Sample records for steel reheat furnace

  1. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  2. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  3. 4. CLOSEUP VIEW INTO A REHEATING FURNACE IN THE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLOSE-UP VIEW INTO A REHEATING FURNACE IN THE No. 2 FORGE SHOP. THE FURNACE IS MISSING ITS REFRACTORY BRICK LINING. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  4. Energy efficiency assessment by process heating assessment and survey tool (PHAST) and feasibility analysis of waste heat recovery in the reheat furnace at a steel company

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minxing Si; Shirley Thompson; Kurtis Calder

    2011-01-01

    The steel industry is one of the most energy intensive industries, contributing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This research analyzes the feasibility of waste heat recovery and assesses energy efficiency at a steel company, Gerdau Ameristeel in Selkirk, Manitoba. The process heating assessment and survey tool (PHAST) determined that the overall efficiency in the reheat furnace is 60%. Flue gas losses

  5. Research on the identification algorithm and simulation relating to the radiation coefficient of metallurgical reheating furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaling Luo; Zhuang Chen; Liping Wan

    2010-01-01

    The Reheating furnace is the major energy consumption item of equipment on a rolling steel production line within a metallurgical enterprise. Creating an optimized control system for the reheating furnace by using industrial controlled technology to control the temperature of the furnace, is the main method to promote reheating efficiency and reduce energy consumption of the furnace. The radiation coefficient

  6. 7. NO. 2 CONTINUOUS SLAB REHEATING FURNACE OF THE 160' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NO. 2 CONTINUOUS SLAB REHEATING FURNACE OF THE 160' PLATE MILL. INTERIOR REFRACTORY LINING VISIBLE BECAUSE OF DEMOLITION. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 160" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  7. CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  8. Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

    2011-01-27

    The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement by Measurement and Control: A Case Study of Reheating Furnaces in the Steel Industry 

    E-print Network

    Martensson, A.

    1992-01-01

    , April 22-23, 1992 Table I. Furnace energy use in Sweden, 1989. Source: Jemkontoret, Stockholm, Sweden. Fuel Energy use a [GWh) ([10 9 Btu)) aI 1680 (5732) Propane 1272 (4340) Natural gas 48 (164) Coke oven gas 400 (1365) Electricity (induction...

  10. Automatic Control System of Car-Bottom Reheating Furnace 

    E-print Network

    Xueqiao, M.; Weilian, X.; Hongchen, Z.

    1985-01-01

    AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF CAR-BOTTOM REHEATING FURNACE Mei Xueqiao Xu Weili~n Zhang Hongchen No.2 Machine-building Plant China North Industries baotou,Inner Mongolia,China Corp~ratio~ (NORINCO) ABSTRACT ge size are euiqqed...-20% compared with same kind ces. Modification for thermal control ~ystem of reheating furnace No.4 At the basis of the modification of fur nace No.7 we modified the thermal control sYftem of reheating furnace No.4 in 1984.This furnaFe is a car...

  11. Oxidation of low carbon steel in multicomponent gases. Part 2: Reaction mechanisms during reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Abuluwefa, H.T.; Guthrie, R.I.L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Ajersch, F. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

    1997-08-01

    Oxidation behavior of low carbon steel during reheating in an industrial walking-beam steel reheat furnace was investigated. It was observed that scaling (oxidation) rates were reduced by reducing the input air/fuel ratio to the furnace, thereby lowering concentrations of free oxygen in the combustion products from about 3 to 1.5 pct. Laboratory experiments involving isothermal and nonisothermal oxidation were carried out in atmospheres consisting of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen. A general equation for the prediction of weight gains due to oxidation during reheating, using isothermal oxidation rate constants, was developed. The prediction of weight gains from nonisothermal oxidation conducted in the laboratory was poor, owing to a separation of the scale from the metal substrate which took place at about 900 C. The predicted weight gains during reheating in the industrial reheat furnace indicated that oxidation rats during reheating were intermediate between linear and parabolic, especially during reheating with high air/fuel ratio. However, the linear mechanism predominated. Laboratory isothermal experiments for oxidation in atmospheres containing fee oxygen showed that the magnitude of the linear oxidation rates were determined by the oxygen concentration in the atmosphere. It was concluded that the observed reduction in scaling rates during reheating of low carbon steel in the industrial reheat furnace was a result of the lower free oxygen level in the furnace atmosphere.

  12. Benefits of ceramic fiber for saving energy in reheat furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, A. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Refractory ceramic fiber products offer thermal insulation investment in reheat furnaces by helping to keep operating cost low and product quality high. These products are used in a range of applications that include: furnace linings; charge and discharge door insulation; skidpipe insulation; and furnace repair and maintenance. The many product forms (blankets, modules, boards, textiles, and coatings) provide several key benefits: faster cycling, energy savings and personnel protection.

  13. Hybrid optimization setpoint strategy for slab reheating furnace temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongjie Wang; Tianyou Chai; Shouping Guan; Cheng Shao

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigated a hybrid optimization setpoint strategy for slab reheating furnace temperature. Due to the complexity of the process dynamics, the strategy is divided into two parts: steady state zone temperature optimization and its dynamic compensation. Simplex method is adopted in solving the optimization problem and PID regulation and expert experiences are applied to dynamic compensation procedure, the PID

  14. Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, P. D.; Danda, A.; Embouazza, M.; Gazdallah, M.; Evrard, P.; Feldheim, V.

    2012-06-01

    The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities shows that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is in very good agreement with the Hottel and Sarofim's database. The 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is then integrated into AnsysFluent® Discrete Ordinates method under User Defined Function and CFD simulations are performed using these combined models. The simulations are done, with full combustion-radiation coupling, for steel reheating furnaces firing on three types of gases: BFG, COG and NG. The results are compared with the simulations realized with the 1-gray-gas WSGG model available in AnsysFluent®. The comparison shows that the 1-gray-gas WSGG model highly overestimates the steel discharging temperature as compared to the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model. Significant temperature differences are observed between the two radiative models, i.e. 116°C, 55°C and 67°C for the BFG, COG and NG cases, respectively. It can be concluded that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model should be used to calculate the radiation heat transfer in large industrial furnaces with more accuracy not only for low heating value gases such as BFG but also for high heating value gases such as COG and NG.

  15. Effects of sulfur content and slab reheating temperature on the magnetic properties of fully processed nonoriented electrical steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Chun-Kan

    The effects of sulfur content and slab reheating temperature on the magnetic properties of four fully processed nonoriented electrical steels have been investigated. Four slabs of nonoriented electrical steels with sulfur content in the range of 0.0006-0.0126 wt% were reheated to 1100, 1200, and 1300 °C, respectively. Then, they were hot rolled and annealed at 700 °C, cold rolled at the same condition and annealed at 820 °C in the salt bath furnace for 1 min to simulate continuous annealing. The ac core loss, dc hysteresis loss, and ac and dc permeability were measured at 15 kG inductions. It was found that the amount of inclusions in the hot-rolled bands increased with increasing slab reheating temperature and increasing sulfur content in steels. After final annealing, grain sizes of cold-rolled steel sheets decreased with increasing sulfur content and increasing slab reheating temperature. The main preferred orientations in the final annealed steel sheets were (0 1 1) <1 0 0> and (1 1 1) < u v w> ? fiber texture. Steel sheets containing 0.0032 and 0.0060 wt% sulfur developed a more stronger (0 1 1)<1 0 0> texture than other steel sheets. However, steel sheets containing 0.0126 wt% sulfur had the weakest (1 1 1)< u v w> texture during slab reheating at temperatures higher than 1200 °C. Both ac core loss and dc hysteresis loss increased with increasing slab reheating temperature and increasing sulfur content in steel sheets. Both ac and dc permeability decreased with increasing slab reheating temperature and increasing sulfur content in steel sheets. If sulfur content decreased from 0.0060 to 0.0032 wt%, there were great improvements in ac core loss, dc hysteresis loss, and ac and dc permeability. However, eddy current loss was almost independent of the sulfur content and slab reheating temperature.

  16. A new integrated control system for the reheating furnace of a hot strip mill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yorifuji; K. Morita; H. Miura; J. Ichihara

    1989-01-01

    An integrated EIC control system consisting of a motor drive (electrical) control system (E), an instrumentation control system (I), and a process computer control system (C) has been developed and applied to the reheating furnace of a hot strip mill. This system has a variety of operational functions and provides a higher level of control than the existing conventional system.

  17. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL AND REFRACTORY BRICK SUPPORT SYSTEM. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. 3. Copy of Drawing, 'United States Steel Central Furnaces and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Copy of Drawing, 'United States Steel Central Furnaces and Docks, General Plan, 4-26-62, Rev. 12-15-69.' Drawing courtesy of United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. Fireside carburization of stainless steel furnace tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Mirabal, E.; Molina, C. [PDVSA-Refineria Isla, Curayao (Netherlands); Mayorga, A.; Hau, J.L. [PDVSA-Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-11-01

    Most heavy Venezuelan crudes are recognized for having a high total acid number (TAN) that is usually associated with a high tendency to produce naphthenic acid corrosion. To resist this type of corrosion in vacuum heaters, 9Cr-1Mo steel and stainless steels containing molybdenum are usually recommended. In 1993 the original 5Cr-1/2Mo roof tubes of the furnace in a vacuum unit were replaced by stainless steel 316Ti to minimize tube replacement and increase heater reliability. Unexpectedly, some of the new tubes failed after only three years of service, and just one year after undergoing the last turnaround inspection. The damage occurred in the form of deep holes and perforations, starting from the outside tube surface on the fireside. Coke build-up occurred due to severe operating conditions, overheating the tubes on the fireside, above 675 C (1250 F). Metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) examination revealed internal and external carburization of the material due to the presence of coke and combustion ashes, respectively. The increase in the skin metal temperature facilitated the diffusion of carbon from these carbon-rich deposits into the low carbon content material (0.023 O/O).Depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries due to the massive formation of chromium carbides, resulted in a severe intergranular corrosion attack by molten salts rich in vanadium and sulfur due to asphalt burning. Normal operating practice demands the use of steam for the heater tubes to control coke build-up. This practice had been first reduced and then eliminated, during the past two years prior to the failure, because of economic incentives. This paper describes the root cause analysis conducted to account for these premature tube failures.

  20. The effect of titanium and reheating temperature on the microstructure and strength of plain-carbon, vanadium- and niobium-microalloyed steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyi-Chin Wang

    1990-01-01

    A series of plain-carbon, vanadium- and niobium-microalloyed steels with or without titanium addition were used to evaluate the effect of a small amount of titanium addition on the properties of steels. Titanium inhibits austenite grain coarsening during reheating and grain refinement was observed when the reheating temperature was below the austenite grain coarsening temperature. The lower the reheating temperature, the

  1. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL FABRICATION. STAINLESS STEEL WAS MACHINED IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING, BEGINNING IN 1957. (4/24/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by blast furnace slag and steel furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-gao Lu; Shi-qiang Bai; Hong-dan Shan

    2008-01-01

    We report the adsorption of phosphate and discuss the mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by burst furnace\\u000a slag (BFS) and steel furnace slag (SFS). The results show that the adsorption of phosphate on the slag was rapid and the majority\\u000a of adsorption was completed in 5?10 min. The adsorption capacity of phosphate by the slag was reduced dramatically

  3. Phosphorus removal by electric arc furnace steel slag and serpentinite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Drizo; Christiane Forget; Robert P. Chapuis; Yves Comeau

    2006-01-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag and serpentinite were tested in columns either alone or mixed with limestone to determine their capacity to remove phosphorus (P) from a solution containing initially 20mg P\\/L (for 114 days) than 400mg P\\/L (for 21 days). EAF steel slag was nearly 100% efficient due to specific P adsorption onto metal hydroxides and precipitation of

  4. Inter-process synchronization in steel production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. PETERSEN; K. L. SØRENSEN; R. V. V. VIDAL

    1992-01-01

    The development of strategies for sequencing slabs through the reheat furnace and rolling mill of a modern steel production facility is complicated by multiple, and often conflicting production objectives. Optimal energy efficiency through the reheat furnace may lead to inefficient rolling sequences or less than desirable product delivery schedules. Not only is model formulation complicated, but the combinatorial nature of

  5. Inland Steel's No. 7 blast furnace third reline

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrance, K.F. II (Inland Steel Flat Products Co., East Chicago, IN (United States)); Johansson, J.; Carter, W.L. (Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, IN (United States))

    1994-09-01

    The background information, investigation and benchmarking that led to a decision by Inland Steel to partially reline No. 7 blast furnace is covered. This approach reduced actual downtime on the furnace and extended the current campaign. This alternative allowed for the rebalancing of the physical plant of No. 7 blast furnace. Areas of scope covered are hearth, stack, stoves, gas cleaning and furnace top. Included are highlights of the execution of the project including schedules, blowdown, salamander tap, quench, dig out/descale, scaffolding used and brick installation. A summary of the actual results of the work is presented along with information on production planned, blow-in and the first 20 days of production.

  6. Desulfurization of steel outside the furnace with deoxidized converter slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Mel'nik; O. V. Nosochenko; N. N. Kulik; V. I. Ganoshenko; I. L. Buzun

    1985-01-01

    The sulfur content of steel has a significant effect on the quality of metal, especially its ductility properties. An increase in the sulfur content of the charge materials used in converter steelmaking is requiring the use of new methods of desulfurizing the metal. This includes methods used outside the furnace. The well-known methods of desulfurizing metal with synthetic and self-fusing

  7. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

    2003-01-20

    An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

  8. A thermodynamic analysis of a steel production step carried out in the ladle furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ünal Çamdali; Murat Tunç; Feridun Dikeç

    2001-01-01

    In this study, analysis of the second law of thermodynamics is applied to the ladle furnace in an important alloyed and special steel production company in Turkey. Taking liquid steel and stack gas temperatures and production time of liquid steel in the ladle furnace into consideration, actual work, irreversibility and exergy efficiency have been calculated. In general, exergy efficiency is

  9. Welding procedures to mitigate reheat-PWHT cracking in A710\\/A736 type steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Lundin; E. Upitis

    1996-01-01

    In the mid 1980s research on the behavior of the HAZ of A710\\/A736 type materials, at The University of Tennessee, revealed that a distinct sensitivity to reheat\\/PWHT cracking in the weld HAZ was in evidence. Subsequent work, sponsored by the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) of the Welding Research Council (WRC), more clearly documented the reheat\\/PWHT cracking potential in terms

  10. Development and study of out-of-furnace treatment of steel using DC arc heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protasov, A. V.; Bershitskii, I. M.

    2012-12-01

    The results of pilot studies performed to design dc ladle-furnace units are presented. The design, equipment composition, and technical characteristics of 15-t dc ladle-furnace units, which are intended for complex treatment of steel at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum and were designed by VNIIMETMASh, TsNIIChERMET, VNIIETO, and some other enterprises, are described.

  11. The Diffusion of Innovation among Steel Firms: The Basic Oxygen Furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Oster

    1982-01-01

    The major innovation in the steel industry in the post-World War II period has been the replacement of the open hearth furnace by the basic oxygen furnace. This article examines the diffusion of this important innovation at a more micro level than previous studies by focusing on plant behavior. Wide differences in the characteristics of the plants owned by a

  12. Characterization of steel mill electric-arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Sofili?, Tahir; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka; Cerjan-Stefanovi?, Stefica; Novosel-Radovi?, Vjera; Jenko, Monika

    2004-06-18

    In order to make a complete characterization of electric-arc furnace (EAF) dust, as hazardous industrial waste, and to solve its permanent disposal and/or recovery, bearing in mind both the volumes formed in the Croatian steel industry and experiences of developed industrial countries, a study of its properties was undertaken. For this purpose, samples of EAF dust, taken from the regular production process in the Zeljezara Sisak Steel Mill between December 2000 and December 2001, were subjected to a series of tests. The chemical composition of EAF dust samples was investigated by means of a several different analytical methods. The results from the chemical analysis show that the approximate order of abundance of major elements in EAF dusts is as follows: Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, Si, Pb, S, Cr, Cu, Al, C, Ni, Cd, As and Hg. Granular-metric composition of single samples was determined by applying sieve separation. Scanning electron micro-structural examination of EAF dust microstructure was performed and results indicated that all twelve EAF dusts were composed of solid spherical agglomerates with Fe, Zn, Pb, O, Si and Ca as the principal element. The investigation of grain morphology and the mineralogical composition of EAF dust were taken by combination of high resolution Auger electron spectroscopy (HR AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The analysis of XPS-spectra determined the presence of zinc in the form of ZnO phase and the presence of lead in the form of PbO phase, i.e. PbSO3/PbSO4 forms. The results of the X-ray diffraction phase analysis show that the basis of the examined EAF dust samples is made of a mixture of metal oxides, silicates and sulphates. The metal concentration, anions, pH value and conductivity in water eluates was determined in order to define the influence of EAF dust on the environment. PMID:15177746

  13. Upgrading of zinc from galvanic sludge and steel furnace dust

    SciTech Connect

    Siebenhofer, M.; Schweiger, H. [VTU Engineering GmbH, Graz (Austria); Lorber, K. [Inst. fuer Entsorgungs- und Deponietechnik, Leoben (Austria)

    1997-01-01

    Mining of zinc demands the upgrading of different residues of the refining process. A method, which had been used over a period of several years, was based on the so-called Doerschel process. From the chemical point of view, the Doerschel process is a high-temperature redox process, combined with a flash distillation (sublimation) step. This process is based on the reduction of zinc compounds with coke at elevated temperature. The metal is then evaporated, reoxidized, precipitated by filtration, and refined hydro-/electrochemically. Zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, germanium, and copper can be refined from solid feed material by this process. Modern waste management also needs such methods for the treatment of hazardous waste from different industrial processes, and the applicability of the Doerschel process in the upgrading of galvanic sludge, dust from steel furnaces, and scrap of portable batteries has been investigated. The feed material used for investigation has a mean zinc content of 15 to 25 wt% and a mean lead content up to 10 wt%. The presence of sulfate determines the anionic nature of feed material from galvanic sludge. The capacity of the kiln used in the investigation is about 10,000 metric tons per year. The efficiency of zinc recovery is about 95% to 98%. The matrix substances of the feed were dissolved in neutral to caustic slag. Sulfur dioxide was recovered by absorption, purification, and condensation.

  14. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed in situ from air and hydrocarbon gases

    SciTech Connect

    Stickels, C.A.; Mack, C.M.; Piepzak, J.A.

    1982-06-01

    Tests with air/hydrocarbon atmospheres in a Lindberg carburizing furnace using small steel stampings indicate that 1) butane-air blends, introduced directly into the furnace, form atmospheres suitable for carburizing, 2) the atmosphere's carbon potential is easily controlled by automatically regulating the inlet butane/air ratio to maintain a constant oxygen potential, 3) the free methane contents of butane-air and propane-air atmospheres are similar, but lower than that found in methane-air blends, 4) atmosphere CO contents are somewhat below equilibrium values because of hydrogen dilution caused by sooting in the furnace vestibule, and 5) at a given carbon potential, the amount of carburizing is the same for atmospheres formed from air and either methane, propane, or butane. In situ generation of furnace atmospheres for carburizing and neutral hardening from hydrocarbons and air introduced directly into the treatment furnace should result in substantial savings in the cost of furnace operation.

  15. Arc furnace recycling of chromium--nickel from stainless steel wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Barnard; W. M. Dressel; M. M. Fine

    1977-01-01

    Losses of alloying metals in furnace flue dusts, grinding swarfs, and mill scale produced during the manufacture of stainless steel are substantial. About 25 million lb Cr, 8.7 million lb Ni, and 150,000 lb Mo and other critical metals can be made available annually for recycling by a process developed by the Bureau of Mines. Stainless steel wastes pelletized with

  16. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed in situ from air and hydrocarbon gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack; J. A. Piepzak

    1982-01-01

    Tests with air\\/hydrocarbon atmospheres in a Lindberg carburizing furnace using small steel stampings indicate that 1) butane-air blends, introduced directly into the furnace, form atmospheres suitable for carburizing, 2) the atmosphere's carbon potential is easily controlled by automatically regulating the inlet butane\\/air ratio to maintain a constant oxygen potential, 3) the free methane contents of butane-air and propane-air atmospheres are

  17. Characterization and leachability of electric arc furnace dust made from remelting of stainless steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guylaine Laforest; Josée Duchesne

    2006-01-01

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is a toxic waste product made in the remelting of scrap steel. The results of a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) conducted on a sample of EAFD originating from the remelting of stainless steel scrap showed that the total Cr and Cr (VI) liquor concentrations (9.7 and 6.1mg\\/L, respectively) exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Regulatory Level

  18. To the problem of steel desulfurization in a ladle-furnace unit and a chamber degasser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Safonov; A. N. Smirnov; K. E. Pismarev; D. V. Proskurenko

    2010-01-01

    The laws of deep steel desulfirization in a ladle upon treatment in a ladle-furnace unit and after degassing are considered. On the basis of experiments, a mechanism is proposed for extraction refining by slag with allowance for the role of drop formation in the zone of gas jet outlet. The mechanism consists of several consecutive stages. Under vacuum, the process

  19. Steel desulfuration during processing in a ladle furnace nit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. I. Shishkin; O. A. Grigorova; A. A. Dobromilov; V. V. Gorbunov; G. V. Kuznetsov

    2008-01-01

    The increase in the range of steel grades and the increase in demand for new types of continuously cast steel for plates and pipe workpieces impose stringent requirements on the sulfur content, which should be 0.005?0.015%. The abilities of converter steelmaking for sulfur removal are limited. An analysis of the balance heats performed at the converter plant of AO MST

  20. To the problem of steel desulfurization in a ladle-furnace unit and a chamber degasser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, V. M.; Smirnov, A. N.; Pismarev, K. E.; Proskurenko, D. V.

    2010-12-01

    The laws of deep steel desulfirization in a ladle upon treatment in a ladle-furnace unit and after degassing are considered. On the basis of experiments, a mechanism is proposed for extraction refining by slag with allowance for the role of drop formation in the zone of gas jet outlet. The mechanism consists of several consecutive stages. Under vacuum, the process of stirring with an inert gas substantially enhances the desulfurization rate and can be restricted only by too intense steel cooling and in the absence of a free wall margin in a steel-teeming ladle.

  1. Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

  2. Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, L.; Taylor, T.A.

    1986-04-15

    A furnace is described. An elongate, cylindrical, combustion chamber is disposed horizontally in combination with a blower conduit means for creating a forced draft therein. The furnace is provided with an elongate water jacket surrounding the combustion chamber. The water jacket has a cylindrical outer wall and a heat-conducting, concentric, inner common wall, which forms the outer wall of the combustion chamber. An elongate water compartment is located entirely outside of the water jacket. A first heat transfer means comprises a first set of elongate, parallel fire-tubes axially-disposed in the water jacket in heat exchange relation with the water therein. Second heat transfer means comprising a second set of elongate, parallel fire-tubes axially-disposed in the water compartment in heat exchange relation with the water. Flow of water is directed through the inlet means, the first and second heat transfer means and the outlet means in succession, first into the water compartment in direct heat exchange with the second set of fire-tubes therein and then into the water jacket in direct heat exchange with the first set of fire-tubes therein and in indirect heat exchange with the combustion chamber through the common wall. The flow of combustion gases goes from the combustion chamber through the first and second sets of fire-tubes in succession. Conduit means is in heat exchange relation with the inlet which are air-filled, and from a closed pipe system. The thermally insulating layer rests on the pipes with sides of the thermally insulating layer carrying the lateral reflectors. The thermally insulating layer is provided with a dust lining on a side of the thermally insulating layer facing away from the pipes. Combustion air supplied to the burner is preheated together with a heating medium conveyed in the pipes, the heating medium consisting of the waste gases and the system air.

  3. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME V. ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  4. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME III. BLAST FURNACE IRONMAKING, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  5. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME IV. OPEN HEARTH FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  6. A Feasibility Study on Low Temperature Thermochemical Treatments of Austenitic Stainless Steel in Fluidized Bed Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruman, Esa; Sun, Yong; Triwiyanto, Askar; Manurung, Yupiter H. P.; Adesta, Erry Y.

    2011-04-01

    In this work, the feasibility of using an industrial fluidized bed furnace to perform low temperature thermochemical treatments of austenitic stainless steels has been studied, with the aim to produce expanded austenite layers with combined wear and corrosion resistance, similar to those achievable by plasma and gaseous processes. Several low temperature thermochemical treatments were studied, including nitriding, carburizing, combined nitridingcarburizing (hybrid treatment), and sequential carburizing and nitriding. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to produce expanded austenite layers on the investigated austenitic stainless steel by the fluidized bed heat treatment technique, thus widening the application window for the novel low temperature processes. The results also demonstrate that the fluidized bed furnace is the most effective for performing the hybrid treatment, which involves the simultaneous incorporation of nitrogen and carbon together into the surface region of the component in nitrogen and carbon containing atmospheres. Such hybrid treatment produces a thicker and harder layer than the other three processes investigated.

  7. Large-scale manufacturing of nickel aluminide transfer rolls for steel austenitizing furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K Sikka; M. L Santella; P Angelini; J Mengel; R Petrusha; A. P Martocci; R. I Pankiw

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first large-scale manufacturing of nickel aluminide IC-221M into roll bodies for the production of steel hardening furnace. One hundred and ten roll bodies were produced at Duraloy Technologies using the conventional foundry practice. Since it was the first manufacturing of this magnitude, foundry personnel were given special training with the melting of IC-221M by the Exo-Melt™

  8. To the problem of steel desulfurization in a ladle-furnace unit and a chamber degasser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Safonov; A. N. Smirnov; K. E. Pismarev; D. V. Proskurenko

    2010-01-01

    The laws of deep steel desulfirization in a ladle upon treatment in a ladle-furnace unit and after degassing are considered.\\u000a On the basis of experiments, a mechanism is proposed for extraction refining by slag with allowance for the role of drop formation\\u000a in the zone of gas jet outlet. The mechanism consists of several consecutive stages. Under vacuum, the process

  9. Tests of periclase-carbon refractories in an arc steel-melting furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorov, S.A.; Boriskova, T.I.; Perepelitsyn, A.A.; Sizov, V.I.; Smilovitskii, A.M.

    1986-05-01

    An experimental lot of unfired periclase-carbon parts was produced and tested in a DSP-25 arc steel melting furnace. The average wear rate of the experimental parts was 30% less than for PKhS parts and with a decrease in the lining thickness from 460 to 230 mm the wear rate dropped by 2-2.5 times. During service a complex infiltration-metasomatic zonality if formed. The metasomatism has an iron-silicate character. The wear of the periclase-carbon parts occurs primarily by fusion of the decarburized subzone of the working zone and of the scorified crust penetrated by silicates.

  10. Mathematical Model for Decarburization of Ultra-low Carbon Steel in Single Snorkel Refining Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zhimin; Cheng, Guoguang; Wang, Xinchao; Qin, Zhe; Tian, Jun; Zhang, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A dynamic model is developed to investigate decarburization behavior of a new type of refining equipment named Single Snorkel Refining Furnace (SSRF) in treating ultra-low carbon steel. Decarburization reactions in SSRF are considered to take place at three sites: Ar bubble surface, the bulk steel, and the bath surface. With the eccentricity of the porous plug ( r e/ R S) and the ratio of the snorkel diameter to the ladle diameter ( D S/ D L) of SSRF confirmed, circulation flow rate of molten steel is obtained through combined effects of vacuum pressure and gas flow rate. Besides, variation of the steel temperature is simulated associated with generated reaction heat and heat losses. The variation of C concentration with treatment time is divided into three stages in accordance with decarburization rates and the simulated C concentration is in reasonable agreement with actual production data. In the present study, both decarburization rates at three sites and their contributions to the overall decarburization at each stage are estimated for the first time. Through the present investigation, it is clear that vacuum pressure significantly influences decarburization efficiency of SSRF primarily by affecting the depth of CO nucleation in the bulk steel. Besides, effects of gas flow rate on decarburization rate of different stages are obtained and the opportunity of increasing gas flow rate during the treatment period has been clarified. The present model provides an efficient tool to comprehend the decarburization process in SSRF.

  11. Mathematical Model for Decarburization of Ultra-low Carbon Steel in Single Snorkel Refining Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zhimin; Cheng, Guoguang; Wang, Xinchao; Qin, Zhe; Tian, Jun; Zhang, Jian

    2014-09-01

    A dynamic model is developed to investigate decarburization behavior of a new type of refining equipment named Single Snorkel Refining Furnace (SSRF) in treating ultra-low carbon steel. Decarburization reactions in SSRF are considered to take place at three sites: Ar bubble surface, the bulk steel, and the bath surface. With the eccentricity of the porous plug (r e/R S) and the ratio of the snorkel diameter to the ladle diameter (D S/D L) of SSRF confirmed, circulation flow rate of molten steel is obtained through combined effects of vacuum pressure and gas flow rate. Besides, variation of the steel temperature is simulated associated with generated reaction heat and heat losses. The variation of C concentration with treatment time is divided into three stages in accordance with decarburization rates and the simulated C concentration is in reasonable agreement with actual production data. In the present study, both decarburization rates at three sites and their contributions to the overall decarburization at each stage are estimated for the first time. Through the present investigation, it is clear that vacuum pressure significantly influences decarburization efficiency of SSRF primarily by affecting the depth of CO nucleation in the bulk steel. Besides, effects of gas flow rate on decarburization rate of different stages are obtained and the opportunity of increasing gas flow rate during the treatment period has been clarified. The present model provides an efficient tool to comprehend the decarburization process in SSRF.

  12. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  13. An Investigation on Low-Temperature Thermochemical Treatments of Austenitic Stainless Steel in Fluidized Bed Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruman, E.; Sun, Y.; Triwiyanto, A.; Manurung, Y. H. P.; Adesta, E. Y.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the feasibility of using an industrial fluidized bed furnace to perform low-temperature thermochemical treatments of austenitic stainless steels has been studied, with the aim to produce expanded austenite layers with combined wear and corrosion resistance, similar to those achievable by plasma and gaseous processes. Several low-temperature thermochemical treatments were studied, including nitriding, carburizing, combined nitriding-carburizing (hybrid treatment), and sequential carburizing and nitriding. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to produce expanded austenite layers on the investigated austenitic stainless steel by the fluidized bed heat treatment technique, thus widening the application window for the novel low-temperature processes. The results also demonstrate that the fluidized bed furnace is the most effective for performing the hybrid treatment, which involves the simultaneous incorporation of nitrogen and carbon together into the surface region of the component in nitrogen- and carbon-containing atmospheres. Such hybrid treatment produces a thicker and harder layer than the other three processes investigated.

  14. [Phosphorus adsorption and regeneration of electric arc furnace steel slag as wetland medium].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Li-hua; He, Lian-sheng; Xi, Bei-dou; Chen, Yue; Meng, Rui; Huo, Shou-liang; Liu, Hong-liang

    2008-12-01

    The long-term phosphorus (P) adsorption and retention capacities of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag materials derived from one batch and a 278-d column experiments with a synthetic P solution were compared. The investigations of the regeneration of the P adsorption capacity by water level decrease was conducted. It was revealed column experiment on a long-term basis can determine P saturation of EAF accurately. And the results can be used for realistic estimations of constructed wetland systems (CWS) longevity. EAF slag showed a high afinity for P, reaching a saturation value of 1.65 g/kg. Regeneration experiment of the P adsorbing capacity by this material showed that, after 4 weeks of water level decrease, EAF steel slag was able to increase its initial P adsorption capacity to 2.65 g/kg. A sequential P fractionation experiment was performed to quantify the proportion of P bound to mineral compounds in EAF. From the most loosely bound to the most strongly bound P fraction, P1 was associated with resin extractable (13%), Fe extractable (0.5 mol/L Na2CO3, 39%), Al extractable (0.1 mol/L NaOH, 21%), Ca extractable (1 mol/L HCl, 13%), and Ca in a stable residual pool (concentrated hot HCl, 14%). X-ray fluorescence analyses of EAF steel slag chemical composition revealed that the continuous application of a P solution resulted in 300% and 170% increases in K2O and P2O5, respectively. Al2O3 and FeO increased by 8%, while the portion of CaO remained unchanged. The investigated properties (P retention potential, regeneration of P adsorption, P fractionation) provide useful data about the suitability of slag material as a media for longterm P removal and dry-wet operation can improve P retention capacity of EAF to prolong the longevity of full-scale CWS. PMID:19256377

  15. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    DOEpatents

    Howard, Stanley R. (Windsor, SC); Korinko, Paul S. (Aiken, SC)

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  16. An approach for phosphate removal with quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag as seed crystal.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Liping; Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Shoubin; Yang, Zhongxi; Li, Yanbo

    2012-01-01

    The phosphate removal abilities and crystallization performance of quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag were investigated. The residual phosphate concentrations in the reaction solutions were not changed by addition of the ceramsite, quartz sand and blast furnace slag. The steel slag could provide alkalinity and Ca(2+) to the reaction solution due to its hydration activity, and performed a better phosphate removal performance than the other three. Under the conditions of Ca/P 2.0, pH 8.5 and 10 mg P/L, the phosphate crystallization occurred during 12 h. The quartz sand and ceramsite did not improve the phosphate crystallization, but steel slag was an effective seed crystal. The phosphate concentration decreased drastically after 12 h after addition of steel slag, and near complete removal was achieved after 48 h. The XRD analysis showed that the main crystallization products were hydroxyapatite (HAP) and the crystallinity increased with the reaction time. Phosphate was successfully recovered from low phosphate concentration wastewater using steel slag as seed material. PMID:22378001

  17. Assessment of hexavalent chromium release in Malaysian electric arc furnace steel slag for fertilizer usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankole, L. K.; Rezan, S. A.; Sharif, N. M.

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the leaching of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) from electric arc furnace steel slag as Cr (VI) is classified as human carcinogen. Batch leaching tests were performed for 16 days. The lixiviants used were alkaline, de-ionized and rain water. After 16 days, Cr (VI) was found to be highest in alkaline water (0.03 mg/L) and lowest in de-ionized water (0.01 mg/L). Besides the lixiviants used, slag stirring speed and liquid to solid ratio also affect Cr (VI) released. The experimental work was complimented with slag characterization using XRF, XRD and SEM/EDX analysis. The leaching process was also simulated via Factsage software to calculate isothermal pourbaix diagrams. The Cr (VI) released was low and below the threshold of 0.1 mg/L set for public water systems. Recycle the slag as fertilizer should be considered safe as it does not exceed the safety limit set for Cr (VI) dissolution.

  18. Reduction of undesired harmonic components in a steel industrial plant with DC electric arc furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arash Dehestani Kolagar; Abbas Shoulaie

    2011-01-01

    An electric arc furnace is a nonlinear, time varying load with stochastic behavior, which gives rise to harmonics, interharminics and voltage flicker. Since a power system has finite impedance, the current distortion caused by a DC electric arc furnace load creates a corresponding voltage distortion in the supply lines. The current and voltage harmonic distortion causes several problems in electrical

  19. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

  20. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part III. Control of furnace atmosphere composition with a zirconia oxygen sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack; J. A. Pieprzak

    1980-01-01

    Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed-quench furnace using furnace atmospheres produced by the reaction of propane and air within the furnace. The air-propane ratio of the inlet gases was automatically controlled to maintain a constant oxygen potential, as measured by a zirconia oxygen sensor, within the furnace. The results of carburizing trials at 843 and 927 °C

  1. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part III. Control of furnace atmosphere composition with a zirconia oxygen sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack; J. A. Pieprzak

    1980-01-01

    Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed-quench furnace using furnace atmospheres produced by the\\u000a reaction of propane and air within the furnace. The air-propane ratio of the inlet gases was automatically controlled to maintain\\u000a a constant oxygen potential, as measured by a zirconia oxygen sensor, within the furnace. The results of carburizing trials\\u000a at 843 and 927 ?C

  2. Experimental evaluation of high performance base course and road base asphalt concrete with electric arc furnace steel slags.

    PubMed

    Pasetto, Marco; Baldo, Nicola

    2010-09-15

    The paper presents the results of a laboratory study aimed at verifying the use of two types of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slags as substitutes for natural aggregates, in the composition of base course and road base asphalt concrete (BBAC) for flexible pavements. The trial was composed of a preliminary study of the chemical, physical, mechanical and leaching properties of the EAF steel slags, followed by the mix design and performance characterization of the bituminous mixes, through gyratory compaction tests, permanent deformation tests, stiffness modulus tests at various temperatures, fatigue tests and indirect tensile strength tests. All the mixtures with EAF slags presented better mechanical characteristics than those of the corresponding asphalts with natural aggregate and satisfied the requisites for acceptance in the Italian road sector technical standards, thus resulting as suitable for use in road construction. PMID:20566237

  3. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  4. 34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace operator on platform measures temperature inside bottle car. Looking southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  5. Single casing reheat turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushima, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Shigeo

    1999-07-01

    For conventional power plants, regenerative reheat steam turbines have been accepted as the most practical method to meet the demand for efficient and economical power generation. Recently the application of reheat steam turbines for combined cycle power plant began according to the development of large-capacity high temperature gas turbine. The two casing double flow turbine has been applied for this size of reheat steam turbine. The single casing reheat turbine can offer economical and compact power plant. Through development of HP-LP combined rotor and long LP blading series, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. had developed a single casing reheat steam turbine series and began to use it in actual plants. Six units are already in operation and another seven units are under manufacturing. Multiple benefits of single casing reheat turbine are smaller space requirements, shorter construction and erection period, equally good performance, easier operation and maintenance, shorter overhaul period, smaller initial investment, lower transportation expense and so on. Furthermore, single exhaust steam turbine makes possible to apply axial exhaust type, which will lower the height of T/G foundation and T/G housing. The single casing reheat turbine has not only compact and economical configuration itself but also it can reduce the cost of civil construction. In this paper, major developments and design features of the single casing reheat turbine are briefly discussed and operating experience, line-up and technical consideration for performance improvement are presented.

  6. Steady State Heat Transfer of Ladle Furnace During Steel Production Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ünal Çamdali; Murat. Tunç

    2006-01-01

    The heat transfer analysis was performed for an industrial ladle furnace (LF) with a capacity of 55–57 t in Turkey. The heat losses by conduction, convection and radiation from outer and bottom surfaces, top and electrodes of LF were determined in detail. Finally, some suggestions about decreasing heat losses were presented.

  7. Super-carburization of low alloy steel in a vacuum furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee-Der Liu; Fan-Shiong Chen

    2004-01-01

    The super-carburization process can provide outstanding performance in the surface hardening of high-alloyed steel. Because of the large amount of massive carbides accumulated in the steel surface caused by a repeated process of carburization and precipitation, the hardness and wear resistance of the work will be significantly improved. However, the fatigue strength of the high-alloyed steel is reduced due to

  8. Banking the Furnace: Restructuring of the Steel Industry in Eight Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Trevor

    A study examined how the cross-national differences in the social contract among managers, unions, and government influenced adjustment strategies in steel. The restructuring process in eight major steel-producing countries was studied to determine who bore the costs of restructuring--employers, employees, or government--and which industrial…

  9. Mathematical simulation of electromagnetic stirring of liquid steel in a DC arc furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Smirnov; V. V. Kalaev; S. M. Hekhamin; M. M. Krutyanskii; S. N. Kolgatin; I. S. Nekhamin

    2010-01-01

    Results are given of numerical simulation of electromagnetic stirring of metal melt in a dc arc furnace. The flow pattern\\u000a and the transport of passive admixture in baths with one and two electrodes are studied. The mathematical model describes\\u000a three-dimensional turbulent flow of electrically conducting liquid in the field of gravitational and electromagnetic forces.\\u000a The parameters of turbulence are calculated

  10. Selection of the optimal composition of steel for manufacturing furnace tubes of catalytic-reforming units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Meshoheryakova

    1979-01-01

    Smaller-diameter and, therefore, thinner-walled (up to 5-9 mm wall thickness) furnace tubes are used in modern, large catalytic-reform ing units. In addition, the tube wails may be heated to 620~ Under such conditions, the carburization process of the tube metal has an even greater effect on the tubes' operating reliability because when the tube wall temperature is increased, the carburization

  11. Large-Scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rools In A Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethlehem Steel's (now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill

    SciTech Connect

    John Mengel; Anthony Martocci; Larry Fabina; RObert Petrusha; Ronald Chango

    2003-09-01

    At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system.

  12. Reheating Brane Worlds

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Piljin [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 207-43 Cheongryangri-Dong, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-02

    We consider reheating processes at the end of string theory inflation involving unstable D-brane systems. Nucleosynthesis restricts how much of reheating energy may be present in the nonstandard matter sector, such as gravitons and gravitinos, introducing some constraints on reheating process. In string theory setting, these may not be avoided ad hoc by fine-tuning and provide a useful tool in weeding out unrealistic scenarios. In this talk, we how the energy gets deposited into various light degrees of freedom in open and closed strings sectors. We show that a viable reheating is possible in a single throat case of KKLMMT type inflation model. Depending on details of the geometry, however, a potential problem with long-lived KK relic is present. For multi-throat case, this problem of KK relic is typically more severe and generic.

  13. Observing inflationary reheating.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jérôme; Ringeval, Christophe; Vennin, Vincent

    2015-02-27

    Reheating is the epoch which connects inflation to the subsequent hot big-bang phase. Conceptually very important, this era is, however, observationally poorly known. We show that the current Planck satellite measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies constrain the kinematic properties of the reheating era for most of the inflationary models. This result is obtained by deriving the marginalized posterior distributions of the reheating parameter for about 200 models of slow-roll inflation. Weighted by the statistical evidence of each model to explain the data, we show that the Planck 2013 measurements induce an average reduction of the posterior-to-prior volume by 40%. Making some additional assumptions on reheating, such as specifying a mean equation of state parameter, or focusing the analysis on peculiar scenarios, can enhance or reduce this constraint. Our study also indicates that the Bayesian evidence of a model can substantially be affected by the reheating properties. The precision of the current CMB data is therefore such that estimating the observational performance of a model now requires incorporating information about its reheating history. PMID:25768752

  14. Observing Inflationary Reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jérôme; Ringeval, Christophe; Vennin, Vincent

    2015-02-01

    Reheating is the epoch which connects inflation to the subsequent hot big-bang phase. Conceptually very important, this era is, however, observationally poorly known. We show that the current Planck satellite measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies constrain the kinematic properties of the reheating era for most of the inflationary models. This result is obtained by deriving the marginalized posterior distributions of the reheating parameter for about 200 models of slow-roll inflation. Weighted by the statistical evidence of each model to explain the data, we show that the Planck 2013 measurements induce an average reduction of the posterior-to-prior volume by 40%. Making some additional assumptions on reheating, such as specifying a mean equation of state parameter, or focusing the analysis on peculiar scenarios, can enhance or reduce this constraint. Our study also indicates that the Bayesian evidence of a model can substantially be affected by the reheating properties. The precision of the current CMB data is therefore such that estimating the observational performance of a model now requires incorporating information about its reheating history.

  15. Large-scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rolls in a Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethelehem Steel's (Now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Mengel, J.

    2003-12-16

    At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system. Many challenges were involved in this project, including developing welding procedures for joining nickel aluminide intermetallic alloys with H-series austenitic alloys, developing commercial cast roll manufacturing specifications, working with several commercial suppliers to produce a quantity of high quality, reproducible nickel aluminide rolls for a large steel industrial annealing furnace, installing and demonstrating the capability of the rolls in this furnace, performing processing trials to evaluate the benefits of new equipment and processes, and documenting the findings. Updated furnace equipment including twenty-five new automated furnace control dampers have been installed replacing older design, less effective units. These dampers, along with upgraded flame-safety control equipment and new AC motors and roll-speed control equipment, are providing improved furnace control and additional energy efficiency. Energy data shows up to a 34% energy reduction from baseline after the installation of upgraded furnace damper controls along with up to a 34% reduction in greenhouse gases, potential for an additional 3 to 6% energy reduction per campaign of light-up and shutdown, and a 46% energy reduction from baseline for limited trials of a combination of improved damper control and straight-through plate processing. The straight-through processing is now possible because of the nickel aluminide rolls which also provided plate product surface quality improvement that will allow the additional processing of surface critical material. Benefits also include associated large reductions in maintenance, reduction in spare rolls and associated component costs, and potential for greater through-put and productivity. Estimated project fuel cost reductions alone for processing 100,000 tons/yr through this furnace are almost $0.5 million/yr with the new dampers, and more than $600,000/yr with straight-through processing and new damper control, assuming natural gas prices of $6.00/MMBtu. The nickel aluminide rolls are competitively priced with conventional H series alloy rolls.

  16. Converting stainless steel furnace flue dusts and wastes to a recyclable alloy. Report of investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Powell; W. M. Dressel; R. L. Crosby

    1975-01-01

    Over 5 million pounds of nickel, and 90 thousand pounds of molybdenum are lost annually in the dusts generated in the production of stainless steels. Losses of these metals in the form of mill scale and grinding swarfs may be double the dust losses. A process is described for recovering these and other metals in the form of an alloy

  17. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed in situ from methane and air and from butane and air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack; J. A. Pieprzak

    1992-01-01

    Carburizing experiments were conducted at 927 °C (1700 °F) and 843 °C (1550 °F) using furnace atmospheres formed from methane and air and from butane and air introduced directly into the carburizing furnace. Gas flow rates were low to promote equilibration of the reaction products within the furnace. The air flow rate was held constant while the methane or butane

  18. Advanced Process Heater for the Steel, Aluminum and Chemical Industries of the Future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Briselden

    2007-01-01

    The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: Improved performance of high temperature materials; improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer.;\\u000a;\\u000aRadiant tubes are used in almost every industry of the future. Examples include Aluminum re-heat furnaces; Steel strip annealing

  19. Furnace Testing of Full-Scale Gypsum Steel Stud Non-Load Bearing Wall Assemblies: Results of Multi-Laboratory Testing in Canada, Japan, and USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel L. Manzello; William L. Grosshandler; Tensei Mizukami

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses the results of a multiple laboratory test program aimed at determining the consistency of large\\u000a scale furnace testing. The North American Fire Testing Laboratories (NAFTL) consortium organized a multiple laboratory test\\u000a program for ASTM E119-00 using a common structural element: a 1-h rated gypsum\\/steel-stud non-load bearing wall assembly.\\u000a Walls were tested by six different organizations employing

  20. Model of phosphorus precipitation and crystal formation in electric arc furnace steel slag filters.

    PubMed

    Claveau-Mallet, Dominique; Wallace, Scott; Comeau, Yves

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a phosphorus retention mechanisms model based on precipitation and crystallization in electric arc furnace slag filters. Three slag columns were fed during 30 to 630 days with a reconstituted mining effluent at different void hydraulic retention times. Precipitates formed in columns were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electronic microscopy. The proposed model is expressed in the following steps: (1) the rate limiting dissolution of slag is represented by the dissolution of CaO, (2) a high pH in the slag filter results in phosphorus precipitation and crystal growth, (3) crystal retention takes place by filtration, settling and growth densification, (4) the decrease in available reaction volume is caused by crystal and other particulate matter accumulation (and decrease in available reaction time), and (5) the pH decreases in the filter over time if the reaction time is too low (which results in a reduced removal efficiency). Crystal organization in a slag filter determines its phosphorus retention capacity. Supersaturation and water velocity affect crystal organization. A compact crystal organization enhances the phosphorus retention capacity of the filter. A new approach to define filter performance is proposed: saturation retention capacity is expressed in units of mg P/mL voids. PMID:22208381

  1. Evaluation of electric arc furnace-processed steel slag for dermal corrosion, irritation, and sensitization from dermal contact.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Troese, Matthew J; Hall, Debra A; Yasso, Blair; Yzenas, John J; Proctor, Debora M

    2014-12-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag is alkaline (pH of ~11-12) and contains metals, most notably chromium and nickel, and thus has potential to cause dermal irritation and sensitization at sufficient dose. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. However, no published study has characterized the potential for dermal effects associated with EAF slag. To assess dermal irritation, corrosion and sensitizing potential of EAF slag, in vitro and in vivo dermal toxicity assays were conducted based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. In vitro dermal corrosion and irritation testing (OECD 431 and 439) of EAF slag was conducted using the reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) tissue model. In vivo dermal toxicity and delayed contact sensitization testing (OECD 404 and 406) were conducted in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. EAF slag was not corrosive and not irritating in any tests. The results of the delayed contact dermal sensitization test indicate that EAF slag is not a dermal sensitizer. These findings are supported by the observation that metals in EAF slag occur as oxides of low solubility with leachates that are well below toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Based on these results and in accordance to the OECD guidelines, EAF slag is not considered a dermal sensitizer, corrosive or irritant. PMID:24395402

  2. Probing reheating with primordial spectrum

    E-print Network

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Leung, Godfrey

    2015-01-01

    We study the impacts of reheating temperature on the inflationary predictions of the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio. Assuming that reheating process is very fast, the reheating temperature can be constrained for sinusoidal oscillation within a factor of 10 - 100 or even better with the prospect of future observations. Beyond this, we find that the predictions can also be insensitive to the reheating temperature in certain models, including the Higgs inflation.

  3. Probing reheating with primordial spectrum

    E-print Network

    Jinn-Ouk Gong; Shi Pi; Godfrey Leung

    2015-05-11

    We study the impacts of reheating temperature on the inflationary predictions of the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio. Assuming sinusoidal oscillations and that reheating process is very fast, the reheating temperature can be constrained for sinusoidal oscillation within a factor of 10 - 100 or even better with the prospect of future observations. Beyond this, we find that the predictions can also be insensitive to the reheating temperature in certain models, including Higgs inflation.

  4. STACK GAS REHEAT EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of technical and economic evaluations of stack gas reheat (SGR) following wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired power plants. The evaluations were based on information from literature and a survey of FGD users, vendors, and architect/engineer ...

  5. 50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  6. 3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT LOOKING NORTH. DOROTHY SIX IS THE CLOSEST FURNACE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed in situ from methane and air and from butane and air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M Mack; J. A. Pieprzak

    1992-01-01

    Carburizing experiments were conducted at 927 ?C (1700 ?F) and 843 ?C (1550 ?F) using furnace atmospheres formed from methane\\u000a and air and from butane and air introduced directly into the carburizing furnace. Gas flow rates were low to promote equilibration\\u000a of the reaction products within the furnace. The air flow rate was held constant while the methane or butane

  9. The Effect of Chemical Composition on Microstructure and Properties of Intercritically Reheated Coarse-Grained Heat-Affected Zone in X70 Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhixiong; Kuzmikova, Lenka; Li, Huijun; Barbaro, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The current study investigates the effect of different levels of Ti, N, and Ti/N ratios on microstructure and properties in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (ICCGHAZ) of two-pass submerged arc welds in API 5L grade X70 pipe. Gleeble simulation was employed to reproduce the ICCGHAZ of actual welds. Hardness and Charpy V-notch (CVN) tests were performed on the simulated samples. The microstructure of simulated ICCGHAZ was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). LePera color etching technique was employed to identify and quantify the martensitic-austenitic (M-A) constituent. Results show that the simulated ICCGHAZ exhibited extremely low toughness, but in the studied range of Ti and N, there was no correlation with Ti/N ratio. The beneficial effect of near-stoichiometric Ti/N ratio observed in coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) did not translate to ICCGHAZ. This was because of the negative effect of the blocky M-A constituent formed on prior austenite grain boundaries.

  10. Experience with the use of mullite-corundum refractories in the roofs of electric-steel furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ustichenko, V.A.; Oleksienko, A.Ya.; Stepanova, V.P.; Sizov, V.I.; Tunaeva, T.A.

    1986-11-01

    The authors assess the performance of a mullite-corundum refractory in the roof of an arc furnace on the basis of its pore structure, temperature resistance, scaling, thermal conductivity, compression strength, deformability, and its contribution to the overall thermal efficiency and reduced electrical power consumption of the furnace. Comparative tests are run against periclase-chromite refractories. The mullite-corundum versions are found to possess superior thermal resistance and service life.

  11. Reheating constraints in inflationary magnetogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Demozzi, Vittoria; Ringeval, Christophe, E-mail: vittoria.demozzi@uclouvain.be, E-mail: christophe.ringeval@uclouvain.be [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology, Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Louvain University, 2 Chemin du Cyclotron, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2012-05-01

    Among primordial magnetogenesis models, inflation is a prime candidate to explain the current existence of cosmological magnetic fields. Assuming conformal invariance to be restored after inflation, their energy density decreases as radiation during the decelerating eras of the universe, and in particular during reheating. Without making any assumptions on inflation, on the magnetogenesis mechanism and on how the reheating proceeded, we show that requiring large scale magnetic fields to remain subdominant after inflation gives non-trivial constraints on both the reheating equation of state parameter and the reheating energy scale. In terms of the so-called reheating parameter, we find that ln R{sub rad} > ?10.1 for large scale magnetic fields of the order 5 × 10{sup ?15} Gauss today. This bound is then compared to those already derived from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data by assuming a specific inflationary model. Avoiding magnetic field backreaction is always complementary to CMB and can give more stringent limits on reheating for all high energy models of inflation. For instance, a large field matter dominated reheating cannot take place at an energy scale lower than typically 500 GeV if the magnetic field strength today is B{sub 0} = 5 × 10{sup ?15} G, this scale going up to 10{sup 10} GeV if B{sub 0} = 10{sup ?9} G.

  12. Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag—An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ha-Won Song; Velu Saraswathy

    2006-01-01

    The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of

  13. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part I. The effect of air-propane ratio on furnace atmosphere composition and the amount of carburizing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack; M. Brachaczek

    1980-01-01

    Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed quenched furnace at 843 and 927 °C using furnace atmospheres produced by reacting propane and air within the furnace chamber. With low, constant gas flow rates it is shown that the amount of carburizing varies regularly with air-propane ratio. Furnace atmosphere composition was monitored as a function of temperature and air-propane

  14. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part I. The effect of air-propane ratio on furnace atmosphere composition and the amount of carburizing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack; M. Brachaczek

    1980-01-01

    Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed quenched furnace at 843 and 927 ?C using furnace atmospheres\\u000a produced by reacting propane and air within the furnace chamber. With low, constant gas flow rates it is shown that the amount\\u000a of carburizing varies regularly with air-propane ratio. Furnace atmosphere composition was monitored as a function of temperature\\u000a and air-propane

  15. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part II. Analysis of the characteristics of gas flow in a batch-type sealed quench furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack

    1980-01-01

    Gas flow dynamics in a batch-type sealed quench carburizing furnace were studied for operations utilizing low inlet gas flow rates. By analyzing the rate of change of furnace atmosphere composition when a sudden change is made in the inlet gas composition, it is shown that a significant amount of gas circulation occurs between the hot furnace chamber and the unheated

  16. Reasonable Temperature Schedules for Cold or Hot Charging of Continuously Cast Steel Slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Xin; Liu, Ke; Wang, Jing; Wen, Jin; Zhang, Jiaquan

    2013-12-01

    Some continuously cast steel slabs are sensitive to transverse fracture problems during transportation or handling away from their storage state, while some steel slabs are sensitive to surface transverse cracks during the following rolling process in a certain hot charging temperature range. It is revealed that the investigated steel slabs with high fracture tendency under room cooling condition always contain pearlite transformation delayed elements, which lead to the internal brittle bainitic structure formation, while some microalloyed steels exhibit high surface crack susceptibility to hot charging temperatures due to carbonitride precipitation. According to the calculated internal cooling rates and CCT diagrams, the slabs with high fracture tendency during cold charging should be slowly cooled after cutting to length from hot strand or charged to the reheating furnace directly above their bainite formation temperatures. Based on a thermodynamic calculation for carbonitride precipitation in austenite, the sensitive hot charging temperature range of related steels was revealed for the determination of reasonable temperature schedules.

  17. 21. Photocopy of ca. 1951 view (when furnaces were still ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of ca. 1951 view (when furnaces were still in blast) looking north at central furnace complex with railroad cars of furnace charging materials in foreground and No. 2 Furnace at left. Photo marked on back 'David W. Corson from A. Devaney, N.Y.' - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Release of H and He from TiC, stainless steel and graphite by pulsed electron and furnace heating

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, S.T.; Wampler, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The release of implanted D and /sup 3/He from TiC coatings, SS 304 and graphite by pulsed electron beam (e-beam) heating and furnace heating has been investigated. Low fluence implants of D or /sup 3/He and saturation fluence D implants have been studied for 0.5 - 1.5 keV D and 3 keV /sup 3/He. The retained D or /sup 3/He was monitored by ion beam analysis. The 50 ns e-beam pulsing resulted in the release of D in all materials and was compared with release during isochronal annealing in a furnace. A substantial enhancement in the fractional D release was found for D saturated TiC (0.25 D to host atom ratio) compared with low fluence implants. In contrast no enhancement of D release was observed for D saturated graphite and SS 304 compared with low fluence implants. Release of /sup 3/He from TiC was also obtained by e-beam pulsed heating and this release was not affected by the presence of saturation concentrations of D. Comparison to furnace anneals and the calculated time evolution of the temperature profiles suggests a simple model for the D release based on diffusion-limited release in the case of pulsed e-beam treatments and trap-limited release in the case of furnace bulk heating. These processes are closely related to hydrogen recycle in tokamaks and have implications for T inventory control and He ash removal.

  19. Energy Savings in Electric Arc Furnace Melting

    E-print Network

    Lubbeck, W.

    1982-01-01

    Arc furnace melting which at one time was almost exclusively used to produce alloy steel and steel castings is now widely accepted in the industry as an efficient process to produce all types of steel and iron. Presently, about 28% of steel...

  20. Energy Savings in Electric Arc Furnace Melting 

    E-print Network

    Lubbeck, W.

    1982-01-01

    Arc furnace melting which at one time was almost exclusively used to produce alloy steel and steel castings is now widely accepted in the industry as an efficient process to produce all types of steel and iron. Presently, about 28% of steel...

  1. INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. 12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  4. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. Nameplate reads: "Heroult Electric Furnace, Capacity 6 tons, Built by American Bridge Company, Pencoyd, PA, No. 33") - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  5. 70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE STOCKHOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED No. 3 IN FOREGROUND ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX WITH LADLE HOUSE AND IRON DESULPHERIZATION BUILDING ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. 13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  13. 22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL CONSTRUCTION. CONCRETE PAD AT LEFT IS SITE OF FORMER FURNACE USED TO HEAT URANIUM BILLETS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  14. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part II. Analysis of the characteristics of gas flow in a batch-type sealed quench furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack

    1980-01-01

    Gas flow dynamics in a batch-type sealed quench carburizing furnace were studied for operations utilizing low inlet gas flow\\u000a rates. By analyzing the rate of change of furnace atmosphere composition when a sudden change is made in the inlet gas composition,\\u000a it is shown that a significant amount of gas circulation occurs between the hot furnace chamber and the unheated

  15. Blast furnace stove control

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

    1998-12-31

    This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

  16. Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag--An overview.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha-Won; Saraswathy, Velu

    2006-11-16

    The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of depositing industrial wastes. The utilization of GGBFS as partial replacement of Portland cement takes advantage of economic, technical and environmental benefits of this material. Recently offshore, coastal and marine concrete structures were constructed using GGBFS concrete because high volume of GGBFS can contribute to the reduction of chloride ingress. In this paper, the influence of using GGBFS in reinforced concrete structures from the durability aspects such as chloride ingress and corrosion resistance, long term durability, microstructure and porosity of GGBFS concrete has been reviewed and discussed. PMID:16930831

  17. bdGas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed in situ from methane and air and from butane and air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack; J. A. Pieprzak

    1982-01-01

    Carburizing experiments were conducted at 927°C (1700°F) and 843°C (1550°F) using furnace atmospheres formed from methane and air and from butane and air introduced directly into the carburizing furnace. Gas flow rates were low to promote equilibration of the reaction products within the furnace. The air flow rate was held constant while the methane or butane flow was automatically regulated

  18. Direct measurement of solids: High temperature sensing: Phase 2, Experimental development and testing on furnace-heated steel blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Daly, D.S.

    1985-12-01

    Using average velocity measurements to estimate average profile temperature shows promise and merits further investigation. The current generation of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) can transmit and detect signals in steel below the magnetic transition temperature. Techniques for calibrating ultrasonic velocity to internal temperature need further development. EMATs are inadequate ultrasonic transmitters for these applications. A high-energy, pulsed laser capable of generating more intense ultrasonic signals should be investigated as a transmitter. Recommendations are given for further work.

  19. Active control of reheat buzz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Dowling; N. Hooper; P. J. Langhorne; G. J. Bloxsidge

    1987-01-01

    Reheat buzz is a low-frequency combustion instability involving the propagation of longitudinal pressure waves inside a duct in which a flame is anchored. Active control has been successfully applied to this instability. The controller alters the upstream acoustic boundary condition and thereby changes the energy balance in duct. Control is found to reduce the peak in the pressure spectrum due

  20. Reheating constraints to inflationary models.

    PubMed

    Dai, Liang; Kamionkowski, Marc; Wang, Junpu

    2014-07-25

    Evidence from the BICEP2 experiment for a significant gravitational-wave background has focused attention on inflaton potentials V(?)??(?) with ? = 2 ("chaotic" or "m(2)?(2)" inflation) or with smaller values of ?, as may arise in axion-monodromy models. Here we show that reheating considerations may provide additional constraints to these models. The reheating phase preceding the radiation era is modeled by an effective equation-of-state parameter w(re). The canonical reheating scenario is then described by w(re) = 0. The simplest ? = 2 models are consistent with w(re) = 0 for values of n(s) well within the current 1? range. Models with ? = 1 or ? = 2/3 require a more exotic reheating phase, with -1/3 < w(re) < 0, unless n(s) falls above the current 1? range. Likewise, models with ? = 4 require a physically implausible w(re) > 1/3, unless n(s) is close to the lower limit of the 2? range. For m(2)?(2) inflation and canonical reheating as a benchmark, we derive a relation log(10)(T(re)/10(6) GeV) ? 2000(n(s)-0.96) between the reheat temperature T(re) and the scalar spectral index n(s). Thus, if n(s) is close to its central value, then T(re) ? 10(6) GeV, just above the electroweak scale. If the reheat temperature is higher, as many theorists may prefer, then the scalar spectral index should be closer to n(s) ? 0.965 (at the pivot scale k = 0.05 Mpc(-1)), near the upper limit of the 1? error range. Improved precision in the measurement of n(s) should allow m(2)?(2), axion monodromy, and ?(40) models to be distinguished, even without precise measurement of r, and to test the m(2)?(2) expectation of n(s) ? 0.965. PMID:25105606

  1. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  2. Bottom electrodes of DC electric arc furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ya. Kaplun

    2009-01-01

    The design of dc electric arc furnaces (DCEAFs) is similar to that of three-phase arc steel-melting furnaces (ASFs) and differs from it only in the presence of one or more graphite roof electrodes (cathodes) and one or more bottom electrodes (anodes), which convey current to a metal to be melted. As compared to ASFs, DCEAFs have the following main advantages:

  3. bdGas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed in situ from methane and air and from butane and air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack; J. A. Pieprzak

    1982-01-01

    Carburizing experiments were conducted at 927?C (1700?F) and 843?C (1550?F) using furnace atmospheres formed from methane\\u000a and air and from butane and air introduced directly into the carburizing furnace. Gas flow rates were low to promote equilibration\\u000a of the reaction products within the furnace. The air flow rate was held constant while the methane or butane flow was automatically\\u000a regulated

  4. Load characteristics and harmonic analysis of DC arc furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Jui Wu; Tsu-Hsun Fu; You-Jen Chen

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the load characteristics of a steel factory containing a DC arc furnace. In order to reduce the cost, the arc furnace works during the off-peak period. While the furnace is in operation, the variation of active power and reactive power is quite large. In order to understand the load characteristics, the statistics method is

  5. 57. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES IS THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 56. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES IS THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES ARE THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Thermal reconstruction behavior of the quenched hydroxyapatite powder during reheating in air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng-Huei Lin; Liao Chun-Jen; Chen Ko-Shao; Sun Jui-Sheng

    2000-01-01

    Commercial hydroxyapatite (HAP) powders were quenched from 1500°C to room temperature and reheated at different temperatures by a program controlled SiC-heated furnace to investigate the reconstruction behavior of quenched HAP powder in air. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) analysis were used to examine changes in crystalline phases and functional groups of quenched HAP powders at different temperatures. Weight

  9. Development of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for use as transfer rolls in hot processing of steels. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); McDonald, R. [Metallamics, Transverse City, MI (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this cooperative effort was to evaluate the potential of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys, such as IC221M and IC396M, for use as transfer rolls in heating treating furnaces and slab reheating furnaces used during the normal hot processing of steel ingots into rolled products. Rolls consist of three parts: the center tube section which forms the roll surface in direct contact with the steel, and the sections welded at each end of the tube, called trunnions, which bear the load. The work in this CRADA focused on weldments and base materials. The transfer rolls in the furnaces used in the hot processing of steel have been made, almost exclusively, from iron-chromium-nickel heat resistant alloys for over 35 years. The iron-based heat resistant alloys experience a variety of problems when exposed to temperatures above 760 C including: cracking, dimensional instability, and excessive oxidation. Many defects in rolled steel products can be traced directly to rolls used in the processing. Also the demand for higher quality products, spurred in part by competition from foreign producers, requires that various avenues for improving overall quality of rolled steel products be pursued. Initial work done by the Contractor and Metallamics indicated that Ni{sub 3}Al alloys may perform better than existing iron-chromium-nickel alloys do as transfer rolls in heat treating furnaces. The use of Ni{sub 3}Al may lead to rolls with longer operational life, improved high temperature oxidation resistance and mechanical properties, higher quality rolled steel products, and improved energy and operational efficiencies in the hot processing of steel. The goal of the work was to test Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for the transfer roll application in order to improve process efficiency, minimize waste by virtue of producing rolled steel of higher quality and to enhance the competitiveness of US-based steel producers.

  10. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  11. 19. MOLTEN IRON FLOWS INTO A 'BOTTLE' AT FURNACE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. MOLTEN IRON FLOWS INTO A 'BOTTLE' AT FURNACE NO. 1. THE IRON WILL BE TRANSPORTED BY RAIL TO THE OPEN HEARTH OR BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES, WHERE IT IS A MAJOR COMPONENT IN THE PRODUCTION OF STEEL. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  13. Reheating for closed string inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Mazumdar, Anupam, E-mail: michele.cicoli@desy.de, E-mail: a.mazumdar@lancaster.ac.uk [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N = 1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation.

  14. MicroNiobium Alloy Approach in Medium and High Carbon Steel Bar, Plate and Sheet Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansto, Steven G.

    2014-04-01

    The recently developed application of the MicroNiobium Alloy Approach® in medium- and high-carbon steel long products, sheets, and plate steels enhances both the metallurgical properties and processability, as well as reducing the operational cost per tonne of production. The process and product metallurgy improvements relate to the Nb-pinning effect of the austenite grain boundaries. The metallurgical mechanism of the MicroNiobium Alloy Approach is related to the retardation of austenite grain coarsening during reheat furnace soaking of the billets, slabs, or shapes before rolling. Variable grain size is induced by temperature fluctuations and inhomogeneity during the heating of the slabs in the reheat furnace. Such fluctuations can occur because of variations in the air- to gas-ratio, directly affecting the adiabatic flame temperature and heat input into the slabs. This approach contributes to the achievement of an ultrafine grain, homogeneous higher carbon microstructures that exhibit superior toughness, high strength, less mechanical property variation in the final hot-rolled product, and reduced cost of quality. The reduced cost of quality far exceeds the additional alloy cost for the Nb addition.

  15. Remaining life assessment of superheater and reheater tubes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, S.R.; Rettig, T.W.

    1988-05-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a validated procedure in the form of a computer code and users guide for predicting the remaining useful life of Type SA213-T22 superheater and reheater tubes. The procedure was to be based on steamside oxide scale measurements, tube geometry measurements, and other readily available operating parameters. To achieve this objective, six tasks were performed. These were: (1) acquisition and compilation of oxide growth information for 2/1/4/Cr--1Mo steel, (2) acquisition and examination of Type SA213-T22 superheater and reheater tubes taken out of service after considerable service exposure or after the tube ruptured, (3) empirical development of a creep damage accumulation procedure which is accurate for nonsteady state temperature and stress histories, (4) measurement of the steamside scale thickening and fireside wastage rates in tubes removed from service, (5) integration of the foregoing tasks into damage counting algorithms and casting these into a user-friendly computer code, and (6) comparison of the remaining life predictions made using the developed computer code with well characterized tube failures and with postexposure stress rupture test results obtained from a nonruptured service degraded tube. A user-oriented computer code for predicting the remaining life of superheater and reheater tubes using easily measured tube characteristics and readily available operational data were developed. This report provides the technical basis and background for this computer code. 60 figs., 11

  16. GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Bachovchin; R. A. Newby P. G. A. Cizmas

    2004-01-01

    In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and\\/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In

  17. Reheating Metastable O'Raifeartaigh Models

    E-print Network

    Nathaniel J. Craig; Patrick J. Fox; Jay G. Wacker

    2006-12-05

    In theories with multiple vacua, reheating to a temperature greater than the height of a barrier can stimulate transitions from a desirable metastable vacuum to a lower energy state. We discuss the constraints this places on various theories and demonstrate that in a class of supersymmetric models this transition does not occur even for arbitrarily high reheating temperature.

  18. Features of a technology for making steel in 180-ton arc furnaces in the electric steelmaking shop at the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. F. D’yachenko; A. V. Sarychev; A. B. Velikii; O. A. Nikolaev; Yu. A. Ivin; A. Kh. Valiakhmetov

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the main specifications of arc furnaces that have been installed in the electric steelmaking shop at\\u000a the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine. One feature of these furnaces is that they can be operated with the use of liquid\\u000a pig iron. Here’ the amount of pig iron in the charge can be as high as 40%. The use of liquid

  19. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING QBOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING Q-BOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL GAS ARE BLOWN INTO THE FURNACE THROUGH THE TUYERES TO CHARGE 460,000 LBS. OF HOT METAL, 100,000 LBS. OF SCRAP WITH 30,000 LBS. OF LIME. BLOW TIME IS 16 MINUTES. THE TIME TO BLOW AND TAP THE FURNACES OF THE RESULTING 205,000 TONS OF STEEL AND SLAG IS 35 MINUTES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  20. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  1. 12. INTERIOR VIEW OF SINGLE BAY SLOTTED TYPE FURNACE (LEFT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW OF SINGLE BAY SLOTTED TYPE FURNACE (LEFT) AND CHAMBERSBURG DROP HAMMER OPERATED BY JEFF HOHMAN (RIGHT); THE FURNACE IS USED TO PRE-HEAT THE STEEL PRIOR TO FORGING, TOOL IS POST HOLE DIGGER WITH TAMPING BAR - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  2. 11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas cleaning plants in foreground on the left and the right side of the furnace building. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  4. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SEED ON THE LEFT, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SHED ON THE RIGHT, AND THE STOVES, BOILERS, AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT IN THE CENTER. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. 47. No. 4 hot blast stove, furnace "A", showing checkerwork ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. No. 4 hot blast stove, furnace "A", showing checkerwork askew after collapse of support posts. Note pattern of checkerwork refractories. looking west - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  6. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DC MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. 38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod or poker at right was used to unplug iron notch. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. 38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ladle car on floor of casting shed. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING NO. 1 FURNACE. TO RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING NO. 1 FURNACE. TO RIGHT ARE D.C. MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  11. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DETAIL OF CABLES AND BUS BARS (which convey power to electrodes) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. 24. LOOKING SOUTH AT CLEAN BLAST FURNACE GAS PIPE LEADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. LOOKING SOUTH AT CLEAN BLAST FURNACE GAS PIPE LEADING INTO THE EASTERN WALL OF THE CENTRAL BOILER HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 19. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING PLATFORM AT UPPER LEFT HOLDING PULLEY SYSTEM AND ELECTRIC MOTOR TO ACTIVATE DOORS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  14. Modelling of a DC arc furnace for optimal integration with the supply system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bekker; P. H. Swart; C. F. Landy; D. A. Marshall

    1995-01-01

    DC are furnaces have gained increasing favour with steel makers all over the world. DC arc furnaces have advantages over their conventional AC counterparts because of their greater supply-friendly nature. Although DC are furnaces still generate flicker, the stochastic component in their harmonics arc reduced and their demands on the supply network are much more compatible with the supply than

  15. Heat transfer analysis of blast furnace stave

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijun Wu; Xun Xu; Weiguo Zhou; Yunlong Su; Xiaojing Li

    2008-01-01

    The three-dimensional mathematical model of temperature and thermal stress field of the blast furnace stave is built. The radiation heat transmitted from solid materials (coke and ore) to inner surface of the stave, which has been neglected by other studies, is taken into account. The cast steel stave is studied and the finite element method is used to perform the

  16. VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER STATION IN THE CASTING SHOP. (OTHER UNITS MELT BRASS ALLOYS.) THIS IS THE SOUTHERNMOST FURNACE OF THE FOUR PRESENTLY IN SITU. THE CURRENT CASTING SHOP WAS CONSTRUCTED DURING THE EARLY 1970'S, REPLACING THE ORIGINAL PRE-WWI FACILITY. STATIONS #02, 03, AND 04 EACH CONSIST OF A HOLDER FLANKED BY A PAIR OF 800 KW ELECTRIC MELTERS. THE HOLDER IS REHEATED AT 85,000 LBS. SHAKER BOX, LOCATED AT THE REAR OF EACH MELTER SUPPLY THE MIXTURE OF INGREDIENTS REQUIRED FOR EACH PARTICULAR ALLOY. ONE MEMBER OF THE THREE-MAN CASTING TEAMS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SHAKING METAL INTO THE MELTERS. IN THE LOWER RIGHT ARE SHOWN THE MOLD STORAGE AREA AND THE FURNACE BUILDERS' AREA FOR CHIPPING AND REBRICKING OFF-LINE UNITS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  17. Magneto-reheating constraints from curvature perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Ringeval, Christophe [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology, Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Louvain University, 2 Chemin du Cyclotron, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi, E-mail: christophe.ringeval@uclouvain.be, E-mail: suyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2013-09-01

    As additional perturbative degrees of freedom, it is known that magnetic fields of inflationary origin can source curvature perturbations on super-Hubble scales. By requiring the magnetic generated curvature to remain smaller than its inflationary adiabatic counterpart during inflation and reheating, we derive new constraints on the maximal field value today, the reheating energy scale and its equation of state parameter. These bounds end up being stronger by a few order of magnitude than those associated with a possible backreaction of the magnetic field onto the background. Our results are readily applicable to any slow-roll single field inflationary models and any magnetic field having its energy density scaling as a{sup ?} during inflation. As an illustrative example, massive inflation is found to remain compatible with a magnetic field today B{sub 0} = 5 × 10{sup ?15} G for some values of ? only if a matter dominated reheating takes place at energies larger than 10{sup 5} GeV. Conversely, assuming ? = ?1, massive inflation followed by a matter dominated reheating cannot explain large scale magnetic fields larger than 10{sup ?20} G today.

  18. Curvaton reheating in a logamediate inflationary model

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Saavedra, Joel; Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; Rojas, Efrain [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Valparaiso (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000, Xalapa Veracruz (Mexico)

    2009-12-15

    In a logamediate inflationary universe model we introduce the curvaton field in order to bring this inflationary model to an end. In this approach we determine the reheating temperature. We also outline some interesting constraints on the parameters that describe our models. Thus, we give the parameter space in this scenario.

  19. Axino dark matter with low reheating temperature

    E-print Network

    Roszkowski, Leszek; Turzynski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    We examine axino dark matter in the regime of a low reheating temperature T_R after inflation and taking into account that reheating is a non-instantaneous process. This can have a significant effect on the dark matter abundance, mainly due to entropy production in inflaton decays. We study both thermal and non-thermal production of axinos in the context of the MSSM with ten free parameters. We identify the ranges of the axino mass and the reheating temperature allowed by the LHC and other particle physics data in different models of axino interactions. We confront these limits with cosmological constraints coming the observed dark matter density, large structures formation and big bang nucleosynthesis. We find a number of differences in the phenomenologically acceptable values of the axino mass and the reheating temperature relative to previous studies. In particular, an upper bound on the axino mass becomes dependent on T_R, reaching a maximum value at T_R~10^2 GeV. If the lightest ordinary supersymmetric p...

  20. INVESTIGATION OF REFRACTORY CONCRETE FAILURE IN FURNACES OF METALS INDUSTRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Andreev; S. Sinnema; M. Hogenboom

    Refractory ceramics is a diverse class of materials used to insulate industrial furnaces and protect them from liquid metals, slags and hot gases. Concretes (based on calcium-aluminates cement binders) make up approximately 40% of all refractories used in the steel and aluminium industry. As an element of a structure consisting of concrete\\/ceramic layers and the steel shell these materials are

  1. Mullite corundum articles for electric furnace roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarova, T.I.; Sizov, V.I.

    1987-03-01

    Using a method developed by the Institute the authors produced an experimental batch of synthetic mullite-corundum refractories containing more than 72% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The properties of these refractories exceed similar properties for regularly produced articles close in composition, which enables them to recommend them for use in the roofs of arc electric steel-melting furnaces. The experimental batch of synthetic mullite-corundum articles is being sent for testing in DSP-100 furnaces at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combine.

  2. Thermal Goldstino Production with Low Reheating Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Monteux, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    We discuss thermal production of (pseudo) goldstinos, the Goldstone fermions emerging from (multiple) SUSY breaking sectors, when the reheating temperature is well below the superpartner masses. In such a case, the production during matter-dominated era induced by inflaton decay stage is more important than after reheating. Depending on the SUSY breaking scale, goldstinos are produced by freeze-in or freeze-out mechanism via $1\\to 2$ decays and inverse decays. We solve the Boltzmann equation for the momentum distribution function of the goldstino.In the freeze-out case, goldstinos maintain chemical equilibrium far after they are kinetically decoupled from the thermal bath, and consequently goldstinos with different momentum decouple at different temperatures. As a result their momentum distribution function shows a peculiar shape and the final yield is smaller than if kinetic equilibrium was assumed. We revisit the cosmological implications in both R-parity-conserving and R-parity-violating supersymmetric sce...

  3. Gas Turbine Reheat Using In-Situ Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Newby; D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert

    2004-04-29

    Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) is developing in-situ reheat (fuel injection via airfoil injection) as a means for increasing cycle efficiency and power output, with possibly reduced emissions. This report discusses engineering cycle evaluations on various reheat approaches, using GateCycle and ChemCad software simulations of typical F-class and G-class engines, modified for alternative reheat cycles. The conclusion that vane 1 reheat offers the most advantageous design agrees with the conclusions of the detailed chemical kinetics (Task 2) as verified by high temperature testing (Task 3) and Blade path CFD (Task 1) tasks. The second choice design option (vane 2 reheat after vane 1 reheat) is also validated in all tasks. A conceptual design and next recommended development tasks are presented.

  4. Model Fe-Al Steel with Exceptional Resistance to High Temperature Coarsening. Part II: Experimental Validation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tihe; Zhang, Peng; O'Malley, Ronald J.; Zurob, Hatem S.; Subramanian, Mani

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve a fine uniform grain-size distribution using the process of thin slab casting and directing rolling (TSCDR), it is necessary to control the grain-size prior to the onset of thermomechanical processing. In the companion paper, Model Fe- Al Steel with Exceptional Resistance to High Temperature Coarsening. Part I: Coarsening Mechanism and Particle Pinning Effects, a new steel composition which uses a small volume fraction of austenite particles to pin the growth of delta-ferrite grains at high temperature was proposed and grain growth was studied in reheated samples. This paper will focus on the development of a simple laboratory-scale setup to simulate thin-slab casting of the newly developed steel and demonstrate the potential for grain size control under industrial conditions. Steel bars with different diameters are briefly dipped into the molten steel to create a shell of solidified material. These are then cooled down to room temperature at different cooling rates. During cooling, the austenite particles nucleate along the delta-ferrite grain boundaries and greatly retard grain growth. With decreasing temperature, more austenite particles precipitate, and grain growth can be completely arrested in the holding furnace. Additional applications of the model alloy are discussed including grain-size control in the heat affected zone in welds and grain-growth resistance at high temperature.

  5. Caustic roasting and leaching of electric arc furnace dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Xia; C. A. Pickles

    1999-01-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is produced when iron and steel scrap is remelted in an electric arc furnace. There are still significant problems associated with the pyrometallurgical and\\/or hydrometallurgical processes for the treatment of this dust. In the present research, the dust was roasted with caustic soda at low temperatures. It was found that the zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) in

  6. Mechanism of failure of heat exchangers in cement furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Tylkin; B. N. Bogomolov; A. M. Sharkova

    1977-01-01

    Conclusions 1.Failure of heat exchangers made of steels Kh23N18 and Kh24N12SL results from carburizing and sulfur-alkali corrosion in the presence of compounds of vanadium forming a low-melting eutectic preferentially in austenite grain boundaries.2.The corrosion rate of heat exchangers in mazout furnaces is three times the corrosion rate of heat exchangers in gas furnaces.3.In heat exchangers that increase the gas flow

  7. Mullite corundum articles for electric furnace roofs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Nazarova; V. I. Sizov

    1987-01-01

    Using a method developed by the Institute the authors produced an experimental batch of synthetic mullite-corundum refractories containing more than 72% AlâOâ. The properties of these refractories exceed similar properties for regularly produced articles close in composition, which enables them to recommend them for use in the roofs of arc electric steel-melting furnaces. The experimental batch of synthetic mullite-corundum articles

  8. Leptogenesis and reheating in complex hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas de la Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 2-82, 58040, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Delepine, David; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo [Departamento de Fisica, DCI, Campus Leon, Universidad de Guanajuato, Codigo Postal 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2010-02-01

    We study the transformation into a baryon asymmetry of a charge initially stored in a complex (waterfall) scalar field at the end of a hybrid inflation phase as described by Delepine, Martinez, and Urena-Lopez [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 161302 (2007)]. The waterfall field is coupled to right-handed neutrinos, and is also responsible for their Majorana masses. The charge is finally transferred to the leptons of the standard model through the decay of the right-handed neutrinos without introducing new CP violating interactions. Other needed processes, like the decay of the inflaton field and the reheating of the Universe, are also discussed in detail.

  9. Equation-of-state parameter for reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Julian B.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Constraints to the parameters of inflation models are often derived assuming some plausible range for the number—e.g., Nk=46 to Nk=60 —of e -folds of inflation that occurred between the time that our current observable Universe exited the horizon and the end of inflation. However, that number is, for any specific inflaton potential, related to an effective equation-of-state parameter wre and temperature Tre, for reheating. Although the physics of reheating is highly uncertain, there is a finite range of reasonable values for wre. Here we show that, by restricting wre to this range, more stringent constraints to inflation-model parameters can be derived than those obtained from the usual procedure. To do so, we focus in this work in particular on natural inflation and inflation with a Higgs-like potential and on power-law models as limiting cases of those. As one example, we show that the lower limit to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r , derived from current measurements of the scalar spectral index, is about 20%-25% higher (depending on the model) with this procedure than with the usual approach.

  10. Low reheating temperatures in monomial and binomial inflationary models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehagen, Thomas; Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the allowed range of reheating temperature values in light of the Planck 2015 results and the recent joint analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck experiments, using monomial and binomial inflationary potentials. While the well studied phi2 inflationary potential is no longer favored by current CMB data, as well as phip with p>2, a phi1 potential and canonical reheating (0wre=) provide a good fit to the CMB measurements. In this last case, we find that the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit upper bound on the spectral index, ns, implies an upper bound on the reheating temperature of Trelesssim 6× 1010 GeV, and excludes instantaneous reheating. The low reheating temperatures allowed by this model open the possibility that dark matter could be produced during the reheating period instead of when the Universe is radiation dominated, which could lead to very different predictions for the relic density and momentum distribution of WIMPs, sterile neutrinos, and axions. We also study binomial inflationary potentials and show the effects of a small departure from a phi1 potential. We find that as a subdominant phi2 term in the potential increases, first instantaneous reheating becomes allowed, and then the lowest possible reheating temperature of Tre=4 MeV is excluded by the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit.

  11. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. Investigations on phosphorus recovery and reuse as soil amendment from electric arc furnace slag filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon C. Bird; Aleksandra Drizo

    2009-01-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag has been identified as an effective filter material for the removal of phosphorus (P) from both point and non-point sources. To determine the feasibility of land-applying P saturated EAF steel slag this study was undertaken to investigate (i) saturated EAF steel slag material's potential as a P fertilizer or soil amendment and (ii) P

  13. Isocurvature Perturbations and Reheating in Multi-Field Inflation

    E-print Network

    Huston, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Inflationary models involving more than one scalar field naturally produce isocurvature perturbations. However, while these are fairly well studied, less is known about their evolution through the reheating epoch, when the inflationary fields decay into the standard constituents of the present universe. In this paper, by modelling reheating perturbatively, we calculate the power spectrum of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in three different inflationary models. We show that the isocurvature can grow large initially, but decays faster than the pressure perturbations. When reheating ends, the isocurvature is negligible for the double quadratic and double quartic inflationary models. For the product exponential potential, which features large isocurvature at the end of inflation, the isocurvature decays during reheating and is around five orders of magnitudes smaller than the pressure perturbation at the end of reheating.

  14. General purpose rocket furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A multipurpose furnace for space vehicles used for material processing experiments in an outer space environment is described. The furnace contains three separate cavities designed to process samples of the widest possible range of materials and thermal requirements. Each cavity contains three heating elements capable of independent function under the direction of an automatic and programmable control system. A heat removable mechanism is also provided for each cavity which operates in conjunction with the control system for establishing an isothermally heated cavity or a wide range of thermal gradients and cool down rates. A monitoring system compatible with the rocket telemetry provides furnace performance and sample growth rate data throughout the processing cycle.

  15. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  16. Analysis of candidate silicon carbide recuperator materials exposed to industrial furnace environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Federer; T. N. Tiegs; D. M. Kotchick; D. Petrak

    1985-01-01

    Several SiC ceramics were exposed to the combustion environment in six industrial furnaces to determine their corrosion resistance. The matrials were sintered-..cap alpha.. (Hexoloy SA), Sintride, recrystallized (NC-400), CVD SiC coated NC-400, siliconized (NC-430), reaction sintered (SC-X and KT), and SiâNâ-bounded (C\\/75 and CN-178). Tubes of these materials were exposed in two aluminum remelt furnaces, a forge furnace, a steel

  17. Analysis of standard reference materials after microwave-oven digestion in open vessels using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Zeeman-effect background correction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Chakraborti; M. Burguera; J. L. Burguera

    1993-01-01

    Heating-covered teflon digestion vials located inside a reheatable container in the presence of different acid mixtures with microwave oven dissolve the metals from biological and environmental certified reference materials. Pb, Cd, Cu, Mn and Fe from the dissolved samples are determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Zeeman-effect background correction. The method allows the treatment of about 100 samples

  18. Franklin Furnace Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

  19. Generation of voltage fluctuations in power systems with DC arc furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Stade; H. Schau; M. Malsch; J. Hunermund; S. Prinz

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing use of high-power DC arc furnaces for scrap melting all over the world. Onsite measurements in several steel plants with these furnaces have shown that flicker relevant voltage fluctuations cannot be prevented. The first reason is the time-varying need of reactive power. Also dynamic compensators like TCRs are often not able to avoid considerable flicker, particularly

  20. DESTRUCTION AND REMOVAL OF POHCS (PRINCPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS) IN IRON MAKING BLAST FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least one steel company utilizes organic waste liquids as a heat and carbon content source to partially replace the coke that is used to charge the blast furnaces. The waste liquids fed to the blast furnace are likely to contain hazardous constituents. Temperature and residenc...

  1. Oxidation of sulfur in the smelting bath of an arc furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Chichko; N. V. Andrianov; A. A. Chichko

    2007-01-01

    When steel is smelted in an arc furnace, the removal of sulfur is not the primary concern. However, when using pure metal batch, the reduction in sulfur content in the arc furnace is often sufficient, and subsequent ladle treatment to remove sulfur may be scaled back or even eliminated. Where it is necessary to remove large quantities of sulfur from

  2. A Ceramic Waste Heat Recovery System on a Rotary Forge Furnace: An Installation and Operating History

    E-print Network

    Young, S. B.; Campbell, T. E.; Worstell, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    In the fall of 1980, the Reed Rock Bit Company (Houston, Texas) placed a Hague International high temperature energy conservation system on a rotary hearth furnace used to heat steel billets for forging. The energy conservation system includes a...

  3. Environmental assessment of a BOF steel slag used in road construction: The ECLAIR research program

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Abstract Steel production generates great amounts of by-products as steel slag. Unlike blast furnace slag, environmental assessment. Introduction Steelmaking slag includes blast furnace iron slag, and electric arc, the use of Basic Oxygen Furnace slag (BOF slag) has been restrained due to insufficient volume stability

  4. Simulating (p)reheating after inflation via the DCE?

    E-print Network

    Wade Naylor

    2014-09-18

    We note some close parallels between preheating/perturbative reheating, (p)reheating, models in post-inflationary cosmology and the dynamical Casimir effect (DCE) in quantum optics. For the plasma-mirror model we show how the effective plasma mass (arising from conduction electrons) behaves like an oscillating inflaton field, while created photons behave like a scalar field coupled quadratically to the inflaton. Furthermore, the effect of spacetime expansion can also be incorporated by varying the dielectric function. We propose an experiment that could mimic (p)reheating for both narrow and broad parametric resonance, by employing technology already being used in attempts to detect DCE photons via plasma-mirrors.

  5. High gradient directional solidification furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

  6. Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States). Ironmaking Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

  7. METALLURGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEFOS 3 MW DC ARC FURNACE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ye; J. Alexis; E. Burström

    2004-01-01

    Over the past twenty years the 3 MW DC arc furnace at MEFOS has been frequently used for development of new processes. These processes include recovery of valuable metals from slag, sludge and dust from steel and other metallurgical industry, treatment of ashes from power plant and incinerators, smelting reduction of minerals and zinc recovery from EAF dust. The process

  8. 20. TAKING A CAST AT BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. WORKERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TAKING A CAST AT BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. WORKERS, LIKE THE ONE STANDING ON THE BRIDGE ABOVE THE 'BOTTLE' INTO WHICH THE HOT IRON FLOWS, ARE PROTECTED BY HEAVY FIREPROOF GARMENTS. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE IN THE RIGHT; THE CENTRAL COMPLEX WITH STOVES IN THE CENTER. ELECTRICAL POWER HOUSE IS ON THE LEFT BEYOND THE CONVEYOR LIFT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. FRACTIONAL EFFICIENCY OF AN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE BAGHOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the performance of a fabric filter system controlling emissions from either one or two 30-ton electric arc furnaces producing a high-strength, low-alloy specialty steel. The evaluation involved measuring the system's total mass collect...

  11. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND MACHINERY AND ARTIFACTS INCLUDING A STEAM ENGINE HUB MADE AT THE BRIERFIELD ROLLING MILL (INSCRIBED C.C. HUCKABEE AND DATED 1863) AND OTHER STEAM ENGINES. - Iron & Steel Museum of Alabama, 12632 Confederate Pkwy., Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  12. Assessment of melt desulfurization in a ladle-furnace unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Gizatulin; O. I. Nokhrina; I. D. Rozhikhina; V. I. Dmitrienko

    2011-01-01

    We will estimate the distribution of sulfur and its final concentration in melt that is in equilibrium with slag, by simulation of the reducing properties of metal and slag during ladle treatment [1, 2]. In ladle–furnace treatment of steel, the addition of reducing agent (silicon) to the ladle reduces the oxida? tion of the slag. The added silicon also reduces

  13. The investigation of atmospheric humidity control by hot gas reheat

    E-print Network

    Whitlock, Paul Leroy

    1963-01-01

    (Thermometer $5) 6. Reheat coil air-dry bulb (Thermometer K) The room air temperatures (both wet and dry bulb) were measured by a standard AMCA psychrometer. The psychrometer incorporated an electric blower that maintained a constant air velocity over...

  14. Dehumidification Without Re-heat Using Face and Bypass Dampers

    E-print Network

    Warila, D. T.

    1994-01-01

    Installations with chill water cooling, needing constant air volume and dehumidification, traditionally use a draw through air handling unit with a cooling coil and a re-heat coil. Dehumidification is achieved by overcooling the discharge air...

  15. Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  16. Advanced Process Heater for the Steel, Aluminum and Chemical Industries of the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Briselden

    2007-10-31

    The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: “Improved performance of high temperature materials; improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer”. Radiant tubes are used in almost every industry of the future. Examples include Aluminum re-heat furnaces; Steel strip annealing furnaces, Petroleum cracking/ refining furnaces, Metal Casting/Heat Treating in atmosphere and fluidized bed furnaces, Glass lair annealing furnaces, Forest Products infrared paper driers, Chemical heat exchangers and immersion heaters, and the indirect grain driers in the Agriculture Industry. Several common needs among the industries are evident: (1) Energy Reductions, (2) Productivity Improvements, (3) Zero Emissions, and (4) Increased Component Life. The Category I award entitled “Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future” met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) doubling the heat transfer rates (2) improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) improving temperature uniformity by 100oF (38 oC) and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH addresses EERE’s primary mission of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. The primary goal of this project was to design, manufacture and test a commercial APH prototype by integrating three components: (1) Helical Heat Exchanger, (2) Shared Wall Radiant U-tube, and (3) Helical Flame Stabilization Element. To accomplish the above, a near net shape powder ceramic Si-SiC low-cost forming process was used to manufacture the components. The project defined the methods for making an Advanced Process Heater that produced an efficiency between 70% to 80% with temperature uniformities of less than 5oF/ft (9oC/m). Three spin-off products resulted from this project: (1) a low-cost, high-temperature heat exchanger, (2) a new radiant heat transfer system, and (3) a hybrid or integral advanced process heater that incorporates a high surface area ceramic heat exchanger and burner combined with either a metallic or ceramic radiant tube and heat transfer elements.

  17. Improved graphite furnace atomizer

    DOEpatents

    Siemer, D.D.

    1983-05-18

    A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

  18. Moisture Separator Reheater for NPP Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Jun; Kasahara, Jiro

    This paper introduces the development of the current model Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR) for nuclear power plant (NPP) turbines, commercially placed in service in the period 1984-1997, focusing on the mist separation performance of the MSR along with drainage from heat exchanger tubes. A method of predicting the mist separation performance was devised first based on the observation of mist separation behaviors under an air-water test. Then the method was developed for the application to predict under the steam conditions, followed by the verification in comparison with the actual results of a steam condition test. The instability of tube drainage associated with both sub-cooling and temperature oscillation might adversely affect the seal welding of tubes to tube sheet due to thermal fatigue. The instability was measured on an existing unit to clarify behaviors and the development of a method to suppress them. Both methods were applied to newly constructed units and the effectiveness of the methods was demonstrated.

  19. Inflation and reheating in spontaneously generated gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Cerioni, A.; Tronconi, A.; Venturi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, via Irnerio, 46-I-40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Finelli, F. [INAF/IASF Bologna, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Inflation is studied in the context of induced gravity (IG) {gamma}{sigma}{sup 2}R, where R is the Ricci scalar, {sigma} a scalar field and {gamma} a dimensionless constant, and diverse symmetry-breaking potentials V({sigma}) are considered. In particular we compared the predictions for Landau-Ginzburg and Coleman-Weinberg type potentials and their possible generalizations with the most recent data. We find that large field inflation generally leads to fewer constraints on the parameters and the shape of the potential whereas small field inflation is more problematic and, if viable, implies more constraints, in particular, on the parameter {gamma}. We also examined the reheating phase and obtained an accurate analytical solution for the dynamics of the inflaton and the Hubble parameter by using a multiple scale analysis. The solutions were then used to study the average expansion of the Universe, the average equation of state for the scalar field and both the perturbative and resonant decays of the inflaton field.

  20. An improved gas extraction furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkin, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Design of glass furnace for analysis of rocks to determine nature and amount of trapped gas is described. Furnace heats specimen in vacuum conditions by radio frequency induction. Diagram of apparatus to show construction and operation is provided.

  1. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  2. Comparing Residential Furnace Blowers for

    E-print Network

    LBNL 62344 Comparing Residential Furnace Blowers for Rating and Installed Performance I.S. Walker was to assess the performance of residential furnace blowers for both heating, cooling and air distribution of furnace blowers over a range of static pressure differences that included standard rating points

  3. Furnace with radiant burndown tube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Thekdi; K. H. Hemsath; J. G. Conybear; F. J. Vereecke; S. H. Verhoff

    1980-01-01

    Past attempts to capture the heat energy of combustible gases in the furnace chamber involved drastic structural changes in the furnace design; however, the incorporation of a radiant burndown tube that uses the combustible exhaust gas to provide additional heat to the furnace requires neither major structural modifications nor a cumbersome venting system. The tube has three functional ares -

  4. Furnace Black Characterization

    E-print Network

    ;005F3 Furnace Process High Temperature Refractory Feedstock OilAir Natural Gas Reaction Zone Quench #12 - Filler "Bonding" ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 , , , ads ads ads G H T S H Enthalpy of Adsorption Adsorption Isotherm" diameter (TEM) - different Nitrogen adsorption · Special process to increase the amorphous carbon 2 2.5 3 3

  5. Residential Furnace Blower Performance

    E-print Network

    LBNL 61467 Residential Furnace Blower Performance I.S. Walker Environmental Energy Technologies blowers and the potential cost-effectiveness of setting performance standards and changing motor technologies. In this study, a testing program was undertaken at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  6. Strengthen flame stability during the furnace`s load decrease

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhiguo; Sun Xuexin; Li Fujin; Qiu Jihua; Chen Gang [HuaZhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the result of the study of the coal combustion characteristic and flame stability during the load decrease of PCFF (corner burner arrangement). Considering the relation between flame stability and furnace load during the furnace load change, some method must be used to strengthen the pulverized coal ignition and combustion for the furnace to maintain the flame stability especially for the furnace which fires low rank anthracite. Experimental results show that when the furnace load decreased, the temperature distribution in furnace decreased and the flame stability in furnace had changed because of the load changing. This paper also introduces a new pulverized coal burner: Bluff-body with cavity burner. According to the result of application of this burner, this kind of pulverized coal burner can improve the coal ignition and combustion efficiency. Especially for low load operation of furnace the bluff-body with cavity burner has demonstrated its ability in strengthening coal ignition and improving the flame stability for furnace operation. Experimental results show that using bluff-body with cavity burner, the lowest load for furnace fired bituminous is 40% MCR and 50% MCr for low rank anthracite (V{sup r} < 12%, A{sup f} > 45%). This burner has simple structure and is very easy to set up for furnace.

  7. Influence of reheating on the trispectrum and its scale dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Godfrey; Tarrant, Ewan R. M.; Copeland, Edmund J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Byrnes, Christian T., E-mail: ppxgl@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: ppxet@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: ed.copeland@nottingham.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    We study the evolution of the non-linear curvature perturbation during perturbative reheating, and hence how observables evolve to their final values which we may compare against observations. Our study includes the evolution of the two trispectrum parameters, g{sub NL} and ?{sub NL}, as well as the scale dependence of both f{sub NL} and ?{sub NL}. In general the evolution is significant and must be taken into account, which means that models of multifield inflation cannot be compared to observations without specifying how the subsequent reheating takes place. If the trispectrum is large at the end of inflation, it normally remains large at the end of reheating. In the classes of models we study, it remains very hard to generate ?{sub NL} >> f{sub NL}{sup 2}, regardless of the decay rates of the fields. Similarly, for the classes of models in which g{sub NL} ? ?{sub NL} during slow-roll inflation, we find the relation typically remains valid during reheating. Therefore it is possible to observationally test such classes of models without specifying the parameters of reheating, even though the individual observables are sensitive to the details of reheating. It is hard to generate an observably large g{sub NL} however. The runnings, n{sub f{sub N{sub L}}} and n{sub ?{sub N{sub L}}}, tend to satisfy a consistency relation n{sub ?{sub N{sub L}}} = (3/2)n{sub f{sub N{sub L}}} regardless of the reheating timescale, but are in general too small to be observed for the class of models considered.

  8. Open-Hearth and Basic-Oxygen Furnaces: An Allocation Model for Production Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bandyopadhyay

    1969-01-01

    In a steelworks where both open-hearth and basic-oxygen furnaces are available, there is a genuine problem of allocation of total steel production between the two processes. After briefly explaining the two processes, an attempt is made to develop a linear programming model for obtaining optimum allocation of total steel production between the two processes for production planning purposes. Equations and

  9. Effect of Electric Arc Furnace Bag House Dust on Concrete Durability Researcher: Fahad Al-Mutlaq

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    of the corrosion rates of embedded steel bars in specimens of concrete exposed to chloride ingressEffect of Electric Arc Furnace Bag House Dust on Concrete Durability Researcher: Fahad Al) Introduction Corrosion of reinforcing steel is recognized to be the major cause of deterioration of concrete

  10. Tritium extraction furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of apparatus for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having, negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible`s internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle`s volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of, the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused.

  11. Carburizing of steel in controlled atmospheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Gliner

    1975-01-01

    in a commercial continuous furnace with a full load. The temperature and composition of the atmosphere in the furnace were controlled individually in four zones. In the first zone the metal was heated to earburizing temperature (920~ earburizing was conducted at this temperature in the second and third zones; the steel was cooled to 850 ~ before quenching in the

  12. On-line ultrasonic system for measuring thickness of the copper stave in the blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang-Woo; Kim, Dohoon

    2012-05-01

    The blast furnace is used make molten iron from sintered ore and the cokes in the steel industry. Recently, the copper stave cooling system placed on inner face of the blast furnace body to protect the steel shell from heat. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the material makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. It was impossible to access the copper stave with the ultrasonic sensor for measuring thickness because the copper stave is covered with the steel shell and there is backing refractory between the stave and the steel shell. The unique ultrasonic sensor which can approach the cooling stave through the cooling line was developed to measure thickness. The thickness can be measured with portable ultrasonic thickness sensor and can be monitored continuously with embedded sensors.

  13. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  14. Carbon-free induction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Pfeiler, William A. (Norris, TN)

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  15. Water gas furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaro, C.

    1985-12-03

    A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

  16. Failure analysis of boiler cold and hot reheater tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalil Ranjbar

    2007-01-01

    An analysis was made on the failure and shut down of boiler cold and hot reheater tubes by chemical analysis of sediments, metallographic examinations, XRD, SEM and EDX studies. The mode of operation, maintenance, and feed water chemistry were also checked. It is concluded that the bad maintenance and feed water chemistry are the main causes of the failure, leading

  17. ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN SUBMERGED ARC FURNACE FOR FERROCHROME PRODUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yang; Y. Xiao; M. A. Reuter

    Ferrochrome is the major chromium source for stainless steel production, and submerged-arc furnaces (SAF) are most commonly utilised to smelt chromite ores into ferrochrome by using suitable carbonaceous reductants such as coke. Because of the complexity of feed structure and electrical-thermal-chemical interactions, there exist large gradients and wide distributions of temperature, mineralogy and other process variables in the furnace. This

  18. A study of grounding resistance reduction agent using granulated blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Hsiung Chen; Jiann-Fuh Chen; Tsorng-Juu Liang; Wen-I Wang

    2004-01-01

    One by-product of steel making, granulated blast furnace slag, is often wasted. When it is used, it is used in civil engineering and building engineering and mostly applied to road-building. It will soon have many other environmental uses. The granulated blast furnace slag has similar characteristics to glue, and low resistivity was found. With a cement-hydrate catalyst, it can be

  19. Evaluation of gas carburizing in a new fluidized-bed furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Moore; G. G. Storey

    1981-01-01

    A newly designed, internally fired, air: propane fluidized bed furnace is described and used to carburize a low carbon steel.\\u000a The increased carburizing rates, compared with the conventional sealed-quench furnace, are achieved without the problem of\\u000a sooting even at carbon potentials of 2.3 pct C. Since the measured activation energy was found to be of the same order as\\u000a that

  20. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  1. Sorption of heavy metals on blast furnace sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. López-Delgado; C. Pérez; F. A. López

    1998-01-01

    An investigation into the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents was carried out. Gases produced in the blast furnace were washed and led towards a Dorr thickener where the sludge was obtained as a suspension. The sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on

  2. Dynamic properties of blast furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Naboka; G. A. Polyanskii; A. P. Fomenko; N. V. Krutas

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the dynamic properties of the blast-furnace process in terms of the two control signals (change in the ore load and change in the blast parameters), as well as random perturbing signals that change the composition of the furnace gas as a function of the ratio of direct and indirect ferrousoxide (FeO) reduction and the

  3. Vitrification of fly ash by swirling-flow furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tadashi [Kobe Steel Ltd., Nishi, Kobe (Japan). Engineering and Machinery Div.] [Kobe Steel Ltd., Nishi, Kobe (Japan). Engineering and Machinery Div.

    1996-12-31

    According to the amendment of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law of 1992, fly ash is regulated as Specially controlled waste and wide attention is now being paid to the melting and vitrification treatment of fly ash, which can reduce overall volume, detoxify and recover sources. Kobe Steel has demonstrated its operation using a swirling-flow furnace and has perfected a vitrification technique. The demonstration test has confirmed stable melting, high decomposition ratio of dioxins and the soundness of the slag. Kobe Steel has successfully developed a new technique for heightening the quality of slag and a new process for the heavy metals recovery from collected dust.

  4. 1. Introduction The demand for cleaner steels increases every year. In

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Brian G.

    , or by charging blast furnace iron, direct-reduced iron, or other relatively pure iron source. These trace ele- trained mold slag, as documented in many studies, such as at Inland Steel,16) National Steel,17

  5. Furnace with radiant burndown tube

    SciTech Connect

    Thekdi, A.C.; Hemsath, K.H.; Conybear, J.G.; Vereecke, F.J.; Verhoff, S.H.

    1980-07-29

    Past attempts to capture the heat energy of combustible gases in the furnace chamber involved drastic structural changes in the furnace design; however, the incorporation of a radiant burndown tube that uses the combustible exhaust gas to provide additional heat to the furnace requires neither major structural modifications nor a cumbersome venting system. The tube has three functional ares - the burner leg, the exhaust leg, and a tube portion located within the furnace chamber. The combustible gas passes through an inlet into the tube, where it is mixed with air and ignited; the combustion products exit via the exhaust leg. A typcial application for this radiant burndown tube is in a carburizing furnace; the endothermic gas that is normally burned off could supply over 250,000 Btu/hr.

  6. High cycle fatigue behavior of gas-carburized medium carbon Cr-Mo steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyung-Jun Kim; Young-Gak Kweon

    1996-01-01

    High cycle fatigue properties of gas-carburized 4140 steel were assessed to compare with those of 8620 steel which is widely\\u000a used as a carburizing steel. Fatigue limit was evaluated associated with microstructure, case depth, and distribution of retained\\u000a austenite and compressive residual stress near the surface. Test results indicated that the reheat quenching method of 4140\\u000a and 8620 steels produced

  7. High pressure furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  8. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  9. Ceramic coating used on MWC furnace walls

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, P.R. [Southeastern Public Service Authority, Portsmouth, VA (United States); Zvosec, C. [CETEK, Transfer, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fire-side corrosion of Municipal Waste Combustor (MWC) furnace walls has been a significant problem for these units. This corrosion can take place quite rapidly. Within less than a year major tube failures have occurred. The corrosion mechanisms and history of various units have been well documented previously. The commonly used answer to this corrosion is use of Inconel 625 weld overlay. It is often applied after erection of units, because the corrosion or its location is unforeseen. Two major problems with the Inconel 625 weld overlay is its high initial cost and the subsequent maintenance due to imperfections in the overlay during its application. Now, a thin, ceramic coating has proven its ability to protect the carbon steel tubes and survive the furnace environment. As of April, 1995, it will have about 10 months of service at the SPSA operated MWC plant. Its cost is a fraction of Inconel 625 weld overlay. Since it forms a continuous coating there are very few imperfections in the coating. One key feature of the ceramic coating is its thermal expansion rate is similar to carbon steel. This eliminates flaking of the ceramic coating. A brief review of the SPSA/NNSY Steam/Power Plant operating characteristics is presented. Maps showing loss of metal (based on ultrasonic testing) in a number of units are presented. Then physical and chemical properties of the ceramic coating are discussed. The costs of various alternatives are compared. This ceramic coating will prove to save MWCs millions of dollars. It can be used to go over poor Inconel overlay work.

  10. Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt, Cynthia

    2014-09-01

    Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

  11. Reheating the universe after multi-field inflation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Braden; Lev Kofman; Neil Barnaby

    2010-01-01

    We study in detail (p)reheating after multi-field inflation models with a particular focus on N-flation. We consider a variety of different couplings between the inflatons and the matter sector, including both quartic and trilinear interactions with a light scalar field. We show that the presence of multiple oscillating inflatons makes parametric resonance inefficient in the case of the quartic interactions.

  12. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

  13. OPTIMAL OPERATION OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACES (EAF) TO MINIMIZE THE GENERATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS AT THE SOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manufacture of steel by electric arc furnaces (EAF) is continuing to increase in usage in the United States with current production estimated to be over 63 million tons per year. The reduction of emissions from steel producers has been slow for two main reasons: the nee...

  14. Study of hot hardness characteristics of tool steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Hardness measurements of tool steel materials in electric furnace at elevated temperatures and low oxygen environment are discussed. Development of equation to predict short term hardness as function of intial room temperature hardness of steel is reported. Types of steel involved in the process are identified.

  15. Gravitational wave background from reheating after hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Sastre, Alfonso [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain and Instituto de Fisica Teorica CSIC-UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    The reheating of the Universe after hybrid inflation proceeds through the nucleation and subsequent collision of large concentrations of energy density in the form of bubblelike structures moving at relativistic speeds. This generates a significant fraction of energy in the form of a stochastic background of gravitational waves, whose time evolution is determined by the successive stages of reheating: First, tachyonic preheating makes the amplitude of gravity waves grow exponentially fast. Second, bubble collisions add a new burst of gravitational radiation. Third, turbulent motions finally sets the end of gravitational waves production. From then on, these waves propagate unimpeded to us. We find that the fraction of energy density today in these primordial gravitational waves could be significant for grand unified theory (GUT)-scale models of inflation, although well beyond the frequency range sensitivity of gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA, or BBO. However, low-scale models could still produce a detectable signal at frequencies accessible to BBO or DECIGO. For comparison, we have also computed the analogous gravitational wave background from some chaotic inflation models and obtained results similar to those found by other groups. The discovery of such a background would open a new observational window into the very early universe, where the details of the process of reheating, i.e. the big bang, could be explored. Moreover, it could also serve in the future as a new experimental tool for testing the inflationary paradigm.

  16. Multiple reheat helium Brayton cycles for sodium fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2008-07-01

    Sodium fast reactors (SFR) traditionally adopt the steam Rankine cycle for power conversion. The resulting potential for water-sodium reaction remains a continuing concern which at least partly delays the SFR technology commercialization and is a contributor to higher capital cost. Supercritical CO2 provides an alternative, but is also capable of sustaining energetic chemical reactions with sodium. Recent development on advanced inert-gas Brayton cycles could potentially solve this compatibility issue, increase thermal efficiency, and bring down the capital cost close to light water reactors. In this paper, helium Brayton cycles with multiple reheat and intercooling states are presented for SFRs with reactor outlet temperatures in the range of 510°C to 650°C. The resulting thermal efficiencies range from 39% and 47%, which is comparable with supercritical recompression CO2 cycles (SCO2 cycle). A systematic comparison between multiple reheat helium Brayton cycle and the SCO2 cycle is given, considering compatibility issues, plant site cooling temperature effect on plant efficiency, full plant cost optimization, and other important factors. The study indicates that the multiple reheat helium cycle is the preferred choice over SCO2 cycle for sodium fast reactors.

  17. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  18. Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements 

    E-print Network

    Gandler, T.

    2010-01-01

    Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements Tim Gandler Energy Coordinator Baytown Olefins Plant, Baytown Tx 2010 Industrial Energy Technology Conference May, 2010 Page 2 ? Baytown Complex ? Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Furnace overview... & challenges in steam cracking ? Energy efficiency improvements Overview Baytown Olefins Plant Page 3 Baytown Complex ?One of world?s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes ?~3,400 acres along Houston Ship...

  19. High-frequency furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumbrunnen, A. D.

    1985-04-01

    An experimental furnace has been built for the purpose of evaluating a new technique for the high purity melting of certain metals and semiconductors. The melt is contained in a solidified skull of the same material being melted, thus avoiding crucible reactions that are a problem in conventional processing. A number of commercial applications of the invention are discussed, assuming that feasibility can be established. These include the melting and crystal growth of silicon, where the avoidance of crucible contamination would improve the energy conversion efficiency of solar cells; and the consolidation of titanium sponge and scrap, where energy savings and other process advantages would be realized. The production of ferrous and non-ferrous, specialty alloys is also discussed. Heating power is derived from the electrical, proximity effect which is used to concentrate a high-frequency (9.6 kHz) current in the melt zone. The power source is a conventional, 50 kW, solid-state inverter of the type used in induction heating practice. All heats were conducted on a cast iron workpiece in argon at atmospheric pressure. The melt temperature of the casting (2100 F) was not achieved in any test run; however, the ability of proximity effect to generate localized heating was clearly demonstrated.

  20. Heating steels in vacuum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marmer

    1983-01-01

    It is recommended that high-strength and corrosion-resistant steels be heated in an electric vacuum furnace. Absence of oxidation and decarburization, decrease in the deformation of the part, increase in service life, plus safety, and nontoxicity in the shop, are cited as advantages. Annealing, carburizing, hardening, brazing, and sintering--all detailed-can be more efficiently accomplished in vacuum heating. As vacuum heating requires

  1. An Innovative Two-Stage Reheating Process for Wrought Aluminum Alloy During Thixoforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, JiaoJiao; Brabazon, D.; Phillion, A. B.; Lu, GuiMin

    2015-06-01

    An innovative two-stage reheating process has been developed to improve the thixotropic behavior of semi-solid wrought aluminum alloy during thixoforming. The variation of the microstructural evolution mechanisms with temperature and holding time during a traditional process and two-stage reheating process are presented in this paper. A preferred semi-solid microstructure with spherical-like grains surrounded by a uniform liquid film was obtained in the two-stage reheating process. The semi-solid microstructure obtained via this two-stage reheating process had a number of features beneficial for semi-solid metal processing, including smaller equivalent diameters, a higher degree of sphericity, a lower coarsening rate constant of solid grains and a reduced amount of entrapped liquid compared with that produced by the traditional reheating process. These results indicate that the two-stage reheating process is a promising method for manufacturing wrought aluminum alloy during thixoforming.

  2. Single taphole blast furnace casthouse performance optimizing cost and availability

    SciTech Connect

    Fowles, R.D.; Searls, J.B.; Peay, W.R. [Geneva Steel, Provo, UT (United States); Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    The No. 2 blast furnace is a single taphole furnace with a convection air-cooled iron trough. The iron runner system is designed to fill four 90 ton open-top ladles per cast, which are transported by locomotive to the steel shop. The slag runner system is capable of filling three 800 ft{sup 3} slag pots per cast. The No. 2 blast furnace was blown in from mini-reline with this new casthouse configuration in early December 1991. It was operated for nearly three years until it was banked for planned stove repairs and a trough rebuild in late September 1994. During this period, the furnace produced just over 2.5 million tons of hot metal across the original trough refractory lining system, with 13 intermediate hot patch castable repairs. The entire casthouse refractory usage (main trough, runner systems, and covers) during this campaign was 1.06 pounds per net ton of hot metal. Investigation of the lining during demolition indicated that the trough lining campaign could have been extended to at least 3.0 million tons. This paper will discuss how operating practices, mechanical design, refractory design, maintenance philosophy, and attention to detail synergistically contributed to the long campaign life and low refractory consumption rate.

  3. Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Seltzer

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by natural circulation to the waterwalls and divisional wall panels. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) without over-fire air and (2) with 20% over-fire air. The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from carbon steel to T91. The total heat transfer surface required in the oxygen-fired heat recovery area (HRA) is 25% less than the air-fired HRA due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are practically the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are very similar.

  4. Auction-based approach to resolve the scheduling problem in the steel making process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikas Kumar; Shashi Kumar; M. K. Tiwari; F. T. S. Chan

    2006-01-01

    Steel production is an extremely complex process and determining coherent schedules for the wide variety of production steps in a dynamic environment, where disturbances frequently occur, is a challenging task. In the steel production process, the blast furnace continuously produces liquid iron, which is transformed into liquid steel in the melt shop. The majority of the molten steel passes through

  5. Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, A.; Niskanen, J.; Tikkala, H.; Aksela, H.

    2013-04-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr2O3, Ni, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency.

  6. Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, A; Niskanen, J; Tikkala, H; Aksela, H

    2013-04-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr2O3, Ni, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency. PMID:23635185

  7. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

  8. FUGITIVE EMISSIONS FROM INTEGRATED IRON AND STEEL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an engineering investigation of fugitive (non-ducted) emissions in the iron and steel industry. Operations excluded from the study are coke ovens, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) charging, and blast furnace cast houses. Fugitive emission factors for iron an...

  9. CFD MODELLING OF THE STEEL BELT SINTERING PROCESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Keihäs; P. Mäkelä; J. Ollila; L. Hekkala

    The Outokumpu Steel Belt Sintering (SBS) Technology is used for manufacturing chromite pellets that are charged into a smelting furnace for ferrochromium production. One of the main elements in successful fur- nace operation is the control of gas flows inside the furnace, giving improved temperature distribution in the bed during the process. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) gives excellent opportunities for

  10. EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH SIDE OF SINGLE FURNACE, SOUTHWEST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  11. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  12. Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

  13. Power quality improvement in DC electric arc furnace plants utilizing multi-phase transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arash Dehestani Kolagar; Abbas Shoulaie

    2012-01-01

    The conventional feeding systems for DC electric arc furnace steel making plants usually include a 12 pulse rectifier that is fed by ?\\/? and ?\\/Y three phase transformers. In this paper the advantages of applying multi-phase transformers for supplying such loads are evaluated and compared with the traditional power supply systems. It is shown that utilizing multi-phase transformers can lead

  14. A fault analysis of DC electric arc furnaces with SVC harmonic filters in a minimill plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hansang Lee; Gilsoo Jang; Byungmoon Han

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the most feasible solution to overcome the failure of the 2nd harmonic filter in the static VAR compensator (SVC) which operates with the DC electric arc furnace (EAF) at Gwangyang Steel Mill in Korea. In order to investigate the causes of this failure, various measurements were carried out on the DC EAF and the main transformer at

  15. FEM computation of the forces on the arc of a DC-furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Biro; K. Preis; K. R. Richter; B. Aigner; W. H. Schuchlenz; E. Nix

    1994-01-01

    A finite element model of a DC arc furnace is investigated in order to predict the forces acting on the arc due to the magnetic field. The currents have an a priori unknown distribution in the steel tank wall, in the anode, in the melt and in the cathode, so a current flow problem is analysed in the first step.

  16. Pilot plant production of ferronickel from nickel oxide ores and dusts in a DC arc furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. J Kotzé

    2002-01-01

    Laterites and other oxidized nickel ores constitute a very important part of world-wide nickel reserves. The development of nickel oxide ore smelting has drawn heavily on iron and steel metallurgy. In ferronickel production, the nickel oxide and part of the iron oxide are reduced to metal in an electric furnace to form immiscible layers of slag and metal. The crude

  17. Durability of traditional plasters with respect to blast furnace slag-based plaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Cerulli; C. Pistolesi; C. Maltese; D Salvioni

    2003-01-01

    Blast furnace slag is a residue of steel production. It is a latent hydraulic binder and is normally used to improve the durability of concrete and mortars. Slag could be also used as rendering mortar for masonry and old buildings. Today, cement and hydraulic lime are the most popular hydraulic binders used to make plasters. They are characterised by a

  18. Investigation of hydraulic activity of ground granulated blast furnace slag in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C Pal; A Mukherjee; S. R Pathak

    2003-01-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product of the steel manufacturing industry, being used as an effective partial cement replacement material, has already been proven to improve several performance characteristics of concrete. The reactivity of GGBFS has been found to depend on the properties of slag, which vary with the source of slag, type of raw material used, method

  19. Mix design and performance analysis of asphalt concretes with electric arc furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Pasetto; Nicola Baldo

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a laboratory study, aimed at verifying the possibility to use two particular typologies of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slags, in substitution of the natural aggregates, in the composition of wearing course asphalt concrete for flexible pavements. The experimental research has been articulated in a preliminary study of the chemical, leaching, physical, and mechanical

  20. Current and future foodservice applications of microwave cooking/reheating.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, C J; Zabik, M E

    1985-08-01

    Microwave ovens are widely used in foodservice establishments; currently, they are used primarily for reheating. In comparison with conventional methods, approximately 75% less energy is required for microwave cooking or heating. In the future, it is possible that minimal microwave energy will be used to extend shelf life of foods. It is expected that "combination" convention or convection/microwave systems and conveyor microwave systems that can be electronically programmed will be widely used in the future. New food product designs and types of disposable packaging are available. PMID:4019983

  1. Reheating of the Universe and evolution of the inflaton

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzitelli, F.D. (Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina (AR) Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina,); Paz, J.P. (Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad)

    1989-08-15

    The problem of the reheating of the Universe after inflation is considered. Our approach is based on the use, as first principles,'' of the renormalized version of (a) the evolution equation for the mean value of an interacting scalar field and (b) the semiclassical Einstein equations. We compute (for two different toy models) the characteristic time for the damping of the mean-value oscillations. We show that when the oscillations are damped the Universe becomes radiation dominated and inflation ends. The techniques used in this paper are those of quantum field theory in curved spacetime and can be generalized to more realistic models.

  2. Austenitic stainless steel-ferritic steel weld joint failures

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.; King, J.F.

    1982-09-01

    The cause of failures of dissimilar-alloy (austenitic or ferritic) joints in superheater and reheater tubes of fossil-fired steam plants was investigated. In the failures of interest, cracks form and propagate in the ferritic steel (usually 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel) about 5 to 15 ..mu..m from the fusion lines. The complex microstructure developed at the interface between weld metal and 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel during welding and elevated-temperature service was examined in (1) the as-welded and as-welded-and-tempered conditions, and (2) failed and unfailed joints having more than 100,000 h of service in a fossil-fired boiler. Metallographic observations on failed and unfailed joints were combined with literature observations to explain the interface microstructure and subsequent failure mode. On the basis of the proposed failure model, recommendations are presented for improving joint reliability.

  3. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  4. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  5. Cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone. Part 2: Failure criteria and statistical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.L. [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science; King, J.E. [Rolls Royce plc, Derby (United Kingdom). Aerospace Div.

    1996-10-01

    In part 1 of this article, cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone (IC CG HAZ) of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels was determined to occur between two closely spaced blocky MA particles. Blunt notch, crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), and precracked Charpy testing were used in this investigation to determine the failure criteria required for cleavage initiation to occur by this mechanism in the IC CG HAZ. It was found that the attainment of a critical level of strain was required in addition to a critical level of stress. This does not occur in the case of high strain rate testing, for example, during precracked Charpy testing. A different cleavage initiation mechanism is then found to operate. The precise fracture criteria and microstructural requirements (described in part 1 of this article) result in competition between potential cleavage initiation mechanisms in the IC CG HAZ.

  6. 8.EE Fixing the Furnace

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Ivan’s furnace has quit working during the coldest part of the year, and he is eager to get it fixed. He decides to call some mechanics and furnace spe...

  7. Production and use of low-alloy steel for mine supports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Vikhlevshchuk; A. S. Storozhenko; G. S. Yakimenko; F. S. Zigel

    1988-01-01

    The Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy and the Kommunarsk combine developed a new low-alloy semikilled steel 20G2AFps. The steel was made in a two-bath furnace with the following modifications: metal was tapped at a temperature of 15-20\\/degree\\/C higher, alloyed mainly in the ladle with blast-furnace ferromanganese and nitrided ferro-vanadium, and deoxidized with ferrosilicon or silicomanganese. The lightweight steel was equal in

  8. An analytical furnace model for optimizing aluminum melting furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianxiang (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); King, Paul E.; Hassan, Mohamed (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); Kuwana, Kazunori (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); Saito, Kozo (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY)

    2005-02-01

    An analytical furnace model, originally established by Essenhigh and Tsai, is developed and modified in this paper. The practical application of this modified model is to predict optimum furnace operating conditions, and has been verified by experimental tests conducted in the Experimental Research Furnace (ERF) at the Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy. The development of the modified Essenhigh/Tsai model is based on melting and holding tests with two main assumptions: thermal conduction loss in aluminum melting process is the same as that in holding processes, and the heat loss through flue gases is lineally proportional to the melting rate. The former is reasonable because thermal conduction loss is small as compared with firing rate, while the latter is quite accurate as shown in the test results. Tests of aluminum melting were conducted in the ERF furnace where the combustion space volume was changed by varying the roof height. The relations between firing rate, heat absorption rate, melting rate, and energy efficiency were developed from the tests, and the optimum operating conditions under which maximum energy efficiency can be achieved were predicted. In addition, the effect of roof height on the energy efficiency was determined. This model could be a valuable tool in diagnostic analysis of day-to-day operations in aluminum melting.

  9. Waste Heat Recovery – Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF) 

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, T.

    2008-01-01

    Submerged Arc Furnaces are used to produce high temperature alloys. These furnaces typically run at 3000°F using high voltage electricity along with metallurgical carbon to reduce metal oxides to pure elemental form. The process as currently...

  10. Furan formation during storage and reheating of sterilised vegetable purées.

    PubMed

    Palmers, Stijn; Grauwet, Tara; Buvé, Carolien; Van de Vondel, Lore; Kebede, Biniam T; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To this day, research for furan mitigation has mostly targeted the levels of food production and handling of prepared foods by the consumer. However, part of the furan concentrations found in commercially available food products might originate from chemical deterioration reactions during storage. A range of individual vegetable purées was stored at two different temperatures to investigate the effects of storage on the furan concentrations of shelf-stable, vegetable-based foods. After 5 months of storage at 35°C (temperature-abuse conditions), a general increase in furan concentrations was observed. The furan formation during storage could be reduced by storing the vegetable purées at a refrigerated temperature of 4°C, at which the furan concentrations remained approximately constant for at least 5 months. Following storage, the vegetable purées were briefly reheated to 90°C to simulate the effect of the final preparation step before consumption. Contrary to storage, furan concentrations decreased as a result of evaporative losses. Both refrigerated storage and the reheating step prior to consumption showed the potential of mitigation measures for furan formation in vegetable-based foods (e.g. canned vegetables, ready-to-eat soups, sauces or baby foods). Next to furan, the vegetable purées were analysed for 2- and 3-methylfuran. Tomato was very susceptible to the formation of both alkylated derivatives of furan, as opposed to the other vegetables in this study. Methylfuran concentrations rapidly decreased during storage, which was contrary to the results observed for furan. PMID:25522980

  11. Improving the efficiency and availability analysis of a modified reheat regenerative Rankine cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bassily, A.M.

    1999-07-01

    Reheating in a reheat regenerative steam power cycle increases efficiency by increasing the average temperature of heat reception, but also increases the irreversibility of feed water heaters by raising the temperature of the superheated steam used for the regenerative process. This paper introduces some modifications to the regular reheat regenerative steam power cycle that reduce the irreversibility of the regenerative process. An availability analysis of the modified cycle and the regular reheat regenerative cycle as well as a comparison study between both cycles is done. The results indicate that a gain in energy efficiency of up to 2.5% as the steam generator pressure varies is obtained when applying such modifications at the same conditions of pressure, temperature's number of reheating stages, and feed water heaters. The availability analysis showed that such increase in efficiency is due to the reduction of the irreversibility of the regeneration process of the modified cycle.

  12. Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

  13. Stagewise gasification in a multiple hearth furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of sewage sludge and\\/or the combustible fraction of refuse in a multiple-hearth furnace is discussed. The furnace has a drying zone at the top, a pyrolysis zone in the middle, and a gasification zone at the bottom. The charge is fed into the top of the furnace, air and steam are fed into the bottom, the fuel gas

  14. Arc furnace flicker measurements and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bhargava

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of arc flicker investigations and harmonic measurements taken on a 55 MW arc furnace in Southern California Edison's area. The arc furnace has been in operation since 1976 and has a 65 MVAR Static Var System (SVS) installed to improve the customer's power factor, reduce the voltage fluctuations and arc furnace flicker. Although the SVS

  15. An adaptive arc furnace model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tongxin Zheng; Elham B. Makram

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive arc furnace model. The integrated model is divided into three parts, the supply system model, the nonlinear load model and the controller model. First, the supply system is represented by a set of linear differential equations. Simulation is achieved by a numerical method and the measurements are taken as the control input. Secondly, based on

  16. Temperature uniformity in RTP furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Yates Sorrell; Mark J. Fordham; M. C. Ozturk; Jimmie J. Wortman

    1992-01-01

    The heat transfer to a wafer in a rapid thermal processing (RTP) furnace is simulated by an analytical\\/numerical model. The model includes radiation heat transfer to the wafer from the lamps, heat conduction within the wafer, and emission of radiation from the wafer. Geometric optics are used to predict the radiant heat flux distribution over the wafer. The predicted wafer

  17. Concrete linings of heating furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Zamyatin

    1993-01-01

    The metallurgical and machine-building industries have more than a thousand heating and heat-treatment furnaces lined with refractory parts. The life of the linings is up to 2 years including intermediate repairs of individual elements. The primary reason for the low life of linings is their insufficient structural strength and also failure of refractory parts in periodic sharp heating and cooling.

  18. Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes an industrial furnace for heating work which emits volatiles during heating. It comprises a generally cylindrical, closed end furnace section defining a sealable heat transfer chamber for heating work disposed therein; fan means for directing furnace atmosphere as a swirling wind mass about the interior of the furnace section over a portion thereof; heat means for heating the wind mass within the fan chamber; and an incineration track formed as a circumferentially extending groove about the exterior of the furnace section and in heat transfer relationship with and situated at least to extend about a portion of the fan chamber.

  19. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

  20. Prospects of determination of reheating temperature after inflation by DECIGO

    E-print Network

    Sachiko Kuroyanagi; Kazunori Nakayama; Jun'ichi Yokoyama

    2014-12-11

    If the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ of cosmological perturbations takes a large value $r\\sim 0.1$, which may be inferred by recent BICEP2 result, we can hope to determine thermal history, in particular, the reheating temperature, $T_R$, after inflation by space-based laser interferometers. It is shown that upgraded and upshifted versions of DECIGO may be able to determine $T_R$ if it lies in the range $6\\times 10^6currently plausible inflation models, since each specification can probe $T_R$ of at most a decade range, we should determine the specifications of DECIGO with full account of constraints on inflation models to be obtained by near-future observations of temperature anisotropy and B-model polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  1. Prospects of determination of reheating temperature after inflation by DECIGO

    E-print Network

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-01-01

    If the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ of cosmological perturbations takes a large value $r\\sim 0.1$, which may be inferred by recent BICEP2 result, we can hope to determine thermal history, in particular, the reheating temperature, $T_R$, after inflation by space-based laser interferometers. It is shown that upgraded and upshifted versions of DECIGO may be able to determine $T_R$ if it lies in the range $6\\times 10^6currently plausible inflation models, since each specification can probe $T_R$ of at most a decade range, we should determine the specifications of DECIGO with full account of constraints on inflation models to be obtained by near-future observations of temperature anisotropy and B-model polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of performance improvement by reheat on the CO2 transcritical power cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuo, Hanfei

    2012-06-01

    The CO2 transcritical rankine power cycle has been widely investigated recently, because of its better temperature glide matching between sensible heat source and working fluid in vapor generator, and its desirable qualities, such as moderate critical point, little environment impact and low cost. A reheat CO2 transcritical power cycle with two stage expansion is presented to improve baseline cycle performance in this paper. Energy and exergy analysis are carried out to investigate effects of important parameters on cycle performance. The main results show that reheat cycle performance is sensitive to the variation of medium pressures and the optimum medium pressures exist for maximizing work output and thermal efficiency, respectively. Reheat cycle is compared to baseline cycle under the same conditions. More significant improvements by reheat are obtained at lower turbine inlet temperatures and larger high cycle pressure. Work output improvement is much higher than thermal efficiency improvement, because extra waste heat is required to reheat CO2. Based on second law analysis, exergy efficiency of reheat cycle is also higher than that of baseline cycle, because more useful work is converted from waste heat. Reheat with two stage expansion has great potential to improve thermal efficiency and especially net work output of a CO2 transcritical power cycle using a low-grade heat source.

  3. Heating steels in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Marmer, E.N.

    1983-03-01

    It is recommended that high-strength and corrosion-resistant steels be heated in an electric vacuum furnace. Absence of oxidation and decarburization, decrease in the deformation of the part, increase in service life, plus safety, and nontoxicity in the shop, are cited as advantages. Annealing, carburizing, hardening, brazing, and sintering--all detailed-can be more efficiently accomplished in vacuum heating. As vacuum heating requires certain surface conditions, the compositions of residual mediums is studied. The microrelief and surface finish obtained after vacuum heating is determined. Annealing in a vacuum is compared to annealing in air, a depletion in manganese indicating a greater savings by use of vacuum. Ductility is also tested. The gas of special purity nitrogen is recommended for best results. In general, then, use of electric vacuum furnaces is recommended.

  4. Furnace for treating industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T.D.

    1982-08-31

    A furnace for treating sewage sludge, ash from municipal incinerators or other industrial wastes by melting the waste with a high-temperature bed formed from a combustible carbonaceous material for the reuse of the resulting molten product, for example, as aggregate. A gas for combustion is supplied to the bed at an intermediate portion between its upper and lower portions while causing the resulting combustion gas to flow through the bed dividedly upward and downward.

  5. Calculation and Analysis of Heat Transfer Coefficients in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Qinghai

    A new way for the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler research is proposed by the supervisory information system (SIS) in power plant level. The heat transfer coefficient in CFB boiler furnace is calculated and analyzed by the SIS calculation analysis in a commercial CFB boiler, the way how to calculate the heat transfer coefficient in SIS is introduced, and the heat transfer coefficient is accurately received by calculating a large amount of data from database. The relation about the heat transfer coefficient to unit load, bed temperature, bed velocity, and suspension density is analyzed; the linear relation could be accepted for the commercial CFB design. A new calculating and simple way for the heat transfer coefficient of CFB boiler is proposed for CFB boiler design. Using this research result, the reheat spray water flux larger than the design value in lots of commercial CFB boilers is analyzed; the main reason is the designed heat transfer coefficient smaller than the actual value.

  6. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

  7. Adsorption Removal of Phosphorus from Aqueous Solution by Steel Slag Columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Zhang; Xuehong Zhang; Shaoyuan Bai; Yinian Zhu; Yuzhou Gong

    2010-01-01

    Removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution by steel slag column and the effects of the addition of boiler slag, furnace ash and quartz sand were investigated. After the adsorption treatment by the steel slag column, the residual phosphorus concentration was less than 0.5 mg\\/L. The adsorption performance of the steel slag column could be enhanced by the addition of quartz

  8. Fabrication of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels with excellent mechanical and pitting corrosion properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua-bing Li; Zhou-hua Jiang; Yang Cao; Zu-rui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A series of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels were successfully developed with a pressurized electroslag remelting furnace. Nitride additives and deoxidizer were packed into the stainless steel pipes, and then the stainless steel pipes were welded on the surface of an electrode with low nitrogen content to prepare a compound electrode. Using Si3N4 as a nitrogen alloying source, the silicon

  9. Structural characteristics and hydration kinetics of modified steel slag

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jianxin; Yu Qijun; Wei Jiangxiong, E-mail: jxwei@scut.edu.cn; Zhang Tongsheng

    2011-03-15

    This study investigates the structural characteristics and hydration kinetics of modified basic oxygen furnace steel slag. The basic oxygen furnace steel slag (BOFS) was mixed with electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS) in appropriate ratios and heated again at high temperature in the laboratory. The mineralogical and structural characteristics of both BOFS and modified steel slag (MSS) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. The results show that modification increases alite content in MSS and decreases alite crystal size with the formation of C{sub 6}AF{sub 2}. One more obvious heat evolution peak appears in MSS's heat-flow rate curves in comparison to BOFS, becoming similar to that of typical Portland cement paste. As a result, its cementitious activity is much improved.

  10. Neutralino and gravitino dark matter with low reheating temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszkowski, L.; Trojanowski, S.; Turzynski, K.

    2014-11-01

    We examine a scenario in which the reheating temperature T R after inflation is so low that it is comparable to, or lower than, the freeze out temperature of ordinary WIMPs. In this case the relic abundance of dark matter is reduced, thus relaxing the impact of the usually strong constraint coming from the requirement that the universe does not overclose. We first re-examine the dynamics of freezeout during reheating. Next we study the parameter space of the MSSM with ten free parameters, the Constrained MSSM and the singlino-dominated regions of the Next-to-MSSM. In each case we often find dramatic departures from the usually considered regime of high T R , with important implications for direct detection dark matter searches. In particular, in the MSSM we examine WIMP mass range up to about 5 TeV, and we find large regions of bino dark matter over the whole mass range, and of higgsino dark matter with mass over a similar range but starting from the ˜ 1 TeV value of the standard high T R scenario. We show that the prospects for bino detection strongly depend on T R , while the higgsino is for the most part detectable by future one-tonne detectors. The wino, which is excluded in the standard scenario, becomes allowed again if its mass is roughly above 3 .5 TeV, and can also be partially detectable. In the CMSSM, the bino and higgsino mass ranges become much more constrained although detection prospects remain roughly similar. In the Next-to-MSSM we show that, at low enough T R wide ranges of singlino-dominated parameter space of the model become again cosmologically allowed, although detection prospects remain nearly hopeless. We also study the non-thermal contribution to the DM relic density from direct and cascade decays of the inflaton. Finally, in the framework of the MSSM we consider the case of a gravitino as dark matter. In this case we find strong bounds from overclosure and from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, and derive lower limits on T R which depend on the gravitino mass and on the nature of the lightest ordinary superpartner.

  11. Furnace for processing scrap and waste products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. B. Kudzagov

    2006-01-01

    The company METPROMMASh has been developing and introducing metallurgical technologies and equipment for the nonferrous metals\\u000a sector for more than 10 years. A particular focus of the company has been the construction of furnaces for recycling aluminum-and\\u000a copper-bearing scrap and waste products. Furnaces made by METPROMMASh are currently being used by shops and factories that\\u000a recycle nonferrous metals, these furnaces

  12. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

  13. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, Vishu D. (Midland, MI); May, James B. (Midland, MI)

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  14. Performance evaluation of multi-stage, multi-bed adsorption chiller employing re-heat scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Z. I. Khan; K. C. A. Alam; B. B. Saha; A. Akisawa; T. Kashiwagi

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance investigation of a silica gel\\/water-based multi-stage, multi-bed, six-bed adsorption chiller employing re-heat scheme. The innovative chiller is powered by waste heat or renewable energy sources of temperature between 50 and 70°C along with a coolant of inlet temperature at 30°C for air-conditioning purpose. The performance of the six-bed adsorption chiller using re-heat scheme is

  15. Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

    2004-01-24

    In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

  16. Wet Scrubbing Experience for Steel Mill Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Steiner; R. J. Thompson

    1977-01-01

    Wet scrubbing experiences at a variety of steel mill applications including sinter plant, blast furnace, open hearth, and industrial boiler installations are discussed. A number of case studies are examined. For each, the process, emission characteristics, and wet scrubber system design are described. Actual performance is compared with design values, and particular emphasis is placed on water chemistry control and

  17. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME II. SINTERING, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  18. Airborne heavy metal pollution in the environment of a danish steel plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Vestergaard; U. Stephansen; L. Rasmussen; K. Pilegaard

    1986-01-01

    A survey of heavy metal deposition was carried out in the vicinity of a Danish steel plant. Bulk precipitation and transplanted lichen (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl.) were sampled at 12 stations in the environment before and after the production had been converted from open-hearth furnaces to electric-arc furnaces. The samples were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and

  19. HIGH-TEMPERATURE HEAT AND POWER GENERATION USING A PARTIAL OXIDATION GAS TURBINE : APPLICATION TO AN ANNEALING FURNACE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Desmaré; G. Heyen

    A stainless steel annealing furnace, operating at temperatures in the order of 1150°C, has been modelled using BELSIM Vali III software, based on manufacturer' s data. The operation of such a unit requires both fuel gas for firing and electricity to drive fans. Integration of a partial oxidation gas turbine is discussed. Such a machine can process the fuel gas

  20. Process Development for the Removal of Zinc and Cadmium from Wastewater Using Slag—A Blast Furnace Waste Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Gupta; Arshi Rastogi; M. K. Dwivedi; Dinesh Mohan

    1997-01-01

    Blast furnace slag, a waste generated in steel plants in India, has been converted into a low cost potential adsorbent. The resulting product has been characterized and used for the removal of zinc and cadmium. The effect of particle size, contact time, and surface loading of zinc and cadmium on the adsorbent for their removal have been studied at the

  1. The effect of rare earth catalyst on carburizing kinetics in a sealed quench furnace with endothermic atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Yan; Wei Pan; T. Bell; Zhiru Liu

    2001-01-01

    We study the effect of a rare earth (RE) catalyst on the kinetics of gas carburizing of 08F and 8620 steels. Carburizing was conducted in a sealed-quench furnace employing an endothermic atmosphere with and without RE addition at 900°C for different times. These experimental results show that compared with conventional gas carburizing the incorporation of RE leads to an obvious

  2. Reheating the Universe After Multi-Field Inflation

    E-print Network

    Neil Barnaby; Jonathan Braden; Lev Kofman

    2010-05-12

    We study in detail (p)reheating after multi-field inflation models with a particular focus on N-flation. We consider a variety of different couplings between the inflatons and the matter sector, including both quartic and trilinear interactions with a light scalar field. We show that the presence of multiple oscillating inflatons makes parametric resonance inefficient in the case of the quartic interactions. Moreover, perturbative processes do not permit a complete decay of the inflaton for this coupling. In order to recover the hot big bang, we must instead consider trilinear couplings. In this case we show that strong nonperturbative preheating is possible via multi-field tachyonic resonance. In addition, late-time perturbative effects do permit a complete decay of the condensate. We also study the production of gauge fields for several prototype couplings, finding similar results to the trilinear scalar coupling. During the course of our analysis we develop the mathematical theory of the quasi-periodic Mathieu equation, the multi-field generalization of the Floquet theory familiar from preheating after single field inflation. We also elaborate on the theory of perturbative decays of a classical inflaton condensate, which is applicable in single-field models also.

  3. Reheating the universe after multi-field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Braden, Jonathan; Kofman, Lev; Barnaby, Neil, E-mail: jbraden@physics.utoronto.ca, E-mail: barnaby@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    We study in detail (p)reheating after multi-field inflation models with a particular focus on N-flation. We consider a variety of different couplings between the inflatons and the matter sector, including both quartic and trilinear interactions with a light scalar field. We show that the presence of multiple oscillating inflatons makes parametric resonance inefficient in the case of the quartic interactions. Moreover, perturbative processes do not permit a complete decay of the inflaton for this coupling. In order to recover the hot big bang, we must instead consider trilinear couplings. In this case we show that strong nonperturbative preheating is possible via multi-field tachyonic resonance. In addition, late-time perturbative effects do permit a complete decay of the condensate. We also study the production of gauge fields for several prototype couplings, finding similar results to the trilinear scalar coupling. During the course of our analysis we develop the mathematical theory of the quasi-periodic Mathieu equation, the multi-field generalization of the Floquet theory familiar from preheating after single field inflation. We also elaborate on the theory of perturbative decays of a classical inflaton condensate, which is applicable in single-field models also.

  4. Prospects of determination of reheating temperature after inflation by DECIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Nakayama, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-01-01

    If the tensor-to-scalar ratio r of cosmological perturbations takes a large value r˜ 0.1, which may be inferred from the recent BICEP2 result, we can hope to determine thermal history, in particular, the reheating temperature, T_R, after inflation by space-based laser interferometers. It is shown that upgraded and upshifted versions of DECIGO may be able to determine T_R if it lies in the range 6× 10^6< T_R < 5× 10^7GeV and 3× 10^7< T_R< 2× 10^8GeV, respectively. Although these ranges include predictions of some currently plausible inflation models, because each specification can probe T_R of a range of at most a decade, we should determine the specifications of DECIGO taking full account of the constraints on inflation models to be obtained by near-future observations of temperature anisotropy and B-model polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  5. Scale modeling of aluminum melting furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Penmetsa, S.S. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Kentucky Lexington, KY); Li, T. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Kentucky Lexington, KY); King, Paul E.; Saito, K. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Kentucky Lexington, KY)

    2005-02-01

    Improving energy efficiency in secondary aluminum melting, done in large rectangular or round-top reverberatory furnaces, has been one of the major interests to the aluminum industry. To assist the industries in improving energy efficiency in aluminum melting, an experimental research furnace (ERF) with 907 kg capacity has been built at the Albany Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy as part of this multi-partner research program. To verify that the results from experiments conducted in the ERF furnace is validate for the operations of industrial furnaces, we use scale modeling technology to assist the validation. In this paper we present the results from our experiments in the model furnace, which was scale-down from the ERF furnace (as a prototype), and then compare them to the tests on the ERF furnace. The scaling laws which are applied to the thermal conduction loss through the walls of the model furnace were first developed, and the partial modeling relaxation technique was applied in the development of modeling to derive achievable scaling laws. Temperature distributions across the model furnace walls were measured and found to compare with the prototype favorably. Good agreement between the results obtained from the model experiments and from the ERF tests demonstrate that the scale modeling is expected to be a useful tool because the physical behavior of melting phenomena in the industrial furnaces can be explored by conducting experiments in a small, scaled-down furnace, and can be applied in the study of improving energy efficiency in aluminum melting.

  6. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    E-print Network

    Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

    2008-01-01

    Furnace Air Handlers: A Status Report and Program Recommendations, Washington D.C.Furnace Fans and Motors: A Briefing Paper for CEE. Washington D.C.Furnace and Boiler Notice of Proposed Rule (NOPR). Washington, DC. :

  7. Numerical investigation of the heating process inside an industrial furnace

    E-print Network

    Wolper, Pierre

    Numerical investigation of the heating process inside an industrial furnace Proposition: Combined are sufficient to describe the temperature raise of a furnace, their "simple integration" is often furnace taking into account convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. The model

  8. Studies of boiler slag deposit formation using a laboratory furnace: Part 1. Preliminary results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tangsathitkulchai; L. G. Austin

    1985-01-01

    A vertical externally-heated tube furnace system has been used to study the deposits formed from ten coals. A thin beam of pulverized coal is combusted in the tube, the flue gas and fly ash passed through a nozzle to accelerate them to about 3 m\\/second, and the stream at 1300°C impacted on a flat substrate of oxidized boiler steel held

  9. Electrovortex motion of a melt in dc furnaces with a bottom electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. V. Kazak; A. N. Semko

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the Lorenz force on the origination of the electrovortex motion of a metal melt in dc electric steel furnaces\\u000a with a bottom electrode is evaluated. The motion of a metal melt is described by equations of magnetic hydrodynamics for isothermal\\u000a liquid, which are solved by the finite element method. The numerical solution is compared with theoretical results

  10. Behavior of phosphorus in DRI\\/HBI during electric furnace steelmaking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Patrick Manning

    2000-01-01

    In modern electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, ore based scrap substitute materials are often used to control the chemistry of the steel produced and\\/or improve the efficiency of the process. Metallographic investigation of commercial direct reduced iron\\/hot briquetted iron, DRI\\/HBI materials indicates that before melting, phosphorus in DRI\\/HBI is contained as a calcium phosphate phase in the unreduced oxide \\

  11. Removal of lead and chromium by activated slag -- A blast-furnace waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Srivastava; V. K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan

    1997-01-01

    The blast-furnace waste generated in steel plants has been converted into a low-cost adsorbent. The resulting activated slag has been characterized and used for the removal of lead and chromium. The effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentrations, presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time on the sorption of lead and chromium were studied in batch experiments. Kinetic

  12. Deep-hole carburization in a vacuum furnace by forced-convection gas flow method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan-Shiong Chen; Lee-Der Liu

    2003-01-01

    Carburization in the deep hole with high aspect ratio is a great challenge for the metallurgist. In this paper, the deep-hole carburization of JIS SCM415 as well as SNCM 220 steel with an aspect ratio of beyond 30 has been developed in a two-chamber vacuum furnace under low-pressure acetylene atmosphere by virtue from the forced-convection gas flow carburizing method. The

  13. Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. D. Dosaj; J. B. May; A. N. Arvidson

    1994-01-01

    The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of

  14. Gasification of phosphorus in the blast furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Polulyakh; A. L. Petelin; V. Ya. Dashevskii; A. Ya. Travyanov; Yu. S. Yusfin

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of phosphorus in blast-furnace smelting requires further study, in order to determine its distribution among the products. It is conventional to assume that practically all the phosphorus supplied to the blast furnace with the batch enters the hot metal [1]. However, in recent balance calculations, estimates have been obtained for the ratio of the quantity of phosphorus supplied

  15. SCALE MODELING OF ALUMINUM MELTING FURNACE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sita rama raju S Penmetsa

    2004-01-01

    Secondary (recycled) aluminum constitutes around 48% of the total aluminum used in the United States. Secondary aluminum melting is accomplished in large reverberatory furnaces, and improving its energy efficiency has been one of the major interests to aluminum industries. To assist the industries in improving energy efficiency in aluminum melting, an experimental research furnace (ERF), with 907 kg (2000 lbs)

  16. Zinc recovery from blast furnace flue dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Asadi Zeydabadi; D. Mowla; M. H. Shariat; J. Fathi Kalajahi

    1997-01-01

    Blast furnace flue dusts are a mixture of oxides expelled from the top of the blast furnace, whose major components are iron oxides. They also contain zinc, silicon, magnesium and other minor element oxides in lesser amounts. The direct recycling of flue dust is not usually possible since it contains some undesirable elements (zinc and alkaline metals) that can cause

  17. Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions

    SciTech Connect

    I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy

    2009-07-15

    Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

  18. Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System

    E-print Network

    Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling...

  19. ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

  20. An intelligent control system for industrial furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lou An; Jia Xueyan; Qiusi Xiong

    1990-01-01

    The principles of intelligent control and the design of an expert intelligent control system (EICS) are discussed. Based on these principles, a novel control system is proposed to deal with the process control of gas carburizing furnaces. Since no critical and accurate mathematical models of the controlled plants are required, this EICS can be directly applied to many industrial furnaces.

  1. AMTEC powered residential furnace and auxiliary power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Sievers

    1996-01-01

    Residential gas furnaces normally rely on utility grid electric power to operate the fans and\\/or the pumps used to circulate conditioned air or water and they are thus vulnerable to interruptions of utility grid service. Experience has shown that such interruptions can occur during the heating season, and can lead to serious consequences. A gas furnace coupled to an AMTEC

  2. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  3. Crystal growth furnace safety system validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowski, D. W.; Hartfield, R.; Bhavnani, S. H.; Belcher, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    The findings are reported regarding the safe operation of the NASA crystal growth furnace (CGF) and potential methods for detecting containment failures of the furnace. The main conclusions are summarized by ampoule leak detection, cartridge leak detection, and detection of hazardous species in the experiment apparatus container (EAC).

  4. Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System 

    E-print Network

    Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling...

  5. Developmental testing of a programmable multizone furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, E. Y.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A multizone furnace was evaluated for its potential utilization for process experimentation on board the Space Shuttle. A temperature gradient can be created through the use of a series of connected temperature zones and can be translated by the coordinated sequencing of zone temperatures. The Bridgman-Stockbarger thermal configuration for directional solidification was implemented so that neither the sample nor furnace was translated. The thermal behavior of the furnace was measured and characterized. Limitations due to both thermal and electronic (computer) factors are identified. The results indicate that the multizone design is limited to low temperature gradients because of the indirect furnace-to-sample thermal coupling needed to blend the discrete thermal zones. The multizone furnace design inherently consumes more power than a similar (two temperature) conventional Bridgman type directional solidification furnace because every zone must be capable of the high cooling rates needed to produce the maximum desired temperature drop. Typical achievable static temperature gradients for the furnace tested were between 6 and 75 C/in. The maximum gradient velocity was approximately 10 in./hr. Several aspects of the tested system could be improved, but the dependence of the multizone design on high heat loss will limit Space Shuttle applications in the form tested unless additional power is available. The multizone furnace offers great flexibility but requires a high level of operator understanding for full advantage to be obtained.

  6. [Study on quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag].

    PubMed

    Yan, Ding-Liu; Guo, Pei-Min; Qi, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Xia; Wang, Hai-Feng; Dai, Xiao-Tian

    2008-02-01

    Quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline and crystalline contents in blast furnace slag was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The process of quantificational analysis method includes standard samples preparation, samples preparation, X-ray diffraction measurement and data treatment. The data treatment includes integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks in certain diffraction angle range, linear fitting and quantificational coefficient determination. The preparation methods of standard samples for X-ray diffraction of blast furnace slag were proposed, including 100% crystalline sample and 100% non-crystalline sample. The 100% crystalline sample can be obtained by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1 000-1 200 degrees C, and the 100% non-crystalline sample can be obtained by quenching the molten slag with enough water. The X-ray diffraction method of quantificational analysis of non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag was proposed with the 100% non-crystalline and 100% crystalline standard samples, and the quantificational coefficient can be obtained by linear regression on the integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks of X-ray diffraction in the 2-theta range 20 degrees-40 degrees. This method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 80%. The non-crystalline and crystalline contents of original blast furnace slag are obtained by combining the X-ray diffraction results and mathematical treatment, and this method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 90%, whose process includes preparing the 100% crystalline standard sample by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1000-1200 degrees C, samples preparation with the 0.02 interval in the 0-0.1 mass ratio range of 100% crystalline to original slag, X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples prepared and data treatment using iterative linear regression. The quantificational analysis method for blast furnace slag can be applied to various kinds of blast furnace slag from different steel plants. PMID:18479048

  7. A multi-zone muffle furnace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Neil D.; Kisel, Martin

    1993-01-01

    A Multi-Zone Muffle-Tube Furnace was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of providing an in-house experience base with tubular furnaces for materials processing in microgravity. As such, it must not only provide the desired temperatures and controlled thermal gradients at several discrete zones along its length but must also be capable of sustaining the rigors of a Space Shuttle launch. The furnace is insulated to minimize radial and axial heat losses. It is contained in a water-cooled enclosure for purposes of dissipating un-wanted residual heat, keeping the outer surfaces of the furnace at a 'touch-safe' temperature, and providing a rugged housing. This report describes the salient features of the furnace, testing procedures and results, and concluding remarks evaluating the overall design.

  8. Upgrading of Zinc from Galvanic Sludge and Steel Furnace Dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Siebenhofer; H. Schweiger; K. Lorber

    1997-01-01

    Mining of zinc demands the upgrading of different residues of the refining process. A method, which had been used over a period of several years, was based on the so-called Dörschel process. From the chemical point of view, the Dörschel process is a high-temperature redox process, combined with a flash distillation (sublimation) step.This process is based on the reduction of

  9. Bethlehem Steel Corporation Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Construction of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on air quality, noise, and land use at the Burns Harbor Plant area. Operation of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on the environment at the Burns Harbor Plant area. An increase of approximately 30 tons/yr for NO{sub x} and approximately 13 tons/yr for particulate matter (from the coal storage area) is expected. These emissions are within the currently permitted levels. Carbon dioxide emissions, which are unregulated, would increase by about 220,000 tons/yr at the Burns Harbor Plant. Water withdrawn and returned to Lake Michigan would increase by 1.3 million gal/d (0.4 percent of existing permitted discharge) for non-contact cooling water. No protected species, floodplains, wetlands, or cultural resources would be affected by operation of the proposed facility. Small economic benefits would occur from the creation of 5 or 6 permanent new jobs during the operation of the proposed demonstration project and subsequent commercial operation. Under the No Action Alternative, the proposed project would not receive cost-shared funding support from DOE.

  10. Trace metals related to historical iron smelting at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). The ore used at Hopewell Furnace was obtained from iron mines within 5 miles of the furnace. The iron-ore deposits were formed about 200 million years ago and contain abundant magnetite, the primary iron mineral, and accessory minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, lead, and other metals. Hopewell Furnace, built by Mark Bird during 1770-71, was one of the last of the charcoal-burning, cold-blast iron furnaces operated in Pennsylvania. The most productive years for Hopewell Furnace were from 1830 to 1837. Castings were the most profitable product, especially the popular Hopewell Stove. More than 80,000 stoves were cast at Hopewell, which produced as many as 23 types and sizes of cooking and heating stoves. Beginning in the 1840s, the iron industry shifted to large-scale, steam-driven coke and anthracite furnaces. Independent rural enterprises like Hopewell could no longer compete when the iron and steel industries consolidated in urban manufacturing centers. The furnace ceased operation in 1883 (Kurjack, 1954). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, completed a study at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS) in Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania, to determine the fate of toxic trace metals, such as arsenic, cobalt, and lead, released into the environment during historical iron-smelting operations. The results of the study, conducted during 2008-10, are presented in this fact sheet.

  11. Modulated reheating and large non-gaussianity in string cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoli, M.; Tasinato, G.; Zavala, I.; Burgess, C. P.; Quevedo, F.

    2012-05-01

    A generic feature of the known string inflationary models is that the same physics that makes the inflaton lighter than the Hubble scale during inflation often also makes other scalars this light. These scalars can acquire isocurvature fluctuations during inflation, and given that their VEVs determine the mass spectrum and the coupling constants of the effective low-energy field theory, these fluctuations give rise to couplings and masses that are modulated from one Hubble patch to another. These seem just what is required to obtain primordial adiabatic fluctuations through conversion into density perturbations through the `modulation mechanism', wherein reheating takes place with different efficiency in different regions of our Universe. Fluctuations generated in this way can generically produce non-gaussianity larger than obtained in single-field slow-roll inflation; potentially observable in the near future. We provide here the first explicit example of the modulation mechanism at work in string cosmology, within the framework of LARGE Volume Type-IIB string flux compactifications. The inflationary dynamics involves two light Kähler moduli: a fibre divisor plays the rôle of the inflaton whose decay rate to visible sector degrees of freedom is modulated by the primordial fluctuations of a blow-up mode (which is made light by the use of poly-instanton corrections). We find the challenges of embedding the mechanism into a concrete UV completion constrains the properties of the non-gaussianity that is found, since for generic values of the underlying parameters, the model predicts a local bi-spectrum with fNL of order `a few'. However, a moderate tuning of the parameters gives also rise to explicit examples with fNL ~ Script O(20) potentially observable by the Planck satellite.

  12. A study of the phase transition of reheated diphenyl carbazide (DPC) by using UV spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    El-Kabbany, F; Taha, S; Hafez, M

    2014-07-15

    Phase transition phenomenon in reheated diphenyl carbazide (DPC) is studied here using UV spectroscopy. The optical band gap for reheated DPC is obtained by measuring the optical diffused reflectance (DR) and equals to 3.55 eV. Also, the optical band gap is calculated using UV technique and equals to 3.548 eV. The absorbance of reheated DPC is studied at some selected temperatures in order to check the presence of phase transitions at 90°C and 125°C. According to the present work, the band gaps are calculated at 80°C, 110°C and 130°C and equal to 3.548 eV. But at 100°C, the optical band gap has changed to 4.139 eV. It was found that each phase of reheated DPC belongs to a certain definite crystal structure. The presence of the phase transitions are checked and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structural properties and morphology of reheated diphenyl carbazide are investigated by SEM. The SEM images are taken at some selected temperatures to confirm the presence of phase transitions. PMID:24682065

  13. Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

    2013-12-01

    Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent. PMID:25078829

  14. Greener durable concretes through geopolymerisation of blast furnace slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamane, N. P.; Nataraja, M. C.; Jeyalakshmi, R.; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2015-05-01

    The eco-friendliness of concrete is quantified by parameters such as ‘embodied energy’ (EE) and ‘embodied CO2 emission’ (ECO2e), besides duration of designed ‘service life’. It may be noted that ECO2e is also referred as carbon footprint (CF) in the literature. Geopolymer (GP) is an inorganic polymeric gel, a type of amorphous alumino-silicate product, which can be synthesised by polycondensation reactions. The concrete reported in this paper was prepared using industrial wastes in the form of blast furnace slag, fly ash as geopolymeric source materials and sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide as activators. Many mechanical properties such as compressive strength, chloride diffusion, steel corrosion, rapid chloride permeability test and rapid migration test are compared with Portland cement.

  15. Combustion space modeling of an aluminum furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, Brian M. (ANL); Zhou, C.Q. (Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, IN); Quenette, Antoine (ANL).; Han, Quinyou (ORNL).; King, Paul E.

    2005-02-01

    Secondary aluminum production (melting from aluminum ingots, scraps, etc.) offers significant energy savings and environmental benefits over primary aluminum production since the former consumes only five percent of the energy used in the latter process. The industry, however, faces technical challenges of further improving furnace melting efficiency and has been lacking tools that can help understand combustion process in detail and that will facilitate furnace design. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has played increasingly important roles in evaluating industrial processes. As part of a larger program run by SECAT, a CFD model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to simulate fuel combustion, heat transfer (including thermal radiation), gaseous product flow (mainly CO2 and H2O), and production/transport of pollutant species/greenhouse gases in an aluminum furnace. Using this code, the surface heat fluxes are calculated and then transferred to a melt code. In order to have a high level of confidence in the computed results, the output from the code will be compared and validated against in-furnace measurements made in the Albany furnace. Once validated, the combustion code may be used to perform inexpensive parametric studies to investigate methods to optimize furnace performance. This paper will present results from the combustion modeling of an aluminum furnace as well as results from several parametric studies.

  16. Regularities of heat transfer in the gas layers of a steam boiler furnace flame. Part II. Gas layer radiation laws and the procedure for calculating heat transfer in furnaces, fire boxes, and combustion chambers developed on the basis of these laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, A. N.

    2014-10-01

    The article presents the results stemming from the scientific discovery of laws relating to radiation from the gas layers generated during flame combustion of fuel and when electric arc burns in electric-arc steel-melting furnaces. The procedure for calculating heat transfer in electric-arc and torch furnaces, fire-boxes, and combustion chambers elaborated on the basis of this discovery is described.

  17. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

  18. Development of mesoscale burner arrays for gas turbine reheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoup

    Mesoscale burner arrays allow combustion to be conducted in a distributed fashion at a millimeter (meso) scale. At this scale, diffusive processes are fast, but not yet dominant, such that numerous advantages over conventional gas turbine combustion can be achieved without giving up the possibility to use fluid inertia to advantage. Since the scale of the reaction zone follows from the scale at which the reactants are mixed, very compact flames result. This compact, distributed form of combustion can provide the opportunity of inter-turbine reheat as well as the potential for lean premixed or highly vitiated combustion to suppress NOx emissions. As a proof-of-concept, a 4x4 array with burner elements on 5-mm centers was fabricated in silicon nitride via assembly mold SDM. Each burner element was designed in a single monolithic unit with its own combination of reactant inlets, fuel plenum and injection nozzles, and swirler to induce flame stabilization. Results using methane, including pressure drop, flame stability, temperature distribution in the burnt gas, and NO emissions are reported for both fully premixed (mixing prior to injection) and nonpremixed (mixing in the array) configurations. These results demonstrate the degree to which premixed performance can be achieved with this design and pointed to ways in which the array design could be improved over this first-generation unit. Given what was learned from the 4x4 array, a next-generation 6x6 array was developed. Major design changes include addition of a bluff-body stabilizer to each burner element to improve stability and use of a multilayer architecture to enhance the degree of reactant mixing. Tests using methane in both operating conditions were performed for two stabilization configurations---with and without the bluff bodies. The results for nonpremixed operation show that nearly complete air/fuel mixing was achieved using the 6x6 design, leading to NO emission levels obtainable under fully premixed conditions. However, the results also indicate that element-to-element fuel maldistribution of the array remains significant such that additional efforts to resolve manufacturing difficulties should be made in future applications. Elimination of maldistribution will reduce NO emissions even further as well as improve stability characteristics of the array.

  19. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

    1993-05-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposed study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. The Amanda furnace of Armco is the only one in North America currently using coal injection and is, therefore, the only full scale testing facility available. During this quarter complete petrographic analyses of all of the samples so far collected were completed.

  20. Determination of the Major Impurity Radiators in the Reheat Mode Discharges in the Compact Helical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Chihiro; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Fujisawa, Akihide; Ida, Katsumi; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Minami, Takashi; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Nishimura, Shin; Okamura, Shoichi; Peterson, Byron J.; Shimizu, Akihiro; Takahashi, Chihiro; Toi, Kazuo; Yoshimura, Yasuo

    Radiation brightness and impurity behaviors have been studied for reheat mode discharges in the Compact Helical System (CHS) by three different types of impurity diagnostics. Total radiation power measured by a pyroelectric detector significantly reduces after entering the reheat mode, whereas the line-averaged radiation brightness measured by an absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) photodiode array increases especially for a center viewing chord due to the impurity accumulation in the plasma core. One possible reason for this opposite behavior between the two bolometric detectors is the reduced sensitivity of the AXUV photodiode for lower energy photons in vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region. This speculation is supported by temporal evolutions of VUV spectra measured by a grazing incidence spectrometer. These results demonstrate that the comparison of three impurity diagnostics would be beneficial to the determination of the major impurity radiators and a comprehensive understanding of impurity behaviors in the reheat mode discharges.

  1. On finite density effects on cosmic reheating and moduli decay and implications for Dark Matter production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, Marco

    2014-11-01

    We study the damping of an oscillating scalar field in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime by perturbative processes, taking into account the back-reaction of the plasma of decay products on the damping rate. The scalar field may be identified with the inflaton, in which case this process resembles the reheating of the universe after inflation. It can also model a modulus that dominates the energy density of the universe at later times. We find that the finite density corrections to the damping rate can have a drastic effect on the thermal history and considerably increase both, the maximal temperature in the early universe and the reheating temperature at the onset of the radiation dominated era. As a result the abundance of some Dark Matter candidates may be considerably larger than previously estimated. We give improved analytic estimates for the maximal and the reheating temperatures and confirm them numerically in a simple model.

  2. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  3. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME VI. BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  4. Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Hemant; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S. Erik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Wattjes, Alix C. [Electronic and Mechanical Support Division (DEMO), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan [Materials Innovation Institute, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 degree sign C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degree sign in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10{sup -5} mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degree sign C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 deg. C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 deg. C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation.

  5. Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hemant; Wattjes, Alix C; Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S Erik

    2009-12-01

    We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 degrees C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degrees in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10(-5) mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degrees C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 degrees C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 degrees C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation. PMID:20059134

  6. Recycling and reheating of pyroclasts as possible mechanism for increased groundmass crystallization in basaltic tephra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deardorff, N.; Cashman, K.

    2012-12-01

    Tephra produced by explosive eruptions provides important information about magma ascent, vesiculation, fragmentation, and deposition. Mafic pyroclasts from strombolian eruptions are characterized by a wide range in groundmass crystallinity and can range from dense microlite-rich matrix to glassy microlite-poor clasts, often within the same eruption deposit and even within a single clast. However, the origin of these clast types, and the ascent and eruption conditions, is not well understood. The presence of both microlite-rich and microlite-poor matrix is a common feature of tephra deposits from cinder cone eruptions. Microlite-poor clasts are generally assumed to represent primary (deeper) magma that ascends rapidly and erupts. Microlite-rich clasts have been interpreted as slow-moving magma incorporated from along conduit walls, or stored temporarily in shallow dikes and sills; both scenarios call upon sufficiently long residence times within the upper crust to allow magma degassing and crystallization prior to eruption. An alternative explanation is additional residence time in the vent by recycling previously erupted clasts. In this study we induced groundmass crystallization in tephra by heating natural basaltic lapilli in a one-atmosphere Deltec furnace at oxygen fugacity (fO2) conditions of ambient air. Each clast was split in half (saving one half as a control) and heated isothermally for variable time intervals. Experiments were 5-60 minutes at T = 600-1000°C and 5-30 minutes at temperatures (T) ?1100°C. Images of both the control and the experimental samples permitted classification according to differences in groundmass texture caused by heating. We observed from our experiments that microlite crystallization initiates near the glass transition temperature (Tg ~690°C) within 20 minutes. The extent of crystallization increases with time and increased temperature. At greater temperatures (?800°C) rapid nucleation occurs within ?5 minutes. Pyroxenes are the first crystal phases to form at temperatures of ~690-1100°C, followed by oxides observed at temperatures >700°C. Plagioclase forms at temperatures >990°C, but was likely introduced below 900°C. Although crystallization is usually studied as a cooling-driven phenomenon, heating of glass to a temperature above the glass transition (but below the liquidus) also causes crystallization. By reheating the pyroclasts that were initially quenched at eruption temperatures (~1150°C) and equilibria, we are decreasing the glass viscosity to allow for element diffusion in an undercooled and supersaturated system, driving crystallization. As the clasts are heated effective supersaturation decreases and once the eruption temperature is reached, the sample should be at equilibrium with the phase assemblage of the erupted material. Our results suggest a recycled pyroclast will begin crystallizing almost immediately upon reaching Tg, and at high T (?800°C) <5 minutes are required for microlites to form. The occurrence of two microlite populations within basaltic tephra is not uncommon, particularly in strombolian deposits, and recycling of pyroclasts may be the mechanism for increased crystallization. Eruptions with low mass eruption rates are the most likely candidates for recycling due to insufficient strength to fully expel the pyroclasts.

  7. Galileogenesis: A new cosmophenomenological zip code for reheating through R-parity violating coupling

    E-print Network

    Sayantan Choudhury; Arnab Dasgupta

    2014-02-23

    In this paper we introduce an idea of leptogenesis scenario in higher derivative gravity induced DBI Galileon framework {\\it aka Galileogenesis} in presence of one-loop R-parity violating couplings in the background of a low energy effective supergravity setup. We have studied extensively the detailed feature of reheating constraints and the cosmophenomenological consequences of thermal gravitino dark matter in light of PLANCK and PDG data. Finally we have also established a direct cosmological connection among dark matter relic abundance, reheating temperature and tensor-to-scalar ratio in the context of DBI Galileon inflation.

  8. The effect of refurbishing a UK steel plant on PM10 metal composition and ability to induce inflammation 

    E-print Network

    Hutchison, Gary; Brown, David; Hibbs, Leon; Heal, Mathew R; Donaldson, Ken; Maynard, Robert; Monaghan, Michelle; Nicholl, Andy; Stone, Vicki

    2005-01-01

    Background In the year 2000 Corus closed its steel plant operations in Redcar, NE of England temporarily for refurbishment of its blast furnace. This study investigates the impact of the closure on the chemical composition ...

  9. Corrosion problems in coal-fired boiler superheater and reheater tubes: steam-side oxidation and exfoliation. Review and results of laboratory tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, I.M.

    1981-04-01

    The studies conducted in Task 2 of EPRI contract 644-1 included a laboratory test program in which the causes and controlling parameters of scale exfoliation were investigated and a literature review centered on steamside scale exfoliation in superheater and reheater tubes. Results of laboratory tests indicated the relationship of scale exfoliation to operating temperature cycles. Whereas small temperature changes had no effect on test specimens, a slow cool-down from temperatures above 1000 to 100/sup 0/F (540 to 40/sup 0/C) resulted in exfoliation from both ferritic steels and austenitic stainless steels. Differences in thermal expansion between the alloy and the oxide scale are believed to be responsible. Among the methods found to be effective in eliminating scale exfoliation are surface treatment of new steam generator components, high-temperature chromizing, and lower temperature aqueous chromate treatment which reduced the rate of scale formation. Shot-peening was found to eliminate (or substantially reduce) exfoliation from stainless steel. Other surface treatments and coatings which were not adequate or beneficial included electroless nickel plating, diffusion aluminizing, siliconizing, and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ coating.

  10. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  11. Combustion Air Preheat on Steam Cracker Furnaces 

    E-print Network

    Kenney, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Beginning in 1978, Exxon has started up nine large new steam cracking furnaces with various levels of air preheat, and has seven more under construction. Sources of heat have included process streams, flue gas and gas turbine exhaust. Several...

  12. Optimized Utility Systems and Furnace Integration 

    E-print Network

    McMullan, A. S.; Spriggs, H. D.

    1987-01-01

    in different utility system designs. This paper presents a procedure, using Pinch Technology, for the simultaneous design of process and utility as an optimally integrated system. Also, the implications for furnace integration are discussed....

  13. Laboratory arc furnace features interchangeable hearths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. L.; Kruger, O. L.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory arc furnace using rapidly interchangeable hearths gains considerable versatility in casting so that buttons or special shaped castings can be produced. It features a sight glass for observation.

  14. Blast furnace on-line simulation model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Saxén

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical model of the ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is presented. The model describes the steady-state operation of\\u000a the furnace in one spatial dimension using real process data sampled at the steelworks. The measurement data are reconciled\\u000a by an interface routine which yields boundary conditions obeying the conservation laws of atoms and energy. The simulation\\u000a model, which provides a picture

  15. Universal energy-efficient refining furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Sborshchikov; S. A. Krupennikov

    2009-01-01

    This article examines new designs of fluidized-bed furnaces that make it possible to solve a number of engineering problems.\\u000a Descriptions are given of the furnaces and their possible applications: recycling of small pieces of scrap and chips without\\u000a their preliminary processing (briquetting and the removal of oil and grinding debris from their surface); the production of\\u000a a synthetic glass-ceramic material

  16. Fracture mechanism and toughness of the welding heat-affected zone in structural steel under static and dynamic loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Qiu; H. Mori; M. Enoki; T. Kishi

    2000-01-01

    Due to the influence of the welding thermal cycle, the toughness of structural steel generally degenerates. Recently, the\\u000a intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (IC CG HAZ) was found to demonstrate the worst toughness in welded\\u000a joint, which was associated with its fracture mechanism. In this article, two IC CG HAZs of a structural steel were prepared\\u000a by welding thermal-cycle simulation

  17. Production increase with high rates of natural gas injection at Acme Steel and National Steel`s Granite City Division

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L. [Charles River Associates, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Supplemental fuels are injected at the tuyere level of blast furnaces to reduce coke consumption and increase productivity. These fuels include natural gas, coke oven gas, oil, tar, and coal. The economic benefits derived from supplemental fuel are of two types: (1) the reduction in costs of hot metal production arising primarily from decreased coke consumption, and (2) the value of the increased production of hot metal- and steel - that can be sold. Essentially all blast furnaces in North America inject supplemental fuel. Approximately 70 percent inject natural gas in the range from 80-210 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/THM) or from 1,800 to 4,700 standard cubic feet per ton of hot metal (scf/THM). Currently, natural gas injection rates average 110 lb/THM or 2,500 scf/THM. The total amount of gas consumed in North American blast furnaces now exceeds 101 billion cubic feet per year (bcfy).

  18. Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Iron-Slag Ratio at Taphole of Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, M.; Shinotake, A.; Nakashima, M.; Omoto, N.

    2014-07-01

    As the initial process in an integrated steel-making plant, molten iron is produced in a blast furnace. The molten iron has a temperature between 1700 K and 1900 K. The outflow stream discharged from a taphole comprises the molten iron and slag (which is a mixture of molten oxides). Monitoring of the stream temperature is important because it has information on the thermal condition inside the blast furnace. A newly developed simultaneous measurement technique for temperature and iron-slag ratio is reported. A monochromatic CCD camera with a short exposure time is used to obtain a thermal image of the rapidly moving stream. The thermal image has a marble-like pattern caused by the physical separation of the iron and slag and their different optical properties. Iron thermometry is realized by automatically detecting the peak of the iron gray-level distribution on a histogram. Meanwhile, the thermal radiance of the semitransparent slag varies as a function of the thickness. The slag temperature is calculated from the maximum gray level, presuming that the emissivity of the slag is constant at a thick slag part. The slag ratio is measured by counting the number of pixels on the histogram. A field test was carried out at an operating blast furnace. The iron temperature, slag temperature, and slag ratio were successfully measured. This multiple image measurement is expected to be the new information source for stable blast furnace operation.

  19. Thermodynamic modelling of the formation of zinc-manganese ferrite spinel in electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Pickles, C A

    2010-07-15

    Electric arc furnace dust is generated when automobile scrap, containing galvanized steel, is remelted in an electric arc furnace. This dust is considered as a hazardous waste in most countries. Zinc is a major component of the dust and can be of significant commercial value. Typically, the majority of the zinc exists as zinc oxide (ZnO) and as a zinc-manganese ferrite spinel ((Zn(x)Mn(y)Fe(1-x-y))Fe(2)O(4)). The recovery of the zinc from the dust in metal recycling and recovery processes, particularly in the hydrometallurgical extraction processes, is often hindered by the presence of the mixed ferrite spinel. However, there is a paucity of information available in the literature on the formation of this spinel. Therefore, in the present research, the equilibrium module of HSC Chemistry 6.1 was utilized to investigate the thermodynamics of the formation of the spinel and the effect of variables on the amount and the composition of the mixed ferrite spinel. It is proposed that the mixed ferrite spinel forms due to the reaction of iron-manganese particulates with both gaseous oxygen and zinc, at the high temperatures in the freeboard of the furnace above the steel melt. Based on the thermodynamic predictions, methods are proposed for minimizing the formation of the mixed ferrite spinel. PMID:20356673

  20. Hydrometallurgically recovering zinc from electric arc furnace dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antrekowitsch, J.; Antrekowitsch, H.

    2001-12-01

    The increasing use of zinc-containing scrap for steel production has lead to a high zinc content in the electric arc furnace and converter flue dusts. The cost of disposing of this residue is high due to environmental restrictions. Various recycling processes have been developed for these dusts, but most never reached the pilot plant stage and many investigations were stopped because of metallurgical and economical inefficiencies. While pyrometallurgical methods have to deal with high energy consumption, low zinc yield, and valueless residues, hydrometallurgical processes could offer an economical recycling alternative. This paper describes hydrometallurgical methods for recovering zinc from steel industry dust. These methods can be integrated in the primary zinc-winning process or in galvanization. Investigations of sulfuric-acid leaching show high zinc solubility but also a high iron content in the final liquor. As a result, steps for purification are required that cannot be conducted economically. Alternatively, a NaOH leaching gives a satisfying zinc yield and a very low solubility for the iron that remains in the residue.

  1. Diffusion chromizing using a method of applying a plasma coating to a steel surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Ya. Ryazantsev; I. A. Goncharenko; N. G. Filatov; V. V. Kazanskii; V. T. Seroshtan

    1986-01-01

    1.Application to a steel billet surface of a plasma coating as an initial chromizing stage makes it possible to carry out diffusion annealing in normal flame furnaces without using special protective atmospheres.2.A diffusion layer forms at the steel billet surface in accordance with rules for equilibrium phase transformation at the annealing temperature, and it has increased corrosion resistance even on

  2. Improving slurry seal performance in Eastern Saudi Arabia using steel slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Imran Khan; H. I Al-Abdul Wahhab

    1998-01-01

    Harsh climate, heavy traffic and, most importantly, use of low-quality aggregates have resulted in unsatisfactory slurry seal performance in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. On the other hand, blast furnace steel slag, a superior aggregate type with excellent strength and surface properties, is being wasted as a by-product during the steel manufacturing process. This research was carried out to

  3. Carburization of a high-manganese, low-carbon steel by Methane-Nitrogen gas mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Nestor; W. Rostoker; R. F. Domagala

    1979-01-01

    It has been shown that an experimental 4 wt pet Mn steel can be successfully treated to produce a very high surface hardness\\u000a (in excess of 700 VPN) and a substantial core strength. The base steel has sufficient hardenability to give through-hardening\\u000a without quenching from the carburization furnace.

  4. Performance of the Integrated Gas and Steam Cycle (IGSC) for reheat gas turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Takeya; H. Yasui

    1988-01-01

    In 1978, the Japanese government started a national project for energy conservation called the Moonlight Project. The Engineering Research Association for Advanced Gas Turbines was selected to research and develop an advanced gas turbine for this project. The development stages were planned as follows: first, the development of a reheat gas turbine for a pilot plant (AGTJ-100A), and second, a

  5. Reheating effects in the matter power spectrum and implications for substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Erickcek, Adrienne L. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Sigurdson, Kris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    The thermal and expansion history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis is unknown. We investigate the evolution of cosmological perturbations through the transition from an early matter era to radiation domination. We treat reheating as the perturbative decay of an oscillating scalar field into relativistic plasma and cold dark matter. After reheating, we find that subhorizon perturbations in the decay-produced dark matter density are significantly enhanced, while subhorizon radiation perturbations are instead suppressed. If dark matter originates in the radiation bath after reheating, this suppression may be the primary cutoff in the matter power spectrum. Conversely, for dark matter produced nonthermally from scalar decay, enhanced perturbations can drive structure formation during the cosmic dark ages and dramatically increase the abundance of compact substructures. For low reheat temperatures, we find that as much as 50% of all dark matter is in microhalos with M > or approx. 0.1M{sub +} at z{approx_equal}100, compared to a fraction of {approx}10{sup -10} in the standard case. In this scenario, ultradense substructures may constitute a large fraction of dark matter in galaxies today.

  6. Demonstration of a Reheat Combustor for Power Production With CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Chorpening; Geo. A. Richards; Kent H. Casleton; Mark Woike; Brian Willis; Larry Hoffman

    2005-10-01

    Concerns about climate change have encouraged significant interest in concepts for ultralow or “zero”-emissions power generation systems. In a concept proposed by Clean Energy Systems, Inc., nitrogen is removed from the combustion air and replaced with steam diluent. In this way, formation of nitrogen oxides is prevented, and the exhaust stream can be separated into concentrated CO2 and water streams. The concentrated CO2 stream could then serve as input to a CO2 sequestration process. In this study, experimental data are reported from a full-scale combustion test using steam as the diluent in oxy-fuel combustion. This combustor represents the “reheat” combustion system in a steam cycle that uses a high and low-pressure steam expansion. The reheat combustor serves to raise the temperature of the low-pressure steam turbine inlet, similar to the reheat stage of a conventional steam power cycle. Unlike a conventional steam cycle, the reheat enthalpy is actually generated by oxy-fuel combustion in the steam flow. This paper reports on the unique design aspects of this combustor, as well as initial emissions and operating performance.

  7. Composite Furnace Modules - Application in DC Furnaces for FeNi alloy production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frik Marx; Mike Shapiro; Isabel Geldenhuys; Nico Fowler; Neil B. Gray

    The arduous operating conditions in high intensity furnaces require specialized equipment incorpo- rated into the containment vessel to ensure viable, long term operation. This is particularly true for high temperature pyrometallurgical processes where the slag constituents are chemically aggressive to the conventional refractory materials utilized in the sidewall lining. Smelting of nickeliferous lateritic ores in an electric furnace is an

  8. Energy efficient operation of aluminum furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Paul E.; Golchert, B.M. (ANL); Li, T. (University of Kentucky); Hassan, M. (University of Kentucky); Han, Q. (ORNL)

    2005-01-01

    Secondary Aluminium melting offers significant energy savings over the production of Aluminium from raw resources since it takes approximately 5% of the energy to re-melt the Aluminium for product than it does to generate the same amount of Aluminium from raw material. However, the industry faces technical challenges for further improving the efficiency of the secondary Aluminium melting furnaces and lacks tools that can aid in helping to understand the intricate interactions of combustion and heat transfer. The U. S. Dept. of Energy, Albany Research Center (ARC), in cooperation with the Argonne and Oak Ridge National Labs, the University of Kentucky, and with industrial support through Secat, Inc. of Lexington, KY (representing 8 Aluminium re-melt companies) built and operates a test-bed reverberatory furnace to study efficiency issues in Aluminium melting. The experimental reverberatory furnace (ERF) is a one ton nominal capacity research furnace capable of melting 1000 lbs per hour with its twin 0.8 MMBtu/hr burners. Studies in the ERF include melt efficiency as a function of combustion space volume, power input and charge alloy. This paper details the experimental equipment, conditions, procedures, and measurements and includes results and discussions of melt efficiency studies. Specific results reported include an analysis of the efficiency of the furnace as a function of power input and the effect that changing combustion space volume has on melting efficiency. In conjunction with this, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate fuel combustion, heat transfer, gaseous product flow and the production/transport of pollutants and greenhouse gases in an Aluminium furnace. Data from the ERF is utilized for computational model validation in order to have a high degree of confidence in the model results. Once validated, the CFD code can then be used to perform parametric studies and to investigate methods to optimize operation in industrial furnaces. Finally, an analytic analysis of the efficiency of the furnace under varying conditions was conducted to determine overall efficiency characteristics of the furnace.

  9. Comparison of CO2 emission between COREX and blast furnace iron-making system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changqing; Han, Xiaowei; Li, Zhihong; Zhang, Chunxia

    2009-01-01

    Steel works faced increasing demand to minimize the emission of GHGs. The CO2 emissions of COREX and blast furnace iron-making system were compared. It is point out that COREX contribute little to CO2 emission reduction. Comparing to conventional blast furnace iron-making system, direct CO2 emissions of COREX is higher. Considering the credits of export gases for power generation, the total CO2 emission of COREX have advantages only when the COREX is joined with high-efficiency generating units which efficiency is greater than 45% and CO2 emission factor of the grid is higher than 0.9 kgCO2/kWh. PMID:25084406

  10. [Dust and silica exposure on metallurgical furnace maintenance using refractory materials].

    PubMed

    Garattini, S; Barbieri, P G; Bottone, F; Brunelli, E; Carminati, F; Chiari, R; Sarnico, M

    2012-01-01

    In the metallurgical industries the silica risk has long been known, particularly for the refractoryes maintenance workers. The maintenance of furnaces, ladles and tundisches refractory linings, on the current organization of production, is provided by companies under contract. The information available about the characterization of risk for this group of workers are at present inadequate. The study investigates the exposure to dust, also containing free crystalline silica (SLC), through the analysis of samples of commercial products used in the reconstruction of refractory linings of furnaces, ladles and tundisches, materials from the demolition of refractory articles and dust from work areas. It also presents the results of an environmental investigation conducted during the demolition and reconstruction of the refractory in three steel mills. The Authors, by the numerous inspections and the systematic survey of working conditions, have formulated a SLC risk profile and some proposals for prevention. PMID:23405575

  11. Computational simulations and experimental validation of a furnace brazing process

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Malizia, L.A.

    1998-12-31

    Modeling of a furnace brazing process is described. The computational tools predict the thermal response of loaded hardware in a hydrogen brazing furnace to programmed furnace profiles. Experiments were conducted to validate the model and resolve computational uncertainties. Critical boundary conditions that affect materials and processing response to the furnace environment were determined. {open_quotes}Global{close_quotes} and local issues (i.e., at the furnace/hardware and joint levels, respectively) are discussed. The ability to accurately simulate and control furnace conditions is examined.

  12. Effect of electric arc furnace slag on growth and physiology of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Radi?, Sandra; Crnojevi?, Helena; Sandev, Dubravka; Jeli?, Sonja; Sedlar, Zorana; Glavaš, Katarina; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka

    2013-12-01

    Basic slag, used in this study as a potential source of certain nutrients, is a byproduct of the production of steel in electric arc furnace (EAF). A pot experiment with two nutrient-poor substrates was conducted to investigate to compare the effect of EAF steel slag and fertilizers NPK + F e on growth and availability of specific nutrients to maize. Mineral content of both substrate and plant leaves, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments were measured following six weeks of cultivation. As steel slag also contains trace amounts of heavy metals, certain oxidative parameters (antioxidative enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation) were evaluated as well. The steel slag improved soil mineral composition, increased above ground maize biomass by providing Fe, Mn, Mg, K and partly P and improved photosynthetic parameters. The potential phytotoxicity of EAF slag containing substrates was not determined as evaluated by MDA (malondialdehyde), GR (glutathione reductase) and APX (ascorbate peroxidase) levels. The obtained results show that EAF steel slag is comparable to NPK + F e in supplying nutrients for maize growth, indicating the potential of EAF steel slag as an inexpensive and non-phytotoxic nutrient supplier especially in poor soils. PMID:24275594

  13. Size and distribution of particles deposited electrostatically onto the platform of a graphite furnace obtained using laser ablation sampling*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchkamp, T.; Garbrecht, A.; Hermann, G.; Kling, B.

    1997-07-01

    Electrostatic particle deposition onto the platform of an ETA graphite furnace was investigated by solid sampling employing laser ablation. The aerosol generated by laser ablation is transported into the furnace by an Ar gas flow. It is piped into the tube through the dosing hole via a capillary. The deposition onto the graphite platform is achieved by impact as well as electrostatically by a discharge. The deposition efficiency was investigated with steel samples, the sample distribution on the graphite platform and the size of the deposited particles was investigated with steel, phosphate rock and plastic samples. Employing electrostatic precipitation, particles with diameters down to about 5 nm are deposited. The efficiency is measured by an additional external precipitator, showing almost quantitative deposition of the introduced particles.

  14. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  15. Vapor aluminum diffused steels for high-temperature corrosion resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    Steel products and fabrications that are vapor aluminum diffused by the pack cementation process offer greatly enhanced corrosion resistance in high-temperature oxidizing, sulfidizing, carburizing, and hydrogen-containing environments. Pipes and tubing are most frequently diffused with aluminum for use as transfer lines, heat exchangers, reactors, or in process furnaces handling corrosive materials. Vapor aluminum diffusion by the pack cementation process is

  16. Chemical Speciation of Heavy Metals in Stainless Steel Plant Dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guojun Ma; Wei Fan; Hui Tang; Wei Wang; Weihou Su

    2010-01-01

    The leaching tests and the sequential extraction procedure of heavy metals in the stainless steel plant dusts were studied. The results show that the total Cr and Cr (VI) content in argon oxygen decarburization converter dust (AODD), and the concentrations of Cd and Zn in electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) exceed the national standards. Lead is the most extractable element

  17. Improved Heat Treatment Of Steel Alloy 4340

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lawrence B.

    1993-01-01

    New process takes significantly less time than prior heat-treatment processes. Involves placing steel plate directly in furnace and heat-treating. Plate then quenched in slowly moving oil to reduce stresses. Any deflection then pressed out. Possible uses of 4340 steel include new and improved bulletproof vests for military and police personnel and armor for bulletproof automobiles for military, police, diplomatic, and private users. Also used in other military land vehicles as tanks and in both military and civilian aircraft. Lighter armorplate enables land vehicles and aircraft to attain greater speed and maneuverability, consume less fuel, and afford better protection from snipers or terrorists.

  18. Synergistic effect of fly ash and blast furnace slag on the mechanical strength of traditional porcelain tiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kausik Dana; Jayanta Dey; Swapan Kumar Das

    2005-01-01

    Fly ash and blast furnace slag, the by-products of Indian thermal power plant and steel plant, were gradually added to a traditional kaolin—quartz—feldspar based porcelain tile compositions singly and in combination by replacing a part of quartz and feldspar, respectively. The effects of such additions were studied by measuring the linear shrinkage, bulk density, water absorption and flexural strength of

  19. Removal of Arsenic(III) from Groundwater using Low-Cost Industrial By-products—Blast Furnace Slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushil Raj Kanel; Heechul Choi; Ju-Yong Kim; Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran; Wang Geun Shim

    2006-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS), a steel industrial by-product, was tested for the removal of As(III), which is a highly toxic, mobile and predominant species in anoxic groundwater. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to determine the feasibility of BFS as an adsorbent for removing As(III) from groundwater as As(III) concentration and the pH of water were varied. The maximum As(III) adsorption

  20. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Andrew H. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

  1. Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces

    E-print Network

    Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

    2005-01-01

    of the recommendations arising from use of the protocol are implemented, resulting in cost savings of greater than $200,000 per year. PROJECT OVERVIEW The glass industry is a major energy consumer. Depending on the market sector, a glass furnace heated by oxy...-fuel burners may use from 3.5 to 6 million Btu to melt and refine a ton of glass. The glass industry has generally aimed at achieving energy efficiency through furnace design (e.g., inclusion of heat recovery). However, little attention has been paid...

  2. Expediting issuance of cracking furnace permits

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, M.; Scappatura, G. [Texaco Chemical Co., Port Neches, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The construction of a new cracking furnace or the modification of an existing cracking furnace in an ethylene-producing facility requires a permit from regulatory agencies having jurisdiction in such matters. Seemingly endless amounts of data are required to support permit applications and many times the applications get mired in a bureaucratic maze which can overwhelm even the most persistent application. There are, however, some critical elements which can provide the necessary information to the agency permit engineer to allow issuance of permits in an expeditious manner.

  3. Acoustic Levitator With Furnace And Laser Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Stoneburner, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic-levitation apparatus incorporates electrical-resistance furnace for uniform heating up to temperature of about 1,000 degrees C. Additional local heating by pair of laser beams raise temperature of sample to more than 1,500 degrees C. High temperature single-mode acoustic levitator generates cylindrical-mode accoustic resonance levitating sample. Levitation chamber enclosed in electrical-resistance furnace. Infrared beams from Nd:YAG laser provide additional local heating of sample. Designed for use in containerless processing of materials in microgravity or in normal Earth gravity.

  4. Improve alloy selection for ammonia furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, S.B. [Greene and Associates, Dallas, TX (United States); Schillmoller, C.M. [Schillmoller Associates, Belleair, FL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Significant improvements have occurred in the design and operation of ammonia furnaces. To raise production efficiencies, operating companies are running these units under more severe conditions to conserve energy costs. However, these adverse conditions can compromise the integrity of the primary reformer furnace tubes. Such conditions invite failure due to metal dusting. Advancements in alloys enable operators to fully optimize their operation. Improved tubing materials can be used on new facilities, but also incorporated in revamps on existing units to increase unit capacity and raise unit profitability. Tube failure in the waste heat boiler can be overcome by selecting the best-fit material for processing conditions.

  5. Air-Side Energy Use Calculations for Four HVAC Systems: Dual Duct Constant Volume (DDCAV), Dual Duct Variable Volume (DDVAV), Constant Volume with Reheat (CAVRH0), Variable Volume with Reheat (VAVRH)

    E-print Network

    Haberl, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    This report contains engineering calculations for four (4) air-side, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems (HVAC) systems, including: dual duct constant volume (DDCAV), dual duct variable volume (DDVAV), constant volume with reheat...

  6. Air-Side Energy Use Calculations for Four HVAC Systems: Dual Duct Constant Volume (DDCAV), Dual Duct Variable Volume (DDVAV), Constant Volume with Reheat (CAVRH0), Variable Volume with Reheat (VAVRH) 

    E-print Network

    Haberl, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    This report contains engineering calculations for four (4) air-side, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems (HVAC) systems, including: dual duct constant volume (DDCAV), dual duct variable volume (DDVAV), constant volume with reheat...

  7. Atmospheres for the hardening of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, H. [Torrington Co., Rutherfordton, NC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Since time immemorial, atmospheres in one form or another have been used to protect steel surfaces against degradation or to impart properties that would otherwise be unobtainable. For a heat-treatment operation that includes both clean-hardening and carburizing, the most viable atmosphere option is a combination of both cryogenic nitrogen for safety purges, and on-site generation of nitrogen--membrane or PSA--and methanol. Given that a steel part is being heated to austenitizing temperature, what is the purpose of the furnace atmosphere: to protect the steel surface from oxidation, oxide scale impedes quenching speed and contaminates the quenching media and tank; to protect the steel surface from unintentional changes in the surface chemistry caused by carburization/decarburization; to intentionally change the surface chemistry of the part by adding or removing carbon and/or nitrogen; to provide a vehicle for heat transfer or loss, if a circulating fan on a batch furnace breaks down, the importance of heat transfer becomes painfully obvious. Note that for quenching high carbon steels, no atmosphere is often better than a poor atmosphere. A minimal layer of ductile ferrite caused by total decarburization under a layer of thin scale, is less prone to quench-cracking than a less ductile and often deeper layer of partial decarburization with no scale.

  8. 6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  9. Refractory lining of a furnace for pyrolysis of dichlorethane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Fedoruk; N. V. Pitak; V. S. Baksheeva

    1992-01-01

    Conclusions Compositions of thermal-insulation concrete mixtures from which various elements of the lining of a furnace for pyrolysis of dichlorethane were produced have been developed. Burner blocks for the gas burners of the furnace were produced by vibrocasting.

  10. Energy Recovery for Medium- and High-Temperature Industrial Furnaces

    E-print Network

    Krumm, E. D.

    1981-01-01

    The application of metallic heat exchangers on medium- and high-temperature industrial furnaces is examined. A thorough technical understanding of all furnace operating conditions and the duties imposed upon heat exchangers is identified as a key...

  11. SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING BUILDINGS SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Bessemer Foundry, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Design and fabrication of a tin-sulfide annealing furnace

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

    2011-01-01

    A furnace was designed and its heat transfer properties were analyzed for use in annealing thin-film tins-ulfide solar cells. Tin sulfide has been explored as an earth abundant solar cell material, and the furnace was ...

  13. Electrovortex motion of a melt in dc furnaces with a bottom electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazak, O. V.; Semko, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the Lorenz force on the origination of the electrovortex motion of a metal melt in dc electric steel furnaces with a bottom electrode is evaluated. The motion of a metal melt is described by equations of magnetic hydrodynamics for isothermal liquid, which are solved by the finite element method. The numerical solution is compared with theoretical results and experimental data of other authors. From analysis of the results obtained, conclusions are drawn that the Lorenz force has a marked effect on the origination of the vortex motion of a melt.

  14. Power Usage and Electrical Circuit Analysis for Electric Arc Furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Trageser

    1980-01-01

    Power usage in ultrahigh-powered electric arc furnaces requires considerably more investigation into system parameters, furnace secondary circuit analysis, and operating characteristics than previously given to normal powered electric arc furnaces. The power input must be analyzed from the infinite electric utility bus to the arc at the electrode. All interested parties must participate in the analysis to assure a mutual

  15. Insulation of Pipe Bends Improves Efficiency of Hot Oil Furnaces 

    E-print Network

    Haseltine, D. M.; Laffitte, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    of the convective sections. Consultation with the furnace manufacturer then revealed that furnaces made in the 1960's tended to not insulate the pipe bends in the convective section. When insulation was added within the covers of the pipe bends on one furnace...

  16. Blast-furnace smelting with improved coke at OAO Zaporozhkoks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Fomenko; V. I. Naboka; N. V. Krutas; M. E. Sharapov; V. N. Rubchevskii; Yu. A. Chernyshov; A. I. Kompaniets; A. V. Podlubnyi; E. T. Kovalev; I. V. Shul’ga; Yu. S. Kaftan

    2009-01-01

    As an experiment, coke from batteries 5 and 6 at OAO Zaporozhkoks is used in blast furnace 5 at Zaporozhstal, in order to\\u000a determine the influence of coke quality on blast-furnace operation. This research is associated with the prospects for coal-dust\\u000a injection into the blast furnace at OAO Zaporozhstal.

  17. OBJECT-ORIENTED FERROMANGANESE FURNACE MODEL Stein O. Wasb*

    E-print Network

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    OBJECT-ORIENTED FERROMANGANESE FURNACE MODEL Stein O. Wasbø* , Bjarne A. FossÀÀ and Ragnar Tronstad-7034 Trondheim, Norway, e-mail:Bjarne.Foss@itk.ntnu.no Abstract: The high-carbon ferromanganese furnace inside it. The furnace operation has been characterized by fluctuations in vital process variables. Many

  18. Harmonic and transient overvoltage analyses in arc furnace power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Mendis; D. A. Gonzalez

    1992-01-01

    The authors present guidelines for analyzing harmonics and transient overvoltages generated by arc furnaces. Computer simulation techniques for creating accurate models for the analysis of arc furnace power systems are also discussed. Simulation guidelines are outlined in detail to assist the power systems engineer in performing a complete and accurate study of arc furnace power systems. These guidelines can be

  19. 16 CFR Appendix G2 to Part 305 - Furnaces- Electric

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Furnaces- Electric G2 Appendix G2 to Part 305 Commercial...âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Appendix G2 to Part 305—Furnaces— Electric Furnace type Range of annual fuel utilization...

  20. Spatio-temporal modelling of corrosion in an industrial furnace

    E-print Network

    Little, John

    Spatio-temporal modelling of corrosion in an industrial furnace John Little, Michael Goldstein-scale industrial furnace subject to corrosion will be considered. A suitable Bayesian spatio-temporal dynamic of paper In Section 2, we introduce the motivating example - an industrial furnace used in the oil refining

  1. A high temperature furnace The Sample Environment Group

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    723 A high temperature furnace The Sample Environment Group Neutron Division, Rutherford Appleton A high temperature furnace has been developed which operates directly from the mains voltage (240 V). It is designed to accommodate large samples, and use low quality cooling water. The furnace uses a tantalum heat

  2. 18. Furnace D, looking north. At far left is the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Furnace D, looking north. At far left is the 'tripper' car, which distributed ore and limestone into trestle bins below. The 'larryman' then weighed and discharged these materials into skip cars, which carried them to the top of the furnace. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL NATURAL GAS FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives emissions data from residential natural-gas furnaces and compares selected data to emissions data from residential oil furnaces and woodstoves. atural-gas furnace emissions data are given for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons, aldehydes, volatile and sem...

  4. Gas-to-electric furnace conversion hikes production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pare; G. Eklund

    1978-01-01

    The natural gas shortage in 1974 caused a manufacturer of motor gear trains to convert its carburizing furnace from gas to electric heating elements. The results of this retrofitting included a 40% increase in plant production, more variability in the use of the furnace for both low and high temperature applications, greater furnace loading capacity, reduced overall-operating costs, and elimination

  5. Guniting the lining of heating furnaces of rolling mills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. A. Pirogov; A. V. Boltyanskii; R. A. Tarnopol'skaya; V. P. Dokuchits; N. I. Babanin; E. N. Buzhinskii

    1980-01-01

    Conclusions Guniting mass compositions and a procedure for guniting worn brickwork of continuous heating furnaces of rolling mills have been developed. At a number of metallurgical factories the worn brickwork of eight continuous heating furnaces of rolling mills have been repaired by guniting. The use of guniting enables the period between furnace lining repairs to be doubled (from 1 to

  6. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. (Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  7. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1992-08-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  8. Calculations of Inflaton Decays and Reheating: with Applications to No-Scale Inflation Models

    E-print Network

    Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Olive, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    We discuss inflaton decays and reheating in no-scale Starobinsky-like models of inflation, calculating the effective equation-of-state parameter, $w$, during the epoch of inflaton decay, the reheating temperature, $T_{\\rm reh}$, and the number of inflationary e-folds, $N_*$, comparing analytical approximations with numerical calculations. We then illustrate these results with applications to models based on no-scale supergravity and motivated by generic string compactifications, including scenarios where the inflaton is identified as an untwisted-sector matter field with direct Yukawa couplings to MSSM fields, and where the inflaton decays via gravitational-strength interactions. Finally, we use our results to discuss the constraints on these models imposed by present measurements of the scalar spectral index $n_s$ and the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio $r$, converting them into constraints on $N_*$, the inflaton decay rate and other parameters of specific no-scale inflationary models.

  9. Effects of reheating on the accuracy of addition silicone putty-wash impressions.

    PubMed

    Tjan, A H; Li, T

    1991-06-01

    The effect of the relatively high thermal contraction of addition silicones (polyvinylsiloxane) on the accuracy of stone casts was evaluated using the putty/wash relining impression technique and acrylic resin trays. Impressions were made at 37 degrees C and were divided into two groups. One group was poured at room temperature (22 degrees +/- 2 degrees C) and another group was reheated to 37 degrees C before pouring. Measurement of the dimensional changes failed to reveal improved accuracy of the stone casts poured at the same temperature as that reached during impression making. On the basis of this limited sample, it can be concluded that reheating the impression using the putty/wash relining technique did not improve the accuracy of the stone cast. PMID:2072314

  10. Multiple-Reheat Brayton Cycles for Nuclear Power Conversion with Molten Coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Per F. [University of California (United States)

    2003-12-15

    Gas-turbine power conversion systems can have lower capital costs than comparable steam-turbine systems due to their higher power density. The recent commercialization of magnetic bearing systems for large turbomachinery now makes direct recuperated Brayton cycles the preferred power conversion choice for gas-cooled reactors. This paper presents a multiple-reheat closed gas cycle optimized to use energy input from liquid-metal or molten-salt coolants with temperatures as low as 550 to 650 deg. C. By utilizing reheat, these molten coolant gas cycles (MCGCs) have the potential for substantially higher thermal efficiency than current gas-cooled reactors if used with comparable turbine inlet temperatures. The MCGC system also eliminates the need for steam generators, which removes the potential for chemical reactions between the molten coolant and steam, and greatly simplifies the control of tritium for fusion energy systems.

  11. NEW MOLTEN REFRACTORY PRODUCTS FOR GLASS FURNACES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meloyan; S. S. S

    1961-01-01

    The production and development of molten refractory products is ; described with special emphasis on alumina, kaolin, and zirconic concentrates as ; charge components. The refractory materials are called baddeleyite corundum or ; Bakor in short, as their crystalline phases represepent baddeleyite (ZrOâ) ; and corundum ( alpha -AlâOâ). The service life of Bakor in glass ; furnaces is 20--30

  12. Electrode mounting in DC arc furnace vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    A vessel is described for a dc arc furnace having a bottom with a refractory lining, there being a cooled electric current feeding structure arranged outside of the vessel underneath the bottom, and further including a plurality of electrode pins, the improvement comprising a separate mounting facility for each pin, including in each instance: a bore in the lining; an

  13. Protecting brazing furnaces from air leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armenoff, C. T.; Mckown, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Inexpensive inert-atmosphere shielding protects vacuum brazing-furnace components that are likely to spring leak. Pipefittings, gages, and valves are encased in transparent plastic shroud inflated with argon. If leak develops, harmless argon will enter vacuum chamber, making it possible to finish ongoing brazing or heat treatment before shutting down for repair.

  14. Surrogate burns in deactivation furnace system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay K. Shah

    1999-01-01

    The deactivation furnace system at the Deseret Chemical Depot in Utah is designed for processing explosive components from munitions containing nerve and mustard agents. The system was installed during the period of 1989 through 1993. The Utah Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (UDSHW) required that trial burns be conducted using surrogate chemicals prior to introducing chemical agents into the

  15. Glassification of electric arc furnace dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Ek; J. E. Schlobohm

    1993-01-01

    The Glassification process is a unique system that treats hazardous materials such as electric arc furnace dust, slag, spent refractories, etc, and produces an inert, nontoxic marketable commodity. A wide variety of end products include: colored glasses; glass-ceramics that resemble natural rocks used for architectural purposes and decorative articles; roofing granules; abrasive grit; brick and tile colorants; and fillers. This

  16. Laser Vacuum Furnace for Zone Refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.; Zurburg, F. W.; Penn, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Laser beam scanned to produce moving melt zone. Experimental laser vacuum furnace scans crystalline wafer with high-power CO2-laser beam to generate precise melt zone with precise control of temperature gradients around zone. Intended for zone refining of silicon or other semiconductors in low gravity, apparatus used in normal gravity.

  17. Simulation of Arc Furnace Power Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger C. Dugan

    1980-01-01

    An electronic arc model has been developed which simplifies the study of harmonic phenomena in are furnace power systems on a transient network analyzer (TNA). The model helps insure the proper magnitude and phase relationship of the harmonies at each loading condition. The simulation procedures and arc model characteristics are described. Also, some examples of typical study results are given.

  18. AMTEC powered residential furnace and auxiliary power

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanenok, J.F. III; Sievers, R.K. [Advanced Modular Power Systems, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Residential gas furnaces normally rely on utility grid electric power to operate the fans and/or the pumps used to circulate conditioned air or water and they are thus vulnerable to interruptions of utility grid service. Experience has shown that such interruptions can occur during the heating season, and can lead to serious consequences. A gas furnace coupled to an AMTEC conversion system retains the potential to produce heat and electricity (gas lines are seldom interrupted during power outages), and can save approximately $47/heating season compared to a conventional gas furnace. The key to designing a power system is understanding, and predicting, the cell performance characteristics. The three main processes that must be understood and modeled to fully characterize an AMTEC cell are the electro-chemical, sodium vapor flow, and heat transfer. This paper will show the results of the most recent attempt to model the heat transfer in a multi-tube AMTEC cell and then discusses the conceptual design of a self-powered residential furnace.

  19. Second-law based thermodynamic analysis of Brayton\\/Rankine combined power cycle with reheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Khaliq; S. C. Kaushik

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to use the second-law approach for the thermodynamic analysis of the reheat combined Brayton\\/Rankine power cycle. Expressions involving the variables for specific power-output, thermal efficiency, exergy destruction in components of the combined cycle, second-law efficiency of each process of the gas-turbine cycle, and second-law efficiency of the steam power cycle have been derived.

  20. Studies on slag steel interactions in the formation of utility boiler and entrained gasifier deposits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    Two laboratory-scale devices were utilized to investigate the slag-steel interaction that occurs in slag deposition processes. Sticking apparatus investigations were conducted to study both upper furnace waterwall slag deposition in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired utility boiler and ash deposit formation on heat exchange surfaces in an entrained slagging gasifier. The drop-tube furnace study was limited to the former. In the

  1. Characteristics and cementitious properties of ladle slag fines from steel production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caijun Shi

    2002-01-01

    Ladle slag is a by-product from further refining molten steel after coming out of a basic oxygen furnace (BOF) or an electric arc furnace (EAF). Air-cooled ladle slag has a very large portion of fine particles due to the conversion of ?-C2S to ?-C2S during the cooling process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of three ladle slag fine samples passing 100,

  2. A model for carbon transfer in gas-phase carburization of steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jelle H. Kaspersma; Robert H. Shay

    1980-01-01

    Studies using 1010 steel shimstock in a controlled atmosphere tubular furnace have allowed rate constants to be determined\\u000a for a number of important carburizing and decarburizing reactions. Carburizing data obtained in a small commercial furnace\\u000a confirm that the combination of CO and H2 to form C and H2O is the major carbon transfer reaction to the parts in a typical

  3. The effect of refurbishing a UK steel plant on PM10 metal composition and ability to induce inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary R Hutchison; David M Brown; Leon R Hibbs; Mathew R Heal; Ken Donaldson; Robert L Maynard; Michelle Monaghan; Andy Nicholl; Vicki Stone

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the year 2000 Corus closed its steel plant operations in Redcar, NE of England temporarily for refurbishment of its blast furnace. This study investigates the impact of the closure on the chemical composition and biological activity of PM10 collected in the vicinity of the steel plant. METHODS: The metal content of PM10 samples collected before during and after

  4. 6. Photocopied August 1978. LINEUP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopied August 1978. LINE-UP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON THE SECOND FLOOR OF THE MICHIGAN LAKE SUPERIOR POWER COMPANY POWER HOUSE. THE HOPPERS WHICH FED THE RAW MATERIALS INTO THE FURNACES ARE SHOWN ABOVE THE FURNACES. AS THE 'SPOOL' OF THE FURNACE ROTATED PAST THE ELECTRODES PLATES WERE ADDED TO HOLD THE FINISHED PRODUCT AND THE DESCENDING RAW MATERIALS IN PLACE. THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION OF THE FURNACES SHOWN IN THIS PHOTO IS CLOCKWISE, (M). - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  5. The history and future of aircraft turbine engine bearing steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, P.K. [Torrington Co., CT (United States). Advanced Technology Center

    1998-12-31

    The history of aircraft turbine engine bearings is one of great improvements in reliability and performance. Progress in steel has followed two parallel paths. One is in steel composition from low alloys to high speed, fracture tough, and corrosion resistant compositions. The other is in steel quality, from electric furnace to vacuum and remelting methods, and forging and inspection techniques to prevent stress raising flaws. In many ways the developments for turbine engines have led the way for the bearing industry. In this paper the history and future will be reviewed with emphasis on the important lessons learned that can be applied wherever rolling contact bearings are used.

  6. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-01

    Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy. PMID:22749723

  7. Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1999-09-01

    A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

  8. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

  9. Investigations on phosphorus recovery and reuse as soil amendment from electric arc furnace slag filters.

    PubMed

    Bird, Simon C; Drizo, Aleksandra

    2009-11-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag has been identified as an effective filter material for the removal of phosphorus (P) from both point and non-point sources. To determine the feasibility of land-applying P saturated EAF steel slag this study was undertaken to investigate (i) saturated EAF steel slag material's potential as a P fertilizer or soil amendment and (ii) P desorption and metals leachate from saturated EAF steel slag material to surface runoff. Medicago sativa (alfalfa) was planted in a nutrient depleted washed sand media. Phosphorus was added either as saturated EAF steel slag or as a standard commercial phosphate fertilizer in order to assess the plant availability of the P from saturated EAF steel slag. Four different P application levels were tested: a low (20 lbs acre furrow slice(-1) (5.5 g P m(-3))) two medium (40 and 60 lbs. acre f.s.(-1) (11 and 16.5 g P m(-3))) and a high (120 lbs. acre f.s.(-1) (33 g P m(-3))). The above-ground biomass of half of the plants was harvested after 5 weeks and the second half at 10 weeks. All treatments regardless of the P source used showed high rates of germination. At the first harvest period (5 weeks) significantly higher above-ground biomass (p < 0.01) was seen at the 3 highest P amendment rates in treatments with triple super phosphate fertilizer (TSP) than with EAF steel slag. However, by the second harvest (10 weeks) only the highest amendment rate of TSP showed a significantly higher amount of biomass (p < 0.01), suggesting that EAF steel slag might be an effective slow release P source. In a second experiment, a rain simulator was used to assess desorption of DRP, TP and metals from a saturated and semi-saturated EAF steel slag. The results revealed that the total amounts of DRP and TP released to surface runoff from EAF steel slag were negligible when compared to the total quantities of P retained by this material. Overall the results from this study demonstrated that once the EAF steel slag filter reaches its saturation point, the material could be re-used as soil amendment for the slow release of bioavailable P with minimal risk for loss of P to surface runoff, bringing further benefits to the environment. PMID:20183504

  10. Gas flow analysis in melting furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, L.I.; Bui, R.T.; Charette, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Chicoutimi, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Applied Science; Bourgeois, T. [Alcan International Limited, Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada). Arvida Research and Development Center

    1998-12-01

    The flow structure inside round furnaces with various numbers of burners, burner arrangement, and exit conditions has been studied experimentally with the purpose of improving the flow conditions and the resulting heat transfer. Small-scale transparent models were built according to the laws of geometric and dynamic similarity. Various visualization and experimental techniques were applied. The flow pattern in the near-surface regions was visualized by the fluorescent minituft and popcorn techniques; the flow structure in the bulk was analyzed by smoke injection and laser sheet illumination. For the study of the transient effects, high-speed video photography was applied. The effects of the various flow patterns, like axisymmetric and rotational flow, on the magnitude and uniformity of the residence time, as well as on the formation of stagnation zones, were discussed. Conclusions were drawn and have since been applied for the improvement of furnace performance.

  11. Metal sorption on blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Dimitrova

    1996-01-01

    The removal of Cu, Ni and Zn-ions from water solution by ungranulated blast-furnace slag has been studied depending on contact time, initial ion concentration, pH and solution temperature. The polymineral composition and the slag specific properties determine its high sorption activity in metal salts solutions. In the range of the concentrations studied (10?4–10?3 M), the sorption data for Cu2+, Ni2+

  12. The information furnace: consolidated home control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diomidis D. Spinellis

    2003-01-01

    The Information Furnace is a basement-installed PC-type device that integrates existing consumer home-control, infotainment, security, and communication tech- nologies to transparently provide accessible and value-added services. A modern home contains a large number of sophisticated devices and technologies. Access to these devices is currently provided through a wide variety of disparate inter- faces. As a result, end-users face a bewildering

  13. MIMO furnace control with neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marzuki Khalid; Sigeru Omatu; Rubiyah Yusof

    1993-01-01

    The development of a multilayered neural network control scheme for a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) furnace is discussed. The scheme is based on the back-error-propagation algorithm and uses neural net emulators and controllers. The neural network models are trained using only the input-output characteristics of the plant without the need for using any initial conventional controller or knowledge regarding dynamics. The

  14. Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

  15. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  16. Diagnostics Adapted for Heat-Treating Furnace Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Diagnostics developed for the in situ monitoring of rocket combustion environments were adapted for use in heat-treating furnaces. Simultaneous, in situ monitoring of the carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, water, and hydrogen concentrations in the endothermic gas of a heat-treating furnace were demonstrated under a Space Act Agreement between the NASA Lewis Research Center, the Heat Treating Network, and Akron Steel Treating Company. This endothermic gas, or "endogas," is produced in a catalytic process, where natural gas is "cracked" in the presence of air. Variations in the composition of the natural gas supplied lead to variations in the composition of the endothermic gas. These variations could lead to an unacceptable quality of steel products that are hardened through the carborization process that uses this gas. Conventional methods of monitoring the endogas include measuring the dew point of the gas and the oxygen concentration. From these data, the carbon monoxide content of the gas can be calculated. This carbon monoxide concentration creates the carbon potential needed for carburization. Several weak links are present in this approach. The oxygen monitor deteriorates over time, and the measurement might be inaccurate by 50 percent. Also, the chemistry equations, which are based on several assumptions, such as secondary species concentrations, provide only an approximate estimate of the carbon monoxide concentration. To address these weaknesses, we investigated a new method based on ordinary Raman spectroscopy, in which the carbon monoxide concentration is measured directly and in situ. This method measures the laser light scattered from the molecules. Each species interacts with the light and scatters the light at a different frequency. Spectral monitoring of the scattered light intensity at each molecular frequency of interest provides the species concentrations. One advantage over the conventional method is that several species can be monitored simultaneously. A second advantage is that the measurement is direct; there is no need to make assumptions, to filter the gas, or to calibrate the instrument. An instrument was designed consisting of a laser and a detection system within an enclosure, connected to an optical probe by fibers. For determining carbon monoxide concentration, the probe is mounted on the endothermic gas line, close to the generator. Optical fibers with a length of 150 ft have been used to transmit laser light from the instrument to the probe. There, the light is focused into the gas, and the scattered light is collected and transmitted back to the instrument where it is analyzed with a photomultiplier and lock-in amplifier. Laboratory tests have shown that with the current system the concentration of carbon monoxide, water, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen in the air can be monitored with an accuracy of 1 percent. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air can be monitored with an accuracy of 0.5 percent, and the concentration of methane with an accuracy of 0.2 percent. This instrument was taken to the Akron Steel Treating Plant, where field tests are in progress to verify the system capabilities. Planned developments are improving the accuracy, monitoring multiple locations, and reducing instrument size and cost.

  17. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

  18. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

  19. Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2012-05-01

    Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

  20. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Behavior of Phosphorus in DRI/HBI During Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Richard J. Frueham; Christopher P. Manning cmanning@bu.edu

    2001-10-05

    Many common scrap substitutes such as direct reduced iron pellets (DRI), hot briquetted iron (HBI), iron carbide, etc., contain significantly higher levels of phosphorus steelmaking for the production of higher quality steels, control of phosphorus levels in the metal will become a concern. This study has developed a more complete understanding of the behavior of phosphorus in DRI during EAF steelmaking, through a thorough investigation of the kinetics and thermodynamics of phosphorus transfer in the EAF based upon laboratory and plant experiments and trials. Laboratory experiments have shown that phosphorus mass transfer between oxide and metallic phases within commercial direct reduced iron pellets occurs rapidly upon melting according to the local equilibrium for these phases. Laboratory kinetic experiments indicate that under certain conditions, phosphorus mass transfer between slag and metal is influenced by dynamic phenomena, which affect the mass transfer coefficient for the reaction and/or the slag metal interfacial area. Plant trials were conducted to directly evaluate the conditions of mass transfer in the electric furnace and to determine the effects of different scrap substitute materials upon the slag chemistry, the behavior of phosphorus in the steel, and upon furnace yield. The data from these trials were also used to develop empirical models for the slag chemistry and furnace temperature as functions of time during a single heat. The laboratory and plant data were used to develop a numerical process model to describe phosphorus transfer in the EAF

  1. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gordon A. Irons

    2004-03-31

    Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from the steel. The proposed work included physical and chemical characterization of DRI fines, pilot-scale injection into steel, and mathematical modeling to aid in scale-up of the process. Unfortunately, the pilot-scale injections were unsuccessful, but some full-scale data was obtained. Therefore, the original objectives were met, and presented in the form of recommendations to EAF steelmakers regarding: (1) The best composition and size of DRI fines to use; (2) The amount of DRI fines required to achieve a specific reduction in nitrogen content in the steel; and (3) The injection conditions. This information may be used by steelmakers in techno-economic assessments of the cost of reducing nitrogen with this technology.

  2. Design and operation of an experimental reverberatory aluminum furnace

    SciTech Connect

    King, Paul E.; Hayes, M.C.; Li, T. (Univ. of Kentucky); Han, Q. (ORNL); Hassan, M. (Univ. of Kentucky); Golchert, B.M. (ANL)

    2005-01-01

    The U. S. Dept. of Energy, Albany Research Center, in cooperation with industrial support through Secat, Inc. has designed, built and is operating a test-bed reverberatory furnace. Studies in the Albany Research Center (ARC) experimental reverberatory furnace (ERF) include melt efficiency as a function of combustion space volume, power input and charge alloy. This paper details the furnace design, experimental equipment, conditions, procedure, and measurements and includes results and discussions of melt efficiency studies. Specific results reported include an analysis of the overall efficiency of the furnace as a function of power input and the effect of hanging the combustion space volume on the melting efficiency. An analytic analysis of the theoretical efficiency of the furnace is carried out to determine overall characteristics of the furnace. Experimental data is utilized to validate numerical (computational fluid dynamics) predictions.

  3. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    DOEpatents

    Docherty, James P. (Carnegie, PA); Johnson, Beverly E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Beri, Joseph (Morgan, PA)

    1989-01-01

    The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

  4. 3D Numerical Analysis of the Arc Plasma Behavior in a Submerged DC Electric Arc Furnace for the Production of Fused MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Ninghui; Li, Tie; Cao, Yong

    2012-04-01

    A three dimensional steady-state magnetohydrodynamic model is developed for the arc plasma in a DC submerged electric arc furnace for the production of fused MgO. The arc is generated in a small semi-enclosed space formed by the graphite electrode, the molten bath and unmelted raw materials. The model is first used to solve a similar problem in a steel making furnace, and the calculated results are found to be in good agreement with the published measurements. The behavior of arcs with different arc lengths is also studied in the furnace for MgO production. From the distribution of the arc pressure on the bath surface it is shown that the arc plasma impingement is large enough to cause a crater-like depression on the surface of the MgO bath. The circulation of the high temperature air under the electrode may enhance the arc efficiency, especially for a shorter arc.

  5. METHODS FOR MONITORING HEAT FLOW INTENSITY IN THE BLAST FURNACE WALL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Terpák; L. Pivka

    In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measure- ment and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat

  6. The Conceptual Design of a Radiant Chamber and Preliminary Optimization of a Process Tubular Furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zdenek Jegla

    2006-01-01

    The design procedure of a process tubular furnace (or fired heater) can generally be divided into three design stages: the preliminary design of furnace, a detailed thermal and hydraulic simulation of the furnace, and final design solution, and the mechanical solution of the furnace (stress analysis, drawings preparation, etc.). The first design stage (the preliminary design of the furnace and

  7. In-service helium leak testing of vacuum furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Anis; Tripathi, S. K.; Sawant, P. S.; Mukharjee, D.; Shah, B. K.

    2012-11-01

    Helium leak detection of vacuum furnaces and equipments used for processing of nuclear material is generally carried out by utilizing vacuum spray technique. In this technique helium leak detector is connected to the furnace, back ground reading is noted and helium gas is sprayed on all the suspected joints. Any increase in back ground is noted as leak signal. Processing of Zirconium alloy cladded fuel pins is carried out in vacuum furnace of about 3 meter length and 500 mm inside diameter. Furnace is connected with two numbers of rotary vacuum pump and one number of diffusion pump for creating vacuum (1 × 10-6 torr) inside the furnace. It is desirable that furnace should have good vacuum and best possible leak tightness during dynamic and static vacuum. During dynamic vacuum at higher temperature although required vacuum is achieved the furnace may have fine leakage through which air may enter and cause oxidation of clad tube leading to change in its coloration. This change in coloration will cause rejection of fuel element. Such fine leakages may not be reflected in the dynamic vacuum of the system at high temperature. During trial run change in coloration of outside surface of clad tube was observed although dynamic vacuum of the furnace was in the range of 1×10-6 torr range. To eliminate such possibilities of oxidation due to fine leakages in the system, it was decided to carry out in-service leak testing of the furnace. Helium leak testing of the furnace was carried out by using vacuum spray method and leaks observed were repaired and furnace was retested to ensure the leak tightness. The in-service helium leak testing of the furnace helped in maintaining its leak tightness during service under dynamic vacuum and prevent oxidation of fuel element. This paper describes the techniques of in- service helium leak testing, it's importance for detection of fine leak under dynamic vacuum and discusses details of the testing method and result obtained.

  8. 5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, SHOWING INTERIOR ELECTRODES. THE RAW MATERIALS FOR CALCIUM CARBIDE PRODUCTION--LIMESTONE AND COKE--WERE FED BY HOPPERS PLACED BETWEEN THESE ELECTRODES INTO THE ELECTRIC ARC. THE REMOVABLE PLATES ON THE EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCE OF THE HORRY FURNACE ARE SHOWN ON THE FIRST THREE FURNACES. (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  9. Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart E. Strand

    2001-12-06

    The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

  10. Radiation heat transfer within an optical fiber draw tower furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Issa, J.; Jaluria, Y.; Polymeropoulos, C.E.; Yin, Z. [Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Study of the thermal transport and material flow processes associated with the drawing of optical fiber in a graphite draw furnace requires modeling of the heat transfer from the furnace wall. Previous work has shown that accurate knowledge of the furnace heater element axial temperature distribution is essential for proper modeling of the radiative transfer process. The present work is aimed at providing this information, as well as generating a set of data for the study of radiation exchange in the furnace cavity. The experimental procedure involved measuring the centerline temperature distribution in graphite and fused silica rods inserted into an optical fiber draw tower furnace. The temperature measurements were then used along with a model for radiative-convective heat transfer in the furnace in order to obtain the furnace temperature profile. This is an inverse problem since the centerline temperature in the rod is known whereas the furnace thermal conditions are not. The results obtained showed that the furnace temperature distribution was independent of rod material and size. The shape of the computed temperature distributions suggest that they can be well represented by a Gaussian function.

  11. Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

  12. Moving-Gradient Furnace With Constant-Temperature Cold Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J.; Shaubach, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Outer heat pipe helps in controlling temperature of cold zone of furnace. Part of heat-pipe furnace that includes cold zone surrounded by another heat pipe equipped with heater at one end and water cooling coil at other end. Temperature of heat pipe maintained at desired constant value by controlling water cooling. Serves as constant-temperature heat source or heat sink, as needed, for gradient of temperature as gradient region moved along furnace. Proposed moving-gradient heat-pipe furnace used in terrestrial or spaceborne experiments on directional solidification in growth of crystals.

  13. Allowable gas temperature at outlet from furnace subject to slagging

    SciTech Connect

    A.N. Alekhnovich; N.V. Artem'eva; V.V. Bogomolov [Ural Thermotechnical Laboratory, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-03-15

    The paper is devoted to substantiation and prediction of the allowable gas temperature at the outlet from a furnace subject to slagging. The non-optimality of values recommended by effective methodical instructions regarding the design of furnace devices is demonstrated. Utilizing knowledge gained from temperature measurements in boilers, and the situation regarding the slagging of heating surfaces located at the outlet from the furnace, new, frequently higher values are proposed. A method for evaluating the allowable gas temperature at the outlet from a furnace subject to slagging is suggested on the basis of data regarding the chemical composition of the mineral portion of coals.

  14. Contribution on the influence of steel ladle processing (LF) upon the nitrogen removal rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardelean, E.; Ardelean, M.; Josan, A.; Pinca-Bretotean, C.

    2014-03-01

    Nitrogen, which is present in the composition of steel either dissolved or as a gas, represents an element, which is generally unwanted, except for the cases when the aim is to obtain nitrides or to increase the austenitic domain in stainless steels. The paper shows the results obtained in increasing the nitrogen removal rate during the secondary treatment of steel meant for oil industry pipes, into a Ladle Furnace-type installation. The processed data allowed the determination of variation domains, respectively graphical and analytical correlations between the nitrogen removal rate and the parameters of the secondary treatment process (bubbling duration, steel temperature and argon pressure).

  15. Reaction of iron and steel slags with refractories

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Anderson, M.W. [Magneco/Metrel, Inc., Addison, IL (United States); Singh, J.P.; Poeppel, R.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Slag corrosion and erosion has been a major wear factor for refractories wear in contact with molten iron and steel. In blast furnace ironmaking, the slag/iron interface plays a more important role than does the slag/refractory interface. On the other hand in steelmaking, the slag in the ladles and tundish predominantly affect refractory wear. This paper presents the results of a detailed microstructural evaluation of (a) slag and slag/iron interactions with A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC-C refractories for ironmaking in blast furnaces, (b) basic oxygen furnace and ladle slag interactions with alumina spinel refractories for steelmaking, and (c) slag interactions with working refractory lining for continuous casting tundishes. Results will also be presented on refractory wear/failure due to simultaneous corrosion and penetration by the slag.

  16. Effect of Reheat Treatment on Microstructural Refurbishment and Hardness of the As-cast Inconel 738

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongbunyakul, Piyanut; Visuttipitukkul, Patama; Wangyao, Panyawat; Lothongkum, Gobboon; Sricharoenchai, Prasonk

    2014-09-01

    This work investigates the effect of rejuvenation heat treatment conditions for refurbishment of the long-term serviced gas turbine blades, which were made of as-cast nickel base superalloy grade, Inconel 738. The reheat treatment conditions consist of solutionizing treatments at temperatures of 1,438, 1,458 and 1,478 K for 14.4 ks and aging treatments at temperatures of 1,133, 1,148 and 1,163 K for 43.2, 86.4, 129.6 and 172.8 ks. The results show that increase in aging times results in continuous increase of size and area fraction of gamma prime (?') particles. The higher solutionizing temperature leads to the lower area fraction and smaller size of gamma prime particles. Regarding the microstructure characteristics, the most proper reheat treatment condition should be solutionizing at temperature of 1,438 K for 14.4 ks and aging at temperature of 1,133 K for 172.8 ks, which provides the highest area fraction of gamma prime particles in proper size.

  17. How the curvaton scenario, modulated reheating and an inhomogeneous end of inflation are related

    SciTech Connect

    Alabidi, Laila; Malik, Karim [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Byrnes, Christian T. [Fakultät für Physik, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstrasse, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Choi, Ki-Young, E-mail: l.alabidi@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: k.malik@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: byrnes@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: kiyoung.choi@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we analyse three models of the early universe, for which the respective mechanisms for generating the curvature perturbation are considered disparate. We find that in fact the mechanisms are very similar, and hence explain why they give rise to a large non-gaussianity. We show that the mechanism for generating the primordial curvature perturbation, and hence the observable non-gaussianity, is similar in both the Curvaton and Modulated Reheating models. In both cases the model can be written in terms of an energy transfer between the constituting fluids. We then show that this is also true for the mechanism of generating the curvature perturbation by symmetry breaking the end of inflation. We then relate this to the non-gaussian contribution to the curvature perturbation and find that it is inversely proportional to the efficiency with which the curvature perturbation is transferred between the fluids. For the first time, we generalise models of modulated reheating to allow for a non-linear energy transfer rate.

  18. Mechanism of crumb toughening in bread-like products by microwave reheating.

    PubMed

    Uzzan, Michael; Ramon, Ory; Kopelman, Ishaiahu J; Kesselman, Ellina; Mizrahi, Shimon

    2007-08-01

    Comparing breads reheated in conventional and microwave ovens revealed that the latter considerably toughens the crumb texture when internal boiling is induced. Moisture loss in itself has a relatively minor toughening effect. The major changes, caused by boiling, occur only in systems with starch concentration in excess of a threshold level of about 37% (wet basis). Substantially greater amounts of amylose are leached out of the granules in the case of sustained boiling during microwave heating, as compared to conventional oven heating. The free amylose solution is being "pushed" by the generated steam pressure toward the air-cell wall interface. A rich amylose phase is accumulated at that interface and over the granules. Upon cooling, the amylose undergoes rapid phase changes; thus, toughening is apparent in a relatively short time after heating. Minimizing the textural deleterious effects in microwave reheating of bread-like products should entail (a) preventing or minimizing internal boiling, (b) diluting of the starch concentration below the threshold level, (c) interfering with the amylose phase change by using complex forming agents. PMID:17625869

  19. Multisystem corrosion monitoring in a cyclic reheat test facility: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, D.M.; Cox, W.M.; Gearey, D.

    1988-04-01

    The work described in this report was the first stage of an EPRI-sponsored corrosion investigation utilizing the CAPCIS electrochemical monitoring system installed in a cyclic reheat test facility on a flue gas slipstream at the Scholz Steam Plant of Gulf Power Company. The primary reasons for incorporating the continuous corrosion monitoring system in the cyclic reheat investigation were that unexpectedly high corrosion rates had been observed in earlier tests at certain locations within the test exchanger and the precise reasons for these high rates of attack were not well understood. The corrosion behavior was not typical of the limited service experience on full scale units and the reasons for this required clarification. Controlled temperature weight loss and electrochemical probes were installed in the unit in place of three of the 1-inch diameter heat exchanger tubes. The corrosion behavior of Inconel Alloy 625 over the temperature range 260/degree/ to 120/degree/F (127/degree/ to 49/degree/C) was evaluated at mid-stream and sidewall locations. The efects on corrosion of operational variables and cleaning procedures were also evaluated. The severe corrosion attack sustained on the Inconel Alloy 625 was proved to result from a combination of effects which included the flue gas flow pattern, local cool-spots within the unit and preferential locations at which ash deposits could accumulate. 5 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Corrosion of carbon steel with NaCl coating in an atmosphere produced by burning emulsified diesel oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaur-Jeng Wang; Jenq-Yih Pan

    2003-01-01

    The high-temperature corrosion of boiler material (SB450) in a combustion furnace at 750 and 850°C was studied using carbon steel with 2mgcm?2 NaCl coating. The atmosphere in this furnace was produced by burning ASTM 2D diesel oil or an emulsion thereof with 10% water. The experimental results indicate that both the higher temperature and the water vapor in the atmosphere

  1. Exothermic furnace module development. [space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darnell, R. R.; Poorman, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    An exothermic furnace module was developed to rapidly heat and cool a 0.820-in. (2.1 cm) diameter by 2.75-in. (7.0 cm) long TZM molybdenum alloy crucible. The crucible contains copper, oxygen, and carbon for processing in a low-g environment. Peak temperatures of 1270 C were obtainable 3.5 min after start of ignition, and cooling below 950 C some 4.5 min later. These time-temperature relationships were conditioned for a foam-copper experiment, Space Processing Applications Rocket experiment 77-9, in a sounding rocket having a low-g period of 5 min.

  2. Post combustion trials at Dofasco's KOBM furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco's 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

  3. GOI characterization of 300-mm furnace tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautz, Karl E.

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this characterization was to gain an initial understand of the gate oxide integrity (GOI) differences on wafers processed in the 300mm furnace tools at SC300, a joint venture between Motorola and Infineon Technologies for 300mm wafer, process and equipment development, compared to similarly processed 200mm wafers at Motorola. Measurements were done using mercury probe tools located at different sites to characterize the various gate oxide films and thicknesses. Separately, a study was done on defectivity levels of the Epi-layered 300mm wafers used in this study.

  4. Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 Chemical State Analysis of Al Contained in Iron and Steel Slag

    E-print Network

    Jun, Kawai

    2010-01-01

    . We use blast furnace slag and steelmaking slag including approximately from 14 to 31 mass percent of Al Contained in Iron and Steel Slag Using Chemical Shift of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectra Tomohiro., Japan 41, pp.177-183 (2010) 606-8501 X Al Chemical State Analysis of Al Contained in Iron and Steel Slag

  5. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  6. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  7. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  8. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  9. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  10. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  11. 3D Numerical Analysis of the Arc Plasma Behavior in a Submerged DC Electric Arc Furnace for the Production of Fused MgO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Zhen; Wang Ninghui; Li Tie; Cao Yong

    2012-01-01

    A three dimensional steady-state magnetohydrodynamic model is developed for the arc plasma in a DC submerged electric arc furnace for the production of fused MgO. The arc is generated in a small semi-enclosed space formed by the graphite electrode, the molten bath and unmelted raw materials. The model is first used to solve a similar problem in a steel making

  12. The use of oil well-derived drilling waste and electric arc furnace slag as alternative raw materials in clinker production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bernardo; M. Marroccoli; M. Nobili; A. Telesca; G. L. Valenti

    2007-01-01

    Through laboratory burnability tests and industrial runs carried out for 1 month in a dry process-cement kiln it has been found that an oil well-derived drilling waste and an electric arc furnace (EAF) slag generated in a steel plant are suitable partial substitutes for both limestone and clay in the kiln feed.Drilling waste was available in two streams: the one,

  13. Growth of the production of rails from continuous-cast semifinished products of electrical steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Yur’ev

    2008-01-01

    Since 2001, the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine has produced 3.0 million tons of R65 railroad rails of continuous-cast\\u000a steel made in electric furnaces. The combine has significantly improved all the most important quality indices of the steel\\u000a during this period, and the service life of the rails has increased from 0.5·109 to (0.8–1)·109 tons gross. The combine has mastered the production

  14. CO 2 reduction potentials by utilizing waste plastics in steel works

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Sekine; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Yoshihiro Adachi; Yasunari Matsuno

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope  Feedstock recycling has received attention as an effective method to recycle waste plastics. However, estimating the reduction\\u000a potential by life cycle assessment using coke oven and blast furnace in steel works has been a challenging task due to the\\u000a complex structure of energy flow in steel works. Municipal waste plastics consist of several plastic resins. Previous studies

  15. Forced air furnace control system and method of operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. J. Hilt; J. W. E. Locke

    1993-01-01

    Forced air furnace apparatus is described for heating a building airspace with hot air, including the combination of a furnace having a combustion chamber for combusting fuel to produce hot combustion products which contain CO gas, heat exchanger means in the combustion chamber for normally separating the combustion products from a first air flow path and for transferring heat from

  16. Power quality analysis and improvement of DC arc furnace load

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsu-Hsun Fu; Chi-Jui Wu

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the power quality problems of a DC arc furnace load are investigated. An 18-pulse converter is used to provide the DC currents to the furnace. The power quality problems concerned are the harmonics and voltage flicker (voltage fluctuation). Field measurement is used to reveal the harmonic distributions of the rectifiers under balanced and unbalanced conditions. The effect

  17. Inexpensive high-temperature furnace for thermocouple calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, C. M.; Hoff, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    New furnace calibrates unknown thermocouple by comparing its electrical output to a reference thermocouple /previously calibrated by optical pyrometry/, as both are heated simultaneously. Thermocouples may be radioactive, thus heat source must be accessible by remote manipulation and inspection measurements. Advantages of furnace operation are cited.

  18. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ensar Oguz

    2004-01-01

    Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

  19. High-speed furnace uses infrared radiation for controlled brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckles, P. N.

    1966-01-01

    Furnace produces controlled heat for brazing and heat treating metals over a wide range of temperatures by using a near-infrared heat source positioned at one focus of an ellipsoidal reflector mounted below a cylindrical quartz chamber. This furnace maintains a pure atmosphere, has rapid heatup and cooldown, and permits visual observation.

  20. Recycle of modified fly ash from furnace sorbent injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kresovich; R. D. Stern; E. A. Stokes; C. C. Clark; R. S. Dahlin

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses recycle of modified fly ash from furnace sorbent injection.According to the authors, significant cost savings can be realized by use of a recycle process in conjunction with furnace sorbent injection. The largest savings appear to result from the replacement of an expensive sorbent with a less costly feedstock (e.g., replacing hydrated lime with coarse limestone). However, recycle

  1. BLAST FURNACE CAST HOUSE EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study describes the state-of-the-art of controlling fumes escaping from blast furnace cast houses. Background information is based on: a study of existing literature; visits to blast furnaces in the U.S., Japan, and Europe; meetings with an ad hoc group of experienced blast f...

  2. EMISSIONS FROM OUTDOOR WOOD-BURNING RESIDENTIAL HOT WATER FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a single-pass and a double-pass furnace at average heat outputs of 15,000 and 30,000 Btu/hr (4.4 and 8.8 kW) while burning typical oak cordwood fuel. One furnace was also tested once at each heat output while fitted with ...

  3. A Rowland Circle, multielement graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl A. Wagner; James D. Batchelor; Bradley T. Jones

    1998-01-01

    A simultaneous, multielement atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a graphite furnace atomizer was constructed and evaluated. The optical arrangement employs a concave grating to combine the spectral output from a deuterium lamp and four hollow cathode lamps that are placed on the perimeter of a Rowland Circle. A graphite furnace atomizer is positioned on the circle at the point of convergence

  4. In-furnace SOâ control for pulverized-coal boilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    The injection of Ca-based alkaline sorbent materials directly into the furnace of coal-fired utility boilers to reduce SOâ emissions is the subject of research and development in a number of countries. EPRI have a test programme on the fundamental process chemistry and process optimisation. This will provide technical data for the design and operation of prototype furnace sorbent injection systems

  5. Experimenting with concentrated sunlight using the DLR solar furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Neumann; U. Groer

    1996-01-01

    The high flux solar furnace that is operated by the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) at Cologne was inaugurated in June 1994 and we are now able to look back onto one year of successful operation. The solar furnace project was founded by the government of the State Northrhine Westfalia within the Study Group AG Solar. The optical

  6. Flicker study using a novel arc furnace model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omer Ozgun; Ali Abur

    2002-01-01

    Voltage flicker and harmonics are the types of power-quality problems that are introduced to the power system as a result of arc furnace operation. Utilities are concerned about these effects and try to take precautions to minimize them. Therefore, an accurate model of an arc furnace is needed to test and verify proposed solutions to this end. In this paper,

  7. Blast-furnace performance with coal-dust injection

    SciTech Connect

    G.G. Vasyura [OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat, Alchevsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    For the blast furnace shop at OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (AMK) the injection of pulverized fuel is promising. Preliminary steps toward its introduction are underway, including analytical research. In this context, blast furnace performance when using pulverized coal is calculated in this study.

  8. Effect of different arc furnace models on voltage distortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tongxin Zheng; Elham B. Makram; Adly A. Girgis

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, different arc furnace methods are reviewed for the purpose of harmonic analysis. In general, these models may be classified into time domain method and frequency domain method. The difference between these two methods is discussed and evaluated. In this paper, six typical arc furnace models from the time domain and frequency domain methods are selected to study

  9. Specific optimal control of an aluminum casting furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Bui; A. Meghlaoui; R. Ouellet

    1995-01-01

    A general structure of the specific optimal control has been previously formulated and used to solve the fuel optimal problem of an aluminum casting furnace. Proportional, integral, and derivative (P, I, D) closed-loop control were applied to a 10-order nonlinear model of the furnace. This paper analyzes the resulting control actions and the dynamic response to a step change in

  10. C AND M BOTTOM LOADING FURNACE TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonds, D

    2005-08-01

    The test was performed to determine the response of the HBL Phase III Glovebox during C&M Bottom Loading Furnace operations. In addition the data maybe used to benchmark a heat transfer model of the HBL Phase III Glovebox and Furnace.

  11. Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels 

    E-print Network

    Darby, D. F.

    1987-01-01

    with two additional 13MVA arc furnaces. A waste heat recovery system was installed on all six of the arc furnaces which, with modifications to the existing heat-vent systems, enabled a 41,000 square foot building addition to be heated without any increase...

  12. 25. View looking southwest from furnaces shows the ore end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. View looking southwest from furnaces shows the ore end limestone storage bins. Ore and limestone were carried by conveyor, seen at far left, to the tripper car, which in turn distributed them into the trestle bins. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. 42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. Minerals and iron-making reactions in blast furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gupta; R. Sakurovs; M. Grigore; H. Sun; T. Cham; T. Hilding; M. Hallin; B. Lindblom; V. Sahajwalla

    2008-01-01

    Coke is central to blast furnace operation, but because it is the most expensive raw material used, there is continuing pressure to minimize its use. Consequently, it has become increasingly pertinent to measure and predict the factors affecting coke performance more accurately. Coke performance is affected both by its properties and blast furnace operation. Recently, the importance of the minerals

  18. Glass furnace processing of Rocky Flats Plant wastes: An evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Klingler; P. L. Abellera

    1988-01-01

    This report evaluates the use of a joule-heated glass furnace to treat four Rocky Flats Plant waste streams. These streams are extremely large, are primarily water soluble inorganic salts, and can be contaminated with hazardous organic material, toxics, andor radioactivity. It runs closely simulating actual process type runs, the glass furnace effectively treated these wastes by degrading the salts to

  19. Effect of Combustion Air Preheat on a Forged Furnace Productivity 

    E-print Network

    Ward, M. E.; Bohn, J.; Davis, S. R.; Knowles, D.

    1984-01-01

    A basic thermal analysis of a gas fired forge furnace can determine the fuel savings from exhaust energy recovery/combustion air preheat on a furnace operating at a single condition, for example, high fire. What this analysis is not able...

  20. 4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI