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1

Nonlinear predictive control of steel slab reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a steel plant, reheating furnaces are used for heating the steel slabs to a temperature of approximately 1200degC before rolling. Reheating furnaces consumes a lot of energy in steel plants. For competitive advantage it is important to improve the heating quality of slab and reduce the energy consumption as much as possible. This paper explores the potential of nonlinear

L. Balbis; J. Balderud; M. J. Grimble

2008-01-01

2

Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1999-01-14

3

Modeling and predictive control of a reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reheating furnaces in iron and steel industry are main facilities of hot charge rolling processes. The main objective of such a reheating furnace is to control billet temperature uniformly, thereby resulting in successful rolling process performance and high productivity. In this paper, a dynamic model of the reheating furnace is derived using material and energy balances. A multivariable controller design

Hyun Suk Ko; Jung-Su Kim; Tae-Woong Yoon; Mokeun Lim; Dae Ryuk Yang; Ik Soo Jun

2000-01-01

4

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in the center is a charging machine the operator of which manipulates steel ingots in the furnace, as well as in the adjacent forging hammers - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

5

Nitric oxide reductions in a multi-zone reheat furnace  

SciTech Connect

A reduced excess air combustion control technique was developed for an existing 3-zone reheat furnace that would reduce NO[sub x] emissions to conform with regulatory air quality requirements. The results indicate that reduced excess air combustion controls can be utilized for obtaining NO[sub x] reductions in a multi-zone steel reheat furnace. This study provides support for considering this control strategy as a possible first step toward reheat furnace NO[sub x] control. For new furnace installations, low NO[sub x] burners combined with other technologies provide the greatest benefit. However, for existing furnaces, a control system retrofit may be the most cost-effective short range option. Regarding actual NO[sub x] reduction costs after installation and testing were complete, this control methodology cost approximately $8,500/ton NO[sub x] reduction.

Harder, R.F. (George Fox Coll., Newberg, OR (United States))

1994-04-01

6

Optimal Slab Heating Control for Reheating Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new optimal heating control has been developed for reheating furnaces into which both hot and cold slabs are charged in a mixed manner. The main features of the control system are as follows: 1) Online simulation with an analytic model (nonlinear, parameter-distributed model) 2) Optimization of reference trajectories of slab temperature by the steepest descent method using the above

N. Yoshitani; Y. Naganuma; T. Yanai

1991-01-01

7

CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

8

Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating  

SciTech Connect

The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

2011-01-27

9

Reheat cracking in low alloy steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underclad cracks in low alloy pressure vessel steels clad with stainless steels are a form of reheat cracking and occur in the coarse grain part of the HAZ. Grain refining can be a solution to the problem for cladding done in one pass. Factors leading to reheat cracking are chemical composition of the steel, stresses, thermal effects and coarse grain

Debray

1977-01-01

10

Application of multivariable technique in temperature control of reheating furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking account of reheating furnaces being multivariable systems with strong coupling and large time delay, the paper applied a decoupling technique and Smith compensation to control the furnace temperature. Experiments indicate that this proposed strategy can improve the performance of furnace temperature control greatly

Zhongjie Wang; Cheng Shao; Tianyou Chai

1999-01-01

11

Benefits of ceramic fiber for saving energy in reheat furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Refractory ceramic fiber products offer thermal insulation investment in reheat furnaces by helping to keep operating cost low and product quality high. These products are used in a range of applications that include: furnace linings; charge and discharge door insulation; skidpipe insulation; and furnace repair and maintenance. The many product forms (blankets, modules, boards, textiles, and coatings) provide several key benefits: faster cycling, energy savings and personnel protection.

Norris, A. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States))

1993-07-01

12

Pyrometer method for measuring slab temperature in a reheat furnace  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus to measure the temperature of a slab in a reheat furnace with increased accuracy using either a single or dual pyrometer system through use of a multiplicity of temperature correction functions involving temperatures of slab and wall, distance between a pyrometer and the slab at which it is aimed, a ratio of air and fuel supplying the furnace heat and radiation interferences. The functions are chosen by a micro-processor in the system dependent on temperature differentials, emissivity setting of the pyrometer, target distance between pyrometer and slab, and air and fuel flow rates existing and fluctuating in the system.

Rudzki, E.M.; Jackson, R.W.; Martocci, A.P.

1984-02-21

13

Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities shows that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is in very good agreement with the Hottel and Sarofim's database. The 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is then integrated into AnsysFluent® Discrete Ordinates method under User Defined Function and CFD simulations are performed using these combined models. The simulations are done, with full combustion-radiation coupling, for steel reheating furnaces firing on three types of gases: BFG, COG and NG. The results are compared with the simulations realized with the 1-gray-gas WSGG model available in AnsysFluent®. The comparison shows that the 1-gray-gas WSGG model highly overestimates the steel discharging temperature as compared to the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model. Significant temperature differences are observed between the two radiative models, i.e. 116°C, 55°C and 67°C for the BFG, COG and NG cases, respectively. It can be concluded that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model should be used to calculate the radiation heat transfer in large industrial furnaces with more accuracy not only for low heating value gases such as BFG but also for high heating value gases such as COG and NG.

Nguyen, P. D.; Danda, A.; Embouazza, M.; Gazdallah, M.; Evrard, P.; Feldheim, V.

2012-06-01

14

An intelligent temperature control system for nature gas reheating furnace of titanium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent temperature control strategy for different heating segments is proposed based on the characteristic analysis of natural gas reheating furnace of titanium. According to errors between the furnace temperature's measured value and the goal value, a fuzzy controller is used to regulate the nature gas flux. Then the number of the flame burner is determined with expert control method.

Lv Yan; Wu Min; Lei Qi

2010-01-01

15

A thermal system model for a radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal system mathematical model developed for a gas-fired radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace is discussed. The\\u000a mathematical model of the furnace integrates submodels for combustion and heat transfer within the radiant tube with models\\u000a for the furnace enclosure. The transport processes occurring in the radiant tube are treated using a one-dimensional scheme,\\u000a and the radiation exchange between the load, the

H. Ramamurthy; S. Ramadhyani; R. Viskanta

1995-01-01

16

Estimation of temperature profiles of slabs in a reheat furnace by using the Kalman filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of modern systems theory has opened the way for solving complicated measuring problems. Thus, variables which are not directly measurable can be reconstructed from easily measurable variables by using Kalman filtering. The center temperature of a slab in a reheat furnace which is not directly measurable can be estimated from the measured surface temperature of the observed slab.

Hans-Joachim Wick; Friedhelm Koster

1999-01-01

17

Development and evaluation of a Workpiece Temperature Analyzer for industrial furnaces: Steel industry survey and furnace selection  

SciTech Connect

This report explores the advantages of the proposed Workpiece Temperature Analyzer (WPTA) in non-contact measurement of the internal temperature of hot steel. The technical origin for the WPTA is in ultrasonic thermometry. The cumulative advantages of the WPTA in contrast with existing technology, thermocouples, pyrometers and mathematical modelling, is that (1) it will provide true internal temperature, (2) the measurement requires no contact with the workpiece, and (3) the approximate payback for applications we have studied is one year or less, except for small batch reheat furnaces that process less than 11% of US raw steel production. After review of potential WPTA applications, detailed economic and noneconomic benefit analyses were made for reheat furnaces and continuous casters. In reheat furnaces, the required measurement is that of the internal temperature of a solid workpiece in the furnace. Virtually all raw steel must be reheated. The significant measurement in a continuous caster is the solidification front of the molten steel. Here the measurement becomes more complex because of the phase changes. For both applications, the primary advantage was perceived to be quality, which in turn would enable US steel manufacturers to achieve a stronger competitive position in world markets. 25 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

Witt, M.A.

1990-02-01

18

Modeling of reheating-furnace dynamics using neural network based on improved sequential-learning algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to model the dynamics of a billet reheating furnace, a multi-input multi-output radial-basis-function neural network is constructed based on an improved sequential-learning algorithm. The algorithm employs an improved growing-and-pruning algorithm based on the concept of the significance of hidden neurons, and an extended Kalman filter improves the learning accuracy. Verification results show that the model thus obtained accurately

Yingxin Liao; Min Wu; Jin-Hua She

2006-01-01

19

A thermal system model for a radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal system mathematical model developed for a gas-fired radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace is discussed. The mathematical model of the furnace integrates submodels for combustion and heat transfer within the radiant tube with models for the furnace enclosure. The transport processes occurring in the radiant tube are treated using a one-dimensional scheme, and the radiation exchange between the load, the radiant-tube surfaces, and the furnace refractories are analyzed using the radiosity method. The continuous furnace operation is simulated under steady-state conditions. Model simulations of load surface temperature variation compare well with measurements in an industrial galvannealing furnace. The scope and flexibility of the model are assessed by performing extensive parametric studies using furnace geometry, material properties, and operating conditions as input parameters in the model and predicting the thermal performance of the furnace. The various parameters studied include the effects of load and refractory emissivities, load velocities, properties of the stock material, and variations in the radiant-tube designs.

Ramamurthy, H.; Ramadhyani, S.; Viskanta, R.

1995-10-01

20

Development of an Advanced Gas-Fired Furnace for High-Temperature Heating of Continuously Cast Thin Section Steel Products. Final Report January-December 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project involved the development of preliminary design parameters for two different types of gas-fired furnaces capable of reheating thin sections (i.e. 1 inch thick) of continuously cast steel. These reheated thin steel sections are then sent directl...

D. G. Franz

1987-01-01

21

Effect of direct and reheated quenching on microstructure and mechanical properties of CLAM steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct and reheated quenching on microstructural mechanical properties of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel was investigated. Three direct quenching and tempering (DQ&T) CLAM steels were rolled at the same finish rolling temperature with different quenching rate, and their microstructures and mechanical properties were compared with those of a reheated quenching and tempering (RQ&T) CLAM steel. DQ&T process was proven to strengthen the tensile property but lower the toughness compared to RQ&T process due to the finer austenite grain size formed under RQ&T process. Tensile property first increased with quenching rate and then decreased. The reason for this was discussed.

Qiu, J.; Ju, X.; Xin, Y.; Liu, S.; Wang, Y. L.; Wu, H. B.; Tang, D.

2010-12-01

22

Assessment of reheat cracking susceptibility in Cr-Mo-V turbine rotor steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluations of reheat cracking susceptibility in CrMoV turbine rotor steel were performed using a commercial weldment and thermally simulated heat affected zones (HAZ). The examinations were carried out in terms of a thermal cyclic test and Charpy type three point notch opening bend test. In addition, a mechanical and microstructural characterization was conducted on the commercial weldment to examine

Gwangsoo

1990-01-01

23

Welding procedures to mitigate reheat-PWHT cracking in A710/A736 type steels  

SciTech Connect

In the mid 1980s research on the behavior of the HAZ of A710/A736 type materials, at The University of Tennessee, revealed that a distinct sensitivity to reheat/PWHT cracking in the weld HAZ was in evidence. Subsequent work, sponsored by the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) of the Welding Research Council (WRC), more clearly documented the reheat/PWHT cracking potential in terms of the weld HAZ thermal history and contrasted the behavior to other HSLA steels. Additional research was undertaken by PVRC/WRC and the Materials Properties Council (MPC) on the Cu precipitation-strengthened A710/A736 materials, and the work was extended to similar HSLA 80/100 alloys developed for US Navy applications. The follow-on PVRC/WRC work was conducted at The University of Tennessee and also at Lehigh University. This research resulted in fabrication controls, detailed here, which are considered effective in mitigating reheat/PWHT cracking.

Lundin, C.D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Materials Joining Group; Upitis, E.

1996-06-01

24

Temperature control of a continuous, push-type, five-zone, slab-reheating furnace for minimum-fuel usage. Volume I. Text and Appendix A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations are made of temperature control for a continuous, five zone, pusher type, reheat furnace used to heat slabs from the slabbing mill up to the rolling temperature needed for the hot strip mill. Minimum fuel rates needed to achieve required outlet temperature as a function of production rate are determined. A scheme is presented for carrying out the transition

D. J. Purdy; T. J. Williams

1981-01-01

25

Assessment of reheat cracking susceptibility in Cr-Mo-V turbine rotor steel  

SciTech Connect

The evaluations of reheat cracking susceptibility in CrMoV turbine rotor steel were performed using a commercial weldment and thermally simulated heat affected zones (HAZ). The examinations were carried out in terms of a thermal cyclic test and Charpy type three point notch opening bend test. In addition, a mechanical and microstructural characterization was conducted on the commercial weldment to examine the joint strength and its microstructural stability after high temperature exposure.

Kim, Gwangsoo.

1990-01-01

26

The effect of reheating conditions and chemical composition on ? ferrite content in austenitic stainless steel slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specimens, selected from different locations of as-cast 304 stainless steel slab, were annealed according to the temperature profiles, which simulated the industrial re-heating process before hot rolling. Annealing, following thermal cycles with maximum temperatures between 1230 and 1270°C for a total time of 1 h, reduced the d ferrite content, increased the size of the individual ferrite island and

J. Y. Cho; F. Czerwinski; J. A. Szpunar

2000-01-01

27

29. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACES NEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACES NEAR COMPLETION, 1910. (From the Jefferson County Historical society collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

28

28. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACES UNDER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACES UNDER CONSTRUCTION, 1909. (From the Robert Teagle Private collecton, Port Townsend, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

29

Fundamental studies of the metallurgical causes and mitigation of reheat cracking in 1¼Cr½Mo and 2¼Cr1Mo steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cr-Mo steels are considered to be susceptible to weld related reheat cracking. This study was instituted to determine the mechanisms for reheat cracking in these steels as well as to determine methods to successfully avoid reheat cracking. Two heats of 1¼-½Mo were used, one being calcium treated. Also used were three heats of 2¼Cr-1Mo, one being a conventional grade of

C. D. Lundin; K. K. Khan

1996-01-01

30

Non-contact charge temperature measurement on industrial continuous furnaces and steel charge emissivity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous furnaces are commonly used for steel billet reheating before a rolling operation. It is necessary to perform a number of measurements to set-up and operate the optimization system of the furnaces correctly. A charge temperature measurement using infrared detectors can be one of the usable measurement techniques. This non-contact measurement method is based on the detection of infrared radiation emitted from a measured surface. The radiation intensity depends on the surface temperature and emissivity, which is one of the most important parameters for infrared measurements. Advantages of the non-contact temperature measurement, as well as some problems regarding the surface emissivity, are presented. The direct steel billet temperature measurement procedure using infra-red detectors, emissivity determination procedures, and example results are introduced. It is shown that steel emissivity can vary from approx. 0.17 to 0.8, depending on the surface state, scale formation, and wavelength interval. These problems are critical for the charge temperature measurement using the infra-red detectors, and are discussed in this paper.

Švantner, Michal; Vacíková, Petra; Honner, Milan

2013-11-01

31

Effect of preliminary reheating on austenite transformation in the core and hardened case of steel 20Kh2N4A  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Preliminary reheating (1300°C, 2 h) appreciably accelerates transformation of austenite in the upper subcritical temperature range and increases the degree of its transformation in noncarburized melts of both types. This occurs owing to acceleration of ferrite precipitation and an increase of its content.2.Reheating of steel does not change the character of austenite transformation in the hardened case, inherent to a

N. M. Grinberg

1964-01-01

32

Effect of Calcium Treatments and Strain Rate on Reheat Cracking of Vanadium-Modified 2.25Cr1Mo Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vanadium-modified (V-Mod) 2.25Cr-1Mo steel has been studied to determine the effect of calcium treatments and strain rate on susceptibility to reheat cracking of the heat-affected zone in low-alloy steels for reactor applications. The susceptibility to reheat cracking was determined by tensile tests in the strain-rate range of 1 × 10?4\\/s to 3 × 10?6\\/s in the temperature region of 293K

Toshihiko Shinya; Yoshiyuki Tomita

1998-01-01

33

Phosphorus removal by electric arc furnace steel slag and serpentinite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag and serpentinite were tested in columns either alone or mixed with limestone to determine their capacity to remove phosphorus (P) from a solution containing initially 20mg P\\/L (for 114 days) than 400mg P\\/L (for 21 days). EAF steel slag was nearly 100% efficient due to specific P adsorption onto metal hydroxides and precipitation of

Aleksandra Drizo; Christiane Forget; Robert P. Chapuis; Yves Comeau

2006-01-01

34

Recycling of Electric Arc Furnace Dust: Jorgensen Steel Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is an evaluation of the Ek Glassification(TM) Process to recycle and convert K061-listed waste (Electric Arc Furnace or EAF dust) and other byproducts of the steel-making industry into usable products. The Process holds potential for replaci...

T. W. Jackson J. S. Chapman

1995-01-01

35

Effects of impurities and alloying elements on reheat cracking sensitivity of 720 N\\/mm class high?strength steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an investigation of the reheat cracking sensitivity of 720 N\\/mm class high?strength steel from the viewpoint of the chemical composition. The impurities and alloying elements were varied within a specific range from the basic chemical composition of this steel (2.8%Ni, 1.5%Cr, 0.5%Mo, 0.10%C, 0.005%P, 0.001 %S, 0.006%N), and the change in the cracking sensitivity was examined. The

K. Tamaki; J. Suzuki; K. Imai; Y. Horii; T. Kumagai

1995-01-01

36

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry  

SciTech Connect

An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

2003-01-20

37

Welding procedures to mitigate reheat-PWHT cracking in A710\\/A736 type steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mid 1980s research on the behavior of the HAZ of A710\\/A736 type materials, at The University of Tennessee, revealed that a distinct sensitivity to reheat\\/PWHT cracking in the weld HAZ was in evidence. Subsequent work, sponsored by the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) of the Welding Research Council (WRC), more clearly documented the reheat\\/PWHT cracking potential in terms

C. D. Lundin; E. Upitis

1996-01-01

38

Characterization of steel mill electric-arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make a complete characterization of electric-arc furnace (EAF) dust, as hazardous industrial waste, and to solve its permanent disposal and\\/or recovery, bearing in mind both the volumes formed in the Croatian steel industry and experiences of developed industrial countries, a study of its properties was undertaken.For this purpose, samples of EAF dust, taken from the regular production

Tahir Sofili?; Alenka Rastov?an-Mio?; Štefica Cerjan-Stefanovi?; Vjera Novosel-Radovi?; Monika Jenko

2004-01-01

39

Cementitious and pozzolanic behavior of electric arc furnace steel slags  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cementitious and pozzolanic behavior of electric arc furnace steel slag, both as received and treated has been studied in detail. The as received slag was completely crystalline and multi-phasic with Fe-substituted monticellite as the predominant phase. Treatment of this slag, remelting and water quenching, results in reduction of Fe-oxide content coupled with an increase in basicity index which makes

Luckman Muhmood; Satish Vitta; D. Venkateswaran

2009-01-01

40

Alkaline leaching of zinc from electric arc furnace steel dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnaces (EAF) generate about 10–20kg of dust per metric ton of steel, which constitute a hazardous waste, known as EAF dust. This dust contains a remarkable amount of non-ferrous metals, which include zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium and nickel that could be recovered, reducing the environmental impact of the leachable toxic metals, and generating revenue. In this paper, different

A. J. B. Dutra; P. R. P. Paiva; L. M. Tavares

2006-01-01

41

Recycling of electric arc furnace dust: Jorgensen steel facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is an evaluation of the Ek Glassification(TM) Process to recycle and convert K061-listed waste (Electric Arc Furnace or EAF dust) and other byproducts of the steel-making industry into usable products. The Process holds potential for replacing the need for expensive disposal costs associated with the listed waste with the generation of marketable products. The products include colored glass

T. W. Jackson; J. S. Chapman

1995-01-01

42

Evaluation of steel furnace slags as cement additives  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and physical properties and strength development have been studied for six granulated steel furnace slags from the normal steelmaking process. This paper reports results of research performed to develop cement mixture proportions using these slags. The influence of slag proportions, specific surface, and water demand on compressive strength and bulk density of cement blends are presented in this paper. The different test results, which were compared with the Turkish Standards, in general, were found to be within the limits.

Tuefekci, M.; Demirbas, A.; Genc, H. [Technical Univ. of the Black Sea, Trabzon (Turkey)] [Technical Univ. of the Black Sea, Trabzon (Turkey)

1997-11-01

43

Combustion Modifications of Batch Annealing Furnaces and Ammonia Combustion Ovens for NOX Abatement in Steel Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

NOX control employing several combustion modification techniques is studied in batch annealing furnaces and ammonia combustion ovens in steel plants. The fuels of the annealing furnace and ammonia oven are by-product fuel gases and ammonia vapor, respectively, which are generated in the same steelworks. Study of the emission characteristics of the annealing furnace show that delayed combustion can effectively reduce

Hsisheng Teng

1996-01-01

44

Reheat response and accelerated cooling of a microalloyed steel with an air\\/water atomizer: Effect on microstructure and mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an atomizer for accelerated cooling is discussed. An atomizer is an effective tool for controlling the microstructure and properties of a microalloyed steel because of its flexibility of operation and control of cooling rate over a broad range of temperatures. Some basic issues regarding heat transfer in pool boiling and in spray cooling also are presented. Reheating

S. R. Pejavar; P. B. Aswath

1994-01-01

45

Characteristics of the slags produced in the fusion of scrap steel by electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of industrial by-products requires knowledge of the characteristics of the materials. This work presents characterization data on slags produced in the fusion of scrap steel by electric arc furnace. It includes the chemical, mineralogical, and microstructural analysis and physical characteristics. Mineralogically, scrap steel from electric arc furnace are a mix of anhydrous calcium silicates and iron composites and

M. P. Luxán; R. Sotolongo; F. Dorrego; E. Herrero

2000-01-01

46

APPLICATION OF ROOF RADIANT BURNERS IN LARGE PUSHER-TYPE FURNACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the application of roof flat-flame burners in the pusher-type steel slab reheating furnaces, after furnace reconstruction and replacement of conventional torch burners, with the objective to increase the efficiency of radiative heat transfer from the refractory roof to the charge. Based on observations and on mea- surements of the construction and process parameters under operating conditions,

A. VARGA; M. TATI; L. LAZI

47

Recycling of electric arc furnace dust: Jorgensen steel facility  

SciTech Connect

This document is an evaluation of the Ek Glassification(TM) Process to recycle and convert K061-listed waste (Electric Arc Furnace or EAF dust) and other byproducts of the steel-making industry into usable products. The Process holds potential for replacing the need for expensive disposal costs associated with the listed waste with the generation of marketable products. The products include colored glass and glass-ceramics; ceramic glazes, colorants, and fillers; roofing granules and sandblasting grit; and materials for Portland cement production. Field testing of the technology was conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in early July of 1991 at the Earle M. Jorgensen Steel Co. (EMJ) plant in Seattle, Washington, and both technical and economic aspects of the technology were examined. TCLP testing of the product determined that leachability characteristics of metals in the product meet treatment standards for K061-listed waste. The Process was also shown to be economically viable, based on capital and operating cost estimates, and profit and revenue forecasts for a 21,000 ton-per-year operation. Although this effort showed that the technology holds promise, regulatory compliance should be evaluated on the basis of the actual hardware configuration and operating procedures along with the leachability of the specific product formulations to be used.

Jackson, T.W.; Chapman, J.S.

1995-01-01

48

Electrical conductivity of the roof of electric arc steel melting furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The authors test for the relationship between temperature and electrical conductivity in the refractory liners of arc furnaces used by the steel industry in the Soviet Union in order to minimize the degradation of these refractories by electrical and thermal processes, to maximize their service life, and to optimize their insulating properties and the consequent efficiency of the furnaces in which they are utilized.

Osipenko, V.D.; Garbuz, S.S.; Khromov, A.P.

1987-01-01

49

Second law analysis of thermodynamics in the electric arc furnace at a steel producing company  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, energy and conservation analyses are applied to the production of steel process in the electric arc furnace. The scrap pre-heating system, stack gas and cooling water leaving the furnace are investigated, and the obtained results are compared with experimental ones.

Ünal Çamdali; Murat Tunç; Ahmet Karaka?

2003-01-01

50

Influence of slab reheating practice on the microstructural evolution and toughness behavior of quenched and tempered plates of medium carbon microalloyed steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, granular bainite was found to be the major component in the microstructure of air cooled 80 mm thick\\u000a plates of medium carbon microalloyed steel. The second constituent in this granular bainite was identified as cementite. It\\u000a was further observed that (1) ferrite lath size and (2) amount of cementite in granular bainite varied with slab reheating

A. Saxena; S. K. Chaudhuri; Ram Avtar; S. N. Sinha

2003-01-01

51

Alloy selection considerations and service experience of the first ''in-service'' 439 stainless steel moisture-separator-reheater tube bundles at Kewaunee nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for an alternate moisture-reheater tubing alloy is explored and the reasoning behind the selection of 439 stainless steel is presented. Significant advantages that are evident by using special tubing chemistry and special tubing heat treatment are discussed in relation to fin-die wear, alloy stabilization, maintaining a fully ferritic structure, and reducing the susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking. Comparisons made

J. L. Kratz; P. G. Minard; D. E. Weinberg

1982-01-01

52

Reheat response and accelerated cooling of a microalloyed steel with an air\\/water atomizer: Effect on microstructure and mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an atomizer for accelerated cooling is discussed. An atomizer is an effective tool for controlling the microstructure\\u000a and properties of a microalloyed steel because of its flexibility of operation and control of cooling rate over a broad range\\u000a of temperatures. Some basic issues regarding heat transfer in pool boiling and in spray cooling also are presented. Reheating

S. R. Pejavar; P. B. Aswath

1994-01-01

53

The effects of emissivity on the performance of steel in furnace tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role that surface emissivity plays in the standard furnace test (BS476) is considered for steel sections. Steel samples coated with either a low-emissivity paint or a high-emissivity paint were subjected to furnace tests and cone calorimeter tests in order to quantify the degree to which emissivity affects performance. The cone calorimeter experiments were designed primarily to determine the emissivity

J. E. J. Staggs; H. N. Phylaktou

2008-01-01

54

Bag filter for cleaning gases after electric arc steel-melting furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a large capacity bag filter for cleaning gases of electric arc steel-melting furnaces from highly dispersed dust particles. A sketch of the filter is provided and its technical characteristics are listed. Tests with the filter showed that in the process of cleaning the steel-melting shop exhaust gases, the dust content of gases at the filter exit is

I. K. Goryachev; V. P. Korsakov; A. D. Novikov

1987-01-01

55

Copper coating of carbon steel by a furnace brazing process using brass as the braze  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ship building grade of carbon steel has been coated with copper by a furnace brazing process starting from a brass braze. An argon protective atmosphere was used to prevent oxidation of the steel. However, when the deposit was produced a low gas flow rate ensured that zinc was lost from the brass by oxidation leaving a copper deposit on

F. Molleda; J. Mora; J. R. Molleda; E. Carrillo; E. Mora; B. G. Mellor

2008-01-01

56

Physicochemical properties of the slags intended for steel refining in a ladle-furnace unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the refining of steel in a ladle?furnace unit, highly basic slags are used. In this case, for steel deoxidized with aluminum, the following main composition of refinery slag is commonly recommended (wt %): 56?62 CaO, 6?10 SiO 2 , 20?25 Al 2 O 3 , 6?8 MgO, and ? 1.0 (FeO + MnO). For steel not deoxidized with aluminum,

N. A. Smirnov; A. V. Basov; I. A. Magidson

2009-01-01

57

Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Pieces of shredded tires are fed into the top of a vertical pyrolyzing furnace in a measured amount using a weighing hopper feed mechanism. Heated gas is introduced through inlet and pyrolyzing the tire pieces on a countercurrent flow principle to produce useful hydrocarbon volatiles and residues. The pyrolyzed residue including tire reinforcing wires are efficiently removed from the furnace by a plurality of downwardly inclined screw conveyors disposed in troughs. Each screw conveyor extends into an inclined conduit and discharges into a vertical branch conduit disposed at least partially within the cross-section of the furnace so that even discharge of the pyrolyzed residue is ensured by the combined action of gravity and the screw conveyors.

Cooke, J.C.; Tilley, F.H.

1983-06-14

58

Properties of steel foundry electric arc furnace dust solidified\\/stabilized with Portland cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace dust from steel production is generated in considerable amounts worldwide and needs to be treated as hazardous waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of electric arc furnace dust solidified\\/stabilized by using Portland cement. Mortar and paste samples were prepared with varying waste-to-binder ratios between 0% and 90%. A comprehensive experimental program was

Guray Salihoglu; Vedat Pinarli; Nezih Kamil Salihoglu; Gizem Karaca

2007-01-01

59

Fundamental studies of the metallurgical causes and mitigation of reheat cracking in 1{1/4}Cr-{1/2}Mo and 2{1/4}Cr-1Mo steels  

SciTech Connect

Cr-Mo steels are considered to be susceptible to weld related reheat cracking. This study was instituted to determine the mechanisms for reheat cracking in these steels as well as to determine methods to successfully avoid reheat cracking. Two heats of 1{1/4}-{1/2}Mo were used, one being calcium treated. Also used were three heats of 2{1/4}Cr-1Mo, one being a conventional grade of 2{1/4}Cr-1Mo calcium treated; and the other two being modified (with {1/4}V) grades, one of which was calcium treated. The reheat cracking susceptibility of the materials was first determined by the Gleeble technique. Subsequently, a new simple and versatile test was developed--the spiral notch test. The materials were evaluated by this new test and a good correlation was found between the two tests. The results show a distinct difference in carbide evolution and segregation pattern for reheat crack susceptible and nonsusceptible heats. The M{sub 3}C type carbides persisted longer in reheat crack sensitive heats than in resistant heats. The M{sub 3}C type carbides transformed to M{sub 23}C{sub 6} type carbides earlier during PWHT. The prior austenite grain boundaries were enriched in P (susceptible) and in S (resistant) materials. Although the relation between the carbide evolution kinetics and the trace element segregation in affecting the reheat cracking susceptibility was not fully defined, it was obvious that the two were interlinked. The activation energy calculations revealed that diffusion of P was the rate controlling step for reheat cracking. Thus, all the results point to P as the principle element responsible for reheat cracking. 145 refs.

Lundin, C.D.; Khan, K.K.

1996-02-01

60

A computer simulator for steel plant electrical arc furnace regulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of the simulator is to imitate the behavior of the regulator loop, which is the main component of the Electrical Arc Furnace (EAF) control systems. In the past, the use of artificial intelligence methods, and in particular, the Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) were successfully applied in the modeling and control of the EAF components individually. This

Behzad Jorjani

2006-01-01

61

Characterization and leachability of electric arc furnace dust made from remelting of stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is a toxic waste product made in the remelting of scrap steel. The results of a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) conducted on a sample of EAFD originating from the remelting of stainless steel scrap showed that the total Cr and Cr (VI) liquor concentrations (9.7 and 6.1mg\\/L, respectively) exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Regulatory Level

Guylaine Laforest; Josée Duchesne

2006-01-01

62

Improvement of the technology of the out-of-furnace treatment of wheel steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various versions of the deoxidation and out-of-furnace treatment of wheel steel under the OAO VMZ conditions are analyzed.\\u000a The effective partial pressure of carbon monoxide over a melt in a 130-t ladle degasser is found to be 54 ± 9 kPa. Thermodynamic\\u000a analysis of the deoxidation demonstrates that low oxygen concentrations in the melt of wheel steel can be achieved

S. S. Shibaev; A. K. Garber; K. V. Grigorovich; A. M. Arsenkin; A. A. Shishov; Yu. S. Demin; K. A. Moskovoi

2008-01-01

63

Steel foundry electric arc furnace dust management: Stabilization by using lime and Portland cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine an appropriate treatment for steel foundry electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) prior to permanent disposal. Lime and Portland cement (PC)-based stabilization was applied to treat the EAFD that contains lead and zinc above the landfilling limits, and is listed by USEPA as hazardous waste designation K061 and by EU as 10 02

Guray Salihoglu; Vedat Pinarli

2008-01-01

64

Strength and structure of furnace-brazed joints between aluminum and stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and shear strength of brazed joints of aluminum to stainless steel are studied using a modification of the double lap joint configuration, which allows mechanical testing and joint microstructure examination on the same test piece. It is found that during furnace brazing of such joints at 600 C, using an Al-Si eutectic brazing alloy, the interfacial zone between

M. Roulin; G. Karadeniz; A. Mortensen; J. W. Luster

1999-01-01

65

Furnace  

SciTech Connect

A furnace is described. An elongate, cylindrical, combustion chamber is disposed horizontally in combination with a blower conduit means for creating a forced draft therein. The furnace is provided with an elongate water jacket surrounding the combustion chamber. The water jacket has a cylindrical outer wall and a heat-conducting, concentric, inner common wall, which forms the outer wall of the combustion chamber. An elongate water compartment is located entirely outside of the water jacket. A first heat transfer means comprises a first set of elongate, parallel fire-tubes axially-disposed in the water jacket in heat exchange relation with the water therein. Second heat transfer means comprising a second set of elongate, parallel fire-tubes axially-disposed in the water compartment in heat exchange relation with the water. Flow of water is directed through the inlet means, the first and second heat transfer means and the outlet means in succession, first into the water compartment in direct heat exchange with the second set of fire-tubes therein and then into the water jacket in direct heat exchange with the first set of fire-tubes therein and in indirect heat exchange with the combustion chamber through the common wall. The flow of combustion gases goes from the combustion chamber through the first and second sets of fire-tubes in succession. Conduit means is in heat exchange relation with the inlet which are air-filled, and from a closed pipe system. The thermally insulating layer rests on the pipes with sides of the thermally insulating layer carrying the lateral reflectors. The thermally insulating layer is provided with a dust lining on a side of the thermally insulating layer facing away from the pipes. Combustion air supplied to the burner is preheated together with a heating medium conveyed in the pipes, the heating medium consisting of the waste gases and the system air.

Walker, L.; Taylor, T.A.

1986-04-15

66

To the problem of steel desulfurization in a ladle-furnace unit and a chamber degasser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laws of deep steel desulfirization in a ladle upon treatment in a ladle-furnace unit and after degassing are considered. On the basis of experiments, a mechanism is proposed for extraction refining by slag with allowance for the role of drop formation in the zone of gas jet outlet. The mechanism consists of several consecutive stages. Under vacuum, the process of stirring with an inert gas substantially enhances the desulfurization rate and can be restricted only by too intense steel cooling and in the absence of a free wall margin in a steel-teeming ladle.

Safonov, V. M.; Smirnov, A. N.; Pismarev, K. E.; Proskurenko, D. V.

2010-12-01

67

Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

2013-04-01

68

Thermal and structural response of two-storey two-bay composite steel frames under furnace loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapse of the World Trade Center Towers and other recent fires in tall buildings has motivated this study to understand the performance of structural frames under fire loading. Three two-storey, two-bay composite steel frames were constructed and subjected to dead loads by applying weight blocks, and to thermal load by placing the frame in a furnace. The furnace was

Y. L. Dong; E. C. Zhu; K. Prasad

2009-01-01

69

70 FR 72781 - Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...process for CASWR occurs in two stages: the melt shop and rolling mill. In the melt shop a furnace melts scrap steel or pig...casts the liquid steel into billets. Next, in the rolling mill, the billets are reheated, rolled into CASWR,...

2005-12-07

70

A Model for Temperature Prediction of Melted Steel in the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A constant aspiration to optimize electric arc steelmaking process causes an increase of the use of advanced analytical methods\\u000a for the process support. The goal of the paper is to present the way to predict temperature of melted steel in the electric\\u000a arc furnace and consequently, to reduce the number of temperature measurements during the process. Reducing the number of

Marcin Blachnik; Krystian Maczka; Tadeusz Wieczorek

2010-01-01

71

Tests of periclase-carbon refractories in an arc steel-melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions An experimental lot of unfired periclase-carbon parts was produced at Magnesite Combine and tested in a DSP-25 arc steel-melting furnace of the Ural Heavy Machinery Plant. The average wear rate of the experimental parts was 30% less than for PKhS parts and with a decrease in the lining thickness from 460 to 230 mm the wear rate dropped by

S. A. Suvorov; A. M. Smilovitskii; V. I. Sizov; A. A. Perepelitsyn; T. I. Boriskova; K. A. Beék; K. É. Kiis

1985-01-01

72

Tests of periclase-carbon refractories in an arc steel-melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental lot of unfired periclase-carbon parts was produced and tested in a DSP-25 arc steel melting furnace. The average wear rate of the experimental parts was 30% less than for PKhS parts and with a decrease in the lining thickness from 460 to 230 mm the wear rate dropped by 2-2.5 times. During service a complex infiltration-metasomatic zonality if

S. A. Suvorov; T. I. Boriskova; A. A. Perepelitsyn; V. I. Sizov; A. M. Smilovitskii

1986-01-01

73

Furnace brazing type 304 stainless steel to vanadium alloy (V–5Cr–5Ti)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, pure copper was joined to type 304 stainless steel and V–5Cr–5Ti by brazing in a high vacuum furnace. Microstructural changes in the brazed region and surrounding substrates were examined as a function of holding time at temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C above the melting point of copper. Reaction layers, which were extremely brittle, formed between the

R. V Steward; M. L Grossbeck; B. A Chin; H. A Aglan; Y Gan

2000-01-01

74

An Automatic Electric Annealing Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel technique for annealing corundum crystals consists in rapidly cooling the crystals to room temperature after growth is complete, transferring them to an automatically programmed electric furnace and reheating them to 1980 deg. C, and then cooling ...

J. A. Adamski W. A. Yasinski

1968-01-01

75

Air pollutant control techniques for electric arc furnaces in the iron and steel foundry industry. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides guidance for evaluating air pollutant control technologies for electric arc furnaces in the iron and steel foundry industry. It includes estimated emission factors, a discussion of emission characteristics, and lists of references resulting from an extensive literature search. Control technologies, including equipment for evacuating emissions during melting, refining, charging, and tapping, as well as dust collection equipment,

P. D. Spawn; P. F. Fennelly

1978-01-01

76

CFD analysis of the turbulent flow in ladles and the alloying process during tapping of steel furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alloying of steel during tapping from BOF and EAF furnaces has been studied by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in a recent publication (Berg et al. 1999, accepted for publication in Ironmaking and Steelmaking). The original paper has focused on the results of a comprehensive parameter study where alloy type, size, addition time, and other parameters were varied. The present work

Harald Laux; Stein Tore Johansen; Halvard Berg; Ole Svein Klevan

2000-01-01

77

Improvement of the technology of the out-of-furnace treatment of wheel steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various versions of the deoxidation and out-of-furnace treatment of wheel steel under the OAO VMZ conditions are analyzed. The effective partial pressure of carbon monoxide over a melt in a 130-t ladle degasser is found to be 54 ± 9 kPa. Thermodynamic analysis of the deoxidation demonstrates that low oxygen concentrations in the melt of wheel steel can be achieved when it is deoxidized by aluminum, silicocalcium, aluminocalcium, or carbon in vacuum. Experiments and a thermodynamic calculation show that the vacuum-carbon deoxidation of a high-strength wheel steel provides oxygen concentrations in the metal that are comparable with the concentrations obtained by silicocalcium deoxidation (0.0023 ± 0.0005 wt %) and ensures the optimum morphology and concentration of oxide inclusions. The causes of the formation of the defects revealed by ultrasonic inspection in railway wheel templates are studied. The level of rejection controlled by these defects depends on the deoxidation method and is related to the number and morphology of the oxide inclusions that form during secondary oxidation.

Shibaev, S. S.; Garber, A. K.; Grigorovich, K. V.; Arsenkin, A. M.; Shishov, A. A.; Demin, Yu. S.; Moskovoi, K. A.

2008-12-01

78

Upgrading constructed wetlands phosphorus reduction from a dairy effluent using electric arc furnace steel slag filters.  

PubMed

In 2003, a subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF-CW) system was built at the University of Vermont (UVM) Paul Miller Dairy Farm as an alternative nutrient management approach for treating barnyard runoff and milk parlour waste. Given the increasing problem of phosphorus (P) pollution in the Lake Champlain region, a slag based P-removal filter technology (PFT) was established (2004) at the CW with two objectives: (i) to test the filters' efficiency as an upgrade unit for improving P removal performance via SSF-CW (ii) to investigate the capacity of filters technology to remove P as a "stand alone" unit. Six individual filters (F1-F6) were filled with electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag, each containing 112.5 kg of material with a pore volume of 21 L. F1-F4, fed with CW treated water, received approximately 2.17 g DRP kg(-1) EAF steel slag (0.25 kg DRP total) during the 259 day feeding period. F1-F4 retained 1.7 g DRP kg(-1) EAF steel slag, resulting in an average P removal efficiency of 75%. The addition of filters improved CW DRP removal efficiency by 74%. F5 and F6, fed non-treated water, received 1.9 g DRP kg(-1) EAF steel slag (0.22 kg DRP in total) and retained 1.5 g DRP kg(-1) resulting in a P removal efficiency of 72%. The establishment of the EAF slag based PFT is the first in-field evaluation of this technology to reduce P from dairy farm effluent in Vermont. PMID:17802848

Weber, D; Drizo, A; Twohig, E; Bird, S; Ross, D

2007-01-01

79

Strength and structure of furnace-brazed joints between aluminum and stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The structure and shear strength of brazed joints of aluminum to stainless steel are studied using a modification of the double lap joint configuration, which allows mechanical testing and joint microstructure examination on the same test piece. It is found that during furnace brazing of such joints at 600 C, using an Al-Si eutectic brazing alloy, the interfacial zone between the aluminum-rich braze and the stainless steel substrate features two intermetallic layers. The first is formed in the initial instants of the process and features an overall composition similar to that of the compound FeSiAl{sub 5}. The second appears after a 10-min hold time at the brazing temperature, and features an overall composition that parallels the FeAl{sub 3} intermetallic. Both layers are, however, more complex in structure than is suggested by these stoichiometric relations. The shear strength of the braze peaks at 21 MPa after a 10-min hold time at the brazing temperature. This peak is associated with nucleation of the second intermetallic layer, which is shown to fragilize the joint significantly. The presence of silicon in the brazing alloy would also seem to be beneficial by retarding formation of this second, more fragile Fe-Al intermetallic layer; however, more work is needed to substantiate this tentative conclusion.

Roulin, M.; Karadeniz, G.; Mortensen, A. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Lausanne (Switzerland); Luster, J.W. [Castolin S.A., St. Sulpice (Switzerland)

1999-05-01

80

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

81

Development of NiâAl alloys for use as transfer rolls in hot processing of steels. CRADA final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this cooperative effort was to evaluate the potential of NiâAl alloys, such as IC221M and IC396M, for use as transfer rolls in heating treating furnaces and slab reheating furnaces used during the normal hot processing of steel ingots into rolled products. Rolls consist of three parts: the center tube section which forms the roll surface in direct

M. L. Santella; R. McDonald

1996-01-01

82

Energy efficiency and the influence of gas burners to the energy related carbon dioxide emissions of electric arc furnaces in steel industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the complete energy balance of an electric arc furnace (EAF) provides an appropriate method to examine energy efficiency and identify energy saving potentials. However, the EAF energy balance is complex due to the combined input of electrical energy and chemical energy resulting from natural gas (NG) combustion and oxidation reactions in the steel melt. In addition, furnace off-gas measurements

Marcus Kirschen; Victor Risonarta; Herbert Pfeifer

2009-01-01

83

Casthouse emission control system, No. 3 blast furnace, US\\/Kobe Steel Co  

Microsoft Academic Search

During blast furnace casting operations, hot metal generates fume and particulate emissions. Environmental regulations require that blast furnace casting emissions be controlled. The casthouse of the No. 3 blast furnace at USS\\/Kobe was completed redesigned and rebuilt during modernization of this facility. A state of the art casthouse emission control system, consisting of hoods and covers evacuated via ductwork to

T. F. Bernarding; K. K. Krol; R. C. Stinson

1993-01-01

84

Low pressure r.f. nitriding of austenitic stainless steel in an industrial-style heat-treatment furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitriding efficiency of a low pressure r.f. plasma is investigated in an industrial style hot-wall furnace in which the component is heated by thermal radiation from the walls of the vacuum chamber. The role of degassed impurities is also addressed. Samples of AISI 316 stainless steel were treated at a relatively low temperature of 400°C to avoid loss of

J. M. Priest; M. J. Baldwin; M. P. Fewell; S. C. Haydon; G. A. Collins; K. T. Short; J. Tendys

1999-01-01

85

Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating  

DOEpatents

A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

Howard, Stanley R. (Windsor, SC); Korinko, Paul S. (Aiken, SC)

2008-05-27

86

An approach for phosphate removal with quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag as seed crystal.  

PubMed

The phosphate removal abilities and crystallization performance of quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag were investigated. The residual phosphate concentrations in the reaction solutions were not changed by addition of the ceramsite, quartz sand and blast furnace slag. The steel slag could provide alkalinity and Ca(2+) to the reaction solution due to its hydration activity, and performed a better phosphate removal performance than the other three. Under the conditions of Ca/P 2.0, pH 8.5 and 10 mg P/L, the phosphate crystallization occurred during 12 h. The quartz sand and ceramsite did not improve the phosphate crystallization, but steel slag was an effective seed crystal. The phosphate concentration decreased drastically after 12 h after addition of steel slag, and near complete removal was achieved after 48 h. The XRD analysis showed that the main crystallization products were hydroxyapatite (HAP) and the crystallinity increased with the reaction time. Phosphate was successfully recovered from low phosphate concentration wastewater using steel slag as seed material. PMID:22378001

Qiu, Liping; Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Shoubin; Yang, Zhongxi; Li, Yanbo

2012-01-01

87

Furnace brazing type 304 stainless steel to vanadium alloy (V?5Cr?5Ti)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this investigation, pure copper was joined to type 304 stainless steel and V-5Cr-5Ti by brazing in a high vacuum furnace. Microstructural changes in the brazed region and surrounding substrates were examined as a function of holding time at temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C above the melting point of copper. Reaction layers, which were extremely brittle, formed between the Cu and V-5Cr-5Ti substrates. The formation of intermetallic phases at the filler metal/substrate interfaces was evaluated. Additionally, precipitates (FeCu 2 and FeCu 18) formed in the Cu rich filler region. For temperatures ?60°C above the melting point of Cu, extensive transverse cracking was observed. Hardness tests substantiated the hypothesis that the Cu/V-5Cr-5Ti reaction layer was extremely brittle, since micro-cracks propagated from the tips of the diamond-shaped indentations. Results of mechanical properties tests of the brazed material are also presented.

Steward, R. V.; Grossbeck, M. L.; Chin, B. A.; Aglan, H. A.; Gan, Y.

2000-12-01

88

Assessment of hexavalent chromium release in Malaysian electric arc furnace steel slag for fertilizer usage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the leaching of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) from electric arc furnace steel slag as Cr (VI) is classified as human carcinogen. Batch leaching tests were performed for 16 days. The lixiviants used were alkaline, de-ionized and rain water. After 16 days, Cr (VI) was found to be highest in alkaline water (0.03 mg/L) and lowest in de-ionized water (0.01 mg/L). Besides the lixiviants used, slag stirring speed and liquid to solid ratio also affect Cr (VI) released. The experimental work was complimented with slag characterization using XRF, XRD and SEM/EDX analysis. The leaching process was also simulated via Factsage software to calculate isothermal pourbaix diagrams. The Cr (VI) released was low and below the threshold of 0.1 mg/L set for public water systems. Recycle the slag as fertilizer should be considered safe as it does not exceed the safety limit set for Cr (VI) dissolution.

Bankole, L. K.; Rezan, S. A.; Sharif, N. M.

2014-03-01

89

Development and evaluation of a Workpiece Temperature Analyzer for industrial furnaces: Steel industry survey and furnace selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report explores the advantages of the proposed Workpiece Temperature Analyzer (WPTA) in non-contact measurement of the internal temperature of hot steel. The technical origin for the WPTA is in ultrasonic thermometry. The cumulative advantages of the WPTA in contrast with existing technology, thermocouples, pyrometers and mathematical modelling, is that (1) it will provide true internal temperature, (2) the measurement

Witt

1990-01-01

90

STACK GAS REHEAT EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of technical and economic evaluations of stack gas reheat (SGR) following wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired power plants. The evaluations were based on information from literature and a survey of FGD users, vendors, and architect/engineer ...

91

Reduction of undesired harmonic components in a steel industrial plant with DC electric arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electric arc furnace is a nonlinear, time varying load with stochastic behavior, which gives rise to harmonics, interharminics and voltage flicker. Since a power system has finite impedance, the current distortion caused by a DC electric arc furnace load creates a corresponding voltage distortion in the supply lines. The current and voltage harmonic distortion causes several problems in electrical

Arash Dehestani Kolagar; Abbas Shoulaie

2011-01-01

92

Development and evaluation of a Workpiece Temperature Analyzer for industrial furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to explore the advantages of an advanced technology workpiece temperature analyzer (WPTA) and to identify a suitable furnace application where the device could be tested. A review of the industry was conducted in order to identify dominant steel making applications and to profile future industry advances in manufacturing and sensor technology. The two steel making operations with the most potential to benefit from use of a WPTA were the reheat furnace and continuous caster operations. Economic and other analyses were performed for these two operations to identify the benefits to be gained by use of a WPTA and the nominal payback period for the investment. This paper contains the proof-of-concept test plan Johns Hopkins University test report Fabry-Perot interferometer sensitivity test results and a consultant report on attenuation effect alloy 8620 metallurgical properties. Also, acoustic attenuation in steel at elevated temperatures and laser safety white paper are discussed.

Roman, G.W.; Berthold, J.W.

1991-04-01

93

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

Not Available

1990-10-01

94

Characterization of Electroslag Remelted and Ladle Refined, Electric Furnace Melted 4340 Steel Armor,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Materials Technology Laboratory (MTL) selected electroslag remelted (ESR) 4340 steel as a candidate steel armor on the Mobile Protected Gun System (MPGS). This investigation characterizes the material in terms of mechanical properties and mi...

T. S. Thomas A. A. Anctil

1987-01-01

95

Effect of pre-strain on creep of three AISI 316 austenitic stainless steels in relation to reheat cracking of weld-affected zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructural modifications induced by welding of 316 stainless steels and their effect on creep properties and relaxation crack propagation were examined. Cumulative strain due to multi-pass welding hardens the materials by increasing the dislocation density. Creep tests were conducted on three plates from different grades of 316 steel at 600°C, with various carbon and nitrogen contents. These plates were tested

Q. Auzoux; L. Allais; C. Caës; I. Monnet; A. F. Gourgues; A. Pineau

2010-01-01

96

Steam generation and reheat apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a steam generation and reheat apparatus comprising: a. means for evaporating water to form saturated steam; b. means for superheating the saturated steam for delivery to heat engine; c. at least one means for reheating exhaust steam from a heat engine for delivery to a lower pressure heat engine; d. economizer means for pre-heating water before delivery

Schluderberg

1986-01-01

97

Monitoring of 137 Cs in electric arc furnace steel making process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of 137Cs and other radionuclide monitoring in EAF steel-making process in the Croatian CMC Sisak Steel Mill. The presence of 137Cs and natural isotopes 40K, 232Th, 226Ra and 238U was established. Investigations on the occurrence of the isotope cesium, as well as natural isotopes and their distribution\\u000a in waste from the process of carbon steel

Tahir Sofili?; Delko Bariši?; Una Sofili?

2010-01-01

98

Super-carburization of low alloy steel in a vacuum furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The super-carburization process can provide outstanding performance in the surface hardening of high-alloyed steel. Because of the large amount of massive carbides accumulated in the steel surface caused by a repeated process of carburization and precipitation, the hardness and wear resistance of the work will be significantly improved. However, the fatigue strength of the high-alloyed steel is reduced due to

Lee-Der Liu; Fan-Shiong Chen

2004-01-01

99

The Effect of Chemical Composition on Microstructure and Properties of Intercritically Reheated Coarse-Grained Heat-Affected Zone in X70 Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study investigates the effect of different levels of Ti, N, and Ti/N ratios on microstructure and properties in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (ICCGHAZ) of two-pass submerged arc welds in API 5L grade X70 pipe. Gleeble simulation was employed to reproduce the ICCGHAZ of actual welds. Hardness and Charpy V-notch (CVN) tests were performed on the simulated samples. The microstructure of simulated ICCGHAZ was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). LePera color etching technique was employed to identify and quantify the martensitic-austenitic (M-A) constituent. Results show that the simulated ICCGHAZ exhibited extremely low toughness, but in the studied range of Ti and N, there was no correlation with Ti/N ratio. The beneficial effect of near-stoichiometric Ti/N ratio observed in coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) did not translate to ICCGHAZ. This was because of the negative effect of the blocky M-A constituent formed on prior austenite grain boundaries.

Zhu, Zhixiong; Kuzmikova, Lenka; Li, Huijun; Barbaro, Frank

2013-12-01

100

Advanced Process Heater for the Steel, Aluminum and Chemical Industries of the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: Improved performance of high temperature materials; improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer.;\\u000a;\\u000aRadiant tubes are used in almost every industry of the future. Examples include Aluminum re-heat furnaces; Steel strip annealing

Thomas D. Briselden

2007-01-01

101

Slag resistance of refractories in the lining of an arc steel melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of refractories of various grades with liquid slags whose samples were taken in different stages of melting\\u000a from an electric furnace are investigated by wetting for temperatures ranging from 20 to 1550C. The compositions of the slags\\u000a differed in the CaO\\/SiO2 proportion and the content of chromium oxide. It has been established that the olivinite refractory has advantages

S. P. Aleksandrova; V. V. Fedorova; N. P. Chernova

1995-01-01

102

Enhanced reheating via Bose condensates  

SciTech Connect

In supersymmetric extensions of the particle physics standard model, gauge invariant combinations of squarks and sleptons (flat directions) can acquire large expectation values during a period of cosmological inflation. If the inflaton sector couples to matter fields via these flat directions, then new channels for efficient reheating, in particular, via parametric resonance instabilities, are opened up. These can lead to efficient reheating induced by the flat directions even if the bare coupling constants are small. In this Letter we discuss various channels which yield this 'enhanced reheating' effect, and we address some cosmological consequences.

Allahverdi, Rouzbeh [Theory Group, TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Brandenberger, Robert [Physics Department, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Ontario, N2J 2W9 (Canada); Physics Department, McGill University, 3600 University Road, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Mazumdar, Anupam [Physics Department, McGill University, 3600 University Road, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

2004-10-15

103

Technology for out-of-furnace treatment of steel with the use of a new deoxidizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technology has been proposed for obtaining rolled plates with the use of calcium carbide instead of vacuum degassing. The\\u000a technology makes it possible to obtain steel that is equivalent to vacuum-degassed steel with respect to the composition and\\u000a quantity of nonmetallic inclusions and the quality of the finished plates. It is shown that the use of calcium carbide reduces

A. N. Lutsenko; A. A. Nemtinov; S. B. Eroshkin; K. É. Prudov; O. V. Popov; A. V. Kuklev; V. V. Sosnin

2007-01-01

104

Large-Scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rools In A Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethlehem Steel's (now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill  

SciTech Connect

At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system.

John Mengel; Anthony Martocci; Larry Fabina; RObert Petrusha; Ronald Chango

2003-09-01

105

Blast furnace burden detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for measuring the difference between coke and pellet layers in a blast furnace is described. The measurement is based on a high frequency magnetic proximity principle where coke, a conductor, causes a change in apparent coil resistance. Theoretical and experimental results are presented. The application of the system to No.5 Blast Furnace at Inland Steel (USA) is also

H. Gerber; P. Chaubal

1999-01-01

106

Converting Stainless Steel Furnace Flue Dusts and Wastes to a Recyclable Alloy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over 5 million pounds of nickel, and 90 thousand pounds of molybdenum are lost annually in the dusts generated in the production of stainless steels. Losses of these metals in the form of mill scale and grinding swarfs may be double the dust losses. This ...

H. E. Powell W. M. Dressel R. L. Crosby

1975-01-01

107

Large-scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rolls in a Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethelehem Steel's (Now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill  

SciTech Connect

At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system. Many challenges were involved in this project, including developing welding procedures for joining nickel aluminide intermetallic alloys with H-series austenitic alloys, developing commercial cast roll manufacturing specifications, working with several commercial suppliers to produce a quantity of high quality, reproducible nickel aluminide rolls for a large steel industrial annealing furnace, installing and demonstrating the capability of the rolls in this furnace, performing processing trials to evaluate the benefits of new equipment and processes, and documenting the findings. Updated furnace equipment including twenty-five new automated furnace control dampers have been installed replacing older design, less effective units. These dampers, along with upgraded flame-safety control equipment and new AC motors and roll-speed control equipment, are providing improved furnace control and additional energy efficiency. Energy data shows up to a 34% energy reduction from baseline after the installation of upgraded furnace damper controls along with up to a 34% reduction in greenhouse gases, potential for an additional 3 to 6% energy reduction per campaign of light-up and shutdown, and a 46% energy reduction from baseline for limited trials of a combination of improved damper control and straight-through plate processing. The straight-through processing is now possible because of the nickel aluminide rolls which also provided plate product surface quality improvement that will allow the additional processing of surface critical material. Benefits also include associated large reductions in maintenance, reduction in spare rolls and associated component costs, and potential for greater through-put and productivity. Estimated project fuel cost reductions alone for processing 100,000 tons/yr through this furnace are almost $0.5 million/yr with the new dampers, and more than $600,000/yr with straight-through processing and new damper control, assuming natural gas prices of $6.00/MMBtu. The nickel aluminide rolls are competitively priced with conventional H series alloy rolls.

Mengel, J.

2003-12-16

108

Energy audit of three energy-conserving devices in a steel-industry demonstration program. Task I. Hague forge furnaces. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A program to demonstrate to industry the benefits of installing particular types of energy-conserving devices and equipment was carried out. One of these types of equipment and the results obtained under production conditions in commercial plants are described. The equipment under consideration includes improved forge furnaces and associated heat-recovery components. They are used to heat steel to about 2300 F prior to hot forging. The energy-conserving devices include improved insulation, automatic air-fuel ratio control, and a ceramic recuperator that recovers heat from hot combustion gases and delivers preheated air to high-temperature recirculating burners. Twelve Hague furnaces and retrofit packages were purchased and installed by eleven host forge shops that agree to furnish performance data for the purpose of demonstrating the energy and economic savings that can be achieved in comparison with existing equipment. Fuel savings were reported by comparing the specific energy consumption (Btu's per pound of steel heated) for each Hague furnace with that of a comparison furnace. Economic comparisons were made using payback period based on annual after-tax cash flow. Payback periods for the Hague equipment varied from less than two years to five years or more. In several cases, payback times were high only because the units were operated at a small fraction of their available capacity.

Lownie, H.W.; Holden, F.C.

1982-06-01

109

Reheating temperature from the CMB  

SciTech Connect

In the recent paper by Mielczarek et al. (Ref. [8]), an idea of the method which can be used to put some constraint for the reheating phase was proposed. Another method of constraining the reheating temperature has been recently studied by Martin and Ringeval (Ref. [17]). Both methods are based on observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. In this paper, we develop the idea introduced in this first article to put constraint on the reheating after the slow-roll inflation. We restrict our considerations to the case of a massive inflaton field. The method can be, however, easily extended to the different inflationary scenarios. As a main result, we derive an expression on the reheating temperature T{sub RH}. Surprisingly, the obtained equation is independent on the unknown number of relativistic degrees of freedom g{sub *} produced during the reheating. Based on this equation and the WMAP 7 observations, we find T{sub RH}=3.5x10{sup 6} GeV, which is consistent with the current constraints. The relative uncertainty of the result is, however, very high and equal to {sigma}(T{sub RH})/T{sub RH{approx_equal}}53. As we show, this uncertainty will be significantly reduced with future CMB experiments.

Mielczarek, Jakub [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, 30-244 Krakow, Orla 171 (Poland)

2011-01-15

110

Thermalization after/during reheating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If reheating of the Universe takes place via Planck-suppressed decay, it seems that the thermalization of produced particles might be delayed, since they have large energy/small number densities and number violating large angle scatterings which decrease the momentum of particles by large amount are inefficient correspondingly. In this paper, we study the thermalization of such "under occupied" decay products in detail, following recent developments in understanding the thermalization of non-abelian plasma. Contrary to the above naive expectation, it is shown that in most cases thermalization after/during reheating occurs instantaneously by properly taking account of scatterings with small angles and of particles with small momenta. In particular, the condition for instantaneous thermalization before the completion of reheating is found to be , which is much milder than that obtained in previous works with small angle scatterings taken into account.

Harigaya, Keisuke; Mukaida, Kyohei

2014-05-01

111

Effect of Controlled Hot Rolling Parameters on Microstructure of a Nb-Microalloyed Steel Sheet  

SciTech Connect

The design of controlled rolling process of microalloyed steel sheets is affected by several factors. In this investigation, effect of the reheating, finishing and coiling temperatures of rolling, which are considered as the most effective parameters on microstructure of hot rolled products has been studied. For this purpose, seven different reheating temperatures between 1000 to 1300 deg. C with 50 deg. C increments, three different finishing temperatures of 950, 900 and 850 deg. C below the non-recrystallization temperature and one temperature of 800 deg. C in the inter critical range and four different coiling temperatures of 550, 600, 650 and 700 deg. C were chosen. By soaking the specimens in furnace, the grain coarsening temperature (T{sub gc}) is obtained about 1250 deg. C. Hence, for these kinds of steels, the reheating temperature 1200 to 1250 deg. C is recommended. Moreover, it is observed that decreasing the coiling and finishing temperatures causes more grain refinement of microstructure and the morphology is changed from polygonal ferrite to acicular one. Findings of this research provide a good connection among reheating, finishing and coiling temperatures and microstructural features of Nb-microalloyed steel sheets.

Khaki, Daavood Mirahmadi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abedi, Amir [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-01-17

112

Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

113

Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

114

3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT LOOKING NORTH. DOROTHY SIX IS THE CLOSEST FURNACE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

115

56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

116

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

117

Baryogenesis at low reheating temperatures  

PubMed

We note that the maximum temperature during reheating can be much greater than the reheating temperature T(r) at which the universe becomes radiation dominated. We show that the standard model anomalous (B+L)-violating processes can therefore be in thermal equilibrium for 1 GeV less, similarT(r)<100 GeV. Electroweak baryogenesis could work and the traditional upper bound on the Higgs mass coming from the requirement of the preservation of the baryon asymmetry may be relaxed. Alternatively, the baryon asymmetry may be reprocessed by sphaleron transitions either from a (B-L) asymmetry generated by the Affleck-Dine mechanism or from a chiral asymmetry between e(R) and e(L) in a B-L = 0 universe. PMID:10990667

Davidson; Losada; Riotto

2000-05-01

118

Processes of washing out the steel-tapping channel in submerged tapping of molten steel from arc steel-melting furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

has been used and improved since the start of the 80's. At present the parameters of the steel-tapping assembly, the configuration of the refractories, and their properties have been stabilized [2]. Parts for submerged tapping are mass produced to TU 14-8-463-90 from fixed periclase and graphite with a bakelite binder, pressed at high pressures,and heat treated at 180-200~ As a

G. A. Farafonov; I. P. Bas'yas; M. M. Belozerov; V. I. Sizov; A. P. Onorina; M. P. Gulyaev

1993-01-01

119

Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed in situ from methane and air and from butane and air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carburizing experiments were conducted at 927 °C (1700 °F) and 843 °C (1550 °F) using furnace atmospheres formed from methane and air and from butane and air introduced directly into the carburizing furnace. Gas flow rates were low to promote equilibration of the reaction products within the furnace. The air flow rate was held constant while the methane or butane flow was automatically regulated to maintain a constant oxygen potential, as measured by a zirconia oxygen sensor, within the furnace. In comparing the results of these experiments with earlier results obtained using propane and air, several differences were noted: (a) The methane content of the furnace atmosphere, measured by infrared analysis, was about twice as great when methane was the feed gas rather than propane or butane. This was true despite the fact that the mean residence time of the gas within the furnace was greater in the methane experiments. Methane appears to be less effective than propane or butane in reducing the CO2 and H2O contents to the levels required for carburizing. (b) There was a greater tendency for the CO content of the furnace atmosphere to decrease at high carbon potentials when methane is used instead of propane or butane. The decrease in CO content is due to hydrogen dilution caused by sooting in the furnace vestibule. These differences in behavior make propane or butane better suited than methane for in situ generation of carburizing atmospheres. However, there is no difference in the amount of carburizing occurring at a specified carbon potential when methane, propane, or butane are used as the feed gas in this process.

Stickels, C. A.; Mack, C. M.; Pieprzak, J. A.

1992-01-01

120

Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-12-31

121

Active control of reheat buzz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reheat buzz is a low-frequency combustion instability involving the propagation of longitudinal pressure waves inside a duct in which a flame is anchored. Active control has been successfully applied to this instability. The controller alters the upstream acoustic boundary condition and thereby changes the energy balance in duct. Control is found to reduce the peak in the pressure spectrum due to the combustion instability by 20 dB. The acoustic energy in the whole 0-800-Hz bandwidth is reduced to about 10 percent of its uncontrolled value. A comparison with numerical calculations is presented.

Dowling, A. P.; Hooper, N.; Langhorne, P. J.; Bloxsidge, G. J.

1987-01-01

122

NO x emission from electric arc furnace in steel industry: contribution from electric arc and co-combustion reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-gas measurements were conducted at industrial electric arc furnaces (EAF) in Germany in order to investigate the interrelation\\u000a of NO\\u000a x\\u000a emission with installed plant equipment (e.g. gas burner) and process data (e.g. carbon input). Off-gas data monitor rapid\\u000a changes in off-gas composition, temperature, and volume flow rates of air into the furnace indicating the transient state\\u000a batch process of

Marcus Kirschen; Lukas Voj; Herbert Pfeifer

2005-01-01

123

Towards the theory of reheating after inflation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reheating after inflation occurs due to particle production by the oscillating inflaton field. In this paper we briefly describe the perturbative approach to reheating, and then concentrate on effects beyond the perturbation theory. They are related to the stage of parametric resonance, which we call preheating. It may occur in an expanding universe if the initial amplitude of oscillations of

Lev Kofman; Andrei Linde; Alexei A. Starobinsky

1997-01-01

124

Reheating metastable O'Raifeartaigh models  

SciTech Connect

In theories with multiple vacua, reheating to a temperature greater than the height of a barrier can stimulate transitions from a desirable metastable vacuum to a lower energy state. We discuss the constraints this places on various theories and demonstrate that in a class of supersymmetric models this transition does not occur even for arbitrarily high reheating temperature.

Fox, Patrick; Craig, Nathaniel J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Wacker, Jay G.

2006-11-01

125

Reheating Metastable O'Raifeartaigh Models  

SciTech Connect

In theories with multiple vacua, reheating to a temperature greater than the height of a barrier can stimulate transitions from a desirable metastable vacuum to a lower energy state. We discuss the constraints this places on various theories and demonstrate that in a class of supersymmetric models this transition does not occur even for arbitrarily high reheating temperature.

Craig, Nathaniel J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Wacker, Jay G.

2006-12-05

126

Curvaton reheating in tachyonic braneworld inflation  

SciTech Connect

The curvaton reheating in a tachyonic braneworld inflationary universe model with an exponential potential is studied. We have found that the energy density in the kinetic epoch, has a complicated dependencies of the scale factor. For different scenarios the temperature of reheating is computed, finding an upper limit that lies in the range 10{sup 14}-10{sup 16} GeV.

Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avenida Republica 237, Santiago (Chile)

2005-10-15

127

Reheating Metastable O'Raifeartaigh Models  

SciTech Connect

In theories with multiple vacua, reheating to a temperature greater than the height of a barrier can stimulate transitions from a desirable metastable vacuum to a lower energy state. We discuss the constraints this places on various theories and demonstrate that in a class of supersymmetric models this transition does not occur even for arbitrarily high reheating temperature.

Craig, Nathaniel J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP; Fox, Patrick J.; /LBL, Berkeley; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

2006-12-13

128

Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag—An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of

Ha-Won Song; Velu Saraswathy

2006-01-01

129

Research of temperature predictive control based on LSSVM optimized by improved PSO for thick steel plate Roller hearth Normalizing Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to process requirements of Roller-hearth Normalizing Furnace, and non-linear characteristics of the temperature, the paper proposes a new nonlinear system prediction control algorithm instead of the tradition, which the accuracy of model is not high. The new control algorithm uses least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) optimized by improved particle swarm optimization (APSO) to establish the predictive model. This

Jing Li; Jing Wang

2010-01-01

130

Significance of reheat cracks to the integrity of pressure vessels for light-water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reheat cracks manifest themselves as macroscopic defects detectable by nondestructive testing (NDT) procedures or as microscopic grain boundary decohesions (GBD) that are beyond the limit of detection by NDT. The significance of the microscopic cracks that may go undetected are discussed. The probability that GBD exist in the heat-affected zones (HAZ) of weldments of pressure vessel steels is high; particularly

Canonico

1979-01-01

131

Tests on a Pilot Plant for Reheating Desulfurized Flue Gases with the Help of Heat Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Desulfurized flue gases were reheated with a heat pipe heat exchanger. Finned heat pipes, with a coating or made of high quality steel were subjected to different operating conditions for 1000 hr. The coating proved to be unsuitable for heat transfer beca...

W. Schug

1982-01-01

132

Release of H and He from tic, stainless steel, and graphite by pulsed electron and furnace heating*1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial release of implanted D and 3He from TiC coatings and SS 304, and of D from graphite, by 50ns pulsed electron beam (e-beam) heating has been observed and is compared to release by isochronal furnace heating. A substantial enhancement in the fractional D release was found for D saturated TiC (0.25 D to host atom ratio) compared with low fluence implants for both e-beam and furnace heating. This enhancement was not observed for graphite and SS 304. E-beam release of 3He from TiC was observed to be unaffected by the presence of saturation concentrations of D. Comparison to the calculated time evolution of the temperature profiles suggests a simple model for the D release based on diffusion-limited release in the case of pulsed e-beam treatments and trap-limited release in the case of furnace bulk heating. These processes are closely related to hydrogen recycle in tokamaks and have implications for T inventory control and He ash removal.

Picraux, S. T.; Wampler, W. R.

1980-10-01

133

Late reheating, hadronic jets, and baryogenesis.  

PubMed

If inflaton couples very weakly to ordinary matter, the reheating temperature of the Universe can be lower than the electroweak scale. In this Letter we show that the late reheating occurs in a highly nonuniform way, within narrow areas along the jets produced by ordinary particles originated from inflaton decays. Depending on inflaton mass and decay constant, the initial temperature inside the lumps of the overheated plasma may be large enough to trigger the unsuppressed sphaleron processes with baryon number nonconservation. This allows for efficient local electroweak baryogenesis at reheating temperatures TR approximately O(10) GeV. PMID:15089191

Asaka, Takehiko; Grigoriev, Dmitri; Kuzmin, Vadim; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

2004-03-12

134

Furnace seal  

SciTech Connect

A peripheral seal for a furnace, e.g., a soaking pit is disclosed that is of an elongate rectangular section fibre assembly mountable on the furnace roof or door such that a flat face of the assembly can bear on a mating face of the furnace wall, means being provided for advancing the assembly such that the flat face thereof can be maintained in contact with the wall face whereby to compensate for wear and erosion of the fibre assembly.

Payne, G.

1980-01-15

135

Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part II. Analysis of the characteristics of gas flow in a batch-type sealed quench furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas flow dynamics in a batch-type sealed quench carburizing furnace were studied for operations utilizing low inlet gas flow rates. By analyzing the rate of change of furnace atmosphere composition when a sudden change is made in the inlet gas composition, it is shown that a significant amount of gas circulation occurs between the hot furnace chamber and the unheated vestibule. This circulation has the effect of increasing the mean residence time of gases within the furnace. A long mean residence time is advantageous for carburizing when the inlet gases consist of an airJhydrocarbon blend rather than prereacted endothermic gas.

Stickels, C. A.; Mack, C. M.

1980-09-01

136

13. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CAST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CAST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE No. 1, AND HOIST HOUSE No. 1. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

137

55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX WITH LADLE HOUSE AND IRON DESULPHERIZATION BUILDING ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

138

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

139

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSEUP, IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSE-UP, IRON NOTCH IN CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

140

59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

141

1. LOOKING EAST AT BLAST FURNACES NO. 3 AND No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. LOOKING EAST AT BLAST FURNACES NO. 3 AND No. 4 FROM CRAWFORD STREET IN THE CITY OF DUQUESNE. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

142

Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot blast stoves (left) and the dustcatcher (right). - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

143

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

144

58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED No. 3 IN FOREGROUND ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

145

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPENHEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPEN-HEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 AND CAST HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

146

31. VIEW OF TRIPPER CAR ON TOP OF BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF TRIPPER CAR ON TOP OF BLAST FURNACE STOCKING TRESTLE LOOKING EAST. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

147

70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE STOCKHOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

148

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBOBLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBO-BLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND HOT BLAST STOVES (RIGHT). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Haselton Blast Furnaces, West of Center Street Viaduct, along Mahoning River, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

149

15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

150

12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

151

13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

152

14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

153

3. LOOKING WEST INSIDE ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON CHARGING FLOOR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. LOOKING WEST INSIDE ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON CHARGING FLOOR. VIEW OF 7 1/2 TON CAPACITY ALLIANCE SIDE DOOR CHARGING MACHINE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

154

1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

155

4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON GROUND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON GROUND FLOOR OF CHARGING AISLE. VIEW OF 50 TON CAPACITY CHARGING BUCKET. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

156

3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE BATCH FURNACES ON LEFT AND 5 TON CAPACITY CHARGING MACHINE ON RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

157

Influence of direct reduced iron on the energy balance of the electric arc furnace in steel industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of the EAF energy efficiency was developed based on a closed mass and energy balance of the EAF melting process. This model was applied to industrial EAFs in steel industry charged with scrap or with mixes of scrap and DRI. Complex mass and energy conversion in the EAF was simplified with the introduction of mass and energy conversion

Marcus Kirschen; Karim Badr; Herbert Pfeifer

2011-01-01

158

Vacuum carbonitriding of small-dimension tools formed from high-speed powder steel in low-energy muffle furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum casehardening (VCH) has come into increasingly widespread use in industry due to a number of advantages: the production of a clean unoxidized component surface, reduction in allowances for finish machining, improvement in ecology, and a reduction in outlays for electric energy, equipment, and accessory materials. A procedure for the vacuum carbonitriding of tools formed from high-speed powder steels in

A. N. Tarasov

1994-01-01

159

Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag--An overview.  

PubMed

The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of depositing industrial wastes. The utilization of GGBFS as partial replacement of Portland cement takes advantage of economic, technical and environmental benefits of this material. Recently offshore, coastal and marine concrete structures were constructed using GGBFS concrete because high volume of GGBFS can contribute to the reduction of chloride ingress. In this paper, the influence of using GGBFS in reinforced concrete structures from the durability aspects such as chloride ingress and corrosion resistance, long term durability, microstructure and porosity of GGBFS concrete has been reviewed and discussed. PMID:16930831

Song, Ha-Won; Saraswathy, Velu

2006-11-16

160

Blast furnace stove control  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

161

Possibilities of intense resource saving in electric furnace steelmaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of a secondary energy resource in the form of the heat of liquid steel is considered for melting metal scrap used in a charge in electric furnace steelmaking. Temperature-heat curves are plotted for cooling of steel and melting of metal scrap. The possibilities of using melted scrap in electric furnace steel-making are analyzed.

Platonov, I. V.; Kartavtsev, S. V.

2013-12-01

162

GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION  

SciTech Connect

In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In Task 1, Blade Path Aerodynamics, design options were evaluated using CFD in terms of burnout, increase of power output, and possible hot streaking. It was concluded that Vane 1 injection in a conventional 4-stage turbine was preferred. Vane 2 injection after vane 1 injection was possible, but of marginal benefit. In Task 2, Combustion and Emissions, detailed chemical kinetics modeling, validated by Task 3, Sub-Scale Testing, experiments, resulted in the same conclusions, with the added conclusion that some increase in emissions was expected. In Task 4, Conceptual Design and Development Plan, Siemens Westinghouse power cycle analysis software was used to evaluate alternative in situ reheat design options. Only single stage reheat, via vane 1, was found to have merit, consistent with prior Tasks. Unifying the results of all the tasks, a conceptual design for single stage reheat utilizing 24 holes, 1.8 mm diameter, at the trailing edge of vane 1 is presented. A development plan is presented.

D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert; R.A. Newby P.G.A. Cizmas

2004-05-17

163

Rolling in the modulated reheating scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the modulated reheating scenario, the field that drives inflation has a spatially varying decay rate, and the resulting inhomogeneous reheating process generates adiabatic perturbations. We examine the statistical properties of the density perturbations generated in this scenario. Unlike earlier analyses, we include the dynamics of the field that determines the inflaton decay rate. We show that the dynamics of this modulus field can significantly alter the amplitude of the power spectrum and the bispectrum, even if the modulus field has a simple potential and its effective mass is smaller than the Hubble rate. In some cases, the evolution of the modulus amplifies the non-Gaussianity of the perturbations to levels that are excluded by recent observations of the cosmic microwave background. Therefore, a proper treatment of the modulus dynamics is required to accurately calculate the statistical properties of the perturbations generated by modulated reheating.

Kobayashi, Naoya; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Erickcek, Adrienne L.

2014-01-01

164

Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model  

SciTech Connect

The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

Seymour Katz

2004-12-31

165

Nitrogen control in electric arc furnace steelmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace produced steels are usually characterized by relatively high nitrogen content. This restricts their use in applications requiring controlled nitrogen content, such as deep drawing quality products. This report presents the results of an EPRI Center for Materials Production and steel industry study of methods for controlling or reducing the nitrogen content of EAF steels. The study involved

J. Thomas; C. Scheid; G. Geiger; C. Czarnik; D. Teall

1992-01-01

166

Quantitative analysis of a complex metal carbide formed during furnace cooling of cast duplex stainless steel using EELS and EDS in the TEM.  

PubMed

In this work, a method to determine the atomic ratio of Mo and C within complex metal carbides using EELS in the TEM has been developed. The method is based on the determination of k-factors for given experimental conditions from the EEL spectra of Mo(2)C and MoO(3) standards, which had been independently checked by XRD and EPMA. Factors affecting the k(Mo/C) value of the Mo(2)C standard were also investigated and the value was shown to be insensitive to background subtraction window width but sensitive to prolonged irradiation and specimen thicknesses above a critical value. The method and k-factor obtained from the Mo(2)C standard was applied to spectra from a complex metal carbide precipitate formed during furnace cooling of a cast duplex stainless steel. Using EELS and EDS in the TEM, the composition was estimated to be (Cr(1.52)Fe(2.33)Mo(1.25)Ni(0.17)Si(0.46))C, which is close to M(6)C stoichiometry, and the structure was confirmed by electron diffraction. PMID:20299231

Kuimalee, Surasak; Chairuangsri, Torranin; Pearce, John T H; Edmonds, David V; Brown, Andrew P; Brydson, Rik M D

2010-07-01

167

Slot Forge Furnace demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A Hague International Slot Forge Furnace was tested and installed to demonstrate a high performance energy conserving slot forge furnace in an industrial environment. This furnace was used to heat 2-1/2'' round x 31-1/8'' long bars in preparation for an upsetting operation. Each piece was heated twice, in separate operations, and upset on both ends. The Hague International Model IV Slot Forge Furnace used in the program was designed with a nominal throughput capacity of 3000 lbs/h. Due to production requirements the demonstration furnace was operated in the range of 3800 lbs/h. A base case furnace adjacent to the Hague furnace operated simultaneously. Fuel consumption and steel throughput data for both furnaces were collected and analyzed. A heating rate of 746 Btu/lb for the Hague furnace and 1620 Btu/lb for the base case furnace was demonstrated. Data demonstrated the Hague furnace's ability to save 54% of the fuel consumed by the base case furnace.

None

1981-02-01

168

An intelligent ladle furnace control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an intelligent ladle furnace control system is presented. The main functions and system structure is introduced. The system applied combined artificial intelligent technology for ladle furnace heat balance calculation and steel temperature prediction, dynamic energy input optimization and intelligent electrode control. The application results achieved are given to demonstrate the capability or this intelligent control system

Sun Yanguang; Wang Daixian; Tao Baisheng; Yan Tao; Shi Yang; Fang Shubiao; Wang Yuanhou

2000-01-01

169

Microcracking and fatigue in a carburized steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carburized coarse-grained AISI 8620 steel was subjected to three postcarburization heat treatments: a) direct oil quench\\u000a from the carburizing temperature (1700?F), b) direct oil quench, reheat to 1550?F and oil quench, and c) slow cool, reheat\\u000a to 1550?F and oil quench, reheat to 1450?F and oil quench. The latter two treatments refined the austenitic grain size over\\u000a that resulting

C. A. Apple; G. Krauss

1973-01-01

170

Low Cost Oxygen for Blast Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low cost process is examined which provides oxygen enrichment of blast air for blast furnaces to increase steel production without increasing the steelmaking or final finishing facilities. The proposed process is designed to separate the oxygen from nit...

R. Jablin

1980-01-01

171

Curvaton reheating in a logamediate inflationary model  

SciTech Connect

In a logamediate inflationary universe model we introduce the curvaton field in order to bring this inflationary model to an end. In this approach we determine the reheating temperature. We also outline some interesting constraints on the parameters that describe our models. Thus, we give the parameter space in this scenario.

Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Saavedra, Joel; Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; Rojas, Efrain [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Valparaiso (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000, Xalapa Veracruz (Mexico)

2009-12-15

172

Magneto-reheating constraints from curvature perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As additional perturbative degrees of freedom, it is known that magnetic fields of inflationary origin can source curvature perturbations on super-Hubble scales. By requiring the magnetic generated curvature to remain smaller than its inflationary adiabatic counterpart during inflation and reheating, we derive new constraints on the maximal field value today, the reheating energy scale and its equation of state parameter. These bounds end up being stronger by a few order of magnitude than those associated with a possible backreaction of the magnetic field onto the background. Our results are readily applicable to any slow-roll single field inflationary models and any magnetic field having its energy density scaling as a? during inflation. As an illustrative example, massive inflation is found to remain compatible with a magnetic field today B0 = 5 × 10-15 G for some values of ? only if a matter dominated reheating takes place at energies larger than 105 GeV. Conversely, assuming ? = -1, massive inflation followed by a matter dominated reheating cannot explain large scale magnetic fields larger than 10-20 G today.

Ringeval, Christophe; Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

2013-09-01

173

Reheating in chaotic D-term inflation  

SciTech Connect

A simple model is discussed to give rise to successful reheating in chaotic D-term inflation with a quadratic inflaton potential, introducing a trilinear coupling in the Kaehler potential. Leptogenesis through the inflaton decay is also discussed in this model.

Kawano, Teruhiko [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara 229-8558 (Japan); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2008-12-15

174

Etude en Laboratoire des Possibilites de Valorisation des Scories d'Acieries et des Laitiers de Haut Fourneau en Construction Routiere (Laboratory Test for Utilization of Crushed Steel Slags and of Granulated or Brushed Blast-Furnace Slags in Road Construction Materials).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of crushed steel slags and of granulated or crushed blast-furnace slags were studied with a view to using these by-products of the iron and steel industry as fine or large grain road construction materials. To this end the properties w...

F. Choquet

1984-01-01

175

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) SHARING THE SAME CAST HOUSE WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. ORE BRIDGE & BLOWER HOUSE TO RIGHT, HULETT CAR DUMPER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

176

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE)/ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, WITH SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS & TRANSFER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

177

Cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone: Part I. Fractographic evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensile, crack opening displacement (COD), blunt notch, and Charpy impact tests were used to investigate cleavage initiation\\u000a in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (IC CG HAZ) of three steels. The steels were chosen to provide\\u000a different distributions and morphologies of MA (high-carbon martensite with some retained austenite) particles within the\\u000a IC CG HAZ structure. Observation of minimum impact toughness

C. L. Davis; J. E. King

1994-01-01

178

Cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone: Part I. Fractographic evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensile, crack opening displacement (COD), blunt notch, and Charpy impact tests were used to investigate cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (IC CG HAZ) of three steels. The steels were chosen to provide different distributions and morphologies of MA (high-carbon martensite with some retained austenite) particles within the IC CG HAZ structure. Observation of minimum impact toughness

C. L. Davis; J. E. King

1994-01-01

179

Furnace assembly  

DOEpatents

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01

180

Recent developments in electric arc furnace operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The provision of water cooled electric arc furnace walls and roofs, the increased use of iron pellets in the raw material charge, the use of solid state devices in electrode drive systems and the application of digital control are discussed. Integration of computer control of the separate aspects of arc furnace operation into an optimal direct digital control strategy for the furnace is considered. Use of dc plasma torches as an alternative to the ac electric arc as an energy source is forecast. Potential advantages of these include reduced energy costs, use of nonconsumable electrodes, and noncontamination of steel by electrodes. An operational 40 tonne dc plasma torch furnace is reported.

Morris, A. S.

1983-06-01

181

The d-c shaft furnace  

SciTech Connect

A recent projection of world steel production by process through the year 2000 illustrates a general consensus that electric arc furnace production will continue to increase and represent a greater proportion of total steel produced. State of the art technology is being applied to meet the increasing volume and quality demands with the continuing objectives being the production of high-quality product at the lowest possible cost. In this article, the integration of two state-of-the-art technologies into the d-c shaft furnace process is discussed: the direct current arc furnace; and scrap preheating. The d-c shaft furnace, with scrap preheating capability, provides the potential for not only major increases in production rate but also significant reductions in energy and electrode consumption in comparison with a conventional d-c furnace of similar physical and electrical characteristics.

Haissig, M. (Fuchs Systems Inc., Salisbury, NC (United States))

1994-05-01

182

Intracluster Medium Reheating by Relativistic Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galactic jets are powerful energy sources reheating the intracluster medium in galaxy clusters. Their crucial role in the cosmic puzzle, motivated by observations, has been established by a great number of numerical simulations excluding the relativistic nature of these jets. We present the first relativistic simulations of the very long-term evolution of realistic galactic jets. Unexpectedly, our results show no buoyant bubbles, but large cocoon regions compatible with the observed X-ray cavities. The reheating is more efficient and faster than in previous scenarios, and it is produced by the shock wave driven by the jet, that survives for several hundreds of Myr. Therefore, the X-ray cavities in clusters produced by powerful relativistic jets would remain confined by weak shocks for extremely long periods and their detection could be an observational challenge.

Perucho, Manel; Quilis, Vicent; Martí, José-María

2011-12-01

183

Stringy effects during inflation and reheating  

SciTech Connect

We consider inflationary cosmology in the context of string compactifications with multiple throats. In scenarios where the warping differs significantly between throats, string and Kaluza-Klein physics can generate potentially observable corrections to the cosmology of inflation and reheating. First we demonstrate that a very low string scale in the ground state compactification is incompatible with a high Hubble scale during inflation, and we propose that the compactification geometry is altered during inflation. In this configuration, the lowest scale is just above the Hubble scale, which is compatible with the effective field theory but still leads to potentially observable cosmic microwave background corrections. Also in the appropriate region of parameter space, we find that reheating leads to a phase of long open strings in the standard model sector (before the usual radiation-dominated phase). We sketch the cosmology of the long string phase and we discuss possible observational consequences.

Frey, Andrew R.; Mazumdar, Anupam; Myers, Robert C. [California Institute of Technology, 452-48, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); NORDITA, Blegdamsvej -17, DK-2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada) and Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2006-01-15

184

Dark matter production in late time reheating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate dark matter (DM) density for the Universe with a reheating temperature smaller than the mass of DM, assuming DM to be a weakly interacting massive particle. During the reheating process, an inflaton decays and releases high-energy particles, which are scattered inelastically by the thermal plasma and emit many particles. DMs are produced through these inelastic scattering processes and pair creation processes by high-energy particles. We properly take account of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect on inelastic processes and show that the resultant energy density of DM is much larger than that estimated in the literature and can be consistent with that observed when the mass of DM is larger than O(100) GeV.

Harigaya, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Mukaida, Kyohei; Yamada, Masaki

2014-04-01

185

Improvement of electrical arc furnace operation with an appropriate model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical arc furnaces are commonly employed in industry to produce molten steel by melting iron and scrap steel. Furnace control is a necessary operation for production optimization. The principal parameters to be controlled are: maximum productivity requirements, minimum power off time, good power quality and safety. The aim of this study is to achieve all these objectives. Hence, because of

Labar Hocine; Djeghader Yacine; Bounaya Kamel; Kelaiaia Mounia Samira

2009-01-01

186

25. DETAIL OF FURNACE NO. 3, WHICH IS NO LONGER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. DETAIL OF FURNACE NO. 3, WHICH IS NO LONGER IN SERVICE. FURNACE NO. 3 WAS BLOWN IN ON MAY 13, 1916. IT WAS ERECTED BY THE VARIETY IRON & STEEL WORK OF CLEVELAND FOR THE CORRIGAN, McKINNEY COMPANY. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

187

Monitoring power system response to UHP arc furnace operations  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the use of a PC based data acquisition and analysis system for monitoring response of a power system to the operation of two electric arc furnaces. The topics of the article include a description of the steel complex, the data acquisition system, monitoring one furnace ramping up, monitoring loss of one furnace, monitoring loss of two furnaces, and the results of monitoring and analysis.

Sharma, C.; Julien, K.S. (Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

1994-01-01

188

bdGas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed in situ from methane and air and from butane and air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carburizing experiments were conducted at 927°C (1700°F) and 843°C (1550°F) using furnace atmospheres formed from methane and air and from butane and air introduced directly into the carburizing furnace. Gas flow rates were low to promote equilibration of the reaction products within the furnace. The air flow rate was held constant while the methane or butane flow was automatically regulated to maintain a constant oxygen potential, as measured by a zirconia oxygen sensor, within the furnace. In comparing the results of these experiments with earlier results obtained using propane and air, several differences were noted: (a) The methane content of the furnace atmosphere, measured by infrared analysis, was about twice as great when methane was the feed gas rather than propane or butane. This was true despite the fact that the mean residence time of the gas within the furnace was greater in the methane experiments. Methane appears to be less effective than propane or butane in reducing the CO2 and H2O contents to the levels required for carburizing. (b) There was a greater tendency for the CO content of the furnace atmosphere to decrease at high carbon potentials when methane is used instead of propane or butane. The decrease in CO content is due to hydrogen dilution caused by sooting in the furnace vestibule. These differences in behavior make propane or butane better suited than methane for in situ generation of carburizing atmospheres. However, there is no difference in the amount of carburizing occurring at a specified carbon potential when methane, propane, or butane are used as the feed gas in this process.

Stickels, C. A.; Mack, C. M.; Pieprzak, J. A.

1982-12-01

189

Design and Prototype Development of a Mini-Electric Arc Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnaces (EAF) have the capabilities required for furnaces used for metallurgical research. An electric arc furnace was designed and constructed to melt approximately 5kg of steel\\/cast iron scraps, using locally produced Soderberg electrodes. Tests carried out showed that it required about 60 minutes to heat up the furnace to the melting temperature of cast iron (1150C - 1400C).

F. A. Oyawale; D. O. Olawale

190

Gas Turbine Reheat Using In-Situ Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) is developing in-situ reheat (fuel injection via airfoil injection) as a means for increasing cycle efficiency and power output, with possibly reduced emissions. This report discusses engineering cycle evaluations on various reheat approaches, using GateCycle and ChemCad software simulations of typical F-class and G-class engines, modified for alternative reheat cycles. The conclusion that vane 1 reheat offers the most advantageous design agrees with the conclusions of the detailed chemical kinetics (Task 2) as verified by high temperature testing (Task 3) and Blade path CFD (Task 1) tasks. The second choice design option (vane 2 reheat after vane 1 reheat) is also validated in all tasks. A conceptual design and next recommended development tasks are presented.

R.A. Newby; D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert

2004-04-29

191

Cost reduction and control system improvement in Electrical Arc Furnace using DVR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, electrical arc furnaces (EAF) are used widely to produce steel and its alloys. This kind of furnace has a noticeable superiority over the other types of furnaces because of its steel production procedure. Nevertheless EAF emerges as a large, nonlinear and time-varying load in the power system which causes many power quality problems such as current unbalance, harmonic pollution

H. Toodeji; S. H. Fathi

2009-01-01

192

Leptogenesis and reheating in complex hybrid inflation  

SciTech Connect

We study the transformation into a baryon asymmetry of a charge initially stored in a complex (waterfall) scalar field at the end of a hybrid inflation phase as described by Delepine, Martinez, and Urena-Lopez [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 161302 (2007)]. The waterfall field is coupled to right-handed neutrinos, and is also responsible for their Majorana masses. The charge is finally transferred to the leptons of the standard model through the decay of the right-handed neutrinos without introducing new CP violating interactions. Other needed processes, like the decay of the inflaton field and the reheating of the Universe, are also discussed in detail.

Martinez-Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas de la Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 2-82, 58040, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Delepine, David; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo [Departamento de Fisica, DCI, Campus Leon, Universidad de Guanajuato, Codigo Postal 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

2010-02-01

193

MSW-resonant fermion mixing during reheating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dynamics of reheating in which an inflaton field couples two flavor fermions through Yukawa-couplings. When two fermions have a mixing term with a constant coupling, we show that the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW)-type resonance emerges due to a time-dependent background in addition to the standard fermion creation via parametric resonance. This MSW resonance not only alters the number densities of fermions generated by a preheating process but also can lead to the larger energy transfer from the inflaton to fermions. Our mechanism can provide additional source terms for the creation of superheavy fermions which may be relevant for the leptogenesis scenario.

Kanai, Tsuneto; Tsujikawa, Shinji

2003-10-01

194

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD TO THE CENTER, HEYL & PATTERSON CAR DUMPER TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

195

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING QBOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING Q-BOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL GAS ARE BLOWN INTO THE FURNACE THROUGH THE TUYERES TO CHARGE 460,000 LBS. OF HOT METAL, 100,000 LBS. OF SCRAP WITH 30,000 LBS. OF LIME. BLOW TIME IS 16 MINUTES. THE TIME TO BLOW AND TAP THE FURNACES OF THE RESULTING 205,000 TONS OF STEEL AND SLAG IS 35 MINUTES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

196

Study of multivariable predictive functional control for reheats temperature system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reheats temperature system control directly influences the economical efficiency of power plant. For reheats temperature process with steam-steam exchanger, dealing with the coupling and time delay characteristics of object is a critical problem. Based on the SISO predictive functional control for first order plant with large delay, a multivariable algorithm is proposed. With the single value prediction, the multivariable control

Xiyun Yang; Daping Xu; Yibing Liu

2004-01-01

197

Shougang No. 2 blast furnace enlargement  

SciTech Connect

Shougang is expanding to become a 10 million ton/year steel plant in 1995. In 1990, the capacity of Shougang No. 2 blast furnace was enlarged from 1,327 to 1,726 cu meters. The project consisted of building a new furnace on the old site while maintaining the operation of the old furnace. The project was completed in 188 calendar days, 3 days ahead of schedule. Shougang has a large, comprehensive technical force that includes design, construction and production. Most of the equipment and instrumentation, both mechanical and electrical, were fabricated by Shougang personnel. The future increase in capacity of No. 1, 3 and 4 blast furnaces will exceed that of No. 2 furnace.

Wang, Z.Z. (Shougang Iron and Steel Corp., Beijing (China))

1994-09-01

198

Experimental method for combustion efficiency calculation in a reheat duct  

SciTech Connect

An efficient method for the experimental measurement of the combustion efficiency in a reheat duct has been developed at ONERA. Such a method is useful because numerous reheat tests are necessary to study the effect of geometry and flow characteristics on reheat performances. Static pressure measurements along the duct and gas sampling in its outlet cross section are the basis of this downstream-to-upstream method. Experimental results with a tri-annular V-gutter flame holder are presented. These results are also used for comparison with theoretical two-dimensional calculations applied to reheat ducts that ultimately may reduce the number of experiments necessary for the development of reheat combustion chambers.

Cadiou, A.

1988-10-01

199

Baryogenesis in the Inflationary Universe —THE Instantaneous Reheating MODEL—  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baryogenesis in the inflationary universe is investigated, assuming that the universe is reheated instantaneously. Boltzmann equations are numerically integrated to trace time evolution of asymmetries in quarks and leptons in the Friedmann stage after the reheating, starting from the thermal equilibrium state. It is shown that the sign of the final baryon asymmetry may change depending on the reheating temperature as a result of interplay of superheavy gauge and Higgs bosons, and its mechanism is clarified. Furthermore we suggest a mechanism of generating isocurvature fluctuations which could be the origin of the large scale structure of the universe. It is also found in the instantaneous reheating model that the reheating temperature Ti must satisfy Ti>MH/10 (MH: Higgs boson mass) for the observed baryon/entropy ratio to be explained.

Yokoyama, Jun'Ichi; Kodama, Hideo; Sato, Katsuhiko; Sato, Nobuaki

200

Stable operation for No. 1 blast furnace at Baosteel  

SciTech Connect

Until Sept. 1994, No. 1 blast furnace in Baoshan Steel (Group) Co. had been operating successfully with high productivity. At present, it still keeps its strong potential for production capacity. The philosophy and methodology of the efficient blast furnace operation will be described. The most important aspect for stable operation and long campaign life of a blast furnace is reasonable gas flow distribution in the furnace. The topics to be discussed include: introduction to ironmaking in Baosteel; operational results; experience of stable operation, philosophy, gas distribution control, stabilization raw material property, furnace maintenance and supervision system.

Cai, X.; Lu, S. [Baoshan Steel Corp., Shanghai (China)

1995-07-01

201

TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates  

SciTech Connect

Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

2005-04-15

202

Use of steel plant revert and reclaimed materials in the belt-fed, bell-less top, Fairfield No. 8 blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

Fairfield No. 8 Blast Furnace was blown-in November 1978, with a hearth diameter of 32 feet, a working volume of 77,520 cubic feet and 26 double compartment type tuyeres. Built for a pellet/sinter burden, the stockhouse was designed with four large silos (40,000 ft[sup 3]) to store ferrous materials, three large coke silos (34,000 ft[sup 3]) and four smaller silos (12,500 ft[sup 3]) to store miscellaneous materials. Collector belts under the silos feed four ferrous weigh hoppers, two coke weigh hoppers and one miscellaneous weigh hopper. The furnace bell-less top is fed with one main conveyor belt. The original intent of the miscellaneous system was to add trim amounts of flux and small additions of manganese ore. However, in 1982 the sinter plant was shut down and the blast furnace iron bearing charge material became acid pellets and ore. As a result, much more of these miscellaneous materials had to be charged. This paper describes the utilization of reclaimed raw material fines, with an emphasis on burden distribution parameters, the changes to the stockhouse required to evenly distribute these materials, and the changes in coke rate and furnace operating performance.

Obert, C.J. (U.S. Steel, Fairfield, AL (United States). Fairfield Works); Oshnock, T.W. (U.S. Steel Technical Center, Monroeville, PA (United States))

1993-01-01

203

Partnering and the WCI blast furnace reline  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, WCI Steel entered into a partnership agreement to perform a blast furnace reline. The reline included a complete rebrick from the tuyere breast to the furnace top including the tapholes. Also included was the replacement of the Paul Wurth top equipment from the receiving hoppers through the gearbox and distribution chute, a skip incline replacement, and installation of tilting runners and a casthouse roof. The bustle pipe and hot blast main were repaired. One stove was also replaced. The reline was accomplished in 36 days, wind to wind, which allowed for 29 days of construction inside the blast furnace proper.

Musolf, D.W. [WCI Steel, Inc., Warren, OH (United States)

1997-11-01

204

Towards the theory of reheating after inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reheating after inflation occurs due to particle production by the oscillating inflaton field. In this paper we briefly describe the perturbative approach to reheating, and then concentrate on effects beyond the perturbation theory. They are related to the stage of parametric resonance, which we call preheating. It may occur in an expanding universe if the initial amplitude of oscillations of the inflaton field is large enough. We investigate a simple model of a massive inflaton field ? coupled to another scalar field ? with the interaction term g2?2?2. Parametric resonance in this model is very broad. It occurs in a very unusual stochastic manner, which is quite different from parametric resonance in the case when the expansion of the universe is neglected. Quantum fields interacting with the oscillating inflaton field experience a series of kicks which, because of the rapid expansion of the universe, occur with phases uncorrelated to each other. Despite the stochastic nature of the process, it leads to exponential growth of fluctuations of the field ?. We call this process stochastic resonance. We develop the theory of preheating taking into account the expansion of the universe and back reaction of produced particles, including the effects of rescattering. This investigation extends our previous study of reheating after inflation. We show that the contribution of the produced particles to the effective potential V(?) is proportional not to ?2, as is usually the case, but to |?|. The process of preheating can be divided into several distinct stages. In the first stage the back reaction of created particles is not important. In the second stage back reaction increases the frequency of oscillations of the inflaton field, which makes the process even more efficient than before. Then the effects related to scattering of ? particles on the oscillating inflaton field terminate the resonance. We calculate the number density of particles n? produced during preheating and their quantum fluctuations with all back reaction effects taken into account. This allows us to find the range of masses and coupling constants for which one can have efficient preheating. In particular, under certain conditions this process may produce particles with a mass much greater than the mass of the inflaton field.

Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

1997-09-01

205

Steel Mill Process Heating Technology Study. Final Report, June 1994-February 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reheating of slabs, blooms and billets for hot rolling, and the annealing and galvanizing of steel strip are historically large consumers of natural gas. However recent technology developments and steel industry trends toward near net shape casting an...

M. G. Julien C. J. Walker

1995-01-01

206

Cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone: Part II. Failure criteria and statistical effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In part I of this article, cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone (IC CG HAZ)\\u000a of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels was determined to occur between two closely spaced blocky MA particles. Blunt notch,\\u000a crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), and precracked Charpy testing were used in this investigation to determine the failure\\u000a criteria required for cleavage initiation

C. L. Davis; J. E. King

1996-01-01

207

Cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone: Part II. Failure criteria and statistical effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In part I of this article, cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone (IC CG HAZ) of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels was determined to occur between two closely spaced blocky MA particles. Blunt notch, crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), and precracked Charpy testing were used in this investigation to determine the failure criteria required for cleavage initiation

C. L. Davis; J. E. King

1996-01-01

208

Inflation and reheating in spontaneously generated gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inflation is studied in the context of induced gravity (IG) ??2R, where R is the Ricci scalar, ? a scalar field and ? a dimensionless constant, and diverse symmetry-breaking potentials V(?) are considered. In particular we compared the predictions for Landau-Ginzburg and Coleman-Weinberg type potentials and their possible generalizations with the most recent data. We find that large field inflation generally leads to fewer constraints on the parameters and the shape of the potential whereas small field inflation is more problematic and, if viable, implies more constraints, in particular, on the parameter ?. We also examined the reheating phase and obtained an accurate analytical solution for the dynamics of the inflaton and the Hubble parameter by using a multiple scale analysis. The solutions were then used to study the average expansion of the Universe, the average equation of state for the scalar field and both the perturbative and resonant decays of the inflaton field.

Cerioni, A.; Finelli, F.; Tronconi, A.; Venturi, G.

2010-06-01

209

Conformal inflation, modulated reheating, and WMAP5  

SciTech Connect

We investigate density perturbations generated through modulated reheating while inflation is driven by a conformally coupled scalar field. A large running of the spectral index is obtained, which reflects the basic nature of conformal inflation that higher-order time derivatives of the Hubble parameter during inflation are not necessarily small. This feature may allow us to distinguish between conformal inflation models and standard minimally coupled ones. We also investigate how the resulting fluctuations are modified when there is a deviation from an exact conformal coupling between the inflaton and gravity. Finally, we apply our results to the warped brane inflation model and see that observational bounds from the WMAP5 data suggest a blue tilted density perturbation spectrum.

Kobayashi, Takeshi [Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mukohyama, Shinji [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

2009-04-15

210

Modelling, optimization and control of an electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research was to develop methods to optimally operate an industrial electric arc furnace (EAF). EAFs are widely used in the steel industry to recycle scrap steel. Simply stated, steel recycling involves melting down the scrap metal using both chemical and electrical energy sources and making adjustments to the chemistry. EAFs are complex processes involving limited

Richard MacRosty

2005-01-01

211

Waste product profile: Steel cans  

SciTech Connect

Steel cans are made from tinplate steel, which is produced in basic oxygen furnaces. A thin layer of tin is applied to the can`s inner and outer surfaces to prevent rusting and protect food and beverage flavors. As a result, steel cans are often called tin cans. Steel mills are the largest market for steel cans. Integrated mills use the basic oxygen process to manufacture tinplate, appliances, car bodies, and steel framing. Electric arc furnaces use 100% scrap to produce steel shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans. Electric arc furnaces are more geographically diverse and tend to have smaller capacities than basic oxygen furnaces. Detinners remove the tin from steel cans for resale to tin using industries. Continued decreases in the amount of tin used in steel cans has lessened the importance of this market. Foundries use scrap as a raw material in making castings and molds for industrial users.

Miller, C. [Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-07-01

212

Designing modern furnace cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

2000-02-01

213

17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 LOOKING EAST. THE BUSTLE PIPE IS VISIBLE ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE IMAGE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

214

5. SOUTHERN VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES No. 3, No. 4, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SOUTHERN VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES No. 3, No. 4, AND No. 6, WITH ORE YARD IN THE FOREGROUND. BUILDING ON THE LEFT IS THE CENTRAL BOILER HOUSE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

215

15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 IN LOWER CENTER OF PHOTO AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES. HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

216

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SEED ON THE LEFT, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SHED ON THE RIGHT, AND THE STOVES, BOILERS, AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT IN THE CENTER. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

217

Microwave caustic leaching of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is a waste product which is generated when steel scrap is melted in an electric arc furnace. It contains high concentrations of iron, zinc and lead. Numerous pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes have been developed to treat this material. Only a limited number of these have reached commercialization and the majority have been pyrometallurgical. However, the

D. K. Xia; C. A. Picklesi

2000-01-01

218

15. Photocopied June 1978. WHEEL HOUSE RUINS OF 'NEW' FURNACE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photocopied June 1978. WHEEL HOUSE RUINS OF 'NEW' FURNACE. SEGMENT GEAR REMNANTS VISIBLE STANDING IN WHEEL PIT IN FOREGROUND. SOURCE: MCINTYRE DEVELOPMENT, NL INDUSTRIES, TAHAWUS, N.Y. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

219

11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

220

Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas cleaning plants in foreground on the left and the right side of the furnace building. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

221

26. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE BEING TAPPED, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE BEING TAPPED, 1901. (From the university of Washington Northwest collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

222

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

223

8. VIEW OF BATCHING HOPPER ON SERVICE FLOOR OF FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF BATCHING HOPPER ON SERVICE FLOOR OF FURNACE AISLE IN BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTH. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

224

39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod or poker at right was used to unplug iron notch. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

225

38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ladle car on floor of casting shed. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

226

25. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE UNDER RENOVATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE UNDER RENOVATION, 1901. (From the Asahel Curtis collection, Washington State Historical Societty, Tacoma, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

227

102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust gases to stoves during heating cycle. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

228

Gas Turbine Reheat Using In-Situ Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) is developing in-situ reheat (fuel injection via airfoil injection) as a means for increasing cycle efficiency and power output, with possibly reduced emissions. In addition to kinetic modeling and experimenta...

D. M. Bachovchin T. E. Lippert

2004-01-01

229

Hemispherical power asymmetry from scale-dependent modulated reheating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new model for the hemispherical power asymmetry of the CMB based on modulated reheating. Non-Gaussianity from modulated reheating can be small enough to satisfy the bound from Planck if the dominant modulation of the inflaton decay rate is linear in the modulating field ?. ? must then acquire a spatially-modulated power spectrum with a red scale-dependence. This can be achieved if the primordial perturbation of ? is generated via tachyonic growth of a complex scalar field. Modulated reheating due to ? then produces a spatially modulated and scale-dependent sub-dominant contribution to the adiabatic density perturbation. We show that it is possible to account for the observed asymmetry while remaining consistent with bounds from quasar number counts, non-Gaussianity and the CMB temperature quadupole. The model predicts that the adiabatic perturbation spectral index and its running will be modified by the modulated reheating component.

McDonald, John

2013-11-01

230

Promising trends in improving steelmaking and finishing in ac electric arc furnaces and ladle-furnace units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of laboratory and full-scale tests performed to reveal the factors that affect the appearance of a constant arc voltage component (CAVC) in an arc steel-melting furnace (ASF) and an ladle-furnace unit (LFU) are presented.

Nekrasov, I. V.; Sysolin, A. V.; Sheshukov, O. Yu.; Lutsenko, V. T.; Gulyakov, V. S.

2009-12-01

231

13. Blast furnace plant embraces the east bank of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Blast furnace plant embraces the east bank of the Cuyahoga River. Plant was established in 1881 by the Cleveland Rolling Mill Co. It was absorbed by the American Steel and Wire Co. in 1899 and, two years later, by the U.S. Steel Corp., which closed it in 1978. View looking north. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

232

Quarterly progress report on the heavy-section steel technology program for October--December 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities in research programs on heavy section steel are reported. Data and information are included on fracture mechanics, steel reactor vessel cracking, radiation effects on steels, pressure vessel fabrication, effects of thermal shock on steels, and reheat cracking of steels. (JRD)

Whitman

1976-01-01

233

Inflation and reheating in spontaneously generated gravity  

SciTech Connect

Inflation is studied in the context of induced gravity (IG) {gamma}{sigma}{sup 2}R, where R is the Ricci scalar, {sigma} a scalar field and {gamma} a dimensionless constant, and diverse symmetry-breaking potentials V({sigma}) are considered. In particular we compared the predictions for Landau-Ginzburg and Coleman-Weinberg type potentials and their possible generalizations with the most recent data. We find that large field inflation generally leads to fewer constraints on the parameters and the shape of the potential whereas small field inflation is more problematic and, if viable, implies more constraints, in particular, on the parameter {gamma}. We also examined the reheating phase and obtained an accurate analytical solution for the dynamics of the inflaton and the Hubble parameter by using a multiple scale analysis. The solutions were then used to study the average expansion of the Universe, the average equation of state for the scalar field and both the perturbative and resonant decays of the inflaton field.

Cerioni, A.; Tronconi, A.; Venturi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, via Irnerio, 46-I-40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Finelli, F. [INAF/IASF Bologna, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)

2010-06-15

234

Moisture Separator Reheater for NPP Turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces the development of the current model Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR) for nuclear power plant (NPP) turbines, commercially placed in service in the period 1984-1997, focusing on the mist separation performance of the MSR along with drainage from heat exchanger tubes. A method of predicting the mist separation performance was devised first based on the observation of mist separation behaviors under an air-water test. Then the method was developed for the application to predict under the steam conditions, followed by the verification in comparison with the actual results of a steam condition test. The instability of tube drainage associated with both sub-cooling and temperature oscillation might adversely affect the seal welding of tubes to tube sheet due to thermal fatigue. The instability was measured on an existing unit to clarify behaviors and the development of a method to suppress them. Both methods were applied to newly constructed units and the effectiveness of the methods was demonstrated.

Manabe, Jun; Kasahara, Jiro

235

Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing

Sresty

1990-01-01

236

Next-generation electric arc furnaces as a steelmaking modernization factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 International and Russian ferrous metallurgy is characterized by a radical increase in the amount of electric furnace steel and the number of electric-furnace miniworks and complexes. The technology of steelmaking in electric furnaces allows energy savings, low levels of environmental pollution, and economic efficiency (which is the main advantage of electrometallurgy over other steelmaking processes) [1, 2]. Steelmaking using

V. D. Smolyarenko; A. N. Popov; A. G. Devitaikin; S. G. Ovchinnikov; B. P. Chernyakhovskii; A. V. Egorov

2007-01-01

237

Measuring thickness of the copper stave in blast furnace using ultrasonic technique in cooling line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blast furnace is used to smelt iron in the steel industry. Ore and cokes are input and hot air is blown into the chamber of the blast furnace. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the materials makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. The thickness

Sang-Woo Choi; Jung-Luel Yoo; Tae-Hwa Choi; Kwan-Tae Kim

2010-01-01

238

Furnace with radiant burndown tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of burning combustible gas atmosphere in a furnace having at least one radiant burndown tube is described. The furnace has a furnace wall, a sealed furnace chamber, a conduit through the furnace wall, and the radiant burndown tube having a tube portion within the furnace chamber, the tube portion having a burner end and an exhast end, and

J. Conybear; K. Hemsath; A. Thekdi; F. Vereecke; S. Verhoff

1980-01-01

239

Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: a historical perspective and future opportunities  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. steel industry has taken enormous strides over the past decades to reduce its energy consumption; since the end of World War II, the industry has reduced its energy intensity (energy use per shipped ton) by 60 percent. Between 1990 and 1998 alone, intensity has dropped from 20 to 18 million Btu (MBtu) per ton. This figure is projected to decrease to 15 MBtu/ton by 2010 with an asymptotic trend towards 14 MBtu/ton. Domestic shipments are projected to flatten out over the next decade to around 105 million tons which means that total energy consumption will also decrease. Historically, the steel industry has accounted for about 6 percent of U.S. energy consumption. Today, that figure is less than 2 percent and will decrease further to 1.5 percent by 2010. The primary causes for the decrease in energy consumption since WWII are: The use of pellets in the blast furnace and the application of new technology in the ironmaking process to further reduce fuel rates per net ton of hot metal (NTHM); The total replacement of the open hearth process by basic oxygen and electric furnaces; The almost total replacement of ingot casting by continuous casting (which improved yield dramatically and thus reduced the tons of raw steel required per ton of shipments); and The growth of the electric furnace sector of the industry at the expense of hot metal-based processes (which has also stimulated scrap recycling so that about 55 percent of ''new'' steel is now melted from scrap steel). This report focuses on the concept of good practices (i.e., those that are sustainable and can use today's technology). If all the industry could operate on this basis, the additional savings per ton could total 2 MBtu, As further restructuring occurs and the swing from hot metal-based to electric furnace-based production continues, the average consumption will approach the good practice energy per ton. Further savings will accrue through new technology, particularly in the areas of reduced blast furnace fuel rates and reheating efficiency, both of which relate to large tonnages of material.

Stubbles, John

2000-09-01

240

Reheating in supersymmetric high scale inflation  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by our earlier work, we analyze how the inflaton decay reheats the Universe within supersymmetry. In a nonsupersymmetric case the inflaton usually decays via preheating unless its couplings to other fields are very small. Naively one would expect that supersymmetry enhances bosonic preheating as it introduces new scalars such as squarks and sleptons. On the contrary, we point out that preheating is unlikely within supersymmetry. The reason is that flat directions in the scalar potential, classified by gauge-invariant combinations of slepton and squark fields, are generically displaced towards a large vacuum expectation value (VEV) in the early Universe. They induce supersymmetry preserving masses to the inflaton decay products through the standard model Yukawa couplings, which kinematically blocks preheating for VEVs>10{sup 13} GeV. The decay will become allowed only after the flat directions start oscillating, and once the flat direction VEV is sufficiently redshifted. For models with weak scale supersymmetry, this generically happens at a Hubble expansion rate: H{approx_equal}(10{sup -3}-10{sup -1}) TeV, at which time the inflaton decays in the perturbative regime. This is to our knowledge the first analysis where the inflaton decay to the standard model particles is treated properly within supersymmetry. There are a number of important consequences: no overproduction of dangerous supersymmetric relics (particularly gravitinos), no resonant excitation of superheavy dark matter, and no nonthermal leptogenesis through nonperturbative creation of the right-handed (s)neutrinos. Finally supersymmetric flat directions can even spoil hybrid inflation altogether by not allowing the auxiliary field to become tachyonic.

Allahverdi, Rouzbeh [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Mazumdar, Anupam [NORDITA, Blegdamsvej-17, Copenhagen-2100 (Denmark)

2007-11-15

241

SSSStudy on Combustion Characteristics of the Blast Furnace Gas in the Constant Volume Combustion Bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace gas is the byproduct of smelting steel production process, and is the important secondary energy source. It is can be used as fuel for engines to generate electricity for most middle and small steel enterprises. In order to understand the combustion mechanism and provide the basis for the design of blast furnace gas engine,premixed laminar combustion experiments of

LIU YONGQI; WANG HAIFENG; LI PING

242

Experimental analysis of electric parameters of a 100 t UHP electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of power quality problems created by a UHP electric arc furnace (EAF) operation at power system. We are analyzing an electric arc furnace of 100 t capacity used for steel melting, and the related steel treatment installation. The measurements have been made using the CA8334 three-phase power quality analyser. Experimental results show that the EAF

Adrian Ioan Toma; Gabriel Nicolae Popa; Angela Iag?r; Sorin Ioan Deaconu

2010-01-01

243

On the Formation of Intermetallics during the Furnace Brazing of Pure Titanium to 304 Stainless Steel Using Ag (30–50%)–Cu Filler Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the effect of brazing parameters on the properties of the brazed joint of pure titanium and 304 stainless steel (304SS) was investigated. Three different Ag–Cu filler metals were used, while the temperature and time of brazing were in the range of 800–950°C and 5–45 minutes, respectively. The microstructural observations show that, depending on the brazing conditions,

A. Shafiei; P. Abachi; K. Dehghani; K. Pourazarang

2010-01-01

244

VIEW OF FINISHING STANDS #710 FROM FURNACE SIDE OF TRAIN, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF FINISHING STANDS #7-10 FROM FURNACE SIDE OF TRAIN, LOOKING TOWARD STRANDING TROUGHS AND HOT BEDS. STEEL IS LOOPED OR CAUGHT BY HAND ON THE PASSES THROUGH THESE STANDS. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

245

Processing electric arc furnace dust into saleable chemical products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The modern steel industry uses electric arc furnace (EAF) technology to manufacture steel. A major drawback of this technology is the production of EAF dust, which is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a hazardous waste under the Resour...

1998-01-01

246

Electromelt furnace evaluation  

SciTech Connect

An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

Reimann, G.A.; Welch, J.M.

1981-09-01

247

Implement proper furnace safety interlocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracking furnaces are among some of the most complex operations in chemical process industries (CPI) plants. Consider, for example, the cracking furnaces in ethylene plants. Furnace explosions can occur during the light-off process or from accumulations of unburned fuel, incomplete combustion, or introduction of flammable products into the combustion spaces of the furnace. Over half of all furnace explosions occur

C. D. Thomas; G. J. W. Schoenmaker

1996-01-01

248

Austenitic stainless steel-ferritic steel weld joint failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cause of failures of dissimilar-alloy (austenitic or ferritic) joints in superheater and reheater tubes of fossil-fired steam plants was investigated. In the failures of interest, cracks form and propagate in the ferritic steel (usually 2 1\\/4 Cr-1 Mo steel) about 5 to 15 ..mu..m from the fusion lines. The complex microstructure developed at the interface between weld metal and

R. L. Klueh; J. F. King

1982-01-01

249

Design of double-reheat turbines for supercritical pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating experience has demonstrated that the calculated heat rate benefits of some double-reheat cycles can be achieved in service. Calculations show that when provided with advanced controls and integrated with a suitable boiler the unit is fully capable of meeting the cycling duty that may be required in the future of the largest and most efficient units on a system.

1980-01-01

250

Life assessment and inspection of a hot reheat turbine bifurcation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A life assessment of a hot reheat bifurcation has been undertaken. Surface breaking crack-like indications were detected in the bifurcation weld. Subsequent replication showed that this was due to significant creep damage in a number of material zones within the weld. This damage was removed by hand dressing until it had been reduced to an acceptable level below which good

Warwick Payten; Damien Charman; Andrew Chapman; Kourosh Bashiri; Phillip Bendeich

2011-01-01

251

Nonmonotonic (reheating) thermal histories from contrasting kinetics of multiple thermochronometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reheating events are often difficult to deduce in thermochronology, because the age resetting they cause can usually be modeled by varying the form of a presumably simpler monotonic cooling path (an exception to this is fission-track length modeling). However, reheating and full or partial resetting due to metamorphism, hydrothermal circulation, magmatism, wildfire, or (at least in the case of meteorites) impacts, are likely common in many settings. Such effects may be particularly important for samples that have resided for long periods at or near the surface with old cooling ages, where they are susceptible to brief, high-temperature events. Failure to recognize reheating may lead to erroneous tectonic interpretations. Nonmonotonic thermal histories may be resolved by using multiple thermochronometric systems with appropriately contrasting kinetic properties. At relatively high temperatures and short timescales, systems with different activation energy ( E), frequency factor ( D0) and domain size (a) display crossovers in diffusion (or annealing) rates that may be used to diagnose reheating episodes of particular intensity and duration. The most diagnostic effect of these kinetic crossovers are apparent "age inversions" in which systems with higher closure temperatures ( Tc) are more strongly reset (resulting in younger ages) than systems with lower Tc (e.g., apatite fission-track and He systems). In cases of complete resetting of the higher- Tc system and partial resetting of the lower- Tc system, reheating may be diagnosed and the intensity and duration of the event partially constrained. When both systems are partially reset, Dt/a2 of the reheating event can be calculated and used to estimate the specific form and timing of reheating thermal histories. Examples of high temperature thermochronometers with potentially useful kinetic crossovers include the Rb-Sr system in both biotite and muscovite coupled with many higher temperature systems such as Ar in hornblende and muscovite, Pb in titanite and apatite, Sm/Nd in garnet, and Rb-Sr in Kspar. The anomalously low E of the Rb- Sr system in micas makes these couplings useful for examining reheating events on the order of ~400-700 °C over timescales of 106-108 yr. At lower temperatures, systems with anomalously low E, such as Ar in maskelynite and He in basaltic glass may be coupled with higher E systems such as AFT, and He in apatite or goethite to diagnose reheating events at ~200-400 °C over timescales from seconds to ~102 yr. We applied these approaches to investigating reheating related to wildfire and meteorite impacts. We observe abundant FT-He age inversions in apatite from the outer surfaces of exposed bedrock and hillslope detritus, requiring heating from 200-450 °C over timescales of minutes to hours. Fluvial detrital apatite from the same catchments, however, only rarely carry such signatures, indicating fractionation of apatite from hillslopes to channels. In Martian meteorite ALH84001, Ar in maskelynite has a much lower E than He in phosphates, resulting in a kinetic crossover at roughly 150 °C (for equal fractional resetting of both systems). Taken together, the relatively large He losses from phosphate and low Ar losses from maskelynite require very long residence at extremely low temperatures, but at least one short duration (minutes to hours), high temperature heating event, which if it occurred only once (at 15 Ma) reached temperatures of ~400-450 °C.

Reiners, P. W.; Thomson, S. N.; Min, K. K.

2007-12-01

252

Modeling and Prediction of Electric Arc Furnace Based on Neural Network and Chaos Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Electric arc furnace is commonly used in iron and steel industry to produce quality steel by melting iron and steel scraps\\u000a using electric arc. It represents one of the most disturbing loads in the subtransmission or transmission electric power systems.\\u000a Therefore, it is necessary to build a practical model to descript the behavior of electric arc furnace in the simulation

Fenghua Wang; Zhijian Jin; Zishu Zhu

2005-01-01

253

Gas furnace system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is disclosed for operating a gas furnace system having an air intake for supplying external air into a sealed chamber for input to a gas burner assembly. Exhaust air from within the combustion burning chamber is applied through an exhaust duct directly into an environment which is external to the furnace system but which is still within the environment

1984-01-01

254

Furnace for hazardous materials  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a continuous furnace for thoroughly treating hazardous materials to convert such materials to environmentally acceptable materials, the furnace including a continuous belt adapted to carry hazardous materials through at least one heated zone without release of noxious fumes or noxious solids to the environment.

McGinnis, F.K.; Enright, J.F. III

1989-02-07

255

An Automatic Direct Reading Electrical Hygrometer for Measuring the Humidity in the Atmosphere of an Enamelling Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Little research has been carried out into the effects of humidity on the fishscaling defect of enamelled steels, although furnace humidity appears to influence the tendency of these steels to fishscale. Before the research could be started it was necessar...

D. A. Lawler

1973-01-01

256

Microstructure and properties of quenched-and-aged plates produced from a copper-bearing HSLA steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time in India, quenched-and-tempered (Q&T) plates of a copper-bearing high-strength lowalloy (HSLA) steel have been commercially developed for naval structural applications. A 50 ton production heat was made through electric arc furnace (EAF)-vacuum arc degassing (VAD) route and continuously cast into 170 mm thick slabs. These slabs were conditioned, reheated in walking-beam furnace and hot rolled in plate mill into plates of 10 to 16 mm thickness. The as-rolled plates were hardened through oil quenching and subsequently tempered (aged) at 630 ‡C to achieve the combination of highstrength and good low-temperature impact toughness. The microstructures of heat treated plates showed fine acicular ferrite with grain sizes ranging between ASTM No. 9 and 10. From the standpoint of tensile properties, Q&T plates of all thicknesses exhibited significantly higher yield strengths than the minimum stipulated value of 552 MPa for HY-80/HSLA-80 steels. The elongation (22.20 to 26.00%) and reduction in area (62.12 to 67.62%) values achieved also exceeded the respective minimum requirements of 20 and 50% stipulated for such steels. The trend in variation of Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact energies at room temperature, -18, and -62 ‡C not only showed significantly higher values than that stipulated for HY-80 and HSLA-100 steels at -18 ‡C, but also indicated that the CVN impact energies achieved (105.15 to 144.25 J) at -62 ‡C were higher than the estimated value of 90 J for HSLA-80/HSLA-100 steels at this temperature.

Sen, S. K.; Ray, A.; Avtar, R.; Dhua, S. K.; Prasad, M. S.; Jha, P.; Sengupta, P. P.; Jha, S.

1998-08-01

257

Experimental method for the combustion efficiency calculation in a reheat duct  

SciTech Connect

An efficient method for the experimental measurement of the combustion efficiency in a reheat duct is developed at ONERA. Such a method is useful because numerous reheat tests are necessary to study the effect of geometry and flow characteristics on reheat performances. Static pressure measurements along the duct and gas sampling in its outlet cross section are the basis of this downstream to upstream method. Experimental results with a three annular V-gutters flame holder are presented. Those results are also used for comparison with theoretical two-dimensional calculations applied to reheat ducts that ultimately may reduce the number of experiments necessary for the development of reheat combustion chambers.

Cadiou, A.

1987-01-01

258

Effect of hot rolling parameters on the magnetic properties of a low-silicon ultra-low-carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultra-low-carbon steel was hot rolled with various reheating, finishing and coiling temperatures. A significant reduction of the core losses after cold rolling and annealing can be obtained by lowering the slab reheating temperature, which results in a coarser precipitate structure and final grain. The magnetic induction can be increased by realising a coarse hot band grain structure.

A. De Paepe; K. Eloot; J. Dilewijns; C. Standaert

1996-01-01

259

Effect of hot rolling parameters on the magnetic properties of a low-silicon ultra-low-carbon steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultra-low-carbon steel was hot rolled with various reheating, finishing and coiling temperatures. A significant reduction of the core losses after cold rolling and annealing can be obtained by lowering the slab reheating temperature, which results in a coarser precipitate structure and final grain. The magnetic induction can be increased by realising a coarse hot band grain structure.

De Paepe, A.; Eloot, K.; Dilewijns, J.; Standaert, C.

1996-07-01

260

Experiences with a direct-fired P/E furnace  

SciTech Connect

General Housewares Corp., recognizing the need to reduce energy consumption to survive escalating energy costs and remain competitive, purchased and installed a Tempo Holden direct-gas-fired, continuous furnace for porcelain-enamel-on-steel production. The first of its kind installed in the US, the furnace features (1) prepiped and prebricked modular furnace sections to assist installation, (2) lightweight design requiring no special floor preparation, (3) control circuitry to provide constant temperature control, (4) flexible and portable design to allow the installation to fit most environments, (5) reduced energy consumption, (6) simple design for reliable performance with little or no maintenance, (7) efficient energy transfer with quick response to changing control conditions, and (8) the use of furnace exhaust to directly power the dryer. After nearly 3 years of operation, GHC has experienced a 60% energy consumption reduction and a doubled production capacity. The company recently purchased two additional furnaces, both of which are performing as designed.

Mayer, M.M.

1983-10-01

261

Caustic roasting and leaching of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is produced when iron and steel scrap is remelted in an electric arc furnace. There are still significant problems associated with the pyrometallurgical and\\/or hydrometallurgical processes for the treatment of this dust. In the present research, the dust was roasted with caustic soda at low temperatures. It was found that the zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) in

D. K. Xia; C. A. Pickles

1999-01-01

262

Experiences with computer systems in blast furnace operation control at Rautaruukki  

SciTech Connect

Low energy consumption, together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation, has been achieved at Rautaruukki's Raahe Steel Works as a result of the efficient use of computer technology in process control and improvements in raw materials quality. The blast furnace supervision system is designed to support the decision-making in medium and long-term process control. The information presenting the blast furnace operation phenomena is grouped so that little time is needed to obtain the current state of the process. Due to the complexity of the blast furnace process, an expert system to guide and diagnose the short and medium-term blast furnace operation has been developed.

Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. (Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland). Raahe Steel Works); Seppanen, M. (Rautaruukki Oy Engineering, Oulu (Finland))

1994-09-01

263

Electric arc in three-phase metallurgical furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical and practical assumptions relative to the studies of electric arcs in steel-melting furnaces presented in journal Electrometallurgiya in 2011-2012 are subjected to a critical analysis. Based on classical concepts and the author experiments, the concept is presented regarding to the phases of the state and parameters of arc discharge in the ac electromagnetic field of a three-phase system. Industrial methods of eliminating the injurious effect of flash arc on furnace lining and the furnace efficiency are considered.

Vorob'ev, V. P.

2013-12-01

264

General purpose rocket furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multipurpose furnace for space vehicles used for material processing experiments in an outer space environment is described. The furnace contains three separate cavities designed to process samples of the widest possible range of materials and thermal requirements. Each cavity contains three heating elements capable of independent function under the direction of an automatic and programmable control system. A heat removable mechanism is also provided for each cavity which operates in conjunction with the control system for establishing an isothermally heated cavity or a wide range of thermal gradients and cool down rates. A monitoring system compatible with the rocket telemetry provides furnace performance and sample growth rate data throughout the processing cycle.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventors)

1979-01-01

265

High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

Bates, Stephen C.

1997-01-01

266

Gas Turbine Reheat Using In-Situ Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) is developing in-situ reheat (fuel injection via airfoil injection) as a means for increasing cycle efficiency and power output, with possibly reduced emissions. In addition to kinetic modeling and experimental task, CFD modeling (by Texas A&M) of airfoil injection and its effects on blade aerodynamics and turbine performance. This report discusses validation of the model against single-vane combustion test data from Siemens Westinghouse, and parametric studies of injection reheat in a modern turbine. The best location for injection is at the trailing edge of the inlet guide vane. Combustion is incomplete at trailing edges of subsequent vanes. Recommendations for further development are presented.

T.E. Lippert; D.M. Bachovchin

2004-03-31

267

Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) without the EAC internal support structure. Flown on USML-1 and USML-2. The Principal Investigators on these flights were: Larson, Lehoczky, Matthiesen, Wiedemeier. Processed 6 samples on USML-1 and 7 samples on USML-2.

1991-01-01

268

Franklin Furnace Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

269

Reheating via a generalized nonminimal coupling of curvature to matter  

SciTech Connect

In this work, one shows that a generalized nonminimal coupling between geometry and matter is compatible with Starobinsky inflation and leads to a successful process of preheating, a reheating scenario based on the production of massive particles via parametric resonance. The model naturally extends the usual preheating mechanism, which resorts to an ad hoc scalar curvature-dependent mass term for a scalar field {chi}, and also encompasses a previously studied preheating channel based upon a nonstandard kinetic term.

Bertolami, Orfeu; Frazao, Pedro; Paramos, Jorge [Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Plasmas e FuSao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2011-02-15

270

Reheating and Thermalization, Linear Vs. Non-Linear Relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the case of a scalar field, the inflaton, coupled to both lighter\\u000ascalars and fermions, and the study the relaxation of the inflaton via particle\\u000aproduction in both the linear and non-linear regimes. This has an immediate\\u000aapplication to the reheating problem in inflationary universe models. The\\u000alinear regime analysis offers a rationale for the standard approach to

D. Boyanovsky; Marie Curie; R. Holman; D.-S. Lee

1995-01-01

271

Infrared domestic furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This residential space-heating furnace generates infrared radiation in a sealed combustion chamber for improved heating efficiency, reduced air pollution (both nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide), and a lower fuel requirement (40-50% less natural gas) than conventional heaters. The burner comprises a hat-shaped fibrous matrix mounted on a cooling drum. The furnace 1) circulates only that air previously in the room,

1982-01-01

272

Application to Industrial Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we go on to consider an industrial furnace situation. A furnace consists of a heat source (burner producing\\u000a a flame), a heat sink (the tube bank of a boiler or heat exchanger, or cooling tubes), and the refractory walls. The discussion\\u000a here is on application of the developed method to the classical radiative heat transfer problem in

Aristide Mbiock; Roman Weber

273

Cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone; Part 1: Fractographic evidence  

SciTech Connect

Tensile, crack opening displacement (COD), blunt notch, and Charpy impact tests were used to investigate cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (IC CG HAZ) of three steels. The steels were chosen to provide different distributions and morphologies of MA (high-carbon martensite with some retained austenite) particles within the IC CG HAZ structure. Observation of minimum impact toughness values for the IC CG HAZ was found to be associated with a particular microstructure containing a near-connected grain boundary network of blocky MA particles, the MA particles being significantly harder than the internal grain microstructure. The initiation mechanism for this structure was determined to be from a combination of an overlap of residual transformational induced stress fields, due to the formation of the MA particles, between two closely spaced particles and stress concentration effects resulting from debonding of the particles.

Davis, C.L.; King, J.E. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy)

1994-03-01

274

Gravitational wave background from reheating after hybrid inflation  

SciTech Connect

The reheating of the Universe after hybrid inflation proceeds through the nucleation and subsequent collision of large concentrations of energy density in the form of bubblelike structures moving at relativistic speeds. This generates a significant fraction of energy in the form of a stochastic background of gravitational waves, whose time evolution is determined by the successive stages of reheating: First, tachyonic preheating makes the amplitude of gravity waves grow exponentially fast. Second, bubble collisions add a new burst of gravitational radiation. Third, turbulent motions finally sets the end of gravitational waves production. From then on, these waves propagate unimpeded to us. We find that the fraction of energy density today in these primordial gravitational waves could be significant for grand unified theory (GUT)-scale models of inflation, although well beyond the frequency range sensitivity of gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA, or BBO. However, low-scale models could still produce a detectable signal at frequencies accessible to BBO or DECIGO. For comparison, we have also computed the analogous gravitational wave background from some chaotic inflation models and obtained results similar to those found by other groups. The discovery of such a background would open a new observational window into the very early universe, where the details of the process of reheating, i.e. the big bang, could be explored. Moreover, it could also serve in the future as a new experimental tool for testing the inflationary paradigm.

Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Sastre, Alfonso [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain and Instituto de Fisica Teorica CSIC-UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

2008-02-15

275

Unit for producing electrical steel from briquets in an iron-ore-bearing mono-charge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new universal batch-operated closed arc furnace is proposed for making steel by direct reduction in a single-stage cycle.\\u000a The furnace represents a synthesis of ore-smelting furnaces and conventional steelmaking furnaces. It makes steel of the required\\u000a grade by direct reduction from briquets that contain iron ore. The cost of making the steel is 25–30% lower than the cost\\u000a incurred

G. V. Kashakashvili; V. I. Kldiashvili; S. A. Meboniya; G. A. Lomtatidze

2009-01-01

276

Arc furnace flicker measurements and control  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the results of arc flicker investigations and harmonic measurements taken on a 55 MW arc furnace in Southern California Edison's area. The arc furnace has been in operation since 1976 and has a 65 MVAR Static Var System (SVS) installed to improve the customer's power factor, reduce the voltage fluctuations and arc furnace flicker. Although the SVS improved the power factor and reduced the voltage fluctuations and incandescent lamp flicker, it had caused considerable fluorescent flicker which was specially noticeable at some remote locations about ten miles away. Because of the excessive fluorescent flicker, the customer was asked to limit the arc furnace load to 40 MW. However, because of the growing demand for steel and the customer's need for additional power, studies and measurements in the field and laboratory were conducted to investigate the reasons for fluorescent flicker and ways to control the flicker at increased load so that additional power could be provided to the customer. The paper presents the results of these investigations and field measurements.

Bhargava, B.

1993-01-01

277

High gradient directional solidification furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D.

1985-10-01

278

High gradient directional solidification furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventor)

1985-01-01

279

Waste stabilization\\/solidification of an electric arc furnace dust using fly ash-based geopolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilization\\/solidification (S\\/S) of a carbon steel electric arc furnace (EAF) dust containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr or Zn using geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolinite, metakaolinite and blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of EAF waste with these geopolymeric materials and

C. Fernández Pereira; Y. Luna; X. Querol; D. Antenucci; J. Vale

2009-01-01

280

Fuzzy neural network compound control and its applications for dust trap of electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dust produced by steel-making in an electric arc furnace is one of the most serious pollution sources. A kind of intelligent control strategy is presented and some presently-existing problems are discussed based on the complexity of the dust trapping process of an arc furnace. The tendency of the quantity of smoke, produced in different smelting steps, to change can

Shujiang Li; Xianwen Gao; Tianyou Chai

1997-01-01

281

Effect of Chemical Attack and Operational Parameters on the Wear of Blast Furnace Refractories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of refractory behavior in a blast furnace has been made because refractory and furnace design problems associated with iron production may apply to coal gasification units. Iron is made in a cylindrical, refractory lined, steel shell that has an ...

R. B. Snow

1976-01-01

282

Thermodynamic modelling of the multiphase pyrometallurgical processing of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is produced when automobile scrap is remelted in an electric arc furnace and about 10–20 kilograms are generated per ton of steel. The major elements present in the dust are usually zinc, iron and calcium with smaller amounts of numerous other elements such as lead, copper and nickel. Typically, in the pyrometallurgical EAF dust treatment

C. A. Pickles

2009-01-01

283

Thermodynamic modelling of the formation of zinc–manganese ferrite spinel in electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace dust is generated when automobile scrap, containing galvanized steel, is remelted in an electric arc furnace. This dust is considered as a hazardous waste in most countries. Zinc is a major component of the dust and can be of significant commercial value. Typically, the majority of the zinc exists as zinc oxide (ZnO) and as a zinc–manganese

C. A. Pickles

2010-01-01

284

DESTRUCTION AND REMOVAL OF POHCS (PRINCPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS) IN IRON MAKING BLAST FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

At least one steel company utilizes organic waste liquids as a heat and carbon content source to partially replace the coke that is used to charge the blast furnaces. The waste liquids fed to the blast furnace are likely to contain hazardous constituents. Temperature and residenc...

285

VIEW OF CENTRAL STEAM PLANT IN FOREGROUND, BLAST FURNACES NO.S ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF CENTRAL STEAM PLANT IN FOREGROUND, BLAST FURNACES NO.S 1,2 & 3, AND FLOODED ORE YARD. VIEW FACING EAST. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

286

12. BIRD'SEYE VIEW OF VERTICAL FURNACES ALONG THE NORTH WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF VERTICAL FURNACES ALONG THE NORTH WALL OF BUILDING. HISTORIAN FOR SCALE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Machine Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

287

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

288

Voltage flicker prediction for two simultaneously operated ac arc furnaces  

SciTech Connect

An EMTP-based arc furnace model was developed for evaluation of flicker concerns associated with supplying a large integrated steel mill as they go from one to two furnace operation and as system changes are implemented that will affect the short circuit capacity at the 230 kV power supply substation. The model includes a dynamic arc representation which is designed to be characteristic of the initial portions of the melt cycle when the arc characteristics are the most variable (worst flicker conditions). The flicker calculations are verified using previous measurements with one furnace operation. Flicker simulations were then performed to evaluate a variety of different possible system strengths with both one and two furnaces in operation. The primary flicker measure used for this study is the unweighted rms value of the fluctuation envelope, expressed as a percentage of the rms line-to-ground voltage magnitude.

Tang, L. [ABB Power T and D Co., Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [ABB Power T and D Co., Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Kolluri, S. [Entergy Services, New Orleans, LA (United States)] [Entergy Services, New Orleans, LA (United States); McGranaghan, M.F. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1997-04-01

289

Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations  

SciTech Connect

It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Kurashiki (Japan)

1995-10-01

290

Electrical equipment for d-c arc furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Starting with a d-c ladle furnace in 1986 and using worldwide experience in supplying electrical equipment for more than 30 electrical steel plants, Siemens commissioned their first 70-Mw d-c arc furnace at the end of 1992. This article is divided into three parts: Siemens experience with their first d-c furnace: current improvements; and future considerations. Siemens first electrical installation for a d-c furnace has been in successful operation for more than a year. In spite of the special new construction of the thyristor rectifiers and the new digital open and closed-loop controls for this furnace, there have been no electrical failures. For new facilities, electrical components have been optimized based on the experience gained, taking into account the rapid innovations currently taking place. They are rated to accommodate the higher current requirements when graphite electrodes with a diameter of 800 mm or larger are available for the single electrode furnace or for a twin-electrode single shell furnace.

Schnapperelle, J. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Gandhi, V. [Siemens Energy and Automation, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

1995-09-01

291

The metallic microstructures and thermal histories of severely reheated chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The metallographic structures of eight severely reheated chondrites - Farmington, Ramsdorf, Orvinio, Wickenburg, Lubbock, Rose City, Arapahoe, and Tadjera - were studied using optical, SEM and electron microprobe techniques. The following metallographic criteria were used to estimate the post-shock residual temperature of the chondrites: melted metal-troilite appearance, presence of martensite, phosphorus enrichment of metal and averaging of central metal grain compositions. The presence of phosphides and secondary kamacite are due to slow post-shock cooling rates. Ni rim gradients indicate both extensive remelting of metal grains and relatively fast cooling.

Smith, B. A.; Goldstein, J. I.

1977-01-01

292

Current and future foodservice applications of microwave cooking/reheating.  

PubMed

Microwave ovens are widely used in foodservice establishments; currently, they are used primarily for reheating. In comparison with conventional methods, approximately 75% less energy is required for microwave cooking or heating. In the future, it is possible that minimal microwave energy will be used to extend shelf life of foods. It is expected that "combination" convention or convection/microwave systems and conveyor microwave systems that can be electronically programmed will be widely used in the future. New food product designs and types of disposable packaging are available. PMID:4019983

Hoffman, C J; Zabik, M E

1985-08-01

293

Fabrication and leak-tight furnace brazing of intricate objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extremely compact crossflow heat exchanger has been constructed by hydrogen furnace brazing together a stack of hundreds of chemically milled stainless-steel sheets. The resulting structure is leak tight and very strong, but fluid channels as small as 51 ?m are not plugged by excess brazing material. The construction technique is easily adapted to mass production and should be useful

G. W. Swift; A. Migliori; John Wheatley; C. R. Waller; G. Suazo

1984-01-01

294

FRACTIONAL EFFICIENCY OF AN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE BAGHOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the performance of a fabric filter system controlling emissions from either one or two 30-ton electric arc furnaces producing a high-strength, low-alloy specialty steel. The evaluation involved measuring the system's total mass collect...

295

Modeling and control of an electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAFs) are widely used in steelmaking and in smelting of nonferrous metals. The EAF is the central process of the so-called mini-mills, which produce steel mainly from scrap. The power level is directly related to production throughput, so it is important to control the EAF at the highest possible average power with a low variance to avoid

B. Boulet; G. Lalli; M. Ajersch

2003-01-01

296

Mineral phases of weathered and recent electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

A weathered and a recent sample of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), generated in a southern Brazilian steel industry, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) probe and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data

Fernanda Machado Martins; José Manoel dos Reis Neto; Carlos Jorge da Cunha

2008-01-01

297

Dust formation in Electric Arc Furnace: Birth of the particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust shows that bubble burst at the liquid steel surface is the principal source of dust emission. We have therefore developed an experimental device for studying this phenomenon. As in the case of the air–water system, the bubble-burst gives birth to two types of droplets: film drops and jet drops. The jet drop

Anne-Gwénaëlle Guézennec; Jean-Christophe Huber; Fabrice Patisson; Philippe Sessiecq; Jean-Pierre Birat; Denis Ablitzer

2005-01-01

298

Understanding environmental leachability of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust from production of steel in an electric arc furnace (EAF) contains a mixture of elements that pose a challenge for both recovery and disposal. This paper relates the leachability of six Canadian EAF dusts in four leaching tests [distilled water, Ontario Regulation 347 Leachate Extraction Procedure, Amount Available for Leaching (AALT), and pH 5 Stat] to their mineralogy. Chromium

Julia A. Stegemann; Amitava Roy; Robert J. Caldwell; Paul J. Schilling; Roland Tittsworth

2000-01-01

299

METALLURGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEFOS 3 MW DC ARC FURNACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past twenty years the 3 MW DC arc furnace at MEFOS has been frequently used for development of new processes. These processes include recovery of valuable metals from slag, sludge and dust from steel and other metallurgical industry, treatment of ashes from power plant and incinerators, smelting reduction of minerals and zinc recovery from EAF dust. The process

G. Ye; J. Alexis; E. Burström

2004-01-01

300

Dust formation in electric arc furnace : birth of the particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust shows that bubble burst at the liquid steel surface is the principal source of dust emission. We have therefore developed an experimental device for studying this phenomenon. As in the case of the air-water system, the bubble-burst gives birth to two types of droplets: film drops and jet drops. The jet drop

A. G. Guézennec; J. C. Huber; F. Patisson; P. Sessiecq; J. P. Birat; D. Ablitzer

2007-01-01

301

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND MACHINERY AND ARTIFACTS INCLUDING A STEAM ENGINE HUB MADE AT THE BRIERFIELD ROLLING MILL (INSCRIBED C.C. HUCKABEE AND DATED 1863) AND OTHER STEAM ENGINES. - Iron & Steel Museum of Alabama, 12632 Confederate Pkwy., Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

302

Numerical Simulation of Thermal Process in an Industrial Rotary Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical simulation was performed for the complex thermal processes of heating steel bars in a rotary furnace, which involve both the momentum transfer and the energy transfer mainly by radiation and combustion. A CFD commercial software CFX was employed to solve the proposed 2-D mathematical model. The boundary conditions for the simulation were initially chosen basing on on-line measured

Zeyi Jiang

2005-01-01

303

CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED CAST HOUSE LIES IN BETWEEN TWO SKIP INCLINES. HIP ROOF AT RIGHT COVERS BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

304

GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE IN THE RIGHT; THE CENTRAL COMPLEX WITH STOVES IN THE CENTER. ELECTRICAL POWER HOUSE IS ON THE LEFT BEYOND THE CONVEYOR LIFT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

305

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

306

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST AND DUST CATCHER. STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND, THE #2 CASTING SHED BEYOND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

307

Blast furnace reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vast a dvances h ave b een m ade in blast-furnace t echnology d uring t he p ast two decades through p lant t rials and plant d evelopments a ssisted by research to provide b etter u nderstanding of physical and chemical w orkings of the blast f urnace. T he f ields of research have i ncluded

E. T. Turkdogan

1978-01-01

308

Energy saving furnace construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A furnace shell has a fire pot centrally located therein, the walls of the shell and fire pot being spaced to form a fluid heat transfer chamber therebetween. Heat transfer is effected between the pot and the chamber to heat the fluid medium in the chamber. The shell is located in an interior to be heated, such as a building

McCarty

1979-01-01

309

Furnace ash air seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the present invention, a sealing chamber is provided into which a noncombustible residue from an incinerator, furnace or the like is moved. The residue may be sprayed with a liquid upon entering the sealing chamber to effect cooling and compaction of the residue. The sealing chamber is provided with a vibratory discharge mechanism which serves to convey the

Musschoot

1985-01-01

310

Arc furnace electrode control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control is described for positioning the electrodes of a poly-phase electric arc furnace energized by a poly-phase transformer having primary and secondary windings, and including control means for individually elevating and lowering each of the electrodes, the improvement comprising: first circuit means each coupled respectively to one of the primary phases of the transformer. Each is operable respectively to

J. A. Persson; R. E. Andrews; M. Maola

1986-01-01

311

Aspects of reheating in first-order inflation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studied here is reheating in theories where inflation is completed by a first-order phase transition. In the scenarios, the Universe decays from its false vacuum state by bubble nucleation. In the first stage of reheating, vacuum energy is converted into kinetic energy for the bubble walls. To help understand this phase, researchers derive a simple expression for the equation of state of a universe filled with expanding bubbles. Eventually, the bubble walls collide. Researchers present numerical simulations of two-bubble collisions clarifying and extending previous work by Hawking, Moss, and Stewart. The researchers' results indicate that wall energy is efficiently converted into coherent scalar waves. Also discussed is particle production due to quantum effects. These effects lead to the decay of the coherent scalar waves. They also lead to direct particle production during bubble-wall collisions. Researchers calculate particle production for colliding walls in both sine-Gordon and theta (4) theories and show that it is far more efficient in the theta (4) case. The relevance of this work for recently proposed models of first order inflation is discussed.

Watkins, Richard; Widrow, Lawrence M.

1991-01-01

312

Time, temperature and water pressure dependent reheating of volcanic plugs, conduits and domes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active lava domes show periodic magma supply and are frequently re-intruded and reheated. We propose that the timescale, temperature, and water pressure of reheating control whether crack and bubble networks open or close, and whether or not gas can escape. Interpretations of historic eruptions indicate open, permeable magmatic systems favour degassing and non-explosive eruptions, whereas, closed impermeable systems favour pressure

B. M. Kennedy; M. Jellinek; K. Russell

2009-01-01

313

New possibilities of Consteel furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disadvantages of Consteel electric furnaces, which are mainly caused by the low efficiency of heating of a charged metal scrap by effluent furnace gases, are considered. A new concept of an electric-arc furnace with scrap heating on a conveyer by powerful burners, which provide fast scrap heating to 800°C, is proposed. As follows from calculations, the capacity of such a furnace increases substantially, the specific electric power consumption decreases, and the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere decreases as compared to the existing Consteel furnaces.

Tuluevskii, Yu. N.; Zinurov, I. Yu.; Shver, V. G.

2012-06-01

314

Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The energy used to produce liquid steel in today's integrated and electric are furnace (EAF) facilities is significantly higher than the theoretical minimum energy requirements. This study presents the absolute minimum energy to produce steel ore and mixt...

R. J. Fruehan O. Fortini H. W. Paxton R. Brindle

2000-01-01

315

Interior of shop, detail of charging machine Bethlehem Steel ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of shop, detail of charging machine - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

316

Elastic limit and microplastic response of hardened steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tempered martensite-retained austenite microstructures were produced by direct quenching a series of 41XX medium carbon steels,\\u000a direct quenching and reheating a series of five 0.8C-Cr- Ni-Mo steels and intercritically austenitizing at various temperatures,\\u000a and quenching a SAE 52100 steel. All specimens were tempered either at 150 C or at 200 C. Specimens were subjected to compression\\u000a and tension testing in

M. A. Zaccone; G. Krauss

1993-01-01

317

Modernization of USS/KOBE No. 3 blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

The USS/KOBE Steel Company was formed on July 1, 1989 as a joint venture between USS and KOBE Steel of Japan. A major premise of the joint venture was to use generated capital for the modernization of the plant's facilities. The first major project of the new company was the total renovation of No. 3 Blast Furnace. This furnace is to be the mainstay of quality hot metal production for the future of the new company. No. 3 Blast Furnace was last operated in 1982. An original reline was planned in 1981, but was deferred due to economic conditions. Subsequent dismantling and engineering were performed in 1985 but the facility basically laid dormant for ten years until 1991. This paper discusses the various systems installed during the furnace rebuild along with some of the construction aspects of the rebuild along with some of the construction aspects of the rebuild. Modernized USS/KOBE No. 3 Blast Furnace (Blow-in: May 4, 1992) introduced various improvements of equipment and technology, such as a Paul Wurth Top, coke screening, casthouse, gas cleaning, stoves, and automatic stockhouse in order to make it a world class competitor.

Diederich, D.J.; VanderSluis, F.H.; Yukubo, Y.; Bernarding, T.F.; Emoto, E. (Kobe Steel Co., Lorain, OH (United States). USS)

1993-01-01

318

Cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone. Part 2: Failure criteria and statistical effects  

SciTech Connect

In part 1 of this article, cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone (IC CG HAZ) of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels was determined to occur between two closely spaced blocky MA particles. Blunt notch, crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), and precracked Charpy testing were used in this investigation to determine the failure criteria required for cleavage initiation to occur by this mechanism in the IC CG HAZ. It was found that the attainment of a critical level of strain was required in addition to a critical level of stress. This does not occur in the case of high strain rate testing, for example, during precracked Charpy testing. A different cleavage initiation mechanism is then found to operate. The precise fracture criteria and microstructural requirements (described in part 1 of this article) result in competition between potential cleavage initiation mechanisms in the IC CG HAZ.

Davis, C.L. [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science; King, J.E. [Rolls Royce plc, Derby (United Kingdom). Aerospace Div.

1996-10-01

319

Pollution Effects of Abnormal Operations in Iron and Steel Making. Volume 1. Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the first in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant...

B. H. Carpenter D. W. VanOsdell D. W. Coy R. Jablin

1978-01-01

320

High efficiency furnace  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

1985-12-31

321

High Efficiency Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

1985-08-27

322

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection  

SciTech Connect

Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

NONE

1998-09-30

323

Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof  

DOEpatents

A system and method are disclosed for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom. 2 figs.

Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Bannister, R.L.

1999-08-10

324

Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof  

DOEpatents

A system and method for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom.

Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yang, Wen-Ching (Export, PA); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

1999-01-01

325

An improved nonlinear STATCOM control for electric arc furnace voltage flicker mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnaces (EAF) are prevalent in the steel industry to melt iron and scrap steel. EAFs frequently cause large amplitude fluctuations of active and reactive power and are the source of significant power quality disturbances. Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOMs) provide a power electronic-based means of embedded control for reactive power support and power quality improvement. This paper introduces a

M. L. Crow; A. Yazdani; Jianjun Guo

2010-01-01

326

THE CURRENT STATUS OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST RECYCLING IN NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a telephone survey of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel producers. This report characterizes the current status of EAF dust generation, treatment and disposal. It indicates the quantity generated, zinc content, other relevant constituents, and plans and trends that will impact on the quantity and characteristics of the dust generated. The survey covers EAF based steel

Marc Liebman

327

Optimizing the oxygen content in rail steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, the technologies available to Russian metallurgists permit effective modification of the quality of rail steel. Thanks to the development of smelting technology and the use of complex reduction and modification of rail steel, as well the use of ladle?furnace units and vacuum units, the oxygen content in rail steel may be lowered to 20 ppm, with corresponding decrease in

L. A. Godik; N. A. Kozyrev; L. V. Korneva

2009-01-01

328

Non-carbon induction furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

1984-01-06

329

On-line ultrasonic system for measuring thickness of the copper stave in the blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blast furnace is used make molten iron from sintered ore and the cokes in the steel industry. Recently, the copper stave cooling system placed on inner face of the blast furnace body to protect the steel shell from heat. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the material makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. It was impossible to access the copper stave with the ultrasonic sensor for measuring thickness because the copper stave is covered with the steel shell and there is backing refractory between the stave and the steel shell. The unique ultrasonic sensor which can approach the cooling stave through the cooling line was developed to measure thickness. The thickness can be measured with portable ultrasonic thickness sensor and can be monitored continuously with embedded sensors.

Choi, Sang-Woo; Kim, Dohoon

2012-05-01

330

General analytic predictions of two-field inflation and perturbative reheating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observational signatures of multifield inflation will generally evolve as the Universe reheats. We introduce a general analytic formalism for tracking this evolution through perturbative reheating, applicable to two-field models with arbitrary separable potentials. The various transitions, including the onset of scalar field oscillations and the reheating of each field, can happen in different orders and on arbitrary hypersurfaces. The effective equations of state of the oscillating fields are also arbitrary. Nevertheless, our results are surprisingly simple. Our formalism encapsulates and generalizes a huge range of previous calculations including two-field inflation, spectator models, the inhomogeneous end of inflation scenario and numerous generalized curvaton scenarios.

Elliston, Joseph; Orani, Stefano; Mulryne, David J.

2014-05-01

331

Application of 46 kV, 100 MVA smart predictive line controller (SPLC) to AC electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The voltage flicker emission levels caused by electric arc furnace operation can cause objectionable disturbances in residential, incandescent lamp based light sources. Installation of a newly designed SPLC (smart predictive line controller) beta unit in the arc furnace power supply system of Co-Steel Lasco (46 kV, 100 MVA) reduced the flicker levels at the source. The paper presents the SPLC

SHASHI B. DEWAN; JANOS RAJDA

1999-01-01

332

Water gas furnace  

SciTech Connect

A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

Gallaro, C.

1985-12-03

333

Carbon Steel from Prereduced Pellets: Acid Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eleven steelmaking heats are described in which acid practice was used to produce carbon steel from prereduced iron ore pellets. Lime was added to the furnace charge at two levels to eight of the heats to modify slag characteristics in the furnace and to ...

W. L. Hunter J. E. Tress W. A. Stickney

1974-01-01

334

Two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

1998-05-05

335

Two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1998-05-05

336

Effects of Processing and Reheating on Nutrient Content of Precooked Frozen Foods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature search has been performed because of interest by the Troop Support Agency in the nutritive value of foods prepared and frozen in a central preparation facility and subsequently reheated in dining halls. Abstracts of 787 articles generated by ...

V. M. White

1981-01-01

337

Characteristics of high density edge transport barrier with reheat mode on CHS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edge transport barrier (ETB) formation and a reheat mode have been simultaneously realized on the Compact Helical System (CHS). The new mode is induced by neutral particle reduction in the edge region, which is caused by shutting off fueling after a strong gas-puffing. When both the reheat mode and the ETB are simultaneously realized, the density reduction is suppressed by the ETB in the peripheral region, and the temperature continues to increase by the reheat mode. This mode provides an enhanced confinement in the high density region (bar ne ~ 1.2 × 1020mr-3) compared to the ETB formation without the reheat mode, because of a large suppression of an anomalous transport, which is confirmed with fluctuation measurements in the edge region.

Minami, T.; Okamura, S.; Akiyama, T.; Ida, K.; Oishi, T.; Isobe, M.; Nakano, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagaoka, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Suzuki, C.; Yoshimura, Y.; Toi, K.; Ohshima, S.; Takeuchi, M.; Iguchi, H.; Nishimura, S.; Shimizu, A.; Matsuoka, K.; Takahashi, C.

2008-07-01

338

49 CFR 180.211 - Repair, rebuilding and reheat treatment of DOT-4 series specification cylinders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (2) Any rebuilt cylinder must be— (i...Subjected to a volumetric expansion test on each cylinder. The results of the...reheat treatment, each cylinder in the lot must be subjected to a volumetric expansion test and meet the...

2010-10-01

339

49 CFR 180.211 - Repair, rebuilding and reheat treatment of DOT-4 series specification cylinders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (2) Any rebuilt cylinder must be— (i...Subjected to a volumetric expansion test on each cylinder. The results of the...reheat treatment, each cylinder in the lot must be subjected to a volumetric expansion test and meet the...

2012-10-01

340

49 CFR 180.211 - Repair, rebuilding and reheat treatment of DOT-4 series specification cylinders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (2) Any rebuilt cylinder must be— (i...Subjected to a volumetric expansion test on each cylinder. The results of the...reheat treatment, each cylinder in the lot must be subjected to a volumetric expansion test and meet the...

2011-10-01

341

Steamside Oxidation Behavior of Experimental 9%Cr Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing emissions and increasing economic competitiveness require more efficient steam power plants that utilize fossil fuels. One of the major challenges in designing these plants is the availability of materials that can stand the supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam conditions at a competitive cost. There are several programs around the world developing new ferritic and austenitic steels for superheater and reheater

O. N. Dogan; G. R. Holcomb; D. E. Alman; P. D. Jablonski

2007-01-01

342

Hardenability of steels for precision castings  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The standard medium-carbon steel 45L, widely used for manufacturing cast machine parts, which can be melted in high-frequency induction furnaces with an acid lining, has a high hardenability and tendency to grain growth.2.Steel 50PPL, which can be melted in high-frequency induction furnaces with a basic lining, has a minimal hardenability. The ideal critical diameter of basic 50PPL is 8.6 mm,

K. Z. Shepelyakovskii; Yu. Ya. Postnikov; V. D. Kal'ner; L. S. Danil'chenko

1971-01-01

343

A General Viscosity Model for Molten Blast Furnace Slag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace slag is the most abundant slag in the steel industry. Its metallurgical properties are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reliable viscosity model for blast furnace slag. In the current work, a simple, accurate, and physically meaningful viscosity model for a wide composition range of blast furnace slags is developed based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation: log ? = A + B/( T - C). The model is calibrated by a database containing 365 compositions and 1233 measurements of synthetic and industrial slags. The parameter A has a value of -3.10. The parameters B and C are related to the mass fraction ratio of (CaO + MgO) to (SiO2 + Al2O3) and liquidus temperature of the slag, respectively. Present viscosity model accurately predicts the viscosity of blast furnace slag with relative average error (?) of 0.211 (±0.180) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.239 Pa·s. A slight modification of this model can also predict the glass transition temperature of blast furnace slag satisfactorily.

Gan, Lei; Lai, Chaobin

2014-06-01

344

Corrosion problems in coal-fired boiler superheater and reheater tubes: fireside corrosion. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This program was conducted to develop improved alloys for superheater and reheater tubes in direct coal-fired steam generators in order to extend the service life of the tubes, and to evaluate materials for use at higher operating temperatures than currently in use. The program consisted of a broad literature review and laboratory evaluation involving 19 commercial and semicommercial alloys, 19 custom-melted alloys and 18 types of high-temperature coatings, subjecting them to flowing flue gas and molten alkali-iron trisulfate ash at 1250 and 1450/sup 0/F (675 and 790/sup 0/C). The commercial and semicommercial alloys suffered severe attack and pitting under the laboratory fireside test environment at 1250/sup 0/F (675/sup 0/C). In the custom-melted group, the best alloy (25%Ni-20%Cr-2%Al-2.4%Si) generated a dense, adherent scale which reduced pitting by a factor of four when subjected to the molten trisulfate. The character of the pitting attack is best described as an electrochemical mechanism where the molten trisulfate provides the electrolyte and transfers away the metal consumed at the active anodic areas. Protective scales were observed only on a few alloys of higher silicon content; these alloys are believed to offer significant improvement in useful life in steam generators firing corrosive coals. The magnesium zirconate (MgZrO/sub 3/) coating was resistant to corrosive attack, providing a self-healing mechanism by the formation of high-melting sulfates within its pores. This pore plugging effect withstood exposure cycles which would seriously damage conventional stainless steel tubes.

Rehn, I.M.

1980-11-01

345

Fluctuations of quantum fields in a classical background and reheating  

SciTech Connect

We consider the particle creation process associated with a quantum field {chi} in a time-dependent, homogeneous and isotropic, classical background. It is shown that the field square {chi}{sup 2}, the energy density, and the pressure of the created particles have large fluctuations comparable to their vacuum expectation values. Possible effects of these fluctuations on the reheating process after inflation are discussed. After determining the correlation length of the fluctuations in two different models, corresponding to the decay in the parametric resonance regime and in the perturbation theory, it is found that these fluctuations should be taken into account in the final thermalization process, in the backreaction effects, and when the formation of primordial black holes is considered. In both models, by comparing quantum and thermal fluctuations with each other it is observed that very quick thermalization after the complete inflaton decay is not always possible even when the interaction rates are large. On the other hand, when the backreaction effects are included during the preheating stage, the coherence of the inflaton oscillations is shown to be lost because of the fluctuations in {chi}{sup 2}. Finally, we note that a large fluctuation in the energy density may cause a black hole to form, and we determine the fraction of total energy density that goes into such primordial black holes in the model of preheating we consider.

Kaya, Ali [Bogazici University, Department of Physics, 34342, Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-01-15

346

Finite Element Modeling of Reheat Stretch Blow Molding of PET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly (ethylene terephthalate) or PET is a polymer used as a packaging material for consumer products such as beverages, food or other liquids, and in other applications including drawn fibers and stretched films. Key features that make it widely used are its transparency, dimensional stability, gas impermeability, impact resistance, and high stiffness and strength in certain preferential directions. These commercially useful properties arise from the fact that PET crystallizes upon deformation above the glass transition temperature. Additionally, this strain-induced crystallization causes the deformation behavior of PET to be highly sensitive to processing conditions. It is thus crucial for engineers to be able to predict its performance at various process temperatures, strain rates and strain states so as to optimize the manufacturing process. In addressing these issues; a finite element analysis of the reheat blow molding process with PET has been carried out using ABAQUS. The simulation employed a constitutive model for PET developed by Dupaix and Boyce et al.. The model includes the combined effects of molecular orientation and strain-induced crystallization on strain hardening when the material is deformed above the glass transition temperature. The simulated bottles were also compared with actual blow molded bottles to evaluate the validity of the simulation.

Krishnan, Dwarak; Dupaix, Rebecca B.

2004-06-01

347

Sorption of heavy metals on blast furnace sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents was carried out. Gases produced in the blast furnace were washed and led towards a Dorr thickener where the sludge was obtained as a suspension. The sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on

A. López-Delgado; C. Pérez; F. A. López

1998-01-01

348

Fabrication and leak-tight furnace brazing of intricate objects  

SciTech Connect

An extremely compact crossflow heat exchanger has been constructed by hydrogen furnace brazing together a stack of hundreds of chemically milled stainless-steel sheets. The resulting structure is leak tight and very strong, but fluid channels as small as 51 ..mu..m are not plugged by excess brazing material. The construction technique is easily adapted to mass production and should be useful for structures of an intricate but repetitive three-dimensional nature.

Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.; Waller, C.R.; Suazo, G.

1984-05-01

349

Hydrometallurgically recovering zinc from electric arc furnace dusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of zinc-containing scrap for steel production has lead to a high zinc content in the electric arc furnace\\u000a and converter flue dusts. The cost of disposing of this residue is high due to environmental restrictions. Various recycling\\u000a processes have been developed for these dusts, but most never reached the pilot plant stage and many investigations were stopped

J. Antrekowitsch; H. Antrekowitsch

2001-01-01

350

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01

351

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14

352

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01

353

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14

354

Evaluation of gas carburizing in a new fluidized-bed furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly designed, internally fired, air: propane fluidized bed furnace is described and used to carburize a low carbon steel.\\u000a The increased carburizing rates, compared with the conventional sealed-quench furnace, are achieved without the problem of\\u000a sooting even at carbon potentials of 2.3 pct C. Since the measured activation energy was found to be of the same order as\\u000a that

J. J. Moore; G. G. Storey

1981-01-01

355

Heat transfer, energy saving and pollution control in UHP electric-arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of hot-water and evaporative cooling enables the residual energy potential of iron and steel works to be utilized. In particular, water-traversed wall elements are used at present in the top zone of an electric-arc furnace. Indeed, the remarkable increase in the electrical power has made the cooling of the wall of the furnace compulsory. Thus, it seems suitable

G Bisio; G Rubatto; R Martini

2000-01-01

356

Processing electric arc furnace dust into saleable chemical products  

SciTech Connect

The modern steel industry uses electric arc furnace (EAF) technology to manufacture steel. A major drawback of this technology is the production of EAF dust, which is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The annual disposal of approximately 0.65 million tons of EAF dust in the United States and Canada is an expensive, unresolved problem for the steel industry. EAF dust byproducts are generated during the manufacturing process by a variety of mechanisms. The dust consists of various metals (e.g., zinc, lead, cadmium) that occur as vapors at 1,600{degrees}C (EAF hearth temperature); these vapors are condensed and collected in a baghouse. The production of one ton of steel will generate approximately 25 pounds of EAF dust as a byproduct, which is currently disposed of in landfills.

NONE

1998-04-01

357

Precipitation behaviors of X80 acicular ferrite pipeline steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precipitation behaviors of X80 acicular ferrite pipeline steel were investigated by using transmission electron microscopy\\u000a (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that dendritic precipitates in the as-cast steel slabs precipitate\\u000a mainly in grain boundaries, and these dendritic precipitates dissolve and re-precipitate to two kinds of carbonitrides: Ti-\\u000a and Nb-rich (Ti, Nb)(C, N) carbonitrides during reheating. Four

Ai-Min Zhao; Yan Wang; Yin-Li Chen; Di Tang; Xu-Tao Gao; Bi-Qiang Zuo

2011-01-01

358

Condensing furnaces: Lessons from a utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

for the last several years about 90% of the new natural gas furnaces installed in Wisconsin have been condensing furnaces and a number of lessons have been learned. If you avoid the common mistakes, condensing furnaces typically can deliver heating savings of 20-35 % assuming the old furnace was in the 60% AFUE range. This article describes the common mistakes

Beers

1994-01-01

359

Use of vacuum furnaces in heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum furnaces with a cylindrical chamber, with a rectangular-cross-section chamber, and special-purpose furnaces produced by SECO\\/WARWICK are considered. Examples of the use of vacuum furnaces for hardening, tempering, and carburizing are given. Prospects for improvement of the furnaces are considered.

J. Oleinik

2004-01-01

360

Furnace brazing under partial vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

Mckown, R. D.

1979-01-01

361

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOEpatents

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

362

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

1994-06-14

363

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

364

A study of the phase transition of reheated diphenyl carbazide (DPC) by using UV spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase transition phenomenon in reheated diphenyl carbazide (DPC) is studied here using UV spectroscopy. The optical band gap for reheated DPC is obtained by measuring the optical diffused reflectance (DR) and equals to 3.55 eV. Also, the optical band gap is calculated using UV technique and equals to 3.548 eV. The absorbance of reheated DPC is studied at some selected temperatures in order to check the presence of phase transitions at 90 °C and 125 °C. According to the present work, the band gaps are calculated at 80 °C, 110 °C and 130 °C and equal to 3.548 eV. But at 100 °C, the optical band gap has changed to 4.139 eV. It was found that each phase of reheated DPC belongs to a certain definite crystal structure. The presence of the phase transitions are checked and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structural properties and morphology of reheated diphenyl carbazide are investigated by SEM. The SEM images are taken at some selected temperatures to confirm the presence of phase transitions.

El-Kabbany, F.; Taha, S.; Hafez, M.

2014-07-01

365

OPTIMAL OPERATION OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACES (EAF) TO MINIMIZE THE GENERATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS AT THE SOURCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The manufacture of steel by electric arc furnaces (EAF) is continuing to increase in usage in the United States with current production estimated to be over 63 million tons per year. The reduction of emissions from steel producers has been slow for two main reasons: the nee...

366

Determination of the Major Impurity Radiators in the Reheat Mode Discharges in the Compact Helical System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation brightness and impurity behaviors have been studied for reheat mode discharges in the Compact Helical System (CHS) by three different types of impurity diagnostics. Total radiation power measured by a pyroelectric detector significantly reduces after entering the reheat mode, whereas the line-averaged radiation brightness measured by an absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) photodiode array increases especially for a center viewing chord due to the impurity accumulation in the plasma core. One possible reason for this opposite behavior between the two bolometric detectors is the reduced sensitivity of the AXUV photodiode for lower energy photons in vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region. This speculation is supported by temporal evolutions of VUV spectra measured by a grazing incidence spectrometer. These results demonstrate that the comparison of three impurity diagnostics would be beneficial to the determination of the major impurity radiators and a comprehensive understanding of impurity behaviors in the reheat mode discharges.

Suzuki, Chihiro; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Fujisawa, Akihide; Ida, Katsumi; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Minami, Takashi; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Nishimura, Shin; Okamura, Shoichi; Peterson, Byron J.; Shimizu, Akihiro; Takahashi, Chihiro; Toi, Kazuo; Yoshimura, Yasuo

367

Vitrification of electric arc furnace dusts.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace baghouse dust (EAFD), a waste by-product of the steelmaking process, contains the elements that are volatilized from the charge during the melting (Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd). The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the regulatory limits. Consequently, EAFD cannot be disposed of in ordinary landfill sites without stabilization of the heavy metals. In this work, the vitrification of EAFD, from both carbon and stainless steel productions, were studied. The vitrification process was selected as the inertizing process because it permits the immobilization of the hazardous elements in the glass network and represents an environmentally acceptable method for the stabilization of this waste. Classes of various compositions were obtained by mixing EAFD with glass cullet and sand. The EAFD and the glass products were characterized by DTA, TG, X-ray analysis and by the TCLP test. The results show that the stability of the product is influenced by the glass structure, which mainly depends on the Si/O ratio. Secondary crystallization heat-treatment were carried out on some samples. The results highlighted the formation of spinel phases, which reduced the chemical durability in acid media. The possibility to recover Zn from carbon steel production EAFD was investigated and about 60-70% of metal recovery was obtained. The resulting glass show higher chemical stability than glasses obtained without metal recovery. PMID:12423059

Pelino, M; Karamanov, A; Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Zonetti, D

2002-01-01

368

Chem I Supplement: Chemistry of Steel Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information about the chemistry of steel making applicable to teaching secondary school science. Generalized chemical reactions describe the manufacture of steel from iron ore. Also discussed are raw materials, processing choices, and how various furnaces (blast, direct reduction, open hearth, basic oxygen, electric) work. (CS)

Sellers, Neal

1980-01-01

369

Impact of different fules on reheat and nonreheat combined cycle plant performance  

SciTech Connect

The combustion turbine is capable of firing a variety of gaseous and/or liquid fuels. This ability offers the power industry the advantage of utilizing the most economical fuel available in the market. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate qualitative and quantitative performance differences of combined cycle reheat versus non-reheat configurations when burning three different fuels--natural gas, distillate fuel, and coal-derived gas (coal gas). The performance data include power output, heat rates, steam produced, stack temperatures and other associated design factors.

Tawney, R.K.; Kamali, K. (Bechtel Power Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Yeager, W.L. (Florida Power and Light Co., Juno Beach, FL (USA))

1988-01-01

370

Inflation and reheating in the Starobinsky model with conformal HiggsField  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a talk presented by A.A. Tokareva at Baikal summer school on physics of elementary particles and astrophysics 2012. We studied the reheating after the Starobinsky inflation and have found that the main process is the inflaton decay to SM gauge fields due to the conformal anomaly. The reheating temperature is low leading to the possibility to detect the gravity wave signal from inflation and evaporation of structures formed after inflation in DECIGO and BBO experiments. Also we give predictions for the parameters of scalar perturbation spectrum at the next-to-leading order of slow roll and obtain a bound on the Higgs mass.

Gorbunov, D. S.; Tokareva, A. A.

2013-12-01

371

Minimal supersymmetric Higgs bosons with extra dimensions as the source of reheating and all matter.  

PubMed

We consider the possibility that the dark energy responsible for inflation is deposited into extra dimensions outside of our observable Universe. Reheating and all matter can then be obtained from the minimal supersymmetric standard model flat direction condensate involving the Higgs bosons Hu and Hd, which acquires large amplitude by virtue of quantum fluctuations during inflation. The reheat temperature is TRH < or = 10(9) GeV so that there is no gravitino problem. We find a spectral index ns 1 with a very weak dependence on the Higgs potential. PMID:15323616

Enqvist, Kari; Kasuya, Shinta; Mazumdar, Anupam

2004-08-01

372

Determining Reheating Temperature at LHC with Axino or Gravitino Dark Matter  

SciTech Connect

After a period of inflationary expansion, the Universe reheated and reached full thermal equilibrium at the reheating temperature T{sub R}. In this talk, based on [1], we point out that, in the context of effective low-energy supersymmetric models, LHC measurements may allow one to determine T{sub R} as a function of the mass of the dark matter particle assumed to be either an axino or a gravitino. An upper bound on their mass and on T{sub R} may also be derived.

Choi, Ki-Young; Ruiz de Austri, Roberto [Departamento de Fisica Teorica C-XI and Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Roszkowski, Leszek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

2009-04-17

373

Computer modeling of copper microsegregation in continuously cast steel billets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacturing of high quality steel products will be possible only if the steel coming out of steelmaking furnaces is of acceptable cleanliness. Deleterious effects caused by residual elements, such as copper, must be identified in order to keep the effects within acceptable limits. In this regard, understanding the mechanism of microsegregation during solidification of steel is essential. This research

Ali Mehran Shahhosseini

1999-01-01

374

Study of hot hardness characteristics of tool steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hardness measurements of tool steel materials in electric furnace at elevated temperatures and low oxygen environment are discussed. Development of equation to predict short term hardness as function of intial room temperature hardness of steel is reported. Types of steel involved in the process are identified.

Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1972-01-01

375

Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by natural circulation to the waterwalls and divisional wall panels. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) without over-fire air and (2) with 20% over-fire air. The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from carbon steel to T91. The total heat transfer surface required in the oxygen-fired heat recovery area (HRA) is 25% less than the air-fired HRA due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are practically the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are very similar.

Andrew Seltzer

2005-01-01

376

Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr2O3, Ni, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency.

Mäkinen, A.; Niskanen, J.; Tikkala, H.; Aksela, H.

2013-04-01

377

Lead smelting in a submerged arc furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead is still principally produced in shaft and flame-fired furnaces. However, electric furnaces increase metal recovery, reduce environmental burdens and decrease energy consumption compared to conventional processes. Because lead has low melting and boiling points and aggressive slags, the design of the furnace, energy input, and slag conductivity and composition are very important. Secondary materials are easily handled in electric furnaces. Since additional amounts of lead will become available from secondary sources in the future, electric furnaces are expected to replace conventional smelting furnaces.

Rath, G.; Vlajcic, T.; Metelmann, O.

1990-06-01

378

An Improved Nonlinear STATCOM Control for Electric Arc Furnace Voltage Flicker Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) are prevalent in the steel industry to melt iron and scrap steel. EAFs frequently cause large amplitude fluctuations of active and reactive power and are the source of significant power-quality (PQ) disturbances. Static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs) provide a power-electronic-based means of embedded control for reactive power support and PQ improvement. This paper introduces a new nonlinear

Atousa Yazdani; Mariesa L. Crow; J. Guo

2009-01-01

379

Recycling and reheating of pyroclasts as possible mechanism for increased groundmass crystallization in basaltic tephra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tephra produced by explosive eruptions provides important information about magma ascent, vesiculation, fragmentation, and deposition. Mafic pyroclasts from strombolian eruptions are characterized by a wide range in groundmass crystallinity and can range from dense microlite-rich matrix to glassy microlite-poor clasts, often within the same eruption deposit and even within a single clast. However, the origin of these clast types, and the ascent and eruption conditions, is not well understood. The presence of both microlite-rich and microlite-poor matrix is a common feature of tephra deposits from cinder cone eruptions. Microlite-poor clasts are generally assumed to represent primary (deeper) magma that ascends rapidly and erupts. Microlite-rich clasts have been interpreted as slow-moving magma incorporated from along conduit walls, or stored temporarily in shallow dikes and sills; both scenarios call upon sufficiently long residence times within the upper crust to allow magma degassing and crystallization prior to eruption. An alternative explanation is additional residence time in the vent by recycling previously erupted clasts. In this study we induced groundmass crystallization in tephra by heating natural basaltic lapilli in a one-atmosphere Deltec furnace at oxygen fugacity (fO2) conditions of ambient air. Each clast was split in half (saving one half as a control) and heated isothermally for variable time intervals. Experiments were 5-60 minutes at T = 600-1000°C and 5-30 minutes at temperatures (T) ?1100°C. Images of both the control and the experimental samples permitted classification according to differences in groundmass texture caused by heating. We observed from our experiments that microlite crystallization initiates near the glass transition temperature (Tg ~690°C) within 20 minutes. The extent of crystallization increases with time and increased temperature. At greater temperatures (?800°C) rapid nucleation occurs within ?5 minutes. Pyroxenes are the first crystal phases to form at temperatures of ~690-1100°C, followed by oxides observed at temperatures >700°C. Plagioclase forms at temperatures >990°C, but was likely introduced below 900°C. Although crystallization is usually studied as a cooling-driven phenomenon, heating of glass to a temperature above the glass transition (but below the liquidus) also causes crystallization. By reheating the pyroclasts that were initially quenched at eruption temperatures (~1150°C) and equilibria, we are decreasing the glass viscosity to allow for element diffusion in an undercooled and supersaturated system, driving crystallization. As the clasts are heated effective supersaturation decreases and once the eruption temperature is reached, the sample should be at equilibrium with the phase assemblage of the erupted material. Our results suggest a recycled pyroclast will begin crystallizing almost immediately upon reaching Tg, and at high T (?800°C) <5 minutes are required for microlites to form. The occurrence of two microlite populations within basaltic tephra is not uncommon, particularly in strombolian deposits, and recycling of pyroclasts may be the mechanism for increased crystallization. Eruptions with low mass eruption rates are the most likely candidates for recycling due to insufficient strength to fully expel the pyroclasts.

Deardorff, N.; Cashman, K.

2012-12-01

380

IMPROVED STAINLESS STEEL PROCESSING ROUTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced melting technology is now being employed in the manufacture of stainless steel powders. The new process currently includes electric arc furnace (EAF) technology in concert with Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD), High Performance Atomizing (HPA) and hydrogen annealing. The new high performance processing route has allowed Hoeganaes Corporation to provide not only a more consistent product, but has allowed enhanced

Chris Schade; Robert Causton; Tina Cimino-Corey

381

Calculation and Analysis of Heat Transfer Coefficients in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new way for the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler research is proposed by the supervisory information system (SIS) in power plant level. The heat transfer coefficient in CFB boiler furnace is calculated and analyzed by the SIS calculation analysis in a commercial CFB boiler, the way how to calculate the heat transfer coefficient in SIS is introduced, and the heat transfer coefficient is accurately received by calculating a large amount of data from database. The relation about the heat transfer coefficient to unit load, bed temperature, bed velocity, and suspension density is analyzed; the linear relation could be accepted for the commercial CFB design. A new calculating and simple way for the heat transfer coefficient of CFB boiler is proposed for CFB boiler design. Using this research result, the reheat spray water flux larger than the design value in lots of commercial CFB boilers is analyzed; the main reason is the designed heat transfer coefficient smaller than the actual value.

Wang, Zhiwei; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Qinghai

382

Investigation of hydraulic activity of ground granulated blast furnace slag in concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product of the steel manufacturing industry, being used as an effective partial cement replacement material, has already been proven to improve several performance characteristics of concrete. The reactivity of GGBFS has been found to depend on the properties of slag, which vary with the source of slag, type of raw material used, method

S. C Pal; A Mukherjee; S. R Pathak

2003-01-01

383

Effects of main transformer replacement on the performance of an electric arc furnace system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effects of transformer replacement on the electric arc furnace power system of an iron and steel plant have been investigated. The new operating strategy has been determined according to stable arc and maximum productivity requirements. Based on these new operating conditions, the sufficiency of the existing flicker compensation system in terms of the load balancing, power-factor

A. Akdag; I. Cadirci; E. Nalcaci; M. Ermis; S. Tadakuma

2000-01-01

384

Recycling of an electric arc furnace flue dust to obtain high grade ZnO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of steel in electric arc furnace (EAF) generates a by-product called EAF dusts. These steelmaking flue dusts are classified in most industrialized countries as hazardous residues because the heavy metals contained in them, tend to leach under slightly acidic rainfall conditions. However, and at the same time they contain zinc species which can be used as a source

Oscar Ruiz; Carmen Clemente; Manuel Alonso; Francisco Jose Alguacil

2007-01-01

385

Flicker meter results of simulated new and conventional TSC compensators for electric arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) play a very important role in the hostile and rugged conditions of steel plants. By far the most important source of irregular fluctuations on a supply system is the EAF. Voltage fluctuations caused by the EAF, at their severest, are reflected as light flicker to other consumers connected to the point of common coupling (PCC). Reactive

S. Etminan; R. H. Kitchin

1993-01-01

386

Improved Electric Arc Furnace Operation Via Implementation of a Geno-Fuzzy Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. steel industry is growingly increasingly interested in the process of slag foaming in their electric arc furnace plants. Although slag foaming has been shown to improve plant efficiency, this highly dynamic process can be very difficult to consistently control. This article describes a computer control system developed to effectively manipulate the slag foaming process, and the implementation of

Charles L. Karr; Eric L. Wilson

2005-01-01

387

Online estimation of electric arc furnace tap temperature by using fuzzy neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial factories require continuous analysis and reengineering over its production processes but always keeping a severe control of material costs and operation emissions. In the past electric steel mills have been subject of some operation models developed in order to improve the control of the arc furnace by means of mathematical techniques and, later on, with finite elements technique (FEM).

José Manuel Mesa Fernández; Valeriano Alvarez Cabal; Vicente Rodríguez Montequín; Joaquín Villanueva Balsera

2008-01-01

388

Event-based intelligent control system of carbide electric arc furnace (CEAF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric arc furnace has been widely used in steel-making and carbide production. In the paper, the analysis of the construction of the CEAF and the procedure of the carbide production is considered first, then the design methodology of an event-based intelligent control system is presented for the electrode positioning control of the CEAF. With the output we make an

Q. P. Wang; D. L. Tarn; Y. C. Wang

2000-01-01

389

Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from

Gordon A. Irons

2004-01-01

390

Using adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system in developing an electrical arc furnace simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the use of adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) in simulating the regulator control loop of the electrical arc furnace (EAF). The regulator loop is the core part of steel making EAF, which controls positioning of the electrodes. The non-linearity and complexity of EAF makes it very difficult to use the classical mathematical modeling techniques in building the

F. Janabi-Sharifi; G. Jorjani; I. Hassanzadeh

2005-01-01

391

Usage of Organic Wastes in the Electric Arc Furnace for Iron Scrap Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic wastes are used in several metallurgical processes as a substitute for fuel and as a feedstock for carbon. The use automotive shredder residue on behalf of organic wastes as a substitute for electric energy in the refining of steel scrap in an electric arc furnace is discussed. A feasibility study is presented, investigating the various possibilities to utilize organic

Johannes Karl Fink

392

A fault analysis of DC electric arc furnaces with SVC harmonic filters in a minimill plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the most feasible solution to overcome the failure of the 2nd harmonic filter in the static VAR compensator (SVC) which operates with the DC electric arc furnace (EAF) at Gwangyang Steel Mill in Korea. In order to investigate the causes of this failure, various measurements were carried out on the DC EAF and the main transformer at

Hansang Lee; Gilsoo Jang; Byungmoon Han

2010-01-01

393

Enhanced energy recovery from the exhaust gases of basic oxygen furnaces through operation at pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical preliminary-design study indicates that it is potentially possible to produce about 14 MW of net power from the exhaust gases of three small basic oxygen furnaces in the Helwan plant of the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company, Egypt. The turbine exhaust gases would flow through one or more rotary ceramic heat exchangers, incorporating a neutral-gas purge stage, heating

N. S. Shenoy; D. G. Wilson

1985-01-01

394

FUGITIVE EMISSIONS FROM INTEGRATED IRON AND STEEL PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an engineering investigation of fugitive (non-ducted) emissions in the iron and steel industry. Operations excluded from the study are coke ovens, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) charging, and blast furnace cast houses. Fugitive emission factors for iron an...

395

Performance Analysis of the Reheat-Stop-Valve Mechanism under Dimensional Tolerance, Misalignment and Thermal Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reheat-stop-valve (RHSV) mechanism is a principal component in a steam turbine unit which controls the running state. Mechanical jamming and incompletence often occur during closing the mechanism. This paper proposes a method to quantitatively investigate the cumulative effect of dimensional tolerance, misalignment and thermal impact on the dynamic performance with shaft and bearing pairs in a RHSV mechanism. Finite

Xu Dong; Jin Ye

2009-01-01

396

Evidence for Fractional Condensation and Flash Reheating from Volatile Rich Objects in CH-Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CH-chondrites are strongly depleted in volatiles. Two volatile rich chondrules with bulk MnO up to 2.59 wt% were found, supporting the hypothesis that some CH-components formed during fractional condensation and were subsequently reheated to >1968 K.

Hezel, D. C.; Brenker, F. E.; Palme, H.

2003-03-01

397

Acoustic emission monitoring for inspection of seam-welded hot reheat piping in fossil power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although failure of the seam weld on reheat steam piping has been an infrequent occurrence, such failure is still a major safety concern for fossil plant operations. EPRI has provided guidelines for a piping management program base don periodic inspection. More recently, EPRI has also sponsored research to develop inspection techniques to both improve the quality and reduce the cost

John M. Rodgers; Bryan C. Morgan; Richard M. Tilley

1996-01-01

398

Significance of reheat cracks to the integrity of pressure vessels for light-water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reheat cracks usually manifest themselves as macroscopic defects, which are centimeters long and deep, and are detectable by the usual nondestructive examination (NDE) procedures or as microscopic grain boundary decohesions (GBD) that are beyond the limit of detection by commercial NDE procedures. This report has concentrated on the significance of the microscopic cracks that may go undetected. The probability that

Canonico

1977-01-01

399

Sampled Data Automatic Generation Control Analysis with Reheat Steam Turbines and Governor Dead-Band Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a systematic method of choosing the frequency bias parameter and the integrator gain of the sampled data supplementary control is presented by using the discrete version of the Lyapunov technique. The reheat effect of the steam turbines is considered in the state space model. The effect of governor deadband nonlinearity is considered by using the describing function

S. C. Tripathy; T. S. Bhatti; C. S. Jha; O. P. Malik; G. S. Hope

1984-01-01

400

Investigations in a Laboratory Plant for Reheating Scrubbed Flue Gases by Means of Heat Exchangers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reheating used to reduce SO2 emission from coal or oil fired power plants is discussed. Tube and plate heat exchangers were tested under scrubbed clean gas conditions. Extensive removal of the droplets contained in the clean gas, evaporation by means of r...

M. Y. Chughtai

1981-01-01

401

Performance of the Integrated Gas and Steam Cycle (IGSC) for reheat gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978, the Japanese government started a national project for energy conservation called the Moonlight Project. The Engineering Research Association for Advanced Gas Turbines was selected to research and develop an advanced gas turbine for this project. The development stages were planned as follows: first, the development of a reheat gas turbine for a pilot plant (AGTJ-100A), and second, a

K. Takeya; H. Yasui

1988-01-01

402

Demonstration of a Reheat Combustor for Power Production With CO2 Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about climate change have encouraged significant interest in concepts for ultralow or “zero”-emissions power generation systems. In a concept proposed by Clean Energy Systems, Inc., nitrogen is removed from the combustion air and replaced with steam diluent. In this way, formation of nitrogen oxides is prevented, and the exhaust stream can be separated into concentrated CO2 and water streams. The concentrated CO2 stream could then serve as input to a CO2 sequestration process. In this study, experimental data are reported from a full-scale combustion test using steam as the diluent in oxy-fuel combustion. This combustor represents the “reheat” combustion system in a steam cycle that uses a high and low-pressure steam expansion. The reheat combustor serves to raise the temperature of the low-pressure steam turbine inlet, similar to the reheat stage of a conventional steam power cycle. Unlike a conventional steam cycle, the reheat enthalpy is actually generated by oxy-fuel combustion in the steam flow. This paper reports on the unique design aspects of this combustor, as well as initial emissions and operating performance.

Ben Chorpening; Geo. A. Richards; Kent H. Casleton; Mark Woike; Brian Willis; Larry Hoffman

2005-10-01

403

Energy-Efficiency Directory of Oil Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this directory is to inform consumers about the energy costs of operating oil furnaces. Information contained in this directory includes the type of furnace, the output capacity, and the annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE). This direc...

T. G. Statt J. L. Coggins

1981-01-01

404

Energy-Efficiency Directory of Gas Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this directory is to inform consumers about the energy costs of operating natural gas or propane furnaces. Information contained in this directory includes the type of furnace, the output capacity, and the annual fuel utilization efficiency...

T. G. Statt J. L. Coggins

1981-01-01

405

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

406

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

407

Corrosion of furnace heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic investigations and field data indicate that corrosion of furnace heat exchangers is affected primarily by condensation tendencies caused by installation, design, and operating conditions and aggravated by the presence of contaminants, reports the Canadian Gas Research Institute. Designing for maximum heat-transfer efficiency can cause excessive chilling in some areas of the heat exchanger, resulting in condensation of combustion products

S. W. Khoo; F. D. Williamson

1976-01-01

408

Training Guidelines: Glass Furnace Operators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological development in the glass industry is constantly directed towards producing high quality glass at low operating costs. Particularly, changes have taken place in melting methods which mean that the modern furnace operator has greater responsibilities than any of his predecessors. The complexity of control systems, melting rates, tank…

Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

409

Acoustical Measurement Of Furnace Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple probes withstand severe conditions, yet give spatially-resolved temperature readings. Prototype acoustical system developed to measure temperatures from ambient to 1,800 degree F in such structures as large industrial lime kilns and recovery-boiler furnaces. Pulses of sound reflected from obstructions in sensing tube. Speed of sound and temperature in each segment deduced from travel times of pulses.

Parthasarathy, Shakkottai; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

1989-01-01

410

Crystal growth and furnace analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal analysis of Hg/Cd/Te solidification in a Bridgman cell is made using Continuum's VAST code. The energy equation is solved in an axisymmetric, quasi-steady domain for both the molten and solid alloy regions. Alloy composition is calculated by a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate its effect on melt thermal conductivity and, consequently, on the temperature field within the cell. Solidification is assumed to occur at a fixed temperature of 979 K. Simplified boundary conditions are included to model both the radiant and conductive heat exchange between the furnace walls and the alloy. Calculations are performed to show how the steady-state isotherms are affected by: the hot and cold furnace temperatures, boundary condition parameters, and the growth rate which affects the calculated alloy's composition. The Advanced Automatic Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), developed by NASA, is also thermally analyzed using the CINDA code. The objective is to determine the performance and the overall power requirements for different furnace designs.

Dakhoul, Youssef M.

1986-01-01

411

High temperature transparent furnace development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype transparent furnace was designed, fabricated, and tested at temperatures up to 1473 K. Radiation containment using an outer infrared mirror tube and convection elimination using vacuum insulation reduce electrical power consumption and heat loads on critical components. High vacuum was necessary to eliminate convection; even 0.001% atmosphere pressure caused large convective heat losses. A heat transfer model was developed to predict the behavior of the transparent furnace and permit projection of performance improvements resulting from design changes. The mirror tube that reflects infrared radiation and transmits some visible radiation was modified to eliminate radiation absorption in the mirror tube itself. Radiation shields were added to the ends of the furnace to further reduce radiative heat losses. Conductive heat losses were minimized by minimizing solid connections to the cooled furnace ends and by using quartz supports. All components were designed to survive high temperature operation. Extensive experiments were performed with a succession of preliminary prototypes, leading to a final prototype successfully tested at 1473 K.

Bates, Stephen C.; Knight, Kim S.; Yoel, David W.

1998-01-01

412

Effect of storage and subsequent reheating on viability of Listeria monocytogenes on pork scrapple.  

PubMed

We evaluated the fate of Listeria monocytogenes on commercial pork scrapple, a regionally popular, ready-to-eat (RTE) meat. We also conducted an informal survey to address consumer practices for storing and reheating scrapple. Of the 129 consumers who responded to at least one of the eight questions posed in the survey, about half (46.4%; 52 of 112) considered scrapple RTE, the majority (69.7%; 76 of 109) stored it in the refrigerator, and all (100%; 112 of 112) preferred to reheat it prior to consumption. Most respondents (83.9%; 94 of 112) reheated the scrapple by pan frying for 1 to 10 min at medium to high temperature. To study pathogen behavior, slices of pork scrapple were surface inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (ca. 2.0 log CFU/g), vacuum sealed, and stored for up to 60 days. Pathogen levels increased to 8.9, 9.5, and 9.9 log CFU/g after 44 (4 degrees C), 21 (10 degrees C), and 5 (21 degrees C) days, respectively. When slices 1.3 cm (ca. 55 g) and 1.9 cm (ca. 85 g) thick were surface inoculated with L. monocytogenes (ca. 7.0 log CFU/g) and then reheated in a skillet (191 degrees C) for 0.5 to 4 min per side or to target instantaneous internal temperatures of 48.9 to 71.1 degrees C, it was possible to achieve pathogen reductions ranging from ca. 2.2 to 6.5 log CFU/g. These data confirm that in the unlikely event of postprocessing contamination of pork scrapple by L. monocytogenes, proper reheating can appreciably reduce levels of the pathogen before consumption. PMID:20003735

Adekunle, A O; Porto-Fett, A C S; Call, J E; Shoyer, B; Gartner, K; Tufft, L; Luchansky, J B

2009-12-01

413

Weldability Study of the Structural Steel of the Angra II Reactor Containment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A weldability study of the German steel WSTE-51 based on mechanical, metallographic hardness as well as special tests such as the CTS, the Tekken, for cold cracking, and the Vinckier test for reheat cracking is presented. The welding process used was the ...

M. Santos Pinto

1980-01-01

414

A Model of thermal effects on the resistance of steels to cracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an example of processing of the results of laboratory tests that reflect the change in the conditions of the formation\\u000a of cold cracks associated with tempering of martensite structures on reheating. The processing is carried out using a proposed\\u000a model of thermal effects on the resistance of steels to cracking.

V. E. Zhogolev; Yu. G. Romanov

1997-01-01

415

Processing Method for Enlarging Partial Diameter of Steel Shaft Heated Locally by High Frequency Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present works effective application of partial preheating by high frequency induction to enlarge the partial diameter of middle carbon steel was experimentally investigated. The partial reheating was carried out by varying preheating times under the same electric power conditions. As all other conditions other than temperature remained constant during the diameter enlargement experiments, the partial preheating effects were

Kazuki Mori; Risa Suzuki; Nagatoshi Okabe; Xia Zhu; Tadashi Iura

2006-01-01

416

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

417

Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In glass manufacturing 70% of the total energy utilized is consumed in the melting process. Three basic furnaces are in use: regenerative, recuperative, and direct fired design. The present paper focuses on secondary heat recovery from regenerative furnaces. A diagram of a typical regenerative furnace is given. Three recovery bottoming cycles were evaluated as part of a comparative systems analysis:

J. G. Hnat; J. S. Patten

1982-01-01

418

Evaporation of iron during steelmaking in arc furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems of iron evaporation during steelmaking in an arc steel-melting furnace are considered. A procedure is developed for the calculation of the specific iron evaporation rate and the heat losses during evaporation. More complete absorption of the heat of condensation by a charge and the oxidation of iron vapors are shown to be promoted by the following factors: the presence of a slag coating, a decrease in the well diameter, an increase in the well depth, an increase in the electrode failure diameter, and directional supply of an oxidizer to the near-electrode zone.

Karasev, V. P.; Sutyagin, K. L.

2009-12-01

419

A self-reduced intermediate product from iron and steel plants waste materials using a briquetting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the possible solution for blast furnace flue dust which generates from the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company by forming self-reducing briquettes composed of flue dust and mill scale with different mass ratios, used in electric arc furnace to produce steel. The results indicated that the mechanical properties of the briquettes improved with increasing mill scale

N. A. El-Hussiny; M. E. H. Shalabi

2011-01-01

420

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

2002-01-21

421

Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing the disposal problems. Technical feasibility of a novel recycling method based on using hydrogen as the reductant was established under this project through laboratory experiments. Sponge iron produced was low in zinc, cadmium, and lead to permit its recycle, and nontoxic to permit its safe disposal as an alternative to recycling. Zinc oxide was analyzed to contain 50% to 58% zinc by weight, and can be marketed for recovering zinc and lead. A prototype system was designed to process 2.5 tons per day (600 tons/year) of EAF dust, and a preliminary economic analysis was conducted. The cost of processing dust by this recycling method was estimated to be comparable to or lower than existing methods, even at such low capacities.

Sresty, G.C.

1990-05-01

422

Implicit Newton-Krylov methods for modeling blast furnace stoves  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors discuss the use of an implicit Newton-Krylov method to solve a set of partial differential equations representing a physical model of a blast furnace stove. The blast furnace stove is an integral part of the iron making process in the steel industry. These stoves are used to heat air which is then used in the blast furnace to chemically reduce iron ore to iron metal. The solution technique used to solve the discrete representations of the model and control PDE`s must be robust to linear systems with disparate eigenvalues, and must converge rapidly without using tuning parameters. The disparity in eigenvalues is created by the different time scales for convection in the gas, and conduction in the brick; combined with a difference between the scaling of the model and control PDE`s. A preconditioned implicit Newton-Krylov solution technique was employed. The procedure employs Newton`s method, where the update to the current solution at each stage is computed by solving a linear system. This linear system is obtained by linearizing the discrete approximation to the PDE`s, using a numerical approximation for the Jacobian of the discretized system. This linear system is then solved for the needed update using a preconditioned Krylov subspace projection method.

Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computational Science Methods Group; Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-03-01

423

Glass melting furnace and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Leone International Sales Corp.'s new glass-melting furnace, heat transfer from the burning fuel to the melting glass is substantially increased by precisely adjusting the position of the burners to substantially reduce the excess-air requirement while maintaining an acceptable carbon monoxide level (35 to 50 ppM) in the flue gases, and to maximize flame coverage of the raw batch material

J. D. Nesbitt; D. H. Larson; M. E. Fejer

1974-01-01

424

Koon sainetsu nenshoki kenkyu kaihatsu yo tei sanso nensho shiken sochi. (Low oxygen combustion tester for high temperature reheat combustors).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a part of the development of high efficiency reheat cycle gas turbines, the combustion tester capable of testing under various oxygen content conditions at a combuster inlet was developed, to examine the flame holding, combustion and emission character...

1989-01-01

425

THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF OPEN-CYCLE MULTISHAFT POWER SYSTEM WITH MULTIPLE REHEAT AND INTERCOOL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program computes the specific power output, specific fuel consumption, and cycle efficiency functions of turbine-inlet temperature, compressor pressure ratio, and component performance factors for power systems having any number of shafts up to a maximum of five. On each shaft there can be any number of compressors and turbines up to a maximum of five each, along with any specified number of intervening intercoolers and reheaters. A recuperator can be included in the system and turbine coolant flow can be accounted for. The combustion-gas thermodynamic properties are valid for any fuel consisting of hydrogen and/or carbon only. The program should be used with maximum temperatures no higher than about 2000 K (3140 degrees Fahrenheit) because molecular dissociation is not included in the stoichiometry. Improvements in cycle performance resulting from the use of intercooling, reheating, and recuperation can also be determined. This program has been implemented on the IBM 7094.

Glassman, A. J.

1994-01-01

426

Constraint on reheating after f(R) inflation from gravitational waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a combined model of the primordial inflation and the present cosmic acceleration has been proposed in the context of f(R) gravity. This model is composed of the late-time acceleration term and an R2 term, which enables the model to avoid high curvature singularity and describe a quasi-de Sitter inflationary phase in the early universe. An interesting feature of this model is that the reheating dynamics after the inflation is significantly modified, in contrast to the original R2 model, and affects the shape of a gravitational-wave background (GWB) spectrum. Here we investigate the production of a GWB during the inflation and reheating eras in the R2-corrected f(R) model and compute a GWB spectrum. We found that an interesting region of the model parameters has already been excluded by the cosmological limit on the abundance of GWs.

Nishizawa, Atsushi; Motohashi, Hayato

2014-03-01

427

Study of Room Temperature and Humidity Control Method on Dehumidification System Reheated by Refrigeration Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ways to control the humidity and the temperature of the room accurately during the dehumidification operation reheated by refrigeration cycle on room air conditioners using R 410A was investigated. The indoor heat exchanger is divided into a condensing part and an evaporating part by a dehumidification valve which is located between these two heat exchangers. The indoor air cooled and dehumidified by the evaporating part is heated by the condensing part. The dehumidification capacity increased according to increasing the compressor rotational speed. And the reheating capacity increased according to decreasing the outdoor fan rotational speed. So the humidity and the temperature of the room was controlled to the setting values exactly by regulating the compressor rotational speed and the outdoor fan rotational speed alternately.

Nakamura, Hiroo; Funakoshi, Sunao; Yokoyama, Hidenori; Morimoto, Motoo; Saito, Kiyoshi

428

High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

Smith, James E., Jr.

1992-01-01

429

A Soup Model Study Comparing Flour Peak Viscosity During Heating and Viscosity of Flour Gels During Reheating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 72(3):233-236 A viscograph was used to study a model soft wheat flour-water gel of water) and consistently high reheated gel viscosities. Adding malted system that was based on the apparent viscosity of commercial soups flour to the model system, reduced the hot paste peak viscosity much when reheated to a serving temperature of 600C. Unless flours were more

CHARLES S. GAINES; ANITA KASSUBA; PATRICK L. FINNEY

430

Gravitational wave background as a probe of reheating temperature of the Universe  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the reheating temperature of the Universe can be determined observationally by future space-based laser interferometer experiments such as DECIGO and/or BBO if it is around 10{sup 6-9} GeV, depending on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. As an application, it may provide an evidence of the gravitino dark matter scenario, if it is the LSP.

Nakayama, Kazunori [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Saito, S.; Suwa, Y. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yokoyama, J. [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)

2008-11-23

431

Study of structure formation and reheating in the D3/D7 brane inflation model  

SciTech Connect

We study the spectrum of cosmological fluctuations in the D3/D7 brane inflationary universe with particular attention to the parametric excitation of entropy modes during the reheating stage. The same tachyonic instability which renders reheating in this model very rapidly leads to an exponential growth of entropy fluctuations during the preheating stage which in turn may induce a large contribution to the large-scale curvature fluctuations. We take into account the effects of long wavelength quantum fluctuations in the matter fields. As part of this work, we perform an analytical analysis of the reheating process. We find that the initial stage of preheating proceeds by the tachyonic instability channel. An upper bound on the time it takes for the energy initially stored in the inflaton field to convert into fluctuations is obtained by neglecting the local fluctuations produced during the period of tachyonic decay and analyzing the decay of the residual homogeneous field oscillations, which proceeds by parametric resonance. We show that, in spite of the fact that the resonance is of the narrow-band type, it is sufficiently efficient to rapidly convert most of the energy of the background fields into matter fluctuations.

Brandenberger, Robert H.; Dasgupta, Keshav [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Davis, Anne-Christine [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2008-10-15

432

Hot-water-furnace supplemental heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a hot-water-furnace, supplemental water heater to be used with a furnace of the type having essentially parallel, vertically-oriented, multiple heating tubes surrounded by water for conveying combustion materials from a firebox to an exit area adjacent the multiple heating tubes. The hot-water furnace forms a flat support wall at the exit area. The supplemental water heater comprises:

1987-01-01

433

Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

1992-12-29

434

Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

Dosaj, Vishu D. (Midland, MI); May, James B. (Midland, MI)

1992-12-29

435

Heating steels in vacuum  

SciTech Connect

It is recommended that high-strength and corrosion-resistant steels be heated in an electric vacuum furnace. Absence of oxidation and decarburization, decrease in the deformation of the part, increase in service life, plus safety, and nontoxicity in the shop, are cited as advantages. Annealing, carburizing, hardening, brazing, and sintering--all detailed-can be more efficiently accomplished in vacuum heating. As vacuum heating requires certain surface conditions, the compositions of residual mediums is studied. The microrelief and surface finish obtained after vacuum heating is determined. Annealing in a vacuum is compared to annealing in air, a depletion in manganese indicating a greater savings by use of vacuum. Ductility is also tested. The gas of special purity nitrogen is recommended for best results. In general, then, use of electric vacuum furnaces is recommended.

Marmer, E.N.

1983-03-01

436

Condensing furnaces: Lessons from a utility  

SciTech Connect

for the last several years about 90% of the new natural gas furnaces installed in Wisconsin have been condensing furnaces and a number of lessons have been learned. If you avoid the common mistakes, condensing furnaces typically can deliver heating savings of 20-35 % assuming the old furnace was in the 60% AFUE range. This article describes the common mistakes and how to avoid them: outside air needed 100%; benefits of sealed combustion; follow the installation manual scrupulously; how to avoid potential problems; tips on venting.

Beers, J. [Madison Gas and Electric Company, WI (United States)

1994-11-01

437

Influence of electric arc furnace pressure on power consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace steelmakers are aware of the fact that an over-evacuated furnace loses heat through the off-gas elbow. Quantitatively, how much energy can be lost by operating a furnace under too negative a pressure or how much can be gained by maintaining a positive pressure in the furnace is not known. Electric arc furnace emission regulation 40 CFR Part

M. Bender; R. Zemp; R. Ineichen

1996-01-01

438

Influence of electric arc furnace pressure on power consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace steelmakers are aware that an over-evacuated furnace loses heat through the off-gas elbow. Exactly how much energy can be lost by operating a furnace under too negative a pressure or how much can be gained by maintaining a positive pressure in the furnace is not known. Electric arc furnace emission regulations 40 CFR Part 60 AA and

M. Bender; R. Zemp; R. Ineichen

1995-01-01

439

Production and use of low-alloy steel for mine supports  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy and the Kommunarsk combine developed a new low-alloy semikilled steel 20G2AFps. The steel was made in a two-bath furnace with the following modifications: metal was tapped at a temperature of 15-20/degree/C higher, alloyed mainly in the ladle with blast-furnace ferromanganese and nitrided ferro-vanadium, and deoxidized with ferrosilicon or silicomanganese. The lightweight steel was equal in service to steel St5ps while more durable. There was a 15% decrease in rejections which reduced metal waste. Weight of the new steel was reduced by 19%.

Vikhlevshchuk, V.A.; Storozhenko, A.S.; Yakimenko, G.S.; Zigel', F.S.

1988-03-01

440

Behavior of Full-scale Frames with Slim Floor Slab Construction under Exposure in a Fire Resistance Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing and designing slim floor systems in steel-framed buildings. This article describes the results of a furnace test conducted on two full-scale composite steel frames with slim floor slab construction to understand their performance under fire loading. In one frame, the beam-to-column connections were protected, while in the second frame, the

Yuli Dong; Kuldeep Prasad

2009-01-01

441

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

1999-03-16

442

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1999-03-16

443

Development of High-Temperature and Low-Oxygen Atmosphere Controlled Furnace and Its Application to Metal Jointing Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal joining by brazing or diffusion bonding is typically performed at temperatures around 1573K. At such temperatures, atmosphere or vacuum furnaces are required to avoid metal oxidation while heating. The drawbacks of atmosphere furnaces are their use of explosive gases such as hydrogen and the inability of using metal conveyor belts above 1423K. In this study, a non-oxidizing continuous furnace that uses only inert gas atmospheres was developed to work in conjunction with a carbon/carbon composite conveyor belt that can be used up to 2873K, and was used in metal joining processes. The development of the furnace, its working principle and features, and its application in brazing and diffusion bonding of stainless steel are reported with supporting experimental data.

Kanda, Kiichi; Hashimoto, Hiromu

444

Modified induction furnace and process for removing zinc-containing metallurgical waste, with recovery of the metals therefrom  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention is based on a novel electric induction furnace design that enables the removal of zinc-containing filter dust (FD) originating from the production of steel (alloy or non-alloy) and the production of cast iron with galvanized steel scrap, using a novel process based on the carbothermal reduction of the metal oxides present in the FD, performed at the temperature at which the materials are melted inside the electric induction furnace. The electric induction furnace of the invention incorporates an electric arc or plasma beam generator to melt all the inorganic non-metallic material. The incorporation of this generator also enables the use of large volumes of molten slag.

2012-02-07

445

Nitride embrittlement failures of carbon steel and low-alloy steels  

SciTech Connect

Process-side nitriding and corrosion were observed in carbon steel furnace tubing. The embrittlement from nitriding and the corrosion from sulfidation reduced the furnace life to 1 1/2 to 3 years. Vaporization of jet fuel with the addition of gaseous ammonia occurred at a temperature that allowed nascent nitrogen to form nitride needles and hardened the tubes halfway through the walls. Aluminum diffusion surface modification into 1 1/4 chromium (Cr)-1/2 molybdenum (Mo) steel tubes had operated for more than 9 years without cracking or discernible corrosion.

Wynns, K.A. [Alon Processing Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-06-01

446

Fracture mechanism and toughness of the welding heat-affected zone in structural steel under static and dynamic loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the influence of the welding thermal cycle, the toughness of structural steel generally degenerates. Recently, the\\u000a intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (IC CG HAZ) was found to demonstrate the worst toughness in welded\\u000a joint, which was associated with its fracture mechanism. In this article, two IC CG HAZs of a structural steel were prepared\\u000a by welding thermal-cycle simulation

H. Qiu; H. Mori; M. Enoki; T. Kishi

2000-01-01

447

Evolving mechanism of eutectic carbide in as-cast AISI M2 high-speed steel at elevated temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution in type, size and shape of carbides in as-cast American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) M2 high-speed steel\\u000a before and after annealing were investigated. The micromechanism which was responsible for those changes was also analyzed\\u000a and discussed. At the initial stage of reheating, metastable M2C-type carbide decomposed continuously. M6C-type carbide nucleated at the interface of M2C\\/? firstly and

Bin Zhou; Yu Shen; Jun Chen; Zhen-shan Cui

2010-01-01

448

Refractories for vacuum degassing of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

New equipment for outside-the-furnace vacuum degassing of steel includes argon-oxygen refining units, circulation flow vacuum degassing units, and units for steel degassing in the ladle with electric arc heating. The refractories developed for use in this equipment include magnesia, periclase-carbon, corundum, alumina, periclase-lime, magnesia-dolomite, forsterite, and unformed and vibrocompacted refractories. The refractories were selected for heat resisting and thermal insulation

A. N. Sokolov; G. I. Kuznetsov

1988-01-01

449

Zinc recovery from blast furnace flue dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace flue dusts are a mixture of oxides expelled from the top of the blast furnace, whose major components are iron oxides. They also contain zinc, silicon, magnesium and other minor element oxides in lesser amounts. The direct recycling of flue dust is not usually possible since it contains some undesirable elements (zinc and alkaline metals) that can cause

B. Asadi Zeydabadi; D. Mowla; M. H. Shariat; J. Fathi Kalajahi

1997-01-01

450

Blast furnace coal injection in China  

SciTech Connect

The development of blast furnace coal injection in China will be summarized. The improvements in the technical process for pneumatic conveying, injection feed control, distribution and combustion of pulverized coal will be covered. Ideas are also described concerning the use of oxy-coal technology in a blast furnace.

Zhou, J.G. (Ministry of Metallurgical Industry, Beijing (China). Central Iron and Steel Research Inst.)

1994-09-01

451

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

452

Developmental testing of a programmable multizone furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multizone furnace was evaluated for its potential utilization for process experimentation on board the Space Shuttle. A temperature gradient can be created through the use of a series of connected temperature zones and can be translated by the coordinated sequencing of zone temperatures. The Bridgman-Stockbarger thermal configuration for directional solidification was implemented so that neither the sample nor furnace was translated. The thermal behavior of the furnace was measured and characterized. Limitations due to both thermal and electronic (computer) factors are identified. The results indicate that the multizone design is limited to low temperature gradients because of the indirect furnace-to-sample thermal coupling needed to blend the discrete thermal zones. The multizone furnace design inherently consumes more power than a similar (two temperature) conventional Bridgman type directional solidification furnace because every zone must be capable of the high cooling rates needed to produce the maximum desired temperature drop. Typical achievable static temperature gradients for the furnace tested were between 6 and 75 C/in. The maximum gradient velocity was approximately 10 in./hr. Several aspects of the tested system could be improved, but the dependence of the multizone design on high heat loss will limit Space Shuttle applications in the form tested unless additional power is available. The multizone furnace offers great flexibility but requires a high level of operator understanding for full advantage to be obtained.

Ting, E. Y.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

1986-01-01

453

Chaotic responses in electric arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the findings of ongoing research into the nature and extent of electric fluctuations occuring in electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These fluctuations are indicators of the state of the furnace system and may serve as precursors for use in predictive control of the system. Current and voltage wave forms taken from a small-scale, 200 lb capacity alternating current

Paul E. King; Thomas L. Ochs; Alan D. Hartman

1994-01-01

454

Recent developments in electric arc furnace operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provision of water cooled electric arc furnace walls and roofs, the increased use of iron pellets in the raw material charge, the use of solid state devices in electrode drive systems and the application of digital control are discussed. Integration of computer control of the separate aspects of arc furnace operation into an optimal direct digital control strategy for

A. S. Morris

1983-01-01

455

Chaotic responses in electric arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the findings of ongoing research into the nature and extent of electric fluctuations occurring in electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These fluctuations are indicators of the state of the furnace system and may serve as precursors for use in predictive control of the system. Current and voltage wave forms taken from a small-scale, 200 lb capacity alternating current

Paul E. King; Thomas L. Ochs; Alan D. Hartman

1994-01-01

456

Crystal growth furnace safety system validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings are reported regarding the safe operation of the NASA crystal growth furnace (CGF) and potential methods for detecting containment failures of the furnace. The main conclusions are summarized by ampoule leak detection, cartridge leak detection, and detection of hazardous species in the experiment apparatus container (EAC).

Mackowski, D. W.; Hartfield, R.; Bhavnani, S. H.; Belcher, V. M.

1994-01-01

457

Quartz Liner Tube Inside Tube Furnace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the American Physical Society, gives a brief description of a furnace at Kansas State University that is used in semiconductor research. An image shows heat radiation from the quartz liner in this furnace, which is used in silicon-doping experiments.

2008-09-10

458

Gas Pressure Sintering Furnace for Structural Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The grant was initiated on February 1, 1998. A no-cost extension for one year was requested in January 1999. We have designed, purchased and received a gas pressure sintering furnace from Centorr Inc. (Model 2723EP). This furnace is in full operation. We ...

I. Chen

2001-01-01

459

Method for controlling combustion in industrial furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for controlling combustion of atomized fuel in industrial furnaces, in which flame radiation and temperature distributions in a furnace are controlled into optimum conditions in terms of heat efficiency by adjusting a feed rate of an atomizing medium and\\/or a distal end position of a burner.

T. Suzuki; K. Morimoto

1985-01-01

460

Flame breaker for industrial furnace heating element  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a generally elongated tubular burner heating element for the furnace chamber of an industrial furnace there is provided within the heating element at an end thereof opposite the end at which the burner is located a flame breaker assembly arranged to extend along the length of the burner heating element comprising a plurality of generally circular baffle plates spaced

Stiasny

1979-01-01

461

Copper staves in the blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operational data for stave cooling systems for two German blast furnaces show good correlation with predicted thermal results. Copper staves have been installed in blast furnaces in the zones exposed to the highest thermal loads. The good operational results achieved confirm the choice of copper staves in the areas of maximum heat load. Both temperature measurements and predictions establish that

R. G. Helenbrook; W. Kowalski; K. H. Grosspietsch; H. Hille

1996-01-01

462

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode f...

V. Dosaj M. D. Brumels C. M. Haines J. B. May

1991-01-01

463

Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors  

SciTech Connect

The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

2003-02-28

464

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project public design report. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The public design report describes the Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection (BFGCI) project under construction at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. The project is the first installation in the United States for the British Steel technology using granular coal in blast furnaces. The objective is to demonstrate that granular coal is an economic and reliable fuel which can successfully be applied to large North American blast furnaces. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I-Design; Phase II-Procurement & Construction; and Phase III-Operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in April 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began August 1993. Construction is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by a demonstration test program (Phase III).

NONE

1995-03-01

465

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced b...

J. C. Crelling

1995-01-01

466

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced b...

J. C. Crelling E. R. Case

1993-01-01

467

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal i...

J. C. Crelling E. R. Case

1993-01-01

468

Process Development for the Removal of Zinc and Cadmium from Wastewater Using Slag—A Blast Furnace Waste Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag, a waste generated in steel plants in India, has been converted into a low cost potential adsorbent. The resulting product has been characterized and used for the removal of zinc and cadmium. The effect of particle size, contact time, and surface loading of zinc and cadmium on the adsorbent for their removal have been studied at the

V. K. Gupta; Arshi Rastogi; M. K. Dwivedi; Dinesh Mohan

1997-01-01

469

Hydrometallurgical recovery of zinc and lead from electric arc furnace dust using mononitrilotriacetate anion and hexahydrated ferric chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility at laboratory-scale of a new hydrometallurgical process for treating electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The proposed process is intended to extract zinc and lead from EAFD without destroying the iron oxides matrix. So, this material can be recycled by the steel industry. Independently of the origin of the samples, major

Nathalie Leclerc; Eric Meux; Jean-Marie Lecuire

2002-01-01

470

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced b...

J. C. Crelling

1994-01-01

471

Determination of zinc speciation in basic oxygen furnace flying dust by chemical extractions and X-ray spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing concern regarding the environmental and public health risks associated with airborne particulate matter (PM). The basic oxygen furnace is one of the most important atmospheric dust sources of the steel manufacturing process. It emits dust enriched in heavy metal such as Zn, which is assumed to contribute to the toxic potential of atmospheric PM. Dust collected

M. L. Sammut; J. Rose; A. Masion; E. Fiani; M. Depoux; A. Ziebel; J. L. Hazemann; O. Proux; D. Borschneck; Y. Noack

2008-01-01

472

Evaluation of Operation Records and Forward Applications of High Efficiency Blast Furnace Gas Firing Power Generation Boiler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Boiler No. 3 at the Chiba West Power Plant of Kawasaki Steel Corp. recently started commercial operation as the world's first high efficiency blast furnace gas firing power generation boiler. In a unit performance test conducted from March 17 to 20, 1984 ...

S. Ome T. Ishihara T. Toyoda

1984-01-01

473

High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical, numerical and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing furnaces. The research concentrates on a commercially available high temperature furnace using zirconia as the heating element and an arc furnace based on a ST International tube welder. The zirconia furnace was delivered and work is progressing on schedule. The work on the arc furnace was initially stalled due to the unavailability of the NASA prototype, which is actively being tested aboard the KC-135 experimental aircraft. A proposal was written and funded to purchase an additional arc welder to alleviate this problem. The ST International weld head and power supply were received and testing will begin in early November. The first 6 months of the grant are covered.

Smith, James E., Jr.

1988-01-01

474

A multi-zone muffle furnace design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Multi-Zone Muffle-Tube Furnace was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of providing an in-house experience base with tubular furnaces for materials processing in microgravity. As such, it must not only provide the desired temperatures and controlled thermal gradients at several discrete zones along its length but must also be capable of sustaining the rigors of a Space Shuttle launch. The furnace is insulated to minimize radial and axial heat losses. It is contained in a water-cooled enclosure for purposes of dissipating un-wanted residual heat, keeping the outer surfaces of the furnace at a 'touch-safe' temperature, and providing a rugged housing. This report describes the salient features of the furnace, testing procedures and results, and concluding remarks evaluating the overall design.

Rowe, Neil D.; Kisel, Martin

1993-01-01

475

Deoxidizing killed carbon steels refined in open-hearth furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

aluminum (20-40%) and silicon (10-20%) with diameters from tenths of a millimeter to i00120 mm. This plant has developed technical standards that ensure the delivery of aluminum slag satisfying TU 48-01-13--75 with respect to granulometric, phase, and chemical composition. The metallic phase (AI + Si) comprises 30-60%, and the slag 40-70%. The composition of the slag phase is as follows,

L. Yu. Nazyuta; N. K. Pashchenko; A. F. Kuznetsov; L. E. Smagin; E. I. Uvarov; A. M. Ovsyannikov

1978-01-01

476

Periclase-carbon products for electric steel-melting furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions Periclase-carbon articles made of sintered periclase powders, prepared with the use of the “press-packet” technolotical schedule, have a very low gas permeability and a rather high magnetic susceptibility.

L. B. Khoroshavin; V. A. Perepelitsyn; V. S. Turchaninov; E. P. Mezentsev; V. M. Bibaev; A. M. Chuklai; V. F. Chirikhin; G. P. Sorokolet; N. G. Tarynin

1986-01-01

477

Removal of lead and chromium by activated slag -- A blast-furnace waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blast-furnace waste generated in steel plants has been converted into a low-cost adsorbent. The resulting activated slag has been characterized and used for the removal of lead and chromium. The effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentrations, presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time on the sorption of lead and chromium were studied in batch experiments. Kinetic

S. K. Srivastava; V. K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan

1997-01-01

478

Effects of main transformer replacement on the performance of an electric arc furnace system  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the effects of transformer replacement on the electric arc furnace power system of an iron and steel plant have been investigated. The new operating strategy has been determined according to stable arc and maximum productivity requirements. Based on these new operating conditions, the sufficiency of the existing flicker compensation system in terms of the load balancing, power-factor correction, and flicker have been examined. All investigations made in this work are supported by real-time measurements.

Akdag, A.; Cadirci, I.; Nalcaci, E.; Tadakuma, Susumu

2000-04-01

479

Optical Sensors for Post Combustion Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking (TRP 9851)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working in collaboration with Stantec Global Technologies, Process Metrix Corporation, and The Timken Company, Sandia National Laboratories constructed and evaluated a novel, laser-based off-gas sensor at the electric arc furnace facility of Timken's Faircrest Steel Plant (Canton, Ohio). The sensor is based on a mid-infrared tunable diode laser (TDL), and measures the concentration and temperature of specific gas species present

Sarah W. Allendorf; David K. Ottesen; Robert W. Green; Donald R. Hardesty; Robert Kolarik; Howard Goodfellow; Euan Evenson; Marshall Khan; Ovidiu Negru; Michel Bonin; Soren Jensen

2003-01-01

480

Motions of alloying additions during furnace tapping in steelmaking processing operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical computations were carried out to describe the subsurface trajectories of spherically shaped particles (alloy additions)\\u000a during simulated furnace to ladle tapping operations in steel-making. Complementing this, experiments in a 0.15 scale water\\u000a model ladle of a 250 ton teeming ladle were also carried out so as to simulate the subsurface trajectories and total immersion\\u000a times of various alloy additions

M. Tanaka; D. Mazumdar; R. I. L. Guthrie

1993-01-01

481

Deep-hole carburization in a vacuum furnace by forced-convection gas flow method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carburization in the deep hole with high aspect ratio is a great challenge for the metallurgist. In this paper, the deep-hole carburization of JIS SCM415 as well as SNCM 220 steel with an aspect ratio of beyond 30 has been developed in a two-chamber vacuum furnace under low-pressure acetylene atmosphere by virtue from the forced-convection gas flow carburizing method. The

Fan-Shiong Chen; Lee-Der Liu

2003-01-01

482

Computer program for thermodynamic analysis of open cycle multishaft power system with multiple reheat and intercool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program to analyze power systems having any number of shafts up to a maximum of five is presented. On each shaft there can be as many as five compressors and five turbines, along with any specified number of intervening intercoolers and reheaters. A recuperator can be included. Turbine coolant flow can be accounted for. Any fuel consisting entirely of hydrogen and/or carbon can be used. The program is valid for maximum temperatures up to about 2000 K (3600 R). The system description, the analysis method, a detailed explanation of program input and output including an illustrative example, a dictionary of program variables, and the program listing are explained.

Glassman, A. J.

1974-01-01

483

Development of High Performance Stainless Steel Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced melting technology is now being employed in the manufacture of stainless steel powders. The new process currently includes electric arc furnace (EAF) technology in concert with Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD), High Performance Atomizing (HPA) and hydrogen annealing. The new high performance processing route has allowed the more consistent production of existing products, and has allowed enhanced properties, such as

Christopher Schade; John Schaberl

2007-01-01

484

Steels for pump-compressor pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steels were melted in electric arc furnaces. Cylindrical tubular samples 18 mm in diameter with a wall thickness of 2.5 mm were prepared from forged ingots 30 mm in diameter that were annealed. The samples were oil quenched from 1050~ and tempered at 400-600~ Cracking tests were made in distilled water saturated with hydrogen sulfide and in water with

G. V. Karpenko; F. N. Tavadze; I. I. Vasilenko; D. D. Ebanoidze; M. A. Ratishvili

1973-01-01

485

VACUUM BRAZING OF STAINLESS STEEL TO BERYLLIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique of brazing stainless steel to beryllium results in ; vacuum-tight joints twice as strong as those previously obtained. Pretreatment ; of the component surfaces, as well as the brazing operation itself, is done in a ; furnace capable of maintaining a vacuum of 0.1 mu . (auth)

Whitson

1962-01-01

486

[Study on quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag].  

PubMed

Quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline and crystalline contents in blast furnace slag was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The process of quantificational analysis method includes standard samples preparation, samples preparation, X-ray diffraction measurement and data treatment. The data treatment includes integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks in certain diffraction angle range, linear fitting and quantificational coefficient determination. The preparation methods of standard samples for X-ray diffraction of blast furnace slag were proposed, including 100% crystalline sample and 100% non-crystalline sample. The 100% crystalline sample can be obtained by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1 000-1 200 degrees C, and the 100% non-crystalline sample can be obtained by quenching the molten slag with enough water. The X-ray diffraction method of quantificational analysis of non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag was proposed with the 100% non-crystalline and 100% crystalline standard samples, and the quantificational coefficient can be obtained by linear regression on the integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks of X-ray diffraction in the 2-theta range 20 degrees-40 degrees. This method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 80%. The non-crystalline and crystalline contents of original blast furnace slag are obtained by combining the X-ray diffraction results and mathematical treatment, and this method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 90%, whose process includes preparing the 100% crystalline standard sample by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1000-1200 degrees C, samples preparation with the 0.02 interval in the 0-0.1 mass ratio range of 100% crystalline to original slag, X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples prepared and data treatment using iterative linear regression. The quantificational analysis method for blast furnace slag can be applied to various kinds of blast furnace slag from different steel plants. PMID:18479048

Yan, Ding-Liu; Guo, Pei-Min; Qi, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Xia; Wang, Hai-Feng; Dai, Xiao-Tian

2008-02-01

487

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is the first in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, ge...

488

The Evaluation of the Nippon Steel Corporation Reactivity and Post-Reaction-Strength Test for Coke.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nakanihon-Ro-Kogyo furnace and control equipment, designed for the determination of the Nippon Steel Corporation reactivity and post-reaction-strength test, was commissioned in March 1979. It was used primarily to establish the repeatability and, toge...

1980-01-01

489

Design of a 165 MWe reheat coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler for Nova Scotia Power Corporation  

SciTech Connect

In October 1989, a contract was awarded to Pyropower Corporation for the design, supply and erection of the 165 MW{sub e} reheat coal fired circulating fluidized bed boiler for the Point Aconi site in Nova Scotia, Canada. This order represented the largest capacity circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler sold to date. This paper presents the boiler design parameters, design arrangement and specific, unique design features such as the reheat system and reheat temperature control. A particular concern with the boiler design was the relatively high chlorine content in the coal fuel. To resolve this concern, a test burn was conducted in Pyropower's Research and Development facility in December 1989. The test burn and it's results are also examined.

Schaller, B. (Pyropower Corp. (US)); Darguzas, J. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (USA)); Fraser, S. (Nova Scotia Power Corp., Halifax, NS (Canada))

1990-01-01

490

Multisystem corrosion monitoring in a cyclic reheat test facility: Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report was the first stage of an EPRI-sponsored corrosion investigation utilizing the CAPCIS electrochemical monitoring system installed in a cyclic reheat test facility on a flue gas slipstream at the Scholz Steam Plant of Gulf Power Company. The primary reasons for incorporating the continuous corrosion monitoring system in the cyclic reheat investigation were that unexpectedly high corrosion rates had been observed in earlier tests at certain locations within the test exchanger and the precise reasons for these high rates of attack were not well understood. The corrosion behavior was not typical of the limited service experience on full scale units and the reasons for this required clarification. Controlled temperature weight loss and electrochemical probes were installed in the unit in place of three of the 1-inch diameter heat exchanger tubes. The corrosion behavior of Inconel Alloy 625 over the temperature range 260/degree/ to 120/degree/F (127/degree/ to 49/degree/C) was evaluated at mid-stream and sidewall locations. The efects on corrosion of operational variables and cleaning procedures were also evaluated. The severe corrosion attack sustained on the Inconel Alloy 625 was proved to result from a combination of effects which included the flue gas flow pattern, local cool-spots within the unit and preferential locations at which ash deposits could accumulate. 5 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

Farrell, D.M.; Cox, W.M.; Gearey, D.

1988-04-01

491

More on loops in reheating: non-gaussianities and tensor power spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the single field chaotic m2phi2 inflationary model with a period of preheating, where the inflaton decays to another scalar field ? in the parametric resonance regime. In a recent work, one of us has shown that the ? modes circulating in the loops during preheating notably modify the langle??rangle correlation function. We first rederive this result using a different gauge condition hence reconfirm that superhorizon ? modes are affected by the loops in preheating. Further, we examine how ? loops give rise to non-gaussianity and affect the tensor perturbations. For that, all cubic and some higher order interactions involving two ? fields are determined and their contribution to the non-gaussianity parameter fNL and the tensor power spectrum are calculated at one loop. Our estimates for these corrections show that while a large amount of non-gaussianity can be produced during reheating, the tensor power spectrum receive moderate corrections. We observe that the loop quantum effects increase with more ? fields circulating in the loops indicating that the perturbation theory might be broken down. These findings demonstrate that the loop corrections during reheating are significant and they must be taken into account for precision inflationary cosmology.

Katirci, Nihan; Kaya, Ali; Tarman, Merve

2014-06-01

492

Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) with the Experimental Apparatus Container (EAC) removed flew during the USMP-2 mission. During USMP-2, the AADSF was used to study the growth of mercury cadmium telluride crystals in microgravity by directional solidification, a process commonly used on earth to process metals and grow crystals. The furnace is tubular and has three independently controlled temperature zones . The sample travels from the hot zone of the furnace (1600 degrees F) where the material solidifies as it cools. The solidification region, known as the solid/liquid interface, moves from one end of the sample to the other at a controlled rate, thus the term directional solidification.

1992-01-01

493

Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development  

SciTech Connect

Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of furnace thermal dynamics, and design of control systems are addressed. The optical scanning system is shown to greatly improve pyrometer measurement repeatability, particularly where heavy floating slag accumulations cause surface temperature gradients. Thermal dynamics of the furnaces were determined by applying least-squares system identification techniques to actual production data. A unity feedback control system utilizing a proportional-integral-derivative compensator is designed by using frequency-domain techniques. 14 refs.

Lind, R.F.

1992-05-31

494

Standard operating procedure: Gas atmosphere MELCO brazing furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible with the larger furnaces. Accelerator- and experimental-related components best assembled by atmosphere brazing techniques are routinely processed by this facility

Waller

1988-01-01

495

Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

1986-01-01

496

Microstructural studies of advanced austenitic steels  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the first complete microstructural and analytical electron microscopy study of Alloy AX5, one of a series of advanced austenitic steels developed by Maziasz and co-workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for their potential application as reheater and superheater materials in power plants that will reach the end of their design lives in the 1990's. The advanced steels are modified with carbide forming elements such as titanium, niobium and vanadium. When combined with optimized thermo-mechanical treatments, the advanced steels exhibit significantly improved creep rupture properties compared to commercially available 316 stainless steels, 17--14 Cu--Mo and 800 H steels. The importance of microstructure in controlling these improvements has been demonstrated for selected alloys, using stress relaxation testing as an accelerated test method. The microstructural features responsible for the improved creep strengths have been identified by studying the thermal aging kinetics of one of the 16Ni--14Cr advanced steels, Alloy AX5, in both the solution annealed and the solution annealed plus cold worked conditions. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams have been developed for the temperature range 600 C to 900 C and for times from 1 h to 3000 h. 226 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

Todd, J. A.; Ren, Jyh-Ching [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science

1989-11-15

497

Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) with the Experimental Apparatus Container (EAC) attached flew during the USMP-2 mission. This assembly consists of a furnace module, a muffle tube assembly and a translation mechanism which are enclosed in the EAC. During USMP-2, the AADSF was used to study the growth of mercury cadmium telluride crystals in microgravity by directional solidification, a process commonly used on earth to process metals and grow crystals. The furnace is tubular and has three independently controlled temperature zone . The sample travels from the hot zone of the furnace (1600 degrees F) where the material solidifies as it cools. The solidification region, known as the solid/liquid interface, moves from one end of the sample to the other at a controlled rate, thus the term directional solidification.

1983-01-01

498

Reduced Electric Reactance for Electric Arc Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reduction of the high current circuit reactance of 3-phase electric arc furnaces which will increase the thermoelectric efficiency is discussed. The improvement is expected to result in savings of electricity and other consumables and in reduced netwo...

R. Kasper

1983-01-01

499

Magnetohydrodynamics in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines is conducting an on going research project to better understand the phenomena involved within electric arcs utilized in electric furnace steelmaking. With a better understanding of the physical and electrical characteristics involved, ...

P. E. King

1990-01-01

500

Design of an Experimental Electric Arc Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instabilities in electric steelmaking furnace arcs cause electrical and acoustical noise, reduce operating efficiency, increase refractory erosion, and increase electrode usage. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has an ongoing research project investigating method...

A. D. Hartman T. L. Ochs

1992-01-01