund Sweden ABSTRACT... of process studied, as a result of approach using steel reheating furnaces as a case study. investments in information technology; it is also concluded that The steel industry is a large user of energy: in Sweden it used such investments are cost...

Martensson, A.

3

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in the center is a charging machine the operator of which manipulates steel ingots in the furnace, as well as in the adjacent forging hammers - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

4

Modelling and Optimisation of Reheat Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some problems are known to have computationally demanding objective function, which could turn to be infeasible when large problems are considered. Therefore, fast approximations to the objective function are required. This paper employs portfolio of intelligent systems algorithms for optimising a metal reheat furnace scheduling problem. The proposed system has been evaluated for different techniques of the reheat furnace scheduling

Tawfeeq Al-kanhal; Maysam Abbod

2008-01-01

5

CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

6

Steel project fact sheet: Steel reheating for further processing  

SciTech Connect

Steel reheating is an energy-intensive process requiring uniform temperature distribution within reheating furnaces. Historically, recuperators have ben used to preheat combustion air, thereby conserving energy. More recent innovations include oxygen enrichment and the use of regenerative burners, which provide higher preheat air temperatures than recuperators. These processes have limitations such as equipment deterioration, decreasing energy efficiency over time, high maintenance costs, and increased NO{sub x} emissions with increased air preheat temperature, unless special equipment is used. Praxair, Inc., supplier of oxygen and other industrial gases to the steel industry, proposes to introduce an innovative oxy-fuel burner technology (using 100% oxygen) to the steel reheating industry. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces or eliminates nitrogen in combustion air and substantially reduces waste heat carried out with flue gas. Based on technology currently used in the glass, hazardous waste, and aluminum industries, Praxair has developed and patented low temperature, oxy-fuel burners that can be used in high temperature industrial furnaces where temperature uniformity is critical and extremely low NO{sub x} emissions are desired. The technical goal of the project is to demonstrate the use of oxy-fuel burners in a slab reheat furnace while reducing energy consumption by 45% and NO{sub x} emissions by 90% within the converted furnace zones. Successful implementation of this technology also will eliminate the need to periodically replace recuperators and install NO{sub x} removal equipment.

NONE

1998-04-01

7

Competitive position of natural gas: Steel reheat applications: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is by far the preferred fuel for steel reheat applications, accounting for approximately 135 x 10/sup 12/ Btu per year of a 187 x 10/sup 12/ Btu per year total reheat fuels market based on 1984 production figures. However, changes in the steel industry over the next 20 years could substantially reduce the traditional steel reheat market and affect the competitiveness of present natural gas-fueled technologies. Process innovations such as hot charging, direct rolling, thin slab and thin strip casting, and powdered metals are being pursued by both mini-mill and integrated producers. Each of these processes reduce or eliminate the need for reheat. When reheat is needed, the process usually requires much less fuel, as well as an ability to rapidly reheat thin products in a continuous, lower-scale-loss reheat cycle than can be provided by conventional gas furnaces. Therefore, new gas-fired rapid heating technologies will need to be developed if gas is to remain competitive with electric induction systems that offer relatively fast and low-scale-loss reheat cycles. The changing structure of the steel industry will also affect the use of natural gas for reheat applications, as the domestic steel industry is downsized over the next few years. Also, the relative share of mini-mill production is expected to continue to grow, especially if mini-mills are able to capture part of the sheet market, which now represents 67% of integrated mill shipments. In comparison to integrated mills, mini-mills are more likely to adopt hot charging, direct rolling, thin steel casting, and other new technologies that minimize steel reheat needs. This study provides insights into the technological and important factors influencing the reheat future competitiveness of natural gas-fueled reheat furnaces. 59 refs., 19 figs., 38 tabs.

Williams, J.H.; Koch, G.S.; McDermott, H.; Klareich, F.H.

1986-08-01

8

Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating  

SciTech Connect

The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

2011-01-27

9

Numerical modeling of the thermal performance of regenerative slab reheat furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Fuel consumption in reheat furnaces represents a significant percentage of the total processing cost. The competitiveness of the steel industry demands more efficient use of available fuel resources. Thus it has become more important to have enhanced furnace design tools. Here, numerical simulations of reactive turbulent flows and heat transfer in regenerative slab reheat furnaces have been carried out. A moment closure method with the assumed {beta} probability density function for the mixture fraction is used to model the turbulent nonpremixed combustion process in the furnaces. The combustion model is based on the assumption of instantaneous full chemical equilibrium. The numerical predictions are critically assessed by comparing with the experimental data. The comparison indicated that the numerical approach presented in this study is capable of predicting the thermal performance of regenerative furnaces with moving slabs.

Zhang, C.; Ishii, T.; Sugiyama, S. [NKK Corp., Fukuyama, Hiroshima (Japan). Materials and Processing Research Center

1997-11-07

10

Automatic Control System of Car-Bottom Reheating Furnace  

E-print Network

. ~ Ul Ul One of the most effective metho~~ tor increa o~ 0 '0 t.~1)o1(,; ...... sing the calorific efficiency is to improve thermal ~"t' control systems of reheating furnaces.In this way w 4.0 / you may get a remarkable result in energy.... CONTROL OF AIR SUPPLY The control of air supply should not only ensure the air supply into the furnace for con sumption of fuel inside,but also not to take heat away with waste gas because of excess air.The fac tor of excess air ol is about 1...

Xueqiao, M.; Weilian, X.; Hongchen, Z.

11

A Paradigm for the Scheduling of a Continuous Walking Beam Reheat Furnace Using a Modified Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the application of a paradigm for creating scheduling systems for steel reheating furnaces. The proposed paradigm utilizes a modified version of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to optimize such schedules via new ways of realizing the crossover and mutation operations. The work was conducted in collaboration with the Thrybergh Combination Mill owned by CORUS- Sheffield (UK). The outcome

Jonathan S. Broughton; Mahdi Mahfouf; Derek A. Linkens

2007-01-01

12

Estimation of Temperature Profiles within Slabs of a Simulated Reheat Furnace using the Extended Kalman Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE control of a reheat furnace is complicated by modern furnace configurations. Slabs of various thicknesses, width and length are charged to the furnace. The slabs are heated to a specified average temperature for rolling. The furnace operator must exercise considerable judgement, based on experience, to achieve properly heated slabs; there is no means of measuring the temperature gradient across

H. J. Wick

1987-01-01

13

Steel: Steel Reheating for Further Processing  

SciTech Connect

Oxy-fuel combustion burners have the potential to reduce energy consumption by as much as 45% per ton of steel. Order this fact sheet and read about the many other benefits of this exciting new process.

Ericksen, E.

1999-01-29

14

30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING CREW, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Colletion, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

15

Compositional and microstructural changes which attend reheating and grain coarsening in steels containing niobium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the effect of temperature on both the microstructure and composition of microalloyed steel austenite in\\u000a the as-reheated condition. Four laboratory steels of similar C levels were analyzed in this investigation. Three steels had\\u000a different Nb concentrations at con-stant N levels, and the fourth exhibited a difference in N concentration. The average prior-austenite\\u000a grain size was determined using

E. J. Palmiere; C. I. Garcia; A. J. De Ardo

1994-01-01

16

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL FABRICATION. STAINLESS STEEL WAS MACHINED IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING, BEGINNING IN 1957. (4/24/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

17

Mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by blast furnace slag and steel furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the adsorption of phosphate and discuss the mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by burst furnace\\u000a slag (BFS) and steel furnace slag (SFS). The results show that the adsorption of phosphate on the slag was rapid and the majority\\u000a of adsorption was completed in 5?10 min. The adsorption capacity of phosphate by the slag was reduced dramatically

Sheng-gao Lu; Shi-qiang Bai; Hong-dan Shan

2008-01-01

18

Temperature control of a continuous, push type, five zone, slab reheating furnace for minimum fuel usage. Volume I. Text and Appendix A  

SciTech Connect

This report treats the reheat furnace used to heat slabs from the slabbing mill up to the rolling temperature for the hot strip mill. It determines the minimum fuel rates needed to achieve required outlet temperatures as a function of production rate. It also presents a scheme carrying out the transition from one steady state operating level to another with a near minimum of fuel usage. A method for using this transition scheme on a process control computer is also presented here.

Purdy, D.J.; Williams, T.J.

1981-04-01

19

Phosphorus removal by electric arc furnace steel slag and serpentinite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag and serpentinite were tested in columns either alone or mixed with limestone to determine their capacity to remove phosphorus (P) from a solution containing initially 20mg P\\/L (for 114 days) than 400mg P\\/L (for 21 days). EAF steel slag was nearly 100% efficient due to specific P adsorption onto metal hydroxides and precipitation of

Aleksandra Drizo; Christiane Forget; Robert P. Chapuis; Yves Comeau

2006-01-01

20

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry  

SciTech Connect

An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

2003-01-20

21

Kinetics of bainite-to-austenite transformation during continuous reheating in low carbon microalloyed steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dilatometer was used to study the kinetics of bainite-to-austenite transformation in low carbon microalloyed steel with the initial microstructure of bainite during the continuous reheating process. The bainite-to-austenite transformation was observed to take place in two steps at low heating rate. The first step is the dissolution of bainite, and the second one is the remaining bainite-to-austenite transformation controlled by a dissolution process. The calculation result of the kinetics of austenite formation shows that the two steps occur by diffusion at low heating rate. However, at high heating rate the bainite-to-austenite transformation occurs in a single step, and the process is mainly dominated by shear. The growth rate of austenite reaches the maximum at about 835°C at different heating rates and the growth rate of austenite as a function of temperature increases with the increase in heating rate.

Chang, Ming; Yu, Hao

2013-05-01

22

Phosphorus removal by electric arc furnace steel slag and serpentinite.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag and serpentinite were tested in columns either alone or mixed with limestone to determine their capacity to remove phosphorus (P) from a solution containing initially 20mg P/L (for 114 days) than 400mg P/L (for 21 days). EAF steel slag was nearly 100% efficient due to specific P adsorption onto metal hydroxides and precipitation of hydroxyapatite. Serpentinite also showed a good performance that decreased with time, adsorption appearing to be the dominant mechanism for P removal. Mixing limestone with these two materials did not improve their performance and in the case of serpentinite, it actually even decreased it. In 114 days of experimentation, serpentinite alone and the mixture of serpentinite and limestone removed 1.0mg P/g while in 180 days of experimentation, EAF steel slag and the mixture of slag and limestone removed an average of 2.2mg P/g, without attaining their maximum P removal potential. The void hydraulic retention time (HRTv) was a key factor for growing hydroxyapatite crystals and had a significant effect on P removal efficiency by EAF steel slag. A temporary increase in HRTv caused by clogging resulted in an increase in EAF steel slag efficiency (from 80% to almost 100%) towards the end of investigation. Results from this study indicate that the use of EAF steel slag in constructed wetlands or filter beds is a promising solution for P removal via adsorption and precipitation mechanisms. PMID:16564560

Drizo, Aleksandra; Forget, Christiane; Chapuis, Robert P; Comeau, Yves

2006-05-01

23

Effects of impurities and alloying elements on reheat cracking sensitivity of 720 N\\/mm class high?strength steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an investigation of the reheat cracking sensitivity of 720 N\\/mm class high?strength steel from the viewpoint of the chemical composition. The impurities and alloying elements were varied within a specific range from the basic chemical composition of this steel (2.8%Ni, 1.5%Cr, 0.5%Mo, 0.10%C, 0.005%P, 0.001 %S, 0.006%N), and the change in the cracking sensitivity was examined. The

K. Tamaki; J. Suzuki; K. Imai; Y. Horii; T. Kumagai

1995-01-01

24

The Effect of Mold Flux on Reheat Scale -- Austenitic Stainless Steel Slabs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the characteristics of the subscale were investigated with respect to alloy composition, oxidizing environment, and surface treatment. Samples were tested isothermally under simulated reheating conditions with regards to time, temperature and oxidizing gas composition. Findings suggest that water vapor is a key variable in dictating the scale growth mechanisms during reheating of type 304 stainless steel. The volatilization of CrO 2(OH)2 in the presence of water vapor is one factor which can prevent stainless steel from forming a continuous external eskolaite layer; mold flux can influence this behavior. FactSage calculations were done to compare the maximum equilibrium solubilities of major oxide species in mold flux and the maximum equilibrium partial pressure of volatilized chromium oxide species in atmospheres with and without water vapor content. FactSage results also helped to model expected local equilibrium oxide formation as a function extent of oxidation. From that work, a mechanism was developed to explain deep subscale formation. A mechanism is proposed to explain how mold flux avoids deep subscale formation due to its low solubility of chromium oxide, promoting the formation of a continuous eskolaite oxide layer by preventing chromium loss by volatilization. A series of Fe-xCr binary alloys with x ranging from 14 to 24 wt% were used to investigate the isolated effects of chromium content on oxidation behavior and scale morphology as a function of surface treatment and oxidizing environment. Type 304L stainless steel was also tested. These tests were specifically aimed at investigating the effect of chromium volatilization on continuous external eskolaite formation during high temperature oxidation and to elucidate the mechanism involved in how the presence of mold flux influences this behavior. The samples were oxidized either in a wet atmosphere (laboratory air and 18%H 2O content simulated reheating atmosphere) or dry N2-O 2 gas mixtures at 1250°C, for two hours. The post-oxidation microstructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) technique was used to measure chemical compositions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was also used to verify the dominant phases present. A binary Fe-15Ni alloy was also tested in air at 1280°C to test for any direct effect mold flux might have (in the absence of chromium) on elimination of the network of nickel enriched metal inherent in subscale. For oxidized Fe-15Ni, the presence of mold flux worsened the oxidation attack, supporting the idea that the effect of mold flux is not to promote oxidation of nickel (from the unoxidized metallic networks) as such. Fe-Cr alloys oxidized in wet air revealed the formation of a continuous external eskolaite layer for an 18%Cr and 19%Cr steel in the flux treated case, where none was observed in the non-flux treated case, supporting the proposed mechanism regarding the ability of the molten flux to promote the growth of a protective Cr2O3 layer. Dry gas oxidation tests reveal that volatilization of chromium oxide is likely a major contributor in preventing protective continuous eskolaite formation at high temperature. This was shown when deep subscale formation was avoided for a 304L sample oxidized in a dry N2-20%O2 mixture, resulting in the formation of a continuous external eskolaite layer. Furthermore, eskolaite formation was observed for Fe-14Cr and Fe-18Cr alloys oxidized in dry gas where none formed in wet air. The change in chromium depletion profiles in wet environments versus dry environments supports the idea of increased chromium loss due to volatilization. Results from this work support the proposed mechanism explaining how enhanced chromium loss can occur due to volatilization in water containing gas and how mold flux affects this behavior. Mold flux serves to prevent chromium loss by acting as a solubility barrier to chromium transport through the molten silicate, hence preventing chromium loss due to v

Cheung, Kelvin H.

25

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME V. ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

26

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME IV. OPEN HEARTH FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

27

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME III. BLAST FURNACE IRONMAKING, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

28

Analysis of a corroded stainless steel recuperator used on a glass melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recuperator installed on a natural gas-fired glass melting furnace recovered heat from flue gases to preheat combustion air for the gas burner. The recuperator, which was constructed of type 321 stainless steel, supplied combustion air at about 500°C for about 5760 h (eight months). Although some corrosion of the partition wall in contact with the flue gases was noted

J. I. Federer; V. J. Tennery

1980-01-01

29

Preparation of high performance blended cements and reclamation of iron concentrate from basic oxygen furnace steel slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic oxygen furnace steel slag (BOFS) is a by-product of steel-making process that has rarely been utilized in the past and is usually deposited as waste. BOFS fractions with different size were characterized in terms of chemical and mineral compositions, cementitious activity, autoclave soundness and activity index in the present study. The results show that silicates and iron concentrate are

Tongsheng Zhang; Qijun Yu; Jiangxiong Wei; Jianxin Li; Pingping Zhang

2011-01-01

30

Heuristic algorithms for scheduling heat-treatment furnaces of steel casting industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a research problem of scheduling parallel, non-identical batch processors in the presence of dynamic\\u000a job arrivals, incompatible job-families and non-identical job sizes. We were led to this problem through a real-world application\\u000a involving the scheduling of heat-treatment operations of steel casting. The scheduling of furnaces for heat-treatment of castings\\u000a is of considerable interest as a large proportion

M. Mathirajan; V. Chandru; A. I. Sivakumar

2007-01-01

31

Mathematical Model for Decarburization of Ultra-low Carbon Steel in Single Snorkel Refining Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic model is developed to investigate decarburization behavior of a new type of refining equipment named Single Snorkel Refining Furnace (SSRF) in treating ultra-low carbon steel. Decarburization reactions in SSRF are considered to take place at three sites: Ar bubble surface, the bulk steel, and the bath surface. With the eccentricity of the porous plug (r e/R S) and the ratio of the snorkel diameter to the ladle diameter (D S/D L) of SSRF confirmed, circulation flow rate of molten steel is obtained through combined effects of vacuum pressure and gas flow rate. Besides, variation of the steel temperature is simulated associated with generated reaction heat and heat losses. The variation of C concentration with treatment time is divided into three stages in accordance with decarburization rates and the simulated C concentration is in reasonable agreement with actual production data. In the present study, both decarburization rates at three sites and their contributions to the overall decarburization at each stage are estimated for the first time. Through the present investigation, it is clear that vacuum pressure significantly influences decarburization efficiency of SSRF primarily by affecting the depth of CO nucleation in the bulk steel. Besides, effects of gas flow rate on decarburization rate of different stages are obtained and the opportunity of increasing gas flow rate during the treatment period has been clarified. The present model provides an efficient tool to comprehend the decarburization process in SSRF.

You, Zhimin; Cheng, Guoguang; Wang, Xinchao; Qin, Zhe; Tian, Jun; Zhang, Jian

2014-09-01

32

Mathematical Model for Decarburization of Ultra-low Carbon Steel in Single Snorkel Refining Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic model is developed to investigate decarburization behavior of a new type of refining equipment named Single Snorkel Refining Furnace (SSRF) in treating ultra-low carbon steel. Decarburization reactions in SSRF are considered to take place at three sites: Ar bubble surface, the bulk steel, and the bath surface. With the eccentricity of the porous plug ( r e/ R S) and the ratio of the snorkel diameter to the ladle diameter ( D S/ D L) of SSRF confirmed, circulation flow rate of molten steel is obtained through combined effects of vacuum pressure and gas flow rate. Besides, variation of the steel temperature is simulated associated with generated reaction heat and heat losses. The variation of C concentration with treatment time is divided into three stages in accordance with decarburization rates and the simulated C concentration is in reasonable agreement with actual production data. In the present study, both decarburization rates at three sites and their contributions to the overall decarburization at each stage are estimated for the first time. Through the present investigation, it is clear that vacuum pressure significantly influences decarburization efficiency of SSRF primarily by affecting the depth of CO nucleation in the bulk steel. Besides, effects of gas flow rate on decarburization rate of different stages are obtained and the opportunity of increasing gas flow rate during the treatment period has been clarified. The present model provides an efficient tool to comprehend the decarburization process in SSRF.

You, Zhimin; Cheng, Guoguang; Wang, Xinchao; Qin, Zhe; Tian, Jun; Zhang, Jian

2015-02-01

33

Atomic force microscopy of induction- and furnace-heating-tempered prestressed steels with different delayed fracture properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative microstructure analyses by atomic force microscope and delayed fracture tests were performed for two types of prestressed steel with a tensile strength of 1470 MPa; an induction-heated-tempered specimen, and a furnace-heated-tempered specimen. Size distributions of cementite particles were measured to characterize the relationship between microstructures and delayed fracture properties.

M Hayakawa; S Matsuoka; K Tsuzaki; H Hanada; M Sugisaki

2002-01-01

34

Upgrading constructed wetlands phosphorus reduction from a dairy effluent using electric arc furnace steel slag filters.  

PubMed

In 2003, a subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF-CW) system was built at the University of Vermont (UVM) Paul Miller Dairy Farm as an alternative nutrient management approach for treating barnyard runoff and milk parlour waste. Given the increasing problem of phosphorus (P) pollution in the Lake Champlain region, a slag based P-removal filter technology (PFT) was established (2004) at the CW with two objectives: (i) to test the filters' efficiency as an upgrade unit for improving P removal performance via SSF-CW (ii) to investigate the capacity of filters technology to remove P as a "stand alone" unit. Six individual filters (F1-F6) were filled with electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag, each containing 112.5 kg of material with a pore volume of 21 L. F1-F4, fed with CW treated water, received approximately 2.17 g DRP kg(-1) EAF steel slag (0.25 kg DRP total) during the 259 day feeding period. F1-F4 retained 1.7 g DRP kg(-1) EAF steel slag, resulting in an average P removal efficiency of 75%. The addition of filters improved CW DRP removal efficiency by 74%. F5 and F6, fed non-treated water, received 1.9 g DRP kg(-1) EAF steel slag (0.22 kg DRP in total) and retained 1.5 g DRP kg(-1) resulting in a P removal efficiency of 72%. The establishment of the EAF slag based PFT is the first in-field evaluation of this technology to reduce P from dairy farm effluent in Vermont. PMID:17802848

Weber, D; Drizo, A; Twohig, E; Bird, S; Ross, D

2007-01-01

35

Electric arc furnaces for steel-making: hot spots for persistent organic pollutants.  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations were measured in stack-gases of ferrous scrap processing steel plants with electric arc furnaces (EAFs) (n = 5) in Aliaga, Izmir, Turkey and in air (n = 11) at a site near those plants. Measured stack-gas concentrations for the four plants without scrap preheating (611 +/- 311, 165,000 +/- 285,000, and 33 +/- 3 ng m(-3), average +/- SD for sigma41PCBs, sigma16PAHs, and sigma7PBDEs, respectively) indicated that they are significant sources for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). POP emissions from the plant with scrap preheating were significantly higher (13 500, 445 000, and 91 ng m(-3) for sigma41PCBs, sigma16PAHs, and sigma7PBDEs, respectively). It was also shown that the steel plants emit considerable amounts of fugitive POPs in particle-phase. Estimated emissions using the emission factors generated in this study and the production amounts suggested that the steel plants with EAFs may significantly contribute to local and global PAH, PCB, and PBDE emissions. Several other compounds (aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and chlorine-containing organic compounds, n = 49) were identified and determined semiquantitatively in the stack-gas and ambient air samples. Ambient air concentrations (62 +/- 35, 320 +/- 134 ng m(-3), 1451 +/- 954 pg m(-3), for sigma41PCBs, sigma16PAHs, and sigma7PBDEs, respectively) were significantly higher than those measured previously around the world and in the region, further confirming that the steel plants with EAFs are "hot spots" for POPs. PMID:19708342

Odabasi, Mustafa; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Elbir, Tolga; Seyfioglu, Remzi; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bozlaker, Ayse; Demircioglu, Hulusi; Altiok, Hasan; Yatkin, Sinan; Cetin, Banu

2009-07-15

36

[Phosphorus adsorption and regeneration of electric arc furnace steel slag as wetland medium].  

PubMed

The long-term phosphorus (P) adsorption and retention capacities of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag materials derived from one batch and a 278-d column experiments with a synthetic P solution were compared. The investigations of the regeneration of the P adsorption capacity by water level decrease was conducted. It was revealed column experiment on a long-term basis can determine P saturation of EAF accurately. And the results can be used for realistic estimations of constructed wetland systems (CWS) longevity. EAF slag showed a high afinity for P, reaching a saturation value of 1.65 g/kg. Regeneration experiment of the P adsorbing capacity by this material showed that, after 4 weeks of water level decrease, EAF steel slag was able to increase its initial P adsorption capacity to 2.65 g/kg. A sequential P fractionation experiment was performed to quantify the proportion of P bound to mineral compounds in EAF. From the most loosely bound to the most strongly bound P fraction, P1 was associated with resin extractable (13%), Fe extractable (0.5 mol/L Na2CO3, 39%), Al extractable (0.1 mol/L NaOH, 21%), Ca extractable (1 mol/L HCl, 13%), and Ca in a stable residual pool (concentrated hot HCl, 14%). X-ray fluorescence analyses of EAF steel slag chemical composition revealed that the continuous application of a P solution resulted in 300% and 170% increases in K2O and P2O5, respectively. Al2O3 and FeO increased by 8%, while the portion of CaO remained unchanged. The investigated properties (P retention potential, regeneration of P adsorption, P fractionation) provide useful data about the suitability of slag material as a media for longterm P removal and dry-wet operation can improve P retention capacity of EAF to prolong the longevity of full-scale CWS. PMID:19256377

Zhai, Li-hua; He, Lian-sheng; Xi, Bei-dou; Chen, Yue; Meng, Rui; Huo, Shou-liang; Liu, Hong-liang

2008-12-01

37

Improvement of the blast furnace operation by a new burden distribution control at Kakogawa Works of Kobe Steel  

SciTech Connect

It became clear that a spire type central gas flow is required to maintain a stable and economical operation of the blast furnace. However, the gas flow is sometimes changed by the variation of particle size of burden material and coke layer collapse, as well as other causes. Therefore, the Center Coke Charging Method was developed to accurately control the center gas flow. At Kakogawa No. 2 (Inner volume 3,850m[sup 3]) and No. 1(4,550m[sup 3])blast furnaces, the commercial facilities which use this method were installed in August, 1988 and November, 1990. Since then, it has become possible to obtain a stable gas flow with a combination of the Center Coke Chargin Method and movable armor. Consequently, the blast furnace operation was remarkably improved and a low-coke-rate operation (298kg/t) with 123kg/t Pulverized Coal (PC) and 62kg/t oil, and a high pellet ratio operation (70%) was successfully achieved at Kakogawa No. 2 blast furnace. This paper describes the instrumentation used at Kobe Steel for blast furnace control.

Ono, R.; Goto, T.; Ito, R.; Hanao, K.; Mizuguchi, I. (Kobe Steel LTD., Hatano (Japan). Kakogawa Works)

1993-01-01

38

Low pressure r.f. nitriding of austenitic stainless steel in an industrial-style heat-treatment furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitriding efficiency of a low pressure r.f. plasma is investigated in an industrial style hot-wall furnace in which the component is heated by thermal radiation from the walls of the vacuum chamber. The role of degassed impurities is also addressed. Samples of AISI 316 stainless steel were treated at a relatively low temperature of 400°C to avoid loss of

J. M. Priest; M. J. Baldwin; M. P. Fewell; S. C. Haydon; G. A. Collins; K. T. Short; J. Tendys

1999-01-01

39

Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating  

DOEpatents

A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

Howard, Stanley R. (Windsor, SC); Korinko, Paul S. (Aiken, SC)

2008-05-27

40

Valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag as raw material for low energy belite cements.  

PubMed

In this paper, the valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS) in the production of low energy belite cements is studied. Three types of clinkers were prepared with 0 wt.% (BC), 5 wt.% (BC5) and 10 wt.% (BC10) EAFS, respectively. The design of the raw mixes was based on the compositional indices lime saturation factor (LSF), alumina ratio (AR) and silica ratio (SR). The clinkering temperature was studied for the range 1280-1400°C; firing was performed at 1380°C based on the results regarding free lime and the evolution of microstructure. In order to activate the belite, clinkers were cooled fast by blown air and concurrent crushing. The results demonstrate that the microstructure of the produced clinkers is dominated by belite and alite crystals, with tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium-alumino-ferrite present as micro-crystalline interstitial phases. The prepared cements presented low early strength development as expected for belite-rich compositions; however the 28-day results were 47.5 MPa, 46.6 MPa and 42.8 MPa for BC, BC5 and BC10, respectively. These values are comparable with OPC CEMI 32.5 N (32.5-52.5 MPa) according to EN 197-1. A fast setting behaviour was also observed, particularly in the case of BC10, whereas soundness did not exceed 1mm. PMID:21944704

Iacobescu, R I; Koumpouri, D; Pontikes, Y; Saban, R; Angelopoulos, G N

2011-11-30

41

Environmental impacts of asphalt mixes with electric arc furnace steel slag.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag can be used as an alternative high-quality material in road construction. Although asphalts with slag aggregates have been recognized as environmentally acceptable, there is a lack of data concerning the potential leaching of toxic Cr(VI) due to the highly alkaline media of EAF slag. Leaching of selected water extractable metals from slag indicated elevated concentrations of total chromium and Cr(VI). To estimate the environmental impacts of asphalt mixes with slag, leachability tests based on diffusion were performed using pure water and salt water as leaching agents. Compact and ground asphalt composites with natural aggregates, and asphalt composites in which the natural aggregates were completely replaced by slag were prepared. The concentrations of total chromium and Cr(VI) were determined in leachates over a time period of 6 mo. After 1 and 6 mo, the concentrations of some other metals were also determined in the leachates. The results indicated that chromium in leachates from asphalt composites with the addition of slag was present almost solely in its hexavalent form. However, the concentrations were very low (below 25 ?g L) and did not represent an environmental burden. The leaching of other metals from asphalt composites with the addition of slag was negligible. Therefore, the investigated EAF slag can be considered as environmentally safe substitute for natural aggregates in asphalt mixes. PMID:21712585

Mila?i?, Radmila; Zuliani, Tea; Oblak, Tina; Mladenovi?, Ana; An?ar, Janez Š?

2011-01-01

42

Assessment of hexavalent chromium release in Malaysian electric arc furnace steel slag for fertilizer usage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the leaching of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) from electric arc furnace steel slag as Cr (VI) is classified as human carcinogen. Batch leaching tests were performed for 16 days. The lixiviants used were alkaline, de-ionized and rain water. After 16 days, Cr (VI) was found to be highest in alkaline water (0.03 mg/L) and lowest in de-ionized water (0.01 mg/L). Besides the lixiviants used, slag stirring speed and liquid to solid ratio also affect Cr (VI) released. The experimental work was complimented with slag characterization using XRF, XRD and SEM/EDX analysis. The leaching process was also simulated via Factsage software to calculate isothermal pourbaix diagrams. The Cr (VI) released was low and below the threshold of 0.1 mg/L set for public water systems. Recycle the slag as fertilizer should be considered safe as it does not exceed the safety limit set for Cr (VI) dissolution.

Bankole, L. K.; Rezan, S. A.; Sharif, N. M.

2014-03-01

43

Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing.  

PubMed

Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector. PMID:25261762

Liapis, Ioannis; Papayianni, Ioanna

2015-02-11

44

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

45

34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace operator on platform measures temperature inside bottle car. Looking southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

46

Observing Inflationary Reheating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reheating is the epoch which connects inflation to the subsequent hot big-bang phase. Conceptually very important, this era is, however, observationally poorly known. We show that the current Planck satellite measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies constrain the kinematic properties of the reheating era for most of the inflationary models. This result is obtained by deriving the marginalized posterior distributions of the reheating parameter for about 200 models of slow-roll inflation. Weighted by the statistical evidence of each model to explain the data, we show that the Planck 2013 measurements induce an average reduction of the posterior-to-prior volume by 40%. Making some additional assumptions on reheating, such as specifying a mean equation of state parameter, or focusing the analysis on peculiar scenarios, can enhance or reduce this constraint. Our study also indicates that the Bayesian evidence of a model can substantially be affected by the reheating properties. The precision of the current CMB data is therefore such that estimating the observational performance of a model now requires incorporating information about its reheating history.

Martin, Jérôme; Ringeval, Christophe; Vennin, Vincent

2015-02-01

47

Observing inflationary reheating.  

PubMed

Reheating is the epoch which connects inflation to the subsequent hot big-bang phase. Conceptually very important, this era is, however, observationally poorly known. We show that the current Planck satellite measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies constrain the kinematic properties of the reheating era for most of the inflationary models. This result is obtained by deriving the marginalized posterior distributions of the reheating parameter for about 200 models of slow-roll inflation. Weighted by the statistical evidence of each model to explain the data, we show that the Planck 2013 measurements induce an average reduction of the posterior-to-prior volume by 40%. Making some additional assumptions on reheating, such as specifying a mean equation of state parameter, or focusing the analysis on peculiar scenarios, can enhance or reduce this constraint. Our study also indicates that the Bayesian evidence of a model can substantially be affected by the reheating properties. The precision of the current CMB data is therefore such that estimating the observational performance of a model now requires incorporating information about its reheating history. PMID:25768752

Martin, Jérôme; Ringeval, Christophe; Vennin, Vincent

2015-02-27

48

Banking the Furnace: Restructuring of the Steel Industry in Eight Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined how the cross-national differences in the social contract among managers, unions, and government influenced adjustment strategies in steel. The restructuring process in eight major steel-producing countries was studied to determine who bore the costs of restructuring--employers, employees, or government--and which industrial…

Bain, Trevor

49

Large-Scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rools In A Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethlehem Steel's (now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill  

SciTech Connect

At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system.

John Mengel; Anthony Martocci; Larry Fabina; RObert Petrusha; Ronald Chango

2003-09-01

50

STACK GAS REHEAT EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of technical and economic evaluations of stack gas reheat (SGR) following wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired power plants. The evaluations were based on information from literature and a survey of FGD users, vendors, and architect/engineer ...

51

Study on steel furnace slags with high MgO as additive in Portland cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, usability of Basic Oxygen Process (BOP) slags of Kardemir Iron and Steel Plant, Karabük, Turkey as an additive into cement was investigated. Slags were ground to 4000 and 4700 cm2\\/g levels, and added in ratios 15, 30 and 45 wt.%. Volume expansion, setting time, compressive strength and bending strength tests were measured according to Turkish standards. Due

?. Ak?n Altun; ?smail Y?lmaz

2002-01-01

52

The efficiency of quartz addition on electric arc furnace (EAF) carbon steel slag stability.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace slag (EAF) has the potential to be re-utilized as an alternative to stone material, however, only if it remains chemically stable on contact with water. The presence of hydraulic phases such as larnite (2CaO SiO2) could cause dangerous elements to be released into the environment, i.e. Ba, V, Cr. Chemical treatment appears to be the only way to guarantee a completely stable structure, especially for long-term applications. This study presents the efficiency of silica addition during the deslagging period. Microstructural characterization of modified slag was performed by SEM and XRD analysis. Elution tests were performed according to the EN 12457-2 standard, with the addition of silica and without, and the obtained results were compared. These results demonstrate the efficiency of the inertization process: the added silica induces the formation of gehlenite, which, even in caustic environments, does not exhibit hydraulic behaviour. PMID:25113518

Mombelli, D; Mapelli, C; Barella, S; Gruttadauria, A; Le Saout, G; Garcia-Diaz, E

2014-08-30

53

Large-scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rolls in a Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethelehem Steel's (Now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill  

SciTech Connect

At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system. Many challenges were involved in this project, including developing welding procedures for joining nickel aluminide intermetallic alloys with H-series austenitic alloys, developing commercial cast roll manufacturing specifications, working with several commercial suppliers to produce a quantity of high quality, reproducible nickel aluminide rolls for a large steel industrial annealing furnace, installing and demonstrating the capability of the rolls in this furnace, performing processing trials to evaluate the benefits of new equipment and processes, and documenting the findings. Updated furnace equipment including twenty-five new automated furnace control dampers have been installed replacing older design, less effective units. These dampers, along with upgraded flame-safety control equipment and new AC motors and roll-speed control equipment, are providing improved furnace control and additional energy efficiency. Energy data shows up to a 34% energy reduction from baseline after the installation of upgraded furnace damper controls along with up to a 34% reduction in greenhouse gases, potential for an additional 3 to 6% energy reduction per campaign of light-up and shutdown, and a 46% energy reduction from baseline for limited trials of a combination of improved damper control and straight-through plate processing. The straight-through processing is now possible because of the nickel aluminide rolls which also provided plate product surface quality improvement that will allow the additional processing of surface critical material. Benefits also include associated large reductions in maintenance, reduction in spare rolls and associated component costs, and potential for greater through-put and productivity. Estimated project fuel cost reductions alone for processing 100,000 tons/yr through this furnace are almost $0.5 million/yr with the new dampers, and more than $600,000/yr with straight-through processing and new damper control, assuming natural gas prices of $6.00/MMBtu. The nickel aluminide rolls are competitively priced with conventional H series alloy rolls.

Mengel, J.

2003-12-16

54

Energy audit of three energy-conserving devices in a steel-industry demonstration program. Task I. Hague forge furnaces. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A program to demonstrate to industry the benefits of installing particular types of energy-conserving devices and equipment was carried out. One of these types of equipment and the results obtained under production conditions in commercial plants are described. The equipment under consideration includes improved forge furnaces and associated heat-recovery components. They are used to heat steel to about 2300 F prior to hot forging. The energy-conserving devices include improved insulation, automatic air-fuel ratio control, and a ceramic recuperator that recovers heat from hot combustion gases and delivers preheated air to high-temperature recirculating burners. Twelve Hague furnaces and retrofit packages were purchased and installed by eleven host forge shops that agree to furnish performance data for the purpose of demonstrating the energy and economic savings that can be achieved in comparison with existing equipment. Fuel savings were reported by comparing the specific energy consumption (Btu's per pound of steel heated) for each Hague furnace with that of a comparison furnace. Economic comparisons were made using payback period based on annual after-tax cash flow. Payback periods for the Hague equipment varied from less than two years to five years or more. In several cases, payback times were high only because the units were operated at a small fraction of their available capacity.

Lownie, H.W.; Holden, F.C.

1982-06-01

55

Evaluation of electric arc furnace-processed steel slag for dermal corrosion, irritation, and sensitization from dermal contact.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag is alkaline (pH of ~11-12) and contains metals, most notably chromium and nickel, and thus has potential to cause dermal irritation and sensitization at sufficient dose. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. However, no published study has characterized the potential for dermal effects associated with EAF slag. To assess dermal irritation, corrosion and sensitizing potential of EAF slag, in vitro and in vivo dermal toxicity assays were conducted based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. In vitro dermal corrosion and irritation testing (OECD 431 and 439) of EAF slag was conducted using the reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) tissue model. In vivo dermal toxicity and delayed contact sensitization testing (OECD 404 and 406) were conducted in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. EAF slag was not corrosive and not irritating in any tests. The results of the delayed contact dermal sensitization test indicate that EAF slag is not a dermal sensitizer. These findings are supported by the observation that metals in EAF slag occur as oxides of low solubility with leachates that are well below toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Based on these results and in accordance to the OECD guidelines, EAF slag is not considered a dermal sensitizer, corrosive or irritant. PMID:24395402

Suh, Mina; Troese, Matthew J; Hall, Debra A; Yasso, Blair; Yzenas, John J; Proctor, Debora M

2014-12-01

56

Analysis of arc emission spectra of stainless steel electric arc furnace slag affected by fluctuating arc voltage.  

PubMed

Control of chromium oxidation in the electric arc furnace (EAF) is a significant problem in stainless steel production due to variations of the chemical compositions in the EAF charge. One potential method to control chromium oxidation is to analyze the emission spectrum of the electric arc in order to find indicators of rising chromium content in slag. The purpose of this study was to determine if slag composition can be gained by utilizing electric arc emission spectra in the laboratory environment, despite electric arc voltage fluctuations and varying slag composition. The purpose of inducing voltage fluctuation was to simulate changes in the industrial EAF process. The slag samples were obtained from Outokumpu Stainless Oy Tornio Works, and three different arc currents were used. The correlation analysis showed that the emission spectra offer numerous peak ratios with high correlations to the X-ray fluorescence-measured slag CrO(x)/FeO(x) and MnO/SiO2 ratios. These ratios are useful in determining if the reduction agents have been depleted in the EAF. The results suggest that analysis of laboratory-scale electric arc emission spectra is suitable for indicating the high CrO(x) or MnO content of the slag despite the arc fluctuations. Reliable analysis of other slag components was not successful. PMID:24405950

Aula, Matti; Mäkinen, Ari; Fabritius, Timo

2014-01-01

57

Reheating and causal thermodynamics  

E-print Network

The reheating process in inflationary universe models is considered as an out-of-equilibrium mixture of two interacting and reacting fluids, and studied within the framework of causal, irreversible thermodynamics. The evolution of the temperature and the decay rate as determined by causal thermodynamics are estimated at different stages of the process. A simple model is also used to find the perturbations of the expansion rate, including the possibility of damped oscillations.

Winfried Zimdahl; Diego Pavón; Roy Maartens

1996-11-19

58

Enhanced humification by carbonated basic oxygen furnace steel slag--I. Characterization of humic-like acids produced from humic precursors.  

PubMed

Carbonated basic oxygen furnace steel slag (hereinafter referred to as "steel slag") is generated during iron and steel manufacturing and is often classified as waste. The effect of steel slag on humification process was investigated. Catechol, glycine and glucose were used as model humic precursors from degraded biowastes. To verify that humification occurred in the system, humic-like acids (HLAs) were isolated and characterized structurally by elemental analysis, FTIR spectra, solid-state CP-MAS (13)C NMR spectra, and TMAH-Py-GC/MS. Characteristics of the steel slag-HLA were compared with those of HLAs formed in the presence of zeolite and birnessite, and with that of mature compost humic acid. The results showed that steel slag-HLA, like zeolite- and birnessite-HLA, is complex organic material containing prominent aromatic structures. Steel slag substantially accelerated the humification process, which would be highly significant for accelerating the stabilization of biowastes during composting (e.g. municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and food waste). PMID:22130079

Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Fukushima, Masami; Fukuchi, Shigeki; Nie, Yongfeng

2012-01-01

59

The Effect of Chemical Composition on Microstructure and Properties of Intercritically Reheated Coarse-Grained Heat-Affected Zone in X70 Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study investigates the effect of different levels of Ti, N, and Ti/N ratios on microstructure and properties in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (ICCGHAZ) of two-pass submerged arc welds in API 5L grade X70 pipe. Gleeble simulation was employed to reproduce the ICCGHAZ of actual welds. Hardness and Charpy V-notch (CVN) tests were performed on the simulated samples. The microstructure of simulated ICCGHAZ was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). LePera color etching technique was employed to identify and quantify the martensitic-austenitic (M-A) constituent. Results show that the simulated ICCGHAZ exhibited extremely low toughness, but in the studied range of Ti and N, there was no correlation with Ti/N ratio. The beneficial effect of near-stoichiometric Ti/N ratio observed in coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) did not translate to ICCGHAZ. This was because of the negative effect of the blocky M-A constituent formed on prior austenite grain boundaries.

Zhu, Zhixiong; Kuzmikova, Lenka; Li, Huijun; Barbaro, Frank

2013-12-01

60

41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; photo taken from furnace operator's booth. Looking south/southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

61

50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

62

Diagnostics and Control of Natural Gas-Fired furnaces via Flame Image Analysis using Machine Vision & Artificial Intelligence Techniques  

SciTech Connect

A new approach for the detection of real-time properties of flames is used in this project to develop improved diagnostics and controls for natural gas fired furnaces. The system utilizes video images along with advanced image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to provide virtual sensors in a stand-alone expert shell environment. One of the sensors is a flame sensor encompassing a flame detector and a flame analyzer to provide combustion status. The flame detector can identify any burner that has not fired in a multi-burner furnace. Another sensor is a 3-D temperature profiler. One important aspect of combustion control is product quality. The 3-D temperature profiler of this on-line system is intended to provide a tool for a better temperature control in a furnace to improve product quality. In summary, this on-line diagnostic and control system offers great potential for improving furnace thermal efficiency, lowering NOx and carbon monoxide emissions, and improving product quality. The system is applicable in natural gas-fired furnaces in the glass industry and reheating furnaces used in steel and forging industries.

Shahla Keyvan

2005-12-01

63

Reheating constraints in inflationary magnetogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Among primordial magnetogenesis models, inflation is a prime candidate to explain the current existence of cosmological magnetic fields. Assuming conformal invariance to be restored after inflation, their energy density decreases as radiation during the decelerating eras of the universe, and in particular during reheating. Without making any assumptions on inflation, on the magnetogenesis mechanism and on how the reheating proceeded, we show that requiring large scale magnetic fields to remain subdominant after inflation gives non-trivial constraints on both the reheating equation of state parameter and the reheating energy scale. In terms of the so-called reheating parameter, we find that ln R{sub rad} > ?10.1 for large scale magnetic fields of the order 5 × 10{sup ?15} Gauss today. This bound is then compared to those already derived from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data by assuming a specific inflationary model. Avoiding magnetic field backreaction is always complementary to CMB and can give more stringent limits on reheating for all high energy models of inflation. For instance, a large field matter dominated reheating cannot take place at an energy scale lower than typically 500 GeV if the magnetic field strength today is B{sub 0} = 5 × 10{sup ?15} G, this scale going up to 10{sup 10} GeV if B{sub 0} = 10{sup ?9} G.

Demozzi, Vittoria; Ringeval, Christophe, E-mail: vittoria.demozzi@uclouvain.be, E-mail: christophe.ringeval@uclouvain.be [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology, Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Louvain University, 2 Chemin du Cyclotron, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

2012-05-01

64

Enhanced reheating via Bose condensates  

SciTech Connect

In supersymmetric extensions of the particle physics standard model, gauge invariant combinations of squarks and sleptons (flat directions) can acquire large expectation values during a period of cosmological inflation. If the inflaton sector couples to matter fields via these flat directions, then new channels for efficient reheating, in particular, via parametric resonance instabilities, are opened up. These can lead to efficient reheating induced by the flat directions even if the bare coupling constants are small. In this Letter we discuss various channels which yield this 'enhanced reheating' effect, and we address some cosmological consequences.

Allahverdi, Rouzbeh [Theory Group, TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Brandenberger, Robert [Physics Department, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Ontario, N2J 2W9 (Canada); Physics Department, McGill University, 3600 University Road, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Mazumdar, Anupam [Physics Department, McGill University, 3600 University Road, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

2004-10-15

65

Reheating Phase Diagram for Higgs Inflation  

E-print Network

We investigate the impact on the inflationary predictions from various reheating histories which are characterized by an e-folding number $N_{\\mathrm{reh}}$ and an effective equation-of-state parameter $w_{\\mathrm{reh}}$ during reheating process. For Higgs inflation with a non-minimal coupling to gravity, the predictions are obtained on the $N_{\\mathrm{reh}}\\!\\!-\\!w_{\\mathrm{reh}}$ reheating phase diagram. We find that the predictions are insensitive to reheating phase. Within the $1\\sigma$ region of the scalar spectral index $n_s$ reported by Planck 2014 Preliminary, almost all possible reheating histories are allowed on the reheating phase diagram, where Higgs inflation with canonical reheating history $w_{\\mathrm{reh}}=0$ lies near the upper edge of the $1\\sigma$ range of $n_s$. Future measurements of $n_s$ with high precision will identify the reheating physics of Higgs inflation.

Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Shao-Jiang

2015-01-01

66

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE POURING MOLTEN IRON INTO QBOP FURNACE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE POURING MOLTEN IRON INTO Q-BOP FURNACE. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

67

12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

68

14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

69

15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

70

13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

71

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. Nameplate reads: "Heroult Electric Furnace, Capacity 6 tons, Built by American Bridge Company, Pencoyd, PA, No. 33") - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

72

22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL CONSTRUCTION. CONCRETE PAD AT LEFT IS SITE OF FORMER FURNACE USED TO HEAT URANIUM BILLETS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

73

42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

74

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

75

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

76

Baryogenesis at low reheating temperatures  

PubMed

We note that the maximum temperature during reheating can be much greater than the reheating temperature T(r) at which the universe becomes radiation dominated. We show that the standard model anomalous (B+L)-violating processes can therefore be in thermal equilibrium for 1 GeV less, similarT(r)<100 GeV. Electroweak baryogenesis could work and the traditional upper bound on the Higgs mass coming from the requirement of the preservation of the baryon asymmetry may be relaxed. Alternatively, the baryon asymmetry may be reprocessed by sphaleron transitions either from a (B-L) asymmetry generated by the Affleck-Dine mechanism or from a chiral asymmetry between e(R) and e(L) in a B-L = 0 universe. PMID:10990667

Davidson; Losada; Riotto

2000-05-01

77

Direct measurement of solids: High temperature sensing: Phase 2, Experimental development and testing on furnace-heated steel blocks  

SciTech Connect

Using average velocity measurements to estimate average profile temperature shows promise and merits further investigation. The current generation of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) can transmit and detect signals in steel below the magnetic transition temperature. Techniques for calibrating ultrasonic velocity to internal temperature need further development. EMATs are inadequate ultrasonic transmitters for these applications. A high-energy, pulsed laser capable of generating more intense ultrasonic signals should be investigated as a transmitter. Recommendations are given for further work.

Lemon, D.K.; Daly, D.S.

1985-12-01

78

Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model  

SciTech Connect

The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

Seymour Katz

2004-12-31

79

Reheating predictions in single field inflation  

E-print Network

Reheating is a transition era after the end of inflation, during which the inflaton is converted into the particles that populate the Universe at later times. No direct cosmological observables are normally traceable to this period of reheating. Indirect bounds can however be derived. One possibility is to consider cosmological evolution for observable CMB scales from the time of Hubble crossing to the present time. Depending upon the model, the duration and final temperature after reheating, as well as its equation of state, are directly linked to inflationary observables. For single-field inflationary models and for reheating scenarios that may be approximated by a constant equation of state, it is straightforward to derive relations between the reheating duration (or final temperature), its equation of state parameter, and the scalar power spectrum amplitude and spectral index. As a result, one may employ current bounds on inflation to constrain the nature of reheating. Alternatively, it is possible to fur...

Cook, Jessica L; Easson, Damien A; Krauss, Lawrence M

2015-01-01

80

STATE OF CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND REHEAT  

E-print Network

STATE OF CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND REHEAT CEC-MECH-3C (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND REHEAT MECH-3C PROJECT NAME DATE MECHANICAL VENTILATION §121(b)2 REHEAT'D V.A. Max of D or G Design Ventilation Air cfm 50% of Design Zone Supply cfm B x 0.4 cfm/ft² Max

81

Reheating for closed string inflation  

SciTech Connect

We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N = 1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation.

Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Mazumdar, Anupam, E-mail: michele.cicoli@desy.de, E-mail: a.mazumdar@lancaster.ac.uk [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

2010-09-01

82

Furnace assembly  

DOEpatents

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01

83

Furnace construction  

SciTech Connect

A furnace having a fuel hopper in communication with a combustion chamber provided with an inclined, fuel-supporting grate. A rotary, flexible feed arm composed of a helically coiled wire serves to feed fuel from the hopper on to the grate. A draft is induced through the combustion chamber and passes through the grate and fuel supported thereon.

Wetzel, C. C.; Wetzel, G. L.; Wetzel, J. C.

1985-10-29

84

Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-09-23

85

B.G. Thomas, Brimacombe Lecture, 59th Electric Furnace Conf., Pheonix, AZ, 2001, Iron & Steel Soc., pp. 3-30  

E-print Network

for the people, which benefited the steel industry, the Iron and Steel Society, and many individuals here today is also fitting because his impact on the steel industry through short courses and publications

Thomas, Brian G.

86

Monitoring power system response to UHP arc furnace operations  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the use of a PC based data acquisition and analysis system for monitoring response of a power system to the operation of two electric arc furnaces. The topics of the article include a description of the steel complex, the data acquisition system, monitoring one furnace ramping up, monitoring loss of one furnace, monitoring loss of two furnaces, and the results of monitoring and analysis.

Sharma, C.; Julien, K.S. (Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

1994-01-01

87

Late reheating, hadronic jets, and baryogenesis.  

PubMed

If inflaton couples very weakly to ordinary matter, the reheating temperature of the Universe can be lower than the electroweak scale. In this Letter we show that the late reheating occurs in a highly nonuniform way, within narrow areas along the jets produced by ordinary particles originated from inflaton decays. Depending on inflaton mass and decay constant, the initial temperature inside the lumps of the overheated plasma may be large enough to trigger the unsuppressed sphaleron processes with baryon number nonconservation. This allows for efficient local electroweak baryogenesis at reheating temperatures TR approximately O(10) GeV. PMID:15089191

Asaka, Takehiko; Grigoriev, Dmitri; Kuzmin, Vadim; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

2004-03-12

88

Affleck-Dine baryogenesis with modulated reheating  

SciTech Connect

Modulated reheating scenario is one of the most attractive models that predict possible detections of not only the primordial non-Gaussianity but also the tensor fluctuation through future CMB observations such as the Planck satellite, the PolarBeaR and the LiteBIRD satellite experiments. We study the baryonic-isocurvature fluctuations in the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis with the modulated reheating scenario. We show that the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis can be consistent with the modulated reheating scenario with respect to the current observational constraint on the baryonic-isocurvature fluctuations.

Kamada, Kohei [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kohri, Kazunori [Cosmophysics group, Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Yokoyama, Shuichiro, E-mail: kamada@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Aichi, 466-8602 (Japan)

2011-01-01

89

Affleck-Dine baryogenesis with modulated reheating  

E-print Network

Modulated reheating scenario is one of the most attractive models that predict possible detections of not only the primordial non-Gaussianity but also the tensor fluctuation through future CMB observations such as the Planck satellite, the PolarBeaR and the LiteBIRD satellite experiments. We study the baryonic-isocurvature fluctuations in the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis with the modulated reheating scenario. We show that the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis can be consistent with the modulated reheating scenario with respect to the current observational constraint on the baryonic-isocurvature fluctuations.

Kohei Kamada; Kazunori Kohri; Shuichiro Yokoyama

2010-08-16

90

49. Taken from highline; "McKinley hat" remains on "B" furnace; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. Taken from high-line; "McKinley hat" remains on "B" furnace; no longer used, "McKinley hat was open receptacle with bell below. Hat carried charge to furnace top, dumping it to bell; bell locked onto furnace top, dropping charge into furnace. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

91

Industrial furnace  

SciTech Connect

A firebox has a liquid or gaseous burner and also a solid fuel grate assembly associated with a solid fuel inlet above the grate assembly for dropping solid fuel particles thereon. The grate assembly includes upper and lower bar type members and an intermediate member of expanded metal. A blower is mounted under the grate assembly and in combination with the latter provides an even pressurized draft for burning solid fuel particles. A sweeping bar on side runs is capable of sweeping clinkers and ashes from the grate assembly. A bottom auger receives the clinkers and ashes and carries them out of the firebox. A forced air inlet directs a flow of air down on the solid fuel inlet to prevent combustion gases from traveling reversely through the solid fuel inlet. A heat exchange chamber includes a plurality of reversely turned tubes arranged in a plurality of paths and connected by end housings capable of removal for inspection and cleaning. The solid fuel is fed to the furnace by a metering unit for use in combination with blowers to achieve maximum efficiency of the furnace.

Stevenson, R.L.

1984-05-29

92

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING QBOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING Q-BOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL GAS ARE BLOWN INTO THE FURNACE THROUGH THE TUYERES TO CHARGE 460,000 LBS. OF HOT METAL, 100,000 LBS. OF SCRAP WITH 30,000 LBS. OF LIME. BLOW TIME IS 16 MINUTES. THE TIME TO BLOW AND TAP THE FURNACES OF THE RESULTING 205,000 TONS OF STEEL AND SLAG IS 35 MINUTES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

93

TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates  

SciTech Connect

Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

2005-04-15

94

Fugacity and Reheating of Primordial Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We clarify in a quantitative way the impact that distinct chemical Tc and kinetic Tk freeze-out temperatures have on the reduction of the neutrino fugacity ?? below equilibrium, i.e. ??<1, and the increase of the neutrino temperature T? via partial reheating. We establish the connection between ?? and Tk via the modified reheating relation T?(??)/T?, where T? is the temperature of the background radiation. Our results demonstrate that one must introduce the chemical nonequilibrium parameter, i.e. the fugacity, ??, as an additional standard cosmological model parameter in the evaluation of CMB fluctuations as its value allows measurement of Tk.

Birrell, Jeremiah; Yang, Cheng-Tao; Chen, Pisin; Rafelski, Johann

2013-12-01

95

Heat Pipe Precools and Reheats Dehumidified Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precooling and reheating by heat pipe reduces operating costs of air-conditioning. Warm air returned from air-conditioned space and cooled air supplied are precooled and reheated, respectively, by each other through a heat pipe. Heat-pipe technology brought to bear on problem of conserving airconditioning energy in hot, humid environments. Any increase in the cost of equipment due to installation of heat-pipe heat exchangers expected to be recovered in energy savings during service period of 2 years or less.

Koning, R. C.; Boggs, W. H.; Barnett, U. R.; Dinh, K.

1986-01-01

96

Outline of plan for advanced reheat gas turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new reheat gas turbine system is being developed in Japan. The machine consists of two axial flow compressors, three turbines, intercooler, combustor and reheater. The pilot plant is expected to go into operation in 1982, and a prototype plant will be set up in 1984. The major objective of this reheat gas turbine is application to a combined cycle

A. Hori; K. Takeya

1981-01-01

97

Magneto-reheating constraints from curvature perturbations  

SciTech Connect

As additional perturbative degrees of freedom, it is known that magnetic fields of inflationary origin can source curvature perturbations on super-Hubble scales. By requiring the magnetic generated curvature to remain smaller than its inflationary adiabatic counterpart during inflation and reheating, we derive new constraints on the maximal field value today, the reheating energy scale and its equation of state parameter. These bounds end up being stronger by a few order of magnitude than those associated with a possible backreaction of the magnetic field onto the background. Our results are readily applicable to any slow-roll single field inflationary models and any magnetic field having its energy density scaling as a{sup ?} during inflation. As an illustrative example, massive inflation is found to remain compatible with a magnetic field today B{sub 0} = 5 × 10{sup ?15} G for some values of ? only if a matter dominated reheating takes place at energies larger than 10{sup 5} GeV. Conversely, assuming ? = ?1, massive inflation followed by a matter dominated reheating cannot explain large scale magnetic fields larger than 10{sup ?20} G today.

Ringeval, Christophe [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology, Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Louvain University, 2 Chemin du Cyclotron, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi, E-mail: christophe.ringeval@uclouvain.be, E-mail: suyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2013-09-01

98

No-reheat air-conditioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air conditioning system, for environmentally controlled areas containing sensitive equipment, regulates temperature and humidity without wasteful and costly reheating. System blends outside air with return air as dictated by various sensors to ensure required humidity in cooled spaces (such as computer room).

Obler, H. D.

1980-01-01

99

INTERIOR VIEW WITH SCRAP HAULER DUMPING SCRAP INTO QBOP FURNACE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH SCRAP HAULER DUMPING SCRAP INTO Q-BOP FURNACE. SCRAP HAULER IS GREGORY JACKS. FURNACEMAN IS VINCENT MOREL. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

100

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SEED ON THE LEFT, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SHED ON THE RIGHT, AND THE STOVES, BOILERS, AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT IN THE CENTER. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

101

Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas cleaning plants in foreground on the left and the right side of the furnace building. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

102

11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

103

Microwave caustic leaching of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is a waste product which is generated when steel scrap is melted in an electric arc furnace. It contains high concentrations of iron, zinc and lead. Numerous pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes have been developed to treat this material. Only a limited number of these have reached commercialization and the majority have been pyrometallurgical. However, the

D. K. Xia; C. A. Picklesi

2000-01-01

104

VIEW FACING EAST, VIEW FROM RIVER OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FACING EAST, VIEW FROM RIVER OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3. DORR THICKENER & ORE BRIDGE AT LEFT, HOT BLAST STOVES & DUST CATCHER CENTER, CAST HOUSE AT RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

105

DETAIL VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND SKIP HOIST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND SKIP HOIST. DUST CATCHER IS AT THE RIGHT. VIEW IS FROM THE EAST. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

106

39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod or poker at right was used to unplug iron notch. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

107

CLOSEUP VIEW OF OPEN HEARTH COMPLEX (INCLUDING PIT FURNACE BUILDING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP VIEW OF OPEN HEARTH COMPLEX (INCLUDING PIT FURNACE BUILDING, BLOOMING & BAR MILL, & HOT BEDS) & RAIL MILL. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

108

44. View looking west down length of No. 2 Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. View looking west down length of No. 2 Furnace casting shed showing overhead traveling crane. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

109

38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ladle car on floor of casting shed. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

110

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

111

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DC MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

112

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DETAIL OF CABLES AND BUS BARS (which convey power to electrodes) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

113

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING NO. 1 FURNACE. TO RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING NO. 1 FURNACE. TO RIGHT ARE D.C. MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

114

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING LINE AT THE HEAT TREATMENT PLANT OF THE DUQUESNE WORKS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Heat Treatment Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

115

102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust gases to stoves during heating cycle. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

116

Products of steel slags an opportunity to save natural resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Germany, and in the most industrial countries, the use of blast furnace and steel slags as an aggregate for civil engineering, for metallurgical use and as fertiliser has a very long tradition. Since the introduction of the basic oxygen steel making furnace (BOF) process and the electric arc furnace (EAF) process the German steel industry started extensive research on

H Motz; J Geiseler

2001-01-01

117

Heat treatment furnace  

DOEpatents

A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

2014-10-21

118

Chondrule reheating experiments and relict olivine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondrules contain foreign objects, including some olivine grains that obviously did not crystallize from their silicate melt. The term recycling is usually applied to chondrules with relict grains, implying that the precursor contained relicts of a previous generation of chondrules. This has given rise to the idea that the pervasive melt droplet formation that affected the early solar system involved repeated events in which chondrules or chondrule debris were reheated. We conducted experiments in which synthetic chondrules generated from fine-grained mineral aggregates were heated and cooled a second time to see what the textural consequences of this reheating would be. Charges were heated to peak temperatures for 1 min and were cooled to near-solidus temperatures over 35 min, for both thermal cycles. We first made microporphyritic olivine charges and on reheating and second cooling observed coarser grain sizes and disappearance of relict grains, if the second peak temperature was the same as or higher than the first (but insufficient for destroying all nuclei). The coarsening was due to the dissolution of the smallest first generation crystals and additional growth on the relicts during cooling. Reheated barred olivine spheres generated barred olivine spheres again, no matter how low the peak temperature. This is because the number of remaining olivine grains or nuclei that acted as sites for regrowth was constant. Generating the observed distribution of chondrule textures, dominantly porphyritic, directly from a fine-grained precursor such as nebular or presolar condensates is impossible with a single event. With reheating of chondrules, generating the texture distribution is possible provided that subsequent heating events have higher peak temperatures than the first, so that total dissolution of the smallest grains occurs, with consequent coarsening. For our thermal history and a reasonable distribution of peak temperatures, multiple recycling events might be needed to make most chondrules porphyritic. Alternatively, the predominance of porphyritic textures in chondrules could be explained by heating times hours long for a fine-grained precursor or by heating of a coarse-grained precursor. The presence of relict grains derived from older chondrules or other material suggests that an aggregate has been heated for the first time, because recycling brings an approach to equilibrium. There appears to be no reliable way to use textures to tell just how many chondrules have been heated more than once. The relict grains simply indicate the nature of the precursors, which were at least in part derived from earlier chondrules, and of the peak temperatures too low for total melting and heating times too short for total dissolution. Rim thicknesses on relict grains depend on number density of crystals and melt composition, and are not a reliable guide to the chondrule cooling rate.

Fox, G. E.; Hewins, R. H.

2005-05-01

119

Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: a historical perspective and future opportunities  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. steel industry has taken enormous strides over the past decades to reduce its energy consumption; since the end of World War II, the industry has reduced its energy intensity (energy use per shipped ton) by 60 percent. Between 1990 and 1998 alone, intensity has dropped from 20 to 18 million Btu (MBtu) per ton. This figure is projected to decrease to 15 MBtu/ton by 2010 with an asymptotic trend towards 14 MBtu/ton. Domestic shipments are projected to flatten out over the next decade to around 105 million tons which means that total energy consumption will also decrease. Historically, the steel industry has accounted for about 6 percent of U.S. energy consumption. Today, that figure is less than 2 percent and will decrease further to 1.5 percent by 2010. The primary causes for the decrease in energy consumption since WWII are: The use of pellets in the blast furnace and the application of new technology in the ironmaking process to further reduce fuel rates per net ton of hot metal (NTHM); The total replacement of the open hearth process by basic oxygen and electric furnaces; The almost total replacement of ingot casting by continuous casting (which improved yield dramatically and thus reduced the tons of raw steel required per ton of shipments); and The growth of the electric furnace sector of the industry at the expense of hot metal-based processes (which has also stimulated scrap recycling so that about 55 percent of ''new'' steel is now melted from scrap steel). This report focuses on the concept of good practices (i.e., those that are sustainable and can use today's technology). If all the industry could operate on this basis, the additional savings per ton could total 2 MBtu, As further restructuring occurs and the swing from hot metal-based to electric furnace-based production continues, the average consumption will approach the good practice energy per ton. Further savings will accrue through new technology, particularly in the areas of reduced blast furnace fuel rates and reheating efficiency, both of which relate to large tonnages of material.

Stubbles, John

2000-09-01

120

Electric furnace construction  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a furnace comprising: opposing first and second sidewalls; first and second structurally rigid insulating board attached to the interior of the furnace at the first and second sidewalls; a roof; roof insulating means; at least one elongated rod passing through the roof insulating means and spanning the width of the furnace. The rod has a first and second end embedded within the first and second insulating board, respectively; heating elements positioned within the furnace; and, means to support the heating elements from the rod.

Schultz, S.J.; Huebner, J.F.; Wiedor, D.E.; Pribish, D.S.

1986-10-28

121

Equation-of-state parameter for reheating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constraints to the parameters of inflation models are often derived assuming some plausible range for the number—e.g., Nk=46 to Nk=60 —of e -folds of inflation that occurred between the time that our current observable Universe exited the horizon and the end of inflation. However, that number is, for any specific inflaton potential, related to an effective equation-of-state parameter wre and temperature Tre, for reheating. Although the physics of reheating is highly uncertain, there is a finite range of reasonable values for wre. Here we show that, by restricting wre to this range, more stringent constraints to inflation-model parameters can be derived than those obtained from the usual procedure. To do so, we focus in this work in particular on natural inflation and inflation with a Higgs-like potential and on power-law models as limiting cases of those. As one example, we show that the lower limit to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r , derived from current measurements of the scalar spectral index, is about 20%-25% higher (depending on the model) with this procedure than with the usual approach.

Muñoz, Julian B.; Kamionkowski, Marc

2015-02-01

122

Reheating in non-minimal derivative coupling model  

SciTech Connect

We consider a model with non-minimal derivative coupling of inflaton to gravity. The reheating process during rapid oscillation of the inflaton is studied and the reheating temperature is obtained. Behaviors of the inflaton and produced radiation in this era are discussed.

Sadjadi, H. Mohseni; Goodarzi, Parviz, E-mail: mohsenisad@ut.ac.ir, E-mail: p_goodarzi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, P.O.B. 14395-547, Tehran 14399-55961 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-02-01

123

Reheating after f(R) Inflation and Observational Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a unified model of the primordial inflation and the present cosmic acceleration has been proposed in the context of f(R) gravity. In this model, the reheating dynamics after the inflation is significantly altered. We investigated the reheating dynamics and found that typical parameter range of the model has already been excluded by the observations of cosmic microwave background and gravitational waves...

Nishizawa, Atsushi; Motohashi, Hayato

2015-01-01

124

Two chamber reaction furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber.

Blaugher; Richard D

1998-01-01

125

Two chamber reaction furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the

Blaugher

1998-01-01

126

Model Fe-Al Steel with Exceptional Resistance to High Temperature Coarsening. Part II: Experimental Validation and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to achieve a fine uniform grain-size distribution using the process of thin slab casting and directing rolling (TSCDR), it is necessary to control the grain-size prior to the onset of thermomechanical processing. In the companion paper, Model Fe- Al Steel with Exceptional Resistance to High Temperature Coarsening. Part I: Coarsening Mechanism and Particle Pinning Effects, a new steel composition which uses a small volume fraction of austenite particles to pin the growth of delta-ferrite grains at high temperature was proposed and grain growth was studied in reheated samples. This paper will focus on the development of a simple laboratory-scale setup to simulate thin-slab casting of the newly developed steel and demonstrate the potential for grain size control under industrial conditions. Steel bars with different diameters are briefly dipped into the molten steel to create a shell of solidified material. These are then cooled down to room temperature at different cooling rates. During cooling, the austenite particles nucleate along the delta-ferrite grain boundaries and greatly retard grain growth. With decreasing temperature, more austenite particles precipitate, and grain growth can be completely arrested in the holding furnace. Additional applications of the model alloy are discussed including grain-size control in the heat affected zone in welds and grain-growth resistance at high temperature.

Zhou, Tihe; Zhang, Peng; O'Malley, Ronald J.; Zurob, Hatem S.; Subramanian, Mani

2015-01-01

127

Caustic roasting and leaching of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is produced when iron and steel scrap is remelted in an electric arc furnace. There are still significant problems associated with the pyrometallurgical and\\/or hydrometallurgical processes for the treatment of this dust. In the present research, the dust was roasted with caustic soda at low temperatures. It was found that the zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) in

D. K. Xia; C. A. Pickles

1999-01-01

128

Conformal inflation, modulated reheating, and WMAP5  

SciTech Connect

We investigate density perturbations generated through modulated reheating while inflation is driven by a conformally coupled scalar field. A large running of the spectral index is obtained, which reflects the basic nature of conformal inflation that higher-order time derivatives of the Hubble parameter during inflation are not necessarily small. This feature may allow us to distinguish between conformal inflation models and standard minimally coupled ones. We also investigate how the resulting fluctuations are modified when there is a deviation from an exact conformal coupling between the inflaton and gravity. Finally, we apply our results to the warped brane inflation model and see that observational bounds from the WMAP5 data suggest a blue tilted density perturbation spectrum.

Kobayashi, Takeshi [Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mukohyama, Shinji [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

2009-04-15

129

Charge separation in Reheating after Cosmological Inflation  

E-print Network

New aspects of parametrically resonant heating of a relativistic scalar O(2)-symmetric self-interacting field are presented. This process is a candidate for reheating at the end of the early-universe epoch of inflation. Although a model with a fully O(2)-symmetric ground state is used, transient, metastable spontaneous symmetry breaking can be observed. This manifests itself in the form of persistent regimes of opposite and, inside these, uniform charge overdensities separated by thin lines and walls similar to topological defects, in two and three spatial dimensions, respectively. The configuration is found to correspond to an attractive non-equilibrium fixed point of the underlying dynamic equations which prevents thermalisation over an extended period of time.

Thomas Gasenzer; Boris Nowak; Denes Sexty

2012-03-20

130

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

131

Simulating (p)reheating after inflation via the DCE?  

E-print Network

We note some close parallels between preheating/perturbative reheating, (p)reheating, models in post-inflationary cosmology and the dynamical Casimir effect (DCE) in quantum optics. For the plasma-mirror model we show how the effective plasma mass (arising from conduction electrons) behaves like an oscillating inflaton field, while created photons behave like a scalar field coupled quadratically to the inflaton. Furthermore, the effect of spacetime expansion can also be incorporated by varying the dielectric function. We propose an experiment that could mimic (p)reheating for both narrow and broad parametric resonance, by employing technology already being used in attempts to detect DCE photons via plasma-mirrors.

Wade Naylor

2014-09-18

132

High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

Bates, Stephen C.

1997-01-01

133

Franklin Furnace Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

134

Infrared domestic furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This residential space-heating furnace generates infrared radiation in a sealed combustion chamber for improved heating efficiency, reduced air pollution (both nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide), and a lower fuel requirement (40-50% less natural gas) than conventional heaters. The burner comprises a hat-shaped fibrous matrix mounted on a cooling drum. The furnace 1) circulates only that air previously in the room,

1982-01-01

135

Analysis of standard reference materials after microwave-oven digestion in open vessels using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Zeeman-effect background correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heating-covered teflon digestion vials located inside a reheatable container in the presence of different acid mixtures with microwave oven dissolve the metals from biological and environmental certified reference materials. Pb, Cd, Cu, Mn and Fe from the dissolved samples are determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Zeeman-effect background correction. The method allows the treatment of about 100 samples

D. Chakraborti; M. Burguera; J. L. Burguera

1993-01-01

136

Wood burning furnace  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a furnace having four walls for burning cellulosic fuel therein, a grate in the furnace bottom on which the fuel is burned, means for introducing cellulosic fuel onto the grate, means for introducing air into the furnace for supporting combustion of the fuel, a rear gas pass connected to the upper end of the furnace, the walls of the furnace being inclined upwardly and outwardly from the grate in such a manner that at a given height above the grate, the cross-sectional flow area is 1 1/2 to 2 times the flow area closely adjacent to the grate, such that most of the partially burned char particles entrained in the gases near the grate reach a height in the furnace where the gas velocity equals the particle terminal velocity, so that most of the particles remain suspended at this height until combustion has reduced their size enough so that they can be carried into the rear pass by the reduced gas velocity.

Bauver, W.P. II

1986-05-20

137

Dehumidification Without Re-heat Using Face and Bypass Dampers  

E-print Network

Installations with chill water cooling, needing constant air volume and dehumidification, traditionally use a draw through air handling unit with a cooling coil and a re-heat coil. Dehumidification is achieved by overcooling the discharge air...

Warila, D. T.

1994-01-01

138

Low reheating temperatures in monomial and binomial inflationary potentials  

E-print Network

We investigate the allowed range of reheating temperature values in light of the Planck 2015 results and the recent joint analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck experiments, using monomial and binomial inflationary potentials. While the well studied $\\phi^2$ inflationary potential is no longer favored by current CMB data, as well as $\\phi^p$ with $p>2$, a $\\phi^1$ potential and canonical reheating ($w_{re}=0$) provide a good fit to the CMB measurements. In this last case, we find that the Planck 2015 $68\\%$ confidence limit upper bound on the spectral index, $n_s$, implies an upper bound on the reheating temperature of $T_{re}\\lesssim 6\\times 10^{10}\\,{\\rm GeV}$, and excludes instantaneous reheating. The low reheating temperatures allowed by this model open the possiblity that dark matter could be produced during the reheating period instead of when the Universe is radiation dominated, which could lead to very different predictions for the relic density and mo...

Rehagen, Thomas

2015-01-01

139

Reheating-volume measure in the landscape  

E-print Network

I recently proposed the "reheating-volume" (RV) prescription as a possible solution to the measure problem in "multiverse" cosmology. The goal of this work is to extend the RV measure to scenarios involving bubble nucleation, such as the string theory landscape. In the spirit of the RV prescription, I propose to calculate the distribution of observable quantities in a landscape that is conditioned in probability to nucleate a finite total number of bubbles to the future of an initial bubble. A general formula for the relative number of bubbles of different types can be derived. I show that the RV measure is well-defined and independent of the choice of the initial bubble type, as long as that type supports further bubble nucleation. Applying the RV measure to a generic landscape, I find that the abundance of Boltzmann brains is always negligibly small compared with the abundance of ordinary observers in the bubbles of the same type. As an illustration, I present explicit results for a toy landscape containing four vacuum states and for landscapes with a single high-energy vacuum and a large number of low-energy vacua.

Sergei Winitzki

2008-10-09

140

Skid resistance performance of asphalt wearing courses with electric arc furnace slag aggregates.  

PubMed

Metallurgical slags are by-products of the iron and steel industry and are subdivided into blast furnace slag and steel slag according to the different steel-producing processes. In Greece, slags are mostly produced from steelmaking using the electric arc furnace process, and subsequently are either disposed in a random way or utilized by the cement industry. Steel slag has been recently used, worldwide, as hard aggregates in wearing courses in order to improve the skidding resistance of asphalt pavements. At the Highway Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki research has been carried out in the field of steel slags, and especially in electric arc furnace (EAF) slag, to evaluate their possible use in highway engineering. In this paper, the recent results of anti-skidding performance of steel slag aggregates in highway pavements are presented. PMID:19423603

Kehagia, Fotini

2009-05-01

141

Mass and heat transfer in 140-t AC ladle-furnace unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Treatment of the intermediate product using a ladle? furnace unit helps ensure the required quality of the steel produced. The growing use of such equipment testifies to its flexibility and promise. However, it is clear from operational experience, the results of foreign studies, and our research that the efficiency of treatment in a ladle? furnace unit may be increased,

V. P. Piptyuk; S. E. Samokhvalov; I. A. Pavlyuchenkov; D. N. Turunov; E. N. Dymchenko; S. V. Grekov

2007-01-01

142

DESTRUCTION AND REMOVAL OF POHCS (PRINCPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS) IN IRON MAKING BLAST FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

At least one steel company utilizes organic waste liquids as a heat and carbon content source to partially replace the coke that is used to charge the blast furnaces. The waste liquids fed to the blast furnace are likely to contain hazardous constituents. Temperature and residenc...

143

The Utilization and Recovery of Energy from Blast Furnaces and Converters  

E-print Network

The Bischoff Blast Furnace Top Gas Process for high pressure blast furnaces is presented as an example of a modern gas treatment process in the iron and steel industry: the work potential of the high pressure top gas is utilized in a plant...

Hegemann, K. R.; Niess, T.; Baare, R. D.

1979-01-01

144

Air lock mechanism speeds specimen testing in high-temperature vacuum furnaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanism, made of 347 stainless steel, is attached to furnace port by bolted flange. Unit incorporates quick opening, high vacuum valve and associated fittings which provide connections to air lock evacuation and to inert gas supply for quenching specimen after it is withdrawn from furnace into air lock.

Whitehead, C.

1971-01-01

145

High gradient directional solidification furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventor)

1985-01-01

146

Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

2012-01-01

147

Biomass heat exchanger furnace  

SciTech Connect

A hot air heat exchanger furnace that uses crop residue as a fuel source is provided for producing the heat required for various purposes, such as the drying of grains, peanuts, soybeans and other materials and for the heating of buildings. The furnace includes a combustion chamber, an upper manifold, a lower manifold, a plenum and a number of exhaust tubes. The exhaust tubes direct the flow of combustion gases from the combustion chamber in a serpentine path in the plenum between the upper and lower manifolds and into a stack. Meanwhile, ambient air passes into the plenum, past the heat transfer surfaces of the combustion chamber and the exhaust tubes as heat transfers to it. Then it passes out of the furnace.

Sukup, E.G.

1984-05-22

148

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

149

Influence of reheating on the trispectrum and its scale dependence  

SciTech Connect

We study the evolution of the non-linear curvature perturbation during perturbative reheating, and hence how observables evolve to their final values which we may compare against observations. Our study includes the evolution of the two trispectrum parameters, g{sub NL} and ?{sub NL}, as well as the scale dependence of both f{sub NL} and ?{sub NL}. In general the evolution is significant and must be taken into account, which means that models of multifield inflation cannot be compared to observations without specifying how the subsequent reheating takes place. If the trispectrum is large at the end of inflation, it normally remains large at the end of reheating. In the classes of models we study, it remains very hard to generate ?{sub NL} >> f{sub NL}{sup 2}, regardless of the decay rates of the fields. Similarly, for the classes of models in which g{sub NL} ? ?{sub NL} during slow-roll inflation, we find the relation typically remains valid during reheating. Therefore it is possible to observationally test such classes of models without specifying the parameters of reheating, even though the individual observables are sensitive to the details of reheating. It is hard to generate an observably large g{sub NL} however. The runnings, n{sub f{sub N{sub L}}} and n{sub ?{sub N{sub L}}}, tend to satisfy a consistency relation n{sub ?{sub N{sub L}}} = (3/2)n{sub f{sub N{sub L}}} regardless of the reheating timescale, but are in general too small to be observed for the class of models considered.

Leung, Godfrey; Tarrant, Ewan R. M.; Copeland, Edmund J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Byrnes, Christian T., E-mail: ppxgl@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: ppxet@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: ed.copeland@nottingham.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2013-08-01

150

Plasma furnace treatment of metallurgical by-product streams  

SciTech Connect

It is a common misconception that plasma furnace technology only has application for exotic and very high temperature processes. With the increasing importance placed on waste minimization and the environmental constraints imposed on heavy metals present in byproducts from mainstream operations, plasma technology is finding widespread application. Tetronics is a premier supplier of plasma tundish heating systems for the steel industry. More recently the company has found growing interest in electric arc furnace dust treatment, lead blast furnace slag treatment and metal recovery, copper, nickel and cobalt scavenging from primary smelter slags, dross treatment, platinum group metals (PGM) recovery from catalysts and vitrification and detoxification of heavy metal contaminated waste byproducts. The principal advantages of the plasma arc technology are the close metallurgical control of the furnace environment, minimal off-gas handling requirements and overall high energy efficiency of the processes. A number of applications in the ferrous and non-ferrous metals industry are described.

Whellock, J.G. [JW Technologies, LLC, Englewood, CO (United States); Heanley, C.P.; Chapman, C.S. [Tetronics Ltd., Faringdon (United Kingdom)

1997-12-31

151

Direct sampling of gas and particulates from electric arc furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a given arc furnace heat for melting of scrap steel charges and subsequent steel making, considerable amounts of particulates are produced, varying in composition, size distribution and production rates corresponding to several distinct stages of the heat. In an effort to develop a detailed model for the particle production mechanisms, a new program for direct sampling of the furnace gas and particulates from the interior of the furnace has been devised and successfully implemented. It consists of a new high temperature sampling tube, capable of withstanding temperatures up to 1900 C for an indefinite period of time, and an experimental protocol designed to extract certain specific information necessary for development of a theoretical model. The results from two complete runs are described in detail. A theoretical model has been formulated, as guided by the measurements, which facilitates realistic predictions of the growth rate and elemental compositon of the particulates.

Harding, Thomas W.; Kim, Yong W.

1982-05-01

152

No. 5 blast furnace 1995 reline and upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The 1995 reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is an undertaking which has never been approached in previous relines of any blast furnace in the history of Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel Corporation. The scope of the project is such that it represents a radical departure from W.P.S.C.`s traditional methods of ironmaking. The reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is one of the largest capital improvements performed at W.P.S.C. Blast Furnaces. The improvements made at one single time are taking a furnace from 1960`s technology into the 21st century. With this in mind, employee training was one of the largest parts of the project. Training for the automated stockhouse, castfloor, new skip drive, new instrumentation, new castfloor equipment, hydraulics and overall furnace operation were an absolute necessity. The reline has laid the ground work to give the Corporation an efficient, higher productive, modern Blast Furnace which will place W.P.S.C. in the world class category in ironmaking well into the 21st century.

Kakascik, T.F. Jr.

1996-12-31

153

Improved graphite furnace atomizer  

DOEpatents

A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

Siemer, D.D.

1983-05-18

154

Advanced residential furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Improved combustion, flue-products-venting, and heat exchange processes utilized in the design of high-efficiency residential gas-fired central furnaces are briefly discussed. A technical summary is also presented of high efficiency residential gas-fired central furnace developments under way in the U.S. Non-condensing and condensing-flue product concepts are included with their technical status, attained or projected performance, and forward plans for commercialization. Equipment currently, or soon to be, in the market and in laboratory and field evaluations are included. A brief summary of efforts to insure introduction and to enhance timely market acceptance of such equipment is also presented.

Macriss, R.A.

1980-01-01

155

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

156

36. View from southwest of No. 2 Furnace skiphoist with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. View from southwest of No. 2 Furnace skip-hoist with skip-hoist engine house in left corner and dust catcher in background. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

157

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST AND DUST CATCHER. STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND, THE #2 CASTING SHED BEYOND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

158

VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE FROM THE EAST, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE FROM THE EAST, SHOWING SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS IN THE FOREGROUND. #2 CASTING SHED IS TO THE LEFT, HOT BLAST MAIN IS ON THE RIGHT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

159

INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER ROOM FOR FURNACE NO. 2 LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER ROOM FOR FURNACE NO. 2 LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING BACK OF CONTROL PANEL AND TRANSFORMER (GE, 3000 KUA water cooled, 60 cycles, U.S. patent 1900585. Transformer dates from 1937, control panel GE resistors) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

160

Fabrication and leak-tight furnace brazing of intricate objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extremely compact crossflow heat exchanger has been constructed by hydrogen furnace brazing together a stack of hundreds of chemically milled stainless-steel sheets. The resulting structure is leak tight and very strong, but fluid channels as small as 51 ?m are not plugged by excess brazing material. The construction technique is easily adapted to mass production and should be useful

G. W. Swift; A. Migliori; John Wheatley; C. R. Waller; G. Suazo

1984-01-01

161

FRACTIONAL EFFICIENCY OF AN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE BAGHOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the performance of a fabric filter system controlling emissions from either one or two 30-ton electric arc furnaces producing a high-strength, low-alloy specialty steel. The evaluation involved measuring the system's total mass collect...

162

15. TAKING A CAST AT FURNACE NO. 1 HOT SLAG, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. TAKING A CAST AT FURNACE NO. 1 HOT SLAG, BY-PRODUCT IN SMELTING OF PIG IRON, CAN BE SEEN FLOWING INTO THE SLAG YARD. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

163

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND MACHINERY AND ARTIFACTS INCLUDING A STEAM ENGINE HUB MADE AT THE BRIERFIELD ROLLING MILL (INSCRIBED C.C. HUCKABEE AND DATED 1863) AND OTHER STEAM ENGINES. - Iron & Steel Museum of Alabama, 12632 Confederate Pkwy., Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

164

Experience with in-furnace surfaces in Ahlstrom Pyroflow CFB boilers  

SciTech Connect

Pyroflow circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been demonstrating an excellent fuel flexibility while simultaneously meeting stringent emission control requirements. The size of these boilers has been gradually increasing for utility applications. As the size of the unit increases more attention is required in the selection and arrangement of the superheater, reheater etc. to ensure very high availability. Right from the initial stage of development of the CFB technology, Ahlstrom Pyropower has recognized the benefits of providing in-furnace evaporative or superheat surface in comparison with other options. As a result Pyroflow boilers have been provided with in-furnace evaporative and/or superheat surface when required. This paper presents the development of different types of in-furnace surfaces, describes the design considerations, addresses the concern on erosion and summarizes the successful operational experience of many Pyroflow units.

Barcelos, R.; Elanchezhian, C. (Pyropower Corp., San Diego, CA (US))

1991-01-01

165

An improved gas extraction furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of glass furnace for analysis of rocks to determine nature and amount of trapped gas is described. Furnace heats specimen in vacuum conditions by radio frequency induction. Diagram of apparatus to show construction and operation is provided.

Wilkin, R. B.

1972-01-01

166

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15

167

Advanced Process Heater for the Steel, Aluminum and Chemical Industries of the Future  

SciTech Connect

The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: “Improved performance of high temperature materials; improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer”. Radiant tubes are used in almost every industry of the future. Examples include Aluminum re-heat furnaces; Steel strip annealing furnaces, Petroleum cracking/ refining furnaces, Metal Casting/Heat Treating in atmosphere and fluidized bed furnaces, Glass lair annealing furnaces, Forest Products infrared paper driers, Chemical heat exchangers and immersion heaters, and the indirect grain driers in the Agriculture Industry. Several common needs among the industries are evident: (1) Energy Reductions, (2) Productivity Improvements, (3) Zero Emissions, and (4) Increased Component Life. The Category I award entitled “Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future” met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) doubling the heat transfer rates (2) improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) improving temperature uniformity by 100oF (38 oC) and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH addresses EERE’s primary mission of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. The primary goal of this project was to design, manufacture and test a commercial APH prototype by integrating three components: (1) Helical Heat Exchanger, (2) Shared Wall Radiant U-tube, and (3) Helical Flame Stabilization Element. To accomplish the above, a near net shape powder ceramic Si-SiC low-cost forming process was used to manufacture the components. The project defined the methods for making an Advanced Process Heater that produced an efficiency between 70% to 80% with temperature uniformities of less than 5oF/ft (9oC/m). Three spin-off products resulted from this project: (1) a low-cost, high-temperature heat exchanger, (2) a new radiant heat transfer system, and (3) a hybrid or integral advanced process heater that incorporates a high surface area ceramic heat exchanger and burner combined with either a metallic or ceramic radiant tube and heat transfer elements.

Thomas D. Briselden

2007-10-31

168

New possibilities of Consteel furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disadvantages of Consteel electric furnaces, which are mainly caused by the low efficiency of heating of a charged metal scrap by effluent furnace gases, are considered. A new concept of an electric-arc furnace with scrap heating on a conveyer by powerful burners, which provide fast scrap heating to 800°C, is proposed. As follows from calculations, the capacity of such a furnace increases substantially, the specific electric power consumption decreases, and the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere decreases as compared to the existing Consteel furnaces.

Tuluevskii, Yu. N.; Zinurov, I. Yu.; Shver, V. G.

2012-06-01

169

High Efficiency Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

1985-08-27

170

High efficiency furnace  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

1985-12-31

171

2. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Company, Central ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Company, Central Furnaces & Docks, General Plan of Works Showing Trestle, 1-3-39.' Drawing courtesy of United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

172

1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central Furnace Works -- Sketch of Plant Showing Tracks & Buildings, 1913, Revised 3/10/31.' Drawing courtesy United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. Credit Berni Rich, Score Photographs, August 1979, for photos 1 through 4 and 7 through 11. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

173

Microstructural Evolution in Power Plant Steels  

E-print Network

Steels Pump Cooling water Cooling water Electrical output Condenser Reheat Coal Boiler Superheater Ash HP, heat energy from fuel combustion or nuclear fission is used to produce jets of steam. The kinetic. It is therefore desirable from both economic and environ- mental points of view to use as high an operating

Cambridge, University of

174

Understanding the Role of Initial Microstructure on Intercritically Reheated Heat Affected Zone Microstructure and Properties of Multi-Pass Welds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-pass welding of low alloy steels has been shown to cause regions of low toughness in the reheated heat affected zone (HAZ) due to the formation of islands of untempered martensite and austenite called 'M-A constituents'. Traditional research in this area has focused on studying the formation of these constituents and its effect on properties of one particular region of the HAZ zone called the 'inter-critically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone'. Although, modern engineering steels are an eclectic mixture of microstructures, the effect of initial microstructure on the formation of these M-A constituents and on the properties of weld HAZ has mostly been ignored and has gone uninvestigated. In this document, some of the previous work related to multi-pass weld HAZ properties is revisited and fundamental issues in need of further research related to initial microstructure and microstructural factors governing HAZ properties are highlighted. A study has been conducted to analyze the role of initial microstructure on HAZ properties of multi-pass welds on four pipeline grade microalloyed steels. These steels had minor differences in compositions with respect to certain alloying elements. For each of the four steels, two different microstructures were developed that acted as initial microstructures for HAZ simulation. One set of initial microstructure was developed using thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP) and the second kind of microstructure was obtained using heat treatments. The steels with differing initial microstructures but same compositions were subjected to intercritically reheated HAZ thermal cycles using Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator. The microstructures thus obtained were studied using advanced characterization techniques and their properties were evaluated and compared using mechanical testing. Dilatometric analysis of phase transformations occurring during the HAZ simulation indicated difference in the transformation temperatures of steels with differing initial microstructures. The on-heating phase transformation start temperature was always found to be lower for the TMCP microstructure when compared to that initial microstructure formed from heat treatment. Furthermore, the amount of austenite formed during the intercritical thermal cycle by the steels was found to be different when the initial microstructures were different, with the TMCP microstructure always forming a lower amount of austenite. Microstructure characterization of HAZ regions obtained from different initial microstructures also showed differences in the amount of M-A constituents and the heat treated initial microstructure was always found to have higher amount of M-A constituents in the HAZ. Room temperature mechanical testing on the HAZ microstructures formed from different initial microstructures did not show significant differences in the intercritically reheated HAZ tensile properties. However, profound differences were observed in the impact toughness properties of these HAZ regions. HAZ obtained from the heat treated microstructure always exhibited poor impact toughness at low testing temperatures. These results indicate that initial microstructure might have a significant effect on HAZ properties of multi-pass welds. The results of microstructure characterization and mechanical testing of HAZ regions formed from the two initial microstructures of all the four steels are discussed. Based on results, a possible mechanism of microstructure evolution is put forth to explain the reason behind the differences in the properties of HAZ regions formed from different initial microstructures.

Lolla, Tapasvi

175

Energy situation in Europe and conservation in some industrial furnace uses  

SciTech Connect

This article briefly reviews the energy situation in Europe and discusses some measures taken or initiated by European furnace manufacturers to reduce energy consumption. An examination of a quite specific consumer area, the iron and steel processing industry in West Germany, reveals that greater efficiency in the use of natural gas has reduced consumption. If this trend continues, the natural gas consumption in the iron and steel industry will have fallen by 58% compared to the 1978 figure. This prognosis is based on the potential for energy saving in the design of industrial furnaces for the iron and steel industry.

Kuh, F.

1983-11-01

176

Environmental assessment of a BOF steel slag used in road construction: The ECLAIR research program  

E-print Network

1 Environmental assessment of a BOF steel slag used in road construction: The ECLAIR research Abstract Steel production generates great amounts of by-products as steel slag. Unlike blast furnace slag, the use of Basic Oxygen Furnace slag (BOF slag) has been restrained due to insufficient volume stability

Boyer, Edmond

177

On-line ultrasonic system for measuring thickness of the copper stave in the blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blast furnace is used make molten iron from sintered ore and the cokes in the steel industry. Recently, the copper stave cooling system placed on inner face of the blast furnace body to protect the steel shell from heat. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the material makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. It was impossible to access the copper stave with the ultrasonic sensor for measuring thickness because the copper stave is covered with the steel shell and there is backing refractory between the stave and the steel shell. The unique ultrasonic sensor which can approach the cooling stave through the cooling line was developed to measure thickness. The thickness can be measured with portable ultrasonic thickness sensor and can be monitored continuously with embedded sensors.

Choi, Sang-Woo; Kim, Dohoon

2012-05-01

178

Carbon-free induction furnace  

DOEpatents

An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Pfeiler, William A. (Norris, TN)

1985-01-01

179

Non-carbon induction furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

1984-01-06

180

Effects of Silicon and Furnace Conditions on Hot Shortness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual Cu in scrap based steel manufactured in the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) leads to a surface cracking phenomenon known as surface hot shortness. Si is known to provide a potential reduction in hot shortness; however, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood for low Si quantities. This study aims to determine a window of Si contents with a given Ni content needed to counteract the negative effects of Sn and Cu to reduce hot shortness and to determine the mechanism. Thermogravimetric Analysis, SEM-EDS, XRD, and TEM were used to study the hot shortness behavior of a Fe alloy containing 0.2% Cu, 0.05% Ni, 0.01% Sn and with varying Si-content (0.02%, 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.2% Si). It was found that fayalite formation at the metal/oxide interface resulted in a reduction of oxidation and subsequent Cu-rich liquid formation for all Si contents examined. Under isothermal air oxidation experiments, the range of Si contents between 0.1-0.2 wt% Si exhibited a mechanism that was a combination of fayalite formation impeding oxidation as well as occlusion of the Cu-rich liquid due to internal oxidation. This range was acceptable to alleviate hot shortness under these conditions. Following continuous casting, steel undergoes a cooling process known as secondary cooling where water is sprayed on the surface to promote cooling followed by a radiant cooling stage where the steel is cooled in air to room temperature. The secondary cooling regime leads to oxidation of the alloy in an air + water vapor atmosphere. Experiments were completed to determine the effect of the non-isothermal secondary cooling cycle, the effect of water vapor during secondary cooling, and the effect of the radiant cooling regime down to room temperature. In the case of secondary cooling atmospheres, the non-isothermal cooling cycle resulted in a slight increase in liquid quantity and grain boundary penetration as compared to the isothermal heating cycles due to the higher temperatures experienced in the non-isothermal cycle. The addition of water vapor increased the sample oxidation as compared to samples processed in dry atmospheres due to increased scale adherence, scale plasticity, and inward transport of oxygen. The increase in weight gain of the wet atmosphere compared to the dry atmosphere would indicate increased liquid formation at the interface, which did occur in non-Si containing alloys; however, in Si-containing alloys there was also an increased amount of occlusion of Cu and Fe due to increased scale adherence and inward oxidation in the presence of water vapor increasing the amount of internal oxidation. As Si also increases the formation of internal oxides, the amount of occlusion increased with Si content, significantly decreasing the quantity of liquid at the interface and the amount of grain boundary penetration. In the case of the Fe-Cu-Ni-Sn alloy, the secondary cooling cycle with water lead to the formation of many small pools of Cu-rich liquid embedded within the surface of the metal due to oxidation within liquid penetrated grain boundaries. Oxidation in combustion atmospheres was completed to determine the effect of oxygen content on oxidation in reheat furnaces. Combustion atmospheres with 1%, 3%, and 6% excess oxygen were examined isothermally at 1150°C to compare oxidation in combustion atmospheres to oxidation in air atmospheres. The reduction of available oxygen decreased the oxidation rates in the 1% and 3% excess oxygen atmospheres leading to a reduction in the Cu-rich liquid formation therefore reducing the risk of hot shortness as less liquid is present at the metal/oxide interface. The reduction in free oxygen in the atmosphere decreased the rate and amount of oxidation leading to the formation of a non-uniform scale at short times. However, the 6% excess oxygen atmosphere behaved similarly to air due to the formation of a uniform scale indicating that once a uniform scale is formed, the oxygen content in the atmosphere does not significantly alter the hot shortness behavior of the alloy. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Sampson, Erica E.

181

Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) is a by-product from the blast-furnaces used to make iron. Blast-furnaces are\\u000a fed with controlled mixture of iron-ore, coke and limestone, and operated at a temperature of about 1,500°C. When iron-ore,\\u000a coke and limestone melt in the blast furnace, two products are produced—molten iron, and molten slag. The molten slag is lighter\\u000a and floats

Rafat Siddique; Mohammad Iqbal Khan

182

Water gas furnace  

SciTech Connect

A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

Gallaro, C.

1985-12-03

183

Dual stage combustion furnace  

SciTech Connect

A dual stage combustion furnace has primary and secondary combustion chambers. The primary combustion chamber contains a solid fuel, such as wood or coal. The secondary combustion chamber is formed adjacent to and in communication with the primary combustion chamber for containing and igniting volatile combustion gases produced in the primary chamber. A plurality of hollow members, which provide a grate, extend through the primary chamber, and into the secondary chamber. Volatile gases given off in the primary combustion chamber are then ignited and burned in the secondary combustion chamber upon combination with heated air passing through the hollow grate members.

Goetzman, R.G.

1984-11-27

184

Two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

1998-05-05

185

Two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1998-05-05

186

Fuel stoker and furnace  

SciTech Connect

A furnace having a primary heat exchange unit also providing a combustion chamber, a secondary heat exchange unit connected by an upper crossover conduit to the primary heat exchange unit, and a tertiary heat exchange unit connected by a lower V-shaped crossover conduit to the secondary heat exchange unit. A third crossover conduit connects the V-shaped crossover conduit with the primary heat exchange unit. Vibrating means are provided between the secondary and tertiary heat exchange units to vibrate the walls thereof and dislodge clinging fly ash so that it falls into the V-shaped crossover conduit for removal by the screw conveyor. A burner assembly of a furnace includes a combustion air housing carrying a circular, stationary grate with an annular valley for carrying fuel during combustion. A central opening is connected to a fuel conveyor for introduction of fuel to the grate through the lower portion of the housing. Combustion air introduction conduits on the housing are remote from the fuel introduction passages and introduce air under pressure at the lower portion of the grate. An agitator and discharge ring is provided on the grate and is rotated on the grate by a suitable drive sprocket mechanism to agitate the fuel for more complete burning thereof and to remove burned ash. A horizontal burner plate is supported by a plurality of legs connected to the agitator and discharge ring over the grate to promote more complete combustion of the fuel.

Schafer, T.L.; Schafer, G.L.; Swett, H.D.

1984-02-14

187

Elastic limit and microplastic response of hardened steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tempered martensite-retained austenite microstructures were produced by direct quenching a series of 41XX medium carbon steels,\\u000a direct quenching and reheating a series of five 0.8C-Cr- Ni-Mo steels and intercritically austenitizing at various temperatures,\\u000a and quenching a SAE 52100 steel. All specimens were tempered either at 150 C or at 200 C. Specimens were subjected to compression\\u000a and tension testing in

M. A. Zaccone; G. Krauss

1993-01-01

188

Inflation, baryogenesis, and gravitino dark matter at ultralow reheat temperatures  

SciTech Connect

It is quite possible that the reheat temperature of the Universe is extremely low close to the scale of big bang nucleosynthesis, i.e. T{sub R}{approx}1-10 MeV. At such low reheat temperatures generating matter, antimatter asymmetry and synthesizing dark matter particles are challenging issues which need to be addressed within a framework of beyond the standard model physics. In this paper we point out that a successful cosmology can emerge naturally provided the R-parity violating interactions are responsible for the excess in baryons over antibaryons and at the same time they can explain the longevity of dark matter with the right abundance.

Kohri, Kazunori; Sahu, Narendra [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Mazumdar, Anupam [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej-17, Copenhagen, DK-2100 (Denmark)

2009-11-15

189

Reheating processes after Starobinsky inflation in old-minimal supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study reheating processes and its cosmological consequences in the Starobinsky model embedded in the old-minimal supergravity. First, we consider minimal coupling between the gravity and matter sectors in the higher curvature theory, and transform it to the equivalent standard supergravity coupled to additional matter superfields. We then discuss characteristic decay modes of the inflaton and the reheating temperature T R. Considering a simple model of supersymmetry breaking sector, we estimate gravitino abundance from inflaton decay, and obtain limits on the masses of gravitino and supersymmetry breaking field. We find T R ? 1.0 × 109 GeV and the allowed range of gravitino mass as 104 GeV ? m 3/2 ? 105 GeV, assuming anomaly-induced decay into the gauge sector as the dominant decay channel.

Terada, Takahiro; Watanabe, Yuki; Yamada, Yusuke; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

2015-02-01

190

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the

Blaugher

1999-01-01

191

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber.

Blaugher; Richard D

1999-01-01

192

Reheating and Thermalization, Linear Vs. Non-Linear Relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the case of a scalar field, the inflaton, coupled to both lighter\\u000ascalars and fermions, and the study the relaxation of the inflaton via particle\\u000aproduction in both the linear and non-linear regimes. This has an immediate\\u000aapplication to the reheating problem in inflationary universe models. The\\u000alinear regime analysis offers a rationale for the standard approach to

D. Boyanovsky; Marie Curie; R. Holman; D.-S. Lee

1995-01-01

193

Reheating temperature in non-minimal derivative coupling model  

SciTech Connect

We consider the inflaton as a scalar field described by a non-minimal derivative coupling model with a power law potential. We study the slow roll inflation, the rapid oscillation phase, the radiation dominated and the recombination eras respectively, and estimate e-folds numbers during these epochs. Using these results and recent astrophysical data we determine the reheating temperature in terms of the spectral index and the amplitude of the power spectrum of scalar perturbations.

Sadjadi, H. Mohseni; Goodarzi, Parviz, E-mail: mohsenisad@ut.ac.ir, E-mail: p_goodarzi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North Karegar Avenue, P.O.B. 14395-547, Tehran 14399-55961 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-07-01

194

Cosmic microwave background and parametric resonance in reheating  

E-print Network

The variation of the perturbative 3-curvature parameter, \\zeta, is investigated in the period of reheating after inflation. The two-field model used has the inflaton, with an extra scalar field coupled to it, and non-linear effects of both fields are included as well as a slow decay mechanism into the hydrodynamic fluid of the radiation era. Changes in \\zeta occur and persist into the succeeding cosmic eras to influence the generation of the cosmic microwave background fluctuations.

A. B. Henriques; R. G. Moorhouse

2001-09-25

195

A General Viscosity Model for Molten Blast Furnace Slag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace slag is the most abundant slag in the steel industry. Its metallurgical properties are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reliable viscosity model for blast furnace slag. In the current work, a simple, accurate, and physically meaningful viscosity model for a wide composition range of blast furnace slags is developed based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation: log ? = A + B/( T - C). The model is calibrated by a database containing 365 compositions and 1233 measurements of synthetic and industrial slags. The parameter A has a value of -3.10. The parameters B and C are related to the mass fraction ratio of (CaO + MgO) to (SiO2 + Al2O3) and liquidus temperature of the slag, respectively. Present viscosity model accurately predicts the viscosity of blast furnace slag with relative average error (?) of 0.211 (±0.180) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.239 Pa·s. A slight modification of this model can also predict the glass transition temperature of blast furnace slag satisfactorily.

Gan, Lei; Lai, Chaobin

2014-06-01

196

Gravitational wave background from reheating after hybrid inflation  

SciTech Connect

The reheating of the Universe after hybrid inflation proceeds through the nucleation and subsequent collision of large concentrations of energy density in the form of bubblelike structures moving at relativistic speeds. This generates a significant fraction of energy in the form of a stochastic background of gravitational waves, whose time evolution is determined by the successive stages of reheating: First, tachyonic preheating makes the amplitude of gravity waves grow exponentially fast. Second, bubble collisions add a new burst of gravitational radiation. Third, turbulent motions finally sets the end of gravitational waves production. From then on, these waves propagate unimpeded to us. We find that the fraction of energy density today in these primordial gravitational waves could be significant for grand unified theory (GUT)-scale models of inflation, although well beyond the frequency range sensitivity of gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA, or BBO. However, low-scale models could still produce a detectable signal at frequencies accessible to BBO or DECIGO. For comparison, we have also computed the analogous gravitational wave background from some chaotic inflation models and obtained results similar to those found by other groups. The discovery of such a background would open a new observational window into the very early universe, where the details of the process of reheating, i.e. the big bang, could be explored. Moreover, it could also serve in the future as a new experimental tool for testing the inflationary paradigm.

Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Sastre, Alfonso [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain and Instituto de Fisica Teorica CSIC-UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

2008-02-15

197

Vitrification of fly ash by swirling-flow furnace  

SciTech Connect

According to the amendment of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law of 1992, fly ash is regulated as Specially controlled waste and wide attention is now being paid to the melting and vitrification treatment of fly ash, which can reduce overall volume, detoxify and recover sources. Kobe Steel has demonstrated its operation using a swirling-flow furnace and has perfected a vitrification technique. The demonstration test has confirmed stable melting, high decomposition ratio of dioxins and the soundness of the slag. Kobe Steel has successfully developed a new technique for heightening the quality of slag and a new process for the heavy metals recovery from collected dust.

Ito, Tadashi [Kobe Steel Ltd., Nishi, Kobe (Japan). Engineering and Machinery Div.] [Kobe Steel Ltd., Nishi, Kobe (Japan). Engineering and Machinery Div.

1996-12-31

198

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14

199

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14

200

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01

201

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01

202

Dual stage combustion furnace  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solid fuel burning furnace having a primary combustion chamber, the primary combustion chamber having a wall and a hollow grate supporting a bed of fuel for superheating secondary air passing there through. The improvement described here comprises an afterburner which comprises an exhaust pipe which extends through the wall of the chamber entirely above the bed and defines a secondary combustion chamber entirely within the primary combustion chamber. The exhaust pipe has a throat with an open end which projects into the primary combustion chamber above the bed, a tube around the exhaust pipe defining a passage for secondary air toward the throat of the exhaust pipe, a conduit between the hollow grate and the passage for communicating superheated air toward the throat, and ignitor means in the exhaust pipe.

Goetzman, R.G.

1986-12-23

203

Processing electric arc furnace dust into saleable chemical products  

SciTech Connect

The modern steel industry uses electric arc furnace (EAF) technology to manufacture steel. A major drawback of this technology is the production of EAF dust, which is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The annual disposal of approximately 0.65 million tons of EAF dust in the United States and Canada is an expensive, unresolved problem for the steel industry. EAF dust byproducts are generated during the manufacturing process by a variety of mechanisms. The dust consists of various metals (e.g., zinc, lead, cadmium) that occur as vapors at 1,600{degrees}C (EAF hearth temperature); these vapors are condensed and collected in a baghouse. The production of one ton of steel will generate approximately 25 pounds of EAF dust as a byproduct, which is currently disposed of in landfills.

NONE

1998-04-01

204

Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

Belt, Cynthia

2014-09-01

205

Lead recycling via rotary furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The lead-acid battery recycling industry was seriously affected during the 1980s by increasing environmental protection costs and poor lead prices. The process is now being repeated in the 1990s causing further difficulties for recyclers. In Europe, many lead-acid battery recycling plants use rotary furnaces. The Darley Dale smelter, redeveloped between 1984--87, uses only rotary furnaces. A review of options for this plant has been completed and concluded in favor of further investment to exploit more fully the benefits of rotary furnace technology.

Suttie, A.B. [H.J. Enthoven and Sons, Matlock (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

206

Glass melting furnaces designing energy-efficient bottle glass furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown that developing an energy-efficient design for a bottle glass furnace implies the use of modern design methodology.\\u000a It is necessary to include mathematical modeling before the technical design stage in the structure of the traditional stages\\u000a of work on a furnace design. The boundary conditions of modeling must reflect the conjugate character of external and internal\\u000a heat

V. Ya. Dzyuzer

2008-01-01

207

Reheated Ordinary Chondrites: The Record of Small Perihelia and Impacts Over the Last Million Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Reheated" meteorites, i.e. meteorites that have experienced some significant degree of heating after metamorphism often within the last 100 million years or so, are fairly common among ordinary chondrites and basaltic meteorites. Heating is inferred to be by impact or by close passage to the Sun. Here I use the ratios of cosmogenic helium and neon and the natural thermoluminescence (TL) of individual meteorites to examine the timing and nature of reheating of ordinary chondrites. The noble gases can reflect reheating at any time over the entire cosmic ray exposure age (typically millions of years), while natural TL reflects reheating events within the last hundred thousand years. Natural TL can reflect thermal events of smaller magnitude than can the noble gases. About 40% of H and L modern falls have been reheated to some extent over their cosmic ray exposure history, but only about 25% of LL chondrites have apparently been reheated. The TL data indicate that, while about 20% of H chondrites have been reheated within the last 100,000 years, only about 12% of L and LL chondrites have experienced recent reheating. Data for Antarctic meteorites suggest that reheated meteorites were less common or even absent >200,000 years ago.

Benoit, P. H.

1996-03-01

208

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOEpatents

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

209

Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements  

E-print Network

Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements Tim Gandler Energy Coordinator Baytown Olefins Plant, Baytown Tx 2010 Industrial Energy Technology Conference May, 2010 Page 2 ? Baytown Complex ? Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Furnace overview... & challenges in steam cracking ? Energy efficiency improvements Overview Baytown Olefins Plant Page 3 Baytown Complex ?One of world?s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes ?~3,400 acres along Houston Ship...

Gandler, T.

210

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

211

Non-conformal evolution of magnetic fields during reheating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the evolution of electromagnetic fields coupled to conduction currents during the reheating era after inflation, and prior to the establishing of the proton-electron plasma. We assume that the currents may be described by second order causal hydrodynamics. The resulting theory is not conformally invariant. The expansion of the Universe produces temperature gradients which couple to the current and generally oppose Ohmic dissipation. Although the effect is not strong, it suggests that the unfolding of hydrodynamic instabilities in these models may follow a different pattern than in first order theories, and even than in second order theories on non expanding backgrounds.

Calzetta, Esteban; Kandus, Alejandra

2015-03-01

212

Reheating Temperature and Gauge Mediation Models of Supersymmetry Breaking  

E-print Network

For supersymmetric theories with gravitino dark matter, the maximal reheating temperature consistent with big bang nucleosynthesis bounds arises when the physical gaugino masses are degenerate. We consider the cases of a stau or sneutrino next-to-lightest superpartner, which have relatively less constraint from big bang nucleosynthesis. The resulting parameter space is consistent with leptogenesis requirements, and can be reached in generalized gauge mediation models. Such models illustrate a class of theories that overcome the well-known tension between big bang nucleosynthesis and leptogenesis.

Marek Olechowski; Stefan Pokorski; Krzysztof Turzynski; James D. Wells

2009-09-17

213

Waste-burning furnace  

SciTech Connect

The furnace includes an upstanding hopper-like member having an increasing cross-sectional area from a fuel inlet at its upper end to a hollow box-like grate releasably and removably mounted within its lower end portion at an elevation slightly below the upper extremity of a gas passageway opening laterally from such member and communicating with a manifold chamber extending horizontally therefrom. The grate has elongate slot-like openings extending horizontally of and vertically through its medial portion, and preferably includes cylindrical solid rods extending longitudinally of the upper portions of such openings. An electrically-powered blower is releasably connected to the grate, for movement therewith, and during operation conducts air to the interior of the hollow sections of the grate. The latter are provided with apertures which discharge jets of air vertically upward and downward, and also angularly upward and downward, from the grate. The angularly directed air jets include ones that emanate from the upper edges of the grate openings and are directed toward the centers of such openings, and others that are discharged from grate edges that are closely adjacent the gas passageway and are directed toward such passageway. Normally shut closure members are provided in association with the fuel inlet at the upper end of the hopper-like member and in association with an ash-removal passageway provided within the lower end portion of such member. Gaseous combustion products introduced into the manifold chamber pass therefrom through ducts communicating therewith on opposite sides of a vertical baffle extending centrally and longitudinally of the chamber.

Foster, G.M.

1983-11-15

214

Chem I Supplement: Chemistry of Steel Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information about the chemistry of steel making applicable to teaching secondary school science. Generalized chemical reactions describe the manufacture of steel from iron ore. Also discussed are raw materials, processing choices, and how various furnaces (blast, direct reduction, open hearth, basic oxygen, electric) work. (CS)

Sellers, Neal

1980-01-01

215

Aspects of reheating in first-order inflation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studied here is reheating in theories where inflation is completed by a first-order phase transition. In the scenarios, the Universe decays from its false vacuum state by bubble nucleation. In the first stage of reheating, vacuum energy is converted into kinetic energy for the bubble walls. To help understand this phase, researchers derive a simple expression for the equation of state of a universe filled with expanding bubbles. Eventually, the bubble walls collide. Researchers present numerical simulations of two-bubble collisions clarifying and extending previous work by Hawking, Moss, and Stewart. The researchers' results indicate that wall energy is efficiently converted into coherent scalar waves. Also discussed is particle production due to quantum effects. These effects lead to the decay of the coherent scalar waves. They also lead to direct particle production during bubble-wall collisions. Researchers calculate particle production for colliding walls in both sine-Gordon and theta (4) theories and show that it is far more efficient in the theta (4) case. The relevance of this work for recently proposed models of first order inflation is discussed.

Watkins, Richard; Widrow, Lawrence M.

1991-01-01

216

The Impact of Energy Prices on Technology Choice in the United States Steel Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 30 years, U.S. steel producers have replaced their aging open hearth steel furnaces with basic oxygen (BOF) or large electric arc furnaces (LEF). This choice of technology creates the opportunity to substitute electricity for fossil fuels. We extend earlier research to investigate whether energy prices affect this type of technology adoption. The econometric model uses the \\

Gale A. Boyd; Stephen H. Karlson

1993-01-01

217

Study of hot hardness characteristics of tool steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hardness measurements of tool steel materials in electric furnace at elevated temperatures and low oxygen environment are discussed. Development of equation to predict short term hardness as function of intial room temperature hardness of steel is reported. Types of steel involved in the process are identified.

Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1972-01-01

218

Thermodynamic study of an indirect fired air turbine cogeneration system with reheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous study of an indirect fired air turbine cogeneration system has been extended to include the concept of reheat. The effects of the number of reheat stages and cycle pressure drops on system performance parameters (such as power and process heat production, fuel utilization efficiency, and second-law efficiency) are examined.

F. F. Huang; Ling Wang

1987-01-01

219

24 Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 24-31 (2010) OPTIMAL HEATING AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

, iron and steel industry. ABSTRACT Optimal heating for slabs in a reheating furnace is investi- gated and steel industry. The function of the hot strip mill is to roll slabs into hot rolled bands or coils

Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

220

Refining Steel in the Tundish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making the steel of continuous-cast ingots cleaner with respect to nonmetallic inclusions is one of the most important problems in ferrous metallurgy and is difficult to solve simply by means of a single out-of-furnace treatment. This article discusses steps being taken by the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine to improve the refining of nonmetallic inclusions from steel, these measures involving the use

A. F. Sarychev; O. A. Nikolaev; T. S. Masal'skii; M. A. Bogatov

2005-01-01

221

Investigation of hot ductility in Al-killed boron steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of boron to nitrogen ratio, strain rate and cooling rate on hot ductility of aluminium-killed, low carbon, boron microalloyed steel was investigated. Hot tensile testing was performed on steel samples reheated in argon to 1300°C, cooled at rates of 0.3, 1.2 and 3.0°Cs?1 to temperatures in the range 750–1050°C, and then strained to failure at initial strain rates

L. H. Chown; L. A. Cornish

2008-01-01

222

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

Not Available

1994-06-01

223

Modelling and analysis of blast furnace performance for efficient utilization of energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model is presented to assess thermal performance of blast furnace (BF) for efficient utilization of energy with an integrated view to improving the productivity of the plant. The model is developed using the mass, energy and availability balance equations and is applied to an existing Iron and Steel industry in India. A comparison of the actual operation of

M. G. Rasul; B. S. Tanty; B. Mohanty

2007-01-01

224

Strength properties of concrete incorporating coal bottom ash and granulated blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal bottom ash (CBA) and fly ash (FA) are by-products of thermal power plants. Granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) is developed during iron production in iron and steel plants. This research was conducted to evaluate the compressive strength property and some durability characteristics of concrete incorporating FA, CBA, and GBFS. FA is used as an effective partial cement replacement; CBA and

Ömer Özkan; Isa Yüksel; Özgür Murato?lu

2007-01-01

225

FUGITIVE EMISSIONS FROM INTEGRATED IRON AND STEEL PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an engineering investigation of fugitive (non-ducted) emissions in the iron and steel industry. Operations excluded from the study are coke ovens, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) charging, and blast furnace cast houses. Fugitive emission factors for iron an...

226

Oxidation of steel pipe during vacuum heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boundary curve making it possible to determine the parameters of oxidation-free heating of pipe was experimentally established — the working pressure in the furnace and the value of the inleakage. This curve can be used for designing and operating vacuum furnaces used for bright annealing of stainless steel pipe.

G. N. Kheifets; V. P. Kozinets; L. E. Paukova; V. N. Feiglin; M. Ya. Sosnovskii

1972-01-01

227

Entropy Production during Reheating at Late Times and Neutrino Decoupling  

E-print Network

Small Recent theories have proposed a variety of massive particles, like the moduli, whose abundance or decay endangers standard cosmological results. To dilute them, thermal inflation has been proposed, with its own massive scalar flaton field which goes on decaying in the era of Mev-scale temperatures. In this paper, the effect of late-time entropy production on neutrino decoupling during such reheating is investigated by including a term, arising from the rate of entropy production due to scalar decay, in the Boltzmann equation for the neutrino number density. The effect on the decoupling temperature of massless neutrinos is studied. It is found that a lower bound to the scalar decay rate constant can be set at 10^{-22} Gev.

Paramita Adhya; D. Rai Chaudhuri

2002-03-15

228

On the breakdown of the curvature perturbation ? during reheating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that in single scalar field inflationary models the standard curvature perturbation ?, which is supposedly conserved at superhorizon scales, diverges during reheating at times 0dot phi=, i.e. when the time derivative of the background inflaton field vanishes. This happens because the comoving gauge 0varphi=, where varphi denotes the inflaton perturbation, breaks down when 0dot phi=. The issue is usually bypassed by averaging out the inflaton oscillations but strictly speaking the evolution of ? is ill posed mathematically. We solve this problem in the free theory by introducing a family of smooth gauges that still eliminates the inflaton fluctuation varphi in the Hamiltonian formalism and gives a well behaved curvature perturbation ?, which is now rigorously conserved at superhorizon scales. At the linearized level, this conserved variable can be used to unambiguously propagate the inflationary perturbations from the end of inflation to subsequent epochs. We discuss the implications of our results for the inflationary predictions.

Tarman Algan, Merve; Kaya, Ali; Seyma Kutluk, Emine

2015-04-01

229

Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof  

DOEpatents

A system and method are disclosed for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom. 2 figs.

Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Bannister, R.L.

1999-08-10

230

Thermodynamic analysis of performance improvement by reheat on the CO2 transcritical power cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CO2 transcritical rankine power cycle has been widely investigated recently, because of its better temperature glide matching between sensible heat source and working fluid in vapor generator, and its desirable qualities, such as moderate critical point, little environment impact and low cost. A reheat CO2 transcritical power cycle with two stage expansion is presented to improve baseline cycle performance in this paper. Energy and exergy analysis are carried out to investigate effects of important parameters on cycle performance. The main results show that reheat cycle performance is sensitive to the variation of medium pressures and the optimum medium pressures exist for maximizing work output and thermal efficiency, respectively. Reheat cycle is compared to baseline cycle under the same conditions. More significant improvements by reheat are obtained at lower turbine inlet temperatures and larger high cycle pressure. Work output improvement is much higher than thermal efficiency improvement, because extra waste heat is required to reheat CO2. Based on second law analysis, exergy efficiency of reheat cycle is also higher than that of baseline cycle, because more useful work is converted from waste heat. Reheat with two stage expansion has great potential to improve thermal efficiency and especially net work output of a CO2 transcritical power cycle using a low-grade heat source.

Tuo, Hanfei

2012-06-01

231

Crystal growth and furnace analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal analysis of Hg/Cd/Te solidification in a Bridgman cell is made using Continuum's VAST code. The energy equation is solved in an axisymmetric, quasi-steady domain for both the molten and solid alloy regions. Alloy composition is calculated by a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate its effect on melt thermal conductivity and, consequently, on the temperature field within the cell. Solidification is assumed to occur at a fixed temperature of 979 K. Simplified boundary conditions are included to model both the radiant and conductive heat exchange between the furnace walls and the alloy. Calculations are performed to show how the steady-state isotherms are affected by: the hot and cold furnace temperatures, boundary condition parameters, and the growth rate which affects the calculated alloy's composition. The Advanced Automatic Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), developed by NASA, is also thermally analyzed using the CINDA code. The objective is to determine the performance and the overall power requirements for different furnace designs.

Dakhoul, Youssef M.

1986-01-01

232

Concrete linings of heating furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metallurgical and machine-building industries have more than a thousand heating and heat-treatment furnaces lined with refractory parts. The life of the linings is up to 2 years including intermediate repairs of individual elements. The primary reason for the low life of linings is their insufficient structural strength and also failure of refractory parts in periodic sharp heating and cooling.

S. R. Zamyatin

1993-01-01

233

Wood by-pass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This wood by-pass furnace is designed in such a manner, as to have the oxygen for combustion controlled, to the extent that the wood does not blaze, but only produces red, glowing coals for heating a home, and the outside cover will not burn anyone when touched. It primarily consists of am inside fire chamber of cylindrical shape, to distribute

P. S. Sr

1983-01-01

234

Temperature-Gradient Furnace for Solidification Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gradients are controllable from zero to 500 degrees C/cm. Typical temperature profile superimposed on partial cross section of furnace. Steepness of gradient varied by adjusting flow of energy to and from different zones of furnace. Specimen placed in ampoule moved inside ceramic tube according to needs of experiment. Furnace provides axial temperature profiles for material processing experiments.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D.

1985-01-01

235

Energy balance of glass-melting furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of experimental data, the authors drew up the energetic and exergetic balances of a glass-melting furnace. The results of the calculations of the exergetic balances are given in tables. The use of the exergetic balance makes it possible to achieve in detail the optimization of furnace design and to determine the most suitable regimes of furnace operation,

A. S. Kozlov; V. E. Dunduchenko; R. S. Kotselko; L. P. Shutnikova

1986-01-01

236

Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In glass manufacturing 70% of the total energy utilized is consumed in the melting process. Three basic furnaces are in use: regenerative, recuperative, and direct fired design. The present paper focuses on secondary heat recovery from regenerative furnaces. A diagram of a typical regenerative furnace is given. Three recovery bottoming cycles were evaluated as part of a comparative systems analysis:

J. G. Hnat; J. S. Patten

1982-01-01

237

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

238

To reheat, or to not reheat: that is the question: the efficacy of a local reheating protocol on mechanisms of cutaneous vasodilatation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to determine the effect of repeated bouts of local skin heating on the roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and sympathetic nerves in cutaneous vasodilatation. In 3 repeated-heating protocols skin blood flux of the forearm and leg was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry and data are presented as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; flux/blood pressure). Local heating was performed from 33°C (thermoneutral) to 42°C at 0.5°C·10s(-1), allowed to cool passively for ~60-min, then reheated at the same rate. In protocol 1, CVC was measured in response to repeated heating. In protocol 2, NOS was inhibited with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and in protocol 3, sympathetic nerve blockade was achieved with bretylium tosylate (BT), both infused via intradermal microdialysis. In protocol 1, there were no differences (P>0.05) in CVC at either the forearm (88±4 vs. 86±4%max) or the leg (97±4 vs. 96±6%max) between heating bouts. In protocol 2, no differences (P>0.05) in CVC were observed between heating bouts at L-NAME treated sites at either the forearm (55±3 vs. 51±4%max) or the leg (71±3 vs. 70±4%max) . In protocol 3, there were differences (P<0.001) between BT treated sites when comparing the first and second bouts of heating for both the forearm (75±3 vs. 88±4%max) and the leg (79±3 vs. 97±4%max). The effect of sympathetic blockade on CVC responses to local heating was abolished following repeated bouts of heating. Consequently, it is our suggestion that when examining mechanisms of skin blood flow control, investigators use single bouts of local heating. PMID:25281012

Del Pozzi, Andrew T; Hodges, Gary J

2015-01-01

239

40 CFR 52.1173 - Control strategy: Particulates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Furnaces, Basic Oxygen Furnaces, Electric Arc Furnaces, Sintering Plants, Blast Furnaces, Heating and Reheating Furnaces...reflecting RACT for Basic Oxygen Furnaces, Electric Arc Furnaces, Sintering Plants, Blast Furnaces and Heating and Reheating...

2010-07-01

240

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

2002-01-21

241

Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology  

SciTech Connect

The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

Dosaj, V.D. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Freeland, MI (United States); Arvidson, A.N. [Meadow Materials, Manitoba (Canada)

1994-05-01

242

Optimizing rotary furnace smelting of battery residue  

SciTech Connect

The process for recovering lead from battery residues used in several Mexican Plants include lead blast furnace and rotary furnaces. The formers are basically fed with recycled batteries together with the necessary additives to produce metallic lead. One of the by-products generated in the blast furnace is a dust mainly formed by lead sulfide. The rotary furnace is used to recover lead from lead batteries, dross from the refining-alloying process and the lead fines produced in the blast furnace. This paper describes thermodynamic analysis made to the rotary furnace process to understand the effect that each component of the system has upon the lead recovery. In order to enhance the process, the influence of iron chips composition and excess coke on slag viscosity is discussed. A computer optimization program has been developed to design the furnace charge based on material and energy balances, together with the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation.

Chavez, F.; Morales, R.D.; Romero, A.; Guerrero, A.

1995-12-31

243

Neutralino and gravitino dark matter with low reheating temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine a scenario in which the reheating temperature T R after inflation is so low that it is comparable to, or lower than, the freeze out temperature of ordinary WIMPs. In this case the relic abundance of dark matter is reduced, thus relaxing the impact of the usually strong constraint coming from the requirement that the universe does not overclose. We first re-examine the dynamics of freezeout during reheating. Next we study the parameter space of the MSSM with ten free parameters, the Constrained MSSM and the singlino-dominated regions of the Next-to-MSSM. In each case we often find dramatic departures from the usually considered regime of high T R , with important implications for direct detection dark matter searches. In particular, in the MSSM we examine WIMP mass range up to about 5 TeV, and we find large regions of bino dark matter over the whole mass range, and of higgsino dark matter with mass over a similar range but starting from the ˜ 1 TeV value of the standard high T R scenario. We show that the prospects for bino detection strongly depend on T R , while the higgsino is for the most part detectable by future one-tonne detectors. The wino, which is excluded in the standard scenario, becomes allowed again if its mass is roughly above 3 .5 TeV, and can also be partially detectable. In the CMSSM, the bino and higgsino mass ranges become much more constrained although detection prospects remain roughly similar. In the Next-to-MSSM we show that, at low enough T R wide ranges of singlino-dominated parameter space of the model become again cosmologically allowed, although detection prospects remain nearly hopeless. We also study the non-thermal contribution to the DM relic density from direct and cascade decays of the inflaton. Finally, in the framework of the MSSM we consider the case of a gravitino as dark matter. In this case we find strong bounds from overclosure and from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, and derive lower limits on T R which depend on the gravitino mass and on the nature of the lightest ordinary superpartner.

Roszkowski, L.; Trojanowski, S.; Turzynski, K.

2014-11-01

244

Wood and gas fired furnace  

SciTech Connect

A furnace for wood log fuel having apparatus which automatically inserts the logs into the furnace combustion chamber. The log fuel is retained in a sloping ramp storage compartment. Electrical circuitry controlled by a thermostat operates to move a log into an elongated chamber from which a motor driven injector pushes the log into the combustion chamber through a doorway covered by a flexible, segmented flap covering and also a door which is pushed open by the advancing log. The presence of the log on a spring mounted grate operates certain switches to return the injection mechanism to its ready condition and also to operate a fan which provides combustion air to the combustion chamber. The reduced weight on the grate by the consumption of the log by the fire permits the grate to move to a position to re-initiate the log injection cycle. A standby gas fuel burner system is also provided and is controlled by the thermostat to operate when the log fuel heat is insufficient, such as upon the supply of log fuel becoming exhausted. An optional auger conveyor which operates under the control of dual timers for automatic discharge of ashes from the furnace is also disclosed.

Richards, J. A.

1985-12-10

245

Calculation and Analysis of Heat Transfer Coefficients in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new way for the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler research is proposed by the supervisory information system (SIS) in power plant level. The heat transfer coefficient in CFB boiler furnace is calculated and analyzed by the SIS calculation analysis in a commercial CFB boiler, the way how to calculate the heat transfer coefficient in SIS is introduced, and the heat transfer coefficient is accurately received by calculating a large amount of data from database. The relation about the heat transfer coefficient to unit load, bed temperature, bed velocity, and suspension density is analyzed; the linear relation could be accepted for the commercial CFB design. A new calculating and simple way for the heat transfer coefficient of CFB boiler is proposed for CFB boiler design. Using this research result, the reheat spray water flux larger than the design value in lots of commercial CFB boilers is analyzed; the main reason is the designed heat transfer coefficient smaller than the actual value.

Wang, Zhiwei; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Qinghai

246

Prospects of determination of reheating temperature after inflation by DECIGO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If the tensor-to-scalar ratio r of cosmological perturbations takes a large value r˜ 0.1, which may be inferred from the recent BICEP2 result, we can hope to determine thermal history, in particular, the reheating temperature, T_R, after inflation by space-based laser interferometers. It is shown that upgraded and upshifted versions of DECIGO may be able to determine T_R if it lies in the range 6× 10^6< T_R < 5× 10^7GeV and 3× 10^7< T_R< 2× 10^8GeV, respectively. Although these ranges include predictions of some currently plausible inflation models, because each specification can probe T_R of a range of at most a decade, we should determine the specifications of DECIGO taking full account of the constraints on inflation models to be obtained by near-future observations of temperature anisotropy and B-model polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Nakayama, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

2015-01-01

247

Reheating the universe after multi-field inflation  

SciTech Connect

We study in detail (p)reheating after multi-field inflation models with a particular focus on N-flation. We consider a variety of different couplings between the inflatons and the matter sector, including both quartic and trilinear interactions with a light scalar field. We show that the presence of multiple oscillating inflatons makes parametric resonance inefficient in the case of the quartic interactions. Moreover, perturbative processes do not permit a complete decay of the inflaton for this coupling. In order to recover the hot big bang, we must instead consider trilinear couplings. In this case we show that strong nonperturbative preheating is possible via multi-field tachyonic resonance. In addition, late-time perturbative effects do permit a complete decay of the condensate. We also study the production of gauge fields for several prototype couplings, finding similar results to the trilinear scalar coupling. During the course of our analysis we develop the mathematical theory of the quasi-periodic Mathieu equation, the multi-field generalization of the Floquet theory familiar from preheating after single field inflation. We also elaborate on the theory of perturbative decays of a classical inflaton condensate, which is applicable in single-field models also.

Braden, Jonathan; Kofman, Lev; Barnaby, Neil, E-mail: jbraden@physics.utoronto.ca, E-mail: barnaby@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

2010-07-01

248

Thermoelastic stress in oceanic lithosphere due to hotspot reheating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of hotspot reheating on the intraplate stress field is investigated by modeling the three-dimensional thermal stress field produced by nonuniform temperature changes in an elastic plate. Temperature perturbations are calculated assuming that the lithosphere is heated by a source in the lower part of the thermal lithosphere. A thermal stress model for the elastic lithosphere is calculated by superposing the stress fields resulting from temperature changes in small individual elements. The stress in an elastic plate resulting from a temperature change in each small element is expressed as an infinite series, wherein each term is a source or an image modified from a closed-from half-space solution. The thermal stress solution is applied to midplate swells in oceanic lithosphere with various thermal structures and plate velocities. The results predict a stress field with a maximum deviatoric stress on the order of 100 MPa covering a broad area around the hotspot plume. The predicted principal stress orientations show a complicated geographical pattern, with horizontal extension perpendicular to the hotspot track at shallow depths and compression along the track near the bottom of the elastic lithosphere.

Zhu, Anning; Wiens, Douglas A.

1991-01-01

249

Reheating-volume measure in the string theory landscape  

SciTech Connect

I recently proposed the ''reheating-volume'' (RV) prescription as a possible solution to the measure problem in ''multiverse'' cosmology. The goal of this work is to extend the RV measure to scenarios involving bubble nucleation, such as the string theory landscape. In the spirit of the RV prescription, I propose to calculate the distribution of observable quantities in a landscape that is conditioned in probability to nucleate a finite total number of bubbles to the future of an initial bubble. A general formula for the relative number of bubbles of different types can be derived. I show that the RV measure is well defined and independent of the choice of the initial bubble type, as long as that type supports further bubble nucleation. Applying the RV measure to a generic landscape, I find that the abundance of Boltzmann brains is always negligibly small compared with the abundance of ordinary observers in the bubbles of the same type. As an illustration, I present explicit results for a toy landscape containing four vacuum states, and for landscapes with a single high-energy vacuum and a large number of low-energy vacua.

Winitzki, Sergei [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany)

2008-12-15

250

High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

Smith, James E., Jr.

1992-01-01

251

Crystal growth furnace with trap doors  

DOEpatents

An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Lexington, MA)

1982-06-15

252

Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

1992-12-29

253

Steam-Reheat Option for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SuperCritical-Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are being developed as one of the Generation-IV nuclear-reactor concepts. Main objectives of the development are to increase thermal efficiency of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and to decrease capital and operational costs. The first objective can be achieved by introducing nuclear steam reheat inside a reactor and utilizing regenerative feedwater heaters. The second objective can be achieved by designing a steam cycle that closely matches that of the mature supercritical fossil-fuelled power plants. The feasibility of these objectives is discussed. As a part of this discussion, heat-transfer calculations have been performed and analyzed for SuperCritical-Water (SCW) and SuperHeated-Steam (SHS) channels of the proposed reactor concept. In the calculations a uniform and three non-uniform Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) were considered for six different fuels (UO2, ThO 2, MOX, UC2, UC, and UN) and at average and maximum channel power. Bulk-fluid, sheath, and fuel centerline temperatures as well as the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles were obtained along the fuel-channel length. The HTC values are within a range of 4.7--20 kW/m2·K and 9.7--10 kW/m2·K for the SCW and SHS channels respectively. The main conclusion is that while all the mentioned fuels may be used for the SHS channel, only UC2, UC, or UN are suitable for a SCW channel, because their fuel centerline temperatures are at least 1000°C below melting point, while that of UO2, ThO2 , and MOX may reach melting point.

Saltanov, Eugene

254

Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces  

SciTech Connect

In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

2004-01-24

255

Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy used to produce liquid steel in today's integrated and electric arc furnace (EAF) facilities is significantly higher than the theoretical minimum energy requirements. This study presents the absolute minimum energy required to produce steel from ore and mixtures of scrap and scrap alternatives. Additional cases in which the assumptions are changed to more closely approximate actual operating conditions

R. J. Fruehan; O. Fortini; H. W. Paxton; R. Brindle

2000-01-01

256

Estimation of energy consumption for each process in the Japanese steel industry: a process analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy consumption for each process in the Japanese steel industry is estimated by a statistical process in order to evaluate the possibility of reducing energy consumption. The specific energy consumption for each product is estimated and also for crude steel produced from an integrated steel plant route and an electric arc furnace route. The specific energy consumption is compared.

Y Sakamoto; Y Tonooka; Y Yanagisawa

1999-01-01

257

Adsorption Removal of Phosphorus from Aqueous Solution by Steel Slag Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution by steel slag column and the effects of the addition of boiler slag, furnace ash and quartz sand were investigated. After the adsorption treatment by the steel slag column, the residual phosphorus concentration was less than 0.5 mg\\/L. The adsorption performance of the steel slag column could be enhanced by the addition of quartz

Hua Zhang; Xuehong Zhang; Shaoyuan Bai; Yinian Zhu; Yuzhou Gong

2010-01-01

258

Enhance hydration properties of steel slag using grinding aids by mechanochemical effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic oxygen furnace steel slag is a kind of cementitious material with low activity and hard for grinding. The objective of this work was to validate specious grinding aids F1 made in lab which was effective for the grinding of steel slag, thus enhancing the hydration properties. By using 0.05% F1, the Blaine value of steel slag was added up

Xi Zhu; Haobo Hou; Xuquan Huang; Min Zhou; Weixin Wang

259

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

1999-03-16

260

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1999-03-16

261

A study of the phase transition of reheated diphenyl carbazide (DPC) by using UV spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase transition phenomenon in reheated diphenyl carbazide (DPC) is studied here using UV spectroscopy. The optical band gap for reheated DPC is obtained by measuring the optical diffused reflectance (DR) and equals to 3.55 eV. Also, the optical band gap is calculated using UV technique and equals to 3.548 eV. The absorbance of reheated DPC is studied at some selected temperatures in order to check the presence of phase transitions at 90 °C and 125 °C. According to the present work, the band gaps are calculated at 80 °C, 110 °C and 130 °C and equal to 3.548 eV. But at 100 °C, the optical band gap has changed to 4.139 eV. It was found that each phase of reheated DPC belongs to a certain definite crystal structure. The presence of the phase transitions are checked and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structural properties and morphology of reheated diphenyl carbazide are investigated by SEM. The SEM images are taken at some selected temperatures to confirm the presence of phase transitions.

El-Kabbany, F.; Taha, S.; Hafez, M.

2014-07-01

262

Structural characteristics and hydration kinetics of modified steel slag  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the structural characteristics and hydration kinetics of modified basic oxygen furnace steel slag. The basic oxygen furnace steel slag (BOFS) was mixed with electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS) in appropriate ratios and heated again at high temperature in the laboratory. The mineralogical and structural characteristics of both BOFS and modified steel slag (MSS) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. The results show that modification increases alite content in MSS and decreases alite crystal size with the formation of C{sub 6}AF{sub 2}. One more obvious heat evolution peak appears in MSS's heat-flow rate curves in comparison to BOFS, becoming similar to that of typical Portland cement paste. As a result, its cementitious activity is much improved.

Li Jianxin; Yu Qijun; Wei Jiangxiong, E-mail: jxwei@scut.edu.cn; Zhang Tongsheng

2011-03-15

263

Insulation of Pipe Bends Improves Efficiency of Hot Oil Furnaces  

E-print Network

Thermodynamic analyses of processes indicated low furnace efficiencies on certain hot oil furnaces. Further investigation, which included Infrared (IR) thermography testing of several furnaces, identified extremely hot surfaces on the outside...

Haseltine, D. M.; Laffitte, R. D.

264

Process Development for the Removal of Zinc and Cadmium from Wastewater Using Slag—A Blast Furnace Waste Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag, a waste generated in steel plants in India, has been converted into a low cost potential adsorbent. The resulting product has been characterized and used for the removal of zinc and cadmium. The effect of particle size, contact time, and surface loading of zinc and cadmium on the adsorbent for their removal have been studied at the

V. K. Gupta; Arshi Rastogi; M. K. Dwivedi; Dinesh Mohan

1997-01-01

265

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

266

Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors  

SciTech Connect

The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

2003-02-28

267

Glass Furnace Project: October 1981March 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the Glass Furnace Project is to evaluate the use of a joule-heated glass furnace, fitted with a Mound-developed offgas system, to reduce the volume of contaminated waste typical of that from nuclear power plants. As part of the project, several different waste types, including dry solid waste, ion exchange resin, and sludge, will be burned in the

K. M. Armstrong; L. M. Klingler

1982-01-01

268

Glass Furnace Project: October 1980March 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of the Glass Furnace Project is to evaluate the use of the Penberthy Pyro-Converter, fitted with a Mound-developed offgas system, to reduce the volume of contaminated waste typical of that from nuclear power plants. Several different waste types, including dry solid waste, ion exchange resin, and sludge, will be burned in the glass furnace unit. Combustion characteristics and radionuclide

B. M. Alexander; L. M. Klingler

1981-01-01

269

Crystal growth furnace safety system validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings are reported regarding the safe operation of the NASA crystal growth furnace (CGF) and potential methods for detecting containment failures of the furnace. The main conclusions are summarized by ampoule leak detection, cartridge leak detection, and detection of hazardous species in the experiment apparatus container (EAC).

Mackowski, D. W.; Hartfield, R.; Bhavnani, S. H.; Belcher, V. M.

1994-01-01

270

Developmental testing of a programmable multizone furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multizone furnace was evaluated for its potential utilization for process experimentation on board the Space Shuttle. A temperature gradient can be created through the use of a series of connected temperature zones and can be translated by the coordinated sequencing of zone temperatures. The Bridgman-Stockbarger thermal configuration for directional solidification was implemented so that neither the sample nor furnace was translated. The thermal behavior of the furnace was measured and characterized. Limitations due to both thermal and electronic (computer) factors are identified. The results indicate that the multizone design is limited to low temperature gradients because of the indirect furnace-to-sample thermal coupling needed to blend the discrete thermal zones. The multizone furnace design inherently consumes more power than a similar (two temperature) conventional Bridgman type directional solidification furnace because every zone must be capable of the high cooling rates needed to produce the maximum desired temperature drop. Typical achievable static temperature gradients for the furnace tested were between 6 and 75 C/in. The maximum gradient velocity was approximately 10 in./hr. Several aspects of the tested system could be improved, but the dependence of the multizone design on high heat loss will limit Space Shuttle applications in the form tested unless additional power is available. The multizone furnace offers great flexibility but requires a high level of operator understanding for full advantage to be obtained.

Ting, E. Y.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

1986-01-01

271

Development of mesoscale burner arrays for gas turbine reheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale burner arrays allow combustion to be conducted in a distributed fashion at a millimeter (meso) scale. At this scale, diffusive processes are fast, but not yet dominant, such that numerous advantages over conventional gas turbine combustion can be achieved without giving up the possibility to use fluid inertia to advantage. Since the scale of the reaction zone follows from the scale at which the reactants are mixed, very compact flames result. This compact, distributed form of combustion can provide the opportunity of inter-turbine reheat as well as the potential for lean premixed or highly vitiated combustion to suppress NOx emissions. As a proof-of-concept, a 4x4 array with burner elements on 5-mm centers was fabricated in silicon nitride via assembly mold SDM. Each burner element was designed in a single monolithic unit with its own combination of reactant inlets, fuel plenum and injection nozzles, and swirler to induce flame stabilization. Results using methane, including pressure drop, flame stability, temperature distribution in the burnt gas, and NO emissions are reported for both fully premixed (mixing prior to injection) and nonpremixed (mixing in the array) configurations. These results demonstrate the degree to which premixed performance can be achieved with this design and pointed to ways in which the array design could be improved over this first-generation unit. Given what was learned from the 4x4 array, a next-generation 6x6 array was developed. Major design changes include addition of a bluff-body stabilizer to each burner element to improve stability and use of a multilayer architecture to enhance the degree of reactant mixing. Tests using methane in both operating conditions were performed for two stabilization configurations---with and without the bluff bodies. The results for nonpremixed operation show that nearly complete air/fuel mixing was achieved using the 6x6 design, leading to NO emission levels obtainable under fully premixed conditions. However, the results also indicate that element-to-element fuel maldistribution of the array remains significant such that additional efforts to resolve manufacturing difficulties should be made in future applications. Elimination of maldistribution will reduce NO emissions even further as well as improve stability characteristics of the array.

Lee, Sunyoup

272

Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing  

DOEpatents

An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

Sopori, Bhushan L.

2014-08-05

273

Stainless steel recycle FY94 progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Materials Technology Section (MTS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was asked to demonstrate the practicality of recycling previously contaminated stainless steel components such as reactor heat exchanger heads, process water piping and slug buckets into 208 liters (55 gallon) drums and 2.8 cubic meter (100 ft{sup 3}) storage boxes. Radioactively contaminated stainless steel scrap will be sent to several industrial partners where it will be melted, decontaminated/cast into ingots, and rolled into plate and sheet and fabricated into the drums and boxes. As part of this recycle initiative, MTS was requested to demonstrate that radioactively contaminated Type 304L stainless steel could be remelted and cast to meet the applicable ASTM specification for fabrication of drums and boxes. In addition, MTS was requested to develop the technical basis of melt decontamination and establish practicality of using this approach for value added products. The findings presented in this investigation lead to the following conclusions: recycle of 18 wt% Cr-8 wt% Ni alloy can be achieved by melting Type 304 stainless steel in a air vacuum induction furnace; limited melt decontamination of the contaminated stainless steel was achieved, surface contamination was removed by standard decontamination techniques; carbon uptake in the as-cast ingots resulted from the graphite susceptor used in this experiment and is unavoidable with this furnace configuration. A new furnace optimized for melting stainless steel has been installed and is currently being tested for use in this program.

Imrich, K.J.

1994-10-28

274

Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

Seaman, John

2013-01-14

275

Quantitative microstructural analysis of M2 grade high speed steel during high temperature treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructural changes of M2 grade high speed steel were examined quantitatively to identify the mechanisms responsible for changes during high temperature treatment. Reheating at high temperature leads to major microstructural changes involving phase transformation, spheroidization and coarsening of carbides formed in the as-cast M2 grade high speed steel.The M2C carbide decomposes rapidly to form MC and M6C in less

M. R. Ghomashchi

1998-01-01

276

Removal of lead and chromium by activated slag -- A blast-furnace waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blast-furnace waste generated in steel plants has been converted into a low-cost adsorbent. The resulting activated slag has been characterized and used for the removal of lead and chromium. The effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentrations, presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time on the sorption of lead and chromium were studied in batch experiments. Kinetic

S. K. Srivastava; V. K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan

1997-01-01

277

Steel industry wastes. [Wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

A literature review dealing with waste processing of steel industry wastes is presented. The costs for the U.S. steel industry to comply with environmental standards are such that water reuse and recycling may be necessary. The review examines conventional coke plant wastewater treatments such as flotation, phenol extraction, ammonia stripping, and biological nitrification, and alternative treatment processes for blast furnace scrubber blowdown such as alkaline chlorination, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. A review of pickling operations and finishing processes is also included with their appropriate waste methods highlighted.

Vachon, D.T. (Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario); Schmidt, J.W.; Schmidtke, N.W.

1982-06-01

278

Innovative Energy Conservation Through Scrao Pre-heating in an Electric Arc Furnace  

E-print Network

to provide measurement and verification (M&V) data to demonstrate the measure?s electricity savings for 10 years after the measure is declared to be in service. Prior to the upgrade, the EAF at Ivaco Rolling Mills 2004 L.P. melted recycled steel scrap... for casting into billets that are eventually rolled into steel wire products on site. The scrap melting process at the facility was a batch process. The EAF roof wa periodically opened to load or ?charge? the furnace with scrap. Electricity, natural gas...

Dicion, A.

2013-01-01

279

Solid fuel warm air furnace  

SciTech Connect

A solid fuel furnace which includes a housing enclosing a firebox and a heat exchanger chamber. An open grate in the firebox supports solid fuel thereon. Combustion air is admitted to the area below the grate and is preheated and passes upwardly through the grate and fuel and mixes with volatile gases released from the fuel. The air/gas mixture is drawn downwardly through the fuel and exits the firebox through an inlet to an insulated burn-out chamber which is behind the firebox. A metal screen covers the inlet and serves to ignite the air/gas mixture. Hot flue gases exit the burn-out chamber to the heat exchanger chamber.

Christian, J.V.

1984-08-21

280

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME II. SINTERING, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

281

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is the first in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, ge...

282

Minimal supersymmetric Higgs bosons with extra dimensions as the source of reheating and all matter.  

PubMed

We consider the possibility that the dark energy responsible for inflation is deposited into extra dimensions outside of our observable Universe. Reheating and all matter can then be obtained from the minimal supersymmetric standard model flat direction condensate involving the Higgs bosons Hu and Hd, which acquires large amplitude by virtue of quantum fluctuations during inflation. The reheat temperature is TRH < or = 10(9) GeV so that there is no gravitino problem. We find a spectral index ns 1 with a very weak dependence on the Higgs potential. PMID:15323616

Enqvist, Kari; Kasuya, Shinta; Mazumdar, Anupam

2004-08-01

283

49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...oxygen, or electric furnace process steel of uniform quality...during the heat treatment process so as to simulate the heat treatment process of the finished cylinders... Marking must be done by stamping into the metal of the...

2013-10-01

284

49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...oxygen, or electric furnace process steel of uniform quality...during the heat treatment process so as to simulate the heat treatment process of the finished cylinders... Marking must be done by stamping into the metal of the...

2011-10-01

285

49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...oxygen, or electric furnace process steel of uniform quality...during the heat treatment process so as to simulate the heat treatment process of the finished cylinders... Marking must be done by stamping into the metal of the...

2012-10-01

286

49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...oxygen, or electric furnace process steel of uniform quality...during the heat treatment process so as to simulate the heat treatment process of the finished cylinders... Marking must be done by stamping into the metal of the...

2014-10-01

287

Processing factors contributing to growth and decline in the steel industry  

E-print Network

During the second half of the twentieth century, a technological shift occurred in the steel industry. A different mix of refining and melting furnaces were used, with increasing use being made of basic oxygen and electric ...

Dufalla, Michele (Michele Helene)

2007-01-01

288

Method of Making Steel Strapping and Strip  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet written for the Inventions and Innovation Program about a new method for making steel strapping and strip from rod stock produced from scrap steel. There is a large movement in the American steel industry to utilize more recycled steel. Recycled steel melted in the electric arc furnaces of mini-mills is being used as the source of raw materials for an increasing number of products, largely due to its lower price. However, conventional processes for producing steel strapping and cold-rolled strip steel restrict manufacturers from using more than 50% recycled steel. In addition, steel strapping and cold-rolled strip steel traditionally require many production steps. They are produced from primary steel that has been cast into slab, heated, rolled to achieve the desired thickness, and slit to the desired width. The slitting process produces microcracks along the edge of the strapping or strip, which reduce tensile strength. A new continuous process produces steel strapping and 1/2 inch to 6 inch strip steel from the rod and strip stock made from scrap steel in mini-mills. The new process creates steel strapping and strip with improved strength and quality due to the absence of microcracks caused by the conventional slitting process. The finished product is cheaper because of the lower cost associated with using rod ad lower conversion costs. In addition, the higher tensile strength of the product allows for thinner strapping. The process represents a new approach to producing any steel strapping used for bundling and packaging items for storage or transport. In addition, this innovative new process can be used to produce cold-rolled strip steel, a basic raw material for automobile parts, hardware, office equipment, and many other products.

NONE

1999-12-10

289

Reheating effects in the matter power spectrum and implications for substructure  

SciTech Connect

The thermal and expansion history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis is unknown. We investigate the evolution of cosmological perturbations through the transition from an early matter era to radiation domination. We treat reheating as the perturbative decay of an oscillating scalar field into relativistic plasma and cold dark matter. After reheating, we find that subhorizon perturbations in the decay-produced dark matter density are significantly enhanced, while subhorizon radiation perturbations are instead suppressed. If dark matter originates in the radiation bath after reheating, this suppression may be the primary cutoff in the matter power spectrum. Conversely, for dark matter produced nonthermally from scalar decay, enhanced perturbations can drive structure formation during the cosmic dark ages and dramatically increase the abundance of compact substructures. For low reheat temperatures, we find that as much as 50% of all dark matter is in microhalos with M > or approx. 0.1M{sub +} at z{approx_equal}100, compared to a fraction of {approx}10{sup -10} in the standard case. In this scenario, ultradense substructures may constitute a large fraction of dark matter in galaxies today.

Erickcek, Adrienne L. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Sigurdson, Kris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2011-10-15

290

Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

1986-01-01

291

Removable preheater elements improve oxide induction furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat and corrosion resistant preheater elements are used in oxide induction furnaces to raise the temperature to the level for conducting electricity. These preheater elements are then removed and the induction coil energized.

Leipold, M. H.

1964-01-01

292

Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces  

E-print Network

The Department of Energy funded development of a methodology that could be used by glass producers to increase furnace efficiency, and that could serve as a model for other energy-intensive industries. Accordingly, a team comprising PPG Industries...

Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

2005-01-01

293

Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide  

DOEpatents

A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

2012-03-13

294

Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System  

E-print Network

-evaluate the dynamics of heat transfer for a key piece of industrial equipment, a sintering furnace. The goal is to optimize furnace operations to relieve an operations bottleneck for a tungsten carbide drill nozzle production facility. In light of plans to mitigate... convection are the radiation shield and the inner chamber door. 2) Analysis Preliminary analysis and calculations have been made to determine the impact of increased convection. This was done by creating a theoretical spherical mass of tungsten carbide...

Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01

295

Glass Furnace Project, October 1982March 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Glass Furnace Project currently under way at Mound, a treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste is being evaluated that will combine volume reduction and immobilization in one step. Initial work focused on demonstrating the ability of the furnace to efficiently incinerate nonradioactive, simulated power-plant waste and on determining the adequacy of immobilization in a soda-lime silica matrix. Further

K. M. Armstrong; L. M. Klingler

1983-01-01

296

Effect of storage and subsequent reheating on viability of Listeria monocytogenes on pork scrapple.  

PubMed

We evaluated the fate of Listeria monocytogenes on commercial pork scrapple, a regionally popular, ready-to-eat (RTE) meat. We also conducted an informal survey to address consumer practices for storing and reheating scrapple. Of the 129 consumers who responded to at least one of the eight questions posed in the survey, about half (46.4%; 52 of 112) considered scrapple RTE, the majority (69.7%; 76 of 109) stored it in the refrigerator, and all (100%; 112 of 112) preferred to reheat it prior to consumption. Most respondents (83.9%; 94 of 112) reheated the scrapple by pan frying for 1 to 10 min at medium to high temperature. To study pathogen behavior, slices of pork scrapple were surface inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (ca. 2.0 log CFU/g), vacuum sealed, and stored for up to 60 days. Pathogen levels increased to 8.9, 9.5, and 9.9 log CFU/g after 44 (4 degrees C), 21 (10 degrees C), and 5 (21 degrees C) days, respectively. When slices 1.3 cm (ca. 55 g) and 1.9 cm (ca. 85 g) thick were surface inoculated with L. monocytogenes (ca. 7.0 log CFU/g) and then reheated in a skillet (191 degrees C) for 0.5 to 4 min per side or to target instantaneous internal temperatures of 48.9 to 71.1 degrees C, it was possible to achieve pathogen reductions ranging from ca. 2.2 to 6.5 log CFU/g. These data confirm that in the unlikely event of postprocessing contamination of pork scrapple by L. monocytogenes, proper reheating can appreciably reduce levels of the pathogen before consumption. PMID:20003735

Adekunle, A O; Porto-Fett, A C S; Call, J E; Shoyer, B; Gartner, K; Tufft, L; Luchansky, J B

2009-12-01

297

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the US Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I -- design; Phase II -- construction; and Phase III -- operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. A 100% construction review meeting was held in December and attended by representatives of DOE, Fluor Daniel and Bethlehem Steel. The coal preparation mills were started up in December, 1994, and the first coal was injected into ``D`` blast furnace on December 19, 1994. Near the end of the year, the grinding mills and injection facility were being prepared for performance testing during the first quarter of 1995. The demonstration test program (phase III) will start in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-07-01

298

Low-friction, anhydrous, low- to high-temperature furnace sample assembly for piston-cylinder apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly designed furnace assembly for piston-cylinder, high-pressure apparatus uses NaCl or KBr rather than hydrous materials such as talc or pyrophyllite. Unlike previous designs, our cell can be used hundreds of degrees above the melting temperatures of the salts. This cell requires little or no pressure correction and provides conditions that are free of H2 and H2O. The electrical power requirements are only about 60% of that for talc furnace assemblies, resulting in cooler operation and longer life for the steel and carbide in the pistons and pressure vessels.

Boettcher, A. L.; Windom, K. E.; Bohlen, S. R.; Luth, R. W.

1981-12-01

299

15Year blast furnace campaign concept for the reline of blast furnace C at Iscor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970`s, when blast furnace campaigns of 3 to 5 years were experienced at the Vanderbijlpark Works, consequent improvements of cooling and refractory concepts as well as the development of a hot guniting practice for belly and lower shaft resulted in campaigns of 10 years and more. Having mastered the problems in belly and lower shaft, the furnace hearth

Noska; T. G. L

1995-01-01

300

Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Iron-Slag Ratio at Taphole of Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the initial process in an integrated steel-making plant, molten iron is produced in a blast furnace. The molten iron has a temperature between 1700 K and 1900 K. The outflow stream discharged from a taphole comprises the molten iron and slag (which is a mixture of molten oxides). Monitoring of the stream temperature is important because it has information on the thermal condition inside the blast furnace. A newly developed simultaneous measurement technique for temperature and iron-slag ratio is reported. A monochromatic CCD camera with a short exposure time is used to obtain a thermal image of the rapidly moving stream. The thermal image has a marble-like pattern caused by the physical separation of the iron and slag and their different optical properties. Iron thermometry is realized by automatically detecting the peak of the iron gray-level distribution on a histogram. Meanwhile, the thermal radiance of the semitransparent slag varies as a function of the thickness. The slag temperature is calculated from the maximum gray level, presuming that the emissivity of the slag is constant at a thick slag part. The slag ratio is measured by counting the number of pixels on the histogram. A field test was carried out at an operating blast furnace. The iron temperature, slag temperature, and slag ratio were successfully measured. This multiple image measurement is expected to be the new information source for stable blast furnace operation.

Sugiura, M.; Shinotake, A.; Nakashima, M.; Omoto, N.

2014-07-01

301

Thermodynamic modelling of the formation of zinc-manganese ferrite spinel in electric arc furnace dust.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace dust is generated when automobile scrap, containing galvanized steel, is remelted in an electric arc furnace. This dust is considered as a hazardous waste in most countries. Zinc is a major component of the dust and can be of significant commercial value. Typically, the majority of the zinc exists as zinc oxide (ZnO) and as a zinc-manganese ferrite spinel ((Zn(x)Mn(y)Fe(1-x-y))Fe(2)O(4)). The recovery of the zinc from the dust in metal recycling and recovery processes, particularly in the hydrometallurgical extraction processes, is often hindered by the presence of the mixed ferrite spinel. However, there is a paucity of information available in the literature on the formation of this spinel. Therefore, in the present research, the equilibrium module of HSC Chemistry 6.1 was utilized to investigate the thermodynamics of the formation of the spinel and the effect of variables on the amount and the composition of the mixed ferrite spinel. It is proposed that the mixed ferrite spinel forms due to the reaction of iron-manganese particulates with both gaseous oxygen and zinc, at the high temperatures in the freeboard of the furnace above the steel melt. Based on the thermodynamic predictions, methods are proposed for minimizing the formation of the mixed ferrite spinel. PMID:20356673

Pickles, C A

2010-07-15

302

Experimental investigation of basic oxygen furnace slag used as aggregate in asphalt mixture.  

PubMed

Chinese researchers have commenced a great deal of researches on the development of application fields of basic oxygen steel making furnace slag (BOF slag) for many years. Lots of new applications and properties have been found, but few of them in asphalt mixture of road construction engineering. This paper discussed the feasibility of BOF steel slag used as aggregate in asphalt pavement by two points of view including BOF steel slag's physical and micro-properties as well as steel slag asphalt materials and pavement performances. For the former part, this paper mainly concerned the mechanochemistry and physical changes of the steel slag and studied it by performing XRD, SEM, TG and mercury porosimeter analysis and testing method. In the second part, this paper intended to use BOF steel slag as raw material, and design steel slag SMA mixture. By using traditional rutting test, soak wheel track and modified Lottman test, the high temperature stability and water resistance ability were tested. Single axes compression test and indirect tensile test were performed to evaluate the low temperature crack resistance performance and fatigue characteristic. Simultaneously, by observing steel slag SMA pavement which was paved successfully. A follow-up study to evaluate the performance of the experimental pavement confirmed that the experimental pavement was comparable with conventional asphalt pavement, even superior to the later in some aspects. All of above test results and analysis had only one main purpose that this paper validated the opinion that using BOF slag in asphalt concrete is feasible. So this paper suggested that treated and tested steel slag should be used in a more extensive range, especially in asphalt mixture paving projects in such an abundant steel slag resource region. PMID:16982138

Xue, Yongjie; Wu, Shaopeng; Hou, Haobo; Zha, Jin

2006-11-16

303

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME VI. BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

304

Air-Side Energy Use Calculations for Four HVAC Systems: Dual Duct Constant Volume (DDCAV), Dual Duct Variable Volume (DDVAV), Constant Volume with Reheat (CAVRH0), Variable Volume with Reheat (VAVRH)  

E-print Network

(CAVRH), and variable volume with reheat (VAVRH). These calculations are presented in spreadsheets that include a running commentary so that the reader can trace through the calculations to see what is being performed. Each system also contains a one...

Haberl, J. S.

2001-01-01

305

Microstructural studies of advanced austenitic steels  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the first complete microstructural and analytical electron microscopy study of Alloy AX5, one of a series of advanced austenitic steels developed by Maziasz and co-workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for their potential application as reheater and superheater materials in power plants that will reach the end of their design lives in the 1990's. The advanced steels are modified with carbide forming elements such as titanium, niobium and vanadium. When combined with optimized thermo-mechanical treatments, the advanced steels exhibit significantly improved creep rupture properties compared to commercially available 316 stainless steels, 17--14 Cu--Mo and 800 H steels. The importance of microstructure in controlling these improvements has been demonstrated for selected alloys, using stress relaxation testing as an accelerated test method. The microstructural features responsible for the improved creep strengths have been identified by studying the thermal aging kinetics of one of the 16Ni--14Cr advanced steels, Alloy AX5, in both the solution annealed and the solution annealed plus cold worked conditions. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams have been developed for the temperature range 600 C to 900 C and for times from 1 h to 3000 h. 226 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

Todd, J. A.; Ren, Jyh-Ching [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science

1989-11-15

306

Study of Room Temperature and Humidity Control Method on Dehumidification System Reheated by Refrigeration Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ways to control the humidity and the temperature of the room accurately during the dehumidification operation reheated by refrigeration cycle on room air conditioners using R 410A was investigated. The indoor heat exchanger is divided into a condensing part and an evaporating part by a dehumidification valve which is located between these two heat exchangers. The indoor air cooled and dehumidified by the evaporating part is heated by the condensing part. The dehumidification capacity increased according to increasing the compressor rotational speed. And the reheating capacity increased according to decreasing the outdoor fan rotational speed. So the humidity and the temperature of the room was controlled to the setting values exactly by regulating the compressor rotational speed and the outdoor fan rotational speed alternately.

Nakamura, Hiroo; Funakoshi, Sunao; Yokoyama, Hidenori; Morimoto, Motoo; Saito, Kiyoshi

307

The influence of external bending moments on the lifetime of bends in hot reheat pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of various factors (the initial pipe cross section ovality and external bending moments) on the lifetime of bends used in high-temperature pipelines is estimated using the techniques of continuum damage mechanics of metal. The investigation was carried out for two typical bends used in hot reheat pipelines. To this end, the bend lifetime was numerically analyzed taking into account the accumulated extent of damage based on the results of finite-element computations in geometrically nonlinear statement.

Kireev, O. B.; Saikova, M. S.; Danyushevskii, I. A.

2013-01-01

308

Induction furnace testing of the durability of prototype crucibles in a molten metal environment  

SciTech Connect

Engineered ceramic crucibles are commonly used to contain molten metal. Besides high temperature stability, other desired crucible characteristics include thermal shock resistance, minimal reaction with the molten metal and resistance to attack from the base metal oxide formed during melting. When used in an induction furnace, they can be employed as a “semi-permanent” crucible incorporating a dry ram backup and a ceramic cap. This report covers several 250-lb single melt crucible tests in an air melt induction furnace. These tests consisted of melting a charge of 17-4PH stainless steel, holding the charge molten for two hours before pouring off the heat and then subsequently sectioning the crucible to review the extent of erosion, penetration and other physical characteristics. Selected temperature readings were made throughout each melt. Chemistry samples were also taken from each heat periodically throughout the hold. The manganese level was observed to affect the rate of chromium loss in a non-linear fashion.

Jablonski, Paul D.

2005-09-01

309

Apparatus for inserting and removing specimens from high temperature vacuum furnaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The apparatus comprises a high speed gate valve for isolating the interior of the furnance from an air lock chamber on the opposite side of the gate valve. The air lock chamber is provided with valve ports connected to a vacuum source, a source of inert quenching gas, and the atmosphere, respectively. Attached to the end of the air lock chamber away from the furnace is a cylindrical tube having disposed within it a rod carrying specimen pan at the end towards the furnace and having mounted at its top end an annular magnet having a diameter slightly less than the interior diameter of the tube. The top end of the tube is closed by a removeable cap. Encircling the tube in the vicinity of the magnet is a carbon steel ring which when axially moved along the tube causes the magnet to follow it and thereby controls the position of the rod and specimen pan within the tube.

Whitehead, C. W. (inventor)

1974-01-01

310

High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

1992-01-01

311

Effect of electric arc furnace slag on growth and physiology of maize (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

Basic slag, used in this study as a potential source of certain nutrients, is a byproduct of the production of steel in electric arc furnace (EAF). A pot experiment with two nutrient-poor substrates was conducted to investigate to compare the effect of EAF steel slag and fertilizers NPK + F e on growth and availability of specific nutrients to maize. Mineral content of both substrate and plant leaves, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments were measured following six weeks of cultivation. As steel slag also contains trace amounts of heavy metals, certain oxidative parameters (antioxidative enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation) were evaluated as well. The steel slag improved soil mineral composition, increased above ground maize biomass by providing Fe, Mn, Mg, K and partly P and improved photosynthetic parameters. The potential phytotoxicity of EAF slag containing substrates was not determined as evaluated by MDA (malondialdehyde), GR (glutathione reductase) and APX (ascorbate peroxidase) levels. The obtained results show that EAF steel slag is comparable to NPK + F e in supplying nutrients for maize growth, indicating the potential of EAF steel slag as an inexpensive and non-phytotoxic nutrient supplier especially in poor soils. PMID:24275594

Radi?, Sandra; Crnojevi?, Helena; Sandev, Dubravka; Jeli?, Sonja; Sedlar, Zorana; Glavaš, Katarina; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka

2013-12-01

312

Acoustic Levitator With Furnace And Laser Heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic-levitation apparatus incorporates electrical-resistance furnace for uniform heating up to temperature of about 1,000 degrees C. Additional local heating by pair of laser beams raise temperature of sample to more than 1,500 degrees C. High temperature single-mode acoustic levitator generates cylindrical-mode accoustic resonance levitating sample. Levitation chamber enclosed in electrical-resistance furnace. Infrared beams from Nd:YAG laser provide additional local heating of sample. Designed for use in containerless processing of materials in microgravity or in normal Earth gravity.

Barmatz, Martin B.; Stoneburner, James D.

1991-01-01

313

Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

Gorin, Andrew H. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

314

Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

Brand, L.; Rose, W.

2012-10-01

315

Speciation of Cr and V within BOF steel slag reused in road constructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) steel slag is a residue from the basic oxygen converter in steel-making operations, which is partially reused as an aggregate for road constructions. It is essentially composed of calcium, silicon and iron but also contains potential toxic elements present as traces, like chromium (Cr, 2600 mg kg?1) and vanadium (V, 690 mg kg?1), which can be

Perrine Chaurand; Jérôme Rose; Jérémie Domas; Jean-Yves Bottero

2006-01-01

316

The Origin and Development of the Lone Star Iron and Steel Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

ovens, a cast iron pipe mill, four open hearth furnaces, and a steel pipe mill. Additional plans for expansion are being formulated. It Is the purpose of this paper to analyze t'he economic-geographic factors which have favored the growth of an iron and steel industry at this location. In order to accomplish this end, it will be necessary to inventory

ARTHUR H. DOERR

317

Environmental impacts of steel slag reused in road construction: A crystallographic and molecular (XANES) approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag is a residue from the basic oxygen converter in steel-making operations, and is partially reused as an aggregate for road constructions. Although BOF slag is an attractive building material, its long-term behaviour and the associated environmental impacts must be taken into account. Indeed BOF slag is mainly composed of calcium, silicon and iron but

Perrine Chaurand; Jerome Rose; Valérie Briois; Luca Olivi; Jean-Louis Hazemann; Olivier Proux; Jérémie Domas; Jean-Yves Bottero

2007-01-01

318

Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry — applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in sensitivity and signal processing opened a broad field of application for laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) in the steel making and processing industry. Analyzed substances range from top gas of the blast furnace, via liquid steel up to finished products. This paper gives an overview of R&D activities and first routine industrial applications of LIBS. The continuous knowledge

Reinhard Noll; Holger Bette; Adriane Brysch; Marc Kraushaar; Ingo Mönch; Laszlo Peter; Volker Sturm

2001-01-01

319

Transport and Deposition of Halide in Alkali Metal-Stainless Steel Systems, (IV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solubility of sodium iodide in sodium is measured separately (a) with concentrations of major constituents leached from stainless steel in sodium and (b) with controlled concentration of oxide in sodium by the use of stainless steel capsule. The capsules loaded with 20 g sodium and 0.1–0.3 g powder of additives are heated at their upper part in a furnace and

Suguru TASHIRO; Norihiko SAGAWA

2000-01-01

320

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS FROM GLASS MELTING FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this research was to identify the size fraction distribution of the various chemical constituents of glass furnace emissions. This would assist researchers in identifying emissions characteristic of glass furnaces; thus, providing design requirements for control te...

321

Design and fabrication of a tin-sulfide annealing furnace  

E-print Network

A furnace was designed and its heat transfer properties were analyzed for use in annealing thin-film tins-ulfide solar cells. Tin sulfide has been explored as an earth abundant solar cell material, and the furnace was ...

Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

2011-01-01

322

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

323

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF STEELMAKING FURNACE DUST DISPOSAL METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to examine the nature of steelmaking furnace residues and disposal techniques, and to assess potential problems associated with residue disposal, a potential multimedia environmental problem. Solubilization tests of 18 furnace residue samples s...

324

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING BUILDINGS SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Bessemer Foundry, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

325

36. REDUCTION PLANT CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. REDUCTION PLANT - CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER Reduction Plant furnace and boiler used to provide heat for drying the fish and fish offal, in their conversion to meal. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

326

Removal of Arsenic(III) from Groundwater using Low-Cost Industrial By-products—Blast Furnace Slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag (BFS), a steel industrial by-product, was tested for the removal of As(III), which is a highly toxic, mobile and predominant species in anoxic groundwater. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to determine the feasibility of BFS as an adsorbent for removing As(III) from groundwater as As(III) concentration and the pH of water were varied. The maximum As(III) adsorption

Sushil Raj Kanel; Heechul Choi; Ju-Yong Kim; Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran; Wang Geun Shim

2006-01-01

327

Glassification of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Glassification process is a unique system that treats hazardous materials such as electric arc furnace dust, slag, spent refractories, etc, and produces an inert, nontoxic marketable commodity. A wide variety of end products include: colored glasses; glass-ceramics that resemble natural rocks used for architectural purposes and decorative articles; roofing granules; abrasive grit; brick and tile colorants; and fillers. This

R. B. Ek; J. E. Schlobohm

1993-01-01

328

Tube-Furnace Production of Silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Packed-bed reactor produces silicon by decomposing ultrapure silane gas in temperature gradient. Based on previous experiments with relatively low decomposition temperatures and with temperature gradients, heterogeneous decomposition will produce few fines. Fines produced are screened out and reinserted into furnace.

Farrier, E. G.; Rexer, J.; Timmel, P. J.

1982-01-01

329

Controlling glass furnace NOâ with gas reburn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass furnaces are significant emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOâ) because of their high operating temperatures. The glass industry is faced with progressively more stringent environmental regulations, particularly for NOâ emissions, in regions of ozone nonattainment. The objective of the development and demonstration program described here is to commercialize gas reburn (GR) technology--previously successfully applied in large boilers and incinerators--to large

R. Koppang; A. Marquez; D. Moyeda; M. Joshi; P. Mohr; R. Madrazo

1998-01-01

330

Model based energy benchmarking for glass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy benchmarking of processes is important for setting energy efficiency targets and planning energy management strategies. Most approaches used for energy benchmarking are based on statistical methods by comparing with a sample of existing plants. This paper presents a model based approach for benchmarking of energy intensive industrial processes and illustrates this approach for industrial glass furnaces.A simulation model for

Vishal Sardeshpande; U. N. Gaitonde; Rangan Banerjee

2007-01-01

331

Saturable reactor control of glass melt furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of a saturable-reactor control system to an existing glass furnace, for melting a glass of composition between a soda-lime and a borosilicate, is described. The factors that influenced the selection of the specific equipment design are discussed as well as the performance characteristics that were achieved. A phase imbalance has been observed. It is concluded that the best

C. Kubiczki; F. R. Wetzel

1989-01-01

332

High-gradient continuous-casting furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High gradient allows rapid growth rates in directionally-solidified eutectic alloys. Furnace design permits cost reductions in directional solidification process through its increased solidification rates, which reduces melt/mold interaction. It produces structural engineering materials for any application requiring properties directionally-solidified eutectic materials.

Scheuermann, C. M.; Flemings, M. C.; Neff, M. A.; Rickinson, B. A.; Young, K. P.

1979-01-01

333

Multi-fuel forced air furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid fuel supported on a grate within the combustion chamber of a furnace is ignited by a liquid or gas fuel burner projecting its flame entirely within the same combustion chamber. A forced inflow of air is preheated by being conducted below and in surrounding relation to the combustion chamber and then passed in heat exchange relation to heat transfer

1977-01-01

334

HT / LT SERIES SMALL BATCH FURNACE SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

Considerations Produce a cost effective alternative to table top furnace systems that incorporate DDC control of mimicking production environment - baffling, dummy boats, etc. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT #12;Sandvik Materials Materials Technology The previous table top, the Maxi Mite, is still a valid product as shown to the right

335

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. oth the technical and economic aspects of the technology were exami...

336

APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

337

Temperature control of a solar furnace for material testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace is a thermodynamic device that concentrates sun radiation in order to achieve high-temperatures at a focus, where a sample of the material to be tested is located. This article address the problem of designing a control architecture for solar furnaces. It is motivated by the use of a solar furnace as an instrument in material science research

B. Andrade Costa; J. M. Lemos; L. G. Rosa

2011-01-01

338

Computationally efficient modeling of wafer temperatures in an LPCVD furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new first principles thermal model to predict wafer temperatures within a hot-wall Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) furnace based on furnace wall temperatures as measured by thermocouples. This model is based on an energy balance of the furnace system with the following features: (a) the model is a transformed linear model which captures the nonlinear

Qinghua He; S. Joe Qin; Anthony J. Toprac

2003-01-01

339

Phasing out Reverberatory Furnace Operations at KCM Nkana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nkana smelter was initially commissioned in 1931, with two reverberatory furnaces, two Peirce-Smith converters, and blister copper casting facilities. Reverberatory furnaces were the mainstay of production up until 1994, when an El Teniente Converter (CT) was installed to upgrade reverberatory furnace matte to white metal, prior to converting in conventional Peirce-Smith (PS) converters. In 2000, a decision was taken

C. J. Cutler; M. Natarajan; E. Mponda; J. J. Eksteen

340

Numerical simulation on the structure of glass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention received by the float process, whose structure of the furnace is very critical, and its design is reasonable, directly affect the production and quality of glass. while the size of melting department of melting furnace is reasonable which is key solution of designing the furnace. In the past, the size of melting department is determined by referring to or

ZhiHua Wei; Jinshuang Li

2011-01-01

341

Estimation of Burning Rates in Solid Waste Combustion Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a furnace burning solid wastes, one of the key areas in design is the sizing of the furnace which is often determined on the basis of empirically selected furnace heat release rate and grate burning rate. An independent estimation of these factors would require the knowledge of physical processes of refuse combustion such as drying and heating of the

J. T. KUO

1998-01-01

342

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL NATURAL GAS FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives emissions data from residential natural-gas furnaces and compares selected data to emissions data from residential oil furnaces and woodstoves. atural-gas furnace emissions data are given for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons, aldehydes, volatile and sem...

343

Profile of the iron and steel industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project  

SciTech Connect

The iron and steel industry is categorized by the Bureau of the Census under the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code 33, primary metal industries. The industry is further classified by the three-digit codes 331, Steel Works, Blast Furnaces, and Rolling and Finishing Mills, and 332 Iron and Steel Foundries. Since steel works, blast furnaces, and rolling and finishing mills account for the majority of environmental releases, employees, and value of shipments, this profile concentrates on the three-digit SIC 331. Some sections of the profile focus specifically on industries in the four-digit SIC 3312, since virtually all establishments producing primary products (iron and steel) under SIC 3312, also produce secondary products that fall under some of the other iron and steel SIC codes under SIC 331.

NONE

1995-09-01

344

Producing Portland cement from iron and steel slags and limestone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slags from blast furnace (iron making ) and converter (steel making) after magnetic separation are mixed with limestone of six different compositions. The ground materials are fired in a pilot plant scale rotary kiln to 1350 °C for 1 h. The clinker is cooled, crushed, mixed with 3% gypsum, and ground to fineness of more than 3300 cm2\\/g. Initial

Ahmad Monshi; Masoud Kasiri Asgarani

1999-01-01

345

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON ELECTROSTATIC SCRUBBER TESTS AT A STEEL PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a demonstration of the effectiveness of a 1700 cu m/hr (1000 acfm) University of Washington (UW) Electrostatic Spray Scrubber in controlling fine particle emissions from an electric-arc steel furnace. The two-stage portable pilot plant operates by comb...

346

TiC reinforced cast Cr steels  

SciTech Connect

A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5–4.5Ti, and 1–1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

Dogan, O.N.; Hawk, J.A.; Schrems, K.K.

2006-06-01

347

TiC reinforced cast chromium steels  

SciTech Connect

A series of new titanium carbide reinforced cast chromium steels were developed for wear applications. Objective of the program was to enhance wear resistant alloys and, if possible, improve mechanical properties. The new steels which were melted in a vacuum induction furnace contained 12 Cr, 3-5 Ti, 1-2 C in weight percent. Alloying with Ti changed the precipitate microstructure from Cr carbide to TiC dispersed in a martensitic matrix. Yield strength and impact resistance improved with Ti alloying. Wear rates of the cast Cr/TiC steels, (determined from high- and low-stress abrasion tests, erosion test, and scratch tests) were generally lower than both the as-cast and heat-treated AISI type 440°C steel and were often further reduced by increasing the Ti alloy concentration. The exceptions were the erosion test for which all materials had similar wear rate.

Dogan, Omer N.; Rawers, James C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Schrems, Karol K.

2003-11-01

348

Steamside Oxidation Behavior of Experimental 9%Cr Steels  

SciTech Connect

Reducing emissions and increasing economic competitiveness require more efficient steam power plants that utilize fossil fuels. One of the major challenges in designing these plants is the availability of materials that can stand the supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam conditions at a competitive cost. There are several programs around the world developing new ferritic and austenitic steels for superheater and reheater tubes exposed to the advanced steam conditions. The new steels must possess properties better than current steels in terms of creep strength, steamside oxidation resistance, fireside corrosion resistance, and thermal fatigue resistance. This paper introduces a series of experimental 9%Cr steels containing Cu, Co, and Ti. Stability of the phases in the new steels is discussed and compared to the phases in the commercially available materials. The steels were tested under both the dry and moist conditions at 650ºC for their cyclical oxidation resistance. Results of oxidation tests are presented. Under the moist conditions, the experimental steels exhibited significantly less mass gain compared to the commercial P91 steel. Microstructural characterization of the scale revealed different oxide compositions.

Dogan, O.N.; Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Jablonski, P.D.

2007-10-01

349

6. Photocopied August 1978. LINEUP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photocopied August 1978. LINE-UP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON THE SECOND FLOOR OF THE MICHIGAN LAKE SUPERIOR POWER COMPANY POWER HOUSE. THE HOPPERS WHICH FED THE RAW MATERIALS INTO THE FURNACES ARE SHOWN ABOVE THE FURNACES. AS THE 'SPOOL' OF THE FURNACE ROTATED PAST THE ELECTRODES PLATES WERE ADDED TO HOLD THE FINISHED PRODUCT AND THE DESCENDING RAW MATERIALS IN PLACE. THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION OF THE FURNACES SHOWN IN THIS PHOTO IS CLOCKWISE, (M). - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

350

Antibacterial properties, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of Cu-modified SUS 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation studies the effects of Cu content and ageing treatment on the microstructural, mechanical, corrosion and antibacterial properties of SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel. Cu was added respectively to SUS 304 stainless steels in proportions of 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5wt.%. A vacuum arc remelting furnace was used to remelt SUS 304 stainless steel with various added Cu

I. T. Hong; C. H. Koo

2005-01-01

351

Comment on `Recombination induced softening and reheating of the cosmic plasma'  

E-print Network

Leung, Chan & Chu (2004) claimed that a previously neglected reheating effect makes a small but noticeable change to the process of cosmological recombination. We revisit this effect by considering a system consisting of both radiation and ionizing gas under adiabatic expansion. In the thermal equilibrium limit, due to the huge radiation background, only a fraction about 10^-10 of the heat released from the recombination of atoms is shared by the matter. And in the standard hydrogen recombination calculation, the maximum fraction of energy lost by the distortion photons through multiple Compton scattering is certainly less than 10^-3. Thus this effect is negligible.

Wan Yan Wong; Douglas Scott

2006-12-12

352

Computer program for thermodynamic analysis of open cycle multishaft power system with multiple reheat and intercool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program to analyze power systems having any number of shafts up to a maximum of five is presented. On each shaft there can be as many as five compressors and five turbines, along with any specified number of intervening intercoolers and reheaters. A recuperator can be included. Turbine coolant flow can be accounted for. Any fuel consisting entirely of hydrogen and/or carbon can be used. The program is valid for maximum temperatures up to about 2000 K (3600 R). The system description, the analysis method, a detailed explanation of program input and output including an illustrative example, a dictionary of program variables, and the program listing are explained.

Glassman, A. J.

1974-01-01

353

A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. (Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada))

1992-01-01

354

A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

1992-08-01

355

Mineral phases of weathered and recent electric arc furnace dust.  

PubMed

A weathered and a recent sample of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), generated in a southern Brazilian steel industry, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) probe and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. One sample, in the form of a wet paste, was collected from the lowest part of a landfill and corresponds to a weathered material whereas the other sample was collected from the top portion of the landfill and corresponds to a recently produced material. The dominant cations present in both samples are iron, zinc and lead with minor amounts of manganese, calcium and silicon. The dominant mineralogical phases identified in both materials are Magnetite, Franklinite and Zincite. The recent sample has Laurionite whereas the weathered sample has Hydrocerussite and Hydrozincite. PMID:18037237

Martins, Fernanda Machado; dos Reis Neto, José Manoel; da Cunha, Carlos Jorge

2008-06-15

356

Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace  

SciTech Connect

A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

1999-09-01

357

Understanding environmental leachability of electric arc furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

Dust from production of steel in an electric arc furnace (EAF) contains a mixture of elements that pose a challenge for both recovery and disposal. This paper relates the leachability of six Canadian EAF dusts in four leaching tests [distilled water, Ontario Regulation 347 Leachate Extraction Procedure, Amount Available for Leaching (AALT), and pH 5 Stat] to their mineralogy. Chromium and nickel contaminants in EAF dust are largely unleachable (<5% available in AALT and pH 5 Stat), as they are found with the predominant spinel ferrite phase in EAF dust. However, even a small proportion of oxidized chromium can result in significant leachate concentrations of highly toxic chromate. The leachability of zinc (7--50% available), lead (2--17% available), and cadmium (9--55% available) can be significant, as large fractions of these contaminants are found as chlorides and oxides. The leaching of these metals is largely controlled by pH. The acid neutralization capacity of the EAF dusts appeared to be controlled by dissolution of lime and zincite, and results from regulatory leaching tests can be misleading because the variable acid neutralization capacity of EAF dusts can lead to very different final leachate pHs (5--12.4). A more informative approach would be to evaluate the total amounts of contaminants available in the long term, and the acid neutralization capacity.

Stegemann, J.A.; Roy, A.; Caldwell, R.J.; Schilling, P.J.; Tittsworth, R.

2000-02-01

358

Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces.  

PubMed

Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy. PMID:22749723

Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

2012-12-01

359

Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.  

SciTech Connect

The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive basic research and the solution of proprietary glass production problems. As a consequence of the substantial increase in scale and scope of the initial furnace concept in response to industry recommendations, constraints on funding of industrial programs by DOE, and reorientation of the Department's priorities, the OIT Glass Program is unable to provide the support for construction of such a facility. However, it is the present investigators' hope that a group of industry partners will emerge to carry the project forward, taking advantage of the detailed furnace design presented in this report. The engineering, including complete construction drawings, bill of materials, and equipment specifications, is complete. The project is ready to begin construction as soon as the quotations are updated. The design of the research melter closely follows the most advanced industrial practice, firing by natural gas with oxygen. The melting area is 13 ft x 6 ft, with a glass depth of 3 ft and an average height in the combustion space of 3 ft. The maximum pull rate is 25 tons/day, ranging from 100% batch to 100% cullet, continuously fed, with variable batch composition, particle size distribution, and raft configuration. The tank is equipped with bubblers to control glass circulation. The furnace can be fired in three modes: (1) using a single large burner mounted on the front wall, (2) by six burners in a staggered/opposed arrangement, three in each breast wall, and (3) by down-fired burners mounted in the crown in any combination with the front wall or breast-wall-mounted burners. Horizontal slots are provided between the tank blocks and tuck stones and between the breast wall and skewback blocks, running the entire length of the furnace on both sides, to permit access to the combustion space and the surface of the glass for optical measurements and sampling probes. Vertical slots in the breast walls provide additional access for measurements and sampling. The furnace and tank are to be fully instrumented with standard measuring equipment, such as flow meters, thermocouples, continuous gas composition

Connors, John J. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); McConnell, John F. (JFM Consulting, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Henry, Vincent I. (Henry Technology Solutions, LLC, Ann Arbor, MI); MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Adams, Michael E. (Lilja Corp., Rochester, NY); Leadbetter, James M. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Tomasewski, Jack W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Operacz, Walter J. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Houf, William G.; Davis, James W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Marvin, Bart G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Gunner, Bruce E. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Farrell, Rick G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Bivins, David P. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Curtis, Warren (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Harris, James E. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA)

2004-08-01

360

[Measurement of chemical agents in metallurgy field: electric steel plant].  

PubMed

The steel industry maintains its important position in the context of the Italian production involving thousands of workers. The iron and steel processes are divided into primary steel industry, production of intermediate minerals, and secondary steel, scrap from the production of semi-finished industrial and consumer sector (metal inserted into components and metal used for dissipative uses, primarily coatings) and industrial waste. The paper presents the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some electric steel plant for the measurement of airborne chemicals that characterize the occupational exposure of workers employed in particular area like electric oven, to treatment outside the furnace, continuous casting area. For the sampling of the pollutants were used both personal and in fixed positions samplers. The pollutants measured are those typical of steel processes inhalable dust, metals, respirable dust, crystalline silica, but also Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). PMID:23213795

Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Ghitti, R; Festa, D; Apostoli, P

2012-01-01

361

EAF steel producers and the K061 dilemma  

SciTech Connect

The scrap based steel producers in the United States generate an estimated 650,000 tons of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust annually which is classified as hazardous waste, K061. These scrap based producers commonly referred to as mini-mills represented 39% of the steel produced in 1994. Based upon the EAF plants being installed or planned today, it is a reasonable projection to anticipate 50% of the steel produced in the United States will be by EAF`S. Using a straight line projection of percent of steel produced to tonnage of EAF dust generated, this will result in 833,000 tons of dust being generated upon the completion of these new EAF producing plants, presumably by the year 2000. Because the United States is a capitalistic economy, a steel producer is in business to make a profit therefore dust management becomes a very important variable in the cost of making steel.

Prichard, L.C.

1995-12-31

362

Induction graphitizing furnace acceptance test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The induction furnace was designed to provide the controlled temperature and environment required for the post-cure, carbonization and graphitization processes for the fabrication of a fibrous graphite NERVA nozzle extension. The acceptance testing required six tests and a total operating time of 298 hrs. Low temperature mode operations, 120 to 850 C, were completed in one test run. High temperature mode operations, 120 to 2750 C, were completed during five tests.

1972-01-01

363

New channel design for a glass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The furnace is regenerative, with a reflected flame direction and a working basin, which is fired by gas. The throughput is 39.7 tonnes\\/day, specific production 878 kg\\/m 2 a day, maximum melting temperature 1510  10=C, working temperature 1200  5~ area of melting section 45.3 m 2, working section 9.3 m 2, melting basin depth ii00 mm, working basin

M. N. Kucheryavyi; O. N. Popov; A. S. Astakhov

1988-01-01

364

Metal sorption on blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of Cu, Ni and Zn-ions from water solution by ungranulated blast-furnace slag has been studied depending on contact time, initial ion concentration, pH and solution temperature. The polymineral composition and the slag specific properties determine its high sorption activity in metal salts solutions. In the range of the concentrations studied (10?4–10?3 M), the sorption data for Cu2+, Ni2+

S. V. Dimitrova

1996-01-01

365

Experimental control of a cupola furnace  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors present some final results from a research project focused on introducing automatic control to the operation of cupola iron furnaces. The main aim of this research is to improve the operational efficiency and performance of the cupola furnace, an important foundry process used to melt iron. Previous papers have described the development of appropriate control system architectures for the cupola. In this paper experimental data is used to calibrate the model, which is taken as a first-order multivariable system with time delay. Then relative gain analysis is used to select loop pairings to be used in a multiloop controller. The resulting controller pairs melt rate with blast volume, iron temperature with oxygen addition, and carbon composition with metal-to-coke ratio. Special (nonlinear) filters are used to compute melt rate from actual scale readings of the amount of iron produced and to smooth the temperature measurement. The temperature and melt rate loops use single-loop PI control. The composition loop uses a Smith predictor to discount the deadtime associated with mass transport through the furnace. Experiments conducted at the Department of Energy Albany Research Center`s experimental research cupola validate the conceptual controller design and provide proof-of-concept of the idea of controlling a foundry cupola.

Moore, K.L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Larsen, E.; Clark, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Abdelrahman, M.A. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; King, P. [Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

1998-08-01

366

Furnace combustion zone temperature control method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for controlling temperature in a combustion zone in a furnace, independent of flue gas oxygen content. It comprises: supplying combustion air to the furnace for combustion of a fuel therein; providing a plurality of low volume gas flow entry ports to the combustion zone in the furnace with carrier gas continuously flowing through the ports into the combustion zone; selecting a set point value for the combustion zone temperature which, upon the temperature exceeding the set point value, commences generation of a fine water mist external the combustion zone by mist generating means within the carrier gas, the mist flowing into the combustion zone with the carrier gas and reducing temperature within the combustion zone by vaporization therein; and adding a proportionately greater amount of water mist to the carrier gas as the temperature of the combustion zone deviates above the set point value, the amount of water mist added limited by the capacity of the mist generating means, and ceasing the water mist generation upon the combustion zone temperature falling to or below the set point value.

McIntyre, G.C.; Lacombe, R.J.; Forbess, R.G.

1991-05-28

367

Adsorption of 2,4-D and carbofuran pesticides using fertilizer and steel industry wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and carbofuran from aqueous solution was studied by using fertilizer industry waste (carbon slurry) and steel industry wastes (blast furnace slag, dust, and sludge) as adsorbents in batch. Adsorption was found to be in decreasing order: carbon slurry, blast furnace sludge, dust, and slag, respectively. Carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from carbon slurry exhibited the uptake

Vinod K. Gupta; Imran Ali; Suhas; Vipin K. Saini

2006-01-01

368

Mechanism of crumb toughening in bread-like products by microwave reheating.  

PubMed

Comparing breads reheated in conventional and microwave ovens revealed that the latter considerably toughens the crumb texture when internal boiling is induced. Moisture loss in itself has a relatively minor toughening effect. The major changes, caused by boiling, occur only in systems with starch concentration in excess of a threshold level of about 37% (wet basis). Substantially greater amounts of amylose are leached out of the granules in the case of sustained boiling during microwave heating, as compared to conventional oven heating. The free amylose solution is being "pushed" by the generated steam pressure toward the air-cell wall interface. A rich amylose phase is accumulated at that interface and over the granules. Upon cooling, the amylose undergoes rapid phase changes; thus, toughening is apparent in a relatively short time after heating. Minimizing the textural deleterious effects in microwave reheating of bread-like products should entail (a) preventing or minimizing internal boiling, (b) diluting of the starch concentration below the threshold level, (c) interfering with the amylose phase change by using complex forming agents. PMID:17625869

Uzzan, Michael; Ramon, Ory; Kopelman, Ishaiahu J; Kesselman, Ellina; Mizrahi, Shimon

2007-08-01

369

Effect of Reheat Treatment on Microstructural Refurbishment and Hardness of the As-cast Inconel 738  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the effect of rejuvenation heat treatment conditions for refurbishment of the long-term serviced gas turbine blades, which were made of as-cast nickel base superalloy grade, Inconel 738. The reheat treatment conditions consist of solutionizing treatments at temperatures of 1,438, 1,458 and 1,478 K for 14.4 ks and aging treatments at temperatures of 1,133, 1,148 and 1,163 K for 43.2, 86.4, 129.6 and 172.8 ks. The results show that increase in aging times results in continuous increase of size and area fraction of gamma prime (?') particles. The higher solutionizing temperature leads to the lower area fraction and smaller size of gamma prime particles. Regarding the microstructure characteristics, the most proper reheat treatment condition should be solutionizing at temperature of 1,438 K for 14.4 ks and aging at temperature of 1,133 K for 172.8 ks, which provides the highest area fraction of gamma prime particles in proper size.

Wongbunyakul, Piyanut; Visuttipitukkul, Patama; Wangyao, Panyawat; Lothongkum, Gobboon; Sricharoenchai, Prasonk

2014-09-01

370

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-05-01

371

Diagnostics Adapted for Heat-Treating Furnace Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagnostics developed for the in situ monitoring of rocket combustion environments were adapted for use in heat-treating furnaces. Simultaneous, in situ monitoring of the carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, water, and hydrogen concentrations in the endothermic gas of a heat-treating furnace were demonstrated under a Space Act Agreement between the NASA Lewis Research Center, the Heat Treating Network, and Akron Steel Treating Company. This endothermic gas, or "endogas," is produced in a catalytic process, where natural gas is "cracked" in the presence of air. Variations in the composition of the natural gas supplied lead to variations in the composition of the endothermic gas. These variations could lead to an unacceptable quality of steel products that are hardened through the carborization process that uses this gas. Conventional methods of monitoring the endogas include measuring the dew point of the gas and the oxygen concentration. From these data, the carbon monoxide content of the gas can be calculated. This carbon monoxide concentration creates the carbon potential needed for carburization. Several weak links are present in this approach. The oxygen monitor deteriorates over time, and the measurement might be inaccurate by 50 percent. Also, the chemistry equations, which are based on several assumptions, such as secondary species concentrations, provide only an approximate estimate of the carbon monoxide concentration. To address these weaknesses, we investigated a new method based on ordinary Raman spectroscopy, in which the carbon monoxide concentration is measured directly and in situ. This method measures the laser light scattered from the molecules. Each species interacts with the light and scatters the light at a different frequency. Spectral monitoring of the scattered light intensity at each molecular frequency of interest provides the species concentrations. One advantage over the conventional method is that several species can be monitored simultaneously. A second advantage is that the measurement is direct; there is no need to make assumptions, to filter the gas, or to calibrate the instrument. An instrument was designed consisting of a laser and a detection system within an enclosure, connected to an optical probe by fibers. For determining carbon monoxide concentration, the probe is mounted on the endothermic gas line, close to the generator. Optical fibers with a length of 150 ft have been used to transmit laser light from the instrument to the probe. There, the light is focused into the gas, and the scattered light is collected and transmitted back to the instrument where it is analyzed with a photomultiplier and lock-in amplifier. Laboratory tests have shown that with the current system the concentration of carbon monoxide, water, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen in the air can be monitored with an accuracy of 1 percent. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air can be monitored with an accuracy of 0.5 percent, and the concentration of methane with an accuracy of 0.2 percent. This instrument was taken to the Akron Steel Treating Plant, where field tests are in progress to verify the system capabilities. Planned developments are improving the accuracy, monitoring multiple locations, and reducing instrument size and cost.

2005-01-01

372

Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.  

PubMed

Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

2012-05-01

373

Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

2009-03-15

374

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

Not Available

2011-10-01

375

Modelling ironmaking blast furnace: Solid flow and thermochemical behaviours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ironmaking blast furnace is a counter-, co-, cross-current moving bed reactor, where solid particles are charged at the furnace top forming a downward moving bed while gas are introduced at the lower part of furnace and travels upward through the solid bed of varying porosity, reducing solid ore to liquid iron at the cohesive zone. These three phases interact intensely. In this paper, a three-dimensional mathematical model is developed. The model describes the motion of solid and gas, based on continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the liquid flow. The model is applied to a blast furnace, where raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results demonstrate and characterize the key multiphase flow patterns of solid-gas-liquid at different regions inside the blast furnace, in particular solid flow and associated thermochemical behaviours of solid particles. This model offers a costeffective tool to understand and optimize blast furnace operation.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Yu, Aibing; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter

2013-06-01

376

Experience with in-furnace surface in CFB boilers  

SciTech Connect

As CFB boiler size increases past 30 to 40 MWe (depending on fuel), the furnace walls can no longer economically absorb enough heat to maintain the desired furnace temperature. The designer has two options for providing the additional heating surface needed: In-furnace Surface, and External Heat Exchanger (EHE). Because of the inherent advantages, Ahlstrom pioneered the use of in-furnace surface, and now has over 50 units now in operation using this surface which together have accumulated over 175 unit-years of operating experience. This paper describes the advantages of in-furnace surface, the various designs for this surface used by Ahlstrom, and the operational experience with these designs including improvements made. It is shown that in furnace surface designs have evolved to provide excellent service in all applications.

Darling, S.L. [Pyropower Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Asikainen, A. [Ahlstrom Boilers, Varkaus (Finland); Shibagaki, G. [Ahlstrom Pyropower KK, Kobe (Japan)

1995-12-31

377

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Behavior of Phosphorus in DRI/HBI During Electric Furnace Steelmaking  

SciTech Connect

Many common scrap substitutes such as direct reduced iron pellets (DRI), hot briquetted iron (HBI), iron carbide, etc., contain significantly higher levels of phosphorus steelmaking for the production of higher quality steels, control of phosphorus levels in the metal will become a concern. This study has developed a more complete understanding of the behavior of phosphorus in DRI during EAF steelmaking, through a thorough investigation of the kinetics and thermodynamics of phosphorus transfer in the EAF based upon laboratory and plant experiments and trials. Laboratory experiments have shown that phosphorus mass transfer between oxide and metallic phases within commercial direct reduced iron pellets occurs rapidly upon melting according to the local equilibrium for these phases. Laboratory kinetic experiments indicate that under certain conditions, phosphorus mass transfer between slag and metal is influenced by dynamic phenomena, which affect the mass transfer coefficient for the reaction and/or the slag metal interfacial area. Plant trials were conducted to directly evaluate the conditions of mass transfer in the electric furnace and to determine the effects of different scrap substitute materials upon the slag chemistry, the behavior of phosphorus in the steel, and upon furnace yield. The data from these trials were also used to develop empirical models for the slag chemistry and furnace temperature as functions of time during a single heat. The laboratory and plant data were used to develop a numerical process model to describe phosphorus transfer in the EAF

Richard J. Frueham; Christopher P. Manning cmanning@bu.edu

2001-10-05

378

Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anderson, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-03-01

379

Combined electric heating of glass in flat-glass furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a design for a combined electric and gas-fired furnace which involves the retrofitting of existing gas-fired furnaces used in the melting of glass with electrical heating elements. They justify the design and its implementation from both a cost-efficient and energy-efficient standpoint and cite the productivity and capacity improvements achieved by a plant where the furnace has already

D. L. Orlov; L. G. Baiburg; V. D. Tokarev; S. V. Ignatov; V. A. Chubinidze

1987-01-01

380

Comparison of predictive control methods for high consumption industrial furnace.  

PubMed

We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn. PMID:24319354

Stojanovski, Goran; Stankovski, Mile

2013-01-01

381

Measuring Furnace/Sample Heat-Transfer Coefficients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complicated, inexact calculations now unnecessary. Device called HTX used to simulate and measure transfer of heat between directional-solidification crystal-growth furnace and ampoule containing sample of crystalline to be grown. Yields measurement data used to calculate heat-transfer coefficients directly, without need for assumptions or prior knowledge of physical properties of furnace, furnace gas, or specimen. Determines not only total heat-transfer coefficients but also coefficients of transfer of heat in different modes.

Rosch, William R.; Fripp, Archibald L., Jr.; Debnam, William J., Jr.; Woodell, Glenn A.

1993-01-01

382

5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, SHOWING INTERIOR ELECTRODES. THE RAW MATERIALS FOR CALCIUM CARBIDE PRODUCTION--LIMESTONE AND COKE--WERE FED BY HOPPERS PLACED BETWEEN THESE ELECTRODES INTO THE ELECTRIC ARC. THE REMOVABLE PLATES ON THE EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCE OF THE HORRY FURNACE ARE SHOWN ON THE FIRST THREE FURNACES. (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

383

Comparison of Predictive Control Methods for High Consumption Industrial Furnace  

PubMed Central

We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn. PMID:24319354

2013-01-01

384

Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

1992-12-29

385

Computationally Efficient Modeling of Wafer Temperatures in an LPCVD Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper,presents a new,first principles thermal,model,to predict wafer temperatures,within a hot-wall Low Pressure Chemical,Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) furnace based,on furnace,wall temperatures,as measured,by thermocouples.,This model,is based,on an energy,balance,of the furnace system,with the following features: (a) the model,is a transformed,linear model,which,captures,the nonlinear,relationship between,the furnace wall temperature distribution and the wafer temperature distribution, (b) the model can be solved with a direct algorithm

Qinghua He; S. Joe Qin; Anthony J. Toprac

386

Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity  

SciTech Connect

The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

Stuart E. Strand

2001-12-06

387

Reciprocating grate systems for furnaces and incinerators  

SciTech Connect

A new and improved reciprocating grate system for furnaces and incinerators wherein the system is advantageously constructed to accomplish a variety of objectives. Adjacent flights of adjacent portions of the composite grate structure reciprocate back and forth and the speed and stroke of such reciprocation can be ganged, coupled, or independently controlled. The individual grates themselves are advantageously configured for suitable spreading and air mixture relative to debris advancement. Air seals are provided and batch feed is accommodated. Grate frame reciprocation is accommodated by fluid control means, either hydraulic or pneumatic, and features are provided for enabling appropriate adjustment both of drive and stroke of related individual components.

John, F.C.; Taggart, G.B.; Taylor, S.R.

1984-09-18

388

Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace  

DOEpatents

A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

2003-02-11

389

Determination of the gas temperature profile in a large-scale furnace using a fast/efficient inversion scheme for the SRS technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of gas temperature profiles in a large-scale test furnace are made by inverting the measured spectral data at 4.3 ?m band with inversion algorithms. A 3.4 m-long stainless steel tube is employed as the test furnace through which flue gas flows. Three inversion algorithms are tested: modified constrained inversion method (MCIM), base function-based inversion method (BFIM) and BFIM-based MCIM (BCIM). The correlated-k (CK)-based WNB model is employed for calculation of spectral intensities during the inversion process. The overall performances of algorithms are scrutinized with the inversion results. To verify the accuracy, the inverted temperatures are compared with measured ones using thermocouples. BFIM is good for initial guess and MCIM is good for fine touch, while BCIM gives fairly good results for all cases considered. Thus, BCIM is considered to be applicable, with good accuracy and capability, to inverse problems in large-scale furnaces.

Kim, Hyun Keol; Song, Tae-Ho

2005-06-01

390

Design calculation of three-loop combined-cycle plants with steam reheating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a procedure for carrying out an end-to-end calculation of the parameters of media and technical and economic indicators of three-loop heat-recovery-type combined-cycle plants with steam reheating that makes it possible to determine the parameters of gases and working fluid of a heat-recovery boiler and the thermal power of its heating surfaces, and to carry out an approximate calculation of the steam turbine for compartments and then for stages at the stage of design calculations using the parameters of gases exhausted from the gas turbine unit as initial data. The procedure is implemented in the form of a computer program in the DELPHI environment and makes it possible to quickly and reliably optimize a combined-cycle plant’s thermal circuit and steam turbine design.

Trukhnii, A. D.; Parshina, N. S.

2010-02-01

391

Hypercharged dark matter and direct detection as a probe of reheating.  

PubMed

The lack of new physics at the LHC so far weakens the argument for TeV scale thermal dark matter. On the other hand, heavier, nonthermal dark matter is generally difficult to test experimentally. Here we consider the interesting and generic case of hypercharged dark matter, which can allow for heavy dark matter masses without spoiling testability. Planned direct detection experiments will be able to see a signal for masses up to an incredible 1010??GeV, and this can further serve to probe the reheating temperature up to about 109??GeV, as determined by the nonthermal dark matter relic abundance. The Z-mediated nature of the dark matter scattering may be determined in principle by comparing scattering rates on different detector nuclei, which in turn can reveal the dark matter mass. We will discuss the extent to which future experiments may be able to make such a determination. PMID:24679278

Feldstein, Brian; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

2014-03-14

392

Planck constraints on Higgs modulated reheating of renormalization group improved inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of renormalization group improved inflationary cosmology motivated by asymptotically safe gravity, we study the dynamics of a scalar field which can be interpreted as the Higgs field. The background trajectories of this model can provide sufficient inflationary e-folds and a graceful exit to a radiation dominated phase. We study the possibility of generating primordial curvature perturbations through the Standard Model Higgs boson. This can be achieved under finely tuned parameter choices by making use of the modulated reheating mechanism. The primordial non-Gaussianity is expected to be sizable in this model. Though tightly constrained by the newly released Planck cosmic microwave background data, this model provides a potentially interesting connection between collider and early Universe physics.

Cai, Yi-Fu; Chang, Yu-Chiao; Chen, Pisin; Easson, Damien A.; Qiu, Taotao

2013-10-01

393

Effects of microwave cooking/reheating on nutrients and food systems: a review of recent studies.  

PubMed

Microwave-oven technology has been improved by the use of low power. With the utilization of low-power techniques, studies showed equal or better retention of nutrients for microwave, as compared with conventional, reheated foods for thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, folacin, and ascorbic acid. Beef roasts microwaved at "simmer" were comparable with conventionally cooked roasts in sensory quality, while vegetables cooked by an institutional (1,150 w) microwave oven were superior to those cooked in a domestic (550 w) microwave oven. Microwave-cooked bacon had lower levels of nitrosamines than conventionally cooked bacon; however, the use of a new alpha-tocopherol coating system has been found to be a safe N-nitrosamine inhibitor regardless of cooking method used. PMID:3894486

Hoffman, C J; Zabik, M E

1985-08-01

394

Probing small-scale non-Gaussianity from anisotropies in acoustic reheating  

E-print Network

We give new constraints on small-scale non-Gaussianity of primordial curvature perturbations by the use of anisotropies in acoustic reheating. Mixing of local thermal or local kinetic equilibrium systems with different temperatures yields a locally averaged temperature rise, which is proportional to the square of temperature perturbations damping in the photon diffusion scale. Such secondary temperature perturbations are indistinguishable from the standard temperature perturbations linearly coming from primordial curvature perturbations and hence should be subdominant compared to the standard ones. We show that small-scale higher order correlation functions (connected non-Gaussian and disconnected Gaussian parts) of primordial curvature perturbations can be probed by investigating auto power spectrum of the generated secondary perturbations and the cross power spectrum with the standard perturbations. This is simply because these power spectra come from higher order correlation functions of primordial curvatu...

Naruko, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Masahide

2015-01-01

395

Sneutrino condensate source for density perturbations, leptogenesis, and low reheat temperature.  

PubMed

We bring together some known ingredients beyond the standard model physics that can explain the hot big bang model with the observed baryon asymmetry and also the fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation with a minimal set of assumptions. We propose an interesting scenario where the inflaton energy density is dumped into an infinitely large extra dimension. Instead of the inflaton it is the right handed sneutrino condensate, which is acquiring a nonzero vacuum expectation value during inflation, whose fluctuations are responsible for the density perturbations seen in the cosmic microwave background radiation with a spectral index n(s) approximately 1. The decay of the condensate is explaining the reheating of the Universe with a temperature, T(rh)< or =10(9) GeV, and the baryon asymmetry of order one part in 10(10) with no baryon-isocurvature fluctuations. PMID:15244992

Mazumdar, Anupam; Pérez-Lorenzana, Abdel

2004-06-25

396

The properties of a 0.45 Pct V steel pipe and the effects of some variation in composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  It can be concluded that 1219 mm (48 in) OD x 15 mm (0.60 in) pipe to API specification 5LS706 pipe for Arctic service can be produced from steel containing 0.06 pct C, 1.9 pct Mn, 0.45 pct V, and 0.06 pct Mo when the\\u000a plate is reheated to 1230 °C, rolled on a fairly light mill and made into

A. M. Sage; R. F. Dewsnap; D. B. McCutcheon

1982-01-01

397

Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

2012-12-15

398

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2014-07-01

399

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2012-07-01

400

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2011-07-01

401

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2013-07-01

402

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2010-07-01

403

When Your Furnace Kicks On, Be Sure Poison Gas Isn't Coming Out  

MedlinePLUS

WHEN YOUR FURNACE KICKS ON, BE SURE POISON GAS ISN’T COMING OUT Every winter when the ... drops, your furnace can become a silent killer. Gas- and oil-burning furnaces produce carbon monoxide (CO). ...

404

COMPUTER-ASSISTED FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of furnace atomic absorption instrumentation with a turnkey chromatography data system is described. A simple addition of relays to the furnace power supply allows for automatic start-up of A/D conversion and spectrophotometer zeroing at the proper time. Manipulations inv...

405

8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

406

Hydrogen-atmosphere induction furnace has increased temperature range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved hydrogen-atmosphere induction furnace operates at temperatures up to 5,350 deg F. The furnace heats up from room temperature to 4,750 deg F in 30 seconds and cools down to room temperature in 2 minutes.

Caves, R. M.; Gresslin, C. H.

1966-01-01

407

Use of magnesite concrete in open-hearth furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions Many years practical experience with the use of refractory magnesite concretes in open-hearth furnaces at the KMZ confirmed that it is rational to use them even for preparing concretes and blocks on the working sites of open-hearth shops, and it also confirmed the unacceptability of open-hearth furnace structures for placing the concretes.

S. M. Broit; N. Ya. Trusov

1972-01-01

408

Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust  

DOEpatents

An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2010-12-28

409

41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

410

7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

411

42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

412

An adaptive temperature control law for a solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an adaptive control law based on exact feedback linearization and Lyapunov adaptation of the process dynamics applied to a solar furnace. The controller is tested on a 6kW solar furnace model that represents a plant installed at the Odeillo Processes Materials and Solar Energy Laboratory (Oriental Pyrenees in the South of France). The adaptive

B. Andrade da Costa; J. M. Lemos; E. Guillot; G. Olalde; L. G. Rosa; J. C. Fernandes

2008-01-01

413

A Rowland Circle, multielement graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simultaneous, multielement atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a graphite furnace atomizer was constructed and evaluated. The optical arrangement employs a concave grating to combine the spectral output from a deuterium lamp and four hollow cathode lamps that are placed on the perimeter of a Rowland Circle. A graphite furnace atomizer is positioned on the circle at the point of convergence

Karl A. Wagner; James D. Batchelor; Bradley T. Jones

1998-01-01

414

Heat loss through the lining of glass-melting furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all the ways of saving fuel in glass production, thermal insulation of the lining of the furnaces seems to be the most promising, a view based mainly on the results of a calculation of the possible fuel savings. With the aim of refining and adding to existing data on heat loss through furnace lining and determining the effect of

A. S. Kozlov; A. V. Ivanov; I. S. Volkov; V. A. Tolstov

1985-01-01

415

Methods of designing components for glass furnace frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have therefore performed a de=ailed analysis for major elements in directly heated furnaces. The geometrical parameters in the framework are rigidly related to the refractory stack design in a regenerative furnace (e.g., the column spacing is determined by the width of the burner arrays and the panels between them), whereas there is some freedom of choice in a directly

A. I. Korolev; K. K. Vil'nis; Yu. V. Erlandts; A. I. Myakishev; N. M. Grigoryan

1988-01-01

416

Experience in reconstructing a glass-making furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of upgrading a glass-making furnace and the practicality of the engineering solutions used for this purpose are\\u000a examined. It is shown that mathematical simulation of the thermophysical processes involved in glass-making would be helpful\\u000a for furnace reconstruction.

V. S. Meshka; V. I. Ureki; V. Ya. Dzyuzer

2007-01-01

417

C AND M BOTTOM LOADING FURNACE TEST DATA  

SciTech Connect

The test was performed to determine the response of the HBL Phase III Glovebox during C&M Bottom Loading Furnace operations. In addition the data maybe used to benchmark a heat transfer model of the HBL Phase III Glovebox and Furnace.

Lemonds, D

2005-08-01

418

Effect of Combustion Air Preheat on a Forged Furnace Productivity  

E-print Network

A basic thermal analysis of a gas fired forge furnace can determine the fuel savings from exhaust energy recovery/combustion air preheat on a furnace operating at a single condition, for example, high fire. What this analysis is not able...

Ward, M. E.; Bohn, J.; Davis, S. R.; Knowles, D.

1984-01-01

419

Research of industrial furnace fault diagnosis expert system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to realize fast location and detection of abnormal status during running of industrial furnace, especially abnormal status of firing, this article studies and designs a fault diagnosis expert system based on fault tree theory. Firstly, formalized definition of industrial furnace fault diagnosis expert system is given in the paper, then all component elements of the expert system are

Shengquan Yang; Bailin Liu

2010-01-01

420

11. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND THE PARTS HEATING FURNACE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND THE PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE PARTS OR METALS WERE HEATED PRIOR TO BEING PRESSED. THE MANIPULATOR ARM WAS USED TO INSERT AND REMOVE PARTS OR METALS FROM THE FURNACE. (2/9/79) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

421

Artificial neural networks in predicting current in electric arc furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a study of the possibility of using artificial neural networks for the prediction of the current and the voltage of Electric Arc Furnaces. Multi-layer perceptron and radial based functions Artificial Neural Networks implemented in Matlab were used. The study is based on measured data items from an Electric Arc Furnace in an industrial plant in Romania.

Panoiu, M.; Panoiu, C.; Iordan, A.; Ghiormez, L.

2014-03-01

422

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

423

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CYCLONE FURNACE SOIL VITRI- FICATION TECHNOLOGY - BABCOCK & WILCOX  

EPA Science Inventory

Babcock and Wilcox's (B&W) cyclone furnace is an innovative thermal technology which may offer advantages in treating soils containing organics, heavy metals, and/or radionuclide contaminants. The furnace used in the SITE demonstration was a 4- to 6-million Btu/hr pilot system....

424

EMISSIONS FROM OUTDOOR WOOD-BURNING RESIDENTIAL HOT WATER FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a single-pass and a double-pass furnace at average heat outputs of 15,000 and 30,000 Btu/hr (4.4 and 8.8 kW) while burning typical oak cordwood fuel. One furnace was also tested once at each heat output while fitted with ...

425

STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE  

E-print Network

STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE Mark McGuinness1 and Stephen Taylor2 We continuously through the furnace, to certain temperatures and then cooling it, resulting in a change prior to being coated, by heating to a predeter- mined temperature for a definite time. Annealing

McGuinness, Mark

426

BLAST FURNACE CAST HOUSE EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The study describes the state-of-the-art of controlling fumes escaping from blast furnace cast houses. Background information is based on: a study of existing literature; visits to blast furnaces in the U.S., Japan, and Europe; meetings with an ad hoc group of experienced blast f...

427

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

Ensar Oguz

2004-01-01

428

8. VIEW OF FOUNDRY INDUCTION FURNACES, MODULE J. THE FOUNDRY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF FOUNDRY INDUCTION FURNACES, MODULE J. THE FOUNDRY CASTING PROCESS WAS CONDUCTED IN A VACUUM. PLUTONIUM METAL WAS MELTED IN ONE OF FOUR ELECTRIC INDUCTION FURNACES TO FORM INGOTS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

429

CARBON REACTIVATION BY EXTERNALLY-FIRED ROTARY KILN FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

An externally-fired rotary kiln furnace system has been evaluated for cost-effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The pilot scale rotary kiln furnace was operated within the range of 682 kg/day (1,500 lb/day) to 909 kg/...

430

A controlled atmosphere tube furnace was designed for thermal CVD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality materials were used for the fabrication of hi-tech tube furnace. The furnace was especially suitable for thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). High density alumina tube was used for the fabrication of furnace. The tube furnace was found to have three different temperature zones with maximum temperature at central zone was found to be 650°C. The flexible heating tape with capacity of 760°C was wrapped on the tube. To minimize the heat losses, asbestos and glass wool were used on heating tape. The temperature of the tube furnace was controlled by a digital temperature controller had accuracy of ±1°C. Methanol was taken as the representative of hydrocarbon sources, to give thin film of carbon. The a-C: H structure was investigated by conventional techniques using optical microscopy, FT-IR and SEM.

Rashid, M.; Bhatti, J. A.; Hussain, F.; Imran, M.; Khawaja, I. U.; Chaudhary, K. A.; Ahmad, S. A.

2013-06-01

431

29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange furnace and clarifier ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range furnace and clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the concentration, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the continous flue leaving this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifier lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

432

28. RW Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange Furnace and Clarifier position. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. RW Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range Furnace and Clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the clarification, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the Continuous flue leading from this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation, two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifiers, lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

433

Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

1998-03-24

434

Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater.

Kujawa, Stephan T. (Butte, MT); Battleson, Daniel M. (Butte, MT); Rademacher, Jr., Edward L. (Butte, MT); Cashell, Patrick V. (Butte, MT); Filius, Krag D. (Butte, MT); Flannery, Philip A. (Ramsey, MT); Whitworth, Clarence G. (Butte, MT)

1998-01-01

435

Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits  

SciTech Connect

In response to the increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last decade and the problems associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap, with a design capacity of 48,000 tonnes annually, has been in operation in East Chicago, Indiana since early in 1993. The first 450 t of scrap degalvanized in the pilot plant have residual zinc below 0.01% and sodium dragout below 0.01%. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials, environmental compliance, and opportunity costs to steel- and iron-makers. Availability of clean degalvanized scrap may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant and EAF shops to produce flat products without use of high quality scrap alternatives such as DRI, pig iron, or iron carbide. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap. The quantities of zinc available by the year 2000 from prompt and obsolete automotive scrap win approach 25% of zinc consumed in the major automotive production centers of the world. Zinc recycling from galvanized steel scrap, either before or after scrap melting, will have to be implemented.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States)

1993-08-01

436

Alloy dissolution in argon stirred steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alloying is required for the production of all steel products from small castings to large beams. Addition of large quantities of bulk alloys can result in alloy segregation and inconsistent alloy recovery. The objective of this research was to better understand alloy dissolution in liquid steel especially as it relates to Missouri S&Ts' patented continuous steelmaking process. A 45-kilogram capacity ladle with a single porous plug was used to evaluate the effect of four experimental factors on alloy dissolution: alloy species, alloy size or form, argon flow rate, and furnace tap temperature. Four alloys were tested experimentally including Class I low carbon ferromanganese, nickel and tin (as a surrogate for low melting alloys) and Class II ferroniobium. The alloys ranged in size and form from granular to 30 mm diameter lumps. Experimental results were evaluated using a theoretically based numerical model for the steel shell period, alloy mixing (Class I) and alloy dissolution (Class II). A CFD model of the experimental ladle was used to understand steel motion in the ladle and to provide steel velocity magnitudes for the numerical steel shell model. Experiments and modeling confirmed that smaller sized alloys have shorter steel shell periods and homogenize faster than larger particles. Increasing the argon flow rate shortened mixing times and reduced the delay between alloy addition and the first appearance of alloy in the melt. In addition, for every five degree increase in steel bath temperature the steel shell period was shortened by approximately four percent. Class II ferroniobium alloy dissolution was an order of magnitude slower than Class I alloy mixing.

Webber, Darryl Scott

437

Development of technical solutions for securing stable operation of the intermediate separation and steam reheating system for the K-1000-60/3000 turbine unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intermediate separation and steam reheating system and its equipment are described. Problems concerned with the presence of condensate in the stack's lower chamber and in the removing chamber, with cavitation failure of the separated moisture pumps, with misalignment of heating steam flowrates, with unstable draining of heating steam condensate, with occurrence of self oscillations, etc. are considered. A procedure for determining the level in removing heating steam condensate from steam reheater elements is proposed. Technical solutions for ensuring stable operation of the intermediate separation and steam reheating system and for achieving smaller misalignment between the apparatuses are developed.

Trifonov, N. N.; Kovalenko, E. V.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Tren'kin, V. B.

2012-09-01

438

40 CFR 458.10 - Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory. 458...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace Process Subcategory §...

2011-07-01

439

Reaction of iron and steel slags with refractories  

SciTech Connect

Slag corrosion and erosion has been a major wear factor for refractories wear in contact with molten iron and steel. In blast furnace ironmaking, the slag/iron interface plays a more important role than does the slag/refractory interface. On the other hand in steelmaking, the slag in the ladles and tundish predominantly affect refractory wear. This paper presents the results of a detailed microstructural evaluation of (a) slag and slag/iron interactions with A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC-C refractories for ironmaking in blast furnaces, (b) basic oxygen furnace and ladle slag interactions with alumina spinel refractories for steelmaking, and (c) slag interactions with working refractory lining for continuous casting tundishes. Results will also be presented on refractory wear/failure due to simultaneous corrosion and penetration by the slag.

Banerjee, S.; Anderson, M.W. [Magneco/Metrel, Inc., Addison, IL (United States); Singh, J.P.; Poeppel, R.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-04-01

440

Developments in the production of grain-oriented electrical steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality and production technology of grain-oriented electrical steel have been improved over the past 70 years. Firstly, through the improvement of {1 1 0} <0 0 1> alignment, development of thinner-gauge material, and establishment of magnetic domain refining techniques, magnetic properties of the material have been improved dramatically. Secondly, many mechanisms have been proposed for the reason why Goss texture develops selectively during the final annealing stage. Thirdly, to reduce manufacturing costs, many new techniques have been developed. The most advanced in commercial realization is the application of low-temperature slab-reheating techniques. Despite these achievements, the mechanisms of texture selection are not yet clear in all their details. Further improvement of magnetic properties and the application of compact production process for grain-oriented electrical steels in commercial production are needed to be realized.

Xia, Zhaosuo; Kang, Yonglin; Wang, Quanli

441

15-Year blast furnace campaign concept for the reline of blast furnace C at Iscor  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1970`s, when blast furnace campaigns of 3 to 5 years were experienced at the Vanderbijlpark Works, consequent improvements of cooling and refractory concepts as well as the development of a hot guniting practice for belly and lower shaft resulted in campaigns of 10 years and more. Having mastered the problems in belly and lower shaft, the furnace hearth became the ultimate limit and two hearth breakouts were experienced in the last 5 years in South Africa. After analyzing the causes for these breakouts, the requirements for a hearth refractory design, aimed at a 15-year plus campaign life, were formulated. A refractory design concept, which satisfies these requirements were developed based on European, American and Japanese philosophies.

Noska, T.G.L. [Iscor Ltd., Gauteng (South Africa)

1995-07-01

442

Welding High Strength Modern Line Pipe Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of modern mechanized girth welding on high strength line pipe has been investigated. The single cycle grain coarsened heat affected zone in three grade 690 line pipe steels and a grade 550 steel has been simulated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator. The continuous cooling transformation diagrams applicable to the grain coarsened heat affected zone resulting from a range of heat inputs applicable to modern mechanized welding have been established by dilatometry and metallography. The coarse grained heat affected zone was found to transform to lath martensite, bainite, and granular bainite depending on the cooling rate. The impact toughness of the steels was measured using Charpy impact toughness and compared to the toughness of the grain coarsened heat affected zone corresponding to a welding thermal cycle. The ductile to brittle transition temperature was found to be lowest for the steel with the highest hardenability. The toughness resulting from three different thermal cycles including a novel interrupted intercritically reheated grain coarsened (NTR ICR GC HAZ) that can result from dual torch welding at fast travel speed and close torch spacing have been investigated. All of the thermally HAZ regions showed reduced toughness that was attributed to bainitic microstructure and large effective grain sizes. Continuous cooling transformation diagrams for five weld metal chemistries applicable to mechanized pulsed gas metal arc welding of modern high strength pipe steel (SMYS>550 MPa) have been constructed. Welds at heat inputs of 1.5 kJmm-1 and 0.5 kJmm-1 have been created for simulation and analysis. Dilatometric analysis was performed on weld metal specimens cut from single pass 1.5 kJmm-1 as deposited beads. The resulting microstructures were found to range from martensite to polygonal ferrite. There is excellent agreement between the simulated and as deposited weld metal regions. Toughness testing indicates improved energy absorption at -20 °C with increased cooling time.

Goodall, Graeme Robertson

443

Special measurements in combustion equipment furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the authors` knowledge from the measurement of temperature and concentration fields taken from combustion equipment furnaces. The obtained results serve in the research on combustion processes and in the research on the formation of pollutants, for example NO{sub x}. The special measurement technique makes it possible to find the concentration and temperature distribution for a temperature as high as 1,500 C. The measurement results were obtained through tests for grate boilers with an output of 20--50 MW, burning solid fuel (a mixture of powders and small pieces of coal which were burnt separately as black (hard) coal or brown coal). On the basis of the obtained results a proposal was formulated for the reconstruction of existing boilers or the construction of new boilers with an aim to ensure the maximum combustion efficiency with a minimal formation of pollutants.

Ochodek, T.; Janalik, R.; Vytisk, T. [VSB-Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic)

1995-12-31

444

Thermal and impact histories of reheated group IVA, IVB, and ungrouped iron meteorites and their parent asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract- The microstructures of six reheated iron meteorites—two IVA irons, Maria Elena (1935), Fuzzy Creek; one IVB iron, Ternera; and three ungrouped irons, Hammond, Babb’s Mill (Blake’s Iron), and Babb’s Mill (Troost’s Iron)—were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron-probe microanalysis, and electron backscatter diffraction techniques to determine their thermal and shock history and that of their parent asteroids. Maria Elena and Hammond were heated below approximately 700-750 °C, so that kamacite was recrystallized and taenite was exsolved in kamacite and was spheroidized in plessite. Both meteorites retained a record of the original Widmanstätten pattern. The other four, which show no trace of their original microstructure, were heated above 600-700 °C and recrystallized to form 10-20 ?m wide homogeneous taenite grains. On cooling, kamacite formed on taenite grain boundaries with their close-packed planes aligned. Formation of homogeneous 20 ?m wide taenite grains with diverse orientations would have required as long as approximately 800 yr at 600 °C or approximately 1 h at 1300 °C. All six irons contain approximately 5-10 ?m wide taenite grains with internal microprecipitates of kamacite and nanometer-scale M-shaped Ni profiles that reach approximately 40% Ni indicating cooling over 100-10,000 yr. Un-decomposed high-Ni martensite (?2) in taenite—the first occurrence in irons—appears to be a characteristic of strongly reheated irons. From our studies and published work, we identified four progressive stages of shock and reheating in IVA irons using these criteria: cloudy taenite, M-shaped Ni profiles in taenite, Neumann twin lamellae, martensite, shock-hatched kamacite, recrystallization, microprecipitates of taenite, and shock-melted troilite. Maria Elena and Fuzzy Creek represent stages 3 and 4, respectively. Although not all reheated irons contain evidence for shock, it was probably the main cause of reheating. Cooling over years rather than hours precludes shock during the impacts that exposed the irons to cosmic rays. If the reheated irons that we studied are representative, the IVA irons may have been shocked soon after they cooled below 200 °C at 4.5 Gyr in an impact that created a rubblepile asteroid with fragments from diverse depths. The primary cooling rates of the IVA irons and the proposed early history are remarkably consistent with the Pb-Pb ages of troilite inclusions in two IVA irons including the oldest known differentiated meteorite (Blichert-Toft et al. 2010).

Yang, J.; Goldstein, J. I.; Scott, E. R. D.; Michael, J. R.; Kotula, P. G.; Pham, T.; McCoy, T. J.

2011-09-01

445

Mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste generated in the production of pig iron and was dumped in sedimentation ponds. As these wastes often contain high contents of zinc, lead, cadmium, and arsenic, significant hazards to environmental surroundings may arise from former BFS sedimentation ponds. Sixty-five samples from seven BFS locations in Europe were investigated regarding the toxic element mercury (Hg) for the first time. The charge material of the blast furnace operations (coke, iron ores, and additives such as olivine, bauxite, ilmenite and gravels) revealed Hg contents from 0.015 to 0.093 mg kg-1. In comparison, the Hg content of BFS varied between 0.006 and 20.8 mg kg-1 with a median of 1.63 mg kg-1, which indicates enrichment with Hg. For one site with a larger sample set (n = 31), Hg showed a stronger correlation with the total non-calcareous carbon (C) including coke and graphite (r = 0.695; n = 31; p < 0.001). It can be assumed that these C-rich compounds are hosting phases for Hg. The solubility of Hg was rather low and did not exceed 0.43% of total Hg. The correlation between the total Hg concentration and total amount of NH4NO3-soluble Hg was relatively poor (r = 0.496; n = 27; p = 0.008) indicating varying hazard potentials of the different BFS. Consequently, BFS is a mercury-containing waste and dumped BFS should be regarded as potentially mercury-contaminated sites.

Földi, Corinna

2014-05-01

446

Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2014-01-01

447

Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

2014-09-01

448

A high-temperature furnace for applications in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology in the area of material processing and crystal growth has been greatly furthered by research in microgravity environments. The role of efficient, lightweight furnaces with reliable performance is crucial in these experiments. A need exists for the development of a readily duplicated, high-temperature furnace satisfying stringent weight, volume, and power constraints. A furnace was designed and is referred to as the UAH SHIELD. Stringent physical and operating characteristics for the system were specified, including a maximum weight of 20 kg, a maximum power requirement of 60 W, and a volume of the furnace assembly, excluding the batteries, limited to half a Get-Away-Special canister. The UAH SHIELD furnace uses radiation shield and vacuum technology applied in the form of a series of concentric cylinders enclosed on either end with disks. Thermal testing of a furnace prototype was performed in addition to some thermal and structural analysis. Results indicate the need for spacing of the shields to accommodate the thermal expansion during furnace operation. In addition, a power dissipation of approximately 100 W and system weight of approximately 30 kg was found for the current design.

1991-01-01

449

Comparison of properties of steel slag and crushed limestone aggregate concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel slag is produced as a by-product during the oxidation of steel pellets in an electric arc furnace. This by-product that mainly consists of calcium carbonate is broken down to smaller sizes to be used as aggregates in asphalt and concrete. They are particularly useful in areas where good-quality aggregate is scarce. This research study was conducted to evaluate the

M Maslehuddin; Alfarabi M Sharif; M Shameem; M Ibrahim; M. S Barry

2003-01-01

450

CO 2 reduction potentials by utilizing waste plastics in steel works  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Feedstock recycling has received attention as an effective method to recycle waste plastics. However, estimating the reduction\\u000a potential by life cycle assessment using coke oven and blast furnace in steel works has been a challenging task due to the\\u000a complex structure of energy flow in steel works. Municipal waste plastics consist of several plastic resins. Previous studies

Yu Sekine; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Yoshihiro Adachi; Yasunari Matsuno

2009-01-01

451

Recovery Act: Waste Energy Project at AK Steel Corporation Middletown  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (“Air Products”) began development of a project to beneficially utilize waste blast furnace “topgas” generated in the course of the iron-making process at AK Steel Corporation’s Middletown, Ohio works. In early 2010, Air Products was awarded DOE Assistance Agreement DE-EE002736 to further develop and build the combined-cycle power generation facility. In June 2012, Air Products and AK Steel Corporation terminated work when it was determined that the project would not be economically viable at that time nor in the foreseeable future. The project would have achieved the FOA-0000044 Statement of Project Objectives by demonstrating, at a commercial scale, the technology to capture, treat, and convert blast furnace topgas into electric power and thermal energy.

Joyce, Jeffrey

2012-06-30

452

Characterization of Process Conditions in Industrial Stainless Steelmaking Electric Arc Furnace Using Optical Emission Spectrum Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission spectroscopy is a potential method for gaining information on electric arc furnace (EAF) process conditions. Previous studies published in literature on industrial EAF emission spectra have focused on a smaller scales and DC arc furnaces. In this study emission spectrum measurements were conducted for 140t AC stainless steelmaking EAF at Outokumpu Stainless Oy, Tornio Works, Finland. Four basic types of emission spectra were obtained during the EAF process cycle. The first one is obscured by scrap steel, the second is dominated by thermal radiation of the slag, the third is dominated by alkali peaks and sodium D-lines and the fourth is characterized by multiple atomic emission peaks. The atomic emission peaks were identified by comparing them to the NIST database for atomic emission lines and previous laboratory measurements on EAF slag emission spectra. The comparison shows that the optic emission of an arc is dominated by slag components. Plasma conditions were analyzed by deriving plasma temperature from optical emissions of Ca I lines. The analysis suggests that accurate information on plasma conditions can be gained from outer plasma having a plasma temperature below 7000 K (6727 °C).

Aula, Matti; Leppänen, Ahti; Roininen, Juha; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Vallo, Kimmo; Fabritius, Timo; Huttula, Marko

2014-06-01

453

Model of Draining of the Blast Furnace Hearth with an Impermeable Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to demands of lower costs and higher productivity in the steel industry, the volume of operating blast furnaces has grown during the last decades. As the height is limited by the allowable pressure drop, the hearth diameter has grown considerably and, along with this, also draining-related problems. In this paper a mathematical model is developed for simulating the drainage in the case where an impermeable region exists in the blast furnace hearth. The model describes the quasi-stationary drainage process of a hearth with two operating tapholes, where the communication between the two pools of molten slag and iron can be controlled by parameterized expressions. The model also considers the case where the buoyancy of the liquids is sufficient for lifting the coke bed. The implications of different size of the liquid pools, communication between the pools, bed porosity, etc. are studied by simulation, and conclusions concerning their effect on the drainage behavior and evolution of the liquid levels in the hearth are drawn. The simulated liquid levels are finally demonstrated to give rise to a pressure profile acting on the hearth which agrees qualitatively with signals from strain gauges mounted in the hearth wall of an industrial ironmaking process.

Saxén, Henrik

2015-02-01

454

Recycling of electric arc furnace dust through dissolution in deep eutectic ionic liquids and electrowinning.  

PubMed

The dust waste formed during steelmaking in electric arc furnace (EAF) is rich in ferrous and nonferrous metals. Recycling of this dust as a raw material in iron or steel-making is hazardous and therefore it is mostly dumped. This paper demonstrates recycling of EAF dust through selective dissolution of metal oxides in a deep eutectic ionic liquid. It was found that about 60% of Zn and 39% of Pb could be dissolved from the dust when stirred for 48h in 1 choline chloride:2 urea ionic liquid at 60°C. The resultant electrolyte was subsequently fed to a conventional three-electrode cell where cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were conducted to describe its electrochemical behavior. Two deposition peaks were determined and ascribed to deposition of zinc and lead. Static potentials were successively applied to electrowin metallic zinc. SEM/EDX investigations showed that the zinc electrowon contained remarkable contents of lead. PMID:25156719

Bakkar, Ashraf

2014-09-15

455

Improvement of the Blast Furnace Viscosity Prediction Model Based on Discrete Points Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscosity is considered to be a significant indicator of the metallurgical property of blast furnace slag. An improved model for viscosity prediction based on the Chou model was presented in this article. The updated model has optimized the selection strategy of distance algorithm and negative weights at the reference points. Therefore, the extensionality prediction disadvantage in the original model was ameliorated by this approach. The model prediction was compared with viscosity data of slags of compositions typical to BF operations obtained from a domestic steel plant. The results show that the approach can predict the viscosity with average error of 9.23 pct and mean standard deviation of 0.046 Pa s.

Guo, Hongwei; Zhu, Mengyi; Li, Xinyu; Guo, Jian; Du, Shen; Zhang, Jianliang

2015-02-01

456

Electric furnace dust: Can you bury the hazard?  

SciTech Connect

Electric furnace waste treatment is moving into high gear, but the exact direction is unclear. On one hand, there is a trend toward complete recycling of the dust captured in furnace baghouses. Iron units as well as zinc and other elements are being reclaimed. On the other side, recent actions by regulators indicate recycling may not be required at all. With the correct chemical stabilization, it appears, dust may simply be placed in ordinary landfill. This paper describes three processes for waste treatment of furnace dust: Super Detox, a process for zinc removal from galvanized scrap before melting, and the INMETCO process.

McManus, G.J.

1996-04-01

457

A new furnace for thin-film stress experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A specialized furnace that is compatible with the optical-lever method of thin-film stress measurement has been developed. Its design is geared toward experiments in which changes in stress at constant temperature are to be monitored. Important capabilities include a maximum temperature of over 700 °C, good temperature control, hot-furnace sample insertion, lack of interference with stress measurement, and the use of inert gas or steam as ambients. Application of the furnace to the study of thermally activated material processes is demonstrated in experiments involving water sorption in phosphosilicate glass and crystallization of amorphous silicon.

von Preissig, F. J.

1992-04-01

458

Correction-free pyrometry in radiant wall furnaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A specular, spherical, or near-spherical target is located within a furnace having inner walls and a viewing window. A pyrometer located outside the furnace 'views' the target through pyrometer optics and the window, and it is positioned so that its detector sees only the image of the viewing window on the target. Since this image is free of any image of the furnace walls, it is free from wall radiance, and correction-free target radiance is obtained. The pyrometer location is determined through a nonparaxial optical analysis employing differential optical ray tracing methods to derive a series of exact relations for the image location.

Thomas, Andrew S. W. (inventor)

1994-01-01

459

Electric analysis of the low current, high reactance arc furnace  

SciTech Connect

An electric quantitative analysis is made of the low current, high reactance operation of the arc furnace. Designed or reengineered for this practice, a furnace has several important operational and economic advantages: lower electrode consumption; smoother operation; and less disturbances to the power system as current rushes, flicker and harmonic currents. The electromechanical superstructure is lighter. For a power increase to nan existing furnace, the same electrodes and electrode positioning system may suffice. Adversely, the longer arc requires a thicker foamy slag layer for successful operations.

Celada S., J. [Celada S. (Juan), Monterrey (Mexico)

1995-11-01

460

High-temperature furnace for dynamic neutron radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An easy-to-build and comparatively inexpensive high-temperature graphite tube furnace has been designed, fabricated, and tested for measuring physical properties of silicate melts with dynamic neutron radiography up to temperatures of 2300 K. This furnace allows in situ and real-time observations of large melt volumes at these high temperatures. The furnace has been used for the visualization of the interaction of two chemically distinct melts and for a determination of melt viscosities of silicates with the falling sphere method.

Kahle, Andreas; Winkler, Björn; Hennion, Bernard; Boutrouille, Philippe

2003-08-01

461

Magnetically Damped Furnace Bitter Magnet Coil 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnet has been built by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory for NASA on a cost reimbursement contract. The magnet is intended to demonstrate the technology and feasibility of building a magnet for space based crystal growth. A Bitter magnet (named after Francis Bitter, its inventor) was built consisting of four split coils electrically in series and hydraulically in parallel. The coils are housed in a steel vessel to reduce the fringe field and provide some on-axis field enhancement. The steel was nickel plated and Teflon coated to minimize interaction with the water cooling system. The magnet provides 0.14 T in a 184 mm bore with 3 kW of power.

Bird, M. D.

1997-01-01

462

Titanium and molybdenum content in supermartensitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supermartensitic stainless steels (SMSS) must be developed considering a balance between strength and toughness that are achieved by controlling the chemical compositions and heat treatment. In this paper, the results of detailed investigations on 12.50 Cr–5.40 Ni–2.10 Mo–0.13 Ti SMSS composition were obtained after the SMSS was put in a vacuum furnace and subsequently hot rolled and heat-treated. A

C. A. D. Rodrigues; P. L. D. Lorenzo; A. Sokolowski; C. A. Barbosa; J. M. D. A. Rollo

2007-01-01

463

Observation of the partial reheating of the metallic vapor during the wire explosion process for nanoparticle synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an experimental study using time resolved imaging was reported to study the expansion of the vapor as well as subsequent formation of the arc plasma during the synthesis of Cu nanoparticles by wire explosion process to understand the influences of arc plasma formation on the characteristics of the produced nanoparticles by means of partial reheating of the vapor. Arc plasma is known to form after a delay or immediately depending on the ambience and pressure when the supplied energy is sufficient to sustain the plasma. Observations of two expanding concentric cylinders one inside another by time resolved imaging in the case of delayed formation of arc plasma suggest that the vapor of the wire material is expanding in front of the expansion of the arc plasma. Due to the expansion of the vapor in front of the arc plasma, some of the wire material may not be reheated by arc plasma as opposed to the case of immediate formation of arc plasma, where the vapor is expected to be reheated completely. Thus, the arc plasma formation has strong influence on the characteristics of the produced nanoparticles in wire explosion process and most probably explains the earlier reported opposite trends observed for particle size with varying pressure for different gases.

Bora, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Wong, C. S.; Chin, O. H.; Yap, S. L.; Soto, L.

2014-06-01

464

Dark radiation and dark matter in supersymmetric axion models with high reheating temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies of the cosmic microwave background, large scale structure, and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) show trends towards extra radiation. Within the framework of supersymmetric hadronic axion models, we explore two high-reheating-temperature scenarios that can explain consistently extra radiation and cold dark matter (CDM), with the latter residing either in gravitinos or in axions. In the gravitino CDM case, axions from decays of thermal saxions provide extra radiation already prior to BBN and decays of axinos with a cosmologically required TeV-scale mass can produce extra entropy. In the axion CDM case, cosmological constraints are respected with light eV-scale axinos and weak-scale gravitinos that decay into axions and axinos. These decays lead to late extra radiation which can coexist with the early contributions from saxion decays. Recent results of the Planck satellite probe extra radiation at late times and thereby both scenarios. Further tests are the searches for axions at ADMX and for supersymmetric particles at the LHC.

Graf, Peter; Steffen, Frank Daniel

2013-12-01

465

Bayesian analysis of inflation. II. Model selection and constraints on reheating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the model selection problem for inflationary cosmology. We couple ModeCode, a publicly available numerical solver for the primordial perturbation spectra, to the nested sampler MultiNest, in order to efficiently compute Bayesian evidence. We pay particular attention to the specification of physically realistic priors, including the parametrization of the post-inflationary expansion and associated thermalization scale. It is confirmed that, while present-day data tightly constrain the properties of the power spectrum, they cannot usefully distinguish between the members of a large class of simple inflationary models. We also compute evidence using a simulated Planck likelihood, showing that while Planck will have more power than WMAP to discriminate between inflationary models, it will not definitively address the inflationary model selection problem on its own. However, Planck will place very tight constraints on any model with more than one observationally distinct inflationary regime—e.g. the large- and small-field limits of the hilltop inflation model—and put useful limits on different reheating scenarios for a given model.

Easther, Richard; Peiris, Hiranya V.

2012-05-01

466

Steel slag affects pH and Si content of container substrates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A substrate representing a typical greenhouse potting mix was prepared using 85% sphagnum peat and 15% perlite. The substrate was filled into 10 cm wide containers. A pulverized steel slag (SS) from a basic oxygen furnace, and dolomitic limestone (DL) were amended to the base substrate at a rate o...

467

Vintage structure dynamics and climate change policies: the case of US iron and steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US iron and steel industry consists of two main sectors—integrated firms producing outputs predominantly from virgin materials and fossil fuels, and electric arc furnaces operating mainly on scrap and electricity. Capacity and market shares of the former have declined for more than three decades, leading to reductions in energy use and emissions as the existing capital stock is retired.

Matthias Ruth; Anthony Amato

2002-01-01

468

Electrical resitivity of glass in furnaces with coaxially mounted cylindrical electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors construct a mathematical formulation for determining the optimal energy-efficient electrode configuration in an electric glass melting furnace. The principle parameter of model is the electrical conductivity of the glass to be melted in the furnace. The performance of a furnace designed according to the model is assessed against other furnaces both for efficiency and productivity and is found

K. M. Tatevosyan; Yu. N. Petrosyan

1987-01-01

469

Development of Al-killed/Ti stabilized steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several Al-killed/Ti-stabilized low carbon steels were developed in a Mexican steel industry with the aim of obtaining an interstitial free steel for automotive applications. The steelmaking route involved the use of 100% sponge iron which was feed into an electric arc furnace, vacuum degassed, ladle treated and continuously casted. The resulting slabs were then hot rolled at 1100 °C and coiled at 650 °C. Then, the steel plates were cold rolled at room temperature and sheets annealed at 700 °C. As-cast micro structure showed the presence of ?-ferrite with titanium nitrides in matrix and grain boundaries while in the ashot rolled condition, elongated grains showed the presence of titanium nitrides, titanium sulfides and titanium carbosulfides. The annealed sheets showed, additionally to the other precipitates, the presence of titanium carbides. Microstructure, texture, the Lankford ratio and mechanical properties of fully recrystallized coils fulfilled the target properties established by the automobile industry.

Ramirez-Ledesma, A. L.; Aguilar-Mendez, M. A.; Rodriguez-Diaz, R. A.; >G Aramburo,

2015-01-01

470

Numerical investigation of the heating process inside an industrial furnace  

E-print Network

furnace taking into account convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. The model-to-surface radiation model. However, the view factors of a symmetric model can be calculated from the full model

Wolper, Pierre

471

SITE - DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY - MINERGY CORPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy), of Waukesha, Wisconsin. Minergy originally developed vitrification technologies to process wastewater sludge into glass aggregate that could be sold as a commercial product. Minergy modified a st...

472

POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM HAD BEEN ADDED TO GENERATE DUCTILE IRON WHEN IT COOLS IN THE MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

473

Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

474

View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer on second floor of structure, view towards southeast - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

475

34. REDUCTION PLANT Furnace and boiler which provided steam heat ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. REDUCTION PLANT Furnace and boiler which provided steam heat required in converting fish, and fish offal, into meal and fish oil. Cone shaped tank at right held extracted oil. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

476

ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES FOR IRON PRIOR TO FILLING MOBILE LADLES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

477

MINERGY CORPORATION GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents performance and economic data for a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT). The demonstration evaluated the techno...

478

46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-13...furnace tube is then measured by an optical micro-pyrometer at intervals of...

2010-10-01

479

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential of particles, specific surface area, and images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the particles before and after adsorption. The specific surface area of the blast furnace slag was 0.4m(2)g(-1). The removal of phosphate predominantly has taken place by a precipitation mechanism and weak physical interactions between the surface of adsorbent and the metallic salts of phosphate. In this study, phosphate removal in excess of 99% was obtained, and it was concluded that blast furnace slag is an efficient adsorbent for the removal of phosphate from solution. PMID:15511583

Oguz, Ensar

2004-10-18

480

Upgrading the SPP-500-1 moisture separators-steam reheaters used in the Leningrad NPP turbine units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The specific features of existing designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters (MSRs) and experience gained with using them at nuclear power plants are considered. Main factors causing damage to and failures of MSRs are described: nonuniform distribution of wet steam flow among the separation modules, breakthrough of moisture through the separator (and sometimes also through the steam reheater), which may lead to the occurrence of additional thermal stresses and, hence, to thermal-fatigue damage to or stress corrosion cracking of metal. MSR failure results in a less efficient operation of the turbine unit as a whole and have an adverse effect on the reliability of the low-pressure cylinder's last-stage blades. By the time the design service life of the SPP-500-1 MSRs had been exhausted in power units equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors, the number of damages inflicted to both the separation part and to the pipework and heating surface tubes was so large, that a considerable drop of MSR effectiveness and turbine unit efficiency as a whole occurred. The design of the upgraded separation part used in the SPP-500-1 MSR at the Leningrad NPP is described and its effectiveness is shown, which was confirmed by tests. First, efforts taken to achieve more uniform distribution of moisture content over the perimeter and height of steam space downstream of the separation modules and to bring it to values close to the design ones were met with success. Second, no noticeable effect of the individual specific features of separation modules on the moisture content was revealed. Recommendations on elaborating advanced designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters are given: an MSR arrangement in which the separator is placed under or on the side from the steam reheater; axial admission of wet steam for ensuring its uniform distribution among the separation modules; inlet chambers with an extended preliminary separation system and devices for uniformly distributing steam flows in the separator; separated layout of the of the separator and steam reheater; and use of transversely finned tube bundles for organizing cross flow of steam over the tubes.

Legkostupova, V. V.; Sudakov, A. V.

2015-03-01

481

Metallic Glass Cooling Inside The TEMPUS Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sample of advanced metallic glass alloy cools down during an experiment with the TEMPUS furnace on STS-94, July 7, 1997, MET:5/23:35 (approximate). The sequence shows the sample glowing, then fading to black as scientists began the process of preserving the liquid state, but lowering the temperature below the normal solidification temperature of the alloy. This process is known as undercooling. (10 second clip covering approximately 50 seconds.) TEMPUS (stands for Tiegelfreies Elektromagnetisches Prozessiere unter Schwerelosigkeit (containerless electromagnetic processing under weightlessness). It was developed by the German Space Agency (DARA) for flight aboard Spacelab. The DARA project scientist was Igon Egry. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). DARA and NASA are exploring the possibility of flying an advanced version of TEMPUS on the International Space Station. (1.1MB, 9-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300188.html.

2003-01-01

482

High Temperature Calibration Furnace System user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Temperature Calibration Furnace System (HTCFS) was developed by Summitec Corporation. It is a high precision instrument providing a constant temperature which can be used to calibrate high temperature thermocouples. Incorporating the many recent technological advances from the fields of optical fiber thermometry, material science, computer systems interfacing, and process control, the engineers at Summitec Corporation have been able to create a system that can reach a steady operating temperature of 1700 C. The precision for the system requires the measurement of temperature to be within 1 C in two hours and within 2 C in 24 hours. As documented, the experimental result shows that this system has been able to stay within .5 C in 5 hours. No other systems commercially available have been able to achieve such high temperature precision. This manual provides an overview of the system design, instructions for instrument setup, and operation procedures. Also included are a vendor list and the source codes for the custom-designed software.

1994-01-01

483

Develop of the Blast Furnace Soft Water Temperature Measurement System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to ensure normal operation of the blast furnace (BF) closed loop soft water cooling system, cooling water temperature and the heat load must be controlled. It is the most important how the hundreds of large-scale blast furnace soft water temperature points for real-time detection. The DS18B20 digital thermometer was used as a temperature sensor. The DS18B20 communicates over

Zhang Lei; Zhou Fei; Qian Ya-ping

2008-01-01

484

Stand assembly of a glass-furnace bottom  

Microsoft Academic Search

“BKO” JSC has perfected an assembly-stand technology for the elements of a glass-making furnace, first and foremost, the furnace\\u000a bottom. Coordinated studies were performed to ensure that the accuracy of the stand meets the requirements: a stand with planarity\\u000a deviations ± 0.5 mm was designed and built, the preparation technology (cutting and grinding) for the block articles for the\\u000a assembly

V. P. Migal’; V. N. Ivanov; G. Ya. Nikolaeva; V. V. Skurikhin; I. N. Ermakov

2010-01-01

485

Maintenance repair of the refractory lining of glass furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of increasing the service life of glass furnaces with the aim of reducing expenses is solved most effectively\\u000a by using the method of depositing refractory powders onto the internal surface of fractured regions by an oxygen torch. The\\u000a high efficiency of the facing has been confirmed by the service life of glass furnaces of different design, output, and

V. I. Kirilenko

2000-01-01

486

MUZO flight experience with the programmable multizone furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multi-Zone (MUZO) furnace has been developed for growing germanium (Ge) crystals under microgravity in a Get Away Special (GAS) payload. The MUZO furnace was launched with STS-47 Endeavour in September 1992. The payload worked as planned during the flight and a Ge sample was successfully processed. The experiment has given valuable scientific information. The design and functionality of the payload together with flight experience is reported.

Lockowandt, Christian; Loth, Kenneth

1993-01-01

487

Stable activated carbon process using a moving grate stroker furnace  

SciTech Connect

Carbonaceous raw material, such as lignite coal, having first been passed successively through a moving grate stoker furnace, a shaft furnace and a quench chamber is screened so as to remove from the end product substantially all +12 mesh and larger particles which are then crushed to -12 mesh screen size and recirculated into the stream of raw material enroute through the moving grate stoker.

Smith, J.B.

1984-10-09

488

Development Of A Magnetic Directional-Solidification Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes development of directional-solidification furnace in which axial magnetic field is imposed by surrounding ring permanent magnets and/or electromagnets and pole pieces. Furnace provides controlled axial temperature gradients in multiple zones, through which ampoule containing sample of material to be solidified is translated at controlled speed by low-vibration, lead-screw, stepping-motor-driven mechanism. Intended for use in low-gravity (spaceflight) experiments on melt growth of high-purity semiconductor crystals.

Aldrich, Bill R.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

1996-01-01

489

16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to the trestle bins, the coke was screened and the coke 'fines' or breeze, were transported by conveyor to the coke fines bins where it was collected and leaded into dump trucks. The coke fines were then sold for fuel to a sinter plant in Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

490

Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces  

DOEpatents

The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

Mee, D.K.; Stephens, A.E.

1980-06-06

491

Space Station Furnace Facility. Volume 2: Summary of technical reports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is a modular facility for materials research in the microgravity environment of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The SSFF is designed for crystal growth and solidification research in the fields of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics, and will allow for experimental determination of the role of gravitational forces in the solidification process. The facility will provide a capability for basic scientific research and will evaluate the commercial viability of low-gravity processing of selected technologically important materials. In order to accommodate the furnace modules with the resources required to operate, SSFF developed a design that meets the needs of the wide range of furnaces that are planned for the SSFF. The system design is divided into subsystems which provide the functions of interfacing to the SSF services, conditioning and control for furnace module use, providing the controlled services to the furnace modules, and interfacing to and acquiring data from the furnace modules. The subsystems, described in detail, are as follows: Power Conditioning and Distribution Subsystem; Data Management Subsystem; Software; Gas Distribution Subsystem; Thermal Control Subsystem; and Mechanical Structures Subsystem.

1992-05-01

492

Mathematical Modeling of Pottery Production in Different Industrial Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional process for pottery production was analyzed in this work by developing a fundamental mathematical model that simulates the operation of rustic pottery furnaces as employed by natives of villages in Michoacán, Mexico. The model describes radiative heat transfer and fluid flow promoted by natural convection, phenomena that determine the operation of these furnaces. An advanced radiation model called the “Discrete Ordinates Model” was implemented within a commercial computational fluid dynamics software. Process analysis was performed to determine the effect of the design variables on the quality of the pottery pieces and on energy efficiency. The variables explored were: (a) Geometric aspect ratio between diameter and height of the furnace ( D/H) and (b) Refractory thickness ( L). The model was validated using experimental temperature measurements from furnaces located in Santa Fe and Capula, Mexico. Good agreement was obtained between experimental and numerically calculated thermal histories. It was found that furnaces with high aspect ratio D/H and with thick refractory bricks promote thermal uniformity and energy savings. In general, any parameter that increases the conductive thermal resistance of the wall furnace isolates better, and helps energy savings. Operating conditions that provide the smallest thermal gradients and lowest energy consumption are given.

Ramírez Argáez, Marco Aurelio; Huacúz, Salvador Lucas; Trápaga, Gerardo

2008-10-01

493

Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces  

DOEpatents

The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

Mee, David K. (Knoxville, TN); Stephens, Albert E. (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01

494

Laboratory Evaluation of Residential Furnace BlowerPerformance  

SciTech Connect

A testing program was undertaken at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and an electric utility (Pacific Gas and Electric Co.) to compare the performance of furnace blowers. This laboratory testing program was undertaken to support potential changes to California Building Standards regarding in-field furnace blower energy use. This technical support includes identifying suitable performance metrics and target performance levels for use in standards. Five different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested for air moving performance. Three different types of blower and motor combinations were tested in two different furnace cabinets. The blowers were standard forward--curved impellors and a prototype impeller with reverse-inclined blades. The motors were two 6-pole permanent split capacitor (PSC) single-phase induction motors, a brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motor and a prototype BPM designed for use with a prototype reverse-inclined impellor. The laboratory testing operated each blower and furnace combination over a range of air flows and pressure differences to determine air flow performance, power consumption and efficiency. Additional tests varied the clearance between the blower housing and the furnace cabinet, and the routing of air flow into the blower cabinet.

Walker, Iain S.; Lutz, Jim D.

2005-09-01

495

Modelling of the temperature distribution in a three-zone resistance furnace: influence of furnace configuration and ampoule position  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical modelling of the heat transport in a three-zone resistance furnace has been performed.The results of the calculations agree very well with experimentally obtained temperature profiles. A strong dependence of the calculated temperature field on the thermal conductivity of the furnace material is observed and can be explained by nonisotropic effects like inhomogeneities in the insulation.The simulations can also

S. Boschert; P Dold; K. W Benz

1998-01-01

496

Mechanisms of objectionable textural changes by microwave reheating of foods: a review.  

PubMed

Microwave reheating, compared to a conventional method, is notorious for lack of crust formation and severe toughening of flour and starch-based products. This review discusses how the typical thermal characteristics of microwave heating are involved in affecting the texture as well as the possible role of non-thermal effects. While low surface temperature is the well known mechanism why microwave heating is incapable of crust formation, the most severe toughening problems are caused by internal boiling. Beside moisture loss, the internally generated steam causes 2 main textural effects when it is vented out. The first is the replacing of non-condensable gases (air) in the product voids with a condensable one (steam). When the latter is condensed by cooling, a vacuum may be created in the voids causing their collapse and a formation of a more compact and tougher structure. The second textural effect involves amylose extraction from starch granules and its redistribution to eventually form a rich layer on the walls of the structural foam cells of the baked goods. Relatively fast crystallization of the amylose seems to be the main cause of toughening a short while after microwave heating. This mechanism is relevant mainly to products where starch is an important structural element. Structural disruptions by localize excessive steam pressure at hot-spots are also discussed in this review as well as methods of preventing or alleviating the most objectionable textural changes. The most effective ways of preventing these undesirable changes are by avoiding internal boiling and/or by manipulating the starch content and properties. PMID:22260126

Mizrahi, Shimon

2012-01-01