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1

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in the center is a charging machine the operator of which manipulates steel ingots in the furnace, as well as in the adjacent forging hammers - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

2

Steel project fact sheet: Steel reheating for further processing  

SciTech Connect

Steel reheating is an energy-intensive process requiring uniform temperature distribution within reheating furnaces. Historically, recuperators have ben used to preheat combustion air, thereby conserving energy. More recent innovations include oxygen enrichment and the use of regenerative burners, which provide higher preheat air temperatures than recuperators. These processes have limitations such as equipment deterioration, decreasing energy efficiency over time, high maintenance costs, and increased NO{sub x} emissions with increased air preheat temperature, unless special equipment is used. Praxair, Inc., supplier of oxygen and other industrial gases to the steel industry, proposes to introduce an innovative oxy-fuel burner technology (using 100% oxygen) to the steel reheating industry. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces or eliminates nitrogen in combustion air and substantially reduces waste heat carried out with flue gas. Based on technology currently used in the glass, hazardous waste, and aluminum industries, Praxair has developed and patented low temperature, oxy-fuel burners that can be used in high temperature industrial furnaces where temperature uniformity is critical and extremely low NO{sub x} emissions are desired. The technical goal of the project is to demonstrate the use of oxy-fuel burners in a slab reheat furnace while reducing energy consumption by 45% and NO{sub x} emissions by 90% within the converted furnace zones. Successful implementation of this technology also will eliminate the need to periodically replace recuperators and install NO{sub x} removal equipment.

NONE

1998-04-01

3

Benefits of ceramic fiber for saving energy in reheat furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Refractory ceramic fiber products offer thermal insulation investment in reheat furnaces by helping to keep operating cost low and product quality high. These products are used in a range of applications that include: furnace linings; charge and discharge door insulation; skidpipe insulation; and furnace repair and maintenance. The many product forms (blankets, modules, boards, textiles, and coatings) provide several key benefits: faster cycling, energy savings and personnel protection.

Norris, A. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States))

1993-07-01

4

Pyrometer method for measuring slab temperature in a reheat furnace  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus to measure the temperature of a slab in a reheat furnace with increased accuracy using either a single or dual pyrometer system through use of a multiplicity of temperature correction functions involving temperatures of slab and wall, distance between a pyrometer and the slab at which it is aimed, a ratio of air and fuel supplying the furnace heat and radiation interferences. The functions are chosen by a micro-processor in the system dependent on temperature differentials, emissivity setting of the pyrometer, target distance between pyrometer and slab, and air and fuel flow rates existing and fluctuating in the system.

Rudzki, E.M.; Jackson, R.W.; Martocci, A.P.

1984-02-21

5

Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities shows that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is in very good agreement with the Hottel and Sarofim's database. The 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is then integrated into AnsysFluent® Discrete Ordinates method under User Defined Function and CFD simulations are performed using these combined models. The simulations are done, with full combustion-radiation coupling, for steel reheating furnaces firing on three types of gases: BFG, COG and NG. The results are compared with the simulations realized with the 1-gray-gas WSGG model available in AnsysFluent®. The comparison shows that the 1-gray-gas WSGG model highly overestimates the steel discharging temperature as compared to the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model. Significant temperature differences are observed between the two radiative models, i.e. 116°C, 55°C and 67°C for the BFG, COG and NG cases, respectively. It can be concluded that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model should be used to calculate the radiation heat transfer in large industrial furnaces with more accuracy not only for low heating value gases such as BFG but also for high heating value gases such as COG and NG.

Nguyen, P. D.; Danda, A.; Embouazza, M.; Gazdallah, M.; Evrard, P.; Feldheim, V.

2012-06-01

6

Temperature control of a continuous, push type, five zone, slab reheating furnace, for minimum fuel usage  

SciTech Connect

The problem under investigation is the temperature control of a continuous, push type, slab reheat furnace for minimum fuel consumption. An existing computer simulation of the reheat furnace was tested and enhanced for the purpose of developing an on-line temperature control scheme. The results obtained include: an on-line temperature control scheme using off-line model generated data; the development of a set of off-line algorithms for determining the maximum furnace push rate; the minimum fuel usage at steady state for a specified existing average slab temperature profile; and the fuel flow distributions and push rate adjustments required during transition from one operating level to another, while maintaining existing average slab temperatures within a specified tolerance band. Two different average slab thicknesses and four different push rates were considered in this study. The furnace used in this study is located at Bethlehem Steel Corporations' Burns Harbor, Indiana, Works, 80 inch Hot Strip Mill. The geometrical and process similarity of each zone (i.e., preheat zone top, preheat zone bottom, heat zone top, etc.) allowed a simpilifcation of the model involved by considering one zone as representative of all the other zones. The model used was verified by showing that the simulation results exhibited similar responses as the real furnace to equivalent upsets with similar magnitude results and similar time responses. No absolute validation versus plant operating data was possible.

Purdy, D.J.

1981-01-01

7

Modeling and parametric studies of heat transfer in a direct-fired continuous reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical system model of a direct-fired continuous reheating furnace has been developed. The furnace is modeled as several\\u000a well-stirred gas zones with one-dimensional (1-D) heat conduction in the refractory walls and two-dimensional heat transfer\\u000a in the load. The load travels either parallel or counterflow to the combustion gases which enter the furnace throughout its\\u000a length. The convective heat-transfer rate

K. s. Chapman; S. Ramadhyani; R. Viskanta

1991-01-01

8

Modeling and parametric studies of heat transfer in a direct-fired batch reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical systems model of a batch reheating furnace has been developed to assist the furnace design and heat treatment\\u000a engineer. The furnace was modeled as a well-stirred enclosure with one-dimensional transient heat conduction in the refractory\\u000a walls and the load. The convective heat transfer rate to the load and refractory was calculated by using existing correlations\\u000a from the literature.

K. S. Chapman; S. Ramadhyani; R. Viskanta

1990-01-01

9

Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities

P D Nguyen; A Danda; M Embouazza; M Gazdallah; P Evrard; V Feldheim

2012-01-01

10

Development and evaluation of a Workpiece Temperature Analyzer for industrial furnaces: Steel industry survey and furnace selection  

SciTech Connect

This report explores the advantages of the proposed Workpiece Temperature Analyzer (WPTA) in non-contact measurement of the internal temperature of hot steel. The technical origin for the WPTA is in ultrasonic thermometry. The cumulative advantages of the WPTA in contrast with existing technology, thermocouples, pyrometers and mathematical modelling, is that (1) it will provide true internal temperature, (2) the measurement requires no contact with the workpiece, and (3) the approximate payback for applications we have studied is one year or less, except for small batch reheat furnaces that process less than 11% of US raw steel production. After review of potential WPTA applications, detailed economic and noneconomic benefit analyses were made for reheat furnaces and continuous casters. In reheat furnaces, the required measurement is that of the internal temperature of a solid workpiece in the furnace. Virtually all raw steel must be reheated. The significant measurement in a continuous caster is the solidification front of the molten steel. Here the measurement becomes more complex because of the phase changes. For both applications, the primary advantage was perceived to be quality, which in turn would enable US steel manufacturers to achieve a stronger competitive position in world markets. 25 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

Witt, M.A.

1990-02-01

11

Automatic Control System of Car-Bottom Reheating Furnace  

E-print Network

performed compari son tests,that is,under the condition of same ma terial and same process this furnace was operated I ~ PIC' Waste gas ~ lllU' ,n r 0EBp Temp. transmitter Pressure transmitter Temp. recorder Controller Regulator Pressure... performed compari son tests,that is,under the condition of same ma terial and same process this furnace was operated I ~ PIC' Waste gas ~ lllU' ,n r 0EBp Temp. transmitter Pressure transmitter Temp. recorder Controller Regulator Pressure...

Xueqiao, M.; Weilian, X.; Hongchen, Z.

12

An investigation of reheat cracking in the weld heat affected zone of type 347 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reheat cracking has been a persistent problem for welding of many alloys such as the stabilized stainless steels: Types 321 and 347 as well as Cr-Mo-V steels. Similar problem occurs in Ni-base superalloys termed \\

Isaratat Phung-On

2007-01-01

13

A Coupled Numerical Study of Slab Temperature and Gas Temperature in the Walking-Beam-Type Slab Reheating Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a three-dimensional simulation is performed for the turbulent reactive flow and radiactive heat transfer in the walking-beam type slab reheating furnace by STAR-CD software. The geometric model takes care of all components of the furnace, including the burners, the walking beam system with skid buttons, the slab, the dam and the down-take etc. The study employs

Mei-Jiau Huang; Chia-Tsung Hsieh; Shih-Tuen Lee; Chao-Hua Wang

2008-01-01

14

Blast furnace injection developments in British Steel  

SciTech Connect

British Steel has four integrated steel works, i.e., Llanwern, Port Talbot, Scunthorpe, Teesside, with a total of ten blast furnaces, nine of which are currently operating. The furnaces range in size from the 14 meters (45 feet 11 inches) hearth diameter Redcar No. 1 furnace at Teesside (a single furnace works) to the 8.33 meters (27 feet 4 inches) hearth Queen Mary and Queen Bess furnaces at Schunthorpe, with a total of four furnaces at that works. All have injection systems installed, those at Scunthorpe being equipped with granular coal injection and all others currently working with oil injection. The driving force behind the development of blast furnace injection has been as a means for introducing reducing agents (British Steel now refers to coke plus hydrocarbon injectants as total reductants) into the process as a part substitute/supplement for top charged coke and the technology is still being developed and used for that purpose. By utilizing practical experience and observing the work of others, British Steel has been assessing blast furnace injection technology experimentally for purposes other than the introduction of reducing agents.

Jukes, M.H.

1996-12-31

15

Temperature Estimation of Liquid Steel in Induction Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the indirect measures of temperature by measuring the energy put into the furnace, temperature and flow rate of cooling water and temperature at the outer wall lining of the induction furnace in order to estimate the temperature of the liquid steel in the furnace. The technique for estimating the temperature relies on the consideration of the heat

Anuwat Pansuwan

16

Trends in furnace control  

SciTech Connect

This paper relates Italimpianti's experiences over the past few years in the area of control of reheat furnaces for the steel industry. The focus is on the level 1 area; specifically on the use of PLC-based systems to perform both combustion control and mechanical/hydraulic control. Some topics to be discussed are: overview of reheat furnace control system requirements; PLC only control vs separate PLC and DCS systems; PLC hardware requirements; man machine interface (MMI) requirements; purge, light-on and safety logic; implementation of more sophisticated level 1 control algorithms; furnace temperature optimization: look up tables vs full thermal modeling; and recent trends including integrated PLC/DCS system.

McDonald, T.J.; Keefe, M.D. (Italimpianti of America, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States). Instrumentation and Controls Dept.)

1993-07-01

17

Reheat cracking studies on simulated heat-affected zones of CrMoV turbine rotor steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reheat cracking susceptibility of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a CrMoV turbine rotor steel was investigated. Two base materials, one with a coarse-grain (155 µxm) and the other with a fine-grain (55 µim @#@) microstructure, were submitted to Gleeble HAZ weld simulations. Three peak temperatures were utilized: 1350,1150, and 950 °. Some samples were single cycled, and others were exposed to a double cycle. The samples that were double cycled experienced a second peak temperature 150 to 250 ° lower than the first peak temperature. The samples were then stressed in bending for different amounts and stress relieved under load to determine their reheat cracking susceptibility. All samples were metallurgically evaluated before and after the reheat cracking test. It was found that the prior-austenite grain size of the original base metal did not influence the reheat cracking susceptibility, but increases in peak temperature did. It was observed that the grain size and grain matrix microhardness that developed after the Gleeble cycles affected reheat cracking. It was found that reheat cracking did not occur when the microhardness was below 350 DPH and the prior-austenite grain size was less than about 80 µm.

Indacochea, J. E.; Kim, G. S.

1996-06-01

18

A heat transfer model for the analysis of transient heating of the slab in a direct-fired walking beam type reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical heat transfer model for the prediction of heat flux on the slab surface and temperature distribution in the slab has been developed by considering the thermal radiation in the furnace chamber and transient heat conduction governing equations in the slab, respectively. The furnace is modeled as radiating medium with spatially varying temperature and constant absorption coefficient. The steel

Man Young Kim

2007-01-01

19

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL FABRICATION. STAINLESS STEEL WAS MACHINED IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING, BEGINNING IN 1957. (4/24/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

20

Reheat cracking studies on simulated heat-affected zones of CrMoV turbine rotor steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reheat cracking susceptibility of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a CrMoV turbine rotor steel was investigated. Two base\\u000a materials, one with a coarse-grain (155 ?xm) and the other with a fine-grain (55 ?im@#@) microstructure, were submitted to Gleeble HAZ weld simulations. Three peak temperatures were utilized: 1350,1150, and 950\\u000a ?. Some samples were single cycled, and others were exposed

J. E. Indacochea; G. S. Kim

1996-01-01

21

Phosphorus removal by electric arc furnace steel slag and serpentinite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag and serpentinite were tested in columns either alone or mixed with limestone to determine their capacity to remove phosphorus (P) from a solution containing initially 20mg P\\/L (for 114 days) than 400mg P\\/L (for 21 days). EAF steel slag was nearly 100% efficient due to specific P adsorption onto metal hydroxides and precipitation of

Aleksandra Drizo; Christiane Forget; Robert P. Chapuis; Yves Comeau

2006-01-01

22

RECYCLING OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST: JORGENSEN STEEL FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the Ek Glassification Process to recycle and convert K061-tested waste (Electric Arc Furnace) and other by products of the steel-making industry into usable products. he process holds potential for replacing the need for expensive disposal costs ...

23

Evaluation of steel furnace slags as cement additives  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and physical properties and strength development have been studied for six granulated steel furnace slags from the normal steelmaking process. This paper reports results of research performed to develop cement mixture proportions using these slags. The influence of slag proportions, specific surface, and water demand on compressive strength and bulk density of cement blends are presented in this paper. The different test results, which were compared with the Turkish Standards, in general, were found to be within the limits.

Tuefekci, M.; Demirbas, A.; Genc, H. [Technical Univ. of the Black Sea, Trabzon (Turkey)] [Technical Univ. of the Black Sea, Trabzon (Turkey)

1997-11-01

24

Recycling of electric arc furnace dust: Jorgensen steel facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is an evaluation of the Ek Glassification(TM) Process to recycle and convert K061-listed waste (Electric Arc Furnace or EAF dust) and other byproducts of the steel-making industry into usable products. The Process holds potential for replacing the need for expensive disposal costs associated with the listed waste with the generation of marketable products. The products include colored glass

T. W. Jackson; J. S. Chapman

1995-01-01

25

Phosphorus removal by electric arc furnace steel slag and serpentinite.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag and serpentinite were tested in columns either alone or mixed with limestone to determine their capacity to remove phosphorus (P) from a solution containing initially 20mg P/L (for 114 days) than 400mg P/L (for 21 days). EAF steel slag was nearly 100% efficient due to specific P adsorption onto metal hydroxides and precipitation of hydroxyapatite. Serpentinite also showed a good performance that decreased with time, adsorption appearing to be the dominant mechanism for P removal. Mixing limestone with these two materials did not improve their performance and in the case of serpentinite, it actually even decreased it. In 114 days of experimentation, serpentinite alone and the mixture of serpentinite and limestone removed 1.0mg P/g while in 180 days of experimentation, EAF steel slag and the mixture of slag and limestone removed an average of 2.2mg P/g, without attaining their maximum P removal potential. The void hydraulic retention time (HRTv) was a key factor for growing hydroxyapatite crystals and had a significant effect on P removal efficiency by EAF steel slag. A temporary increase in HRTv caused by clogging resulted in an increase in EAF steel slag efficiency (from 80% to almost 100%) towards the end of investigation. Results from this study indicate that the use of EAF steel slag in constructed wetlands or filter beds is a promising solution for P removal via adsorption and precipitation mechanisms. PMID:16564560

Drizo, Aleksandra; Forget, Christiane; Chapuis, Robert P; Comeau, Yves

2006-05-01

26

The startup of coal injection on Bethlehem Steel`s Burns Harbor blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Despite the simplicity of operation and the excellent results from natural gas injection at Bethlehem Steel, there were concerns about future supply and price stability. Furthermore, the maximum projected gas rates still required coke consumption in excess of Burns Harbor`s coke production capacity. Thus in 1990 Bethlehem Steel entered into an agreement to participate in the DOE Clean Coal Technology demonstration project by installing a granular coal injection facility at Burns Harbor. This agreement called for a facility to be constructed which was capable of processing and injecting a wide range of coal types in either granular or pulverized form. Tests were to be conducted to assess the effects of a range of coal properties, coal sizing, and injection rates on a number of key blast furnace parameters. During all the transitioning from natural gas injection to coal injection and subsequent tests it was essential that the blast furnaces maintain their historic operating performance in support of the Burns Harbor Division`s product market requirements. Unlike many coal injection facilities, the Burns Harbor installation is owned by Bethlehem Steel and the operation and maintenance from raw coal unloading through the tuyeres is the responsibility of the Blast Furnace Department. As the authors will discuss, the start-up of this major installation involved significant challenges, the most critical of which was maintaining historically high blast furnace operating standards while commissioning a new facility and adapting the furnace process to coal injection.

Hill, D.G.; Strayer, T.J.; Durko, D.P.; Dwelly, M.J.

1996-12-31

27

Effect of pre-strain on creep of three AISI 316 austenitic stainless steels in relation to reheat cracking of weld-affected zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructural modifications induced by welding of 316 stainless steels and their effect on creep properties and relaxation crack propagation were examined. Cumulative strain due to multi-pass welding hardens the materials by increasing the dislocation density. Creep tests were conducted on three plates from different grades of 316 steel at 600 °C, with various carbon and nitrogen contents. These plates were tested both in the annealed condition and after warm rolling, which introduced pre-strain. It was found that the creep strain rate and ductility after warm rolling was reduced compared with the annealed condition. Moreover, all steels exhibited intergranular crack propagation during relaxation tests on Compact Tension specimens in the pre-strained state, but not in the annealed state. These results confirmed that the reheat cracking risk increases with both residual stress triaxiality and pre-strain. On the contrary, high solute content and strain-induced carbide precipitation, which are thought to increase reheat cracking risk of stabilised austenitic stainless steels did not appear as key parameters in reheat cracking of 316 stainless steels.

Auzoux, Q.; Allais, L.; Caës, C.; Monnet, I.; Gourgues, A. F.; Pineau, A.

2010-05-01

28

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION AT BETHLEHEM STEEL'S BURNS HARBOR PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the demonstration of the British Steel\\/CPC-Macawber Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection (BFGCI) technology that was installed on the blast furnaces at Bethlehem Steel's Burns Harbor Plant in Indiana as a highly successful Clean Coal Technology project, cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. In the BFGCI process, granular coal (10%–30% through a 200-mesh screen) is injected into

D. GREGORY HILL; LEO E. MAKOVSKY; THOMAS A. SARKUS; HOWARD G. McILVRIED

2004-01-01

29

Upgrading of zinc from galvanic sludge and steel furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

Mining of zinc demands the upgrading of different residues of the refining process. A method, which had been used over a period of several years, was based on the so-called Doerschel process. From the chemical point of view, the Doerschel process is a high-temperature redox process, combined with a flash distillation (sublimation) step. This process is based on the reduction of zinc compounds with coke at elevated temperature. The metal is then evaporated, reoxidized, precipitated by filtration, and refined hydro-/electrochemically. Zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, germanium, and copper can be refined from solid feed material by this process. Modern waste management also needs such methods for the treatment of hazardous waste from different industrial processes, and the applicability of the Doerschel process in the upgrading of galvanic sludge, dust from steel furnaces, and scrap of portable batteries has been investigated. The feed material used for investigation has a mean zinc content of 15 to 25 wt% and a mean lead content up to 10 wt%. The presence of sulfate determines the anionic nature of feed material from galvanic sludge. The capacity of the kiln used in the investigation is about 10,000 metric tons per year. The efficiency of zinc recovery is about 95% to 98%. The matrix substances of the feed were dissolved in neutral to caustic slag. Sulfur dioxide was recovered by absorption, purification, and condensation.

Siebenhofer, M.; Schweiger, H. [VTU Engineering GmbH, Graz (Austria); Lorber, K. [Inst. fuer Entsorgungs- und Deponietechnik, Leoben (Austria)

1997-01-01

30

Physicochemical properties of the slags intended for steel refining in a ladle-furnace unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the refining of steel in a ladle?furnace unit, highly basic slags are used. In this case, for steel deoxidized with aluminum, the following main composition of refinery slag is commonly recommended (wt %): 56?62 CaO, 6?10 SiO 2 , 20?25 Al 2 O 3 , 6?8 MgO, and ? 1.0 (FeO + MnO). For steel not deoxidized with aluminum,

N. A. Smirnov; A. V. Basov; I. A. Magidson

2009-01-01

31

Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

2013-04-01

32

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME V. ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

33

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME IV. OPEN HEARTH FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

34

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME III. BLAST FURNACE IRONMAKING, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

35

Energy Efficiency Improvement by Measurement and Control: A Case Study of Reheating Furnaces in the Steel Industry  

E-print Network

systems for successful implementation are discussed. Economic analyses, in terms of life cycle costs and estimated savings, are made for three levels of measurement and control systems. Reductions in energy use of up to 20 percent can be expected...

Martensson, A.

36

Reheat response and accelerated cooling of a microalloyed steel with an air/water atomizer: Effect on microstructure and mechanical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of an atomizer for accelerated cooling is discussed. An atomizer is an effective tool for controlling the microstructure and properties of a microalloyed steel because of its flexibility of operation and control of cooling rate over a broad range of temperatures. Some basic issues regarding heat transfer in pool boiling and in spray cooling also are presented. Reheating response studies were conducted in addition to studies of the effect of accelerated cooling on the microstructure and properties of a low- carbon steel microalloyed with niobium and vanadium. This steel produces a tempered martensitic microstructure on quenching and a predominantly bainitic microstructure at slower cooling rates. The yield, tensile, and fracture strengths can be tailored by controlling the cooling rate, which in turn can be controlled by the air/water ratio and flow rates in the atomizer. Impact toughness is a function of cooling rate and reaches a maximum followed by a decrease, probably due to the formation of upper bainite at lower cooling rates. Fractographic studies indicated that tensile fracture occurred by microvoid coalescence, with the dimple size decreasing as the cooling rate decreased. Charpy impact fracture studies indicated that the primary mode of failure was by quasi- cleavage, with the number of secondary cracks also decreasing as the cooling rate decreased.

Pejavar, S. R.; Aswath, P. B.

1994-04-01

37

Valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag as raw material for low energy belite cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS) in the production of low energy belite cements is studied. Three types of clinkers were prepared with 0wt.% (BC), 5wt.% (BC5) and 10wt.% (BC10) EAFS, respectively. The design of the raw mixes was based on the compositional indices lime saturation factor (LSF), alumina ratio (AR) and silica ratio

R. I. Iacobescu; D. Koumpouri; Y. Pontikes; R. Saban; G. N. Angelopoulos

2011-01-01

38

Heuristic algorithms for scheduling heat-treatment furnaces of steel casting industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a research problem of scheduling parallel, non-identical batch processors in the presence of dynamic\\u000a job arrivals, incompatible job-families and non-identical job sizes. We were led to this problem through a real-world application\\u000a involving the scheduling of heat-treatment operations of steel casting. The scheduling of furnaces for heat-treatment of castings\\u000a is of considerable interest as a large proportion

M. Mathirajan; V. Chandru; A. I. Sivakumar

2007-01-01

39

Mathematical Model for Decarburization of Ultra-low Carbon Steel in Single Snorkel Refining Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic model is developed to investigate decarburization behavior of a new type of refining equipment named Single Snorkel Refining Furnace (SSRF) in treating ultra-low carbon steel. Decarburization reactions in SSRF are considered to take place at three sites: Ar bubble surface, the bulk steel, and the bath surface. With the eccentricity of the porous plug (r e/R S) and the ratio of the snorkel diameter to the ladle diameter (D S/D L) of SSRF confirmed, circulation flow rate of molten steel is obtained through combined effects of vacuum pressure and gas flow rate. Besides, variation of the steel temperature is simulated associated with generated reaction heat and heat losses. The variation of C concentration with treatment time is divided into three stages in accordance with decarburization rates and the simulated C concentration is in reasonable agreement with actual production data. In the present study, both decarburization rates at three sites and their contributions to the overall decarburization at each stage are estimated for the first time. Through the present investigation, it is clear that vacuum pressure significantly influences decarburization efficiency of SSRF primarily by affecting the depth of CO nucleation in the bulk steel. Besides, effects of gas flow rate on decarburization rate of different stages are obtained and the opportunity of increasing gas flow rate during the treatment period has been clarified. The present model provides an efficient tool to comprehend the decarburization process in SSRF.

You, Zhimin; Cheng, Guoguang; Wang, Xinchao; Qin, Zhe; Tian, Jun; Zhang, Jian

2014-09-01

40

Onsite recycling of electric arc furnace dust: The Jorgensen Steel Facility  

SciTech Connect

The steel-making industry produces a large amount of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust as part of normal production. This waste is listed as KO61, defined as {open_quotes}emission control dust/sludge from the primary production of steel in electric arc furnaces{close_quotes} under 40 CFR 261.32. A glass making technology called Ek Glassification{trademark} (hereafter called {open_quotes}the Process{close_quotes}) has been developed by Roger B. Ek and Associates, Inc. (hereafter called {open_quotes}the Developer{close_quotes}) to recycle EAF dust and convert it, along with other byproducts of the steel-making industry, into marketable commodities. This Process was evaluated under the Waste Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation (WRITE) Program. The project was designed and conducted in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Environmental Quality, the Process Developer and the host test site, the Earle M. Jorgensen (EMJ) Steel Company of Seattle, Washington. Test personnel for EPA were supplied by SAIC Inc., on contract to EPA. The overall objectives of the project were to conduct a pilot scale evaluation of the Process, investigate if toxic metals are leached from the products (such as colored glass and glass-ceramics; ceramic glazes, colorants, and fillers; roofing granules and sand-blasting grit; and materials for Portland cement production). Three glass recipes (Glass I, II, and III) were designed by the developer for potential use at EMJ. The EPA portion was focused on determining the toxic metals concentrations of the Glass II recipe, evaluating the P2 impact of using this Process in comparison to traditional methods of waste treatment and disposal, and assessing the economics of both.

Licis, I.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Bermark, R.C. [Washington State Dept. of Ecology, Olympia, WA (United States)

1995-10-01

41

An Investigation on Low-Temperature Thermochemical Treatments of Austenitic Stainless Steel in Fluidized Bed Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the feasibility of using an industrial fluidized bed furnace to perform low-temperature thermochemical treatments of austenitic stainless steels has been studied, with the aim to produce expanded austenite layers with combined wear and corrosion resistance, similar to those achievable by plasma and gaseous processes. Several low-temperature thermochemical treatments were studied, including nitriding, carburizing, combined nitriding-carburizing (hybrid treatment), and sequential carburizing and nitriding. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to produce expanded austenite layers on the investigated austenitic stainless steel by the fluidized bed heat treatment technique, thus widening the application window for the novel low-temperature processes. The results also demonstrate that the fluidized bed furnace is the most effective for performing the hybrid treatment, which involves the simultaneous incorporation of nitrogen and carbon together into the surface region of the component in nitrogen- and carbon-containing atmospheres. Such hybrid treatment produces a thicker and harder layer than the other three processes investigated.

Haruman, E.; Sun, Y.; Triwiyanto, A.; Manurung, Y. H. P.; Adesta, E. Y.

2012-03-01

42

Experimental evaluation of high performance base course and road base asphalt concrete with electric arc furnace steel slags  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of a laboratory study aimed at verifying the use of two types of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slags as substitutes for natural aggregates, in the composition of base course and road base asphalt concrete (BBAC) for flexible pavements. The trial was composed of a preliminary study of the chemical, physical, mechanical and leaching properties

Marco Pasetto; Nicola Baldo

2010-01-01

43

The Use of Bayesian Inference in the Design of an Endpoint Control System for the Basic Oxygen Steel Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital simulation of the basic oxygen steel furnace was previously developed, and its output was compared with the available data taken from the literature. The output concentrations were within 10 percent of the literature data, while the simulated temperature was within 0.5 percent. The simulation is used as an off-line model of the process to design an endpoint control

Richard Kornblum; Myron Tribus

1970-01-01

44

Observing the Inflationary Reheating  

E-print Network

Reheating is the the epoch which connects inflation to the subsequent hot Big-Bang phase. Conceptually very important, this era is however observationally poorly known. We show that the current Planck satellite measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies constrain the kinematic properties of the reheating era for most of the inflationary models. This result is obtained by deriving the marginalized posterior distributions of the reheating parameter for about 200 models taken in Encyclopaedia Inflationaris. Weighted by the statistical evidence of each model to explain the data, we show that the Planck 2013 measurements induce an average reduction of the posterior-to-prior volume by 40%. Making some additional assumptions on reheating, such as specifying a mean equation of state parameter, or focusing the analysis on peculiar scenarios, can enhance or reduce this constraint. Our study also indicates that the Bayesian evidence of a model can substantially be affected by the reheating properties. The precision of the current CMB data is therefore such that estimating the observational performance of a model now requires to incorporate information about its reheating history.

Jerome Martin; Christophe Ringeval; Vincent Vennin

2014-10-29

45

[Phosphorus adsorption and regeneration of electric arc furnace steel slag as wetland medium].  

PubMed

The long-term phosphorus (P) adsorption and retention capacities of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag materials derived from one batch and a 278-d column experiments with a synthetic P solution were compared. The investigations of the regeneration of the P adsorption capacity by water level decrease was conducted. It was revealed column experiment on a long-term basis can determine P saturation of EAF accurately. And the results can be used for realistic estimations of constructed wetland systems (CWS) longevity. EAF slag showed a high afinity for P, reaching a saturation value of 1.65 g/kg. Regeneration experiment of the P adsorbing capacity by this material showed that, after 4 weeks of water level decrease, EAF steel slag was able to increase its initial P adsorption capacity to 2.65 g/kg. A sequential P fractionation experiment was performed to quantify the proportion of P bound to mineral compounds in EAF. From the most loosely bound to the most strongly bound P fraction, P1 was associated with resin extractable (13%), Fe extractable (0.5 mol/L Na2CO3, 39%), Al extractable (0.1 mol/L NaOH, 21%), Ca extractable (1 mol/L HCl, 13%), and Ca in a stable residual pool (concentrated hot HCl, 14%). X-ray fluorescence analyses of EAF steel slag chemical composition revealed that the continuous application of a P solution resulted in 300% and 170% increases in K2O and P2O5, respectively. Al2O3 and FeO increased by 8%, while the portion of CaO remained unchanged. The investigated properties (P retention potential, regeneration of P adsorption, P fractionation) provide useful data about the suitability of slag material as a media for longterm P removal and dry-wet operation can improve P retention capacity of EAF to prolong the longevity of full-scale CWS. PMID:19256377

Zhai, Li-hua; He, Lian-sheng; Xi, Bei-dou; Chen, Yue; Meng, Rui; Huo, Shou-liang; Liu, Hong-liang

2008-12-01

46

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

47

AISTech2011, Indianapolis, IN, May 2-5, 2011, Assoc. Iron Steel Technology, Warrendale, PA. Model of Microalloy Precipitation during Continuous Casting and Reheating  

E-print Network

processing has been developed. In this work, it is applied to investigate Nb(C,N) precipitation in thin the quantities, compositions, and size distributions of the precipitates as they evolve throughout the process and reheating processes [15-17], and the effects of niobium precipitation and thermomechanical processing

Thomas, Brian G.

48

Effect of out-of-furnace treatment on the chemical composition, mechanical properties, and microstructure of cast steel for the car-building industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties, chemical composition, microstructure, and nonmetallic inclusions in steel 20GL subjected to out-of-furnace\\u000a treatment in an AKP installation (furnace-ladle unit) and melted by the standard process are studied. The effect of the out-of-furnace\\u000a treatment on the content of sulfur, on the contamination of the metal with nonmetallic inclusions, and on the impact toughness\\u000a of specimens with U-and V-notches

V. P. Rogova; G. V. Polyavin; I. V. Mosunova

2006-01-01

49

Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating  

DOEpatents

A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

Howard, Stanley R. (Windsor, SC); Korinko, Paul S. (Aiken, SC)

2008-05-27

50

An approach for phosphate removal with quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag as seed crystal.  

PubMed

The phosphate removal abilities and crystallization performance of quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag were investigated. The residual phosphate concentrations in the reaction solutions were not changed by addition of the ceramsite, quartz sand and blast furnace slag. The steel slag could provide alkalinity and Ca(2+) to the reaction solution due to its hydration activity, and performed a better phosphate removal performance than the other three. Under the conditions of Ca/P 2.0, pH 8.5 and 10 mg P/L, the phosphate crystallization occurred during 12 h. The quartz sand and ceramsite did not improve the phosphate crystallization, but steel slag was an effective seed crystal. The phosphate concentration decreased drastically after 12 h after addition of steel slag, and near complete removal was achieved after 48 h. The XRD analysis showed that the main crystallization products were hydroxyapatite (HAP) and the crystallinity increased with the reaction time. Phosphate was successfully recovered from low phosphate concentration wastewater using steel slag as seed material. PMID:22378001

Qiu, Liping; Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Shoubin; Yang, Zhongxi; Li, Yanbo

2012-01-01

51

Environmental impacts of asphalt mixes with electric arc furnace steel slag.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag can be used as an alternative high-quality material in road construction. Although asphalts with slag aggregates have been recognized as environmentally acceptable, there is a lack of data concerning the potential leaching of toxic Cr(VI) due to the highly alkaline media of EAF slag. Leaching of selected water extractable metals from slag indicated elevated concentrations of total chromium and Cr(VI). To estimate the environmental impacts of asphalt mixes with slag, leachability tests based on diffusion were performed using pure water and salt water as leaching agents. Compact and ground asphalt composites with natural aggregates, and asphalt composites in which the natural aggregates were completely replaced by slag were prepared. The concentrations of total chromium and Cr(VI) were determined in leachates over a time period of 6 mo. After 1 and 6 mo, the concentrations of some other metals were also determined in the leachates. The results indicated that chromium in leachates from asphalt composites with the addition of slag was present almost solely in its hexavalent form. However, the concentrations were very low (below 25 ?g L) and did not represent an environmental burden. The leaching of other metals from asphalt composites with the addition of slag was negligible. Therefore, the investigated EAF slag can be considered as environmentally safe substitute for natural aggregates in asphalt mixes. PMID:21712585

Mila?i?, Radmila; Zuliani, Tea; Oblak, Tina; Mladenovi?, Ana; An?ar, Janez Š?

2011-01-01

52

Assessment of hexavalent chromium release in Malaysian electric arc furnace steel slag for fertilizer usage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the leaching of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) from electric arc furnace steel slag as Cr (VI) is classified as human carcinogen. Batch leaching tests were performed for 16 days. The lixiviants used were alkaline, de-ionized and rain water. After 16 days, Cr (VI) was found to be highest in alkaline water (0.03 mg/L) and lowest in de-ionized water (0.01 mg/L). Besides the lixiviants used, slag stirring speed and liquid to solid ratio also affect Cr (VI) released. The experimental work was complimented with slag characterization using XRF, XRD and SEM/EDX analysis. The leaching process was also simulated via Factsage software to calculate isothermal pourbaix diagrams. The Cr (VI) released was low and below the threshold of 0.1 mg/L set for public water systems. Recycle the slag as fertilizer should be considered safe as it does not exceed the safety limit set for Cr (VI) dissolution.

Bankole, L. K.; Rezan, S. A.; Sharif, N. M.

2014-03-01

53

Development and evaluation of a Workpiece Temperature Analyzer for industrial furnaces: Steel industry survey and furnace selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report explores the advantages of the proposed Workpiece Temperature Analyzer (WPTA) in non-contact measurement of the internal temperature of hot steel. The technical origin for the WPTA is in ultrasonic thermometry. The cumulative advantages of the WPTA in contrast with existing technology, thermocouples, pyrometers and mathematical modelling, is that (1) it will provide true internal temperature, (2) the measurement

Witt

1990-01-01

54

STACK GAS REHEAT EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of technical and economic evaluations of stack gas reheat (SGR) following wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired power plants. The evaluations were based on information from literature and a survey of FGD users, vendors, and architect/engineer ...

55

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

Not Available

1990-10-01

56

Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part III. Control of furnace atmosphere composition with a zirconia oxygen sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed-quench furnace using furnace atmospheres produced by the reaction of propane and air within the furnace. The air-propane ratio of the inlet gases was automatically controlled to maintain a constant oxygen potential, as measured by a zirconia oxygen sensor, within the furnace. The results of carburizing trials at 843 and 927 °C are described. The effect of inlet gas flow rate on furnace atmosphere composition and the amount of carburizing is illustrated.

Stickels, C. A.; Mack, C. M.; Pieprzak, J. A.

1980-09-01

57

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

58

The Effect of Chemical Composition on Microstructure and Properties of Intercritically Reheated Coarse-Grained Heat-Affected Zone in X70 Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study investigates the effect of different levels of Ti, N, and Ti/N ratios on microstructure and properties in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (ICCGHAZ) of two-pass submerged arc welds in API 5L grade X70 pipe. Gleeble simulation was employed to reproduce the ICCGHAZ of actual welds. Hardness and Charpy V-notch (CVN) tests were performed on the simulated samples. The microstructure of simulated ICCGHAZ was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). LePera color etching technique was employed to identify and quantify the martensitic-austenitic (M-A) constituent. Results show that the simulated ICCGHAZ exhibited extremely low toughness, but in the studied range of Ti and N, there was no correlation with Ti/N ratio. The beneficial effect of near-stoichiometric Ti/N ratio observed in coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) did not translate to ICCGHAZ. This was because of the negative effect of the blocky M-A constituent formed on prior austenite grain boundaries.

Zhu, Zhixiong; Kuzmikova, Lenka; Li, Huijun; Barbaro, Frank

2013-12-01

59

Ceramic fiber seals save fuel at Bethlehem Steel mill  

SciTech Connect

To increase energy efficiency at Bethlehem Steel's Plate and Flanging Mill in Sparrows Point, Md., a special ceramic fiber seal system was installed on the discharge doors of two reheat furnaces. This installation achieved a 3-1/2% fuel saving for each furnace. The sealing system consists of a ceramic fiber (Nextel 312) curtain and mesh enclosed rounds (Kaowool from Babcock and Wilcox Insulating Products Div.). The ceramic fiber curtain withstands temperatures up to 2400/sup 0/F (1316/sup 0/C) and provides the tensile strength needed to effectively seal the door bottom.

Not Available

1982-07-01

60

Energy audit of three energy-conserving devices in a steel-industry demonstration program. Task I. Hague forge furnaces. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program to demonstrate to industry the benefits of installing particular types of energy-conserving devices and equipment was carried out. One of these types of equipment and the results obtained under production conditions in commercial plants are described. The equipment under consideration includes improved forge furnaces and associated heat-recovery components. They are used to heat steel to about 2300 F

H. W. Lownie; F. C. Holden

1982-01-01

61

Banking the Furnace: Restructuring of the Steel Industry in Eight Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined how the cross-national differences in the social contract among managers, unions, and government influenced adjustment strategies in steel. The restructuring process in eight major steel-producing countries was studied to determine who bore the costs of restructuring--employers, employees, or government--and which industrial…

Bain, Trevor

62

Applications of fluidized bed furnaces for the heat treatment of tool steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper techniques applying a fluidized bed furnace for the neutral hardening of carbon and medium alloy tools are described,\\u000a the application being based on a production unit handling a wide range of sizes. Versatility of the unit and ease of control\\u000a are also discussed. Carburizing and carbonitriding of tools and components are proven techniques and control of case

G. N. Shepherd

1982-01-01

63

Large-Scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rools In A Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethlehem Steel's (now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill  

SciTech Connect

At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system.

John Mengel; Anthony Martocci; Larry Fabina; RObert Petrusha; Ronald Chango

2003-09-01

64

Reheating Constraints to Inflationary Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence from the BICEP2 experiment for a significant gravitational-wave background has focused attention on inflaton potentials V(?)??? with ?=2 ("chaotic" or "m2?2" inflation) or with smaller values of ?, as may arise in axion-monodromy models. Here we show that reheating considerations may provide additional constraints to these models. The reheating phase preceding the radiation era is modeled by an effective equation-of-state parameter wre. The canonical reheating scenario is then described by wre=0. The simplest ?=2 models are consistent with wre=0 for values of ns well within the current 1? range. Models with ?=1 or ?=2/3 require a more exotic reheating phase, with -1/31/3, unless ns is close to the lower limit of the 2? range. For m2?2 inflation and canonical reheating as a benchmark, we derive a relation log10(Tre/106 GeV)?2000(ns-0.96) between the reheat temperature Tre and the scalar spectral index ns. Thus, if ns is close to its central value, then Tre?106 GeV, just above the electroweak scale. If the reheat temperature is higher, as many theorists may prefer, then the scalar spectral index should be closer to ns?0.965 (at the pivot scale k =0.05 Mpc-1), near the upper limit of the 1? error range. Improved precision in the measurement of ns should allow m2?2, axion monodromy, and ?4 models to be distinguished, even without precise measurement of r, and to test the m2?2 expectation of ns?0.965.

Dai, Liang; Kamionkowski, Marc; Wang, Junpu

2014-07-01

65

The efficiency of quartz addition on electric arc furnace (EAF) carbon steel slag stability.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace slag (EAF) has the potential to be re-utilized as an alternative to stone material, however, only if it remains chemically stable on contact with water. The presence of hydraulic phases such as larnite (2CaO SiO2) could cause dangerous elements to be released into the environment, i.e. Ba, V, Cr. Chemical treatment appears to be the only way to guarantee a completely stable structure, especially for long-term applications. This study presents the efficiency of silica addition during the deslagging period. Microstructural characterization of modified slag was performed by SEM and XRD analysis. Elution tests were performed according to the EN 12457-2 standard, with the addition of silica and without, and the obtained results were compared. These results demonstrate the efficiency of the inertization process: the added silica induces the formation of gehlenite, which, even in caustic environments, does not exhibit hydraulic behaviour. PMID:25113518

Mombelli, D; Mapelli, C; Barella, S; Gruttadauria, A; Le Saout, G; Garcia-Diaz, E

2014-08-30

66

Large-scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rolls in a Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethelehem Steel's (Now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill  

SciTech Connect

At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system. Many challenges were involved in this project, including developing welding procedures for joining nickel aluminide intermetallic alloys with H-series austenitic alloys, developing commercial cast roll manufacturing specifications, working with several commercial suppliers to produce a quantity of high quality, reproducible nickel aluminide rolls for a large steel industrial annealing furnace, installing and demonstrating the capability of the rolls in this furnace, performing processing trials to evaluate the benefits of new equipment and processes, and documenting the findings. Updated furnace equipment including twenty-five new automated furnace control dampers have been installed replacing older design, less effective units. These dampers, along with upgraded flame-safety control equipment and new AC motors and roll-speed control equipment, are providing improved furnace control and additional energy efficiency. Energy data shows up to a 34% energy reduction from baseline after the installation of upgraded furnace damper controls along with up to a 34% reduction in greenhouse gases, potential for an additional 3 to 6% energy reduction per campaign of light-up and shutdown, and a 46% energy reduction from baseline for limited trials of a combination of improved damper control and straight-through plate processing. The straight-through processing is now possible because of the nickel aluminide rolls which also provided plate product surface quality improvement that will allow the additional processing of surface critical material. Benefits also include associated large reductions in maintenance, reduction in spare rolls and associated component costs, and potential for greater through-put and productivity. Estimated project fuel cost reductions alone for processing 100,000 tons/yr through this furnace are almost $0.5 million/yr with the new dampers, and more than $600,000/yr with straight-through processing and new damper control, assuming natural gas prices of $6.00/MMBtu. The nickel aluminide rolls are competitively priced with conventional H series alloy rolls.

Mengel, J.

2003-12-16

67

Energy audit of three energy-conserving devices in a steel-industry demonstration program. Task I. Hague forge furnaces. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A program to demonstrate to industry the benefits of installing particular types of energy-conserving devices and equipment was carried out. One of these types of equipment and the results obtained under production conditions in commercial plants are described. The equipment under consideration includes improved forge furnaces and associated heat-recovery components. They are used to heat steel to about 2300 F prior to hot forging. The energy-conserving devices include improved insulation, automatic air-fuel ratio control, and a ceramic recuperator that recovers heat from hot combustion gases and delivers preheated air to high-temperature recirculating burners. Twelve Hague furnaces and retrofit packages were purchased and installed by eleven host forge shops that agree to furnish performance data for the purpose of demonstrating the energy and economic savings that can be achieved in comparison with existing equipment. Fuel savings were reported by comparing the specific energy consumption (Btu's per pound of steel heated) for each Hague furnace with that of a comparison furnace. Economic comparisons were made using payback period based on annual after-tax cash flow. Payback periods for the Hague equipment varied from less than two years to five years or more. In several cases, payback times were high only because the units were operated at a small fraction of their available capacity.

Lownie, H.W.; Holden, F.C.

1982-06-01

68

Large-Scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rools In A Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethlehem Steel's (now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's

John Mengel; Anthony Martocci; Larry Fabina; RObert Petrusha; Ronald Chango

2003-01-01

69

Reheating constraints to inflationary models.  

PubMed

Evidence from the BICEP2 experiment for a significant gravitational-wave background has focused attention on inflaton potentials V(?)??(?) with ? = 2 ("chaotic" or "m(2)?(2)" inflation) or with smaller values of ?, as may arise in axion-monodromy models. Here we show that reheating considerations may provide additional constraints to these models. The reheating phase preceding the radiation era is modeled by an effective equation-of-state parameter w(re). The canonical reheating scenario is then described by w(re) = 0. The simplest ? = 2 models are consistent with w(re) = 0 for values of n(s) well within the current 1? range. Models with ? = 1 or ? = 2/3 require a more exotic reheating phase, with -1/3 < w(re) < 0, unless n(s) falls above the current 1? range. Likewise, models with ? = 4 require a physically implausible w(re) > 1/3, unless n(s) is close to the lower limit of the 2? range. For m(2)?(2) inflation and canonical reheating as a benchmark, we derive a relation log(10)(T(re)/10(6) GeV) ? 2000(n(s)-0.96) between the reheat temperature T(re) and the scalar spectral index n(s). Thus, if n(s) is close to its central value, then T(re) ? 10(6) GeV, just above the electroweak scale. If the reheat temperature is higher, as many theorists may prefer, then the scalar spectral index should be closer to n(s) ? 0.965 (at the pivot scale k = 0.05 Mpc(-1)), near the upper limit of the 1? error range. Improved precision in the measurement of n(s) should allow m(2)?(2), axion monodromy, and ?(40) models to be distinguished, even without precise measurement of r, and to test the m(2)?(2) expectation of n(s) ? 0.965. PMID:25105606

Dai, Liang; Kamionkowski, Marc; Wang, Junpu

2014-07-25

70

Diagnostics and Control of Natural Gas-Fired furnaces via Flame Image Analysis using Machine Vision & Artificial Intelligence Techniques  

SciTech Connect

A new approach for the detection of real-time properties of flames is used in this project to develop improved diagnostics and controls for natural gas fired furnaces. The system utilizes video images along with advanced image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to provide virtual sensors in a stand-alone expert shell environment. One of the sensors is a flame sensor encompassing a flame detector and a flame analyzer to provide combustion status. The flame detector can identify any burner that has not fired in a multi-burner furnace. Another sensor is a 3-D temperature profiler. One important aspect of combustion control is product quality. The 3-D temperature profiler of this on-line system is intended to provide a tool for a better temperature control in a furnace to improve product quality. In summary, this on-line diagnostic and control system offers great potential for improving furnace thermal efficiency, lowering NOx and carbon monoxide emissions, and improving product quality. The system is applicable in natural gas-fired furnaces in the glass industry and reheating furnaces used in steel and forging industries.

Shahla Keyvan

2005-12-01

71

3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT LOOKING NORTH. DOROTHY SIX IS THE CLOSEST FURNACE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

72

Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

73

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

74

Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

75

56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

76

41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; photo taken from furnace operator's booth. Looking south/southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

77

2. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING AND ELECTRIC FURNACE OFFICE & CHEMICAL LABORATORY BUILDING. INGOT MOLDS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

78

Evaluation of electric arc furnace-processed steel slag for dermal corrosion, irritation, and sensitization from dermal contact.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag is alkaline (pH of ~11-12) and contains metals, most notably chromium and nickel, and thus has potential to cause dermal irritation and sensitization at sufficient dose. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. However, no published study has characterized the potential for dermal effects associated with EAF slag. To assess dermal irritation, corrosion and sensitizing potential of EAF slag, in vitro and in vivo dermal toxicity assays were conducted based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. In vitro dermal corrosion and irritation testing (OECD 431 and 439) of EAF slag was conducted using the reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) tissue model. In vivo dermal toxicity and delayed contact sensitization testing (OECD 404 and 406) were conducted in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. EAF slag was not corrosive and not irritating in any tests. The results of the delayed contact dermal sensitization test indicate that EAF slag is not a dermal sensitizer. These findings are supported by the observation that metals in EAF slag occur as oxides of low solubility with leachates that are well below toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Based on these results and in accordance to the OECD guidelines, EAF slag is not considered a dermal sensitizer, corrosive or irritant. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24395402

Suh, Mina; Troese, Matthew J; Hall, Debra A; Yasso, Blair; Yzenas, John J; Proctor, Debora M

2014-12-01

79

Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed in situ from methane and air and from butane and air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carburizing experiments were conducted at 927 °C (1700 °F) and 843 °C (1550 °F) using furnace atmospheres formed from methane and air and from butane and air introduced directly into the carburizing furnace. Gas flow rates were low to promote equilibration of the reaction products within the furnace. The air flow rate was held constant while the methane or butane flow was automatically regulated to maintain a constant oxygen potential, as measured by a zirconia oxygen sensor, within the furnace. In comparing the results of these experiments with earlier results obtained using propane and air, several differences were noted: (a) The methane content of the furnace atmosphere, measured by infrared analysis, was about twice as great when methane was the feed gas rather than propane or butane. This was true despite the fact that the mean residence time of the gas within the furnace was greater in the methane experiments. Methane appears to be less effective than propane or butane in reducing the CO2 and H2O contents to the levels required for carburizing. (b) There was a greater tendency for the CO content of the furnace atmosphere to decrease at high carbon potentials when methane is used instead of propane or butane. The decrease in CO content is due to hydrogen dilution caused by sooting in the furnace vestibule. These differences in behavior make propane or butane better suited than methane for in situ generation of carburizing atmospheres. However, there is no difference in the amount of carburizing occurring at a specified carbon potential when methane, propane, or butane are used as the feed gas in this process.

Stickels, C. A.; Mack, C. M.; Pieprzak, J. A.

1992-01-01

80

Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-12-31

81

Reheating Metastable O'Raifeartaigh Models  

SciTech Connect

In theories with multiple vacua, reheating to a temperature greater than the height of a barrier can stimulate transitions from a desirable metastable vacuum to a lower energy state. We discuss the constraints this places on various theories and demonstrate that in a class of supersymmetric models this transition does not occur even for arbitrarily high reheating temperature.

Craig, Nathaniel J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP; Fox, Patrick J.; /LBL, Berkeley; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

2006-12-13

82

Reheating Metastable O'Raifeartaigh Models  

SciTech Connect

In theories with multiple vacua, reheating to a temperature greater than the height of a barrier can stimulate transitions from a desirable metastable vacuum to a lower energy state. We discuss the constraints this places on various theories and demonstrate that in a class of supersymmetric models this transition does not occur even for arbitrarily high reheating temperature.

Craig, Nathaniel J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Wacker, Jay G.

2006-12-05

83

Reheating metastable O'Raifeartaigh models  

SciTech Connect

In theories with multiple vacua, reheating to a temperature greater than the height of a barrier can stimulate transitions from a desirable metastable vacuum to a lower energy state. We discuss the constraints this places on various theories and demonstrate that in a class of supersymmetric models this transition does not occur even for arbitrarily high reheating temperature.

Fox, Patrick; Craig, Nathaniel J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Wacker, Jay G.

2006-11-01

84

Reasonable Temperature Schedules for Cold or Hot Charging of Continuously Cast Steel Slabs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some continuously cast steel slabs are sensitive to transverse fracture problems during transportation or handling away from their storage state, while some steel slabs are sensitive to surface transverse cracks during the following rolling process in a certain hot charging temperature range. It is revealed that the investigated steel slabs with high fracture tendency under room cooling condition always contain pearlite transformation delayed elements, which lead to the internal brittle bainitic structure formation, while some microalloyed steels exhibit high surface crack susceptibility to hot charging temperatures due to carbonitride precipitation. According to the calculated internal cooling rates and CCT diagrams, the slabs with high fracture tendency during cold charging should be slowly cooled after cutting to length from hot strand or charged to the reheating furnace directly above their bainite formation temperatures. Based on a thermodynamic calculation for carbonitride precipitation in austenite, the sensitive hot charging temperature range of related steels was revealed for the determination of reasonable temperature schedules.

Li, Yang; Chen, Xin; Liu, Ke; Wang, Jing; Wen, Jin; Zhang, Jiaquan

2013-12-01

85

Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag—An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of

Ha-Won Song; Velu Saraswathy

2006-01-01

86

Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part I. The effect of air-propane ratio on furnace atmosphere composition and the amount of carburizing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed quenched furnace at 843 and 927 °C using furnace atmospheres produced by reacting propane and air within the furnace chamber. With low, constant gas flow rates it is shown that the amount of carburizing varies regularly with air-propane ratio. Furnace atmosphere composition was monitored as a function of temperature and air-propane ratio and compared with the composition expected at thermodynamic equilibrium.

Stickels, C. A.; Mack, C. M.; Brachaczek, M.

1980-09-01

87

Late reheating, hadronic jets, and baryogenesis.  

PubMed

If inflaton couples very weakly to ordinary matter, the reheating temperature of the Universe can be lower than the electroweak scale. In this Letter we show that the late reheating occurs in a highly nonuniform way, within narrow areas along the jets produced by ordinary particles originated from inflaton decays. Depending on inflaton mass and decay constant, the initial temperature inside the lumps of the overheated plasma may be large enough to trigger the unsuppressed sphaleron processes with baryon number nonconservation. This allows for efficient local electroweak baryogenesis at reheating temperatures TR approximately O(10) GeV. PMID:15089191

Asaka, Takehiko; Grigoriev, Dmitri; Kuzmin, Vadim; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

2004-03-12

88

Reheater piping and drain cooler system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for heat rate improvement. It is used in a steam turbine thermal cycle employing a steam-to-steam reheating system having a high pressure moisture-separator-reheater (MSR) with a reheater drain for fluid, feedwater heaters connected in series to heat feedwater at increasing pressure, each of the feedwater heaters having an inlet, an outlet for feedwater, and a heat exchanger connecting in heat exchange relationship with feedwater exiting the highest pressure feedwater heater. The system utilizes scavenging steam to prevent moisture buildup.

Viscovich, P.W.; Silvestri, G.J. Jr.

1990-09-11

89

Release of H and He from tic, stainless steel, and graphite by pulsed electron and furnace heating*1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial release of implanted D and 3He from TiC coatings and SS 304, and of D from graphite, by 50ns pulsed electron beam (e-beam) heating has been observed and is compared to release by isochronal furnace heating. A substantial enhancement in the fractional D release was found for D saturated TiC (0.25 D to host atom ratio) compared with low fluence implants for both e-beam and furnace heating. This enhancement was not observed for graphite and SS 304. E-beam release of 3He from TiC was observed to be unaffected by the presence of saturation concentrations of D. Comparison to the calculated time evolution of the temperature profiles suggests a simple model for the D release based on diffusion-limited release in the case of pulsed e-beam treatments and trap-limited release in the case of furnace bulk heating. These processes are closely related to hydrogen recycle in tokamaks and have implications for T inventory control and He ash removal.

Picraux, S. T.; Wampler, W. R.

1980-10-01

90

Energy Savings in Electric Arc Furnace Melting  

E-print Network

Arc furnace melting which at one time was almost exclusively used to produce alloy steel and steel castings is now widely accepted in the industry as an efficient process to produce all types of steel and iron. Presently, about 28% of steel...

Lubbeck, W.

1982-01-01

91

Furnace seal  

SciTech Connect

A peripheral seal for a furnace, e.g., a soaking pit is disclosed that is of an elongate rectangular section fibre assembly mountable on the furnace roof or door such that a flat face of the assembly can bear on a mating face of the furnace wall, means being provided for advancing the assembly such that the flat face thereof can be maintained in contact with the wall face whereby to compensate for wear and erosion of the fibre assembly.

Payne, G.

1980-01-15

92

Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part II. Analysis of the characteristics of gas flow in a batch-type sealed quench furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas flow dynamics in a batch-type sealed quench carburizing furnace were studied for operations utilizing low inlet gas flow rates. By analyzing the rate of change of furnace atmosphere composition when a sudden change is made in the inlet gas composition, it is shown that a significant amount of gas circulation occurs between the hot furnace chamber and the unheated vestibule. This circulation has the effect of increasing the mean residence time of gases within the furnace. A long mean residence time is advantageous for carburizing when the inlet gases consist of an airJhydrocarbon blend rather than prereacted endothermic gas.

Stickels, C. A.; Mack, C. M.

1980-09-01

93

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBOBLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBO-BLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND HOT BLAST STOVES (RIGHT). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Haselton Blast Furnaces, West of Center Street Viaduct, along Mahoning River, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

94

Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot blast stoves (left) and the dustcatcher (right). - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

95

1. LOOKING EAST AT BLAST FURNACES NO. 3 AND No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. LOOKING EAST AT BLAST FURNACES NO. 3 AND No. 4 FROM CRAWFORD STREET IN THE CITY OF DUQUESNE. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

96

13. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CAST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CAST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE No. 1, AND HOIST HOUSE No. 1. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

97

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPENHEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPEN-HEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 AND CAST HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

98

58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED No. 3 IN FOREGROUND ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

99

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

100

55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX WITH LADLE HOUSE AND IRON DESULPHERIZATION BUILDING ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

101

70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE STOCKHOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

102

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

103

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSEUP, IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSE-UP, IRON NOTCH IN CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

104

59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

105

42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

106

31. VIEW OF TRIPPER CAR ON TOP OF BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF TRIPPER CAR ON TOP OF BLAST FURNACE STOCKING TRESTLE LOOKING EAST. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

107

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. Nameplate reads: "Heroult Electric Furnace, Capacity 6 tons, Built by American Bridge Company, Pencoyd, PA, No. 33") - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

108

3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE BATCH FURNACES ON LEFT AND 5 TON CAPACITY CHARGING MACHINE ON RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

109

22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL CONSTRUCTION. CONCRETE PAD AT LEFT IS SITE OF FORMER FURNACE USED TO HEAT URANIUM BILLETS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

110

1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

111

5. LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON GROUND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON GROUND FLOOR OF POURING AISLE. VIEW OF THE NATION'S FIRST VACUUM DEGASSING UNIT (1956). - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

112

Influence of direct reduced iron on the energy balance of the electric arc furnace in steel industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of the EAF energy efficiency was developed based on a closed mass and energy balance of the EAF melting process. This model was applied to industrial EAFs in steel industry charged with scrap or with mixes of scrap and DRI. Complex mass and energy conversion in the EAF was simplified with the introduction of mass and energy conversion

Marcus Kirschen; Karim Badr; Herbert Pfeifer

2011-01-01

113

GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION  

SciTech Connect

In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In Task 1, Blade Path Aerodynamics, design options were evaluated using CFD in terms of burnout, increase of power output, and possible hot streaking. It was concluded that Vane 1 injection in a conventional 4-stage turbine was preferred. Vane 2 injection after vane 1 injection was possible, but of marginal benefit. In Task 2, Combustion and Emissions, detailed chemical kinetics modeling, validated by Task 3, Sub-Scale Testing, experiments, resulted in the same conclusions, with the added conclusion that some increase in emissions was expected. In Task 4, Conceptual Design and Development Plan, Siemens Westinghouse power cycle analysis software was used to evaluate alternative in situ reheat design options. Only single stage reheat, via vane 1, was found to have merit, consistent with prior Tasks. Unifying the results of all the tasks, a conceptual design for single stage reheat utilizing 24 holes, 1.8 mm diameter, at the trailing edge of vane 1 is presented. A development plan is presented.

D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert; R.A. Newby P.G.A. Cizmas

2004-05-17

114

1. GENERAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE PLANT, KNOWN AS THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE PLANT, KNOWN AS THE CARRIE FURNACES, FROM THE TOP OF WATER TOWER. CARRIE FURNACES No. 6 AND No. 7 ARE ON THE LEFT, AND FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ARE ON THE RIGHT. THE TOWN OF RANKIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

115

Direct measurement of solids: High temperature sensing: Phase 2, Experimental development and testing on furnace-heated steel blocks  

SciTech Connect

Using average velocity measurements to estimate average profile temperature shows promise and merits further investigation. The current generation of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) can transmit and detect signals in steel below the magnetic transition temperature. Techniques for calibrating ultrasonic velocity to internal temperature need further development. EMATs are inadequate ultrasonic transmitters for these applications. A high-energy, pulsed laser capable of generating more intense ultrasonic signals should be investigated as a transmitter. Recommendations are given for further work.

Lemon, D.K.; Daly, D.S.

1985-12-01

116

Nonperturbative Dynamics Of Reheating After Inflation  

E-print Network

Our understanding of the state of the universe between the end of inflation and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is incomplete. The dynamics at the end of inflation are rich and a potential source of observational signatures. Reheating, the energy transfer between the inflaton and Standard Model fields (possibly through intermediaries), can provide clues to how inflation fits in with known high-energy physics. We provide an overview of our current understanding of the nonperturbative, nonlinear dynamics at the end of inflation, some salient features of realistic particle physics models of reheating, and how the universe reaches a thermal state before BBN. In addition, we review the analytical and numerical tools available in the literature to study reheating and discuss potential observational signatures from this fascinating era.

Amin, Mustafa A; Kaiser, David I; Karouby, Johanna

2014-01-01

117

Heat Pipe Precools and Reheats Dehumidified Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precooling and reheating by heat pipe reduces operating costs of air-conditioning. Warm air returned from air-conditioned space and cooled air supplied are precooled and reheated, respectively, by each other through a heat pipe. Heat-pipe technology brought to bear on problem of conserving airconditioning energy in hot, humid environments. Any increase in the cost of equipment due to installation of heat-pipe heat exchangers expected to be recovered in energy savings during service period of 2 years or less.

Koning, R. C.; Boggs, W. H.; Barnett, U. R.; Dinh, K.

1986-01-01

118

Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model  

SciTech Connect

The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

Seymour Katz

2004-12-31

119

Austenite recrystallization in Nb/V microalloyed steels  

SciTech Connect

Two Nb microalloyed steels containing 0.05 and 0.20 wt pct V were used in this study. The chemistries of these steels are shown in Table 1. The steels were vacuum induction melted as 136 kg ingots and hot rolled to a thickness of 1.0 cm. Specimens 2.5 cm x 7.6 cm were cut from the plates, retaining the original rolling direction, and thermocouple holes were drilled into the longitudinal faces of these specimens at mid-thickness. The specimens were reheated for 1 hour in an endothermic atmosphere at 1288/sup 0/C. Upon removal of the specimens from the reheat furnace, a sheathed thermocouple was inserted into the drilled hole. The temperature of the specimens was then monitored during air cooling until the desired rolling temperature of 954/sup 0/C was reached, at which time the specimens were deformed 50 pct in a rolling mill at an average strain rate of 10.2 s/sup -1/. Immediately after rolling, the specimens were transferred to a molten chloride salt bath and held for 10, 100, 1000, or 10,000 seconds at 843/sup 0/C, 954/sup 0/C, or 1066/sup 0/C, followed by brine quenching.

Michael, J.R.; Speer, J.G.; Hansen, S.S.

1987-03-01

120

Aqueous Leachate from Electric Furnace Slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

In manufacturing manganese and carbon steel in the basic electric arc furnace, 70 to 80 kg of slag per tonne of steel is produced, whereas the grey cast production results in 30 to 40 kg of slag per tonne of grey cast. Such large slag volumes require special care for their disposal at landfills near steel and rolling mills. It

Alenka Rastov

121

Quantitative analysis of a complex metal carbide formed during furnace cooling of cast duplex stainless steel using EELS and EDS in the TEM.  

PubMed

In this work, a method to determine the atomic ratio of Mo and C within complex metal carbides using EELS in the TEM has been developed. The method is based on the determination of k-factors for given experimental conditions from the EEL spectra of Mo(2)C and MoO(3) standards, which had been independently checked by XRD and EPMA. Factors affecting the k(Mo/C) value of the Mo(2)C standard were also investigated and the value was shown to be insensitive to background subtraction window width but sensitive to prolonged irradiation and specimen thicknesses above a critical value. The method and k-factor obtained from the Mo(2)C standard was applied to spectra from a complex metal carbide precipitate formed during furnace cooling of a cast duplex stainless steel. Using EELS and EDS in the TEM, the composition was estimated to be (Cr(1.52)Fe(2.33)Mo(1.25)Ni(0.17)Si(0.46))C, which is close to M(6)C stoichiometry, and the structure was confirmed by electron diffraction. PMID:20299231

Kuimalee, Surasak; Chairuangsri, Torranin; Pearce, John T H; Edmonds, David V; Brown, Andrew P; Brydson, Rik M D

2010-07-01

122

Loops in reheating and cosmological perturbations  

E-print Network

We show that in scalar field inflationary models, the loop corrections in reheating corresponding to the decay of the inflaton can cause nontrivial superhorizon evolution of the curvature perturbation. The effect turns out to be prominent when the decay occurs via parametric resonance, even indicating the breakdown of the perturbation theory, as we demonstrate in a specific model.

Ali Kaya

2013-06-13

123

Blast furnace repairs, relines and modernizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bethlehem Steel's Burns Harbor Div. operates two 89,000-cu ft blast furnaces, D and C, built in 1969 and 1972. These furnaces have been in the forefront of blast furnace performance since they were blown-in. To maintain a credible operation throughout the past 25 years their performance has been improved continuously. Production was increased approximately 3%\\/year while fuel rate decreased 1%\\/year.

J. A. Carpenter; D. E Swanson; R. F. Chango

1994-01-01

124

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem

1999-01-01

125

Raceway control with oxygen, steam and coal for stable blast furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

Tata Steel operates seven blast furnaces at its Jamshedpur works. Coal injection was introduced in the three larger furnaces starting in 1991, and coal tar injection was commissioned in the A blast furnace in June, 1996. Presently, a coal injection level of 130 kg/thm has been achieved at G blast furnace, which is the newest and the largest among all blast furnaces at Tata Steel. The paper discusses the operational features of the blast furnaces at Tata Steel, practical limits of fuel injection, the philosophy of the control of raceway conditions, and experience with fuel injection at Tata Steel.

Chatterjee, L.M. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

1996-12-31

126

Microcracking and fatigue in a carburized steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carburized coarse-grained AISI 8620 steel was subjected to three postcarburization heat treatments: a) direct oil quench\\u000a from the carburizing temperature (1700?F), b) direct oil quench, reheat to 1550?F and oil quench, and c) slow cool, reheat\\u000a to 1550?F and oil quench, reheat to 1450?F and oil quench. The latter two treatments refined the austenitic grain size over\\u000a that resulting

C. A. Apple; G. Krauss

1973-01-01

127

Perturbative reheating and gravitino production in inflationary models  

SciTech Connect

The low reheat temperature at the end of inflation from the gravitino bound constrains the creation of heavy Majorana neutrinos associated with models of leptogenesis. However, a detailed view of the reheating of the Universe at the end of inflation implies that the maximum temperature during reheating, T{sub max}, can be orders of magnitude higher than the final reheat temperature. This then allows for the production of the heavy Majorana neutrinos needed for leptogenesis. We carry out the complementary calculation of the gravitino production during reheating and its dependence on T{sub max}. We find that the gravitino abundance generated during reheating for a quartic potential is comparable to the standard estimate of the abundance generated after reheating and study its consequences for leptogenesis.

Rangarajan, Raghavan; Sahu, Narendra [Theoretical Physics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

2009-05-15

128

Development of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for use as transfer rolls in hot processing of steels. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this cooperative effort was to evaluate the potential of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys, such as IC221M and IC396M, for use as transfer rolls in heating treating furnaces and slab reheating furnaces used during the normal hot processing of steel ingots into rolled products. Rolls consist of three parts: the center tube section which forms the roll surface in direct contact with the steel, and the sections welded at each end of the tube, called trunnions, which bear the load. The work in this CRADA focused on weldments and base materials. The transfer rolls in the furnaces used in the hot processing of steel have been made, almost exclusively, from iron-chromium-nickel heat resistant alloys for over 35 years. The iron-based heat resistant alloys experience a variety of problems when exposed to temperatures above 760 C including: cracking, dimensional instability, and excessive oxidation. Many defects in rolled steel products can be traced directly to rolls used in the processing. Also the demand for higher quality products, spurred in part by competition from foreign producers, requires that various avenues for improving overall quality of rolled steel products be pursued. Initial work done by the Contractor and Metallamics indicated that Ni{sub 3}Al alloys may perform better than existing iron-chromium-nickel alloys do as transfer rolls in heat treating furnaces. The use of Ni{sub 3}Al may lead to rolls with longer operational life, improved high temperature oxidation resistance and mechanical properties, higher quality rolled steel products, and improved energy and operational efficiencies in the hot processing of steel. The goal of the work was to test Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for the transfer roll application in order to improve process efficiency, minimize waste by virtue of producing rolled steel of higher quality and to enhance the competitiveness of US-based steel producers.

Santella, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); McDonald, R. [Metallamics, Transverse City, MI (United States)

1996-05-01

129

Furnace assembly  

DOEpatents

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01

130

Mathematical simulation of conjugate heat exchange in heating furnaces with a moving bottom  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of conjugate heat exchange in heating furnaces with a moving bottom (ring furnaces and walking-beam furnaces)\\u000a has been developed. The model allows one to determine the heating of steel blanks in these furnaces with account for all mechanisms\\u000a of heat transfer in the high-temperature working region of a furnace, in its lining, and in the steel blanks.

V. I. Timoshpol’skii; M. L. German; P. S. Grinchuk; S. M. Kabishov

2006-01-01

131

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) SHARING THE SAME CAST HOUSE WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. ORE BRIDGE & BLOWER HOUSE TO RIGHT, HULETT CAR DUMPER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

132

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE)/ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, WITH SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS & TRANSFER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

133

INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM REHEATING BY RELATIVISTIC JETS  

SciTech Connect

Galactic jets are powerful energy sources reheating the intracluster medium in galaxy clusters. Their crucial role in the cosmic puzzle, motivated by observations, has been established by a great number of numerical simulations excluding the relativistic nature of these jets. We present the first relativistic simulations of the very long-term evolution of realistic galactic jets. Unexpectedly, our results show no buoyant bubbles, but large cocoon regions compatible with the observed X-ray cavities. The reheating is more efficient and faster than in previous scenarios, and it is produced by the shock wave driven by the jet, that survives for several hundreds of Myr. Therefore, the X-ray cavities in clusters produced by powerful relativistic jets would remain confined by weak shocks for extremely long periods and their detection could be an observational challenge.

Perucho, Manel; Quilis, Vicent; Marti, Jose-Maria [Departament d'Astronomia i Astrofisica, Universitat de Valencia, c/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

2011-12-10

134

Blast furnace repairs, relines and modernizations  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel's Burns Harbor Div. operates two 89,000-cu ft blast furnaces, D and C, built in 1969 and 1972. These furnaces have been in the forefront of blast furnace performance since they were blown-in. To maintain a credible operation throughout the past 25 years their performance has been improved continuously. Production was increased approximately 3%/year while fuel rate decreased 1%/year. This presentation summarizes the early repairs, relines and improvements that have sustained and enhanced the furnace's performance. The fourth reline of both furnaces will be discussed in detail. As part of the 1991 reline of D furnace its lines were improved and modern penstocks installed. The bosh, tuyere jacket, hearth jacket and both cast floors were replaced. The furnace now has a larger hearth making it easier to control and, liquid level is no longer a problem when pulling the wind to shut down. The new cast floor with its increased trough length has much improved separation of slag from iron and lowered refractory consumption. Since the cast floors on D furnace were changed, there has been a reduction in accidents and absenteeism. This may be related to the change in work practices on the new cast floors. The 1994 reline of C furnace incorporates those improvements made on D furnace in 1991. In addition, C furnace will have high-density cooling which is expected to double its campaign from 6 to 12 years, without interim repairs.

Carpenter, J.A.; Swanson, D.E; Chango, R.F. (Bethlehem Steel Corp., Chesterton, IN (United States). Burns Harbor Div.)

1994-09-01

135

Recent developments in electric arc furnace operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The provision of water cooled electric arc furnace walls and roofs, the increased use of iron pellets in the raw material charge, the use of solid state devices in electrode drive systems and the application of digital control are discussed. Integration of computer control of the separate aspects of arc furnace operation into an optimal direct digital control strategy for the furnace is considered. Use of dc plasma torches as an alternative to the ac electric arc as an energy source is forecast. Potential advantages of these include reduced energy costs, use of nonconsumable electrodes, and noncontamination of steel by electrodes. An operational 40 tonne dc plasma torch furnace is reported.

Morris, A. S.

1983-06-01

136

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building to the right is the crucible steel building - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

137

Gas Turbine Reheat Using In-Situ Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) is developing in-situ reheat (fuel injection via airfoil injection) as a means for increasing cycle efficiency and power output, with possibly reduced emissions. This report discusses engineering cycle evaluations on various reheat approaches, using GateCycle and ChemCad software simulations of typical F-class and G-class engines, modified for alternative reheat cycles. The conclusion that vane 1 reheat offers the most advantageous design agrees with the conclusions of the detailed chemical kinetics (Task 2) as verified by high temperature testing (Task 3) and Blade path CFD (Task 1) tasks. The second choice design option (vane 2 reheat after vane 1 reheat) is also validated in all tasks. A conceptual design and next recommended development tasks are presented.

R.A. Newby; D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert

2004-04-29

138

bdGas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed in situ from methane and air and from butane and air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carburizing experiments were conducted at 927°C (1700°F) and 843°C (1550°F) using furnace atmospheres formed from methane and air and from butane and air introduced directly into the carburizing furnace. Gas flow rates were low to promote equilibration of the reaction products within the furnace. The air flow rate was held constant while the methane or butane flow was automatically regulated to maintain a constant oxygen potential, as measured by a zirconia oxygen sensor, within the furnace. In comparing the results of these experiments with earlier results obtained using propane and air, several differences were noted: (a) The methane content of the furnace atmosphere, measured by infrared analysis, was about twice as great when methane was the feed gas rather than propane or butane. This was true despite the fact that the mean residence time of the gas within the furnace was greater in the methane experiments. Methane appears to be less effective than propane or butane in reducing the CO2 and H2O contents to the levels required for carburizing. (b) There was a greater tendency for the CO content of the furnace atmosphere to decrease at high carbon potentials when methane is used instead of propane or butane. The decrease in CO content is due to hydrogen dilution caused by sooting in the furnace vestibule. These differences in behavior make propane or butane better suited than methane for in situ generation of carburizing atmospheres. However, there is no difference in the amount of carburizing occurring at a specified carbon potential when methane, propane, or butane are used as the feed gas in this process.

Stickels, C. A.; Mack, C. M.; Pieprzak, J. A.

1982-12-01

139

Increasing blast furnace productivity. Is there a universal solution for all blast furnaces?  

SciTech Connect

In the past few years there has been a major effort in the integrated plants in the US to increase blast furnace productivity. Record production levels have been reported by AK Steel using direct reduced/hot briquetted iron (DRI/HBI) and high levels of natural gas (NG)-oxygen injection at their Middletown blast furnace. Similarly, US Steel-Gary No. 13 reported high productivity levels with PCI and oxygen enrichment. A productivity of 6 NTHM/day/100 ft{sup 3}WV was the norm in the past, but today levels higher than 11 NTHM/day/100ft{sup 3}WV have been reached on a sustained basis. These high productivity levels have been an important aspect of facility rationalization efforts, as companies seek to maximize their throughput while reducing costs. Hot metal demand in a particular plant depends on downstream capabilities in converting hot metal to saleable steel. Single vs. multi-furnace plants may have different production requirements for each facility. Business cycles may influence productivity requirements from different furnaces of a multiple furnace plant, more so for those considered as swing furnaces. Therefore, the production requirement for individual blast furnaces is different for different plants. In an effort to understand productivity improvement methods, calculations were made for a typical 8 m hearth diameter furnace using data and experience gathered on Inland`s operation. Here the authors present the results obtained in the study.

Chaubal, P.C.; Ranade, M.G. [Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, IN (United States)

1997-12-31

140

Method of Producing Crisp Reheated French Fried Potatoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent relates to an improved method of producing crisp, non-rubbery, reheated french fried potatoes which are frozen for storage purposes after being fried in deep fat and subsequently reheated by means of microwave oven heating without employing add...

H. Gorfien, A. R. Rahman, D. E. Westcott

1978-01-01

141

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD TO THE CENTER, HEYL & PATTERSON CAR DUMPER TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

142

Shougang No. 2 blast furnace enlargement  

SciTech Connect

Shougang is expanding to become a 10 million ton/year steel plant in 1995. In 1990, the capacity of Shougang No. 2 blast furnace was enlarged from 1,327 to 1,726 cu meters. The project consisted of building a new furnace on the old site while maintaining the operation of the old furnace. The project was completed in 188 calendar days, 3 days ahead of schedule. Shougang has a large, comprehensive technical force that includes design, construction and production. Most of the equipment and instrumentation, both mechanical and electrical, were fabricated by Shougang personnel. The future increase in capacity of No. 1, 3 and 4 blast furnaces will exceed that of No. 2 furnace.

Wang, Z.Z. (Shougang Iron and Steel Corp., Beijing (China))

1994-09-01

143

TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates  

SciTech Connect

Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

2005-04-15

144

Partnering and the WCI blast furnace reline  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, WCI Steel entered into a partnership agreement to perform a blast furnace reline. The reline included a complete rebrick from the tuyere breast to the furnace top including the tapholes. Also included was the replacement of the Paul Wurth top equipment from the receiving hoppers through the gearbox and distribution chute, a skip incline replacement, and installation of tilting runners and a casthouse roof. The bustle pipe and hot blast main were repaired. One stove was also replaced. The reline was accomplished in 36 days, wind to wind, which allowed for 29 days of construction inside the blast furnace proper.

Musolf, D.W. [WCI Steel, Inc., Warren, OH (United States)

1997-11-01

145

Final reheating temperature on a single brane  

E-print Network

We make a generic remark on thermal history of a single brane cosmology in models with an infinitely large single extra dimension. We point out that the reheat temperature of the Universe is bounded by an excess production of gravitons from the thermal bath. The actual bound is given by the brane tension. If the initial temperature of the Universe is larger than this bound, then an efficient graviton production shall prevail. However, the brane cools down gradually as the Kaluza-Klein gravitons take the energy in excess away from the brane. The cooling continues until the radiation dominated phase is restored, which occurs before the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We argue whatsoever be the early evolution of the Universe, the final radiation dominated phase always starts after the Universe transits from non-conventional era to the standard cosmological era.

Rouzbeh Allahverdi; Anupam Mazumdar; A. Pérez-Lorenzana

2001-05-14

146

Simulating (p)reheating after inflation via the DCE?  

E-print Network

We note some close parallels between preheating/perturbative reheating, (p)reheating, models in post-inflationary cosmology and the dynamical Casimir effect (DCE) in quantum optics. For the plasma-mirror model we show how the effective plasma mass (arising from conduction electrons) behaves like an oscillating inflaton field, while created photons behave like a scalar field coupled quadratically to the inflaton. Furthermore, the effect of spacetime expansion can also be incorporated by varying the dielectric function. We propose an experiment that could mimic (p)reheating for both narrow and broad parametric resonance, by employing technology already being used in attempts to detect DCE photons via plasma-mirrors.

Naylor, Wade

2014-01-01

147

Simulating (p)reheating after inflation via the DCE?  

E-print Network

We note some close parallels between preheating/perturbative reheating, (p)reheating, models in post-inflationary cosmology and the dynamical Casimir effect (DCE) in quantum optics. For the plasma-mirror model we show how the effective plasma mass (arising from conduction electrons) behaves like an oscillating inflaton field, while created photons behave like a scalar field coupled quadratically to the inflaton. Furthermore, the effect of spacetime expansion can also be incorporated by varying the dielectric function. We propose an experiment that could mimic (p)reheating for both narrow and broad parametric resonance, by employing technology already being used in attempts to detect DCE photons via plasma-mirrors.

Wade Naylor

2014-09-18

148

Slag treatment at Kardemir integrated iron and steel works  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated iron- and steelmaking plants generate large amounts of solid wastes, which are mainly blast furnace and steel furnace slags, dusts, sludges, etc. The main problem faced at Kardemir integrated iron and steel works is with the steelmaking slags, i.e. open-hearth furnace slag and more recently basic oxygen furnaces (BOF) slag. Over the last 50 years of operation, more than

Y. Topkaya; N. Sevinç; A. Günayd?n

2004-01-01

149

VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER STATION IN THE CASTING SHOP. (OTHER UNITS MELT BRASS ALLOYS.) THIS IS THE SOUTHERNMOST FURNACE OF THE FOUR PRESENTLY IN SITU. THE CURRENT CASTING SHOP WAS CONSTRUCTED DURING THE EARLY 1970'S, REPLACING THE ORIGINAL PRE-WWI FACILITY. STATIONS #02, 03, AND 04 EACH CONSIST OF A HOLDER FLANKED BY A PAIR OF 800 KW ELECTRIC MELTERS. THE HOLDER IS REHEATED AT 85,000 LBS. SHAKER BOX, LOCATED AT THE REAR OF EACH MELTER SUPPLY THE MIXTURE OF INGREDIENTS REQUIRED FOR EACH PARTICULAR ALLOY. ONE MEMBER OF THE THREE-MAN CASTING TEAMS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SHAKING METAL INTO THE MELTERS. IN THE LOWER RIGHT ARE SHOWN THE MOLD STORAGE AREA AND THE FURNACE BUILDERS' AREA FOR CHIPPING AND REBRICKING OFF-LINE UNITS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

150

Dehumidification Without Re-heat Using Face and Bypass Dampers  

E-print Network

Installations with chill water cooling, needing constant air volume and dehumidification, traditionally use a draw through air handling unit with a cooling coil and a re-heat coil. Dehumidification is achieved by overcooling the discharge air...

Warila, D. T.

1994-01-01

151

5. SOUTHERN VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES No. 3, No. 4, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SOUTHERN VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES No. 3, No. 4, AND No. 6, WITH ORE YARD IN THE FOREGROUND. BUILDING ON THE LEFT IS THE CENTRAL BOILER HOUSE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

152

15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 IN LOWER CENTER OF PHOTO AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES. HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

153

17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 LOOKING EAST. THE BUSTLE PIPE IS VISIBLE ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE IMAGE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

154

12. INTERIOR VIEW OF SINGLE BAY SLOTTED TYPE FURNACE (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. INTERIOR VIEW OF SINGLE BAY SLOTTED TYPE FURNACE (LEFT) AND CHAMBERSBURG DROP HAMMER OPERATED BY JEFF HOHMAN (RIGHT); THE FURNACE IS USED TO PRE-HEAT THE STEEL PRIOR TO FORGING, TOOL IS POST HOLE DIGGER WITH TAMPING BAR - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

155

44. View looking west down length of No. 2 Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. View looking west down length of No. 2 Furnace casting shed showing overhead traveling crane. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

156

38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ladle car on floor of casting shed. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

157

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DC MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

158

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING NO. 1 FURNACE. TO RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING NO. 1 FURNACE. TO RIGHT ARE D.C. MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

159

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DETAIL OF CABLES AND BUS BARS (which convey power to electrodes) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

160

Products of steel slags an opportunity to save natural resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Germany, and in the most industrial countries, the use of blast furnace and steel slags as an aggregate for civil engineering, for metallurgical use and as fertiliser has a very long tradition. Since the introduction of the basic oxygen steel making furnace (BOF) process and the electric arc furnace (EAF) process the German steel industry started extensive research on

H Motz; J Geiseler

2001-01-01

161

Blast furnace supervision and control system  

SciTech Connect

On December 1992, a group of companies headed by Techint, took over Somisa, the state-owned integrated steel plant located at San Nicolas, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, culminating an ambitious government privatization scheme. The blast furnace 2 went into a full reconstruction and relining in January 1995. After a 140 MU$ investment the new blast furnace 2 was started in September 1995. After more than one year of operation of the blast furnace the system has proven itself useful and reliable. The main reasons for the success of the system are: same use interface for all blast furnace areas -- operation, process, maintenance and management, (full horizontal and vertical integration); and full accessibility to all information and process tools though some restrictions apply to field commands (people empowerment). The paper describes the central system.

Remorino, M.; Lingiardi, O.; Zecchi, M. [Siderar S.A.I.C./Ingdesi, San Nicolas (Argentina)

1997-12-31

162

Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing

Sresty

1990-01-01

163

Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

2012-01-01

164

Reheating in supersymmetric high scale inflation  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by our earlier work, we analyze how the inflaton decay reheats the Universe within supersymmetry. In a nonsupersymmetric case the inflaton usually decays via preheating unless its couplings to other fields are very small. Naively one would expect that supersymmetry enhances bosonic preheating as it introduces new scalars such as squarks and sleptons. On the contrary, we point out that preheating is unlikely within supersymmetry. The reason is that flat directions in the scalar potential, classified by gauge-invariant combinations of slepton and squark fields, are generically displaced towards a large vacuum expectation value (VEV) in the early Universe. They induce supersymmetry preserving masses to the inflaton decay products through the standard model Yukawa couplings, which kinematically blocks preheating for VEVs>10{sup 13} GeV. The decay will become allowed only after the flat directions start oscillating, and once the flat direction VEV is sufficiently redshifted. For models with weak scale supersymmetry, this generically happens at a Hubble expansion rate: H{approx_equal}(10{sup -3}-10{sup -1}) TeV, at which time the inflaton decays in the perturbative regime. This is to our knowledge the first analysis where the inflaton decay to the standard model particles is treated properly within supersymmetry. There are a number of important consequences: no overproduction of dangerous supersymmetric relics (particularly gravitinos), no resonant excitation of superheavy dark matter, and no nonthermal leptogenesis through nonperturbative creation of the right-handed (s)neutrinos. Finally supersymmetric flat directions can even spoil hybrid inflation altogether by not allowing the auxiliary field to become tachyonic.

Allahverdi, Rouzbeh [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Mazumdar, Anupam [NORDITA, Blegdamsvej-17, Copenhagen-2100 (Denmark)

2007-11-15

165

Reheating in supersymmetric high scale inflation  

E-print Network

Motivated by Refs \\cite{am1,am2}, we analyze how the inflaton decay reheats the Universe within supersymmetry. In a non-supersymmetric case the inflaton usually decays via preheating unless its couplings to other fields are very small. Naively one would expect that supersymmetry enhances bosonic preheating as it introduces new scalars such as squarks and sleptons. On the contrary, we point out that preheating is unlikely within supersymmetry. The reason is that flat directions in the scalar potential, classified by gauge invariant combinations of slepton and squark fields, are generically displaced towards a large vacuum expectation value (VEV) in the early Universe. They induce supersymmetry preserving masses to the inflaton decay products through the Standard Model Yukawa couplings, which kinematically blocks preheating for VEVs $> 10^{13}$ GeV. The decay will become allowed only after the flat directions start oscillating, and once the flat direction VEV is sufficiently redshifted. For models with weak scale supersymmetry, this generically happens at a Hubble expansion rate: $H \\simeq (10^{-3}-10^{-1}) {\\rm TeV}$, at which time the inflaton decays in the perturbative regime. This is to our knowledge first analysis where the inflaton decay to the Standard Model particles is treated properly within supersymmetry. There are number of important consequences: no overproduction of dangerous supersymmetric relics (particularly gravitinos), no resonant excitation of superheavy dark matter, and no non-thermal leptogenesis through non-perturbative creation of the right-handed (s)neutrinos. Finally supersymmetric flat directions can even spoil hybrid inflation all together by not allowing the auxiliary field become tachyonic.

Rouzbeh Allahverdi; Anupam Mazumdar

2006-03-29

166

Environmental assessment of a BOF steel slag used in road construction: The ECLAIR research program  

E-print Network

furnace (EAF) and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag types. BOF slag production is about 10% by weight1 Environmental assessment of a BOF steel slag used in road construction: The ECLAIR research Abstract Steel production generates great amounts of by-products as steel slag. Unlike blast furnace slag

Boyer, Edmond

167

Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: a historical perspective and future opportunities  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. steel industry has taken enormous strides over the past decades to reduce its energy consumption; since the end of World War II, the industry has reduced its energy intensity (energy use per shipped ton) by 60 percent. Between 1990 and 1998 alone, intensity has dropped from 20 to 18 million Btu (MBtu) per ton. This figure is projected to decrease to 15 MBtu/ton by 2010 with an asymptotic trend towards 14 MBtu/ton. Domestic shipments are projected to flatten out over the next decade to around 105 million tons which means that total energy consumption will also decrease. Historically, the steel industry has accounted for about 6 percent of U.S. energy consumption. Today, that figure is less than 2 percent and will decrease further to 1.5 percent by 2010. The primary causes for the decrease in energy consumption since WWII are: The use of pellets in the blast furnace and the application of new technology in the ironmaking process to further reduce fuel rates per net ton of hot metal (NTHM); The total replacement of the open hearth process by basic oxygen and electric furnaces; The almost total replacement of ingot casting by continuous casting (which improved yield dramatically and thus reduced the tons of raw steel required per ton of shipments); and The growth of the electric furnace sector of the industry at the expense of hot metal-based processes (which has also stimulated scrap recycling so that about 55 percent of ''new'' steel is now melted from scrap steel). This report focuses on the concept of good practices (i.e., those that are sustainable and can use today's technology). If all the industry could operate on this basis, the additional savings per ton could total 2 MBtu, As further restructuring occurs and the swing from hot metal-based to electric furnace-based production continues, the average consumption will approach the good practice energy per ton. Further savings will accrue through new technology, particularly in the areas of reduced blast furnace fuel rates and reheating efficiency, both of which relate to large tonnages of material.

Stubbles, John

2000-09-01

168

Decreased gas consumption of a fluidized bed furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of utilizing a closed circulatory system to generate gases for a fluidized bed furnace was investigated with the primary concentrations of both economizing on the raw materials used for producing furnace atmospheres and decreasing the air pollution caused by exhaust gases. Air humidified with water vapor was first introduced into a charcoal furnace for causing a reaction with hot charcoal to form a carburizing atmosphere. This atmosphere was then introduced into a fluidized bed furnace to carburize steels. The exhaust gases from the fluidized bed furnace were recycled by repassing them through the hot charcoal layer in the charcoal furnace with a gas pump. The charcoal furnace and the fluidized bed furnace formed a closed circulatory system during the carburization of steels. Experiments were performed with various parameters of this system, including content of water vapor in the humid air, temperature of the charcoal, rate of recirculation of the atmosphere, etc. The effect of each parameter on the carburizing behavior in the fluidized bed furnace was investigated on the basis of the rate of carburization and the carbon potential of the atmosphere. The feasibility of applying this system to a fluidized bed furnace was assessed from the aspects of the fluidization of A12O3 powder, the result of carburizing steel, and the rate of consumption of charcoal. The closed system employed in generating atmosphere was demonstrated by the experimental results to have enabled the fluidized bed furnace to operate normally and to have significantly decreased both the consumption rate of charcoal and the environmental pollution.

Chen, Yong-Chwang

1993-10-01

169

Warped Reheating in Multi-Throat Brane Inflation  

E-print Network

We investigate in some quantitative details the viability of reheating in multi-throat brane inflationary scenarios by estimating and comparing the time scales for the various processes involved. We also calculate within perturbative string theory the decay rate of excited closed strings into KK modes and compare with that of their decay into gravitons; we find that in the inflationary throat the former is preferred. We also find that over a small but reasonable range of parameters of the background geometry, these KK modes will preferably tunnel to another throat (possibly containing the Standard Model) instead of decaying to gravitons due largely to their suppressed coupling to the bulk gravitons. Once tunneled, the same suppressed coupling to the gravitons again allows them to reheat the Standard Model efficiently. We also consider the effects of adding more throats to the system and find that for extra throats with small warping, reheating still seems viable.

Diego Chialva; Gary Shiu; Bret Underwood

2005-08-30

170

Quantum Mechanical Breakdown of Perfect Homogeneity in Reheating After Inflation  

E-print Network

In the context of quantum fields in time dependent classical backgrounds, we notice that the number of created particles with a given momentum largely deviates about its mean value. Guided with this observation we use a complete orthonormal family of localized wave packets to calculate the deviations in the number and energy densities of particles produced in a volume of a given size during reheating. It turns out that at the end of reheating there exists (in general tiny) spatial variations in these densities on Hubble length scales over which local interactions are incapable of restoring homogeneity. This signals the destruction of perfect homogeneity attained after inflation due to the quantum nature of particle production process in reheating.

Ali Kaya

2008-02-15

171

STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE  

E-print Network

near future; a 3 MW induction heater and a gas jet cooler. The induction heater is capable of heating will pass directly from the induction heater into the radiant furnace. The extra heating power should allow used to anneal strips of steel. The annealing process involves heating the steel, which is passed

McGuinness, Mark

172

Electromelt furnace evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electromelt furnace was designed, built and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

Reimann, G. A.; Welch, J. M.

1981-09-01

173

Curvaton reheating and intermediate inflation in brane cosmology  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study the curvaton reheating mechanism for an intermediate inflationary universe in brane world cosmology. In contrast to our previous work, we assume that when the universe enters the kination era, it is still in the high-energy regime. We then discuss, in detail, the new cosmological constraints on both the model parameters and the physical quantities.

H. Farajollahi; A. Ravanpak

2011-11-05

174

High cycle fatigue behavior of gas-carburized medium carbon Cr-Mo steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High cycle fatigue properties of gas-carburized 4140 steel were assessed to compare with those of 8620 steel which is widely used as a carburizing steel. Fatigue limit was evaluated associated with microstructure, case depth, and distribution of retained austenite and compressive residual stress near the surface. Test results indicated that the reheat quenching method of 4140 and 8620 steels produced a reduction in grain size, retained austenite level, and compressive residual stress at the surface and an increase in fatigue limit. The fatigue limit of direct-quenched 4140 steel shows substantially lower value than that of direct-quenched 8620 steel due to larger grain size of direct-quenched 4140 steel. However, the fatigue limit of reheat-quenched 4140 steel is greatly improved and is comparable to the reheat-quenched 8620 steel. This is attributed to the larger reduction ratio in grain size and deeper case depth of reheat-quenched 4140 steel as compared to direct-quenched and reheat-quenched 8620 steels.

Kim, Hyung-Jun; Kweon, Young-Gak

1996-09-01

175

High efficiency furnace  

SciTech Connect

A heat exchanger and process having multiple fluidized beds for heat exchange between two gas streams of different temperatures. The apparatus and process provides a compact high efficiency warm air furnace especially adapted for energy conservation for the heating of modern highly insulated residential buildings by gas fired furnaces of relatively low rated gas input.

Durkin, G.M.; Elkins, R.H.; Macriss, R.A.

1982-06-08

176

Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System  

E-print Network

and into the atmosphere after each use, but plans exist to implement a recapture system to re-cycle the gas through the system multiple times. FIGURE 1. FURNACE SCHEMATIC. The outer chamber wall is made of stainless steel and cannot be exposed to extreme... endangering the structural integrity of the stainless steel pressure vessel wall. The inner chamber temperature that corresponds with this process is displayed in Fig. 3. The outer chamber wall also contains a water jacket with a 40 gal/min flow rate...

Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01

177

Pulverized coal injection operation on CSC No. 3 blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

The pulverized coal injection system was introduced for the first time in No. 1 and No. 2 blast furnace at China Steel Corporation (CSC) in 1988. Currently the coal injection rate for both blast furnaces has steadily risen to 70--89 kg/thm (designed value). No 3 blast furnace (with an inner volume of 3400 m3) was also equipped with a PCI system of Armco type and started coal injection on November 17, 1993. During the early period, some problems such as injection lance blocking, lance-tip melting down, flexible hose wear, grind mill tripping occasionally interrupted the stable operation of blast furnace. After a series of efforts offered on equipment improvement and operation adjustment, the PC rate currently reaches to 90--110 kg/thm and furnace stable operation is still being maintained with productivity more than 2.20.

Chan, C.M.; Hsu, C.H. [China Steel Corp., Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

1996-12-31

178

Experiences with computer systems in blast furnace operation control at Rautaruukki  

SciTech Connect

Low energy consumption, together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation, has been achieved at Rautaruukki's Raahe Steel Works as a result of the efficient use of computer technology in process control and improvements in raw materials quality. The blast furnace supervision system is designed to support the decision-making in medium and long-term process control. The information presenting the blast furnace operation phenomena is grouped so that little time is needed to obtain the current state of the process. Due to the complexity of the blast furnace process, an expert system to guide and diagnose the short and medium-term blast furnace operation has been developed.

Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. (Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland). Raahe Steel Works); Seppanen, M. (Rautaruukki Oy Engineering, Oulu (Finland))

1994-09-01

179

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

180

High efficiency furnace  

SciTech Connect

For heating well-insulated residential buildings, this gas-fired furnace is highly efficient, compact, and economical. Designed for a 25,000-200,000 Btu input, the furnace uses several fluidized-particulate beds to allow heat exchange between the flue-gas stream and the relatively cooler combustion-air stream, thus preheating the combustion air while saving energy. The furnace's seasonal efficiency is over 75%, and the flue-gas output to the atmosphere has a low NO/sub x/ content because of the large amounts of excess air used in the process.

Elkins, R.H.; Durkin, G.M.; Macriss, R.A.

1981-02-10

181

Constraints on the Reheating Temperature in Gravitino Dark Matter Scenarios  

E-print Network

Considering gravitino dark matter scenarios, we study constraints on the reheating temperature of inflation. We present the gauge-invariant result for the thermally produced gravitino yield to leading order in the Standard Model gauge couplings. Within the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM), we find a maximum reheating temperature of about 10^7 GeV taking into account bound-state effects on the primordial $^6$Li abundance. We show that late-time entropy production can relax this constraint significantly. Only with a substantial entropy release after the decoupling of the lightest Standard Model superpartner, thermal leptogenesis remains a viable explanation of the cosmic baryon asymmetry within the CMSSM.

Josef Pradler; Frank Daniel Steffen

2006-12-21

182

Inflation, baryogenesis, and gravitino dark matter at ultralow reheat temperatures  

SciTech Connect

It is quite possible that the reheat temperature of the Universe is extremely low close to the scale of big bang nucleosynthesis, i.e. T{sub R}{approx}1-10 MeV. At such low reheat temperatures generating matter, antimatter asymmetry and synthesizing dark matter particles are challenging issues which need to be addressed within a framework of beyond the standard model physics. In this paper we point out that a successful cosmology can emerge naturally provided the R-parity violating interactions are responsible for the excess in baryons over antibaryons and at the same time they can explain the longevity of dark matter with the right abundance.

Kohri, Kazunori; Sahu, Narendra [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Mazumdar, Anupam [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej-17, Copenhagen, DK-2100 (Denmark)

2009-11-15

183

Reheating and Thermalization, Linear Vs. Non-Linear Relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the case of a scalar field, the inflaton, coupled to both lighter\\u000ascalars and fermions, and the study the relaxation of the inflaton via particle\\u000aproduction in both the linear and non-linear regimes. This has an immediate\\u000aapplication to the reheating problem in inflationary universe models. The\\u000alinear regime analysis offers a rationale for the standard approach to

D. Boyanovsky; Marie Curie; R. Holman; D.-S. Lee

1995-01-01

184

Gravitational wave background from reheating after hybrid inflation  

SciTech Connect

The reheating of the Universe after hybrid inflation proceeds through the nucleation and subsequent collision of large concentrations of energy density in the form of bubblelike structures moving at relativistic speeds. This generates a significant fraction of energy in the form of a stochastic background of gravitational waves, whose time evolution is determined by the successive stages of reheating: First, tachyonic preheating makes the amplitude of gravity waves grow exponentially fast. Second, bubble collisions add a new burst of gravitational radiation. Third, turbulent motions finally sets the end of gravitational waves production. From then on, these waves propagate unimpeded to us. We find that the fraction of energy density today in these primordial gravitational waves could be significant for grand unified theory (GUT)-scale models of inflation, although well beyond the frequency range sensitivity of gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA, or BBO. However, low-scale models could still produce a detectable signal at frequencies accessible to BBO or DECIGO. For comparison, we have also computed the analogous gravitational wave background from some chaotic inflation models and obtained results similar to those found by other groups. The discovery of such a background would open a new observational window into the very early universe, where the details of the process of reheating, i.e. the big bang, could be explored. Moreover, it could also serve in the future as a new experimental tool for testing the inflationary paradigm.

Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Sastre, Alfonso [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain and Instituto de Fisica Teorica CSIC-UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

2008-02-15

185

Gas Turbine Reheat Using In-Situ Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Gas turbine reheat is a well-known technique for increasing the power output of gas turbine, as well as the efficiency in combined cycle operation with higher heat recovery inlet temperatures. The technique also could allow development of an advanced high efficiency turbine with an additional stage, but without a higher inlet temperature. A novel reheat approach, with fuel added via internal passages in turbine airfoils, has been proposed [1]. This avoids the bulky and possible high-NOx discrete reheat combustors used in traditional approaches. The key questions regarding this approach are whether there is sufficient residence time at high temperature for fuel burnout, and whether increased emissions of NOx and CO result. This project examines the chemical kinetics basis of these questions. In the present task detailed chemical kinetics models were used to evaluate injection reheat combustion. Models used included a Siemens Westinghouse diffusion flame model, the set of CHEMKIN gas-phase kinetics equation solvers, and the GRI 3.0 detailed kinetics data base. These modules are called by a reheat-specific main program, which also provides them with data, including gas path conditions that change with distance through the turbine. Conceptually, injection could occur in either of two ways: (1) direct injection via holes in airfoil trailing edges; or (2) injection at the downstream faces of small bluff bodies placed at these edges. In the former case, combustion could occur as a diffusion flame at the hole, as a plume or streak following this zone, or as a substantially mixed out homogeneous region downstream. In the latter case, combustion could occur as a lower temperature, well-mixed, recirculating flame in the wake of the bluff body, followed by burnout in the same sequence of diffusion flame, streak, and mixed out. The results were as follows. In the case of a conventional four-stage engine, vane 1 trailing edge injection can be achieved with complete burnout without a flameholder. However, there are projected NOx and CO penalties of about 10 ppmv each. For vane 2 injection a flameholder is necessary, although the CO survival is expected to be larger, on the order of 50 ppmv. In the case of an advanced five-stage engine, injection at vane 2 (same size and conditions, except temperature, as vane 1 of a 4-stage engine) should be with a flameholder to minimize CO, keeping NOx and CO increases at about 20 and 10 ppmv respectively.

D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert

2004-04-30

186

Investigations on phosphorus recovery and reuse as soil amendment from electric arc furnace slag filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag has been identified as an effective filter material for the removal of phosphorus (P) from both point and non-point sources. To determine the feasibility of land-applying P saturated EAF steel slag this study was undertaken to investigate (i) saturated EAF steel slag material's potential as a P fertilizer or soil amendment and (ii) P

Simon C. Bird; Aleksandra Drizo

2009-01-01

187

Thermodynamic modelling of the multiphase pyrometallurgical processing of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is produced when automobile scrap is remelted in an electric arc furnace and about 10–20 kilograms are generated per ton of steel. The major elements present in the dust are usually zinc, iron and calcium with smaller amounts of numerous other elements such as lead, copper and nickel. Typically, in the pyrometallurgical EAF dust treatment

C. A. Pickles

2009-01-01

188

Waste stabilization\\/solidification of an electric arc furnace dust using fly ash-based geopolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilization\\/solidification (S\\/S) of a carbon steel electric arc furnace (EAF) dust containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr or Zn using geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolinite, metakaolinite and blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of EAF waste with these geopolymeric materials and

C. Fernández Pereira; Y. Luna; X. Querol; D. Antenucci; J. Vale

2009-01-01

189

An induction furnace to attain temperatures above 3000°C in controlled atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

An induction furnace operating at 500 kc\\/s is described which is capable of providing temperatures in excess of 3000° C at high vacuum or in any suitable gas mixture at pressures up to 8 atmospheres. The work coil is mounted inside the furnace chamber, which can then be designed as a pressure vessel and constructed of electrically conducting steel. By

L. C. F. Blackman; P. H. Dundas; A. W. Moore; A. R. Ubbelohde

1961-01-01

190

An optimum design of the lining of a medium frequency induction melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, medium frequency induction melting furnaces find wide application in the making of steels by remelting of scraps. An operational problem of these furnaces is the need to repair and rebuild the lining of the crucible frequently. We present a methodical approach for better design and maintenance to decrease such problems. The erosion process of the lining is modelled

Pritibhushan Sinha; Subhash Saha Chandra

1998-01-01

191

DESTRUCTION AND REMOVAL OF POHCS (PRINCPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS) IN IRON MAKING BLAST FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

At least one steel company utilizes organic waste liquids as a heat and carbon content source to partially replace the coke that is used to charge the blast furnaces. The waste liquids fed to the blast furnace are likely to contain hazardous constituents. Temperature and residenc...

192

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

193

Furnace for oil refineries and petrochemical plants  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a furnace for use in oil refineries and petrochemical plants. It comprises: burner means for heating a hydrocarbon feedstock; stack means positioned above the burner for discharging combustion gases emitted from the burner means; wall means peripherally enclosing and annularly surrounding the burning means; substantially uniform heat distribution including a set of substantially horizontal radiant furnace tubes extending along the wall means for passage of the hydrocarbon feedstock about the burner means; and a composite floor under the burner means having refractory bricks, temperature and strain resistant ceramic fiber boards beneath the bricks, high density ceramic fiber modules beneath the boards, and a carbon steel plate beneath the molecules with an underside having a corrosion resistant coating.

Pickell, F.W.; Varesic, J.Z.; Melton, M.S.; Melton, S.H.

1990-01-22

194

Improved graphite furnace atomizer  

SciTech Connect

A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

Siemer, D.D.

1983-05-18

195

Scale formation and descaling in hot rolling of low carbon steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the effects of gas composition, elapsed time of reaction and temperature on scale formation and descaling of low carbon steel were investigated and results were discussed from the viewpoint of the phase composition of the scales, oxidation rates, oxidation mechanisms, adhesion, fracture mechanics, porosity and residual scale. The phase composition and morphology of scales grown under conditions similar to those of reheating furnaces were analyzed. Low carbon steel was oxidized over the temperature range 1000-1250°C in gas mixtures of O 2-CO2-H2O-N2, O2-H 2O-N2 and O2-CO2-N2. The mole fraction of each phase, wustite (FeO), magnetite (Fe3O 4) and hematite (Fe2O3) was determined by the direct comparison method Two types of scales were observed. The first type was a crystalline scale with an irregular outer surface composed mostly of wustite, and a negligible amount of magnetite. The second type was the classical three-layer scale composed of wustite, magnetite and hematite. In general, the experiments showed that the furnace atmosphere, oxidation time and temperature influence the phase composition of the scales. Low carbon steel was oxidized in air over the temperature range 600-1200°C for 120 s to approximate the formation of secondary and tertiary scale in hot rolling. The mole fraction of wustite, magnetite and hematite was determined by the direct comparison method The phase composition of the scales changed with temperature and time. During the initial 30 s of oxidation, wustite was the predominant phase in the temperature range 800-1200°C, and as oxidation proceeded, the percentages of magnetite and hematite increased. In addition, the texture of the scales was investigated by orientation imaging microscopy (OIM); it was found that temperature influences the texture of the scales. The experiments indicated that 850°C is the ideal temperature for the finishing mill in order to reduce surface defects and work roll wear. The adhesion of scales formed in air on low carbon steel in continuous heating and isothermal conditions was investigated with a four-point bending test. The separation (crack) always occurred inside the scale indicating that the strength of the scale is lower than the strength of the scale/steel interface. It was found that scale adhesion is related to scale porosity, blister formation and stresses acting in the scale. A spallation process was observed when cooling from 800°C to room temperature. The microscopic observations revealed that spallation followed route 1 "strong interface and weak oxide." Low carbon steel was oxidized over the temperature range 1050-1250°C in O2-CO2H2O-N2 gas mixtures in order to study the hydraulic descaling process. The oxidation times were 15-120 min. and the scales were 130-2000 mum thick. The experimental parameters were chosen to approximate scale formation under conditions similar to those of reheating furnaces. In the hydraulic descaling tests, two modes of scale removal were observed. In the first mode, observed in classical three-layer scales that developed an inner porous layer with low or medium porosity, the horizontal undercutting occurred at the boundary of the inner porous layer and dense scale. The second mode was observed in classical three-layer scales that developed an inner porous layer with high porosity and in crystalline scales. In the second mode, the horizontal undercutting occurred at the first plane of large pores relative to the scale/steel interface. In general, the experiments showed that scale morphology controlled the removability of scale.

Basabe Mancheno, Vladimir Vinicio

196

No. 5 blast furnace 1995 reline and upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The 1995 reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is an undertaking which has never been approached in previous relines of any blast furnace in the history of Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel Corporation. The scope of the project is such that it represents a radical departure from W.P.S.C.`s traditional methods of ironmaking. The reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is one of the largest capital improvements performed at W.P.S.C. Blast Furnaces. The improvements made at one single time are taking a furnace from 1960`s technology into the 21st century. With this in mind, employee training was one of the largest parts of the project. Training for the automated stockhouse, castfloor, new skip drive, new instrumentation, new castfloor equipment, hydraulics and overall furnace operation were an absolute necessity. The reline has laid the ground work to give the Corporation an efficient, higher productive, modern Blast Furnace which will place W.P.S.C. in the world class category in ironmaking well into the 21st century.

Kakascik, T.F. Jr.

1996-12-31

197

Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations  

SciTech Connect

It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Kurashiki (Japan)

1995-10-01

198

FRACTIONAL EFFICIENCY OF AN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE BAGHOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the performance of a fabric filter system controlling emissions from either one or two 30-ton electric arc furnaces producing a high-strength, low-alloy specialty steel. The evaluation involved measuring the system's total mass collect...

199

VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE FROM THE EAST, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE FROM THE EAST, SHOWING SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS IN THE FOREGROUND. #2 CASTING SHED IS TO THE LEFT, HOT BLAST MAIN IS ON THE RIGHT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

200

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST AND DUST CATCHER. STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND, THE #2 CASTING SHED BEYOND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

201

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

202

METALLURGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEFOS 3 MW DC ARC FURNACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past twenty years the 3 MW DC arc furnace at MEFOS has been frequently used for development of new processes. These processes include recovery of valuable metals from slag, sludge and dust from steel and other metallurgical industry, treatment of ashes from power plant and incinerators, smelting reduction of minerals and zinc recovery from EAF dust. The process

G. Ye; J. Alexis; E. Burström

2004-01-01

203

CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED CAST HOUSE LIES IN BETWEEN TWO SKIP INCLINES. HIP ROOF AT RIGHT COVERS BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

204

INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER ROOM FOR FURNACE NO. 2 LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER ROOM FOR FURNACE NO. 2 LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING BACK OF CONTROL PANEL AND TRANSFORMER (GE, 3000 KUA water cooled, 60 cycles, U.S. patent 1900585. Transformer dates from 1937, control panel GE resistors) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

205

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO. 25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE #2. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

206

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO.25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE #1 DETAIL. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

207

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO. 25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE DETAIL. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

208

20. TAKING A CAST AT BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. WORKERS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. TAKING A CAST AT BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. WORKERS, LIKE THE ONE STANDING ON THE BRIDGE ABOVE THE 'BOTTLE' INTO WHICH THE HOT IRON FLOWS, ARE PROTECTED BY HEAVY FIREPROOF GARMENTS. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

209

An improved gas extraction furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of glass furnace for analysis of rocks to determine nature and amount of trapped gas is described. Furnace heats specimen in vacuum conditions by radio frequency induction. Diagram of apparatus to show construction and operation is provided.

Wilkin, R. B.

1972-01-01

210

Blast furnace reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vast a dvances h ave b een m ade in blast-furnace t echnology d uring t he p ast two decades through p lant t rials and plant d evelopments a ssisted by research to provide b etter u nderstanding of physical and chemical w orkings of the blast f urnace. T he f ields of research have i ncluded

E. T. Turkdogan

1978-01-01

211

Furnace Black Characterization  

E-print Network

of Crystallographic Studies #12;005F7 Methodologies #12;005F8 Summary · For all furnace carbon black 12� Surface Unorganized Carbon Identified #12;005F11 SRCC's Model #12;005F12 Carbon Black Surface Activity Energetic Surface Structure of Carbon Black (Summary) A. Schroeder | R. Schuster DIK #12;005F14 Polymer

212

Wavelength dependence of prepulse laser beams on EUV emission from CO2 reheated Sn plasma  

E-print Network

Wavelength dependence of prepulse laser beams on EUV emission from CO2 reheated Sn plasma J. R investigated the role of prepulse laser wavelength on prepulse plume formation and EUV in-band signal. The expanding plume was then reheated by a 35 ns CO2 laser operating at 10.6 m. The role of prepulse wavelength

Harilal, S. S.

213

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15

214

Cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone. Part 2: Failure criteria and statistical effects  

SciTech Connect

In part 1 of this article, cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone (IC CG HAZ) of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels was determined to occur between two closely spaced blocky MA particles. Blunt notch, crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), and precracked Charpy testing were used in this investigation to determine the failure criteria required for cleavage initiation to occur by this mechanism in the IC CG HAZ. It was found that the attainment of a critical level of strain was required in addition to a critical level of stress. This does not occur in the case of high strain rate testing, for example, during precracked Charpy testing. A different cleavage initiation mechanism is then found to operate. The precise fracture criteria and microstructural requirements (described in part 1 of this article) result in competition between potential cleavage initiation mechanisms in the IC CG HAZ.

Davis, C.L. [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science; King, J.E. [Rolls Royce plc, Derby (United Kingdom). Aerospace Div.

1996-10-01

215

Interior of shop, detail of charging machine Bethlehem Steel ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of shop, detail of charging machine - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

216

West façade of shop building, looking east Bethlehem Steel ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

West façade of shop building, looking east - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

217

High efficiency furnace  

SciTech Connect

An improved multiple-fluidized-bed heat exchanger that heats the air stream with the hot flue gas gives this gas-fired residential furnace an efficiency of 75%. Suitable for any application involving two gas streams of differing temperatures, the heat exchanger passes the first gas stream through a bed of solid silcia-alumina particles at a velocity sufficient to maintain the fluidized bed at a depth of 1/2 - 4 in. The second gas stream passes through a similar bed, receiving heat from the first bed. The furnace incorporating this heat exchanger is compact, efficient, and especially suited for well-insulated residences needing relatively low-input heating systems.

Elkins, R.H.; Durkin, G.M.; Macriss, R.A.

1982-06-08

218

Severe Maintenance Problems as Your First Indicator of Big Potential Energy Savings  

E-print Network

Throughout 1994 and 1995, Algoma Steel Inc. conducted several modifications to their No.5 Reheat Furnace Combustion Air System during a major rebuild of the furnace. This involved a redesigned five pass recuperator, a replacement section of ductwork...

Kaufman, S. G.; Martin, V.; Lynn, J.

219

Prospects of determination of reheating temperature after inflation by DECIGO  

E-print Network

If the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ of cosmological perturbations takes a large value $r\\sim 0.1$, which may be inferred by recent BICEP2 result, we can hope to determine thermal history, in particular, the reheating temperature, $T_R$, after inflation by space-based laser interferometers. It is shown that upgraded and upshifted versions of DECIGO may be able to determine $T_R$ if it lies in the range $6\\times 10^6currently plausible inflation models, since each specification can probe $T_R$ of at most a decade range, we should determine the specifications of DECIGO with full account of constraints on inflation models to be obtained by near-future observations of temperature anisotropy and B-model polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

2014-01-01

220

Prospects of determination of reheating temperature after inflation by DECIGO  

E-print Network

If the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ of cosmological perturbations takes a large value $r\\sim 0.1$, which may be inferred by recent BICEP2 result, we can hope to determine thermal history, in particular, the reheating temperature, $T_R$, after inflation by space-based laser interferometers. It is shown that upgraded and upshifted versions of DECIGO may be able to determine $T_R$ if it lies in the range $6\\times 10^6currently plausible inflation models, since each specification can probe $T_R$ of at most a decade range, we should determine the specifications of DECIGO with full account of constraints on inflation models to be obtained by near-future observations of temperature anisotropy and B-model polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

Sachiko Kuroyanagi; Kazunori Nakayama; Jun'ichi Yokoyama

2014-10-24

221

Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof  

DOEpatents

A system and method are disclosed for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom. 2 figs.

Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Bannister, R.L.

1999-08-10

222

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection  

SciTech Connect

Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

NONE

1998-09-30

223

Aspects of Desulfurizing Pig Iron Outside the Furnace with the Use of Cored Wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern steelmaking, the desulfurization of pig iron outside the blast furnace is an essential element of the process of making quality steels ? and it is also sometimes necessary in the production of ordinary grades of steel [1]. Magnesium is recognized as the best desulfurizer for pig iron, since its use makes it possible to reduce the final sulfur

D. A. Dyudkin; V. V. Kisilenko; V. P. Onishchuk; D. A. Sochnev; N. P. Ostapchuk

2000-01-01

224

THE CURRENT STATUS OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST RECYCLING IN NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a telephone survey of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel producers. This report characterizes the current status of EAF dust generation, treatment and disposal. It indicates the quantity generated, zinc content, other relevant constituents, and plans and trends that will impact on the quantity and characteristics of the dust generated. The survey covers EAF based steel

Marc Liebman

225

General analytic predictions of two-field inflation and perturbative reheating  

E-print Network

The observational signatures of multi-field inflation will generally evolve as the Universe reheats. We introduce a general analytic formalism for tracking this evolution through perturbative reheating, applicable to two field models with arbitrary separable potentials. The various transitions, including the onset of scalar field oscillations and the reheating of each field, can happen in different orders and on arbitrary hypersurfaces. The effective equations of state of the oscillating fields are also arbitrary. Nevertheless, our results are surprisingly simple. Our formalism encapsulates and generalises a huge range of previous calculations including two-field inflation, spectator models, the inhomogeneous end of inflation scenario and numerous generalised curvaton scenarios.

Joseph Elliston; Stefano Orani; David J. Mulryne

2014-02-19

226

Non-carbon induction furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

1984-01-06

227

Carbon-free induction furnace  

DOEpatents

An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Pfeiler, William A. (Norris, TN)

1985-01-01

228

On-line ultrasonic system for measuring thickness of the copper stave in the blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blast furnace is used make molten iron from sintered ore and the cokes in the steel industry. Recently, the copper stave cooling system placed on inner face of the blast furnace body to protect the steel shell from heat. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the material makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. It was impossible to access the copper stave with the ultrasonic sensor for measuring thickness because the copper stave is covered with the steel shell and there is backing refractory between the stave and the steel shell. The unique ultrasonic sensor which can approach the cooling stave through the cooling line was developed to measure thickness. The thickness can be measured with portable ultrasonic thickness sensor and can be monitored continuously with embedded sensors.

Choi, Sang-Woo; Kim, Dohoon

2012-05-01

229

High cycle fatigue behavior of gas-carburized medium carbon Cr-Mo steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

High cycle fatigue properties of gas-carburized 4140 steel were assessed to compare with those of 8620 steel which is widely\\u000a used as a carburizing steel. Fatigue limit was evaluated associated with microstructure, case depth, and distribution of retained\\u000a austenite and compressive residual stress near the surface. Test results indicated that the reheat quenching method of 4140\\u000a and 8620 steels produced

Hyung-Jun Kim; Young-Gak Kweon

1996-01-01

230

Precipitation behaviors of X80 acicular ferrite pipeline steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation behaviors of X80 acicular ferrite pipeline steel were investigated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that dendritic precipitates in the as-cast steel slabs precipitate mainly in grain boundaries, and these dendritic precipitates dissolve and re-precipitate to two kinds of carbonitrides: Ti- and Nb-rich (Ti, Nb)(C, N) carbonitrides during reheating. Four types of precipitates mainly exist in the hot rolled plate: Ti-rich carbonitrides resulted from the dendritic carbonitrides undissolved during the reheating process; Ti-rich carbonitrides re-precipitated along austenite grain boundaries during the reheating process; NbC carbides mainly heterogeneously nucleated on the small pre-existing Nb-rich carbonitrides in the hot rolling process; and NbC carbides precipitated on dislocations during hot rolling.

Zhao, Ai-Min; Wang, Yan; Chen, Yin-Li; Tang, Di; Gao, Xu-Tao; Zuo, Bi-Qiang

2011-06-01

231

Exothermic furnace module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exothermic furnace module is disclosed for processing materials in space which includes an insulated casing and a sample support, carried within the casing which supports a sample container. An exothermic heat source includes a plurality of segments of exothermic material stacked one upon another to produce a desired temperature profile when ignited. The exothermic material segments are constructed in the form of an annular element having a recess opening which defines an open central core throughout the vertical axis of the stacked exothermic material. The sample container is arranged within the core of the stacked exothermic heating material.

Poorman, R. M. (inventor)

1982-01-01

232

Extremely long-lived charged massive particles as a probe for reheating of the Universe  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the impact of charged massive particle big bang nucleosynthesis to explore the nature of the reheating of the Universe in the case that a new extremely long-lived charged massive particle (CHAMP) exists. If the mass of the CHAMP is within collider reach and its lifetime is longer than 10{sup 4} s, the comparison between the charged big bang nucleosynthesis prediction and observed {sup 6}Li abundances may indicate nonstandard reheating in the early Universe without relying on details of the decay properties. Even if the CHAMP mass is outside the reach of colliders, the cosmological considerations may provide a nontrivial hint for the existence of such very heavy long-lived CHAMPs from the late Universe if the daughter particles are the dominant component of the present dark matter. We consider a low reheating temperature model as an example of the nonstandard reheating scenarios.

Takayama, Fumihiro [Institute for High Energy Phenomenology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

2008-06-01

233

The prediction research of steam reheating temperature in power plants based on LS-SVM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steam reheating system is emerging as a multivariable system with steam-steam exchanger, the strong coupling and time delay characteristics. The traditional approach for the predictive control in power plant requires modeling based on accurate mathematical model, and some multivariate statistical algorithm cannot avoid falling into the over-fitting, therefore these approaches is not suitable for prediction of the reheating temperature in power plants. In this paper, we used the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) regression algorithm to predict the temperature of the steam reheating in the power plant combined with the data set of the steam reheating in a 120MW power plant. Comparing with the existing algorithms, the result shows that the LS-SVM is a robust and reliable tool for prediction in engineering application field.

Liu, Zhenbing; Jiang, Shujie; Yang, Huihua; Pan, Xipen

2013-10-01

234

Corrigendum to “The kinematics of cosmic reheating” [Nucl. Phys. B 875 (2) (2013) 315-350  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After publication we found a few errors in our article The kinematics of cosmic reheating[1], which we correct below for clarity. The resulting changes in our main result, the temperature dependent damping rate ?, are not significant.

Drewes, Marco; Kang, Jin U.

2014-11-01

235

Reheating the universe after multi-field inflation  

SciTech Connect

We study in detail (p)reheating after multi-field inflation models with a particular focus on N-flation. We consider a variety of different couplings between the inflatons and the matter sector, including both quartic and trilinear interactions with a light scalar field. We show that the presence of multiple oscillating inflatons makes parametric resonance inefficient in the case of the quartic interactions. Moreover, perturbative processes do not permit a complete decay of the inflaton for this coupling. In order to recover the hot big bang, we must instead consider trilinear couplings. In this case we show that strong nonperturbative preheating is possible via multi-field tachyonic resonance. In addition, late-time perturbative effects do permit a complete decay of the condensate. We also study the production of gauge fields for several prototype couplings, finding similar results to the trilinear scalar coupling. During the course of our analysis we develop the mathematical theory of the quasi-periodic Mathieu equation, the multi-field generalization of the Floquet theory familiar from preheating after single field inflation. We also elaborate on the theory of perturbative decays of a classical inflaton condensate, which is applicable in single-field models also.

Braden, Jonathan; Kofman, Lev; Barnaby, Neil, E-mail: jbraden@physics.utoronto.ca, E-mail: barnaby@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

2010-07-01

236

Fluctuations of Quantum Fields in a Classical Background and Reheating  

E-print Network

We consider the particle creation process associated with a quantum field \\chi in a time-dependent, homogeneous and isotropic, classical background. It is shown that the field square \\chi^2, the energy density and the pressure of the created particles have large fluctuations comparable to their vacuum expectation values. Possible effects of these fluctuations on the reheating process after inflation are discussed. After determining the correlation length of the fluctuations in two different models, corresponding to the decay in the parametric resonance regime and in the perturbation theory, it is found that these fluctuations should be taken into account in the final thermalization process, in the back-reaction effects and when the formation of primordial black holes is considered. In both models, by comparing quantum and thermal fluctuations with each other it is observed that very quick thermalization after the complete inflaton decay is not always possible even when the interaction rates are large. On the other hand, when the back-reaction effects are included during the preheating stage, the coherence of the inflaton oscillations is shown to be lost because of the fluctuations in \\chi^2. Finally, we note that a large fluctuation in the energy density may cause a black hole to form and we determine the fraction of total energy density that goes into such primordial black holes in the model of preheating we consider.

Ali Kaya

2009-09-15

237

Carburizing of steel in controlled atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

in a commercial continuous furnace with a full load. The temperature and composition of the atmosphere in the furnace were controlled individually in four zones. In the first zone the metal was heated to earburizing temperature (920~ earburizing was conducted at this temperature in the second and third zones; the steel was cooled to 850 ~ before quenching in the

R. E. Gliner

1975-01-01

238

Static recrystallization kinetics in warm worked vanadium microalloyed steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of vanadium on static recrystallization kinetics of vanadium microalloyed carbon steels after simulating warm working conditions has been determined using the stress relaxation method in plane strain compression tests. In the warm working regime, undissolved fine V(C,N) precipitates promote a fine austenite grain size during reheating and interact with the recrystallization process after working, leading to longer recrystallization

C. Garc??a-Mateo; B. López; J. M. Rodriguez-Ibabe

2001-01-01

239

Solar furnace apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar furnace apparatus is described including a reflector portion, a collector portion and a fluid transfer portion. The reflector portion includes a generally dish-shaped reflective member. The reflective member having a conic section configuration with a large open face and a highly reflective internal surface. The collector portion is disposed at the focal point of the reflective member, and it includes a chamber formed of a plurality of concave longitudinal sections and therewith form an enclosed chamber, inlet and outlet members communicating with the chamber. The fluid transfer portion includes a conduit member connected to the inlet and outlet members of the collector portion and mechanism associated with said conduit member for circulating fluid to heat storage or heat dissipating members.

Strickland, B.W.

1981-09-29

240

Sorption of heavy metals on blast furnace sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents was carried out. Gases produced in the blast furnace were washed and led towards a Dorr thickener where the sludge was obtained as a suspension. The sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on

A. López-Delgado; C. Pérez; F. A. López

1998-01-01

241

Vitrification of fly ash by swirling-flow furnace  

SciTech Connect

According to the amendment of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law of 1992, fly ash is regulated as Specially controlled waste and wide attention is now being paid to the melting and vitrification treatment of fly ash, which can reduce overall volume, detoxify and recover sources. Kobe Steel has demonstrated its operation using a swirling-flow furnace and has perfected a vitrification technique. The demonstration test has confirmed stable melting, high decomposition ratio of dioxins and the soundness of the slag. Kobe Steel has successfully developed a new technique for heightening the quality of slag and a new process for the heavy metals recovery from collected dust.

Ito, Tadashi [Kobe Steel Ltd., Nishi, Kobe (Japan). Engineering and Machinery Div.] [Kobe Steel Ltd., Nishi, Kobe (Japan). Engineering and Machinery Div.

1996-12-31

242

Preparation of high purity nano silica particles from blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

High purity nano silica was synthesized using acid treatment and surface modification from blast-furnace slag generated in\\u000a the steel industry. Blast-furnace slag was treated with nitric acid to extract high-purity insoluble silica. Nano silica was\\u000a then produced using filtration and surface modified by cation surfactant-Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB). The Zeta\\u000a potential of silica was tested under various alkaline conditions. Synthesized

Sun-Jae Kim; Seong-Gyu Seo; Sang-Chul Jung

2010-01-01

243

Modulated reheating and large non-gaussianity in string cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generic feature of the known string inflationary models is that the same physics that makes the inflaton lighter than the Hubble scale during inflation often also makes other scalars this light. These scalars can acquire isocurvature fluctuations during inflation, and given that their VEVs determine the mass spectrum and the coupling constants of the effective low-energy field theory, these fluctuations give rise to couplings and masses that are modulated from one Hubble patch to another. These seem just what is required to obtain primordial adiabatic fluctuations through conversion into density perturbations through the `modulation mechanism', wherein reheating takes place with different efficiency in different regions of our Universe. Fluctuations generated in this way can generically produce non-gaussianity larger than obtained in single-field slow-roll inflation; potentially observable in the near future. We provide here the first explicit example of the modulation mechanism at work in string cosmology, within the framework of LARGE Volume Type-IIB string flux compactifications. The inflationary dynamics involves two light Kähler moduli: a fibre divisor plays the rôle of the inflaton whose decay rate to visible sector degrees of freedom is modulated by the primordial fluctuations of a blow-up mode (which is made light by the use of poly-instanton corrections). We find the challenges of embedding the mechanism into a concrete UV completion constrains the properties of the non-gaussianity that is found, since for generic values of the underlying parameters, the model predicts a local bi-spectrum with fNL of order `a few'. However, a moderate tuning of the parameters gives also rise to explicit examples with fNL ~ Script O(20) potentially observable by the Planck satellite.

Cicoli, M.; Tasinato, G.; Zavala, I.; Burgess, C. P.; Quevedo, F.

2012-05-01

244

Steam-Reheat Option for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SuperCritical-Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are being developed as one of the Generation-IV nuclear-reactor concepts. Main objectives of the development are to increase thermal efficiency of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and to decrease capital and operational costs. The first objective can be achieved by introducing nuclear steam reheat inside a reactor and utilizing regenerative feedwater heaters. The second objective can be achieved by designing a steam cycle that closely matches that of the mature supercritical fossil-fuelled power plants. The feasibility of these objectives is discussed. As a part of this discussion, heat-transfer calculations have been performed and analyzed for SuperCritical-Water (SCW) and SuperHeated-Steam (SHS) channels of the proposed reactor concept. In the calculations a uniform and three non-uniform Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) were considered for six different fuels (UO2, ThO 2, MOX, UC2, UC, and UN) and at average and maximum channel power. Bulk-fluid, sheath, and fuel centerline temperatures as well as the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles were obtained along the fuel-channel length. The HTC values are within a range of 4.7--20 kW/m2·K and 9.7--10 kW/m2·K for the SCW and SHS channels respectively. The main conclusion is that while all the mentioned fuels may be used for the SHS channel, only UC2, UC, or UN are suitable for a SCW channel, because their fuel centerline temperatures are at least 1000°C below melting point, while that of UO2, ThO2 , and MOX may reach melting point.

Saltanov, Eugene

245

Lead recycling via rotary furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The lead-acid battery recycling industry was seriously affected during the 1980s by increasing environmental protection costs and poor lead prices. The process is now being repeated in the 1990s causing further difficulties for recyclers. In Europe, many lead-acid battery recycling plants use rotary furnaces. The Darley Dale smelter, redeveloped between 1984--87, uses only rotary furnaces. A review of options for this plant has been completed and concluded in favor of further investment to exploit more fully the benefits of rotary furnace technology.

Suttie, A.B. [H.J. Enthoven and Sons, Matlock (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

246

Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

Belt, Cynthia

2014-09-01

247

Blast furnace granular and reclaimed coal injection current practices and possibilities  

SciTech Connect

Coals of various sizes and types have been successfully injected into blast furnaces for many years. In excess of 4m tonnes of granular coal of 100% less than 5mm have been injected at British Steels Scunthorpe works since 1984. Since late 1994 Bethlehem Steel have also been injecting granular coal into furnace C and D, and more recently US Steels Fairfield works have been using the Clyde design of coal injection system to inject granular coal derived from a fluid bed drier cyclone classifier and shipped to the plant in PD railcars. Each of these sites have one thing in common, a design of pneumatic conveying system which is ideally matched to the growing trend to inject a variety of coal types and other materials into the blast furnace. This paper will describe the system design and discuss the problems associated with some of the materials considered for injection.

Snowdon, B.

1996-12-31

248

Ceramic coating used on MWC furnace walls  

SciTech Connect

Fire-side corrosion of Municipal Waste Combustor (MWC) furnace walls has been a significant problem for these units. This corrosion can take place quite rapidly. Within less than a year major tube failures have occurred. The corrosion mechanisms and history of various units have been well documented previously. The commonly used answer to this corrosion is use of Inconel 625 weld overlay. It is often applied after erection of units, because the corrosion or its location is unforeseen. Two major problems with the Inconel 625 weld overlay is its high initial cost and the subsequent maintenance due to imperfections in the overlay during its application. Now, a thin, ceramic coating has proven its ability to protect the carbon steel tubes and survive the furnace environment. As of April, 1995, it will have about 10 months of service at the SPSA operated MWC plant. Its cost is a fraction of Inconel 625 weld overlay. Since it forms a continuous coating there are very few imperfections in the coating. One key feature of the ceramic coating is its thermal expansion rate is similar to carbon steel. This eliminates flaking of the ceramic coating. A brief review of the SPSA/NNSY Steam/Power Plant operating characteristics is presented. Maps showing loss of metal (based on ultrasonic testing) in a number of units are presented. Then physical and chemical properties of the ceramic coating are discussed. The costs of various alternatives are compared. This ceramic coating will prove to save MWCs millions of dollars. It can be used to go over poor Inconel overlay work.

Parker, P.R. [Southeastern Public Service Authority, Portsmouth, VA (United States); Zvosec, C. [CETEK, Transfer, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

249

Austenite grain coarsening in microalloyed steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A uniform, fine-grain structure is essential in steels, particularly for strip and plate, that are to meet demands for high strength and toughness. To produce such microstructures, every step of the high-temperature processing of the steel must be carefully controlled, beginning with grain coarsening that occurs during reheating for slab rolling. Extremely coarse or nonuniform grain structures in the reheated slab are difficult to refine by subsequent hot working. Accordingly, the grain-coarsening behavior of laboratory heats of C-Mn-Si base steels and of such steels with additions of Al, V, Ti, or Nb was examined to understand the principles governing the behavior of this class of steels. The grain-coarsening temperature (the temperature at which abnormal or discontinuous growth occurs) varies with the type and concentration of the microalloy addition; an approximate relation is presented. Generally the grain-coarsening temperature increases with, but is lower than, the temperature required for complete dissolution of the microalloy carbide or nitride present. Thus, steels containing the very insoluble TiN coarsen at much higher temperatures than steels containing the more soluble VCN. These results agree qualitatively with predictions of models of grain-boundary pinning by precipitate particles.

Cuddy, L. J.; Raley, J. C.

1983-10-01

250

Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification for Steel Castings  

SciTech Connect

Heat treatment practices used by steel foundries have been carefully studied as part of comprehensive heat treatment procedure qualification development trials. These studies highlight the relationships between critical heat treatment process control parameters and heat treatment success. Foundry heat treatment trials to develop heat treatment procedure qualifications have shed light on the relationship between heat treatment theory and current practices. Furnace load time-temperature profiles in steel foundries exhibit significant differences depending on heat treatment equipment, furnace loading practice, and furnace maintenance. Time-temperature profiles of furnace control thermocouples can be very different from the time-temperature profiles observed at the center of casting loads in the furnace. Typical austenitization temperatures and holding times used by steel foundries far exceed what is required for transformation to austenite. Quenching and hardenability concepts were also investigated. Heat treatment procedure qualification (HTPQ) schema to demonstrate heat treatment success and to pre-qualify other alloys and section sizes requiring lesser hardenability have been developed. Tempering success is dependent on both tempering time and temperature. As such, furnace temperature uniformity and control of furnace loading during tempering is critical to obtain the desired mechanical properties. The ramp-up time in the furnace prior to the establishment of steady state heat treatment conditions contributes to the extent of heat treatment performed. This influence of ramp-up to temperature during tempering has been quantified.

Mariol Charles; Nicholas Deskevich; Vipin Varkey; Robert Voigt; Angela Wollenburg

2004-04-29

251

A study of the phase transition of reheated diphenyl carbazide (DPC) by using UV spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Phase transition phenomenon in reheated diphenyl carbazide (DPC) is studied here using UV spectroscopy. The optical band gap for reheated DPC is obtained by measuring the optical diffused reflectance (DR) and equals to 3.55 eV. Also, the optical band gap is calculated using UV technique and equals to 3.548 eV. The absorbance of reheated DPC is studied at some selected temperatures in order to check the presence of phase transitions at 90°C and 125°C. According to the present work, the band gaps are calculated at 80°C, 110°C and 130°C and equal to 3.548 eV. But at 100°C, the optical band gap has changed to 4.139 eV. It was found that each phase of reheated DPC belongs to a certain definite crystal structure. The presence of the phase transitions are checked and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structural properties and morphology of reheated diphenyl carbazide are investigated by SEM. The SEM images are taken at some selected temperatures to confirm the presence of phase transitions. PMID:24682065

El-Kabbany, F; Taha, S; Hafez, M

2014-07-15

252

Solar furnace apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar furnace apparatus including a reflector portion, a collector portion and a fluid transfer portion; the reflector portion including a generally dish-shaped reflective member, the reflective member having a conic section configuration with a large open face and a highly reflective internal surface, the reflective member including a fixed base section concentric with the axis of the reflective member, a plurality of movable curved segments extending from the fixed base section to the free edge of the open face of the reflective member, the end of each segment adjacent to the fixed base section being pivotally connected thereto; the collector portion being disposed along the axis and the focal point of the reflective member, the collector portion including a chamber formed of a plurality of concave longitudinal conductive metal sections joined at their edges, the cross section of the longitudinal sections forming a generally star-shaped configuration, the concave longitudinal sections being disposed substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the reflective member, end sections affixed to the free edges of the concave longitudinal sections and therewith forming an enclosed chamber, a central conduit extending from one of the end sections to a point adjacent the other end section but spaced therefrom, a plurality of discrete longitudinal baffles disposed within the chamber around the central conduit, an inlet and an outlet communicating with the chamber.

Strickland, B.W.

1983-12-27

253

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOEpatents

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

254

Biomass-fueled furnace  

SciTech Connect

A combustion system for domestic or small industrial heating needs, utilizing biomass fuels such as wood and brush chips, sawdust, logs, nut hulls, peat, leaves and other organic waste products of forestry, agriculture and industry with essentially smokeless, clean exhaust. By preheating the combustion air, insulating the combustion process and carefully controlling the fuel to air proportions and mixing parameters, essentially complete combustion with very little excess air at high temperatures is achieved even with fuels containing over half their weight in water. This water is then condensed out of the exhaust gases in uniquely designed air and water counterflow heat exchangers that can capture over 90% of the high heat value of the fuel. This invention is capable of maintaining clean combustion at high temperatures with little excess air, at burn rates much lower than the best popular ''air-tight'' woodstoves and is capable of higher heat outputs than most domestic heat plants. This biomass-fueled furnace does not require electric fans or controls and can be used where electricity is unavailable.

Dobson, L. A.

1985-12-24

255

Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements  

E-print Network

into undesirable compounds, e.g. coke, methane, hydrogen ? Requires additional firing Furnace Cracked Products Feed Fuel Dilution Steam Page 7 Challenges in Steam Cracking - Coke Formation ? Coke is a undesirable byproduct of steam cracking formed from... complete dehydrogenation of hydrocarbon molecules ? Thickness of coke layer increases with run length ? Reduces heat transfer to process stream ? After a period of being online furnaces ?Decoke? with steam+air due to ? High pressure drop ? High tube...

Gandler, T.

256

Effect of deformation temperature on microstructure and mechanical behaviour of warm working vanadium microalloyed steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plane strain compression tests of two V microalloyed steels and one plain C–Mn steel have been done to analyse the influence\\u000a of the deformation temperature, in the warm working range, on the final microstructure and subsequent mechanical behaviour.\\u000a In the case of V microalloyed steels, the reheating temperature has an effect on the amount of vanadium in solution prior\\u000a to

C. García-Mateo; B. López; J. M. Rodriguez-Ibabe

2011-01-01

257

On finite density effects on cosmic reheating and moduli decay and implications for Dark Matter production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the damping of an oscillating scalar field in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime by perturbative processes, taking into account the back-reaction of the plasma of decay products on the damping rate. The scalar field may be identified with the inflaton, in which case this process resembles the reheating of the universe after inflation. It can also model a modulus that dominates the energy density of the universe at later times. We find that the finite density corrections to the damping rate can have a drastic effect on the thermal history and considerably increase both, the maximal temperature in the early universe and the reheating temperature at the onset of the radiation dominated era. As a result the abundance of some Dark Matter candidates may be considerably larger than previously estimated. We give improved analytic estimates for the maximal and the reheating temperatures and confirm them numerically in a simple model.

Drewes, Marco

2014-11-01

258

Uncertainty relations for cosmological particle creation and existence of large fluctuations in reheating  

E-print Network

We derive an uncertainty relation for the energy density and pressure of a quantum scalar field in a time-dependent, homogeneous and isotropic, classical background, which implies the existence of large fluctuations comparable to their vacuum expectation values. A similar uncertainty relation is known to hold for the field square since the field can be viewed as a Gaussian random variable. We discuss possible implications of these results for the reheating process in scalar field driven inflationary models, where reheating is achieved by the decay of the coherently oscillating inflaton field. Specifically we argue that the evolution after backreaction can seriously be altered by the existence of these fluctuations. For example, in one model the coherence of the inflaton oscillations is found to be completely lost in a very short time after backreaction starts. Therefore we argue that entering a smooth phase in thermal equilibrium is questionable in such models and reheating might destroy the smoothness attained by inflation.

Ali Kaya

2011-12-20

259

Determination of the Major Impurity Radiators in the Reheat Mode Discharges in the Compact Helical System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation brightness and impurity behaviors have been studied for reheat mode discharges in the Compact Helical System (CHS) by three different types of impurity diagnostics. Total radiation power measured by a pyroelectric detector significantly reduces after entering the reheat mode, whereas the line-averaged radiation brightness measured by an absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) photodiode array increases especially for a center viewing chord due to the impurity accumulation in the plasma core. One possible reason for this opposite behavior between the two bolometric detectors is the reduced sensitivity of the AXUV photodiode for lower energy photons in vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region. This speculation is supported by temporal evolutions of VUV spectra measured by a grazing incidence spectrometer. These results demonstrate that the comparison of three impurity diagnostics would be beneficial to the determination of the major impurity radiators and a comprehensive understanding of impurity behaviors in the reheat mode discharges.

Suzuki, Chihiro; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Fujisawa, Akihide; Ida, Katsumi; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Minami, Takashi; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Nishimura, Shin; Okamura, Shoichi; Peterson, Byron J.; Shimizu, Akihiro; Takahashi, Chihiro; Toi, Kazuo; Yoshimura, Yasuo

260

Published in Powder Technology, 2005, 157, 1-3, 2-11. DUST FORMATION IN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE  

E-print Network

of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust shows that bubble burst at the liquid steel surface is the principal source melting and the formation of a steel bath covered by a slag layer, volatile solute species (e.g. zinc the bubble size would therefore represent an effective solution for reducing drastically the EAF dust

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

Inflation and reheating in the Starobinsky model with conformal HiggsField  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a talk presented by A.A. Tokareva at Baikal summer school on physics of elementary particles and astrophysics 2012. We studied the reheating after the Starobinsky inflation and have found that the main process is the inflaton decay to SM gauge fields due to the conformal anomaly. The reheating temperature is low leading to the possibility to detect the gravity wave signal from inflation and evaporation of structures formed after inflation in DECIGO and BBO experiments. Also we give predictions for the parameters of scalar perturbation spectrum at the next-to-leading order of slow roll and obtain a bound on the Higgs mass.

Gorbunov, D. S.; Tokareva, A. A.

2013-12-01

262

Vitrification of electric arc furnace dusts.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace baghouse dust (EAFD), a waste by-product of the steelmaking process, contains the elements that are volatilized from the charge during the melting (Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd). The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the regulatory limits. Consequently, EAFD cannot be disposed of in ordinary landfill sites without stabilization of the heavy metals. In this work, the vitrification of EAFD, from both carbon and stainless steel productions, were studied. The vitrification process was selected as the inertizing process because it permits the immobilization of the hazardous elements in the glass network and represents an environmentally acceptable method for the stabilization of this waste. Classes of various compositions were obtained by mixing EAFD with glass cullet and sand. The EAFD and the glass products were characterized by DTA, TG, X-ray analysis and by the TCLP test. The results show that the stability of the product is influenced by the glass structure, which mainly depends on the Si/O ratio. Secondary crystallization heat-treatment were carried out on some samples. The results highlighted the formation of spinel phases, which reduced the chemical durability in acid media. The possibility to recover Zn from carbon steel production EAFD was investigated and about 60-70% of metal recovery was obtained. The resulting glass show higher chemical stability than glasses obtained without metal recovery. PMID:12423059

Pelino, M; Karamanov, A; Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Zonetti, D

2002-01-01

263

Induction heat treatment of steel  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the induction heating. After reviewing heat treating operations for steel and the principles of the heat treatment of steel, an overview of induction heat treating is provided. Next, consideration is given to equipment and equipment selection, coil design, power requirements and temperature control. A discussion of surface and through hardening of steel is provided, including information on frequency and power selection and quenching apparatus. Tempering is considered, followed by information on control of residual stresses, cracking, temper brittleness and the important metallurgical and hardness differences between induction and furnace treated steel.

Semiatin, S.L.; Stutz, D.E.

1985-01-01

264

Computational fluid dynamics based retrofits to reheater panel overheating of No. 3 boiler of Dagang Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercially available CFD package, FLUENT was utilized to numerically diagnose the metal surface overheating issues of the reheater pendants that exist in the full-scale No. 3 boiler of Dagang Power Station, Tianjing, China. Some factors that may affect the velocity and temperature distributions at the section of the final reheater inlet (final superheater outlet) had been taken into account

Boshu He; Laiyu Zhu; Jianmin Wang; Shumin Liu; Baolin Liu; Yanting Cui; Lili Wang; Guoqiang Wei

2007-01-01

265

Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by natural circulation to the waterwalls and divisional wall panels. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) without over-fire air and (2) with 20% over-fire air. The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from carbon steel to T91. The total heat transfer surface required in the oxygen-fired heat recovery area (HRA) is 25% less than the air-fired HRA due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are practically the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are very similar.

Andrew Seltzer

2005-01-01

266

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

Crelling, J.C.

1993-12-31

267

Study of hot hardness characteristics of tool steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hardness measurements of tool steel materials in electric furnace at elevated temperatures and low oxygen environment are discussed. Development of equation to predict short term hardness as function of intial room temperature hardness of steel is reported. Types of steel involved in the process are identified.

Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1972-01-01

268

Recycling and reheating of pyroclasts as possible mechanism for increased groundmass crystallization in basaltic tephra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tephra produced by explosive eruptions provides important information about magma ascent, vesiculation, fragmentation, and deposition. Mafic pyroclasts from strombolian eruptions are characterized by a wide range in groundmass crystallinity and can range from dense microlite-rich matrix to glassy microlite-poor clasts, often within the same eruption deposit and even within a single clast. However, the origin of these clast types, and the ascent and eruption conditions, is not well understood. The presence of both microlite-rich and microlite-poor matrix is a common feature of tephra deposits from cinder cone eruptions. Microlite-poor clasts are generally assumed to represent primary (deeper) magma that ascends rapidly and erupts. Microlite-rich clasts have been interpreted as slow-moving magma incorporated from along conduit walls, or stored temporarily in shallow dikes and sills; both scenarios call upon sufficiently long residence times within the upper crust to allow magma degassing and crystallization prior to eruption. An alternative explanation is additional residence time in the vent by recycling previously erupted clasts. In this study we induced groundmass crystallization in tephra by heating natural basaltic lapilli in a one-atmosphere Deltec furnace at oxygen fugacity (fO2) conditions of ambient air. Each clast was split in half (saving one half as a control) and heated isothermally for variable time intervals. Experiments were 5-60 minutes at T = 600-1000°C and 5-30 minutes at temperatures (T) ?1100°C. Images of both the control and the experimental samples permitted classification according to differences in groundmass texture caused by heating. We observed from our experiments that microlite crystallization initiates near the glass transition temperature (Tg ~690°C) within 20 minutes. The extent of crystallization increases with time and increased temperature. At greater temperatures (?800°C) rapid nucleation occurs within ?5 minutes. Pyroxenes are the first crystal phases to form at temperatures of ~690-1100°C, followed by oxides observed at temperatures >700°C. Plagioclase forms at temperatures >990°C, but was likely introduced below 900°C. Although crystallization is usually studied as a cooling-driven phenomenon, heating of glass to a temperature above the glass transition (but below the liquidus) also causes crystallization. By reheating the pyroclasts that were initially quenched at eruption temperatures (~1150°C) and equilibria, we are decreasing the glass viscosity to allow for element diffusion in an undercooled and supersaturated system, driving crystallization. As the clasts are heated effective supersaturation decreases and once the eruption temperature is reached, the sample should be at equilibrium with the phase assemblage of the erupted material. Our results suggest a recycled pyroclast will begin crystallizing almost immediately upon reaching Tg, and at high T (?800°C) <5 minutes are required for microlites to form. The occurrence of two microlite populations within basaltic tephra is not uncommon, particularly in strombolian deposits, and recycling of pyroclasts may be the mechanism for increased crystallization. Eruptions with low mass eruption rates are the most likely candidates for recycling due to insufficient strength to fully expel the pyroclasts.

Deardorff, N.; Cashman, K.

2012-12-01

269

The importance of longer wavelength reheating in dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides improved sensitivity compared to conventional single-pulse LIBS. We used a combination of Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and CO2 lasers to improve the sensitivity of LIBS. Significant emission intensity enhancement is noticed for both excited neutral lines and ionic lines for dual-pulse LIBS compared to single-pulse LIBS. However, the enhancement factor is found to be dependend on the energy levels of the lines, and resonance lines provided maximum enhancement. Our results indicate that IR reheating will cause significant improvement in sensitivity, regardless of the conditions, even with an unfocused reheating beam. The improved sensitivity with a YAG-CO2 laser combination is caused by the effective reheating of the pre-plume with a longer wavelength laser is due to efficient inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption. The role of the spot sizes, inter-pulse delay times, energies of the preheating and reheating pulses on the LIBS sensitivity improvements are discussed.

Coons, R. W.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A.

2012-06-01

270

Reheating effects in the matter power spectrum and implications for substructure  

SciTech Connect

The thermal and expansion history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis is unknown. We investigate the evolution of cosmological perturbations through the transition from an early matter era to radiation domination. We treat reheating as the perturbative decay of an oscillating scalar field into relativistic plasma and cold dark matter. After reheating, we find that subhorizon perturbations in the decay-produced dark matter density are significantly enhanced, while subhorizon radiation perturbations are instead suppressed. If dark matter originates in the radiation bath after reheating, this suppression may be the primary cutoff in the matter power spectrum. Conversely, for dark matter produced nonthermally from scalar decay, enhanced perturbations can drive structure formation during the cosmic dark ages and dramatically increase the abundance of compact substructures. For low reheat temperatures, we find that as much as 50% of all dark matter is in microhalos with M > or approx. 0.1M{sub +} at z{approx_equal}100, compared to a fraction of {approx}10{sup -10} in the standard case. In this scenario, ultradense substructures may constitute a large fraction of dark matter in galaxies today.

Erickcek, Adrienne L. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Sigurdson, Kris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2011-10-15

271

Microwave palaeointensities from a recent Mexican lava ow, baked sediments and reheated pottery  

E-print Network

Microwave palaeointensities from a recent Mexican lava £ow, baked sediments and reheated pottery H form 10 June 2003; accepted 10 June 2003 Abstract Microwave palaeointensity (PI) estimates have been to overestimate the correct values. In addition to lava samples, microwave PIs were also determined from pottery

Utrecht, Universiteit

272

Titanium addition practice, and maintenance for the hearths in AHMSA`s blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is a steel company located in Northern Mexico, in the state of Coahuila. Currently there are three blast furnaces in operation and one more about to finish its general repair. This last one is to remain as a back-up unit. Because of blast furnace hearth wear outs AHMSA has developed some maintenance procedures. These procedures are based on titanium ore additions and hearth thermic control monitoring. There are also some other maintenance practices adopted to the working operations to assure that such operations detect and avoid in time hearth wear outs that place personnel and/or the unit in danger (due to hearth leaks). This paper describes titanium ore addition to No. 2 blast furnace during the final campaign and it also illustrates maintenance practices and continuous monitoring of temperature trends both of which were implemented at AHMSA`s No. 5 blast furnace.

Boone, A.G.; Jimenez, G.; Castillo, J. [Altos Hornos de Mexico, Monclova (Mexico)

1997-12-31

273

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

Unknown

1999-10-01

274

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

Not Available

1994-06-01

275

Investigation of hydraulic activity of ground granulated blast furnace slag in concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product of the steel manufacturing industry, being used as an effective partial cement replacement material, has already been proven to improve several performance characteristics of concrete. The reactivity of GGBFS has been found to depend on the properties of slag, which vary with the source of slag, type of raw material used, method

S. C Pal; A Mukherjee; S. R Pathak

2003-01-01

276

Mix design and performance analysis of asphalt concretes with electric arc furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of a laboratory study, aimed at verifying the possibility to use two particular typologies of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slags, in substitution of the natural aggregates, in the composition of wearing course asphalt concrete for flexible pavements. The experimental research has been articulated in a preliminary study of the chemical, leaching, physical, and mechanical

Marco Pasetto; Nicola Baldo

2011-01-01

277

Recycling of an electric arc furnace flue dust to obtain high grade ZnO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of steel in electric arc furnace (EAF) generates a by-product called EAF dusts. These steelmaking flue dusts are classified in most industrialized countries as hazardous residues because the heavy metals contained in them, tend to leach under slightly acidic rainfall conditions. However, and at the same time they contain zinc species which can be used as a source

Oscar Ruiz; Carmen Clemente; Manuel Alonso; Francisco Jose Alguacil

2007-01-01

278

Respiratory Hazard From Removal of Ceramic Fiber Insulation From High Temperature Industrial Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic fiber insulation is being used increasingly as a refractory lining for heat treating and preheating furnaces in the iron and steel industry. This is largely due to its superior thermal resistance per unit thickness when compared to insulating fire brick, which was the previous mainstay of refractory linings. Although toxicity data to date have found these ceramic fibers to

BRUCE A. GANTNER

1986-01-01

279

Durability of traditional plasters with respect to blast furnace slag-based plaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag is a residue of steel production. It is a latent hydraulic binder and is normally used to improve the durability of concrete and mortars. Slag could be also used as rendering mortar for masonry and old buildings. Today, cement and hydraulic lime are the most popular hydraulic binders used to make plasters. They are characterised by a

T. Cerulli; C. Pistolesi; C. Maltese; D Salvioni

2003-01-01

280

A multivariable Smith predictor for intelligent control of a cupola furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cupola is a furnace used for melting pig iron, scrap steel, cast iron scrap, foundry return scrap, and ferroalloys to a specified tapping temperature and chemical composition. Automatic control of the process is introduced to help improve the role of the cupola in the foundry industry by producing lower material and processing costs and improved product quality. A multivariable

Kevin L. Moore; Mohamed Abdelrahaman; Denis Clark; Eric Larsen; Herschel Smartt; Carolyn Einerson

1995-01-01

281

VAI blast furnace automation-a powerful solution for highest production economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanently increasing cost pressure in the iron and steel industry means that cost-optimized operation and highest production quality along the entire process route are the key factors for competitive and profitable production. This is particularly true in the blast furnace sector where hot metal production costs are determined by the factors of: productivity; fuel consumption; selection of raw materials; and

H. Druckenthaner; J. Scheidl; B. Schurz; G. Kolb; G. Brunnbauer; A. Ferstl

1997-01-01

282

Waste Heat Recovery – Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF)  

E-print Network

Submerged Arc Furnaces are used to produce high temperature alloys. These furnaces typically run at 3000°F using high voltage electricity along with metallurgical carbon to reduce metal oxides to pure elemental form. The process as currently...

O'Brien, T.

2008-01-01

283

Effect of storage and subsequent reheating on viability of Listeria monocytogenes on pork scrapple.  

PubMed

We evaluated the fate of Listeria monocytogenes on commercial pork scrapple, a regionally popular, ready-to-eat (RTE) meat. We also conducted an informal survey to address consumer practices for storing and reheating scrapple. Of the 129 consumers who responded to at least one of the eight questions posed in the survey, about half (46.4%; 52 of 112) considered scrapple RTE, the majority (69.7%; 76 of 109) stored it in the refrigerator, and all (100%; 112 of 112) preferred to reheat it prior to consumption. Most respondents (83.9%; 94 of 112) reheated the scrapple by pan frying for 1 to 10 min at medium to high temperature. To study pathogen behavior, slices of pork scrapple were surface inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (ca. 2.0 log CFU/g), vacuum sealed, and stored for up to 60 days. Pathogen levels increased to 8.9, 9.5, and 9.9 log CFU/g after 44 (4 degrees C), 21 (10 degrees C), and 5 (21 degrees C) days, respectively. When slices 1.3 cm (ca. 55 g) and 1.9 cm (ca. 85 g) thick were surface inoculated with L. monocytogenes (ca. 7.0 log CFU/g) and then reheated in a skillet (191 degrees C) for 0.5 to 4 min per side or to target instantaneous internal temperatures of 48.9 to 71.1 degrees C, it was possible to achieve pathogen reductions ranging from ca. 2.2 to 6.5 log CFU/g. These data confirm that in the unlikely event of postprocessing contamination of pork scrapple by L. monocytogenes, proper reheating can appreciably reduce levels of the pathogen before consumption. PMID:20003735

Adekunle, A O; Porto-Fett, A C S; Call, J E; Shoyer, B; Gartner, K; Tufft, L; Luchansky, J B

2009-12-01

284

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

285

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

286

Crystal growth and furnace analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal analysis of Hg/Cd/Te solidification in a Bridgman cell is made using Continuum's VAST code. The energy equation is solved in an axisymmetric, quasi-steady domain for both the molten and solid alloy regions. Alloy composition is calculated by a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate its effect on melt thermal conductivity and, consequently, on the temperature field within the cell. Solidification is assumed to occur at a fixed temperature of 979 K. Simplified boundary conditions are included to model both the radiant and conductive heat exchange between the furnace walls and the alloy. Calculations are performed to show how the steady-state isotherms are affected by: the hot and cold furnace temperatures, boundary condition parameters, and the growth rate which affects the calculated alloy's composition. The Advanced Automatic Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), developed by NASA, is also thermally analyzed using the CINDA code. The objective is to determine the performance and the overall power requirements for different furnace designs.

Dakhoul, Youssef M.

1986-01-01

287

Characteristics of steel slag under different cooling conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four types of steel slags, a ladle slag, a BOF (basic oxygen furnace) slag and two different EAF (electric arc furnace) slags, were characterized and modified by semi-rapid cooling in crucibles and rapid cooling by water granulation. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different cooling conditions on the properties of glassy slags with respect to

M. Tossavainen; F. Engstrom; Q. Yang; N. Menad; M. Lidstrom Larsson; B. Bjorkman

2007-01-01

288

FUGITIVE EMISSIONS FROM INTEGRATED IRON AND STEEL PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an engineering investigation of fugitive (non-ducted) emissions in the iron and steel industry. Operations excluded from the study are coke ovens, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) charging, and blast furnace cast houses. Fugitive emission factors for iron an...

289

Activity of reducing steel slag of EAF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing steel slag (RSS) was mainly acquired from five electric-arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking plants (among them, the products\\u000a of two plants were carbon steel and those of other plants were stainless steel) for research tests. The chemical properties,\\u000a compound compositions, activities and contents of main expansive compounds were tested. The results showed that the field\\u000a sampled RSS had a very

Chinhsiang Guo; Chaolung Hwang; Tingyi Lin

2011-01-01

290

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

291

Air-Side Energy Use Calculations for Four HVAC Systems: Dual Duct Constant Volume (DDCAV), Dual Duct Variable Volume (DDVAV), Constant Volume with Reheat (CAVRH0), Variable Volume with Reheat (VAVRH)  

E-print Network

(CAVRH), and variable volume with reheat (VAVRH). These calculations are presented in spreadsheets that include a running commentary so that the reader can trace through the calculations to see what is being performed. Each system also contains a one...

Haberl, J. S.

2001-01-01

292

Optimizing rotary furnace smelting of battery residue  

SciTech Connect

The process for recovering lead from battery residues used in several Mexican Plants include lead blast furnace and rotary furnaces. The formers are basically fed with recycled batteries together with the necessary additives to produce metallic lead. One of the by-products generated in the blast furnace is a dust mainly formed by lead sulfide. The rotary furnace is used to recover lead from lead batteries, dross from the refining-alloying process and the lead fines produced in the blast furnace. This paper describes thermodynamic analysis made to the rotary furnace process to understand the effect that each component of the system has upon the lead recovery. In order to enhance the process, the influence of iron chips composition and excess coke on slag viscosity is discussed. A computer optimization program has been developed to design the furnace charge based on material and energy balances, together with the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation.

Chavez, F.; Morales, R.D.; Romero, A.; Guerrero, A.

1995-12-31

293

Big-bang nucleosynthesis with unstable gravitino and upper bound on the reheating temperature  

SciTech Connect

We study the effects of unstable gravitino on big-bang nucleosynthesis. If the gravitino mass is smaller than {approx}10 TeV, primordial gravitinos produced after inflation are likely to decay after big-bang nucleosynthesis starts, and light-element abundances may be significantly affected by hadro and photodissociation processes as well as by p{r_reversible}n conversion process. We calculate the light-element abundances and derive upper bounds on the reheating temperature after inflation. In our analysis, we calculate decay parameters of the gravitino (i.e. lifetime and branching ratios) in detail. In addition, we perform a systematic study of the hadron spectrum produced by the gravitino decay, taking account of all the hadrons produced by the decay products of the gravitino (including the daughter superparticles). We discuss model dependence of the upper bound on the reheating temperature.

Kohri, Kazunori [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Moroi, Takeo; Yotsuyanagi, Akira [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

2006-06-15

294

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-09-01

295

Development of heat exchangers for reheating scrubbed flue gas in a pilot plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of some reheating systems in flue gas desulphurization plants was studied. The following problems are examined: the influence of solid impurities in gas on the heat transfer coefficient, the different operational conditions to test clearing of the heat transfer surface, the rate of corrosion, and the partial gas recirculation. Measurements to increase the heat transfer coefficient and removing of liquid drops are suggested. Measurement techniques, insulation and prevention of leakage are discussed.

Michalak, S.

1982-09-01

296

Testing of heat exchanger systems for reheating flue gases from wet scrubbing desulfurization plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two heat exchanger systems: the cyclic process of GEA and, the plate heat exchanger of Kablitz/Thyssen, for reheating flue gases, which have been cooled to about 50 to 55 C due to wet scrubbing, to the required temperature at the outlet of the stack by extracting the sensible heat of the hot flue gases were tested. The problem of building materials and on keeping clean the heat exchanger surface are emphasized.

Than, K.

1982-09-01

297

Semisolid microstructure evolution during reheating of aluminum A356 alloy deformed severely by ECAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semi-solid metal forming is a new developing technology that has some advantages in relation to other forming and casting technologies like high pressure die casting. This process contains three main steps: feedstock manufacturing, reheating and forming. Producing feedstocks with non-dendritic and spherical microstructure is one of the considerable factors in semi-solid forming. Feedstock manufacturing can be carried out with casting

S. Ashouri; M. Nili-Ahmadabadi; M. Moradi; M. Iranpour

2008-01-01

298

Gravitational wave background as a probe of reheating temperature of the Universe  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the reheating temperature of the Universe can be determined observationally by future space-based laser interferometer experiments such as DECIGO and/or BBO if it is around 10{sup 6-9} GeV, depending on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. As an application, it may provide an evidence of the gravitino dark matter scenario, if it is the LSP.

Nakayama, Kazunori [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Saito, S.; Suwa, Y. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yokoyama, J. [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)

2008-11-23

299

Conservation, An In-Plant Energy Resource  

E-print Network

Potential energy savings of 90 billion cubic feet of natural gas per year on existing facilities in basic steel alone are attainable through retrofitting and improvement in operations. Areas covered include reheat furnaces, soaking pits, cover...

Skudneski, L. A.

1980-01-01

300

Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 °C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90° in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10-5 mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 °C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 °C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 °C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation.

Sharma, Hemant; Wattjes, Alix C.; Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S. Erik

2009-12-01

301

Acicular ferrite transformation in alloy-steel weld metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the morphology of acicular ferrite in alloy-steel weld metals has been investigated. The effect of the grain\\u000a size of prior austenite on acicular ferrite transformation has also been studied. It is found that acicular ferrite can form\\u000a in reheated weld metals when the austenite grain size is relatively large. On the other hand, classical sheaf-like bainite\\u000a will

J. R. Yang; H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

1991-01-01

302

The microstructure and fracture of a carburized steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case microstructure and fracture of a coarse-grained 8620 steel carburized to 1 pet surface carbon are quite sensitive\\u000a to austenitizing conditions. Reheating martensitic speci-mens below theA\\u000a cm produces in the case a refined austenitic grain size, a very fine mar-tensite, spherical carbide particles and a minimum\\u000a of retained austenite and microcrack-ing. Overload fracture through the latter microstructure is transgranular

George Krauss

1978-01-01

303

Crystal growth furnace with trap doors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

Sachs, Emanual M. (Inventor); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

304

Crystal growth furnace with trap doors  

DOEpatents

An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Lexington, MA)

1982-06-15

305

Standard surface defects produced by water vapour oxidation in steels used in fossil fuel fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work describes the population of surface defects produced by steam in steels typically used in superheater, reheater and water wall tubes of fossil fuel fired power stations at working temperatures. An accurate statistical description of material defects (in the as-manufactured condition and of those defects induced in service), and the service conditions (temperature, stress, time, ambient…) is necessary

R Rodr??guez; A Mart??n-Meizoso; I Ocaña; J. M Mart??nez-Esnaola; A. S Pérez; J Izquierdo

2003-01-01

306

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to the furnace. The off-gas from the furnace, consisting of by-product CO as well as volatiles from the feeds, pass through a venturi scrubber, where water is introduced to scrub out the fume from the furnace and cool the gas. The mixed scrubber water and off-gas pass into a centrifugal mist eliminator where the water and fume disengage from the gas. The fume slurry is passed through bag filters where the fume is separated from the water. The clean off-gas from the furnace was evaluated for its calorific value and evaluated for conversion to useful products. A number of silicon smelting tests were conducted during this program. Various levels of charcoal and coal mixtures were evaluated to determine the optimum mix. A low volatile coal was preferred over typical Blue Gem coal. The coal amount in the mix was maximized without compromising the smelting performance. A raw material mix consisting of 30% charcoal and 70% low volatile coal was determined to be an optimum mix for closed furnace operation. Silicon recoveries in the low nineties were demonstrated using this mix. Four quartz sources were also evaluated in the closed furnace. The closed furnace operation for silicon smelting was identified to offer significant advantages over an open furnace from the standpoint of reduced carbon oxidation losses, electrode consumption, electrical energy consumption and silicon yield improvement. Other advantages in addition to process off-gas recovery included improved safety from reduced heat and fume exposure, and improved pollution control to the environment. 1 ref.

Dosaj, V.; Brumels, M.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B. (Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States))

1991-01-01

307

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to the furnace. The off-gas from the furnace, consisting of by-product CO as well as volatiles from the feeds, pass through a venturi scrubber, where water is introduced to scrub out the fume from the furnace and cool the gas. The mixed scrubber water and off-gas pass into a centrifugal mist eliminator where the water and fume disengage from the gas. The fume slurry is passed through bag filters where the fume is separated from the water. The clean off-gas from the furnace was evaluated for its calorific value and evaluated for conversion to useful products. A number of silicon smelting tests were conducted during this program. Various levels of charcoal and coal mixtures were evaluated to determine the optimum mix. A low volatile coal was preferred over typical Blue Gem coal. The coal amount in the mix was maximized without compromising the smelting performance. A raw material mix consisting of 30% charcoal and 70% low volatile coal was determined to be an optimum mix for closed furnace operation. Silicon recoveries in the low nineties were demonstrated using this mix. Four quartz sources were also evaluated in the closed furnace. The closed furnace operation for silicon smelting was identified to offer significant advantages over an open furnace from the standpoint of reduced carbon oxidation losses, electrode consumption, electrical energy consumption and silicon yield improvement. Other advantages in addition to process off-gas recovery included improved safety from reduced heat and fume exposure, and improved pollution control to the environment. 1 ref.

Dosaj, V.; Brumels, M.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States)

1991-12-31

308

Creep life prediction of a high strength steel plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep life prediction of a high strength steel plate is important in the context of its application as a blast furnace structural element. Numerical analysis using ANSYS was carried out on a high strength steel plate that was simply supported at its one edge and subjected to an in plane constant tensile stress at the opposite edge. Material parameters were

R. Rajendran; J. K. Paik; J. M. Lee; Y. H. Chae; M. S. Lee

2008-01-01

309

Electrical Power Quality of Iron and Steel Industry in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron and steel industry has been growing increasingly in Turkey in the last decade. Today its electricity demand is nearly one tenth of the installed generation capability of 40 GW in the country. In this paper, power quality investigations based on the arc furnace installations of the iron and steel plants using field measurements according to the international standard IEC

O. Salor; B. Gultekin; S. Buhan; B. Boyrazoglu; T. Inan; T. Atalik; A. Acik; A. Terciyanli; O. Unsar; E. Altintas; Y. Akkaya; E. Ozdemirci; I. Cadirci; M. Ermis

2007-01-01

310

Electrical Power Quality of Iron and Steel Industry in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iron and steel industry has been growing increasingly in Turkey in the last decade. Today, its electricity demand is nearly one tenth of the installed generation capability of 40 GW in the country. In this paper, power quality (PQ) investigations based on the arc furnace installations of the iron and steel plants using field measurements according to the international

ÖzgÜl Salor; Burhan Gultekin; Serkan Buhan; Burak Boyrazoglu; Tolga Inan; T. Atalk; A. Ak; A. Terciyanl; ÖzgÜr Unsar; E. Altntas; Yener Akkaya; ErcÜment Ozdemirci; Muammer Ermis

2010-01-01

311

19. Inside the cast house at Furnace A. Molten iron ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Inside the cast house at Furnace A. Molten iron flowed into eight ladles. The furnace was cast (or tapped) six times each day. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

312

Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors  

SciTech Connect

The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

2003-02-28

313

Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces  

E-print Network

of the operating furnace, and then confirms the effectiveness of any changes made. Application of the protocol resulted in a 10% improvement in energy transfer into the glass or a 2.6% energy improvement in overall furnace efficiency. It is estimated that energy...

Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

2005-01-01

314

Zinc recovery from blast furnace flue dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace flue dusts are a mixture of oxides expelled from the top of the blast furnace, whose major components are iron oxides. They also contain zinc, silicon, magnesium and other minor element oxides in lesser amounts. The direct recycling of flue dust is not usually possible since it contains some undesirable elements (zinc and alkaline metals) that can cause

B. Asadi Zeydabadi; D. Mowla; M. H. Shariat; J. Fathi Kalajahi

1997-01-01

315

Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions  

SciTech Connect

Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy

2009-07-15

316

Quartz Liner Tube Inside Tube Furnace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the American Physical Society, gives a brief description of a furnace at Kansas State University that is used in semiconductor research. An image shows heat radiation from the quartz liner in this furnace, which is used in silicon-doping experiments.

2008-09-10

317

Numerical Modelling of Biomass Grate Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is increasingly being used for the optimisation of industrial coal furnaces and gas burners. Due to the high complexity of heterogeneous combustion of fixed or moving biomass fuel beds, only few research projects have so far dealt with the introduction of CFD as a cost-efficient tool in the optimisation of biomass grate furnaces. The present work

Robert Scharler; Ingwald Obernberger

2000-01-01

318

Overview of Energy Efficiency for Glass Furnace  

E-print Network

thermodynamic energy required Internal ­ within plant, time series External- with other plants #12;3 April, 2006)Data Analysis ­ regression ­ pooled cross-sectional and time series data, best practice, average data b) Minimum Provide useful input for new furnace design #12;3 April, 2006 16 Need for Model Furnace processes - Glass

Banerjee, Rangan

319

Channel Furnace Melting with Jet Flow Inductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melting of metal in vessels powered by channel type inductors dates back to early in this century. Until recently, iron foundries requiring 5 to 10 tons of metal per hour relied upon cupolas or arc furnaces. About 15 years ago, the coreless induction furnace began to find acceptance in this field. Now improvements in the basic design of channel induction

Richard A. Sommer

1976-01-01

320

Methods of Intensifying Blast-Furnace Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1871, famous metallurgist Henri Bessemer became the first to proclaim the benefits of increasing the operating pressure in blast furnaces [1]. The underlying assumption here was that increasing furnace pressure would raise the temperature of the products of fuel combustion in the tuyere hearths. Forty-four years later, a paper written by P. M. Esmanski for the Ekaterinoslav Mining Institute

I. E. Sperkach; I. F. Kurunov

2005-01-01

321

National Dioxin Study Tier 4 - combustion sources: final test report - Site 11, drum and barrel reclamation furnace DBR-A  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a dioxin/furan emissions test of a drum and barrel reconditioning furnace equipped with an afterburner for emissions control. Steel drums are reconditioned by combusting the drum contents (residual material) in a tunnel furnace. The test was the 11th in a series of emission tests conducted under Tier 4 of the National Dioxin Study. The primary objective of Tier 4 is to determine if various combustion devices are sources of dioxin and/or furan emissions. If any of the combustion sources are found to emit dioxin or furan, the secondary objective of Tier 4 is to quantify these emissions. Drum-reconditioning furnaces are one of 8 combustion-device categories that have been tested in the Tier 4 program. The tested furnace, DBR-A, was selected for the test after an initial information screening and a one-day pretest survey. The drums processed at the plant are received from a number of different sources, thus the combustible material burned in the furnace is heterogeneous. Furnace DBR-A is considered representative of other drum-reconditioning furnaces operating in the United States. Data presented in the report include dioxin (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDD) and furan (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDF) results for both stack samples and ash samples. In addition, process data collected during sampling are also presented.

Knisley, D.R.; Kelly, W.E.; Keller, L.E.

1987-04-01

322

EFFECT OF EAF AND ESR TECHNOLOGIES ON THE YIELD OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS IN TOOL STEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alloying elements in steel are greatly affected by the melti ng and refining technology. In this study the effect of electric arc furnace (EAF) smelting and electro-slag refining (ESR) of selected three grades of tool steels (cold work, hot work and high-speed steels) on the yield of alloying elements is studied. The effect of EAF technology on the yield of

T. Mattar; H. S. R. El-Faramawy; A. Fath; M. Eissa; K. A. El-Fawakhry

323

Design of a new nanostructured, high-Si bainitic steel with lower cost production  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce cost production, a bainitic steel with a new chemical composition was designed using MUCG83 thermodynamic model. The steel was cast as cylinder bar using a high frequency induction furnace under argon gas atmosphere. The cast cylinder was electro-slag remelted (ESR) for obtaining clean steel. Hot rolling was carried out after ESR to reduce the thickness and to change

M. N. Yoozbashi; S. Yazdani; T. S. Wang

2011-01-01

324

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project public design report. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The public design report describes the Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection (BFGCI) project under construction at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. The project is the first installation in the United States for the British Steel technology using granular coal in blast furnaces. The objective is to demonstrate that granular coal is an economic and reliable fuel which can successfully be applied to large North American blast furnaces. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I-Design; Phase II-Procurement & Construction; and Phase III-Operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in April 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began August 1993. Construction is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by a demonstration test program (Phase III).

NONE

1995-03-01

325

A multi-zone muffle furnace design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Multi-Zone Muffle-Tube Furnace was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of providing an in-house experience base with tubular furnaces for materials processing in microgravity. As such, it must not only provide the desired temperatures and controlled thermal gradients at several discrete zones along its length but must also be capable of sustaining the rigors of a Space Shuttle launch. The furnace is insulated to minimize radial and axial heat losses. It is contained in a water-cooled enclosure for purposes of dissipating un-wanted residual heat, keeping the outer surfaces of the furnace at a 'touch-safe' temperature, and providing a rugged housing. This report describes the salient features of the furnace, testing procedures and results, and concluding remarks evaluating the overall design.

Rowe, Neil D.; Kisel, Martin

1993-01-01

326

Process Development for the Removal of Zinc and Cadmium from Wastewater Using Slag—A Blast Furnace Waste Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag, a waste generated in steel plants in India, has been converted into a low cost potential adsorbent. The resulting product has been characterized and used for the removal of zinc and cadmium. The effect of particle size, contact time, and surface loading of zinc and cadmium on the adsorbent for their removal have been studied at the

V. K. Gupta; Arshi Rastogi; M. K. Dwivedi; Dinesh Mohan

1997-01-01

327

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter a sample of the feed coal that is being used for injection into the No. 7 Blast Furnace of Inland Steel has been analyzed petrographically and compared to both the Herrin No. 6 coal and Armco feed coal. Additional characterization is underway and an advanced program of pyrolysis and reactivity testing has been initiated.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

1994-06-01

328

Hydrometallurgical recovery of zinc and lead from electric arc furnace dust using mononitrilotriacetate anion and hexahydrated ferric chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility at laboratory-scale of a new hydrometallurgical process for treating electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The proposed process is intended to extract zinc and lead from EAFD without destroying the iron oxides matrix. So, this material can be recycled by the steel industry. Independently of the origin of the samples, major

Nathalie Leclerc; Eric Meux; Jean-Marie Lecuire

2002-01-01

329

The effect of rare earth catalyst on carburizing kinetics in a sealed quench furnace with endothermic atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effect of a rare earth (RE) catalyst on the kinetics of gas carburizing of 08F and 8620 steels. Carburizing was conducted in a sealed-quench furnace employing an endothermic atmosphere with and without RE addition at 900°C for different times. These experimental results show that compared with conventional gas carburizing the incorporation of RE leads to an obvious

M. F. Yan; Wei Pan; T. Bell; Zhiru Liu

2001-01-01

330

Upgrading of Zinc from Galvanic Sludge and Steel Furnace Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining of zinc demands the upgrading of different residues of the refining process. A method, which had been used over a period of several years, was based on the so-called Dörschel process. From the chemical point of view, the Dörschel process is a high-temperature redox process, combined with a flash distillation (sublimation) step.This process is based on the reduction of

M. Siebenhofer; H. Schweiger; K. Lorber

1997-01-01

331

Bethlehem Steel Corporation Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

Construction of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on air quality, noise, and land use at the Burns Harbor Plant area. Operation of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on the environment at the Burns Harbor Plant area. An increase of approximately 30 tons/yr for NO{sub x} and approximately 13 tons/yr for particulate matter (from the coal storage area) is expected. These emissions are within the currently permitted levels. Carbon dioxide emissions, which are unregulated, would increase by about 220,000 tons/yr at the Burns Harbor Plant. Water withdrawn and returned to Lake Michigan would increase by 1.3 million gal/d (0.4 percent of existing permitted discharge) for non-contact cooling water. No protected species, floodplains, wetlands, or cultural resources would be affected by operation of the proposed facility. Small economic benefits would occur from the creation of 5 or 6 permanent new jobs during the operation of the proposed demonstration project and subsequent commercial operation. Under the No Action Alternative, the proposed project would not receive cost-shared funding support from DOE.

Not Available

1993-05-01

332

Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

Seaman, John

2013-01-14

333

Computational and experimental failure analysis of continuous-annealing furnace radiant tubes exposed to excessive temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiant tubes of a continuous-annealing furnace at Mobarakeh Steel Company failed after a fraction of their rated service life. The tubes were manufactured from INCONEL alloy 601 superalloy. In this study, a failure analysis of the radiant tubes was performed by careful visual inspection of the failed tubes, scanning electron microscopy observation of crack region samples, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and

Ghasem Dini; Sayed Mahmoud Monir Vaghefi; Mostafa Lotfiani; Majid Jafari; Mohammad Safaei-Rad; Morteza Navabi; Shahram Abbasi

2008-01-01

334

Removal of lead and chromium by activated slag -- A blast-furnace waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blast-furnace waste generated in steel plants has been converted into a low-cost adsorbent. The resulting activated slag has been characterized and used for the removal of lead and chromium. The effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentrations, presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time on the sorption of lead and chromium were studied in batch experiments. Kinetic

S. K. Srivastava; V. K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan

1997-01-01

335

Process dynamics of electric arc furnace during direct reduced iron melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenomenological mathematical model to simulate steelmaking operations in an electric arc furnace (EAF) has been developed.\\u000a This model has been validated with industrial data from a Mexican company that employs direct reduced iron (DRI) as the main\\u000a iron unit. The slag and steel composition can be predicted in real time with the aid of several components integrated into\\u000a the

R. D. Morales; A. N. Conejo; H. H. Rodriguez

2002-01-01

336

A simple high-pressure furnace for liquid-encapsulated Bridgman\\/Stockbarger crystal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a simple, internally-heated high pressure furnace for liquid-encapsulated synthesis and melt growth at temperatures up to 1200 C and pressures up to 100 bar. The hot zone is contained in a 102-mm-ID x 127-mm-OD x 508-mm-long tubular vessel made of 304-series stainless steel. The vessel is externally water cooled and has self-sealing O-ring end closures. A Kanthal

T. F. Ciszek; C. D. Evans

1988-01-01

337

Deep-hole carburization in a vacuum furnace by forced-convection gas flow method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carburization in the deep hole with high aspect ratio is a great challenge for the metallurgist. In this paper, the deep-hole carburization of JIS SCM415 as well as SNCM 220 steel with an aspect ratio of beyond 30 has been developed in a two-chamber vacuum furnace under low-pressure acetylene atmosphere by virtue from the forced-convection gas flow carburizing method. The

Fan-Shiong Chen; Lee-Der Liu

2003-01-01

338

Energy Consumption and Potential for Energy Conservation in the Steel Industry  

E-print Network

, April 22-25, 1979 IRON ORE REDUCTION STEELMAKING PRIMARY CONVERSION HOT ROLLING FINISHING SIMPLIFIED FLOW SHEET STEEL PRODUCTION PROCESSES Iron Ore & Wastes , Agg lomerating Pellets Ore & Flux Coal ~ " Sinter - Blast ~ Coke Furnaces... in the world are identical. In the iron-ore reduction process there are three separate operations: blast furnaces, ore agglomerating facilities other than the mine-site preparation previously mentioned, and coke ovens -- the blast furnaces being the central...

Hughes, M. L.

1979-01-01

339

[Study on quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag].  

PubMed

Quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline and crystalline contents in blast furnace slag was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The process of quantificational analysis method includes standard samples preparation, samples preparation, X-ray diffraction measurement and data treatment. The data treatment includes integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks in certain diffraction angle range, linear fitting and quantificational coefficient determination. The preparation methods of standard samples for X-ray diffraction of blast furnace slag were proposed, including 100% crystalline sample and 100% non-crystalline sample. The 100% crystalline sample can be obtained by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1 000-1 200 degrees C, and the 100% non-crystalline sample can be obtained by quenching the molten slag with enough water. The X-ray diffraction method of quantificational analysis of non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag was proposed with the 100% non-crystalline and 100% crystalline standard samples, and the quantificational coefficient can be obtained by linear regression on the integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks of X-ray diffraction in the 2-theta range 20 degrees-40 degrees. This method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 80%. The non-crystalline and crystalline contents of original blast furnace slag are obtained by combining the X-ray diffraction results and mathematical treatment, and this method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 90%, whose process includes preparing the 100% crystalline standard sample by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1000-1200 degrees C, samples preparation with the 0.02 interval in the 0-0.1 mass ratio range of 100% crystalline to original slag, X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples prepared and data treatment using iterative linear regression. The quantificational analysis method for blast furnace slag can be applied to various kinds of blast furnace slag from different steel plants. PMID:18479048

Yan, Ding-Liu; Guo, Pei-Min; Qi, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Xia; Wang, Hai-Feng; Dai, Xiao-Tian

2008-02-01

340

Innovative Energy Conservation Through Scrao Pre-heating in an Electric Arc Furnace  

E-print Network

to provide measurement and verification (M&V) data to demonstrate the measure?s electricity savings for 10 years after the measure is declared to be in service. Prior to the upgrade, the EAF at Ivaco Rolling Mills 2004 L.P. melted recycled steel scrap... for casting into billets that are eventually rolled into steel wire products on site. The scrap melting process at the facility was a batch process. The EAF roof wa periodically opened to load or ?charge? the furnace with scrap. Electricity, natural gas...

Dicion, A.

2013-01-01

341

Multisystem corrosion monitoring in a cyclic reheat test facility: Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report was the first stage of an EPRI-sponsored corrosion investigation utilizing the CAPCIS electrochemical monitoring system installed in a cyclic reheat test facility on a flue gas slipstream at the Scholz Steam Plant of Gulf Power Company. The primary reasons for incorporating the continuous corrosion monitoring system in the cyclic reheat investigation were that unexpectedly high corrosion rates had been observed in earlier tests at certain locations within the test exchanger and the precise reasons for these high rates of attack were not well understood. The corrosion behavior was not typical of the limited service experience on full scale units and the reasons for this required clarification. Controlled temperature weight loss and electrochemical probes were installed in the unit in place of three of the 1-inch diameter heat exchanger tubes. The corrosion behavior of Inconel Alloy 625 over the temperature range 260/degree/ to 120/degree/F (127/degree/ to 49/degree/C) was evaluated at mid-stream and sidewall locations. The efects on corrosion of operational variables and cleaning procedures were also evaluated. The severe corrosion attack sustained on the Inconel Alloy 625 was proved to result from a combination of effects which included the flue gas flow pattern, local cool-spots within the unit and preferential locations at which ash deposits could accumulate. 5 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

Farrell, D.M.; Cox, W.M.; Gearey, D.

1988-04-01

342

Fluidized-Bed and Salt-Bath Heat Treating (AISI 4130 and 4340 Alloy Steels).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using commercial alloy steels AISI 4130 and AISI 4340, a series of heat treating parametric studies were performed on specimens in both an electric fluidized-bed furnace and an electric neutral-salt-bath furnace. An evaluation of heat treating methods was...

W. L. Cyrus

1983-01-01

343

Fluidized-Bed and Salt-Bath Heat Treating (AISI 4130 and 4340 Alloy Steels).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using commercial alloy steels AISI 4130 and AISI 4340, a series of heat-treating, parametric studies were performed on specimens in both an electric fluidized-bed furnace and an electric neutral salt-bath furnace. An evaluation of heat-treating methods wa...

W. L. Cyrus

1983-01-01

344

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME II. SINTERING, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

345

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is the first in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, ge...

346

Radionuclides in steel slag intended for road construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to describe the radiochemical characteristics of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag from Croatian\\u000a EAF black steel slags, generated from carbon steel production process in CMC Sisak d.o.o., and steel mill in Split in order\\u000a to enhance the understanding of possibilities for their use in road construction. This article presents the results of radionuclide\\u000a in

Tahir Sofili?; Delko Bariši?; Alenka Rastov?an Mio?; Una Sofili?

2010-01-01

347

Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent. PMID:25078829

Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

2013-12-01

348

Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

1986-01-01

349

46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that the furnace is in good working order. In each calibration the energy input to the furnace is adjusted so that the furnace thermocouple gives a steady reading of 750 ±10 °C. The wall temperature of the furnace tube is then measured by an optical...

2012-10-01

350

46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that the furnace is in good working order. In each calibration the energy input to the furnace is adjusted so that the furnace thermocouple gives a steady reading of 750 ±10 °C. The wall temperature of the furnace tube is then measured by an optical...

2010-10-01

351

Removable preheater elements improve oxide induction furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat and corrosion resistant preheater elements are used in oxide induction furnaces to raise the temperature to the level for conducting electricity. These preheater elements are then removed and the induction coil energized.

Leipold, M. H.

1964-01-01

352

Reduced Electric Reactance for Electric Arc Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reduction of the high current circuit reactance of 3-phase electric arc furnaces will increase the thermoelectric efficiency. This improvement is expected to result in savings of electricity and other consumables as well as in reduced network turbulat...

R. Kasper

1983-01-01

353

Reduced Electric Reactance for Electric Arc Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reduction of the high current circuit reactance of 3-phase electric arc furnaces which will increase the thermoelectric efficiency is discussed. The improvement is expected to result in savings of electricity and other consumables and in reduced netwo...

R. Kasper

1983-01-01

354

A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

1999-04-20

355

Combustion Air Preheat on Steam Cracker Furnaces  

E-print Network

Beginning in 1978, Exxon has started up nine large new steam cracking furnaces with various levels of air preheat, and has seven more under construction. Sources of heat have included process streams, flue gas and gas turbine exhaust. Several...

Kenney, W. F.

1983-01-01

356

Redesigned Electron-Beam Furnace Boosts Productivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Redesigned electron-beam furnace features carousel of greater capacity so more experiments conducted per loading, and time spent on reloading and vacuum pump-down reduced. Common mounting plate for electron source and carousel simplifies installation and reduces vibration.

Williams, Gary A.

1995-01-01

357

Creating successful blast furnace refractory systems  

SciTech Connect

Successful lifetimes of the refractories utilized in the blast furnace are dependent on a variety of external factors such as operation, geometry, cooling capability, configuration and arrangement, as well as refractory properties. These external factors, as well as the properties required to withstand the main mechanisms of wear, combine to create the successful refractory system. These significant factors and properties are reviewed with the intention of providing guidelines required for successful refractory performance in the blast furnace.

Dzermejko, A.J. [UCAR Carbon Co., Inc., Columbia, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

358

Copper staves in the blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

Operational data for stave cooling systems for two German blast furnaces show good correlation with predicted thermal results. Copper staves have been installed in blast furnaces in the zones exposed to the highest thermal loads. The good operational results achieved confirm the choice of copper staves in the areas of maximum heat load. Both temperature measurements and predictions establish that the MAN GHH copper staves do not experience large temperature fluctuations and that the hot face temperatures will be below 250 F. This suggests that the copper staves maintain a more stable accretion layer than the cast iron staves. Contrary to initial expectations, heat flux to the copper staves is 50% lower than that to cast iron staves. The more stable accretion layer acts as an excellent insulator for the stave and greatly reduces the number of times the hot face of the stave is exposed to the blast furnace process and should result in a more stable furnace operation. In the future, it may be unnecessary to use high quality, expensive refractories in front of copper staves because of the highly stable accretion layer that appears to rapidly form due to the lower operating temperature of the staves. There is a balance of application regions for cast iron and copper staves that minimizes the capital cost of a blast furnace reline and provides an integrated cooling system with multiple campaign life potential. Cast iron staves are proven cooling elements that are capable of multiple campaign life in areas of the blast furnace which do not experience extreme heat loads. Copper staves are proving to be an effective and reliable blast furnace cooling element that are subject to virtually no wear and are projected to have a longer campaign service life in the areas of highest thermal load in the blast furnace.

Helenbrook, R.G. [ATSI, Inc., Amherst, NY (United States); Kowalski, W. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany); Grosspietsch, K.H. [Preussag Stahl AG, Saltzgitter (Germany); Hille, H. [MAN GHH AG, Oberhausen (Germany)

1996-08-01

359

Furnaces for steam reforming of methane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey covers the integration of furnaces capable of producing 520,000 to 4.2 million cu m\\/day of hydrogen with plants for ore reduction, hydrogenation, and the production of chemicals, including ammonia, methanol, and urea; design and operating parameters, including heat recovery; heat exchanger and condenser materials; problems caused by catalyst expansion; furnace operation and control requirements and problems; noise propagation

Amblard

1973-01-01

360

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

Crelling, J.C.

1995-12-31

361

Quality of coal for blast furnace injection  

SciTech Connect

CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC) has been involved in a research program to evaluate the suitability of various coals for blast furnace injection. The primary objectives of this program are to provide essential information on coal combustion in the blast furnace and to establish proper criteria for evaluating and selecting coals for blast furnace injection. The program comprises three parts. Parts one and two have been completed. To date, the program has encompassed both a theoretical assessment of cooling and coke replacement characteristics of coals using CETC`s computer model and an experimental determination of the combustibility of coals of different ranks and particle sizes as well as the influence of oxygen enrichment on burnout. The experimental part was conducted in CETC`s pilot-scale injection unit that simulates blast furnace blowpipe-tuyere conditions. Part three now being developed will incorporate results of experimental trials into a blast furnace raceway model in order to predict total combustibility of coals at different blast furnace operating conditions. This paper describes CETC`s facility and methodology of work, and presents and discusses results.

Hutny, W.P.; Giroux, L.; MacPhee, J.A.; Price, J.T. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre/Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1996-12-31

362

[The electric furnace of Henri Moissan at one hundred years: connection with the electric furnace, the solar furnace, the plasma furnace?].  

PubMed

The trace of Henri Moissan's pioneer work 100 years ago is clearly evidenced by an overview of achievements in high temperature devices; 1987: "Le four électrique" by Henri Moissan; 1948-1952: "High temperature heating in a cavity rotary kiln using focusing of solar radiation" by Félix Trombe; 1962: "The cavity rotary kiln using focused solar radiation jointly with a plasma gun" by Marc Foëx; 1970: "The rotary kiln with two plasma guns and arc transfer" by Marc Foëx; 1984: "The plasma furnace" by Electricité de France (EDF) at Renardières; 1997: "The plasma furnace" by the Atomic Energy Center (CEA) at Cadarache, the VULCANO program. The first part of this contribution is devoted to Henri Moissan. Re-reading his early book on the electric furnace, especially the first chapter and the sections on silica, carbon vapor and experiments performed in casting molten metal--the conclusions are outstanding--provides modern readers with an amazing insight into future developments. The last two parts are devoted to Félix Trombe and Marc Foëx, tracing the evolution of high temperature cavity processus leading to the solar furnace and the present day plasma furnace at the CEA. Focus is placed on research conducted by the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) with the solar and plasma furnaces at Odeillo. The relationships with Henri Moissan's early work are amazing, offering a well deserved homage to this pioneer researcher. PMID:10365467

Royère, C

1999-03-01

363

Glass Furnace Project: October 1981-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Glass Furnace Project is to evaluate the use of a joule-heated glass furnace, fitted with a Mound-developed offgas system, to reduce the volume of contaminated waste typical of that from nuclear power plants. As part of the project, several different waste types, including dry solid waste, ion exchange resin, and sludge, will be burned in the glass furnace unit. Burned combustion characteristics and radionuclide behavior in the glass furnace and associated offgas system will be monitored to determine optimum operating conditions. The project will provide an evaluation of the glass furnace as a volume reduction technique for the nuclear power industry as well as design criteria that can be used in constructing such a system by the end of FY-1984. The first half of FY-1982 was devoted to completion of the installation, checkout, and startup of the furnace unit and control systems. Compatibility studies to determine the effects of refractory and simulated waste on the soda-lime glass matrix were also performed in conjunction with the Mound Glass Ceramics group. These studies include chemical durability testing to discern the optimum waste loading of the glass. Finally, an experimental procedure was designed to determine the combustion efficiency of the incinerator. The combustion offgas will be monitored during experimentation to determine such related parameters as optimum feedrate and total oxygen requirements.

Armstrong, K M; Klingler, L M

1982-05-14

364

Microstructural studies of advanced austenitic steels  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the first complete microstructural and analytical electron microscopy study of Alloy AX5, one of a series of advanced austenitic steels developed by Maziasz and co-workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for their potential application as reheater and superheater materials in power plants that will reach the end of their design lives in the 1990's. The advanced steels are modified with carbide forming elements such as titanium, niobium and vanadium. When combined with optimized thermo-mechanical treatments, the advanced steels exhibit significantly improved creep rupture properties compared to commercially available 316 stainless steels, 17--14 Cu--Mo and 800 H steels. The importance of microstructure in controlling these improvements has been demonstrated for selected alloys, using stress relaxation testing as an accelerated test method. The microstructural features responsible for the improved creep strengths have been identified by studying the thermal aging kinetics of one of the 16Ni--14Cr advanced steels, Alloy AX5, in both the solution annealed and the solution annealed plus cold worked conditions. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams have been developed for the temperature range 600 C to 900 C and for times from 1 h to 3000 h. 226 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

Todd, J. A.; Ren, Jyh-Ching [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science

1989-11-15

365

New Gas Carburizing Method for Minimizing CO2 Emission by Saving Resources and Selective Removal of H2 in Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt has been made to develop a new gas carburizing furnace with the system that discharges H2 gas selectively from the atmosphere in the furnace. Polyimide hollow-fiber membrane filter on the market was selected as a filter that was expected to have good H2 gas permeability and selectivity. The results of the various gas permeability measurements of this filter showed that it had superior H2 gas permeability and selectivity. Using this gas filter module, a new industrial gas carburizing furnace that had ‘H2 gas selective discharging system’ was produced as a trial. Use of this furnace made possible to stabilize the gas carburizing atmosphere in the furnace under the lower carrier gas flow rate condition (below 25% of standard condition). It was confirmed that the carbon concentration profile of the steel carburized with the new carburizing furnace under lower carrier gas flow rate condition was comparable to that of the specimen carburized under standard carrier gas flow rate condition.

Mizukoshi, Tomoyuki; Yokoyama, Yujiro; Hoshino, Hideaki; Ishigami, Itsuo; Usui, Tateo

366

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the US Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I -- design; Phase II -- construction; and Phase III -- operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. A 100% construction review meeting was held in December and attended by representatives of DOE, Fluor Daniel and Bethlehem Steel. The coal preparation mills were started up in December, 1994, and the first coal was injected into ``D`` blast furnace on December 19, 1994. Near the end of the year, the grinding mills and injection facility were being prepared for performance testing during the first quarter of 1995. The demonstration test program (phase III) will start in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-07-01

367

Regularities of heat transfer in the gas layers of a steam boiler furnace flame. Part II. Gas layer radiation laws and the procedure for calculating heat transfer in furnaces, fire boxes, and combustion chambers developed on the basis of these laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the results stemming from the scientific discovery of laws relating to radiation from the gas layers generated during flame combustion of fuel and when electric arc burns in electric-arc steel-melting furnaces. The procedure for calculating heat transfer in electric-arc and torch furnaces, fire-boxes, and combustion chambers elaborated on the basis of this discovery is described.

Makarov, A. N.

2014-10-01

368

Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 degree sign C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degree sign in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10{sup -5} mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degree sign C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 deg. C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 deg. C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation.

Sharma, Hemant; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S. Erik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Wattjes, Alix C. [Electronic and Mechanical Support Division (DEMO), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan [Materials Innovation Institute, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

2009-12-15

369

Low-friction, anhydrous, low- to high-temperature furnace sample assembly for piston-cylinder apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly designed furnace assembly for piston-cylinder, high-pressure apparatus uses NaCl or KBr rather than hydrous materials such as talc or pyrophyllite. Unlike previous designs, our cell can be used hundreds of degrees above the melting temperatures of the salts. This cell requires little or no pressure correction and provides conditions that are free of H2 and H2O. The electrical power requirements are only about 60% of that for talc furnace assemblies, resulting in cooler operation and longer life for the steel and carbide in the pistons and pressure vessels.

Boettcher, A. L.; Windom, K. E.; Bohlen, S. R.; Luth, R. W.

1981-12-01

370

Sneutrino condensate source for density perturbations, leptogenesis, and low reheat temperature.  

PubMed

We bring together some known ingredients beyond the standard model physics that can explain the hot big bang model with the observed baryon asymmetry and also the fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation with a minimal set of assumptions. We propose an interesting scenario where the inflaton energy density is dumped into an infinitely large extra dimension. Instead of the inflaton it is the right handed sneutrino condensate, which is acquiring a nonzero vacuum expectation value during inflation, whose fluctuations are responsible for the density perturbations seen in the cosmic microwave background radiation with a spectral index n(s) approximately 1. The decay of the condensate is explaining the reheating of the Universe with a temperature, T(rh)< or =10(9) GeV, and the baryon asymmetry of order one part in 10(10) with no baryon-isocurvature fluctuations. PMID:15244992

Mazumdar, Anupam; Pérez-Lorenzana, Abdel

2004-06-25

371

Power and efficiency in a regenerative gas-turbine cycle with multiple reheating and intercooling stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using an improved Brayton cycle as a model, a general analysis accounting for the efficiency and net power output of a gas-turbine power plant with multiple reheating and intercooling stages is presented. This analysis provides a general theoretical tool for the selection of the optimal operating conditions of the heat engine in terms of the compressor and turbine isentropic efficiencies and of the heat exchanger efficiency. Explicit results for the efficiency, net power output, optimized pressure ratios, maximum efficiency, maximum power, efficiency at maximum power, and power at maximum efficiency are given. Among others, the familiar results of the Brayton cycle (one compressor and one turbine) and of the corresponding Ericsson cycle (infinite compressors and infinite turbines) are obtained as particular cases.

Calvo Hernández, A.; Roco, J. M. M.; Medina, A.

1996-06-01

372

Probing the reheating temperature of the universe with a gravitational wave background  

SciTech Connect

The thermal history of the universe after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is well understood both theoretically and observationally, and recent cosmological observations also begin to reveal the inflationary dynamics. However, the epoch between inflation and BBN is scarcely known. In this paper we show that the detection of the stochastic gravitational wave background around 1 Hz provides useful information about thermal history well before BBN. In particular, the reheating temperature of the universe may be determined by future space-based laser interferometer experiments such as DECIGO and/or BBO if it is around 10{sup 6-9} GeV, depending on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and dilution factor F.

Nakayama, Kazunori [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)] [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Saito, Shun; Suwa, Yudai [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yokoyama, Jun'ichi, E-mail: nakayama@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: ssaito@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: suwa@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2008-06-15

373

Hypercharged dark matter and direct detection as a probe of reheating.  

PubMed

The lack of new physics at the LHC so far weakens the argument for TeV scale thermal dark matter. On the other hand, heavier, nonthermal dark matter is generally difficult to test experimentally. Here we consider the interesting and generic case of hypercharged dark matter, which can allow for heavy dark matter masses without spoiling testability. Planned direct detection experiments will be able to see a signal for masses up to an incredible 1010??GeV, and this can further serve to probe the reheating temperature up to about 109??GeV, as determined by the nonthermal dark matter relic abundance. The Z-mediated nature of the dark matter scattering may be determined in principle by comparing scattering rates on different detector nuclei, which in turn can reveal the dark matter mass. We will discuss the extent to which future experiments may be able to make such a determination. PMID:24679278

Feldstein, Brian; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

2014-03-14

374

Antilisterial properties of marinades during refrigerated storage and microwave oven reheating against post-cooking inoculated chicken breast meat.  

PubMed

This study evaluated growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cooked chicken meat with different marinades and survival of the pathogen as affected by microwave oven reheating. During aerobic storage at 7 °C, on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7, samples were reheated by microwave oven (1100 W) for 45 or 90 s and analyzed microbiologically. L. monocytogenes counts on nonmarinated (control) samples increased (P < 0.05) from 2.7 ± 0.1 (day-0) to 6.9 ± 0.1 (day-7) log CFU/g during storage. Initial (day-0) pathogen counts of marinated samples were <0.5 log CFU/g lower than those of the control, irrespective of marinating treatment. At 7 d of storage, pathogen levels on samples marinated with tomato juice were not different (P ? 0.05; 6.9 ± 0.1 log CFU/g) from those of the control, whereas for samples treated with the remaining marinades, pathogen counts were 0.7 (soy sauce) to 2.0 (lemon juice) log CFU/g lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control. Microwave oven reheating reduced L. monocytogenes counts by 1.9 to 4.1 (45 s) and >2.4 to 5.0 (90 s) log CFU/g. With similar trends across different marinates, the high levels of L. monocytogenes survivors found after microwave reheating, especially after storage for more than 2 d, indicate that length of storage and reheating time need to be considered for safe consumption of leftover cooked chicken. PMID:23311403

Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Nychas, George-John; Sofos, John N

2013-02-01

375

Hydrometallurgically recovering zinc from electric arc furnace dusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of zinc-containing scrap for steel production has lead to a high zinc content in the electric arc furnace and converter flue dusts. The cost of disposing of this residue is high due to environmental restrictions. Various recycling processes have been developed for these dusts, but most never reached the pilot plant stage and many investigations were stopped because of metallurgical and economical inefficiencies. While pyrometallurgical methods have to deal with high energy consumption, low zinc yield, and valueless residues, hydrometallurgical processes could offer an economical recycling alternative. This paper describes hydrometallurgical methods for recovering zinc from steel industry dust. These methods can be integrated in the primary zinc-winning process or in galvanization. Investigations of sulfuric-acid leaching show high zinc solubility but also a high iron content in the final liquor. As a result, steps for purification are required that cannot be conducted economically. Alternatively, a NaOH leaching gives a satisfying zinc yield and a very low solubility for the iron that remains in the residue.

Antrekowitsch, J.; Antrekowitsch, H.

2001-12-01

376

Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Iron-Slag Ratio at Taphole of Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the initial process in an integrated steel-making plant, molten iron is produced in a blast furnace. The molten iron has a temperature between 1700 K and 1900 K. The outflow stream discharged from a taphole comprises the molten iron and slag (which is a mixture of molten oxides). Monitoring of the stream temperature is important because it has information on the thermal condition inside the blast furnace. A newly developed simultaneous measurement technique for temperature and iron-slag ratio is reported. A monochromatic CCD camera with a short exposure time is used to obtain a thermal image of the rapidly moving stream. The thermal image has a marble-like pattern caused by the physical separation of the iron and slag and their different optical properties. Iron thermometry is realized by automatically detecting the peak of the iron gray-level distribution on a histogram. Meanwhile, the thermal radiance of the semitransparent slag varies as a function of the thickness. The slag temperature is calculated from the maximum gray level, presuming that the emissivity of the slag is constant at a thick slag part. The slag ratio is measured by counting the number of pixels on the histogram. A field test was carried out at an operating blast furnace. The iron temperature, slag temperature, and slag ratio were successfully measured. This multiple image measurement is expected to be the new information source for stable blast furnace operation.

Sugiura, M.; Shinotake, A.; Nakashima, M.; Omoto, N.

2014-07-01

377

Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Iron-Slag Ratio at Taphole of Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the initial process in an integrated steel-making plant, molten iron is produced in a blast furnace. The molten iron has a temperature between 1700 K and 1900 K. The outflow stream discharged from a taphole comprises the molten iron and slag (which is a mixture of molten oxides). Monitoring of the stream temperature is important because it has information on the thermal condition inside the blast furnace. A newly developed simultaneous measurement technique for temperature and iron-slag ratio is reported. A monochromatic CCD camera with a short exposure time is used to obtain a thermal image of the rapidly moving stream. The thermal image has a marble-like pattern caused by the physical separation of the iron and slag and their different optical properties. Iron thermometry is realized by automatically detecting the peak of the iron gray-level distribution on a histogram. Meanwhile, the thermal radiance of the semitransparent slag varies as a function of the thickness. The slag temperature is calculated from the maximum gray level, presuming that the emissivity of the slag is constant at a thick slag part. The slag ratio is measured by counting the number of pixels on the histogram. A field test was carried out at an operating blast furnace. The iron temperature, slag temperature, and slag ratio were successfully measured. This multiple image measurement is expected to be the new information source for stable blast furnace operation.

Sugiura, M.; Shinotake, A.; Nakashima, M.; Omoto, N.

2014-08-01

378

Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Projection. Annual Report, Jan 1 - Dec 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This 1997 annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at the Burns Harbor Plant of Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to use British Steel technology1*2 that uses granular coal to provide a portion of the fuel requirements of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical and economic issues associated with the use of coal for injection into blast furnaces. To achieve the progmm objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at the Burns Harbor Plant (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

None

1998-04-01

379

Thermodynamic modelling of the formation of zinc-manganese ferrite spinel in electric arc furnace dust.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace dust is generated when automobile scrap, containing galvanized steel, is remelted in an electric arc furnace. This dust is considered as a hazardous waste in most countries. Zinc is a major component of the dust and can be of significant commercial value. Typically, the majority of the zinc exists as zinc oxide (ZnO) and as a zinc-manganese ferrite spinel ((Zn(x)Mn(y)Fe(1-x-y))Fe(2)O(4)). The recovery of the zinc from the dust in metal recycling and recovery processes, particularly in the hydrometallurgical extraction processes, is often hindered by the presence of the mixed ferrite spinel. However, there is a paucity of information available in the literature on the formation of this spinel. Therefore, in the present research, the equilibrium module of HSC Chemistry 6.1 was utilized to investigate the thermodynamics of the formation of the spinel and the effect of variables on the amount and the composition of the mixed ferrite spinel. It is proposed that the mixed ferrite spinel forms due to the reaction of iron-manganese particulates with both gaseous oxygen and zinc, at the high temperatures in the freeboard of the furnace above the steel melt. Based on the thermodynamic predictions, methods are proposed for minimizing the formation of the mixed ferrite spinel. PMID:20356673

Pickles, C A

2010-07-15

380

Flowfield simulations in industrial furnace configurations  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental element of comprehensive pulverized-fuel combustion modeling is the description of the turbulent gaseous flow field within the furnace. As part of a program to develop a three-dimensional coal combustion code, a non-reacting gas flow dynamics model has been developed. This flow model, GAS3D, has been demonstrated in a variety of industrial configurations including corner-fired, cross-fired, and wall-fired furnace geometries. This paper discusses the components and capabilities of the model and presents comparisons between experimental data and model predictions for a wall-fired furnace. The emphasis of this paper is on evaluating model performance. Experimental data has been obtained from Consolidation Coal Company for a wall-fired furnace. This configuration has been simulated with GAS3D using three different turbulence models. A description of the flow patterns predicted within the furnace are given. Comparisons are made between the predictions and experimental data and between the different turbulence models.

Gillis, P.A.; Smith, P.J. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (USA))

1988-01-01

381

Flowfield simulations in industrial furnace configurations  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental element of comprehensive pulverized-fuel combustion modelling is the description of the turbulent gaseous flow field within the furnace. As part of a program to develop a three-dimensional coal combustion code, a non-reacting gas flow dynamics model has been developed. This flow model, GAS3D, has been demonstrated in a variety of industrial configurations including corner-fired, cross-fired, and wall-fired furnace geometries. This paper discusses the components and capabilities of the model and presents comparisons between experimental data and model predictions for a wall-fired furnace. The emphasis of this paper is on evaluating model performance. Experimental data has been obtained from Consolidation Coal Company for a wall-fired furnace. This configuration has been simulated with GAS3D using three different turbulence models. A description of the flow patterns predicted within the furnace are given. Comparisons are made between the predictions and experimental data and between the different turbulence models.

Gillis, P.A.; Smith, P.J. (Combustion Computations Lab., 75 CTB, Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (US))

1988-06-01

382

Development of technical solutions for securing stable operation of the intermediate separation and steam reheating system for the K-1000-60/3000 turbine unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intermediate separation and steam reheating system and its equipment are described. Problems concerned with the presence of condensate in the stack's lower chamber and in the removing chamber, with cavitation failure of the separated moisture pumps, with misalignment of heating steam flowrates, with unstable draining of heating steam condensate, with occurrence of self oscillations, etc. are considered. A procedure for determining the level in removing heating steam condensate from steam reheater elements is proposed. Technical solutions for ensuring stable operation of the intermediate separation and steam reheating system and for achieving smaller misalignment between the apparatuses are developed.

Trifonov, N. N.; Kovalenko, E. V.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Tren'kin, V. B.

2012-09-01

383

The high-quality, efficient, automated heat treatment of semi-processed electrical steel laminations in small batch quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper highlights the advantages of using semi-processed electrical steel sheet and provides conclusive evidence that this material can be consistently and economically processed to the highest standards in a modern-design batch furnace. The paper also suggests the wide versatility of the furnace to process other grades and alternative heat treatment cycles.

Hancock, R. G.; Dolman, S. E.

1984-02-01

384

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME VI. BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

385

Computational simulations and experimental validation of a furnace brazing process  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of a furnace brazing process is described. The computational tools predict the thermal response of loaded hardware in a hydrogen brazing furnace to programmed furnace profiles. Experiments were conducted to validate the model and resolve computational uncertainties. Critical boundary conditions that affect materials and processing response to the furnace environment were determined. {open_quotes}Global{close_quotes} and local issues (i.e., at the furnace/hardware and joint levels, respectively) are discussed. The ability to accurately simulate and control furnace conditions is examined.

Hosking, F.M.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Malizia, L.A.

1998-12-31

386

Thermal and impact histories of reheated group IVA, IVB, and ungrouped iron meteorites and their parent asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract- The microstructures of six reheated iron meteorites—two IVA irons, Maria Elena (1935), Fuzzy Creek; one IVB iron, Ternera; and three ungrouped irons, Hammond, Babb’s Mill (Blake’s Iron), and Babb’s Mill (Troost’s Iron)—were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron-probe microanalysis, and electron backscatter diffraction techniques to determine their thermal and shock history and that of their parent asteroids. Maria Elena and Hammond were heated below approximately 700-750 °C, so that kamacite was recrystallized and taenite was exsolved in kamacite and was spheroidized in plessite. Both meteorites retained a record of the original Widmanstätten pattern. The other four, which show no trace of their original microstructure, were heated above 600-700 °C and recrystallized to form 10-20 ?m wide homogeneous taenite grains. On cooling, kamacite formed on taenite grain boundaries with their close-packed planes aligned. Formation of homogeneous 20 ?m wide taenite grains with diverse orientations would have required as long as approximately 800 yr at 600 °C or approximately 1 h at 1300 °C. All six irons contain approximately 5-10 ?m wide taenite grains with internal microprecipitates of kamacite and nanometer-scale M-shaped Ni profiles that reach approximately 40% Ni indicating cooling over 100-10,000 yr. Un-decomposed high-Ni martensite (?2) in taenite—the first occurrence in irons—appears to be a characteristic of strongly reheated irons. From our studies and published work, we identified four progressive stages of shock and reheating in IVA irons using these criteria: cloudy taenite, M-shaped Ni profiles in taenite, Neumann twin lamellae, martensite, shock-hatched kamacite, recrystallization, microprecipitates of taenite, and shock-melted troilite. Maria Elena and Fuzzy Creek represent stages 3 and 4, respectively. Although not all reheated irons contain evidence for shock, it was probably the main cause of reheating. Cooling over years rather than hours precludes shock during the impacts that exposed the irons to cosmic rays. If the reheated irons that we studied are representative, the IVA irons may have been shocked soon after they cooled below 200 °C at 4.5 Gyr in an impact that created a rubblepile asteroid with fragments from diverse depths. The primary cooling rates of the IVA irons and the proposed early history are remarkably consistent with the Pb-Pb ages of troilite inclusions in two IVA irons including the oldest known differentiated meteorite (Blichert-Toft et al. 2010).

Yang, J.; Goldstein, J. I.; Scott, E. R. D.; Michael, J. R.; Kotula, P. G.; Pham, T.; McCoy, T. J.

2011-09-01

387

High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

1992-01-01

388

Comparison of CO2 emission between COREX and blast furnace iron-making system.  

PubMed

Steel works faced increasing demand to minimize the emission of GHGs. The CO2 emissions of COREX and blast furnace iron-making system were compared. It is point out that COREX contribute little to CO2 emission reduction. Comparing to conventional blast furnace iron-making system, direct CO2 emissions of COREX is higher. Considering the credits of export gases for power generation, the total CO2 emission of COREX have advantages only when the COREX is joined with high-efficiency generating units which efficiency is greater than 45% and CO2 emission factor of the grid is higher than 0.9 kgCO2/kWh. PMID:25084406

Hu, Changqing; Han, Xiaowei; Li, Zhihong; Zhang, Chunxia

2009-01-01

389

Induction furnace testing of the durability of prototype crucibles in a molten metal environment  

SciTech Connect

Engineered ceramic crucibles are commonly used to contain molten metal. Besides high temperature stability, other desired crucible characteristics include thermal shock resistance, minimal reaction with the molten metal and resistance to attack from the base metal oxide formed during melting. When used in an induction furnace, they can be employed as a “semi-permanent” crucible incorporating a dry ram backup and a ceramic cap. This report covers several 250-lb single melt crucible tests in an air melt induction furnace. These tests consisted of melting a charge of 17-4PH stainless steel, holding the charge molten for two hours before pouring off the heat and then subsequently sectioning the crucible to review the extent of erosion, penetration and other physical characteristics. Selected temperature readings were made throughout each melt. Chemistry samples were also taken from each heat periodically throughout the hold. The manganese level was observed to affect the rate of chromium loss in a non-linear fashion.

Jablonski, Paul D.

2005-09-01

390

Microprocessor controls for bagasse fired furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies of automatic controls for bagasse fired furnaces in Louisiana have shown the feasibility of automatic forced draft control systems. The paper presents the results of a study carried out during the 1984 Louisiana sugar crop to further develop the principles of automatic control of bagasse furnaces using a microprocessor-based programmable logic controller. The data obtained validate the concepts of draft control and show how fuel control can be accomplished, thus providing overall boiler control. A brief outline of the further development of the system is also given.

Keenliside, W.; Mc Grew, K.

1987-02-01

391

High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two dimensional conduction/radiation problem for an alumina crucible in a zirconia heater/muffle tube enclosing a liquid iron sample was solved numerically. Variations in the crucible wall thickness were numerically examined. The results showed that the temperature profiles within the liquid iron sample were significantly affected by the crucible wall thicknesses. New zirconia heating elements are under development that will permit continued experimental investigations of the zirconia furnace. These elements have been designed to work with the existing furnace and have been shown to have longer lifetimes than commercially available zirconia heating elements. The first element has been constructed and tested successfully.

Smith, James E., Jr.

1991-01-01

392

Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces  

DOEpatents

A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

1994-07-26

393

Steamside Oxidation Behavior of Experimental 9%Cr Steels  

SciTech Connect

Reducing emissions and increasing economic competitiveness require more efficient steam power plants that utilize fossil fuels. One of the major challenges in designing these plants is the availability of materials that can stand the supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam conditions at a competitive cost. There are several programs around the world developing new ferritic and austenitic steels for superheater and reheater tubes exposed to the advanced steam conditions. The new steels must possess properties better than current steels in terms of creep strength, steamside oxidation resistance, fireside corrosion resistance, and thermal fatigue resistance. This paper introduces a series of experimental 9%Cr steels containing Cu, Co, and Ti. Stability of the phases in the new steels is discussed and compared to the phases in the commercially available materials. The steels were tested under both the dry and moist conditions at 650ºC for their cyclical oxidation resistance. Results of oxidation tests are presented. Under the moist conditions, the experimental steels exhibited significantly less mass gain compared to the commercial P91 steel. Microstructural characterization of the scale revealed different oxide compositions.

Dogan, O.N.; Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Jablonski, P.D.

2007-10-01

394

Determination of trace elements in metals by atomic-absorption spectrometry with the introduction of solid samples into furnaces: an investigation involving aqueous standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To ascertain whether calibration graphs constructed with aqueous standards can be employed for the determination of volatile trace elements in metals at concentrations µg\\/g, calibration graphs have been produced for bismuth, lead, silver and tellurium by introducing milligram masses of standard steels, nickel-base alloys and coppers, or microlitre volumes of aqueous standards, into either an induction furnace or a

J. B. Headridge; I. M. Riddington

1982-01-01

395

36. REDUCTION PLANT CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. REDUCTION PLANT - CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER Reduction Plant furnace and boiler used to provide heat for drying the fish and fish offal, in their conversion to meal. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

396

ROMPS critical design review. Volume 3: Furnace module design documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the furnace module design documentation, the furnace module Easylab programs definitions and command variables are described. Also included are Easylab commands flow charts and fault conditions.

Dobbs, M. E.

1992-01-01

397

6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

398

46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...insertion device, and three thermocouples (a furnace thermocouple to measure furnace temperature, a surface thermocouple to measure temperature at the surface of a specimen, and a specimen thermocouple to measure temperature at the center...

2010-10-01

399

46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...insertion device, and three thermocouples (a furnace thermocouple to measure furnace temperature, a surface thermocouple to measure temperature at the surface of a specimen, and a specimen thermocouple to measure temperature at the center...

2013-10-01

400

46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...insertion device, and three thermocouples (a furnace thermocouple to measure furnace temperature, a surface thermocouple to measure temperature at the surface of a specimen, and a specimen thermocouple to measure temperature at the center...

2012-10-01

401

46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...insertion device, and three thermocouples (a furnace thermocouple to measure furnace temperature, a surface thermocouple to measure temperature at the surface of a specimen, and a specimen thermocouple to measure temperature at the center...

2011-10-01

402

Design and fabrication of a tin-sulfide annealing furnace  

E-print Network

A furnace was designed and its heat transfer properties were analyzed for use in annealing thin-film tins-ulfide solar cells. Tin sulfide has been explored as an earth abundant solar cell material, and the furnace was ...

Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

2011-01-01

403

Energy Recovery for Medium- and High-Temperature Industrial Furnaces  

E-print Network

The application of metallic heat exchangers on medium- and high-temperature industrial furnaces is examined. A thorough technical understanding of all furnace operating conditions and the duties imposed upon heat exchangers is identified as a key...

Krumm, E. D.

1981-01-01

404

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF STEELMAKING FURNACE DUST DISPOSAL METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to examine the nature of steelmaking furnace residues and disposal techniques, and to assess potential problems associated with residue disposal, a potential multimedia environmental problem. Solubilization tests of 18 furnace residue samples s...

405

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

406

Size and distribution of particles deposited electrostatically onto the platform of a graphite furnace obtained using laser ablation sampling*1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrostatic particle deposition onto the platform of an ETA graphite furnace was investigated by solid sampling employing laser ablation. The aerosol generated by laser ablation is transported into the furnace by an Ar gas flow. It is piped into the tube through the dosing hole via a capillary. The deposition onto the graphite platform is achieved by impact as well as electrostatically by a discharge. The deposition efficiency was investigated with steel samples, the sample distribution on the graphite platform and the size of the deposited particles was investigated with steel, phosphate rock and plastic samples. Employing electrostatic precipitation, particles with diameters down to about 5 nm are deposited. The efficiency is measured by an additional external precipitator, showing almost quantitative deposition of the introduced particles.

Buchkamp, T.; Garbrecht, A.; Hermann, G.; Kling, B.

1997-07-01

407

Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry — applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in sensitivity and signal processing opened a broad field of application for laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) in the steel making and processing industry. Analyzed substances range from top gas of the blast furnace, via liquid steel up to finished products. This paper gives an overview of R&D activities and first routine industrial applications of LIBS. The continuous knowledge

Reinhard Noll; Holger Bette; Adriane Brysch; Marc Kraushaar; Ingo Mönch; Laszlo Peter; Volker Sturm

2001-01-01

408

Research on transformation mechanism and microstructure evolution rule of vanadium–nitrogen microalloyed steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to design microalloyed steels with various contents of vanadium and nitrogen, the experimental steels are firstly melted in the intermediate frequency vacuum induction furnace. Aiming to research the dynamic transformation rule of RCR+ACC, the thermal–mechanical simulation tests are carried out on GLEEBLE 3800 thermal simulator and the static transformation temperature and dynamic CCT diagrams are then obtained. It

X. Chun; Q. Sun; X. Chen

2007-01-01

409

High temperature grain growth during slab reheating of oriented 3 pct Si-Fe made using continuous casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies were made into the process behind the excessive grain growth which is observed in continuous cast slabs of both regular and high permeability oriented 3 Pct Si-Fe during reheating from 1230 °C to 1400 °C. These large grains are undesirable because of the greater difficulty incurred in obtaining the suitably uniform and fine primary grain size desired prior to the final high temperature anneal during which the (110) [001] texture is developed. It was found that the driving force for the growth is the subgrain structure which develops due to the strains of solidification and cooling during continuous casting; however, the temperature at which growth initiates is related to the austenite-ferrite phase relationship. The grain growth begins when the austenite which forms during slab reheating decomposes to form highly perfect ferrite which then grows by consuming the strained preexisting (as-cast) ferrite matrix. Data summarizing studies into the energy storage and recrystallization processes which occur with the use of slab breakdown (or prerolling) prior to reheating from 1230° to 1400 °C are also discussed.

Schoen, J. W.

1986-08-01

410

EBSD and DTA Characterization of A356 Alloy Deformed by ECAP During Reheating and Partial Re-melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recrystallization and partial re-melting processes have been developed for producing semi-solid feedstock in a solid state in which a globular microstructure is obtained by plastic deformation followed by reheating. In this research, to induce strain, a cast- and solution-treated Aluminum A356 (7 wt pct Si) alloy was subjected to a repetitive equal channel angular pressing process using a 90 deg die, up to a total accumulated strain of approximately 8 in route A (increasing strain through a sequence of passes with no rotation of the sample after each pass) at ambient temperature. The microstructural evolutions of deformed and reheated materials were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron back-scattered diffraction analysis. In addition, the influences of pre-deformation on the recrystallization mechanism and liquid formation of A356 alloy were presented and discussed. The results are also supported by differential thermal analysis experiments. Evaluation of the observations indicated that the average cell boundary misorientation increased with increasing strain, so this increased misorientation accelerated the mobility of boundaries and recrystallization kinetics. Therefore, the recrystallization mechanism and kinetics affected by deformation, reheating condition, and intrinsic material properties determined the particle size in the semi-solid state.

Moradi, Marzyeh; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud; Poorganji, Behrang; Heidarian, Bashir; Furuhara, Tadashi

2013-11-01

411

Observation of the partial reheating of the metallic vapor during the wire explosion process for nanoparticle synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an experimental study using time resolved imaging was reported to study the expansion of the vapor as well as subsequent formation of the arc plasma during the synthesis of Cu nanoparticles by wire explosion process to understand the influences of arc plasma formation on the characteristics of the produced nanoparticles by means of partial reheating of the vapor. Arc plasma is known to form after a delay or immediately depending on the ambience and pressure when the supplied energy is sufficient to sustain the plasma. Observations of two expanding concentric cylinders one inside another by time resolved imaging in the case of delayed formation of arc plasma suggest that the vapor of the wire material is expanding in front of the expansion of the arc plasma. Due to the expansion of the vapor in front of the arc plasma, some of the wire material may not be reheated by arc plasma as opposed to the case of immediate formation of arc plasma, where the vapor is expected to be reheated completely. Thus, the arc plasma formation has strong influence on the characteristics of the produced nanoparticles in wire explosion process and most probably explains the earlier reported opposite trends observed for particle size with varying pressure for different gases.

Bora, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Wong, C. S.; Chin, O. H.; Yap, S. L.; Soto, L.

2014-06-01

412

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 March 1993--31 May 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. The basic program is designed to determine the reactivity of both coal and its derived char under blast furnace conditions and to compare the results to similar properties of blast furnace coke. The results of the first two experiments in which coal char pyrolyzed in nitrogen at 1000{degrees}C in an EPR were reacted isothermally in air at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. The reactivity values of the same char in these two experiments were different by an order of magnitude. The char reactivity at 1000{degrees}C was 9.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} grams per minute while the reactivity. of the char at 1200{degrees}C was 1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} grams per minute. These results suggest that the temperature of the blast air in the tuyere may be critical in achieving complete carbon burnout.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-09-01

413

Manual for improving boiler and furnace performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This reference shows how to improve the efficiency of boilers, furnaces, and dryers while saving up to 30% on their fuel costs. Twenty methods are presented-10 with no capital investment, and 10 that require minimal investment with payback periods of only weeks or months. Tabulated and graphical data and specially designed slide rules are included to facilitate efficiency and heat-loss

Garcia-Borras

1983-01-01

414

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. oth the technical and economic aspects of the technology were exami...

415

APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

416

Data acquisition from a crystal growth furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital acquisition from a furnace for growing the lead tin telluride crystal based on Asyst software is described. It is shown that the use of Asyst for the acquisition of experimental data makes it possible to handle large amounts of data and to drastically reduce the time required for displaying the data from several hours to less than 5 minutes.

Woodell, Glenn A.

1988-01-01

417

Flame Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is one of the most widespread traditional analytical techniques for trace element determination, but it often suffers from poor sensitivity due to the low nebulization efficiency and the short residence time of free atoms in the flame. On the basis of conventional FAAS, flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (FF-AAS) is developed with a tube (flame

Peng Wu; Shaopan He; Bin Luo; Xiandeng Hou

2009-01-01

418

SITE DEMONSTRATION OF MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The final report for this project has been published. (EPA/540/R-03/500) March 2004. This SITE project demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) evaluated the technology's ability to reduce polychlorinated biphenyl PCB and metal concentrati...

419

Reheated Palm Oil Consumption and Risk of Atherosclerosis: Evidence at Ultrastructural Level  

PubMed Central

Background. Palm oil is commonly consumed in Asia. Repeatedly heating the oil is very common during food processing. Aim. This study is aimed to report on the risk of atherosclerosis due to the reheated oil consumption. Material and Methods. Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control, fresh-oil, 5 times heated-oil and 10 times heated-oil feeding groups. Heated palm oil was prepared by frying sweet potato at 180°C for 10 minutes. The ground standard rat chows were fortified with the heated oils and fed it to the rats for six months. Results. Tunica intima thickness in aorta was significantly increased in 10 times heated-oil feeding group (P < 0.05), revealing a huge atherosclerotic plaque with central necrosis projecting into the vessel lumen. Repeatedly heated oil feeding groups also revealed atherosclerotic changes including mononuclear cells infiltration, thickened subendothelial layer, disrupted internal elastic lamina and smooth muscle cells fragmentation in tunica media of the aorta. Conclusion. The usage of repeated heated oil is the predisposing factor of atherosclerosis leading to cardiovascular diseases. It is advisable to avoid the consumption of repeatedly heated palm oil. PMID:23320039

Xian, Tan Kai; Omar, Noor Azzizah; Ying, Low Wen; Hamzah, Aniza; Raj, Santhana; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Othman, Faizah; Hussan, Farida

2012-01-01

420

Reheating during Hierarchical Clustering in the Universe Dominated by the Cold Dark Matter  

E-print Network

We investigate reheating of the universe by early formation of stars and quasars in the hierarchical clustering scheme of cold dark matter scenario, with perturbation fluctuations normalized by the COBE data. It is found that ionizing uv flux from OB stars with the abundance given by the standard initial mass function is strong enough to ionize the universe from $z\\approx 30$ to the present epoch, if 1--2\\% of the collapsed baryons go into stars. This lessens significantly the CMB anisotropies at a small angular scale. Reionization also increases the Jeans mass to $M_{\\rm luminous}\\approx 10^9M_\\odot$ for $z\\lsim 10$, which leads to a cut-off of the luminosity function of normal galaxies on a faint side. A strong uv flux is expected at $z\\approx 2-5$, and the null result of the Gunn-Peterson test is naturally explained. Early star formation also results in production of heavy elements, and the observational metal abundance sets a strong constraint on the photon energy injection into the intergalactic space.

M. Fukugita; M. Kawasaki

1993-09-25

421

Investigation of Abrasiveness Property of Blast Furnace Slag on Ceramic Coatings via the Abrasive Slurry Wear Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the abrasiveness property of blast furnace slags emerging as a waste material in the production of crude iron was investigated. The abrasive slurry wear (ASW) method was used for experiments. For abrasiveness tests, oxides (Al2O3, Al2O3–13% TiO2, Al2O3–40%TiO2, Cr2O3), including ceramics, which is coated on the AISI 1040 medium carbon steel surface via the plasma spray coating

Yilmaz Kucuk

2012-01-01

422

Metallurgical investigation of a prematurely failed roller bearing used in the support and tilting system of a steel making converter used in an integrated steel plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive metallurgical investigation was carried out on samples of a failed roller bearing from the support and tilting\\u000a system of a basic oxygen furnace (BOF) converter used in the steel melting shop of an integrated steel plant. The converter\\u000a bearing was fabricated from low-carbon, carburizing grade steel and had failed in service within a year of fitting to a

Amitava Ray; S. K. Dhua; K. B. Mishra; S. Jha

2003-01-01

423

Energetically optimized control of an electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control concept described here is based on an existing control system for three phase arc furnaces that uses the impedances of the three phases as control variables. It calculates the impedance set points in such a way that the electrical energy is optimally transferred into the scrap without damaging the furnace vessel. To keep the abrasion of the furnace

Gregor Gortler; H. Peter Jorgl

2004-01-01

424

A simplified thermal analysis of an inductively heated casting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified thermal analysis technique was developed to analyze an inductively heated casting furnace. Initial operation of the vacuum casting furnace indicated that the outer shell of the vessel was exceeding the temperature design limit. The casting furnace is very complex and not easily modeled in a short period of time through the use of general purpose heat transfer codes.

R. Clarksean; C. Solbrig

1995-01-01

425

Insulation of Pipe Bends Improves Efficiency of Hot Oil Furnaces  

E-print Network

INSULATION OF PIPE BENDS IMPROVES EFFICIENCY OF HOT OIL FURNACES Douglas M. Haseltine Royce D. Laffitte Senior Engineering Associate Director, Energy Policy and Planning Leader of Tennessee Eastman's Process Energy Efficiency Team Worldwide... Operations Support Eastman Chemical Company Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Thermodynamic analyses of processes indicated low furnace efficiencies on certain hot oil furnaces. Further investigation, which included Infrared (lR) thermography testing...

Haseltine, D. M.; Laffitte, R. D.

426

Advanced furnace concepts - advanced commercial warm-air furnace. Annual report, October 1984March 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project's objective is to develop an advanced, condensing commercial warm-air furnace. The furnace uses a gas-fired, low-NOx radiant-fiber burner manufactured by the performing organization. In the first of four projet phases, the retrofit of the burner into a conventional heater resulted in a significant reduction in NOx emissions and noise output. During the second phase, a field retrofit of

J. A. Gotterba; G. G. Buckley; R. J. Schreiber; J. P. Kesselring

1986-01-01

427

Temperature profiles in high gradient furnaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate temperature measurement of the furnace environment is very important in both the science and technology of crystal growth as well as many other materials processing operations. A high degree of both accuracy and precision is acutely needed in the directional solidification of compound semiconductors in which the temperature profiles control the freezing isotherm which, in turn, affects the composition of the growth with a concomitant feedback perturbation on the temperature profile. Directional solidification requires a furnace configuration that will transport heat through the sample being grown. A common growth procedure is the Bridgman Stockbarger technique which basically consists of a hot zone and a cold zone separated by an insulator. In a normal growth procedure the material, contained in an ampoule, is melted in the hot zone and is then moved relative to the furnace toward the cold zone and solidification occurs in the insulated region. Since the primary path of heat between the hot and cold zones is through the sample, both axial and radial temperature gradients exist in the region of the growth interface. There is a need to know the temperature profile of the growth furnace with the crystal that is to be grown as the thermal load. However it is usually not feasible to insert thermocouples inside an ampoule and thermocouples attached to the outside wall of the ampoule have both a thermal and a mechanical contact problem as well as a view angle problem. The objective is to present a technique of calibrating a furnace with a thermal load that closely matches the sample to be grown and to describe procedures that circumvent both the thermal and mechanical contact problems.

Fripp, A. L.; Debnam, W. J.; Woodell, G. A.; Berry, R.; Crouch, R. K.; Sorokach, S. K.

1989-01-01

428

Energy Assessments under the Top 10,000 Program - A Case Study for a Steel Mill in China  

SciTech Connect

One of the largest energy-savings programs for the Chinese industrial sector was the Top-1,000 Program, which targeted the 1,000 largest industrial enterprises in China. This program was launched in 2006, implemented through 2010, and covered 33% of national energy usage. Because of the success of the Top-1000 initiative, the program has now been expanded to the Top-10,000 program in the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011-2015). The Top-10,000 program covers roughly 15,000 industrial enterprises, or about two-thirds of China s total energy consumption. Implementing energy audit systems and conducting industrial energy efficiency assessments are key requirements of the Top-10,000 program. Previous research done by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has shown that there is a significant potential for improvement in energy assessment practices and applications in China. Issues such as lack of long term policy mechanisms, insufficient motivation for industrial enterprises, limited technical scope of energy assessments, and lack of systematic standardization have been identified. Through the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. State Department (with additional co-funding from the Energy Foundation China), LBNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Institute for Sustainable Communities (ISC), and DOE Energy Experts worked collaboratively with Chinese local organizations and conducted a series of industrial energy efficiency assessment demonstrations in selected Chinese industrial plants. The project aimed to not only introduce standardized methodologies and tools for energy assessments, but also to bring the systems approach for energy system analysis to the Top 10,000 enterprises. Through the project, five energy system assessments were conducted, and more than 300 Chinese experts from local energy conservation centers, universities, research organizations, energy service companies, and plant engineers were trained. This paper begins by introducing China s national energy intensity and carbon intensity reduction targets. Then, this paper explains the development of Top 10,000 program, including program requirements, the method for target allocation, key supporting policies, as well as challenges in implementing the program. By focusing on a process heating energy system assessment conducted in a Chinese steel mill, this paper presents an example of an energy system assessment conducted on steel reheating furnaces, including overall energy efficiency levels, areas of heat loss, and the potential for energy savings. In addition, the paper provides energy-savings recommendations that were identified during the assessment, as well as potential energy and energy costs savings. To conclude, this paper presents key findings that could further improve the Top 10,000 program by implementing a systems approach for energy assessments.

Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Degroot, Matthew [Institute for Sustainable Communitities; Shi, Jun [Shaanxi Province Energy Conservation and Supervision Center, China

2014-01-01

429

Softened-Stainless-Steel O-Rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In fabrication of O-ring of new type, tube of 304 stainless steel bent around mandril into circle and welded closed into ring. Ring annealed in furnace to make it soft and highly ductile. In this condition, used as crushable, deformable O-ring seal. O-ring replacements used in variety of atmospheres and temperatures, relatively inexpensive, fabricated with minimum amount of work, amenable to one-of-a-kind production, reusable, and environmentally benign.

Marquis, G. A.; Waters, William I.

1993-01-01

430

Simulation of Frozen Slag Inside Brickless Reaction Shaft of Flash Smelting Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the principle of heat transfer, a three-dimensional model of frozen slag in the brickless reaction shaft of a flash smelting furnace was established by computing the temperature field and judging the moving boundary. In the modeling process, a cylindrical coordinate system was adopted to specify the point positions according to the geometry of the brickless reaction shaft, and an improved method was proposed to discretize the three-dimensional control equations. The model was then applied to investigate the influence of the operational [gas temperature (GT), cooling water temperature (CWT), and melting temperature of frozen slag (MTFS)] and structural (steel shell thickness, steel nail thickness, steel nail length, and distance between nails) parameters on the thickness of the frozen slag. The results showed that the GT, CWT, and MTFS have a marked impact on the thickness of frozen slag, which decreases at high temperature and increases when cooled; the structural parameters have little effect on the thickness of frozen slag in terms of heat transfer. Consequently, to form a layer of frozen slag with a desired thickness inside a brickless reaction shaft, it is important to avoid localized ultra-high temperatures in the inner chamber and to cool the steel shell using a strong flow of low-temperature water; mechanical (and not thermal) factors should take precedence when designing the steel nails of a brickless reaction shaft.

Wang, Jinliang; Wang, Houqing; Tong, Changren; Zhang, Wenhai; Zhang, Chuanfu

2013-12-01

431

Microstructural characterization of Hadfield austenitic manganese steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

discussed. The synthesis of the steel was carried out in a high frequency air induction furnace. At first the blend of steel scrap (0.049%C, 0.43%Mn, 0.028%Si, 0.023%P, 0.013%S, 0.003%Al, 0.035%Cr and balance Fe, all in wt.%) and cast iron (4.5%C, 0.043%Mn, 1.05%Si, 0.175%P, 0.043%S and balance Fe, all in wt.%) was heated to 1,580 C and maintained at that temperature

Ashok Kumar Srivastava; Karabi Das

2008-01-01

432

Improved Heat Treatment Of Steel Alloy 4340  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New process takes significantly less time than prior heat-treatment processes. Involves placing steel plate directly in furnace and heat-treating. Plate then quenched in slowly moving oil to reduce stresses. Any deflection then pressed out. Possible uses of 4340 steel include new and improved bulletproof vests for military and police personnel and armor for bulletproof automobiles for military, police, diplomatic, and private users. Also used in other military land vehicles as tanks and in both military and civilian aircraft. Lighter armorplate enables land vehicles and aircraft to attain greater speed and maneuverability, consume less fuel, and afford better protection from snipers or terrorists.

Cooper, Lawrence B.

1993-01-01

433

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON ELECTROSTATIC SCRUBBER TESTS AT A STEEL PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a demonstration of the effectiveness of a 1700 cu m/hr (1000 acfm) University of Washington (UW) Electrostatic Spray Scrubber in controlling fine particle emissions from an electric-arc steel furnace. The two-stage portable pilot plant operates by comb...

434

Process control techniques for the Sidmar blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The major challenge for modern blast furnace operation is the achievement of a very high productivity, excellent hot metal quality, low fuel consumption and longer blast furnace campaigns. The introduction of predictive models, decision supporting software and expert systems has reduced the standard deviation of the hot metal silicon content. The production loss due to the thermal state of the blast furnace has decreased three times since 1990. An appropriate control of the heat losses with high pulverized coal injection rates, is of the utmost importance for the life of the blast furnace. Different rules for the burden distribution of both blast furnaces are given. At blast furnace A, a peripheral gas flow is promoted, while at blast furnace B a more central gas flow is promoted.

Vandenberghe, D.; Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. van [Sidmar N.V., Ghent (Belgium)

1995-12-01

435

Corrosion behavior of sensitized duplex stainless steel.  

PubMed

The present work investigates the corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel in 0.9% NaCl solution after various heat-treatments, and compares it to that of 316L austenitic stainless steel. Both stainless steels were heat-treated at 500, 650, and 800 degrees C in air for 1 h, followed by furnace cooling. Each heat-treated sample was examined for their microstructures and Vickers micro-hardness, and subjected to the X-ray diffraction for the phase identification. Using potentiostatic polarization method, each heat-treated sample was corrosion-tested in 37 degrees C 0.9% NaCl solution to estimate its corrosion rate. It was found that simulated sensitization showed an adverse influence on both steels, indicating that corrosion rates increased by increasing the sensitization temperatures. PMID:9713683

Torres, F J; Panyayong, W; Rogers, W; Velasquez-Plata, D; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

1998-01-01

436

TiC reinforced cast chromium steels  

SciTech Connect

A series of new titanium carbide reinforced cast chromium steels were developed for wear applications. Objective of the program was to enhance wear resistant alloys and, if possible, improve mechanical properties. The new steels which were melted in a vacuum induction furnace contained 12 Cr, 3-5 Ti, 1-2 C in weight percent. Alloying with Ti changed the precipitate microstructure from Cr carbide to TiC dispersed in a martensitic matrix. Yield strength and impact resistance improved with Ti alloying. Wear rates of the cast Cr/TiC steels, (determined from high- and low-stress abrasion tests, erosion test, and scratch tests) were generally lower than both the as-cast and heat-treated AISI type 440°C steel and were often further reduced by increasing the Ti alloy concentration. The exceptions were the erosion test for which all materials had similar wear rate.

Dogan, Omer N.; Rawers, James C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Schrems, Karol K.

2003-11-01

437

TiC reinforced cast Cr steels  

SciTech Connect

A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5–4.5Ti, and 1–1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

Dogan, O.N.; Hawk, J.A.; Schrems, K.K.

2006-06-01

438

Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces.  

PubMed

Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy. PMID:22749723

Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

2012-12-01

439

Gas flow analysis in melting furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The flow structure inside round furnaces with various numbers of burners, burner arrangement, and exit conditions has been studied experimentally with the purpose of improving the flow conditions and the resulting heat transfer. Small-scale transparent models were built according to the laws of geometric and dynamic similarity. Various visualization and experimental techniques were applied. The flow pattern in the near-surface regions was visualized by the fluorescent minituft and popcorn techniques; the flow structure in the bulk was analyzed by smoke injection and laser sheet illumination. For the study of the transient effects, high-speed video photography was applied. The effects of the various flow patterns, like axisymmetric and rotational flow, on the magnitude and uniformity of the residence time, as well as on the formation of stagnation zones, were discussed. Conclusions were drawn and have since been applied for the improvement of furnace performance.

Kiss, L.I.; Bui, R.T.; Charette, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Chicoutimi, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Applied Science; Bourgeois, T. [Alcan International Limited, Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada). Arvida Research and Development Center

1998-12-01

440

Metal sorption on blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of Cu, Ni and Zn-ions from water solution by ungranulated blast-furnace slag has been studied depending on contact time, initial ion concentration, pH and solution temperature. The polymineral composition and the slag specific properties determine its high sorption activity in metal salts solutions. In the range of the concentrations studied (10?4–10?3 M), the sorption data for Cu2+, Ni2+

S. V. Dimitrova

1996-01-01

441

Boronizing from paste with furnace heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.For boronizing from paste with furnace heating we have developed a coating based on aluminum oxide that gives reliable protection of the surface against penetration of oxygen and the outflow of boron-containing gases.2.The protective coating can be used for local protection of surfaces against saturation with various elements during chemicothermal treatment and also against oxidation of decarburizing of the surfaces

M. I. Bayazitov; V. A. Volkov; A. A. Aliev

1976-01-01

442

Optimized Utility Systems and Furnace Integration  

E-print Network

defines the Process/Utility interface. Clearly, changing the process design can result in different utility demands and possibly in different utility system designs. This paper presents a procedure, using Pinch Technology, for the simultaneous design... to the design and process integration of furnaces. The methodology used for designing an optimum Process/Utility interface is an extension of Pinch Technology. In recent years, Pinch Technology (1) has beco e widely accepted and applied within industry...

McMullan, A. S.; Spriggs, H. D.

443

Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains technical papers published as they were presented at a recent specialty conference sponsored by the Air & Waste Management Association, titled Waste Combustion in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces, held March 26-27, 1996, in Kansas City, Missouri. Papers touch on compilance concerns for air pollution, air monitoring methodologies, risk assessment, and problems related to public anxiety. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database from this proceedings.

NONE

1996-12-31

444

Acidic leaching both of zinc and iron from basic oxygen furnace sludge.  

PubMed

During the steel production in the basic oxygen furnace (BOF), approximately 7-15 kg of dust per tonne of produced steel is generated. This dust contains approximately 1.4-3.2% Zn and 54-70% Fe. Regarding the zinc content, the BOF dust is considered to be highly problematic, and therefore new technological processes for recycling dusts and sludge from metallurgical production are still searched for. In this study the hydrometallurgical processing of BOF sludge in the sulphuric acid solutions under atmospheric pressure and temperatures up to 100 °C is investigated on laboratory scale. The influence of sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio (L:S) on the leaching process was studied. The main aim of this study was to determine optimal conditions when the maximum amount of zinc passes into the solution whilst iron remains in a solid residue. PMID:21724325

Trung, Zuzana Hoang; Kukurugya, Frantisek; Takacova, Zita; Orac, Dusan; Laubertova, Martina; Miskufova, Andrea; Havlik, Tomas

2011-09-15

445

A simple high-pressure furnace for liquid-encapsulated Bridgman/Stockbarger crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a simple, internally-heated high pressure furnace for liquid-encapsulated synthesis and melt growth at temperatures up to 1200 C and pressures up to 100 bar. The hot zone is contained in a 102-mm-ID x 127-mm-OD x 508-mm-long tubular vessel made of 304-series stainless steel. The vessel is externally water cooled and has self-sealing O-ring end closures. A Kanthal A-1 wire heating element provides a uniform-temperature synthesis zone and a gradient for crystal growth. The 38-mm-ID hot zone requires less than 1 kW power for 1200 C operation. The furnace power level is varied by a triac circuit that operates from stabilized 110-V ac line voltage at less than 10 A current. Motor-driven power ramping is provided for stationary crystal growth in a moving temperature gradient. Alternatively, the temperature gradient can be maintained constant while the crucible is lowered with a steeper-motor driven lead screw. Some applications of the furnace for synthesis and crystal growth of Cu(x)Ag(1-x)InSe2 and crystal growth of InP are described.

Ciszek, T. F.; Evans, C. D.

1988-09-01

446

Development of oxide based diffusion barrier coatings for CFC components applied in modern furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon fibre reinforced carbon (CFC) materials show a high potential for usage in furnaces as sample carriers for example, which is due to their excellent thermal stability compared to steel carriers. Only their tendency to react with different metals at high temperatures by Cdiffusion is a disadvantage, which can be solved by application of diffusion barriers. In order to enable the utilization of CFC-carriers for e.g. brazing furnaces, within the frame of this study thermally sprayed diffusion barrier coatings were developed. Coatings of mullite and ZrO2-7% Y2O3 (YSZ) were prepared by air plasma spraying (APS). The coatings were investigated in terms of their microstructure and thermal shock behaviour. In order to prove the suitability of the coatings for the application in brazing furnaces, the wettability of the coating surfaces by a Ni-based brazing alloy was investigated. The results showed that both mullite and YSZ could be deposited on CFC substrates with a bond coat of W or SiC. Both coatings exhibited good thermal shock behaviour and an excellent non-wetting behaviour against the used Ni-based braze alloy.

Bobzin, Kirsten; Zhao, Lidong; Schlaefer, Thomas; Warda, Thomas

2011-12-01

447

Experimental control of a cupola furnace  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors present some final results from a research project focused on introducing automatic control to the operation of cupola iron furnaces. The main aim of this research is to improve the operational efficiency and performance of the cupola furnace, an important foundry process used to melt iron. Previous papers have described the development of appropriate control system architectures for the cupola. In this paper experimental data is used to calibrate the model, which is taken as a first-order multivariable system with time delay. Then relative gain analysis is used to select loop pairings to be used in a multiloop controller. The resulting controller pairs melt rate with blast volume, iron temperature with oxygen addition, and carbon composition with metal-to-coke ratio. Special (nonlinear) filters are used to compute melt rate from actual scale readings of the amount of iron produced and to smooth the temperature measurement. The temperature and melt rate loops use single-loop PI control. The composition loop uses a Smith predictor to discount the deadtime associated with mass transport through the furnace. Experiments conducted at the Department of Energy Albany Research Center`s experimental research cupola validate the conceptual controller design and provide proof-of-concept of the idea of controlling a foundry cupola.

Moore, K.L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Larsen, E.; Clark, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Abdelrahman, M.A. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; King, P. [Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

1998-08-01

448

Development of a welding material for welding centrifugally cast tubes of 45Kh25N20S steel by a planned experiment method  

Microsoft Academic Search

ing tubular furnaces. The reaction system of these furnaces consists of centrifugally cast tubes of 45Kh25N20S and 25Kh20N35S steels (Ferrous Metallurgical Technical Specification 3228-69). The significant difficulties occurring in fusion welding of such steels are related to the increased sensitivity to the formation of hot cracks both in the base metal and in the weld metal used for welding it.

S. I. Feklistov; V. P. Mishin; M. M. Timofeev; V. F. Gorlov

1975-01-01

449

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

1994-12-31

450

[Measurement of chemical agents in metallurgy field: electric steel plant].  

PubMed

The steel industry maintains its important position in the context of the Italian production involving thousands of workers. The iron and steel processes are divided into primary steel industry, production of intermediate minerals, and secondary steel, scrap from the production of semi-finished industrial and consumer sector (metal inserted into components and metal used for dissipative uses, primarily coatings) and industrial waste. The paper presents the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some electric steel plant for the measurement of airborne chemicals that characterize the occupational exposure of workers employed in particular area like electric oven, to treatment outside the furnace, continuous casting area. For the sampling of the pollutants were used both personal and in fixed positions samplers. The pollutants measured are those typical of steel processes inhalable dust, metals, respirable dust, crystalline silica, but also Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). PMID:23213795

Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Ghitti, R; Festa, D; Apostoli, P

2012-01-01

451

EAF steel producers and the K061 dilemma  

SciTech Connect

The scrap based steel producers in the United States generate an estimated 650,000 tons of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust annually which is classified as hazardous waste, K061. These scrap based producers commonly referred to as mini-mills represented 39% of the steel produced in 1994. Based upon the EAF plants being installed or planned today, it is a reasonable projection to anticipate 50% of the steel produced in the United States will be by EAF`S. Using a straight line projection of percent of steel produced to tonnage of EAF dust generated, this will result in 833,000 tons of dust being generated upon the completion of these new EAF producing plants, presumably by the year 2000. Because the United States is a capitalistic economy, a steel producer is in business to make a profit therefore dust management becomes a very important variable in the cost of making steel.

Prichard, L.C.

1995-12-31

452

Wear of Cast Chromium Steels With TiC Reinforcement  

SciTech Connect

Wear resistance of a series of new titanium carbide reinforced cast chromium steels was investigated under various wear conditions. The steels which were melted in a vacuum induction furnace contained 12 Cr, 3-5 Ti, 1-2 C in weight percent. Microstructure of these materials was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, light optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microstructure of steels consisted of TiC phase dispersed in a martensitic matrix. High-stress and low-stress abrasion tests, and an erosion test, were utilized to understand the wear behavior of these materials under different environments. The steels were tested in as-cast and heat treated conditions. Wear rates of the cast Cr/TiC steels were compared to those of an AISI type 440C steel and P/M composites reinforced with TiC.

Dogan,O.N.; Hawk, J.A.; Tylczak, J.H.

2001-10-01

453

Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.  

PubMed

Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

2012-05-01

454

Investigations on phosphorus recovery and reuse as soil amendment from electric arc furnace slag filters.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag has been identified as an effective filter material for the removal of phosphorus (P) from both point and non-point sources. To determine the feasibility of land-applying P saturated EAF steel slag this study was undertaken to investigate (i) saturated EAF steel slag material's potential as a P fertilizer or soil amendment and (ii) P desorption and metals leachate from saturated EAF steel slag material to surface runoff. Medicago sativa (alfalfa) was planted in a nutrient depleted washed sand media. Phosphorus was added either as saturated EAF steel slag or as a standard commercial phosphate fertilizer in order to assess the plant availability of the P from saturated EAF steel slag. Four different P application levels were tested: a low (20 lbs acre furrow slice(-1) (5.5 g P m(-3))) two medium (40 and 60 lbs. acre f.s.(-1) (11 and 16.5 g P m(-3))) and a high (120 lbs. acre f.s.(-1) (33 g P m(-3))). The above-ground biomass of half of the plants was harvested after 5 weeks and the second half at 10 weeks. All treatments regardless of the P source used showed high rates of germination. At the first harvest period (5 weeks) significantly higher above-ground biomass (p < 0.01) was seen at the 3 highest P amendment rates in treatments with triple super phosphate fertilizer (TSP) than with EAF steel slag. However, by the second harvest (10 weeks) only the highest amendment rate of TSP showed a significantly higher amount of biomass (p < 0.01), suggesting that EAF steel slag might be an effective slow release P source. In a second experiment, a rain simulator was used to assess desorption of DRP, TP and metals from a saturated and semi-saturated EAF steel slag. The results revealed that the total amounts of DRP and TP released to surface runoff from EAF steel slag were negligible when compared to the total quantities of P retained by this material. Overall the results from this study demonstrated that once the EAF steel slag filter reaches its saturation point, the material could be re-used as soil amendment for the slow release of bioavailable P with minimal risk for loss of P to surface runoff, bringing further benefits to the environment. PMID:20183504

Bird, Simon C; Drizo, Aleksandra

2009-11-01

455

Diagnostics Adapted for Heat-Treating Furnace Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagnostics developed for the in situ monitoring of rocket combustion environments were adapted for use in heat-treating furnaces. Simultaneous, in situ monitoring of the carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, water, and hydrogen concentrations in the endothermic gas of a heat-treating furnace were demonstrated under a Space Act Agreement between the NASA Lewis Research Center, the Heat Treating Network, and Akron Steel Treating Company. This endothermic gas, or "endogas," is produced in a catalytic process, where natural gas is "cracked" in the presence of air. Variations in the composition of the natural gas supplied lead to variations in the composition of the endothermic gas. These variations could lead to an unacceptable quality of steel products that are hardened through the carborization process that uses this gas. Conventional methods of monitoring the endogas include measuring the dew point of the gas and the oxygen concentration. From these data, the carbon monoxide content of the gas can be calculated. This carbon monoxide concentration creates the carbon potential needed for carburization. Several weak links are present in this approach. The oxygen monitor deteriorates over time, and the measurement might be inaccurate by 50 percent. Also, the chemistry equations, which are based on several assumptions, such as secondary species concentrations, provide only an approximate estimate of the carbon monoxide concentration. To address these weaknesses, we investigated a new method based on ordinary Raman spectroscopy, in which the carbon monoxide concentration is measured directly and in situ. This method measures the laser light scattered from the molecules. Each species interacts with the light and scatters the light at a different frequency. Spectral monitoring of the scattered light intensity at each molecular frequency of interest provides the species concentrations. One advantage over the conventional method is that several species can be monitored simultaneously. A second advantage is that the measurement is direct; there is no need to make assumptions, to filter the gas, or to calibrate the instrument. An instrument was designed consisting of a laser and a detection system within an enclosure, connected to an optical probe by fibers. For determining carbon monoxide concentration, the probe is mounted on the endothermic gas line, close to the generator. Optical fibers with a length of 150 ft have been used to transmit laser light from the instrument to the probe. There, the light is focused into the gas, and the scattered light is collected and transmitted back to the instrument where it is analyzed with a photomultiplier and lock-in amplifier. Laboratory tests have shown that with the current system the concentration of carbon monoxide, water, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen in the air can be monitored with an accuracy of 1 percent. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air can be monitored with an accuracy of 0.5 percent, and the concentration of methane with an accuracy of 0.2 percent. This instrument was taken to the Akron Steel Treating Plant, where field tests are in progress to verify the system capabilities. Planned developments are improving the accuracy, monitoring multiple locations, and reducing instrument size and cost.

2005-01-01

456

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

Michael F. Riley

2002-10-21

457

A preliminary study of the use of intercooling and reheat in conjunction with regeneration for aircraft turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect on fuel consumption of turbofans with intercooled, regenerative cycles and with intercooled, regenerative, reheat cycles was studied. The technology level for both engine and aircraft was that projected for 1985. The simulated mission was a 5556 km flight carrying 200 passengers at Mach 0.8 at 11582 min. Results indicate that these relatively complex cycles offer little, if any, fuel savings potential relative to a conventional turbofan cycle of comparable advanced technology. The intercooled, regenerative cycle yields about the same fuel economy as a conventional cycle at close to the same overall pressure ratio.

Eisenberg, J. D.

1977-01-01

458

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

Not Available

2011-10-01

459

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-05-01

460

Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

2009-03-15

461

Characteristics and cementitious properties of ladle slag fines from steel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ladle slag is a by-product from further refining molten steel after coming out of a basic oxygen furnace (BOF) or an electric arc furnace (EAF). Air-cooled ladle slag has a very large portion of fine particles due to the conversion of ?-C2S to ?-C2S during the cooling process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of three ladle slag fine samples passing 100,

Caijun Shi

2002-01-01

462

Experimental studies of thermo-mechanical treatment on conventionally melted high nitrogen martensitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to produce high-nitrogen martensitic stainless steels (HNMSS) using a conventional induction furnace with better mechanical properties and to improve the properties by thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Production of two types of HNMSS alloys with Chromium – 8.22 and 15.84 wt% was carried out using a conventional melting furnace. The theoretical

V. Valasamudram; S. S. Mohamed Nazirudeen; P. Chandramohan; K. P. Thenmozhi

2008-01-01

463

A model for carbon transfer in gas-phase carburization of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies using 1010 steel shimstock in a controlled atmosphere tubular furnace have allowed rate constants to be determined\\u000a for a number of important carburizing and decarburizing reactions. Carburizing data obtained in a small commercial furnace\\u000a confirm that the combination of CO and H2 to form C and H2O is the major carbon transfer reaction to the parts in a typical

Jelle H. Kaspersma; Robert H. Shay

1980-01-01

464

Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support  

DOEpatents

The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

Docherty, James P. (Carnegie, PA); Johnson, Beverly E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Beri, Joseph (Morgan, PA)

1989-01-01

465

Experience with in-furnace surface in CFB boilers  

SciTech Connect

As CFB boiler size increases past 30 to 40 MWe (depending on fuel), the furnace walls can no longer economically absorb enough heat to maintain the desired furnace temperature. The designer has two options for providing the additional heating surface needed: In-furnace Surface, and External Heat Exchanger (EHE). Because of the inherent advantages, Ahlstrom pioneered the use of in-furnace surface, and now has over 50 units now in operation using this surface which together have accumulated over 175 unit-years of operating experience. This paper describes the advantages of in-furnace surface, the various designs for this surface used by Ahlstrom, and the operational experience with these designs including improvements made. It is shown that in furnace surface designs have evolved to provide excellent service in all applications.

Darling, S.L. [Pyropower Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Asikainen, A. [Ahlstrom Boilers, Varkaus (Finland); Shibagaki, G. [Ahlstrom Pyropower KK, Kobe (Japan)

1995-12-31

466

Improved Transparent Furnace For Crystal-Growth Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Novel design and fabrication process for transparent crystal-growing furnace developed. Design consists of one or more heater zones in which heating wire coiled around insides of quartz tubes. Ampoule of material supported inside furnace by guide wire. Crystal then grown by directional freezing of material in ampoule. Distinct feature of use of quartz is capability of direct visual observation of crystal-growth process during experiment. Study of transparent electronic materials conducted in new furnaces.

Rosenthal, Bruce N.; White, Steve; Kalinowski, Joseph M.

1989-01-01

467

Comparison of Predictive Control Methods for High Consumption Industrial Furnace  

PubMed Central

We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn. PMID:24319354

2013-01-01

468

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

DOEpatents

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01

469

Effect of Isothermal Reheating at Different Holding Times on The Microstructure of Al-Mg{sub 2}Si In-situ Cast Composite  

SciTech Connect

An isothermal reheating approach was used to study the effect of isothermal holding time on the microstructure of Al-Mg{sub 2}Si in-situ cast composite. Process temperature was selected at 590 deg. C which is in the semi solid state with respect to the phase diagram of Al-Mg{sub 2}Si system. The morphology of primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles was identified as irregular shape. The microstructures of the composite at two different states of reheated and as-cast, were compared to reveal the degree of particle modification. The results showed that higher holding time have more significance influence on the nodularity and also decreasing the size of primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles. An optimum time was also obtained for isothermal reheating process which can be affected by different parameters discussed in this work.

Malekan, A.; Emamy, M.; Ghiasinejad, J.; Ghorbani, M. R. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 11365-4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-06-15

470

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

Crelling, J.C.

1995-12-31

471

Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

1992-12-29

472

Exothermic furnace module development. [space processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exothermic furnace module was developed to rapidly heat and cool a 0.820-in. (2.1 cm) diameter by 2.75-in. (7.0 cm) long TZM molybdenum alloy crucible. The crucible contains copper, oxygen, and carbon for processing in a low-g environment. Peak temperatures of 1270 C were obtainable 3.5 min after start of ignition, and cooling below 950 C some 4.5 min later. These time-temperature relationships were conditioned for a foam-copper experiment, Space Processing Applications Rocket experiment 77-9, in a sounding rocket having a low-g period of 5 min.

Darnell, R. R.; Poorman, R. M.

1982-01-01

473

Use of Multiple Reheat Helium Brayton Cycles to Eliminate the Intermediate Heat Transfer Loop for Advanced Loop Type SFRs  

SciTech Connect

The sodium intermediate heat transfer loop is used in existing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) plant design as a necessary safety measure to separate the radioactive primary loop sodium from the water of the steam Rankine power cycle. However, the intermediate heat transfer loop significantly increases the SFR plant cost and decreases the plant reliability due to the relatively high possibility of sodium leakage. A previous study shows that helium Brayton cycles with multiple reheat and intercooling for SFRs with reactor outlet temperature in the range of 510°C to 650°C can achieve thermal efficiencies comparable to or higher than steam cycles or recently proposed supercritical CO2 cycles. Use of inert helium as the power conversion working fluid provides major advantages over steam or CO2 by removing the requirement for safety systems to prevent and mitigate the sodium-water or sodium-CO2 reactions. A helium Brayton cycle power conversion system therefore makes the elimination of the intermediate heat transfer loop possible. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design of multiple reheat helium Brayton cycle for an advanced loop type SFR. This design widely refers the new horizontal shaft distributed PBMR helium power conversion design features. For a loop type SFR with reactor outlet temperature 550°C, the design achieves 42.4% thermal efficiency with favorable power density comparing with high temperature gas cooled reactors.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Samuel E. Bays

2009-05-01

474

Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace  

DOEpatents

A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

2003-02-11

475

Laser Ultrasonic Furnace Tube Coke Monitor  

SciTech Connect

This reports summarizes the technical progress achieved during the third quarter of the ERIP project entitled, ''Laser Ultrasonic Furnace Tube Coke Monitor.'' The focus of work during this reporting period was the construction of an automated probe that will be used to measure the thickness of coke deposits in thermal cracking furnaces. A discovery was made during the last reporting period, which indicated that a conventional NDE broadband transducer could be used in conjunction with a sacrificial standoff composed of a fusible alloy to efficiently couple the transducer to a rough surface operating at high temperature. A probe was constructed that incorporates the recent discovery and initial testing of the probe is now underway. Because of other project commitments, the manpower available to allocate to the coke detector project was limited during the most recent quarter. As a result, the project is somewhat behind the original schedule. However, project expenditures are consistent with the project progress to date. The total program budget is $98,670 and the current project expenditures are approximately $24,000. The original contract budget period ends on April 30, 1999. We intend to request a six-month no-cost extension to the contract so that we may complete the project objectives.

NONE

1999-02-15

476

Surrogate burns in deactivation furnace system.  

PubMed

The deactivation furnace system at the Deseret Chemical Depot in Utah is designed for processing explosive components from munitions containing nerve and mustard agents. The system was installed during the period of 1989 through 1993. The Utah Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (UDSHW) required that trial burns be conducted using surrogate chemicals prior to introducing chemical agents into the system. The selected surrogate chemicals were monochlorobenzene and hexachloroethane based on the criteria established by the UDSHW. Three surrogate runs were conducted in October, 1995. The gaseous emissions and liquid and solid effluents were sampled and analyzed using approved EPA methods. The trial burns demonstrated the desirable destruction and removal efficiency for the selected surrogate chemicals. The pollution abatement system demonstrated the desired scrubbing efficiency for acid gases generated during incineration of chlorinated surrogate chemicals. The particulate removal efficiency during the trial burns was also considerably higher than required by regulations. After comprehensive review of the performance of the deactivation furnace system during the surrogate trial burns, UDSHW approved introduction of GB nerve agent into the system to prepare it for agent trial burns. PMID:10334826

Shah, J K

1999-05-14

477

When Your Furnace Kicks On, Be Sure Poison Gas Isn't Coming Out  

MedlinePLUS

WHEN YOUR FURNACE KICKS ON, BE SURE POISON GAS ISN’T COMING OUT Every winter when the ... drops, your furnace can become a silent killer. Gas- and oil-burning furnaces produce carbon monoxide (CO). ...

478

The influences of alloy elements on the carburized layer in steels using vacuum carburization in an acetylene atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, three commercial steels, JIS SCM 415, JIS SNCM 220 and AISI 1008 were carburized in a two-chamber vacuum furnace at temperature ranging between 900 and 1050°C in an acetylene atmosphere. Steel SCM 415 consists of mainly 0.12% C, 1.0% Cr and 0.17% Mo, steel SNCM 220 consists of 0.18% C, 0.55% Mo, 0.42% Cr and 0.17% Mo,

Lee-Der Liu; Fan-Shiong Chen

2003-01-01