Sample records for steel wire rods

  1. High-deformability wire rod made of steel Sv08G2S

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Parusov; A. B. Sychkov; I. V. Derevyanchenko; S. Yu. Zhukova; O. L. Kucherenko; M. A. Zhigarev

    2007-01-01

    Welding wire is made with the use of wire rod composed of steels Sv-08G2S, Sv-08G1S, and SG-1, 2, 3. A new technology that\\u000a has been developed to obtain this product provides for mechanical scale removal, dry drawing of the wire rod to an intermediate\\u000a diameter of 1.7–2.2 mm, then — without an intermediate heat treatment — wet drying combined with

  2. High strength, low carbon, dual phase steel rods and wires and process for making same

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA); Nakagawa, Alvin H. (Campbell, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility, low carbon, dual phase steel wire, bar or rod and process for making the same is provided. The steel wire, bar or rod is produced by cold drawing to the desired diameter in a single multipass operation a low carbon steel composition characterized by a duplex microstructure consisting essentially of a strong second phase dispersed in a soft ferrite matrix with a microstructure and morphology having sufficient cold formability to allow reductions in cross-sectional area of up to about 99.9%. Tensile strengths of at least 120 ksi to over 400 ksi may be obtained.

  3. Mechanical behavior of ultrahigh strength ultrahigh carbon steel wire and rod

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sberby, O.D.; Whittenherger, W.D.

    1997-07-22

    Ultrahigh-carbon steels (UHCSS) can achieve very high strengths in wire or rod form. These high strengths result from the mechanical work introduced during wire and rod processing. These strengths have been observed to increase with carbon content. In wire form, tensile strengths approaching 6000 MPa are predicted for UHCS containing 1. 8%C. In this paper, we will discuss the influence of processing (including rapid transformation during wire patenting) and micros ct- ure on the mechanical behavior of UHCS wire. The tensile properties of as- extruded rods are described as a function of extrusion temperature and composition. For spheroidized steels, yield and ultimate tensile strength are a function of grain size, interparticle spacing and particle size. For pearlitic steels, yield and ultimate strength were found to be functions of colony size, carbide size and plate spacing and orientation. Alloying additions (such as C, Cr, Si, Al and Co) can influence the effect of processing on these microstructural features. For spheroidized steels, fracture was found to be a function of the size of coarse carbides and of composition.

  4. 76 FR 67672 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...merchandise covered by the antidumping duty order is wire rods, which are hot-rolled or hot-rolled annealed and/or pickled rounds...squares, octagons, hexagons or other shapes, in coils. Wire rods are made of alloy steels containing, by...

  5. Real-time defect detection of steel wire rods using wavelet filters optimized by univariate dynamic encoding algorithm for searches.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jong Pil; Jeon, Yong-Ju; Choi, Doo-chul; Kim, Sang Woo

    2012-05-01

    We propose a new defect detection algorithm for scale-covered steel wire rods. The algorithm incorporates an adaptive wavelet filter that is designed on the basis of lattice parameterization of orthogonal wavelet bases. This approach offers the opportunity to design orthogonal wavelet filters via optimization methods. To improve the performance and the flexibility of wavelet design, we propose the use of the undecimated discrete wavelet transform, and separate design of column and row wavelet filters but with a common cost function. The coefficients of the wavelet filters are optimized by the so-called univariate dynamic encoding algorithm for searches (uDEAS), which searches the minimum value of a cost function designed to maximize the energy difference between defects and background noise. Moreover, for improved detection accuracy, we propose an enhanced double-threshold method. Experimental results for steel wire rod surface images obtained from actual steel production lines show that the proposed algorithm is effective. PMID:22561939

  6. 76 FR 64105 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of an expedited review pursuant to section 751(c)(3) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)(3)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod from India would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a reasonably foreseeable time. For further......

  7. 76 FR 78882 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods...0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.008 percent...

  8. 76 FR 33218 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ...ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods...0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.008 percent...

  9. 77 FR 13545 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods...0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.008 percent...

  10. 75 FR 8650 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Trinidad and Tobago; Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ...ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods...0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.008 percent...

  11. 76 FR 67407 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ...ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods...0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.008 percent...

  12. 76 FR 16607 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ...ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods...0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.008 percent...

  13. 76 FR 66895 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ...garment hangers from steel wire rod,\\5...Administration, re: Steel Wire Garment Hangers...we considered in making our Preliminary Determination...applies; (C) the process of assembly or completion...of an order. In making a final determination...above, Angang's process of converting...

  14. 75 FR 42685 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ...the production process--the forming...shaping of drawn steel wire into a...but rather the steel wire rod drawing process and hanger forming...the production process. Id., at...because the steel hanger was drawn...of trade when making a decision...

  15. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...731-TA-1198 (Final)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations...injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in...antidumping duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from...

  16. The technology of testing the safety of steel wire ropes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaochun Zhang; Caiwen Hu

    2005-01-01

    To estimate the security of steel wire rope, the broken wire condition, the capability of the rope to bear weight and the state of stress balance of each wire in the steel wire rope were investigated. The wavelet translation method was applied to analyze the signals of magnetic field leakage from the steel wire rope. The result of the time-frequency

  17. Coolant pressure distribution in wire-wrapped rod bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.P.

    1980-01-11

    To analyze thermal-hydraulic behavior in a wire-wrapped fuel or blanket assembly, it is necessary to evaluate the coolant flow field in the rod bundle. Evaluation of the coolant flow phenomenon in the wire-wrapped assembly becomes even more important when the bundle has a low pitch-to-diameter ratio or a wire-wrap configuration different from the current reference straight-start design or the assembly is located in a high radial power gradient region in a reactor. Subchannel analysis method (FULMIX-II) was developed to specifically treat the complex coolant transfer process within a wire-wrapped assembly and to determine the coolant temperature field accordingly.

  18. Certification of offshore mooring steel wire ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Lohne, P.W. [Det Norske Veritas AS, Oslo (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The trend to produce oil in increasingly deeper water has led to the development of floating production solutions for the exploitation of the energy resources in these areas. It is a fact that steel wire ropes have been used and are being proposed as line segments in the majority of the mooring systems of these units/ships. This paper specifies requirements for the materials, design, manufacture and testing of large diameter offshore mooring steel wire ropes and may serve as a technical reference document in contractual matters between the purchaser and the manufacturer. Typical applications covered are permanently moored floating production systems (FPS), offshore loading systems and mobile offshore units.

  19. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ...731-TA-1197 (Final)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan Determination On the...injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan, provided for in...by Commerce that imports of steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan were dumped...

  20. Polarity Effect and Flow Characteristics of Wire-Rod Type Electrohydrodynamic Gas Pump

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Komeili; J. S. Chang; G. Harvel

    2006-01-01

    The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow characteristics for a wire to rod type EHD gas pump have been experimentally investigated. Experiments were conducted for DC negative and positive applied high voltage to a corona wire of diameter 0.24 mm from 0-24 kV, grounding rod electrode diameter from 1.5 mm to 3.1 mm and wire\\/rod electrode distance to pipe diameter ratio from 0.63

  1. 16. VIEW OF STEEL FLOOR BEAMS WITH TIE RODS, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF STEEL FLOOR BEAMS WITH TIE RODS, SHOWING SWAY BRACING, SUPPORT TIMBER STRINGERS AND BECK, WEST END, LOOKING WEST - Hot Springs Bridge, Spanning Bruneau River, Hot Springs Road, Bruneau, Owyhee County, ID

  2. The research of stress monitor and broken testing for steel wire rope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaochun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the security of steel wire rope, investigated the broken wire condition, the capability of the rope to bear weight and the state of stress balance of each wire in the steel wire rope. The wavelet translation method has been applied to analyze the signals of the leakage magnetic field from the steel wire rope. The result of the

  3. Penetration of concrete targets with ogive-nose steel rods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Frew; S. J. Hanchak; M. L. Green; M. J. Forrestal

    1998-01-01

    We conducted depth of penetration experiments in concrete targets with 3.0 caliber-radius-head, steel rod projectiles. The concrete targets with 9.5mm diameter limestone aggregate had a nominal unconfined compressive strength of 58.4MPa (8.5ksi) and density 2320kg\\/m3. To explore geometric projectile scales, we conducted two sets of experiments. Projectiles with length-to-diameter ratio of ten were machined from 4340Rc 45 steel, round stock

  4. 78 FR 44526 - Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ...applied. In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...of these investigations are steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...tungsten, or 0.012 percent of boron, or 0.10 percent of molybdenum...15 percent of zirconium. Steel threaded rod is currently...

  5. 78 FR 12718 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ...applied. In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...in the scope of the order are steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...tungsten, or 0.012 percent of boron, or 0.10 percent of molybdenum...15 percent of zirconium. Steel threaded rod is...

  6. 78 FR 76815 - Steel Threaded Rod From India: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...applied. In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...scope of this investigation are steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...tungsten, or 0.012 percent of boron, or 0.10 percent of molybdenum...15 percent of zirconium. Steel threaded rod is currently...

  7. 78 FR 44532 - Steel Threaded Rod From India: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ...applied. In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...scope of this investigation are steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...tungsten, or 0.012 percent of boron, or 0.10 percent of molybdenum...15 percent of zirconium. Steel threaded rod is currently...

  8. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  9. 78 FR 28803 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...Administration [A-570-918] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of...the antidumping duty order on steel wire garment hangers from the People's Republic of...1\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic...

  10. 77 FR 14002 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ...Administration [C-552-813] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of...countervailing duty investigation of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. See Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the Socialist Republic...

  11. Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Kim, D.K.

    1996-06-25

    Hypereutectoid steels have the potential for dramatically increasing the strength of wire used in tire cord and in other high strength wire applications. The basis for this possible breakthrough is the elimination of a brittle proeutectoid network that can form along grain boundaries if appropriate processing procedures and alloy additions are used. A review is made of work done by Japanese and other researchers on eutectoid and mildly hypereutectoid wires. A linear extrapolation of the tensile strength of fine wires predicts higher strengths at higher carbon contents. The influence of processing, alloy additions and carbon content in optimizing the strength, ductility and fracture behavior of hypereutectoid steels is presented. It is proposed that the tensile strength of pearlitic wires is dictated by the fracture strength of the carbide lamella at grain boundary locations in the carbide. Methods to improve the strength of carbide grain boundaries and to decrease the carbide plate thickness will contribute to enhancing the ultrahigh strength obtainable in hypereutectoid steel wires. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Recrystallization and Grain Growth of 316L Stainless Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiuyun; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yan; Feng, Ping; Tang, Huiping

    2014-07-01

    Recrystallization and grain growth behaviors of 316L stainless steel wires with a diameter of 12 µm were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction techniques. Heavily cold-drawn wires were isothermally held at temperatures from 1073 K to 1223 K (800 °C to 950 °C) for various holding times. Optical microscopy and TEM observations showed that recrystallization grains have irregular shape and that twins exist. The texture formed during drawing and annealing processes of the wires, as measured by X-ray methods, showed a fiber texture approximated by a <111> and a <100> component. The value of the grain growth exponent n was calculated, and the kinetic rates were plotted using the Arrhenius equation. Results show that the activation energy of the grain growth for 316L stainless steel wire was determined to be 407 kJ/mol, which was much higher than that of the bulk 316L stainless steel. The small wire diameter and the existence of texture played important roles in the increase of the activation energy for grain growth of the wire.

  13. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire. 1755...ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire....

  14. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire. 1755...ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire....

  15. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire. 1755...ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire....

  16. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire. 1755...ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire....

  17. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire. 1755...ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire....

  18. An experimental correlation of cross-flow pressure drop for triangular array wire-wrapped rod assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, K.Y.; Todreas, N.E.

    1987-02-01

    An experimental study was carried out to quantitatively estimate the lateral drag changes due to flow structure alteration caused by the presence of wirewrap spacers in liquid-metal fast breeder reactor rod assemblies. Specially designed test rod bundles were constructed employing vertical straight wires attached at various angles around the rods relative to the cross-flow direction. These bundles simulate the cross-flow pressure drop within a control volume with axial mesh size less than one-twelfth of wire-wrap lead length. The variables examined were wire angular positions, Reynolds number, and rod arrangements. The transverse pressure drop data for triangular-array rod bundles with wires have been correlated throughout the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. The correlation is in the form of a correction parameter to be applied to the friction factor-Reynolds number relationship for the corresponding bare rod bundle.

  19. Smart FBG-based steel tie rod with self-monitoring functionality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianping He; Zhi Zhou; Genda Chen; Jinping Ou

    2009-01-01

    Currently, it is difficult to measure the internal forces of steel tie rods under construction and in long-term service. A novel high-durable smart steel tie rod with functionality of self-monitoring was developed by utilizing fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and installation techniques combined with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP). The sensing features for the smart steel tie rod were investigated. The

  20. Impact speed drop compensation procedure for a new layout wire rod mill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Scaglia; G. Melandri

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new architecture of the final section of the production line of a wire rod mill (WRM). Such final section consists of three stands that are powered by one 5400 kW and two 2400 kW motors, respectively. The motors are supplied by one 9 MVA and two 6 MVA medium voltage NPC inverters, all in the AFE

  1. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ...731-TA-1197-1198 (Preliminary)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations...from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for in subheading 7326...than fair value (LTFV) and steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam that are...

  2. Resistance of steel strength wires used in small fiber-optic cables to seawater corrosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin J. Sandwith; Robert L. Ruedisueli; Allan L. James; Gerald A. Gotthardt

    1996-01-01

    The corrosion rates of single strands of strength wire and the same wires assembled in small, fiber-optic cables with jacket damage that exposes the wire have been measured and used to predict the loss in wire and cable strength with time. The wires consisted of galvanized and ungalvanized extra improved plow steel. The results of laboratory measurements and of tensile

  3. Smart FBG-based steel tie rod with self-monitoring functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jianping; Zhou, Zhi; Chen, Genda; Ou, Jinping

    2009-03-01

    Currently, it is difficult to measure the internal forces of steel tie rods under construction and in long-term service. A novel high-durable smart steel tie rod with functionality of self-monitoring was developed by utilizing fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and installation techniques combined with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP). The sensing features for the smart steel tie rod were investigated. The strain obtained from FBG strain sensors shows very good linearity and repeatability when the steel tie rod is under 85% of its ultimate load. The force calculated from the strain data obtained during the control loading supports those findings, within a 4% error. This type of smart steel tie rod easily reveals any stage of stress and can be regarded as a potential strain-based load cell for adjacent structures in a harsh environment.

  4. 76 FR 26696 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ...applied. In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...in the scope of the order are steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...tungsten, or 0.012 percent of boron, or 0.10 percent of molybdenum...15 percent of zirconium. Steel threaded rod is...

  5. 77 FR 473 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...applied. In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...in the scope of the order are steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...tungsten, or 0.012 percent of boron, or 0.10 percent of molybdenum...15 percent of zirconium. Steel threaded rod is...

  6. 76 FR 68400 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...applied. In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...in the scope of the order are steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...tungsten, or 0.012 percent of boron, or 0.10 percent of molybdenum...15 percent of zirconium. Steel threaded rod is currently...

  7. 78 FR 79670 - Steel Threaded Rod From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...applied. In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...scope of this investigation are steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...tungsten, or 0.012 percent of boron, or 0.10 percent of molybdenum...15 percent of zirconium. Steel threaded rod is currently...

  8. 77 FR 27022 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...applied. In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...in the scope of the order are steel threaded rod, bar, or studs...tungsten, or 0.012 percent of boron, or 0.10 percent of molybdenum...15 percent of zirconium. Steel threaded rod is...

  9. DESIGN OF WIRE-WRAPPED ROD BUNDLE MATCHED INDEX-OF-REFRACTION EXPERIMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh McIlroy; Hongbin Zhang; Kurt D. Hamman

    2008-01-01

    Experiments will be conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility [1] to characterize the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a wire-wrapped rod bundle typically employed in liquid-metal cooled fast reactors and to provide benchmark data for computer code validation. Sodium cooled fast reactors are under consideration for use in the U.S. Department of Energy

  10. Turbulent flow simulation in a wire-wrap rod bundle of an LMFBR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Natesan; T. Sundararajan; Arunn Narasimhan; K. Velusamy

    2010-01-01

    The pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of wire-wrapped 19-pin rod bundles in a nuclear reactor subassembly of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) have been investigated through three-dimensional turbulent flow simulations. The predicted results of eddy viscosity based turbulence models (k–?, k–?) and the Reynolds stress model are compared with those of experimental correlations for friction factor and

  11. Unsupervised Classification of Surface Defects in Wire Rod Production Obtained by Eddy Current Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Saludes-Rodil, Sergio; Baeyens, Enrique; Rodríguez-Juan, Carlos P.

    2015-01-01

    An unsupervised approach to classify surface defects in wire rod manufacturing is developed in this paper. The defects are extracted from an eddy current signal and classified using a clustering technique that uses the dynamic time warping distance as the dissimilarity measure. The new approach has been successfully tested using industrial data. It is shown that it outperforms other classification alternatives, such as the modified Fourier descriptors. PMID:25938201

  12. Advanced Techniques for Modelling and Detection of Cracks in Hot Wire Steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehbub-ur RAHMAN; René MARKLEIN

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents innovative and advanced electromagnetic and ultrasonic techniques for the in-line inspection of hot wire steel. The hot wire inspection procedure is performed with two types of sensor techniques: the eddy current (EC) sensor technique and the electromagnetic ultrasonic (EMUS) sensor technique. Any type of crack on the upper surface of the steel wire disturbs the eddy current

  13. Ion release and cytotoxicity of stainless steel wires.

    PubMed

    Oh, Keun-Taek; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2005-12-01

    Heat treatment is generally applied to orthodontic stainless steel (SS) wires to relieve the stresses that result from their manipulation by orthodontists. The quality and thickness of the oxide films formed on the surface of heat-treated wires can vary, and it is believed that these oxide films can influence the properties of heat-treated wires. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of heat treatment and cooling methods on the amount of metal ions released and to examine the cytotoxicity of heat-treated wires. In this study, four types of SS wires (Remanium, Permachrome, Colboloy and Orthos) with a cross-sectional area of 0.41 x 0.56 mm were investigated. These wires were heat-treated in a vacuum, air, or argon environment, and were cooled in either a furnace or a water bath. Four control groups and 24 experimental groups were classified according to the type of wires, heat treatment conditions and cooling methods. In each group, the amount of nickel released as well as its cytotoxicity was investigated. The concentration of dissolved nickel ions in artificial saliva was measured for a period of up to 12 weeks. In all groups, the concentration of dissolved nickel ions in artificial saliva was lowest for the vacuum heat treatment-furnace cooling group and a significant difference was shown compared with the other experimental groups. The concentration of dissolved nickel ions in artificial saliva was highest in the groups heat-treated in air (P < 0.05), while the amount of nickel released was highest in the Remanium and Colboloy (P < 0.05). The cytotoxicity was mild in all the experimental groups but the response index of the air groups was slightly higher than in the other groups. According to these results, SS wires retain their high corrosion resistance and low ion release rate when heat-treated in a vacuum and cooled in a furnace. PMID:16093259

  14. Wire-Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Protects Steel Against Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank R.; Poorman, Richard; Sanders, Heather L.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Bonds, James W., Jr.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Aluminum coatings wire-arc sprayed onto steel substrates found effective in protecting substrates against corrosion. Coatings also satisfy stringent requirements for adhesion and flexibility, both at room temperature and at temperatures as low as liquid hydrogen. Developed as alternatives to corrosion-inhibiting primers and paints required by law to be phased out because they contain and emit such toxic substances as chromium and volatile organic compounds.

  15. Cold drawn steel wires--processing, residual stresses and ductility Part II: Synchrotron and neutron diffraction

    E-print Network

    Cold drawn steel wires--processing, residual stresses and ductility Part II: Synchrotron Received in final form 29 September 2005 ABSTRACT Cold drawing of steel wires leads to an increase proposed that cold drawing would induce a phase transformation of the steel, possibly a martensitic

  16. Mechanical properties of cobalt-chromium wires compared to stainless steel and ?-titanium wires

    PubMed Central

    Alobeid, Ahmad; Hasan, Malak; Al-Suleiman, Mahmoud; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported on mechanical properties of different orthodontic wires. However, there is a paucity of information that comparing the mechanical properties of Blue Elgiloy (BE) when compared to stainless steel and TMA, as finishing wires as received by different companies. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of BE wires compared to stainless steel (SS) and titanium Molybdenum alloy (TMA) also known as ? titanium as provided by two companies. Materials and Methods: Six 0.016 x 0.022-14mm-samples of each wire were fixed individually to Instron machine and were tested in loading and unloading for three times. The initial load was set for 500 Kg at a speed of 1mm/min and displacement was adjusted for (0.5, 1mm in loading and 0.5 mm unloading at 25°C). Statistics Analysis: Variables were compared between groups by ANOVA test using SPSS statistical software. Results: BE shows comparable forces to SS when loaded 0.5 and showed decreased forces in 1mm loading compared to SS, and higher than TMA. BE also showed no forces at unloading and high deformation. Conclusion: BE from the two companies showed comparable mechanical properties while SS and TMA were different. The deformation of BE and its decreased forces in unloading may limit its clinical use. PMID:25426458

  17. Relative kinetic frictional forces between sintered stainless steel brackets and orthodontic wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet L. Vaughan; Manville G. Duncanson; Ram S. Nanda; G. Fräns Currier

    1995-01-01

    The level of kinetic frictional forces generated during in vitro translation at the bracket-wire interface were measured for two sintered stainless steel brackets as a function of two slot sizes, four wire alloys, and five to eight wire sizes. The two types of sintered stainless steel brackets were tested in both 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slots. Wires of four different alloy

  18. Fractal roughness structures of precision-machined WC-Co- and Inconel 625-coated steel rods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. W. Zhong; Z. F. Peng

    2007-01-01

    Thermally sprayed WC-Co coatings on steel rods were machined by grinding and turning using diamond tools, and thermally sprayed\\u000a Inconel 625 coatings on steel rods were machined by turning using various WC tools. Four of these samples were selected for\\u000a surface characterization using a stylus roughness tester. The results show that precision-machined WC-Co and Inconel-625 surfaces\\u000a can be identified as

  19. Electroretinographic findings in the Standard Wire Haired Dachshund with inherited early onset cone–rod dystrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst O. Ropstad; Ellen Bjerkås; Kristina Narfström

    2007-01-01

    Purpose  To describe electroretinographic (ERG) findings in a strain of Standard Wire Haired Dachshund (SWHD)-derived dogs at the ages\\u000a of approximately 5, 8 and 52 weeks selected for inherited early onset cone–rod dystrophy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Nineteen affected and 13 age-matched control SWHDs were included in the study. All dogs were subjected to standardized bilateral\\u000a Ganzfeld ERGs and ophthalmoscopic examinations at regular intervals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Photopic cone-derived

  20. Relative kinetic frictional forces between sintered stainless steel brackets and orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, J L; Duncanson, M G; Nanda, R S; Currier, G F

    1995-01-01

    The level of kinetic frictional forces generated during in vitro translation at the bracket-wire interface were measured for two sintered stainless steel brackets as a function of two slot sizes, four wire alloys, and five to eight wire sizes. The two types of sintered stainless steel brackets were tested in both 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slots. Wires of four different alloy types, stainless steel (SS), cobalt chromium (Co-Cr), nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti), and beta-titanium (beta-Ti), were tested. There were five wire sizes for the 0.018-inch slot and eight wire sizes for the 0.022-inch slot. The wires were ligated into the brackets with elastomeric ligatures. Bracket movement along the wire was implemented by means of a mechanical testing instrument, and time dependent frictional forces were measured by a load cell and plotted on an X-Y recorder. For most wire sizes, lower frictional forces were generated with the SS of Co-Cr wires than with the beta-Ti or Ni-Ti wires. Increase in wire size generally resulted in increased bracket-wire friction. There were no significant differences between manufacturer for the sintered stainless steel brackets. The levels of frictional force in 0.018-inch brackets ranged from a low of 46 gm with 0.016-inch Co-Cr wire to a high of 157 gm with 0.016 x 0.025-inch beta-Ti wire. In comparing the data from a previous study by Kapila et al. 1990 performed at OUHSC with the same apparatus, the friction of sintered stainless steel brackets was approximately 40% to 45% less than the friction of the conventional stainless steel brackets. PMID:7817958

  1. Determination of wire recovery length in steel cables and its practical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed Raoof; Ivana Kraincanic

    1998-01-01

    In the presence of relatively significant states of radial pressures between the helical wires of a steel cable (spiral strand and\\/or wire rope), and significant levels of interwire friction, the individual broken wires tend to take up their appropriate share of the axial load within a certain length from the fractured end, which is called the recovery (or development) length.The

  2. Optimum excitation signal for long-range inspection of steel wires by longitudinal waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yamasaki; S. Tamai; M. Hirao

    2001-01-01

    Optimization of an excitation signal is proposed for long-range inspection of thin steel wires by ultrasonic waves. Due to its sensitivity to flaws normal to the axial direction, a longitudinal wave is a useful tool for flaw detection of wires. We can launch and detect longitudinal waves at arbitrary positions on the wire by using electromagnetic acoustic transducers. The broadband

  3. Warm forming of acid resistant steel wires used for manufacturing of springs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sko?yszewski; M. Pa?ko; J. ?uksza; M. Rumi?ski

    2002-01-01

    Acid resistant steel wires used for manufacturing of springs are required to show high strength properties, and especially very high fatigue strength while maintaining good plastic properties. The production of such wire is technologically difficult. The objective of the paper is to present the results of extensive laboratory and industrial research concerning the search for new conditions of producing wires

  4. 76 FR 73589 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...cold-drawn carbon quality steel product in coils, of solid...hot-dipping or electroplating). Steel products to be included in the...tungsten, or --0.02 percent of boron, or --0.10 percent of molybdenum...investigation is galvanized steel wire in coils of 15 feet...

  5. 77 FR 17418 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ...cold-drawn carbon quality steel product in coils, of circular...hot-dipping or electroplating). Steel products to be included in the...tungsten, or --0.02 percent of boron, or --0.10 percent of molybdenum...investigation is galvanized steel wire in coils of 15 feet...

  6. 76 FR 23564 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...investigation covers galvanized steel wire which is a cold-drawn carbon quality steel product in coils, of solid...hot-dipping or electroplating). Steel products to be included in...tungsten, or 0.02 percent of boron, or 0.10 percent of...

  7. 76 FR 55031 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ...investigation covers galvanized steel wire which is a cold-drawn carbon quality steel product in coils, of solid...hot-dipping or electroplating). Steel products to be included in...tungsten, or 0.02 percent of boron, or 0.10 percent of...

  8. Study on formation of “easy to remove oxide scale” during mechanical descaling of high carbon wire rods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chattopadhyay; P. Kumar; D. Roy

    2009-01-01

    Oxide layer in high carbon wire rods are not completely removed by the mechanical descaling process. Formation of hematite causes poor mechanical descaling whereas magnetite and wustite are found to be non-adherent oxides which can be more readily removed. Oxide formation at high temperature has been studied using Gleeble simulation and it is found that a high laying head temperature

  9. Corrosion resistance of premodeled wires made of stainless steel used for heart electrotherapy leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; M?ynarski, R.; Szatka, W.

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wire made of X10CrNi18-8 stainless steel designed for use in cardiology treatment. The influence of strain formed in the premodeling process and methods of wire surface preparation to corrosive resistance in artificial plasma solution were analysed. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in the solution of artificial plasma. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of recorded curves of anodic polarization by means of potentiodynamic method. Potentiodynamic tests carried out enabled to determine how the resistance to pitting corrosion of wire changes, depending on strain formed in the premodeling process as well as on the method of wire surface preparation. For evaluation of phenomena occurring on the surface of tested steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied. Deterioration of corrosive properties of wire along with the increase in the formed strain hardening was observed.

  10. Flexural strengthening of RC beams using distributed prestressed high strength steel wire rope: theoretical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Wu; Zhishen Wu; Yang Wei; Jianbiao Jiang; Yi Cui

    2012-01-01

    Various strengthening techniques for structural elements using different materials have been investigated. Recently, a new, reliable and cost-effective strengthening technique with distributed prestressed high strength steel wire rope (P-SWR technique) was proposed. This paper mainly focuses on theoretical analysis of the flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with the P-SWR strengthening technique. First, mechanical properties of steel wire

  11. Guidance properties on the surface of copper and stainless steel wires in terahertz frequency range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-In Jeon; Young Bin Ji; Eui Su Lee; Jin Seok Jang; Min Hwan Kwak; Kang-Yong Kwang

    2007-01-01

    We report an experimental and theoretical study of the guidance properties on the surface of copper and stainless steel wires in the terahertz frequency range. Instead of using quasioptic coupling, optoelectronically generated THz pulses by silicon on sapphire (SOS) photoconductive dipole antenna were directly launched onto a 0.5-mm-diameter copper and stainless steel wire. After a 71-cm propagation of the curved

  12. Cold drawn steel wires--processing, residual stresses and ductility--part I: metallography and finite element analyses

    E-print Network

    Cold drawn steel wires--processing, residual stresses and ductility--part I: metallography form 29 September 2005 ABSTRACT Cold drawing steel wires lead to an increase of their mechanical, residual stresses, inherited from the process, control the elongation of cold drawn wires. The finite

  13. Comparing the cyclic behavior of concrete cylinders confined by shape memory alloy wire or steel jackets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eunsoo Choi; Hong-Taek Kim

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets for concrete are distinct from conventional jackets of steel or fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) since they provide active confinement which can be easily achieved due to the shape memory effect of SMAs. This study uses NiTiNb SMA wires of 1.0 mm diameter to confine concrete cylinders with the dimensions of 300 mm × 150

  14. Influence of filler wire composition on weld microstructures of a 444 ferritic stainless steel grade

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Influence of filler wire composition on weld microstructures of a 444 ferritic stainless steel'Aumône, France. Abstract Seven compositions of metal cored filler wires for Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW titanium (Ti) and niobium (Nb) contents were investigated. Experimental results pointed out that the filler

  15. 75 FR 1597 - Wire Decking from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Determination of Sales at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ...25\\ See, e.g., Certain Cased Pencils from the People's Republic of China; Final Results and Partial...certain CONNUMs the consumption of hot-rolled steel strip in coils and wire rods (collectively ``steel weight''),...

  16. Scaled long rod perforation experiments using multiple diagnostics: Mild steel against rolled homogeneous armour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Daniel; Proud, William

    2012-03-01

    A series of angled small-scale reverse ballistic long rod experiments were conducted using mild steel rods (6 mm dia., 90 mm long) against both 3 mm and 6 mm rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) plates at 60°. The impact velocity was varied from 450-780 m s-1 and the response of the system monitored by laser velocimetry, strain gauges and high-speed photography. This provided insight into the flexing of the rod during impact, the acceleration of the rear of the rod and the global penetration process. This experimental series involved ricochet, near-ricochet and full perforation, and so allows the sensitivity of the differing diagnostic outputs for these processes to be compared.

  17. Study Of The Wet Multipass Drawing Process Applied On High Strength Thin Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thimont, J.; Felder, E.; Bobadilla, C.; Buessler, P.; Persem, N.; Vaubourg, JP.

    2011-05-01

    Many kinds of high strength thin steel wires are involved in so many applications. Most of the time, these wires are made of a pearlitic steel grade. The current developments mainly concern the wire last drawing operation: after a patenting treatment several reduction passes are performed on a slip-type multipass drawing machine. This paper focuses on modeling this multipass drawing process: a constitutive law based on the wire microstructure evolutions is created, a mechanical study is performed, a set of experiments which enables determining the process friction coefficients is suggested and finally the related analytical model is introduced. This model provides several general results about the process and can be used in order to set the drawing machines.

  18. Role of corrosion in Harrington and Luque rods failure.

    PubMed

    Prikryl, M; Srivastava, S C; Viviani, G R; Ives, M B; Purdy, G R

    1989-03-01

    Ten in-vivo failed spinal instrumentation systems, i.e. six Harrington distraction rods with sublaminar hooks, one Harrington distraction rod with segmental wiring and three Luque rods with sublaminar wires, were fractographically analysed. In both Harrington and Luque rods corrosion fatigue was the predominant mechanism resulting in the failure. Five Harrington rods fractured at the first ratchet junction; fractures of the Luque rods were initiated by fretting of sublaminar wire with the rod surface in the presence of spinal non-union. Fretting and crevice corrosion were found to play an important role in compromising the segmental spinal instrumentation. The susceptibility of the 316 L CW austenitic stainless steel to pitting and relative resistance to crevice corrosion were measured by cyclic anodic polarization tests. The oxide inclusions have been found to play a significant role in the pitting of the alloy. PMID:2706297

  19. Research on the fatigue and fracture behavior due to the fretting wear of steel wire in hoisting rope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Zhang; S. R. Ge; Y. H. Qiang

    2003-01-01

    Hoisting steel rope is an important component of the winding equipment in coalmines. Fretting wear and its induced fatigue and fracture of wires have been the major failure modes of the hoisting ropes. In this paper, a series of experiments on the fretting friction and wear of steel wires were performed on an elastic beam oscillation test rig. The worn

  20. Effect of charging energy on droplet diameters and properties of high-carbon steel coatings sprayed by wire explosion spraying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Li; Qiu-zhi Song; Jian-zhong Wang; Ying-xian Duo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of charging energy on droplet diameters and the properties of high-carbon steel coatings sprayed by wire explosion spraying. With different charging energies, droplets were collected when high-carbon steel wire explosion occurred, and the coatings were sprayed on aluminum alloy substrates. Droplet diameter distributions were obtained by using a Laser Particle

  1. 77 FR 19191 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...made of steel wire. Also excluded from the scope of the order are chrome-plated steel wire garment hangers with a diameter of 3.4 mm...Administration. [FR Doc. 2012-7740 Filed 3-29-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  2. Results of titanium locking plate and stainless steel cerclage wire combination in femoral fractures

    PubMed Central

    El-Zayat, Bilal Farouk; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Efe, Turgay; Paletta, Jürgen; Kreslo, Dimitri; Zettl, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some in vitro studies warn combining different metals in orthopedic surgery. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of combining titanium and stainless steel on bone healing and the clinical course of patients undergoing internal fixation of femoral fractures. Materials and Methods: 69 patients with femoral fractures had polyaxial locking plate osteosynthesis. The locking plate was made of a titanium alloy. Two different cohorts were defined: (a) sole plating and (b) additional stainless steel cerclage wiring. Postoperative radiographs and clinical followup were performed at 6 weeks, 3 months and 12 months. Results: Cohorts A and B had 36 and 33 patients, respectively. Patient demographics and comorbidities were similar in both groups. In two cases in cohort A, surgical revision was necessary. No complication could be attributed to the combination of titanium and stainless steel. Conclusion: The combination of stainless steel cerclage wires and titanium plates does not compromise fracture healing or the postoperative clinical course. PMID:24133304

  3. Experimental research on stable fretting wear of stainless steel wires in transformable component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiu-ping; Liu, Guo-quan; Zhang, Li; Bai, Hong-bai; Yang, Jian-chun

    2009-07-01

    Cool-drawn 1Cr18Ni9 stainless steel wires of ? 0.1~0.5 mm can be woven and punched to prepare transformable component which has loose, reticulate structures. When it is uploaded with vibrating force, the displacement will cause intense frictions between wires' surfaces which will dissipate abundant energy and thus it can serve as dampers like natural rubbers. Since such new type of material has double characteristics of both rubbers and metals, it is commonly called "Metal Rubber". There is certain amount of contact point/surface on wires in the transformable component and the displacements between wires are at micron levels. Experiments showed that wear course of 'fretting cell' could be plotted as four phases: polish, adherence, forming of the third bed and stabilization. The stabilization phase, in which the friction coefficients are comparatively stable, dominates the whole course. Based on data of Metal Rubber vibration fatigue experiment, ? 0.3 mm cool-drawn 1Cr18Ni9 stainless steel wires' dry fretting experiments at 10 N load are made on SRV high temperature wear tester, friction coefficients are collected and fret traces are studied by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Results indicate that wire's stabilization wear phase is the circulation process of grindings' forming, concentrating to blocks of ? 20 ?m, busting and discharging. Deformation induced martensite transit in wire's cool drawing has significant effects on grinding blocks' bursting performances.

  4. 77 FR 3737 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ...ITC will preliminarily determine, within 45 days after the date on which the Petition...with clips permanently affixed; and (d) chrome-plated steel wire garment hangers with...Doc. 2012-1531 Filed 1-24-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  5. Composite Steel Wire Ropes for Mine Hoisting Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Rebel; R Verreet; U Briem

    The level of wire rope technology used in mine hoisting applications has a significant effect on the overall efficiency of the hoisting system. This paper discusses the effect that a reduction in rope mass per unit length and an increase in rope breaking strength can have on rock skip capacity and hence mine shaft output. A 20 per cent reduction

  6. 76 FR 23548 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...investigations covers galvanized steel wire which is a cold-drawn carbon quality steel product in coils, of solid...dipping or electroplating). Steel products to be included in...tungsten, or 0.02 percent of boron, or 0.10 percent of...

  7. 77 FR 17430 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ...cold-drawn carbon quality steel product in coils, of circular...hot-dipping or electroplating). Steel products to be included in the...tungsten, or --0.02 percent of boron, or --0.10 percent of molybdenum...investigation is galvanized steel wire in coils of 15 feet...

  8. 76 FR 72721 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ...cold- drawn carbon quality steel product in coils, of solid...hot-dipping or electroplating). Steel products to be included in the...tungsten, or 0.02 percent of boron, or 0.10 percent of molybdenum...investigation is galvanized steel wire in coils of 15 feet...

  9. 76 FR 68407 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of Sales at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...cold-drawn carbon quality steel product in coils, of solid...hot-dipping or electroplating). Steel products to be included in the...tungsten, or --0.02 percent of boron, or --0.10 percent of molybdenum...investigation is galvanized steel wire in coils of 15 feet...

  10. 76 FR 68422 - Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...cold-drawn carbon quality steel product in coils, of solid...hot-dipping or electroplating). Steel products to be included in the...tungsten, or --0.02 percent of boron, or --0.10 percent of molybdenum...investigation is galvanized steel wire in coils of 15 feet...

  11. 77 FR 17427 - Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ...cold-drawn carbon quality steel product in coils, of circular...hot-dipping or electroplating). Steel products to be included in the...tungsten, or --0.02 percent of boron, or --0.10 percent of molybdenum...investigation is galvanized steel wire in coils of 15 feet...

  12. Formation quality optimization of laser hot wire cladding for repairing martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Peng; Feng, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Laser cladding is an advantaged repairing technology due to its low heat input and high flexibility. With preheating wire by resistance heat, laser hot wire cladding shows better process stability and higher deposition efficiency compared to laser cold wire/powder cladding. Multi-pass layer were cladded on the surface of martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel FV520B by fiber laser with ER410NiMo wire. Wire feed rate and preheat current were optimized to obtain stable wire transfer, which guaranteed good formation quality of single pass cladding. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters and predict formation quality of multi-pass cladding. Laser power P, scanning speed Vs, wire feed rate Vf and overlap ratio ? were selected as the input variables, while flatness ratio, dilution and incomplete fusion value as the responses. Optimal clad layer with flat surface, low dilution and no incomplete fusion was obtained by appropriately reducing Vf, and increasing P, Vs and ?. No defect like pore or crack was found. The tensile strength and impact toughness of the clad layer is respectively 96% and 86% of those of the substrate. The clad layer showed nonuniform microstructure and was divided into quenched areas with coarse lath martensite and tempered areas with tempered martensite due to different thermal cycles in adjacent areas. The tempered areas showed similar hardness to the substrate.

  13. Perforation of aluminum plates with ogive-nose steel rods at normal and oblique impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Piekutowski, A.J.; Poormon, K.L. [Univ. of Dayton Research Institute, OH (United States); Forrestal, M.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We conducted perforation experiments with 26.3-mm-thick, 6061-T651 aluminum plates and 12.9-mm-diameter, 88.9-mm-long, 4340 R{sub c} = 44, ogive-nose steel rods. For normal and 30-degree oblique impacts with striking velocities between 280 and 860m/s, we showed good agreement between residual velocity data and predictions from a closed form perforation equation. We measured residual velocities and displayed the perforation process with x-ray photographs. These photographs showed clearly the time-resolved projectile kinematics and permanent deformations.

  14. Comparison of Inclusions in Cold Drawn Wire and Precursor Hot-Rolled Rod Coil in VIM-VAR Nickel-Titanium Alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Sczerzenie; Graeme Paul; Clarence Belden

    2011-01-01

    Inclusion content is important for the mechanical behavior and performance of Nitinol wires, particularly in fatigue-rated\\u000a devices. The purpose of this work was to make a quantitative comparison between inclusion populations in cold drawn wires\\u000a and the precursor populations in hot-rolled rod coil. Inclusion content was examined in a series of VIM-VAR alloys with different\\u000a transformation temperatures (TTR) controlled by

  15. Comparing Mersilene* tape and stainless steel wire as sublaminar spinal fixation in the Chagma baboon (Papio ursinus).

    PubMed Central

    Grobler, L. J.; Gaines, R. W.; Kempff, P. G.

    1997-01-01

    The development of segmental instrumentation has been a major advancement in the treatment of spinal problems, but the use of sublaminar stainless steel wire (SSW) has not been without untoward effects. This study reports a comparison of Mersilene* tape (MT) and stainless steel wire (SSW) used for sublaminar fixation in the Chagma baboon (Papio Ursinus). A similar comparative study has not been reported, although the local effects of sublaminar SSW in the spinal canal have previously been described. The adult Chagma baboon was selected as the experimental animal due to its partial upright posture and spinal anatomy, similar to that of the human. Six levels of the thoracolumbar spine were instrumented with custom designed Harrington hooks and regular one-quarter inch threaded rods used as a distraction system. The four intervening laminae were fixed to the rods using doubled-over, eighteen gauge sublaminar SSW in six cases and five millimeter MT in six cases. Computed axial tomography used to measure the AP diameter of the bony spinal canal revealed the AP space occupied by the SSW and MT to be 32 percent and 14.8 percent respectively. In the MT group, the overlying dura mater was found to be totally intact and revealed no signs of abnormal tissue response. A well-formed connective tissue membrane consisting of dense connective tissue surrounded the MT and was found to consist of more mature fibers than that found in the SSW group. The dura-implant interface was examined histologically and a distinct membrane was identified between the dura and the superficial aspect of the MT's, as well as intervening between the two MT's. Following removal of the MT, in contrast to the SSW, it was apparent that the underlying dura was not injured, most probably due to the soft consistency of the Mersilene* tape and the well-formed overlying membrane. On clinical grounds the fixation in both groups was adequate but the MT group formed a well-circumscribed membrane that made removal of the MT easier and potentially safer. The AP space occupied by the spinal implant was also found to be less with MT as opposed to SSW. Images Figure 2 Figure 3A-3B Figure 3C Figure 4 Figure 5A Figure 5B-5C Figure 6A Figure 6B Figure 6C Figure 6D PMID:9234971

  16. Penetration of Long Steel Rods into Thick Steel and Sandstone Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, Vishal; Chaturvedi, Shashank

    2011-07-01

    The impact of a ogive-nosed steel projectile into thick sandstone and steel targets has been simulated over impact velocities from 200 m/s to 750 m/s, and the projectile deceleration histories compared. Both targets have an entrance phase in which deceleration increases sharply. This phase is followed in a steel target by a steady deceleration phase. In sandstone, however, a double-peak structure is seen in the 300-550 m/s range. This is similar to the double peak that was observed in a reported rock penetration experiment at 520 m/s. These studies are aimed at determination of material-specific parameters related to dynamic strength and fracture properties.

  17. The Electrical Properties of Single-Layer Aluminum Conductors, Steel Reinforced (ACSR), Having Single Steel Core Wires with Heavy Aluminum Coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Jensen; R. E. Demuth; R. W. Mowery

    1962-01-01

    This paper discusses electrical tests made on representative sizes of single layer alminum conductors, steel reinforced with galvanized and heavy aluminum coatings. Analysis of 60-cycle a-c (alternating current) test data indicates that the conductors with aluminum-clad core wires than the same sizes of ACSR conductors in which the core wires are of galvanized steel. The differences are in the order

  18. 76 FR 13665 - Arcelor Mittal, Formerly Known as Mittal Steel Walker Wire, a Subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,694] Arcelor Mittal, Formerly Known as Mittal Steel Walker Wire, a Subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal--Montreal, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Leasing Systems,...

  19. 77 FR 28354 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...Revocation in Part, 76 FR 74041 (November 30, 2011). \\2\\ See Memorandum to James Doyle, Director, Office 9, from Irene Gorelik, Senior International Trade Compliance Analyst, Office 9, regarding Third Administrative Review of Steel Wire Garment...

  20. Research of x-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junfeng Wang; Changyun Miao; Wei Wang; Xiaocui Lu

    2008-01-01

    An X-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. The principle of X-ray nondestructive testing (NDT) is analyzed, the general scheme of the X-ray nondestructive testing system is proposed, and the nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is developed. The hardware of system is designed with

  1. Experimental determination of interior subchannel crossflow and axial flow in a model of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor fuel assembly rod bundle with wire wrap spacers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Roidt; T. G. Bartholet; L. J. Harper

    1976-01-01

    Two experimental methods have been used in a 10.87 to 1 scale, unheated air flow model of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant fuel assembly rod bundle with wire wrap spacers to determine the circumferential flows in the clearance gaps between the subchannels. In one method, a tracer gas (ethane) is injected and downstream concentration distributions are obtained. These distributions

  2. Internal attachment of laser beam welded stainless steel sheathed thermocouples into stainless steel upper end caps in nuclear fuel rods for the LOFT Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Welty, R.K.; Reid, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc., acting as a subcontractor to EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, conducted a laser beam welding study to attach internal stainless steel thermocouples into stainless steel upper end caps in nuclear fuel rods. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of laser welding a single 0.063 inch diameter stainless steel (304) sheathed thermocouple into a stainless steel (316) upper end cap for nuclear fuel rods. A laser beam was selected because of the extremely high energy input in unit volume that can be achieved allowing local fusion of a small area irrespective of the difference in material thickness to be joined. A special weld fixture was designed and fabricated to hold the end cap and the thermocouple with angular and rotational adjustment under the laser beam. A commercial pulsed laser and energy control system was used to make the welds.

  3. Development of filler wires for welding of reduced activation ferritic martenstic steel for India's test blanket module of ITER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Srinivasan; B. Arivazhagan; S. K. Albert; A. K. Bhaduri

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (RAFMS) has become mandatory to India to participate in the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Optimisation of RAFMS is in an advanced stage for the fabrication of test blanket module (TBM) components. Simultaneously, development of RAFMS filler wires has been undertaken since there is no commercial filler wires are available for

  4. A new method of studying buried steel corrosion and its inhibition using the wire beam electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naing Naing Aung; Yong-Jun Tan

    2004-01-01

    An electrochemically integrated multi-electrode system namely the wire beam electrode (WBE) has been applied for the first time to study corrosion of mild steel buried in sand, with and without the presence of corrosion inhibitor potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). Measurements of galvanic current distribution maps have been carried out during the exposure of the WBE to dry, damp and chlorinated sand

  5. Effect of microalloying on the strength of high carbon wire steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie L.

    Microalloying additions of V, Nb, and N were investigated as means of increasing strength of eutectoid steels for wire applications. In order to examine the effects of microalloying additions during several stages of wire processing, continuous cooling experiments with and without deformation as well as patenting simulations were conducted using a Gleeble® 3500 thermomechanical simulator. Continuous cooling was performed from industrial austenitizing (1093 °C) and laying head (950 °C and 880 °C) temperatures, at rates ranging from 1 50 °C/s. Deformation was induced via hot torsion testing, which was followed by continuous cooling from 950 °C at rates of 5, 10, and 25 °C/s. Industrial wire patenting was simulated by austenitizing at 1093 °C or 950 °C for 30 sec, then rapid cooling to isothermal transformation temperatures of 575, 600, 625, and 650 °C for 15 sec before cooling to room temperature. Metallography, Vickers hardness, pearlite colony size and pearlite interlamellar spacing (ILS) measurements were used to examine the effects of these treatments. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves were constructed for four steels: 1080, V, V+N, and V+Nb. In the V-microalloyed steel, additional N accelerated pearlite transformation and Nb delayed pearlite transformation. Observed N effects are in agreement with the theory of VN nucleating grain boundary ferrite and accelerating pearlite transformation, proposed by Han et al. [1995], and also consistent with observations by Brownrigg and Prior [2002]. Delay of transformation temperatures has been observed due to Nb effects [De Ardo, 2009]. A larger delay observed with higher austenitizing temperatures suggests that Nb precipitates may not be as effective at delaying transformation. V strengthening effects were observed in all microalloyed steels using a model that predicted hardness of eutectoid steels by incorporating colony size and ILS measurements, with maximum strengthening observed for the V+N steel. The V+Nb steel was found to have the greatest refinement of colony size and ILS, and subsequently higher hardness among the test alloys in both the undeformed and deformed conditions, consistent with the delay of pearlite transformation. In general, undeformed samples had much higher hardness values. Patenting simulations performed on microalloyed steels showed the potential for increased strength with V addition with a sufficiently high austenitizing temperature. All microalloyed steels showed higher hardness than 1080 when austenitized at 1093 °C, with V and V+Nb having the greatest strength increase. The effect was not observed with a 950 °C reheat potentially related to insufficient dissolution of precipitates.

  6. Mass transfer during the treatment of steel in a steel-pouring ladle with cored wire containing a calcium-bearing reagent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Belousov; V. D. Aleksandrov; A. Ya. Babanin; I. L. Buzun; O. B. Isaev; V. V. Kislitsa

    2010-01-01

    Results are presented from a recalculation of the main parameters of mass-transfer processes that take place during the treatment\\u000a of steel with calcium-bearing cored wire in a steel-pouring ladle. The extent to which calcium is used in the treatment is\\u000a calculated in particular.

  7. A novel TMR-based MFL sensor for steel wire rope inspection using the orthogonal test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Wang, Y. J.; Liu, X. C.; He, C. F.

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) sensors, with their compact configuration and high sensitivity to small defects, have attracted much attention in recent years for the non-destructive testing of ferromagnetic structures. Tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) devices have superior performances in sensitivity and linear operation range over conventional magneto-resistive devices. In this paper, a commercial TMR device is employed for developing an electromagnet-based MFL sensor. The electromagnet magnetizer includes Helmholtz-like coils together with a custom-made magnetic shield. The orthogonal test method is applied to aid the structural parameter optimization to the magnetizer based on the finite element analysis results of magnetic field distribution. In this study a prototype of a TMR-based MFL sensor is developed, and its performances on detecting various types of defects are tested on a scanning apparatus. The experimental results show that the MFL signal induced by a blind hole with dimensions of 0.3 mm in both depth and diameter is detectable. In addition, two adjacent notches located more than 2.0 mm from each other can be clearly distinguished from the received MFL signal. The detectable angular detection range for a single TMR device is estimated as 52° in the tested linear shaft rod. The consistency between the simulated and received MFL signal induced by a row of notches inspires confidence in the proposed sensor design method, which in the future can be transplanted for TMR-based sensor array design. Finally, the TMR-based MFL sensor is used for detecting a flaw of a single broken wire with a diameter of 0.5 mm, and the induced MFL signal can be clearly recognized from the oscillation signal that is generated by the twisted rope surface. Therefore, the presented TMR-based MFL sensor has great potential for steel wire rope inspection with enhanced sensitivity to small defects, and it is capable of being integrated into production lines due to its compact configuration.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF POLARIZATION UPON THE STEEL WIRE-NITRIC ACID MODEL OF NERVE ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, George H.

    1927-01-01

    The active process in a short length of steel wire passivated by 65 per cent nitric acid has been observed under the influence of a polarizing current, and the form of the potential recorded by the cathode ray oscillograph. In the passive wire, 80 per cent of the total potential drop takes place at the anode, 20 per cent at the cathode. The change from active to passive states, as measured by the potential change, is very abrupt compared to the duration of activity and the potential curve at a point on the wire is probably almost rectangular. The duration of the refractory state is decreased at the anode and increased at the cathode, as in nerve. This fact is against the idea that reactivity after passivation results from a partial reduction of an oxide layer. Soft iron wire passivated by anodal polarization repassivates after activation in acid of a dilution that fails to passivate it initially. It soon becomes rhythmic with a very short refractory phase, and then reacts continuously. Such a wire exhibits a very sharp alternation between a dark brown oxide coat during activity, and a bright clean surface during passivation. A passive steel wire in nitric acid shows many of the characteristics of an inert electrode such as platinum, and it may be inferred that, superposed upon the primary passivation potential, there exists an electrode or oxidation-reduction potential equilibrium between the effects of the various constituents of the solution. It is suggested that the phenomena of nerve-like reactivity in this system may involve an alternation between two protective coatings of the steel wire. During activity, the surface becomes mechanically coated with a brown oxide. If this coating does not adhere, due to gas convection or to rapid solution of the oxide, passivation does not result. Under sufficiently intense oxidizing conditions, a second oxide coat may form in the interstices of the first, and cover the surface as the first coating dissolves off. This furnishes the electrochemical protection of passivation, which is followed by the gradual attainment of electrode equilibrium with the solution. PMID:19872388

  9. THE EFFECTS OF POLARIZATION UPON THE STEEL WIRE-NITRIC ACID MODEL OF NERVE ACTIVITY.

    PubMed

    Bishop, G H

    1927-11-20

    The active process in a short length of steel wire passivated by 65 per cent nitric acid has been observed under the influence of a polarizing current, and the form of the potential recorded by the cathode ray oscillograph. In the passive wire, 80 per cent of the total potential drop takes place at the anode, 20 per cent at the cathode. The change from active to passive states, as measured by the potential change, is very abrupt compared to the duration of activity and the potential curve at a point on the wire is probably almost rectangular. The duration of the refractory state is decreased at the anode and increased at the cathode, as in nerve. This fact is against the idea that reactivity after passivation results from a partial reduction of an oxide layer. Soft iron wire passivated by anodal polarization repassivates after activation in acid of a dilution that fails to passivate it initially. It soon becomes rhythmic with a very short refractory phase, and then reacts continuously. Such a wire exhibits a very sharp alternation between a dark brown oxide coat during activity, and a bright clean surface during passivation. A passive steel wire in nitric acid shows many of the characteristics of an inert electrode such as platinum, and it may be inferred that, superposed upon the primary passivation potential, there exists an electrode or oxidation-reduction potential equilibrium between the effects of the various constituents of the solution. It is suggested that the phenomena of nerve-like reactivity in this system may involve an alternation between two protective coatings of the steel wire. During activity, the surface becomes mechanically coated with a brown oxide. If this coating does not adhere, due to gas convection or to rapid solution of the oxide, passivation does not result. Under sufficiently intense oxidizing conditions, a second oxide coat may form in the interstices of the first, and cover the surface as the first coating dissolves off. This furnishes the electrochemical protection of passivation, which is followed by the gradual attainment of electrode equilibrium with the solution. PMID:19872388

  10. Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from deformable steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woong; Lee, Heon-Joo; Shin, Hyunho

    2002-10-01

    Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from oblique steel plates with a finite thickness was investigated numerically using a full three-dimensional explicit finite element method. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated for various impact velocities and strengths of the target plates. It was predicted that critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocities and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. Numerical predictions were compared with existing two-dimensional analytical models. Experiments were also carried out and the results supported the predictions of the numerical analysis.

  11. In situ neutron diffraction of heavily drawn steel wires with ultra-high strength under tensile loading

    SciTech Connect

    Tomota, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Institute of Applied Beam Science, Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan)]. E-mail: tomota@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp; Suzuki, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Research Center for Superplasticity, Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Kanie, A. [Graduate student of Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Shiota, Y. [Graduate student of Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Uno, M. [Graduate student of Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Moriai, A. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1196 (Japan); Minakawa, N. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1196 (Japan); Morii, Y. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1196 (Japan)

    2005-01-10

    To make clear the strengthening mechanism of heavily drawn steel wires exhibiting ultra-high strength, in situ neutron diffraction during tensile loading was performed. A ferrite steel (FK) subjected to a true strain of 6.6 and a pearlite steel (PS) subjected to 4.0 were extended on a tensile tester and (1 1 0) diffraction profiles were measured at various holding stresses. Tensile strengths of steel FK and PS are 1.7 and 3.7 GPa, respectively. The change in (1 1 0) spacing with tensile stress is reversible, i.e., elastic, close to the relevant tensile strength. A stress versus (1 1 0) lattice plane strain is linear for steel FK while evidently nonlinear at higher stresses for steel PS. In steel PS in which cementite peaks were hardly observed, the strengthening mechanism is postulated to be different from that for as-patented pearlite steels.

  12. Dissimilar material joining using laser (aluminum to steel using zinc-based filler wire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Alexandre; Shabadi, Rajashekar; Deschamps, Alexis; Suery, Michel; Matteï, Simone; Grevey, Dominique; Cicala, Eugen

    2007-04-01

    Joining steel with aluminum involving the fusion of one or both materials is possible by laser beam welding technique. This paper describes a method, called laser braze welding, which is a suitable process to realize this structure. The main problem with thermal joining of steel/aluminum assembly with processes such as TIG or MIG is the formation of fragile intermetallic phases, which are detrimental to the mechanical performances of such joints. Braze welding permits a localized fusion of the materials resulting in a limitation on the growth of fragile phases. This article presents the results of a statistical approach for an overlap assembly configuration using a filler wire composed of 85% Zn and 15% Al. Tensile tests carried on these assemblies demonstrate a good performance of the joints. The fracture mechanisms of the joints are analyzed by a detailed characterization of the seams.

  13. In situ method of inspecting anchor rods for section loss using the cylindrically guided wave technique

    SciTech Connect

    Niles, G.B. [Baltimore Gas and Electric Co., MD (United States)] [Baltimore Gas and Electric Co., MD (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A nondestructive evaluation technique has been developed to measure and analyze section loss due to corrosion for anchor rods used in guying steel transmission poles. The anchor guy system tested consists of a steel plate embedded in concrete connected to a steel rod buried in earth and attached to the guy wire from the pole. The method used was ultrasonics and specifically, the cylindrically guided wave technique (CGWT). Field correlation of the method was verified by digging up and inspecting several rods. This approach has optimized the ultimate replacement and maintenance expense.

  14. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Influence of Ti and Ta doping on the irreversible strain limit of ternary Nb3Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheggour, N.; Goodrich, L. F.; Stauffer, T. C.; Splett, J. D.; Lu, X. F.; Ghosh, A. K.; Ambrosio, G.

    2010-05-01

    Nb3Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process (RRP®) were found to have a dramatically improved resilience to axial tensile strain when alloyed with Ti as compared to Ta. Whereas Ta-alloyed Nb3Sn in RRP wires showed permanent damage to its current-carrying capacity (Ic) when tensioned beyond an intrinsic strain as small as 0.04%, Ti-doped Nb3Sn in RRP strands exhibits a remarkable reversibility up to a tensile strain of about 0.25%, conceivably making Ti-doped RRP wires more suitable for the high field magnets used in particle accelerators and nuclear magnetic resonance applications where mechanical forces are intense. A strain cycling experiment at room temperature caused a significant drop of Ic in Ta-alloyed wires, but induced an increase of Ic in the case of Ti-doped strands. Whereas either Ti or Ta doping yield a similar enhancement of the upper critical field of Nb3Sn, the much improved mechanical behavior of Ti-alloyed wires possibly makes Ti a better choice over Ta, at least for the RRP wire processing technique. Contribution of NIST, an agency of the US government, not subjected to copyright.

  15. Development of Process Maps in Two-Wire Tandem Submerged Arc Welding Process of HSLA Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, D. V.; Alam, S. A.; De, A.

    2013-04-01

    Appropriate selection of welding conditions to guarantee requisite weld joint mechanical properties is ever difficult because of their complex interactions. An approach is presented here to identify suitable welding conditions in typical two-wire tandem submerged arc welding (SAW-T) that involves many welding variables. First, an objective function is defined, which depicts the squared error between the mechanical properties of weld joint and of base material. A set of artificial neural network (ANN)-based models are developed next to estimate the weld joint properties as function of welding conditions using experimentally measured results. The neural network model-based predictions are used next to create a set of process map contours that depict the minimum achievable values of the objective function and the corresponding welding conditions. In typical SAW-T of HSLA steel, welding speed from 9.0 to 11.5 mm/s, leading wire current from 530 to 580 A, and trailing wire negative current from 680 to 910 A are found to be the most optimal.

  16. Crystallographic Texture Difference Between Center and Sub-Surface of Thin Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Song, Hong-Wu; Cheng, Ming; Zhang, Shi-Hong

    2014-09-01

    The texture difference between the center and sub-surface of pearlitic steel wires, which were manufactured by continuous cold drawing, was investigated by orientation distribution function based on electron back-scattered diffraction at different drawing passes. A perfect <110> fiber texture parallel to drawing direction develops gradually with drawing strain increasing at the wire center, while at the sub-surface, a quasi <110> fiber texture with the <111> orientation nearly parallel to the circumferential direction is found. This texture at the sub-surface is softer than the perfect <110> fiber texture in tension. The reasons for this texture difference and influences on the wire's mechanical properties are discussed.

  17. Heat treatment induced intermetallic phase transition of arc-sprayed coating prepared by the wires combination of aluminum-cathode and steel-anode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongxiong Chen; Xiubing Liang; Shicheng Wei; Yan Liu; Binshi Xu

    2009-01-01

    A method to prepare intermetallic composite coatings employing the cost-efficient electric arc spraying twin wires assistant with suitable heat treatment was developed. In this study, a Fe–Al composite coating was produced by spraying twin wires, i.e. a carbon steel wire as the anode and an aluminum wire as the cathode. The inter-deposited Fe–Al coating was transformed in-situ to Fe–Al intermetallic

  18. Nested stainless steel wire array diameter variations on the Z accelerator.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J. (Naval Research Lab); Apruzese, John P. (Naval Research Lab); LePell, Paul David (Ktech Corp.); Whitney, Ken G. (Berkeley Research Associates); Deeney, Christopher E.; Clark, R. W. (Naval Research Lab); Thornhill, Joseph W. (Naval Research Lab); Coverdale, Christine Anne; Jones, Brent Manley

    2004-07-01

    Over the last few years, a variety of experiments studying higher photon energy (>4 keV) radiators have been performed, primarily at the Z accelerator. In this paper, the results of experiments designed to study the effects of initial load diameter on the radiated output of stainless steel wire arrays are presented. Stainless steel is primarily iron, which radiates in the K-shell at 6.7 keV. Nested wire arrays from 45 mm initial outer diameter to 80 mm outer diameter were fielded at the Z accelerator. A nested array consists of two wire arrays, with the inner concentric to an outer. All of the arrays fielded for this work had a 2:1 mass and diameter ratio (outer:inner), and the arrays were designed to have the same implosion time. A degradation of K-shell output was observed (pulse shape and power) for the smallest and largest diameter arrays, suggesting a region in which optimal conditions exist for K-shell output. The degradation at small diameters results from the reduced eta value, due to low implosion velocity. Eta is defined as the kinetic energy per ion divided by the energy required to get to the K-shell. At large diameters, a dramatic degradation of output is observed not just for the K-shell, but also for the lower energy X-rays. This may be the result of the low mass required to maintain an appropriate implosion time - there simply aren't many radiators available to participate. One other possibility is that the higher acceleration necessary at large diameters to achieve the same implosion time results in additional instability growth. Also necessary to consider are the effects of interwire gap: due to the limited wire sizes available, the interwire gap on the large diameter loads is large, in one case more than 3 mm. Comparisons of the trends observed in the experiments (radiated yield, pulse shape, and spectra) will be made to calculations previously benchmarked to K-shell data obtained at Z. The reproducibility of the arrays, advanced imaging diagnostics fielded, current diagnostics, and sensitivities of the calculations are also discussed.

  19. 77 FR 12553 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...affiliated and that Shanghai Wells and HK Wells comprise a single entity...continue to find Shanghai Wells, HK Wells, and USA Wells are affiliated and that Shanghai Wells and HK Wells comprise a single entity. See Steel Wire Garment Hangers From...

  20. Effect of confining pressure due to external jacket of steel plate or shape memory alloy wire on bond behavior between concrete and steel reinforcing bars.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2014-12-01

    For external jackets of reinforced concrete columns, shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are easy to install, and they provide active and passive confining pressure; steel plates, on the other hand, only provide passive confining pressure, and their installation on concrete is not convenient because of the requirement of a special device. To investigate how SMA wires distinctly impact bond behavior compared with steel plates, this study conducted push-out bond tests of steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete confined by SMA wires or steel plates. For this purpose, concrete cylinders were prepared with dimensions of 100 mm x 200 mm, and D-22 reinforcing bars were embedded at the center of the concrete cylinders. External jackets of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thickness steel plates were used to wrap the concrete cylinders. Additionally, NiTiNb SMA wire with a diameter of 1.0 mm was wound around the concrete cylinders. Slip of the reinforcing bars due to pushing force was measured by using a displacement transducer, while the circumferential deformation of specimens was obtained by using an extensometer. The circumferential deformation was used to calculate the circumferential strains of the specimens. This study assessed the radial confining pressure due to the external jackets on the reinforcing bars at bond strength from bond stress-slip curves and bond stress-circumferential strain curves. Then, the effects of the radial confining pressure on the bond behavior of concrete are investigated, and an equation is suggested to estimate bond strength using the radial confining pressure. Finally, this study focused on how active confining pressure due to recovery stress of the SMA wires influences bond behavior. PMID:25971115

  1. Cold Drawn Steel Wires-Processing, Residual Stresses and Ductility-Part I: Metallography and Finite Element Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Phelippeau,A.; Pommier, S.; Tsakalakos, T.; Clavel, M.; Prioul, C.

    2006-01-01

    Cold drawing steel wires lead to an increase of their mechanical strength and to a drop of their ductility. The increase of their mechanical strength has long been related to the reduction of the various material scales by plastic deformation, but the mechanisms controlling their elongation to failure have received relatively little attention. It is usually found that heavily deformed materials show a tendency to plastic strain localization and necking. However, in this paper it is shown that, though the steel wires are plastically deformed up to strain levels as high as 3.5, a significant capability of plastic deformation is preserved in as-drawn wires. This apparent contradiction is resolved by the existence of residual stresses inside the wire. Finite element analyses have been conducted in order to show that residual stresses, inherited from the drawing process, are sufficient to produce a significant hardening effect during a post-drawing tensile test, without introducing any hardening in the local material behavior. The main conclusion of this paper is that once the material has lost its hardening capabilities, residual stresses, inherited from the process, control the elongation of cold drawn wires. The finite element method allowed also the determination of the residual stress field that would lead to the best agreement between the simulated and the experimental stress strain curve of as-drawn wires.

  2. 78 FR 2658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...proprietary information disclosed under an APO in accordance with 19 CPR 351.305(a)(3). Timely written notification of the return...777(i)(1) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, and 19 CPR 351.213(d)(4). Dated: January 7, 2012....

  3. Distributed image processing system for the monitoring of hot steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Paul; Weiss, Michael; Schiller, Arnulf

    2003-05-01

    In a prototype for monitoring hot steel wire different technologies are integrated to achieve a robust, flexibly configurable and scalable imaging system. It is designed as a distributed system with private network and Tuplespace communication implementable on a LINUX Server. Intelligent cameras grab and process the image data. For real time communication between the cameras and standard industrial I/O-modules (IEC-61131) MODBUS/TCP messaging is applied. A switch with integrated firewall makes services available to the supervisory control system. Results are available as XML-logfiles. The image processing defines the upper and lower edges of the material by minimum/maximum filtering of the y-gradient. Dual Grassmanian coordinates are used to fit two parallel lines to the edge points by singular value decomposition. This gives the distance between the lines and the confidence interval of each measurement simultaneously, whereas latter is used to reject poor data. Changes of the distance are analysed computing local central moments. Presently, 12 images per second are acquired. The application is able to detect spontaneous rotation of the wire around the axis of rolling directly at the rolling stands and treats also poor images (due to steam of cooling water). It indicates resulting defects, which may go undetected otherwise.

  4. Graphene coating bonded onto stainless steel wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-03-01

    A graphene coating bonded onto stainless steel wire was fabricated and investigated as a solid-phase microextraction fiber. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The coating with rough and crinkled structure was about 1 ?m. These characteristics were helpful for promoting extraction. Using five n-alkanes (n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane) as analytes, the fiber was evaluated in direct-immersion mode by coupling with gas chromatography (GC). Through optimizing extraction and desorption conditions, a sensitive SPME-GC analytical method was established. SPME-GC method provided wide linearity range (0.2-150 ?g L(-1)) and low limits of determination (0.05-0.5 ?g L(-1)). It was applied to analyze rain water and a soil sample, and analytes were quantified in the range of 0.85-1.96 ?g L(-1) and 0.09-3.34 ?g g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of samples spiked at 10 ?g L(-1) were in the range of 90.1-120% and 80.6-94.2%, respectively. The fiber also exhibited high thermal and chemical stability, due to the covalent bonds between graphene coating and wire, and the natural resistance of graphene for thermal, acid and basic conditions. PMID:25618658

  5. Comparison of Inclusions in Cold Drawn Wire and Precursor Hot-Rolled Rod Coil in VIM-VAR Nickel-Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sczerzenie, Frank; Paul, Graeme; Belden, Clarence

    2011-07-01

    Inclusion content is important for the mechanical behavior and performance of Nitinol wires, particularly in fatigue-rated devices. The purpose of this work was to make a quantitative comparison between inclusion populations in cold drawn wires and the precursor populations in hot-rolled rod coil. Inclusion content was examined in a series of VIM-VAR alloys with different transformation temperatures (TTR) controlled by the Ni to Ti ratio. This range of chemistry was chosen to assess the effect of Ni to Ti ratio on inclusion formation. In order to understand the differences in behavior between carbides and intermetallic oxides in wire drawing, carbides, and intermetallic oxide inclusions were measured separately using optical metallography pursuant to ASTM F2063. In VIM-VAR alloys at higher Ni to Ti ratios about 50.79 a/o Ni the formation of intermetallic oxides appears to be suppressed in the as-cast material through the presence of carbon and the precipitation of eutectic TiC in place of eutectic Ti4Ni2O x . The structure of VIM-VAR alloy also varies after hot working depending on the TTR of the alloy. Higher TTR binary alloys with lower Ni to Ti ratios tend to have more and larger intermetallic oxides and fewer and smaller carbides after hot working. Microsegregation plays a role in inclusion formation. That is, during solidification, C, O, N diffuse to the interdendritic regions. This increases the potential for the precipitation of nonmetallic species. Carbides and intermetallic oxides behave differently in hot working and cold drawing. The change in maximum carbide size from coil to wire is very near zero for all Ni to Ti ratios. The change in maximum inclusion size from coil to wire is driven mainly by the fracture of intermetallic oxides and the formation of intermetallic oxide stringers.

  6. A deletion in nephronophthisis 4 (NPHP4) is associated with recessive cone-rod dystrophy in standard wire-haired dachshund

    PubMed Central

    Wiik, Anne Caroline; Wade, Claire; Biagi, Tara; Ropstad, Ernst-Otto; Bjerkås, Ellen; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Lingaas, Frode

    2008-01-01

    Cone-rod dystrophy is a retinal degenerative disorder occurring naturally in man and dog. Here we identify a novel gene for early-onset cone-rod dystrophy in the wire-haired dachshund. For the first time, we use genome-wide association-based Sibling Transmission Disequilibrium Test (sibTDT) analysis of only 13 discordant sib-pairs to identify a single significantly associated 6.5-Mb region (PrawTDT = 4.8 × 10?5, PgenomeTDT = 6 × 10?4) on canine chromosome 5, containing more than 70 genes. Segregation studies using microsatellites in the candidate region including additional meiosis supported the sibTDT analysis but could not further reduce the area. Candidate gene resequencing identified a 180-bp deletion in exon/intron 5 of NPHP4 (nephronophthisis 4, also known as nephroretinin). RT-PCR analysis of NPHP4 in cases and controls showed exon skipping of exon 5, resulting in a truncated protein that retains the binding domain interacting with nephronophthisis 1 (also known as nephrocystin-1) in the kidney but lacks the domain interacting with RPGRIP1 in retina. We suggest that this deletion in the canine NPHP4 gene is the cause of cone-rod dystrophy in the standard wire-haired dachshund. In humans, mutations in NPHP4 have been associated with simultaneous eye and kidney disease. Here we describe the first naturally occurring mutation in NPHP4 without additional kidney disease. Further studies will permit elucidation of the complex molecular mechanism of this retinopathy and the development of potential therapies. PMID:18687878

  7. Research on an X-ray non-destructive testing system for conveyer belt with steel wire ropes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye Chunqing; Miao Changyun

    2010-01-01

    The thesis conducts a deep research on an X-ray non-destructive testing system for the conveyer belt with steel wire ropes, and proposes the detailed design program. By researching the image processing algorithm of the conveyer belt, the research realized the marginal check, joint elongation check and breakdown location. Meanwhile, a system software was developed by using the C#.NET programming design

  8. Influence of the load ratio on the threshold stress intensity factor range for heavily drawn steel wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kasper Lambrighs; Ignace Verpoest; Bert Verlinden; Martine Wevers

    2011-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of heavily drawn steel wires with a diameter of 175?m and total strain of 3.5 has been studied. A new approach is used to estimate the threshold stress intensity factor range for crack growth (?Kth,R) which is based on fatigue crack initiations at internal non-metallic inclusions. At these internal crack initiations a characteristic area is formed around

  9. Control rod cluster arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, W.L.; Doshi, P.K.; Mildrum, C.M.; Freeman, T.R.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor including nuclear core which is cooled and moderated by light water, the nuclear core comprising a plurality of parallel arranged openings therethrough and interspersed among the fuel assemblies. A control rod cluster arrangement comprises load follow control rod cluster assemblies with each load follow control rod cluster assembly being adapted to slidingly fit within each of some of the fuel assemblies in the parallel arranged openings, the load follow control rod cluster assemblies each comprising a plurality of elongated parallel arranged rods attached to a single spider, and including a first group of rods and a second group of rods, the first group of rods and the second each consisting of a plurality of absorber rods. The first group of rods consist of absorber rods taken from the group consisting of B/sub 4/C, hafnium, or silver-indium-cadmium and the second group of rods consist of absorber rods each consisting of stainless steel, the first group of rods and the second group of rods each being integrally attached at all times to the single spider, the absorber rods of the second group of rods being dispersed throughout the control rod cluster assembly. The first group of rods have a first neutron capture cross section and the second group of rods have a second neutron capture cross section different from the first cross section.

  10. Growth of ZnO Nanorods on Stainless Steel Wire Using Chemical Vapour Deposition and Their Photocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

    2014-01-01

    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5?eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small Iuv/Ivis ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics. PMID:24587716

  11. Palladium-coated stainless-steel wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimi; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-05-01

    A novel palladium solid-phase microextraction coating was fabricated on a stainless-steel wire by a simple in situ oxidation-reduction process. The palladium coating exhibited a rough microscaled surface and its thickness was about 2 ?m. Preparation conditions (reaction time and concentration of palladium chloride and hydrochloric acid) were optimized in detail to achieve sufficient extraction efficiency. Extraction properties of the fiber were investigated by direct immersion solid-phase microextraction of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters in aqueous samples. The extracted analytes were transferred into a gas chromatography system by thermal desorption. The effect of extraction and desorption conditions on extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity was obtained and correlation coefficients between 0.9908 and 0.9990 were obtained. Limits of detection were 0.05-0.10 ?g/L for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 0.3 ?g/L for phthalate esters. Their recoveries for real aqueous samples were in the range from 97.1 to 121% and from 89.1 to 108%, respectively. The intra- and interday tests were also investigated with three different addition levels, and satisfactory results were also obtained. PMID:25726925

  12. 74 FR 68232 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-12-23

    ...Department selected Tianjin Shengte and Silvery Dragon PC Steel Products Group Co., Ltd. (``Silvery Dragon Steel'') as mandatory respondents in...questionnaire to Tianjin Shengte and Silvery Dragon Steel on July 31, 2009. On August...

  13. High transport critical current density obtained for powder-in-tube-processed MgB2 tapes and wires using stainless steel and Cu-Ni tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumakura, H.; Matsumoto, A.; Fujii, H.; Togano, K.

    2001-10-01

    MgB2 tapes and wires were fabricated by the powder-in-tube method. Stainless steel and Cu-Ni tubes were used as sheath materials, and no heat treatment was applied. The tapes made of stainless steel showed transport critical current density Jc of about 10 000 A/cm2 at 4.2 K and 5 T. A high Jc of about 300 000 A/cm2 was obtained by extrapolating the Jc-B curves to zero field. Multifilamentary (seven-core) MgB2 wire was successfully fabricated using Cu-Ni tubes. For both tapes and wires, the grain connectivity of MgB2 was as good as a high-pressure sintered bulk sample. However, the Jc of the Cu-Ni sheathed wire was lower than the stainless steel sheathed tape due to the lower packing density of MgB2.

  14. Analysis of fracture modes during extrusion and drawing of bimetal rods or wire. Analytical study of drawing and extrusion of superconducting filamentary wires: fracture problems and evaluation of temperature rise. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Avitzur, B.; Wu, R.; Chou, Y.T.; Talbert, S.

    1984-01-09

    Based on the upper-bound theorem in limit analysis, a theoretical model describing sound flow, core fracture, and sleeve fracture in bimetal rods and wire during extrusion and drawing was developed. The variables affecting core and sleeve fracture are: reduction in area, die geometry, friction, relative size and strength of the core, and applied surface tractions. Within the wide range of combinations of these process variables, only a small range permits co-extrusion and codrawing without fracture. Criteria for the prevention of core and sleeve fracture during co-extrusion and core fracture during co-drawing were developed and presented graphically in this study. The results were applied to the central burst problem during extrusion and drawing of homogeneous materials.

  15. Residual stress profiling in the ferrite and cementite phases of cold-drawn steel rods by synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Perez, M.L. [ICMM, CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Mompean, F.J. [ICMM, CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Hervias, J. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, UPM, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, c/ Profesor Aranguren s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: jr@mater.upm.es; Borlado, C.R. [ICMM, CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Atienza, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, UPM, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, c/ Profesor Aranguren s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Hernandez, M. [ICMM, CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Elices, M. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, UPM, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, c/ Profesor Aranguren s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Gil-Sevillano, J. [CEIT, Paseo de Manuel Lardizabal 15, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Peng Rulin [NFL Studsvik, Uppsala University, S-61182 Nykoeping (Sweden); Buslaps, T. [ESRF, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2004-10-18

    Residual stress profiles have been measured in the ferrite and cementite phases of a cold-drawn eutectoid steel rod by neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction in three orientations (axial, radial and hoop). Neutron diffraction was employed to measure the ferrite stresses, whereas synchrotron radiation was used for ferrite and cementite stresses. Experimental results in the ferrite phase showed excellent agreement between both experimental techniques when gauge volume effects were accounted for. Axial cementite stresses were always tensile, with a maximum value close to 1700 MPa at the rod surface. Radial and hoop cementite stresses were compressive along the diameter of the rod, with a minimum of -1900 MPa at the rod center. A 3D-finite element simulation of the macro residual stresses resulting from cold-drawing showed remarkable agreement with those determined from the experimental measurements in the ferrite and cementite phases.

  16. Selection of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process Parameters on Stainless Steel AISI Grade-304 using Design of Experiments Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingadurai, K.; Nagasivamuni, B.; Muthu Kamatchi, M.; Palavesam, J.

    2012-06-01

    Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a specialized thermal machining process capable of accurately machining parts of hard materials with complex shapes. Parts having sharp edges that pose difficulties to be machined by the main stream machining processes can be easily machined by WEDM process. Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been reported in this work for stainless steel AISI grade-304 which is used in cryogenic vessels, evaporators, hospital surgical equipment, marine equipment, fasteners, nuclear vessels, feed water tubing, valves, refrigeration equipment, etc., is machined by WEDM with brass wire electrode. The DOE method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyze the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics, and to predict the optimal choice for each WEDM parameter such as voltage, pulse ON, pulse OFF and wire feed. It is found that these parameters have a significant influence on machining characteristic such as metal removal rate (MRR), kerf width and surface roughness (SR). The analysis of the DOE reveals that, in general the pulse ON time significantly affects the kerf width and the wire feed rate affects SR, while, the input voltage mainly affects the MRR.

  17. Internal attachment of laser beam welded stainless steel sheathed thermocouples into stainless steel upper end caps in nuclear fuel rods for the Loss-Of-Fluid-Test (LOFT) Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Welty; R. D. Reid

    1980-01-01

    The experience and techniques gained from welding external titanium thermocouples was successfully applied to welding stainless steel centerline thermocouples. The problems that arose were ones of metallurgy in that the weld had insufficient ferrite present to prevent hot cracking. This was solved by chrome plating the end caps. Seventeen centerline fuel rods were made and are now awaiting insertion into

  18. Ordered mesoporous polymers in situ coated on a stainless steel wire for a highly sensitive solid phase microextraction fibre.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Juan; Liang, Yeru; Liu, Shuqin; Ding, Yajuan; Shen, Yong; Luan, Tiangang; Zhu, Fang; Jiang, Ruifen; Wu, Dingcai; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-07-21

    Development of facile and effective methods for fabrication of high-performance solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres remains a great challenge. Herein, a new class of ordered mesoporous polymers (OMPs) in situ coated on a stainless steel wire were successfully developed and utilized as a highly sensitive and stable SPME fibre for the first time. Because of the highly ordered mesoporous structure of its OMP coating, the ?-? interactions and the dispersion forces, the OMP-coated SPME fibre exhibited much better extraction properties as compared to the commercial PDMS fibre. The findings could provide a new benchmark for preparing well-defined porous materials for the SPME application. PMID:26102576

  19. Swivel bar apparatus for use with steel and other types of sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.W.

    1986-07-01

    A sinker bar is described for use in a well bore with a plurality of sucker rods, the sinker bar comprising; an elongated body member of suitable diameter for introduction into the well bore or into tubular members lining the well bore, at least half of the body member having a substantially square cross section and each end of the body member having a substantially square cross section, and the ends of the body member having connection means for connecting the sinker bar to adjacent members in the well bore.

  20. Dissimilar metal joining of aluminum alloy to galvanized steel with Al–Si, Al–Cu, Al–Si–Cu and Zn–Al filler wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Honggang Dong; Wenjin Hu; Yuping Duan; Xudong Wang; Chuang Dong

    Aluminum alloy sheets were lap joined to galvanized steel sheets by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) with Al–5% Si, Al–12% Si, Al–6% Cu, Al–10% Si–4% Cu and Zn–15% Al filler wires. Different amounts of Si, Cu and Zn were introduced into the weld through different filler wires. The effects of alloying elements on the microstructure in the weld and tensile

  1. Influence of cold working on fatigue behavior of stainless steels used for prothesis: application to the study of wires with small sections.

    PubMed

    Coquillet, B; Vincent, L; Guiraldenq, P

    1979-07-01

    Orthodontists mainly use stainless austenitic wires with a wide range of ultimate tensile strength. To characterize the dynamical behavior of these wires, the authors have perfected machines to test materials with their original surface roughness without any prior machining of surfaces. Fatigue limits are discussed through mechanical and structural properties of the austenitic steels, with special attention given to cold working. Typical features of fracture, and particularly of the first cracks, are shown by means of scanning electron microscopy. PMID:457707

  2. Sintered wire annode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R. (Surprise, AZ); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  3. Comparison of Copper and Stainless Steel Used for Low Voltage Electrode in Wire-to-Plane Electrode Configuration for NO x Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Gasparik; Chobei Yamabe; Satoshi Ihara; Saburoh Satoh

    1998-01-01

    Copper and stainless steel have been investigated as low voltage electrodes in wire-to-plane electrode configuration under conditions of DC positive streamer corona discharge. Copper has been chosen due to its well-known catalytic activity while, on the other hand, stainless steel was selected as an opposite extreme to copper---due to its high passivity. The initial gas contained 400 ppm NO\\/N2, 10%

  4. Effect of alternating current on corrosion of Zn-22Al alloy and galvanized steel wires in synthetic sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Grovas, T.J.; Perez, T.; Genesca, J. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1996-10-01

    Submarine AC cables generally, have a metallic armor, constituted by one or two layers of wires or strips wound with long lay on the outside of the cable. The armor is required in order to sustain part of the mechanical stresses during the laying and recovery of the cable, since the conductor alone as a rule is not sufficient for this purpose. The armor also plays an important role in the conduction of the return current. Moreover, due to the large distance between the cables in usual submarine laying practice, the return current can be very large, approaching the central conductor current value, The armor as a rule is not insulated but is in electric contact with the sea along all the cable length. This is not due to electric reasons, since the e.m.f. between armor and sea is negligible, but to practical ones. In fact it is quite difficult to assure a complete protection along all the armor length, without impairing it during the laying operations, and a single break in the insulation, would be a very strong corrosion point. The contact between the metal which constitutes the armor, galvanized steel in the case of Mexico, and the sea, in presence also of AC electric fields, requires a thorough study, of the corrosion problems which might arise. Such a study is given in this communication. It includes an experimental investigation on the behavior of Zn-22 Al and galvanized steel wires in sea water under AC. In particular, it is demonstrated that Zn-22 Al has an optimum corrosion rate of 15.86 mm/year versus 29.98 mm/year for Galvanized steel at a fixed alternating current density. A mechanism is proposed to explain this behavior, mainly, based in the presence of Al as alloy, element in Zn-22 Al and the formation of a film, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O.

  5. A Computational Study of Segmented Tungsten Rod Penetration into a Thick Steel Target Plate at High Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presnell, M.; Rajendran, A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents results from computational simulations of tungsten alloy segmented rod projectiles (SRP) penetrating an RHA semi-infinite target plate at high velocities. For SRP with an aspect ratio (L/D) = 1/8, a loss in penetration efficiency was seen upon successive segment impacts. Numerical simulations of a configuration in which a tungsten heavy alloy SRP penetrated a thick RHA 4340 steel at 2.6 km/s were performed using the 2006 version of the EPIC - a Lagrangian code. The configuration consisted of eight collinear impacts of discs which measured 2 mm thick and 16mm in diameter. The numerical simulations considered a range of parameters including element-particle conversion, spacing and number of fragments, failure criterion, and mesh resolution that influenced the Depth of Penetration (DOP). The EPIC results using the element-to-particle conversion capability in the EPIC code are also compared with open-literature DOP data from simulations using an Eulerian finite element code, AUTODYN for a similar configuration. The present results showed a unique phenomenon of back-flowing ejecta from the crater and fragmented segments penetrating the in-coming subsequent segment. The penetration efficiency seems to be influenced by the back-flowing ejecta. Further computational investigation considered additional simulations with an impact configuration designed to minimize the ejecta effects by using washer-shaped segments; however, the results showed insignificant improvement.

  6. A computational study of segmented tungsten rod penetration into a thick steel target plate at high velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presnell, Michael B.; Rajendran, A. M.

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents results from numerical simulations of a configuration in which a tungsten heavy alloy SRP penetrates a thick RHA 4340 steel at 2.6 km/s using the 2006 version of the Lagrangian finite element code EPIC. Penetration experimental data show improved penetration efficiency by the segmented projectiles when compared to monolithic (single solid rod) projectiles. For SRP with an aspect ratio (L/D) = 1/8, a loss in penetration efficiency was seen upon successive segment impacts. The projectile configuration considered in this study was collinear impacts of eight successive discs which measured 2mm in thickness and 16mm in diameter. The EPIC simulations considered a range of parameters that influenced the Depth of Penetration (DOP) including element-particle conversion, spacing and number of segments, failure criteria, impact velocity, and mesh resolution. The EPIC results are also compared with open-literature DOP data from simulations using an Eulerian finite element code, AUTODYN for a similar configuration. In addition, the effects of back-flowing ejecta generated by the impact of first segment on the penetration processes of subsequent segments were studied in details. An alternate SRP design is proposed in this paper to alleviate the ejecta problem.

  7. The effect of geometry of composite MgB 2/stainless-steel (SS) wires fabricated by PIT process on the superconducting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, K. J.; Kim, S. W.; Park, C.; Joo, J. H.; Choi, S. J.; Ko, R. K.; Ha, H. S.; Ha, D. W.; Oh, S. S.

    2004-08-01

    Single-, multi-, and two kinds of coaxial-filament composite MgB 2/SS-SS (stainless steel for both outer and inner tubes) and MgB 2/SS-Cu (stainless steel for outer tube and copper for inner tube) wires were successfully fabricated using powder-in-tube (PIT) process with swaging only. The effect of the geometries of the MgB 2 PIT wires has been studied comparatively. The isothermal magnetizations M( H) for both the sintered and the as-rolled single-, multi-, and coaxial-filament MgB 2 wires were measured at temperatures between 5 and 50 K in fields up to 5 T. The critical current density was estimated by the M( H) data using Bean model. The coaxial-filament composite MgB 2 wires showed much better Jc than both the single- and the multi-filament composite ones. The results of this study show that the superconducting properties of the MgB 2 PIT wires/tapes can improve by employing better geometries such as the coaxial-filament composite MgB 2/SS-SS wires.

  8. The Corrosion Resistance of Composite Arch Wire Laser-Welded By NiTi Shape Memory Alloy and Stainless Steel Wires with Cu Interlayer in Artificial Saliva with Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Hou, Xu; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Daqian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the corrosion resistance of laser-welded composite arch wire (CoAW) with Cu interlayer between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire in artificial saliva with different concentrations of protein was studied. It was found that protein addition had a significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Low concentration of protein caused the corrosion resistance of CoAW decrease in electrochemical corrosion and immersion corrosion tests. High concentration of protein could reduce this effect. PMID:23801895

  9. The corrosion resistance of composite arch wire laser-welded by NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wires with Cu interlayer in artificial saliva with protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Hou, Xu; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Daqian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the corrosion resistance of laser-welded composite arch wire (CoAW) with Cu interlayer between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire in artificial saliva with different concentrations of protein was studied. It was found that protein addition had a significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Low concentration of protein caused the corrosion resistance of CoAW decrease in electrochemical corrosion and immersion corrosion tests. High concentration of protein could reduce this effect. PMID:23801895

  10. Detecting steel rods and micro-piles: A case history in a civil engineering application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Luciana

    2012-06-01

    Investigating engineered structures with GPR is challenging because quite often the scale of important features is similar or smaller that the natural scale of heterogeneity in the material. In this paper I summarize the key factors and use numerical simulations and real data examples to illustrate the tradeoff between detection and resolution. The targets were micro-piles and steel bars with diameters 0.13 m and 0.02 m, respectively, and embedded in an ancient wall that consists of an aggregate of stones ranging in size from 1 cm to half meter, mortar and air. The data were collected with center frequency antennas of 200, 600, 2000 MHz which provide increasing resolution. The model and measurement results indicate that lower resolution may result in a better understanding of the structure imaged with GPR. In fact, high resolution profiles show enhanced anomalies caused by heterogeneities in the host material, making data interpretation more difficult. This study shows that GPR survey design must be clear about the particular engineering objective and requires selecting the optimal frequency and bandwidth depending on the target dimension.

  11. Effect of Nb on the corrosion behavior of continuous bulk metallic glass-coated steel wire composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-hua; Zhang, Bao-yu; Hui, Xi-dong

    2013-06-01

    (Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5)100- x Nb x (at%, x=0 and 8) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were coated on the surface of Q195 steel wires by a continuous coating process. The potentiodynamic polarization tests of these BMGs were conducted in 3.5wt% NaCl aqueous solution. It is found that the addition of 8at% Nb into Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 alloy results in the improvement of corrosion resistance with the pitting potential of -52 mV, the open circuit potential of -446 mV, and the corrosion current density of 9.86×10-6 mA/cm2. This may be attributed to that Nb is beneficial to passivate and stabilize Zr and Ti.

  12. CNT-TiO2 coating bonded onto stainless steel wire as a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Qiu, Huamin; Fan, Lulu; Li, Xiangjun; Luo, Chuannan

    2013-09-30

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber based on carbon nanotubes-titanium oxide (CNT-TiO2) composite coating bonded onto stainless steel wire was prepared via electroless plating and sol-gel techniques. The SPME coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microscopy. Coupled to gas chromatography (GC), the fiber was investigated with seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in direct-immersion mode. The SPME-GC analytical method was evaluated under optimized extraction conditions. Compared with other reports, higher sensitivity (LODs, 0.002-0.004 ?g L(-1)) and better linear range (0.01-100 and 0.01-200 ?g L(-1)) were obtained by the proposed method. The fiber exhibited high thermal stability to 300 °C and excellent durability in HCl and NaOH solutions. The as-established SPME-GC method was used to analyze the real water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:23953442

  13. Stainless steel wire mesh-supported ZnO for the catalytic photodegradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tan T; del Río, Laura; Valdés-Solís, Teresa; Marbán, Gregorio

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of catalysts formed by nanostructured zinc oxide supported on stainless steel wire mesh for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. Catalysts prepared by means of different low temperature synthesis methods, as described in a previous work (Vu et al., Mater. Res. Bull. 47 (2012) 1577-1586) were tested. A new activity parameter was introduced in order to compare the catalytic activity of the different catalysts. The best catalyst showed a catalytic activity higher than that of the reference material TiO(2) P25 (Degussa-Evonik). This high activity is attributed to a higher quantum yield derived from the small particle length of the ZnO deposited on the wire mesh. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of methylene blue fitted a potential model with n orders ranging from 0.5 to 6.9. Reaction orders over 1 were attributed to catalyst deactivation during the reaction resulting from the photocorrosion of ZnO. PMID:23291337

  14. 2D Radiation MHD K-shell Modeling of Single Wire Array Stainless Steel Experiments on the Z Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Chong, Y. K.; Davis, J.; Dasgupta, A. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Whitney, K. G.; Clark, R. W. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville Maryland 20705 (United States); Jones, B.; Coverdale, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87545 (United States); Deeney, C. [National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington DC 20585 (United States)

    2009-01-21

    Many physical effects can produce unstable plasma behavior that affect K-shell emission from arrays. Such effects include: asymmetry in the initial density profile, asymmetry in power flow, thermal conduction at the boundaries, and non-uniform wire ablation. Here we consider how asymmetry in the radiation field also contributes to the generation of multidimensional plasma behavior that affects K-shell power and yield. To model this radiation asymmetry, we have incorporated into the MACH2 r-z MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE population kinetics based on radiation transport using multi-dimensional ray tracing. Such methodology is necessary for modeling the enhanced radiative cooling that occurs at the anode and cathode ends of the pinch during the run-in phase of the implosion. This enhanced radiative cooling is due to reduced optical depth at these locations producing an asymmetric flow of radiative energy that leads to substantial disruption of large initial diameter (>5 cm) pinches and drives 1D into 2D fluid (i.e., Rayleigh-Taylor like) flows. The impact of this 2D behavior on K-shell power and yield is investigated by comparing 1D and 2D model results with data obtained from a series of single wire array stainless steel experiments performed on the Z generator.

  15. Numerical [corrected] analysis of the load capacity of the human spine fitted with L-rod instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Weiler, P J; Medley, J B; McNeice, G M

    1990-12-01

    L-rod procedures with sublaminar wiring have become widespread in orthopaedic practice, and serious mechanical problems involving fatigue failure, creep, and fixation have been reported. To address these problems, numerical [corrected] analysis was developed to provide estimates for the maximum bending stresses, approximately equal to maximum tensile stresses, in L-rods subject to various axial loads and postoperative Cobb angles. The superior load capacity of L-rods made from MP35N multiphase alloy compared with 316L stainless steel was demonstrated. Bending stresses in excess of the fatigue limit were predicted for eight patients with broken rods, suggesting that such failures might be prevented by prior analysis. This analytic approach provides a foundation for future studies of custom-designed L-rods and perhaps the successful use of L-rods without arthrodesis. PMID:2281372

  16. Three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis of wire-wrapped rods in liquid-metal fast breeder reactor core assemblies. [FATHOM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Chuang; M. D. Carelli; C. W. Bach; J. S. Killimayer

    1977-01-01

    A study is presented to determine the detailed coolant velocity and temperature profile around the entire rod circumference in liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) core assemblies as well as the detailed radial and circumferential temperature profile in the rod. The digital computer code FATHOM-360 developed to perform the above calculations is described. Fuel, radial blanket, and control assembly rods (both

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Friction Resistance of Titanium, Stainless Steel, Ceramic and Ceramic with Metal Insert Brackets with Varying Dimensions of Stainless Steel Wire: An In vitro Multi-center Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B Sunil; Miryala, Suresh; Kumar, K Kiran; Shameem, K; Regalla, Ravindra Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The orthodontist seeks an archwire–bracket combination that has both good biocompatibility and low friction. Hence, the aim of this multicenter in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the frictional resistance generated between titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SS), ceramic and ceramic with metal insert (CMI) brackets with SS wires of varying dimensions in a specially designed apparatus. Materials and Methods: The material used in this study were Ti, SS, Ceramic and CMI with 0.018? slot manufactured with zero degree tip and ?7° torque premolar brackets (3M, Unitek) and SS wires of varying dimensions (0.016? round, 0.016 × 0.016? square, 0.016 × 0.022? rectangular and 0.017 × 0.025? rectangular) used. The frictional resistance was measured using Instron Universal testing machine (Model no. 4301). The specimen population in each center composed each of 160 brackets and wires. Differences among the all bracket/wire combinations were tested using (one-way) ANOVA, followed by the student Newman Keuls multiple comparisons of means ranking (at P < 0.05) for the determination of differences among the groups. Results: Ti bracket in combination with 0.017 × 0.025? SS rectangular wire produced significant force levels for an optimum orthodontic movement with least frictional resistance. Conclusion: Ti brackets have least resistance and rectangular wires produced significant force. These can be used to avoid hazards of Nickel. SS brackets revealed higher static frictional force values as the wire dimension increased and showed lower static friction than Ti brackets for all wires except the thicker wire. Our study recommends the preclusion of brackets with rough surface texture (Ti brackets) with SS ligature wire for ligating bracket and archwire are better to reduce friction. PMID:25395796

  18. An experimental study of wire strains in an undamaged and damaged steel strand subjected to tensile load

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Cappa

    1988-01-01

    Wire stráins in a wire-rope strand subjected to static and quasistatic tensile load are experimentally examined both before and after the cutting of one of the external wires. These tests are carried out with electrical-resistance strain gages. Significant differences between the most accepted Italian regulations and the measured values, obtained with the strand with one external wire severed, were noted.

  19. Class D sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Woodings, R. T.

    1984-10-23

    It has been found that API Class D sucker rods can be made inexpensively from low-alloy, low-cost steel by following a suitable induction-normalizing process and using a suitable steel to which there has been added 0.07 to 0.15 percent of vanadium.

  20. Nano-structured polyaniline-ionic liquid composite film coated steel wire for headspace solid-phase microextraction of organochlorine pesticides in water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhanqi Gao; Wenchao Li; Benzhi Liu; Feng Liang; Huan He; Shaogui Yang; Cheng Sun

    2011-01-01

    A novel nano-structured polyaniline-ionic liquid (i.e. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, BMIPF6) composite (BPAN) film coated steel wire was prepared by electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the obtained porous BPAN coating consisted of nanofibers, whose diameter ranged from 50 to 80nm. Furthermore, the novel nano-structured composite coating was very stable at relatively high temperatures (up to 350°C) and it could

  1. THE USE OF HYCORE® STEEL MAT FOR ASPHALT PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vega Zamanillo; Llano Flórez

    The use of steel interfaces of wire meshes or cross-linked rods and other geosynthetics to improve the asphalt concrete pavements is a common practice in the highway construction and maintenance since more than 20 years. However the introduction of this technology in the market is relatively recent in the world. In this report is presented a new product denominated Hycore®

  2. Internal attachment of laser beam welded stainless steel sheathed thermocouples into stainless steel upper end caps in nuclear fuel rods for the Loss-Of-Fluid-Test (LOFT) Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Welty, R.K.; Reid, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The experience and techniques gained from welding external titanium thermocouples was successfully applied to welding stainless steel centerline thermocouples. The problems that arose were ones of metallurgy in that the weld had insufficient ferrite present to prevent hot cracking. This was solved by chrome plating the end caps. Seventeen centerline fuel rods were made and are now awaiting insertion into the LOFT reactor. Characterization of burn patterns has been a key factor in understanding the laser energy distribution within the weldment, and has contributed directly to successful thermocouple welding for the LOFT program. 2 refs.

  3. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Kararia, Vandana; Jain, Pradeep; Chaudhary, Seema; Kararia, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1–3 M 0.016” NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016” NiTi, group 3–3 M 0.019” *0.025” SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at ×2000, ×4000 and ×6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0). Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics. PMID:25684911

  4. Comparison of Copper and Stainless Steel Used for Low Voltage Electrode in Wire-to-Plane Electrode Configuration for NO x Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparik, Robert; Yamabe, Chobei; Ihara, Satoshi; Satoh, Saburoh

    1998-10-01

    Copper and stainless steel have been investigated as low voltage electrodes in wire-to-plane electrode configuration under conditions of DC positive streamer corona discharge. Copper has been chosen due to its well-known catalytic activity while, on the other hand, stainless steel was selected as an opposite extreme to copper—due to its high passivity. The initial gas contained 400 ppm NO/N2, 10% O2, and water vapors or 40% aqueous solution citric acid. Removal rates of NOx have been calculated as a function of the applied voltage. Results have shown that the highest removal rate, 56% for NO, have been obtained while employing Cu plate and citric acid. We suppose that Cu participates in the process of treatment, while stainless remains inactive. Therefore, while using a stainless steel plate, removal rates have reached lower values than while employing a copper plate.

  5. Effects of thermal aging and neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of three-wire stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Haggag, F.M.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1997-05-01

    Thermal aging of three-wire series-arc stainless steel weld overlay cladding at 288{degrees}C for 1605 h resulted in an appreciable decrease (16%) in the Charpy V-notch (CVN) upper-shelf energy (USE), but the effect on the 41-J transition temperature shift was very small (3{degrees}C). The combined effect of aging and neutron irradiation at 288{degrees}C to a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) was a 22% reduction in the USE and a 29{degrees}C shift in the 41-J transition temperature. The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties was very small. However, the combined effect of irradiation and aging was an increase in the yield strength (6 to 34% at test temperatures from 288 to {minus}125{degrees}C) but no apparent change in ultimate tensile strength or total elongation. Neutron irradiation reduced the initiation fracture toughness (J{sub Ic}) much more than did thermal aging alone. Irradiation slightly decreased the tearing modulus, but no reduction was caused by thermal aging alone. Other results from tensile, CVN, and fracture toughness specimens showed that the effects of thermal aging at 288 or 343{degrees}C for 20,000 h each were very small and similar to those at 288{degrees}C for 1605 h. The effects of long-term thermal exposure time (50,000 h and greater) at 288{degrees}C will be investigated as the specimens become available in 1996 and beyond.

  6. Rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sable, D.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a rod guide assembly for a sucker rod longitudinally reciprocably movable in a well flow conductor comprising: a pair of longitudinally spaced upper and lower stops rigidly secured to a sucker rod; and a guide body movably mounted on the rod between the stops. The stops being spaced from each other a distance slightly greater than the length of the guide body, the upper stop engaging the guide body to move the guide body downwardly with the rod after an initial short downward movement of the rod after initiation of each downward movement of the rod and the lower stop engaging the guide body to move the second guide body upwardly with the rod after initial short upward movement of the rod after initiation of each upward movement of the rod during the longitudinal reciprocatory movement of the rod in a well flow conductor.

  7. A comparison of magnetic and radiographic imaging artifact after using three types of metal rods: stainless steel, titanium, and vitallium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick T. Knott; Steven M. Mardjetko; Richard H. Kim; Timothy M. Cotter; Megan M. Dunn; Shivani T. Patel; Matthew J. Spencer; Alan S. Wilson; David S. Tager

    2010-01-01

    Background contextAfter spinal fusion surgery, postoperative management often includes imaging with either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the spinal canal and nerve roots. The metallic implants used in the fusion can cause artifact that interferes with this imaging, reducing their diagnostic value. Stainless steel is known to produce large amounts of artifact, whereas titanium is

  8. Rod Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem allows students an opportunity to think about fraction comparisons and equivalencies in a different way using interactive rods. Students are given two different fraction rods of unknown lengths and the goal is to find out what fraction the shorter rod is of the longer rod. A Teacher's Notes page, hints, solution, and printable pages are provided.

  9. Effects of duct configuration on flow and temperature structure in sodium-cooled 19-rod simulated LMFBR fuel bundles with helical wire-wrap spacers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Wantland; M. H. Fontana; P. A. Gnadt; N. Hanus; R. E. MacPherson; C. M. Smith

    1976-01-01

    Thermal-hydrodynamic testing of sodium-cooled 19-rod simulated LMFBR fuel bundles is being conducted at the O ak Ridge National Laboratory in the Fuel Failure Mockup (FFM), an engineering-scale high-temperature sodium facility which provides prototypic flows, temperatures and power densities. Electrically heated bundles have been tested with two scalloped and two hexagonal duct configurations. Peripheral helical flows, attributed to the spacers, have

  10. Stiffness Corrections for the Vibration Frequency of a Stretched Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, H. G.; Durie, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the need of introducing corrections due to wire stiffness arising from end constraints and wire axis distribution curvature in the measurement of ac electrical frequency by exciting transverse standing waves in a stretched steel wire. (SL)

  11. Service life of corrosion-damaged wire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Filip'ev

    1975-01-01

    obtained of the effect of corrosion damage on the fatigue life of wire and wire products, since in tests of this type the corrosion damage incurred before or in the first stages of service is usually neglected. The fatigue properties of the wire corroded under stress are usually also neglected. In our tests we used a high-strength steel wire [GOST

  12. Rod Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NRICH team

    2013-01-01

    This activity builds student knowledge of ratios by using Cuisenaire rods to determine proportion and form equivalent ratios. Students may use the Cuisenaire rod environment embedded in this resource or they may use actual Cuisenaire rods depending on preference/ability/accessibility. This resource includes teacher notes, solution, and suggestions for questioning.

  13. Using Embedded Wired and Wireless Seismic Networks in the Moment-Resisting Steel Frame Factor Building for Damage Identification

    E-print Network

    Kohler, Monica; Heaton, Thomas H.; Govindan, Ramesh; Davis, Paul; Estrin, D.

    2006-01-01

    and wireless seismic networks in the mo- ment-resisting steel frame Factor buildingbuilding seismic array to guide the design of a wirelesswireless system design. Acknowledgments We appreciate discussions with Erdal Safak and advice on building

  14. Infl uence of different brazing and welding methods on tensile strength and microhardness of orthodontic stainless steel wire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Johannes Bock; Wolfgang Fraenzel; Jacqueline Bailly; Christian Ralf Gernhardt; Robert Andreas; Werner Fuhrmann

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength and microhardness of joints made by conventional brazing and tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding. A standardized end-to-end joint confi guration of the orthodontic wire material in spring hard quality was used. The joints were made using fi ve different methods: brazing (soldering > 450°C) with universal

  15. Characterization of Gas Metal Arc Welding welds obtained with new high Cr-Mo ferritic stainless steel filler wires

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on the fusion zone a good ductility even in the as-welded state at room temperature. Unfortunately, titanium1 Characterization of Gas Metal Arc Welding welds obtained with new high Cr-Mo ferritic stainless Several compositions of metal cored filler wire were manufactured to define the best welding conditions

  16. Crossed-Wire Laser Microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 LVM Stainless Steel: Part II. Effect of Orientation on Joining Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. D.; Pequegnat, A.; Zou, G. S.; Feng, J. C.; Khan, M. I.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-04-01

    With the increasing complexity of medical devices and with efforts to reduce manufacturing costs, challenges arise in joining dissimilar materials. In this study, the laser weldability of dissimilar joints between Pt-10 pct Ir and 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) crossed wires was investigated by characterizing the weld geometry, joint strength, morphology of weld cross sections, and differences in joining behavior, depending on which material is subject to the incident laser beam. With the Pt-Ir alloy on top, a significant amount of porosity was observed on the surface of the welds as well as throughout the weld cross sections. This unique form of porosity is believed to be a result of preferential vaporization of 316 LVM SS alloying elements that become mixed with the molten Pt-10 pct Ir during welding. The joining mechanism documented in micrographs of cross-sectioned welds was found to transition from laser brazing to fusion welding. It is inferred that the orientation of the two dissimilar metals ( i.e., which material is subject to the incident laser beam) plays an important role in weld quality of crossed-wire laser welds.

  17. High-frequency ultrasonic wire bonding systems

    PubMed

    Tsujino; Yoshihara; Sano; Ihara

    2000-03-01

    The vibration characteristics of longitudinal-complex transverse vibration systems with multiple resonance frequencies of 350-980 kHz for ultrasonic wire bonding of IC, LSI or electronic devices were studied. The complex vibration systems can be applied for direct welding of semiconductor tips (face-down bonding, flip-chip bonding) and packaging of electronic devices. A longitudinal-complex transverse vibration bonding system consists of a complex transverse vibration rod, two driving longitudinal transducers 7.0 mm in diameter and a transverse vibration welding tip. The vibration distributions along ceramic and stainless-steel welding tips were measured at up to 980 kHz. A high-frequency vibration system with a height of 20.7 mm and a weight of less than 15 g was obtained. PMID:10829633

  18. Electrodeposition of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on a stainless steel wire for solid phase microextraction and GC determination of some esters with high boiling points.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuyu; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2013-01-30

    In this work, 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) emulsion is prepared by ultrasonication agitation and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating is fabricated on a stainless steel wire by electrochemical method from a 0.10M sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate aqueous solution containing EDOT. The coating is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, and it presents cauliflower-like structure. When the resulted PEDOT/steel fiber is used for the headspace solid phase-microextraction of some esters (i.e. methyl anthranilate, dimethyl phthalate, ethyl-o-aminobenzoate, methyl laurate and diethyl phthalate) and their GC detection, the limits of detection (LOD) are ca. 7.8-31 ng L(-1) (S/N=3) and the linear ranges are 0.25-800 ?g L(-1). The fiber shows high thermal stability (up to 320 °C), good reproducibility and long lifetime (more than 183 times). It also has good chemical stability. After it is immersed in acid, alkali and dichloromethane for 4h its extraction efficiency remains almost unchanged. Besides esters the fiber also exhibits high extraction efficiency for alcohols and aromatic compounds. PMID:23597884

  19. Influence of different brazing and welding methods on tensile strength and microhardness of orthodontic stainless steel wire.

    PubMed

    Bock, Jens Johannes; Fraenzel, Wolfgang; Bailly, Jacqueline; Gernhardt, Christian Ralf; Fuhrmann, Robert Andreas Werner

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength and microhardness of joints made by conventional brazing and tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding. A standardized end-to-end joint configuration of the orthodontic wire material in spring hard quality was used. The joints were made using five different methods: brazing (soldering > 450 degrees C) with universal silver solder, two TIG, and two laser welders. Laser parameters and welding conditions were used according to the manufacturers' guidance. The tensile strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). The microhardness measurements were carried out with a hardness tester (Zwick 3202). Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's post hoc correction (P < 0.05). In all cases, brazing joints ruptured at low levels of tensile strength (198 +/- 146 MPa). Significant differences (P < 0.001) between brazing and TIG or laser welding were found. The highest means were observed for TIG welding (699-754 MPa). Laser welding showed a significantly lower mean tensile strength (369-520 MPa) compared with TIG welding. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were found between the original orthodontic wire and the mean microhardness at the centre of the welded area. The mean microhardness differed significantly between brazing (1.99 GPa), TIG (2.22-2.39 GPa) and laser welding (2.21-2.68 GPa). For orthodontic purposes, laser and TIG welding are solder-free alternatives to joining metal. TIG welding with a lower investment cost is comparable with laser welding. However, while expensive, the laser technique is a sophisticated and simple method. PMID:18617503

  20. Durability of FRP rods for concrete structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Micelli; Antonio Nanni

    2004-01-01

    Over the last two decades fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) rods have emerged as one of the most promising and affordable solutions to the corrosion problems of steel reinforcement in structural concrete. The application of FRP rods in new or damaged structures requires the development of design equations that must take into account the mechanical properties and the durability properties of FRP

  1. Pultruded CFRP rods for ground anchor application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Sumitani; Masao Kikuchi; Manabu Sotooka; Haruhito Akimoto; Nobuyuki Ozawa

    1998-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) rods with spiral surface indentations have been developed as tension elements in prestressed concrete and as anchor tendons in place of conventional prestressing steels. The indented type CFRP rods have sufficient bonding strength to concrete without sacrificing the high tensile strength. As a low cost manufacturing process of the advanced composite, the pultrusion processing method

  2. Sucker rod makers offer a selection

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, D.

    1983-11-01

    In their ongoing effort to produce better, more cost-effective sucker rods, manufacturers have selected one of three materials - fiberglass, aluminum, and steel - that they feel best suits the production system function of the rods, which is to connect the downhole pump to the pumpjack on the surface. Characteristics of each are described.

  3. Wire Maze

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K-12 Outreach Office,

    Students gain a basic understanding of electrical circuits. They build wire circuits and pass paperclips through the mazes, trying not to touch the wires. Touching a wire with a paperclip causes the circuit to close, which activates an indicator.

  4. Wire Weight

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  5. Reliable Wiring Harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspar, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    New harness for electrical wiring includes plugs that do not loosen from vibration. Ground braids prevented from detaching from connectors and constrained so braids do not open into swollen "birdcage" sections. Spring of stainless steel encircles ground braid. Self-locking connector contains ratchet not only preventing connector from opening, but tightens when vibrated.

  6. Silicon Ingot Wire Cutting Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Quicktime animation is of a single wire slicing the silicon ingot into thin wafers. By using a thinner wire, and by cutting all wafers at that same time, this minimizes material loss. This animation is the third in a series showing silicon wafer production process after it has been ground to the correct diameter.The previous animation showing silicon ingot rod grinding can be seen here.The next animation in this sequence about silicon wafer lapping can be seen here.

  7. Ferrite insertion at Recycler Flying Wire System

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2004-02-27

    Ferrite rods are installed inside the flying-wire cavity of the Recycler Ring and at entrance and exit beam pipes in order to absorb high-frequency electromagnetic waves excited by the beam. However, these rods may also deteriorate the vacuum pressure of the ring. An investigation is made to analyze the necessity of the ferrite rods at the entrance and exit beam pipes.

  8. 76 FR 12044 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of, and Partial Rescission of, the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...Works, Limited (``India Steel''); and Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd. (``Venus Wire'') and its affiliates Precision Metals...respect to India Steel. We preliminarily determine Venus Wire, Mukand and Facor made sales of the...

  9. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

  10. Method of making class D sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Woodings, R. T.

    1984-12-04

    It has been found that API Class D sucker rods can be made inexpensively from low-alloy, low-cost steel by following a suitable induction-normalizing process and using a suitable steel to which there has been added 0.07 to 0.15 percent of vanadium.

  11. SCT Busy Flow Individual ROD

    E-print Network

    University College London

    SCT Busy Flow BUSY Module LTP 1 (wire-or) Crate 1-1 Crate 1-2 O/C TTL O/C TTL NIM 16 Individual ROD Module Out NIM O/C TTL CTP Link Global ATLAS Signals & Overall SCT Busy LVDS LVDS LTP 2 O/C TTL NIM NIM LVDS LTP 3 Local Busy O/C TTL NIM NIM LVDS in out LTP 4 O/C TTL NIM NIM LVDS Local Busyin out Local

  12. Jacket-free stir bar sorptive extraction with bio-inspired polydopamine-functionalized immobilization of cross-linked polymer on stainless steel wire.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zixin; Zhang, Wenpeng; Bao, Tao; Chen, Zilin

    2015-08-14

    Stainless steel wire (SSW) is a good substrate for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). However, it is still a challenge to immobilize commonly used cross-linked polymers onto SSW. In this work, we present a new approach for immobilization of the cross-linked organic polymer onto SSW for jacket-free SBSE. A dopamine derivative was firstly synthesized; by introducing a mussel-inspired polydopamine process, a stable coating layer was finally generated on the surface of SSW. Secondly, the cross-linked polymer was synthesized on the polydopamine-modified SSW by using acetonitrile as the porogen, acrylamide (AA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker and 2,2'-azobis (2-methylpropionitrile) as the initiator. A diluted pre-polymerization solution was carefully prepared to generate a thin layer of the polymer. The prepared poly(EGDMA-AA)-modified stir bar showed high stability and good tolerance toward stirring, ultrasonication, organic solvents, and strong acidic and basic conditions. Morphology and structure characterization of coatings were performed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. The prepared poly(EGDMA-AA)-modified stir bar showed great extraction efficiency toward protoberberines, with enrichment factors of 19-42. An SBSE-HPLC method was also developed for quantitative analysis of protoberberines. The method showed low limits of detection (0.06-0.15ngmL(-1)), wide linear range (0.5-400ngmL(-1)), good linearity (R?0.9980) and good reproducibility (RSD?3.60% for intra-day, RSD?4.73% for inter-day). The developed method has been successfully applied to determine protoberberines in herb and rat plasma samples, with recoveries of 88.53-114.61%. PMID:26141275

  13. Fabrication and application of zinc-zinc oxide nanosheets coating on an etched stainless steel wire as a selective solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenlan; Guo, Mei; Zhang, Yida; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2015-03-01

    A novel zinc-zinc oxide (Zn-ZnO) nanosheets coating was directly fabricated on an etched stainless steel wire substrate as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber via previous electrodeposition of robust Zn coating. The scanning electron micrograph of the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coated fiber exhibits a flower-like nanostructure with high surface area. The SPME performance of as-fabricated fiber was investigated for the concentration and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and ultraviolet (UV) filters coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). It was found that the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coating exhibited high extraction capability, good selectivity and rapid mass transfer for some UV filters. The main parameters affecting extraction performance were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graphs were linear over the range of 0.1-200?gL(-1). The limits of detection of the proposed method were 0.052-0.084?gL(-1) (S/N=3). The single fiber repeatability varied from 5.18% to 7.56% and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility ranged from 6.74% to 8.83% for the extraction of spiked water with 50?gL(-1) UV filters (n=5). The established SPME-HPLC-UV method was successfully applied to the selective concentration and sensitive determination of target UV filters from real environmental water samples with recoveries from 85.8% to 105% at the spiking level of 10?gL(-1) and 30?gL(-1). The relative standard deviations were below 9.7%. PMID:25662065

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIALS FOR APPLICATION TO CONTROL ROD SYSTEMS IN GRAPHITE-MODERATED REACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Wade; F. J. Kempf

    1963-01-01

    Test and fabrication experience with control m terials for graphite ; moderated tube type reactors indicated that a wide variety of satisfactory rod ; designs are possible using either boron which is integral with the control rod ; sheath or BâC graphite and sintered BiC--aluminum within metallic rod ; sheaths. The control effectiveness of tubular boron stainless steel rods can

  15. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Finnemore, Douglas K. (Ames, IA); Ostenson, Jerome E. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Owen, Charles V. (Ames, IA)

    1985-08-06

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb.sub.3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb.sub.3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  16. Wire Maze

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Worcester Polytechnic Institute

    2013-01-01

    Learners create an electrical-circuit maze out of wire, then try to pass a paperclip through the maze without touching the wire. If the paper clip touches the wire, it closes the circuit, causing a light to come on or a buzzer to sound. This activity requires a basic understanding of how to build an electrical circuit.

  17. Electrochemical preparation of poly(p-phenylenediamine-co-aniline) composite coating on a stainless steel wire for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic determination of some derivatives of benzene.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xu; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2012-08-30

    A poly(p-phenylenediamine-co-aniline) composite coating was prepared on a stainless steel wire through electrochemical method. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and thermogravimetry. It showed thin slice shape and netlike microstructure, and thus it had large surface area and large extraction capacity. When the resulting fiber was used for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of some derivatives of benzene (i.e. chlorobenzene, 1,3-dimethylbenzene, 1,2-dimethylbenzene, 2-chlorotoluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene), followed by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis, it presented better performance than the polyaniline coated stainless steel wire. Under the optimized conditions, the GC peak areas were linear to their concentration in the ranges of about 0.5-500 ?g L(-1), with correlation coefficients of 0.9911-0.9989; the detection limits were 0.2-0.88 ?g L(-1)(S/N=3). The run-to-run RSD was smaller than 5.5% (n=5), and the fiber-to-fiber RSD was 3.5%-12.7% (n=3). The fiber was quite stable and durable; after it was used for about 140 times, its extraction efficiency kept almost unchanged. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of the derivatives of benzene in waste water, and the recoveries were 86.9%-107.7%. PMID:22939158

  18. Computer simulations to study the effect of adiabatic heating on rod penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J.E.

    1993-08-01

    We use computer simulations to help us understand the experimental observation that depleted uranium (DU) rods penetrate more steel than equal density tungsten alloy (WA) rods, and that this advantage depends on velocity and fineness ratio. Our simulations used thermal softening. Although the DU rods exhibit shear fracture instead, both phenomena result in a loss of hoop strength, and help to keep the projectile residue from interfering with the incoming rod. Our simulations show that rods of DU (or other alloy with strong thermal softening) penetrate more steel than rods of WA (for alloys with little thermal softening), and show velocity and fineness ratio dependencies that are in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  19. Singing Rod

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

    2004-01-01

    How can a solid metal rod be made to emit a high-pitched squeal? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate the resonance and acoustic properties that result from stroking a solid aluminum bar and causing it to resonate. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable K-12 national science education standards. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions, and presentation techniques. The content of the activity is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

  20. 39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod or poker at right was used to unplug iron notch. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. Metal woven wire cloth feeding system for gas bearings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Belforte; T. Raparelli; V. Viktorov; A. Trivella

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental investigation of pneumatic resistances constructed using woven wire cloth. Tests were carried out on commercial Touraille stainless steel wire cloth featuring different mesh sizes.Two types of experiments were performed: (a) Mass flow rate through single resistances was measured with different upstream and downstream pressures and wire mesh sizes. (b) Pressure distribution and mass flow rate

  2. Manufacturing and Properties of Yarns Containing Metal Wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayse Bedeloglu; Nilsen Sunter; Yalcin Bozkurt

    2011-01-01

    In this work, conductive yarn manufacturing that is formed by wrapping metal wire around the cotton yarn is described. Roving material at different thicknesses and copper and stainless steel-based wires having different diameters were fed into the ring frame to produce yarns containing metal wires. Performance of the composite yarns was tested by measuring yarn count, hairiness, and tensile properties.

  3. Sorting Titanium Welding Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, W. D., Jr.; Brown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Three types of titanium welding wires identified by their resistance to current flow. Welding-wire tester quickly identifies unknown titaniumalloy wire by touching wire with test probe, and comparing meter response with standard response. Before touching wire, tip of test probe dipped into an electrolyte.

  4. Simplified approach for predicting temperature distribution in wire wrapped assemblies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Khan; W. Rohsenow; A. Sonin; N. Todreas

    1973-01-01

    A novel semi-empirical method has been developed for predicting ; temperature distributions in wire wrapped rod bundles of a Liquid Metal Fast ; Breeder Reactor. The lumped eddy difiusivity model developed greatly simplifies ; the prediction and computational procedure yet takes into account the important, ; identifiable, modes of energy re-distribution within the rod bundle. The ; accuracy of predictions

  5. Analysis of the fast reactors' fuel-rod bundle flow resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukov, A.V.; Sorokin, A.P.; Titov, P.A.; Ushakov, P.A.

    1986-11-01

    The authors analyze experimental data on flow resistance in wire-spaced fuel rod bundles. The formula is based on the data for the multirod bundles or for the rod bundles with peripheral pattern. Figures show the schematic cross section of the fast reactor's fuel assemblies, and flow resistance factors in the cells of an infinite triangular lattice of wire-wrap spaced fuel elements. A more reliable generalizing formula than those currently available was obtained for the flow resistance in wire-wrap spaced fuel rod bundles. The formula is valid over a wide range of parameters being measured including close-packed lattices.

  6. Clad polymer buffer rods for polymer process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jen, C K; França, D R; Sun, Z; Ihara, I

    2001-03-01

    Clad polymer buffer rods consisting of a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) core and a cladding made of a heat resistance epoxy aluminum composite are presented. The core has a uniform diameter or a taper shape. Ultrasonic measurement results indicate that the ultrasonic signal strength and signal to noise ratio of these clad rods are better than those of the non-clad PEEK rods for both longitudinal and shear waves because of the improved ultrasonic wave guidance in the core. Comparisons of these rods with those made of polymide and high-density polyethylene are given. Applications of these buffer rods for ultrasonic monitoring of polymer extrusion at temperatures up to 200 degrees C and pressures up to 180 psi are demonstrated. The monitoring results also reveal that within certain operating temperature and pressure range, clad polymer buffer rods show advantages over clad steel buffer rods. PMID:11270633

  7. Rod examination gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1991-12-31

    The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

  8. Influence of AlB 2 compound on elimination of incoherent precipitation in artificial aging of wires drawn from redraw rod extruded from billets cast of alloy AA6101 by vertical direct chill casting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sedat Karabay

    2008-01-01

    In this article, a processing method of high conductive (HC) and extra-high conductive (EHC) electrical wires from AA-6101 alloy to manufacture aerial non-composite, composite, and various types of OPGW conductors has been presented. In HV-transmission lines, the most important problem is optimisation between tensile strength of conductor material and electrical conductivity. Alloys AA-6101 and AA-6201 are the best 6xxx series

  9. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  10. Overview of wire bonding using copper wire or insulated wire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. W. Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Wire bonding using copper or insulated wire leads to many advantages and new challenges. Research is intensively performed worldwide, leading to many new findings and solutions. This article reviews recent advances in wire bonding using copper wire or insulated wire for advanced microelectronics packaging. Journal articles, conference articles and patents published or issued recently are reviewed. The benefits and problems\\/challenges

  11. Stretching Wires

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

    2013-01-04

    In this activity, learners determine the elastic and plastic properties of different types of metal wires. Learners discover that wires of the same gauge, but made of different metals, typically support different loads (masses) before going through the elastic to plastic transition. Learners also learn the difference between elastic deformation, which is recoverable after the load is removed, and plastic deformation, which is not recoverable. Note: one way to save time on this lab is to have different groups test different metals.

  12. Novel unbreakable solid-phase microextraction fibers on stainless steel wire and application for the determination of oxadiargyl in environmental and agricultural samples in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Es-Haghi, Ali; Baghernejad, Masoud; Bagheri, Habib

    2014-10-01

    Sol-gel based solid-phase microextraction fibers supported by a stainless steel wire were fabricated and employed for GC-MS determination of oxadiargyl in real samples. The fibers were based on four compounds with different polarity: polar and non-polar (end-capped) poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and poly(ethylene-propyleneglycol)-monobutyl ether (UCON). For this purpose, the surface of the stainless steel was initially modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane. The results of the modification procedure were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. After the modification, four different sol-gel based SPME fibers with different values of polarity, polar and non-polar PDMS, PEG, and UCON have been prepared and investigated. They are supposed to be employed to determinate oxadiargyl in agricultural and environmental samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Most important parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were also optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was found to be linear for the concentrations ranging from 100 ng L(-1) to 2 mg L(-1) with R(2)=0.997. Limit of detection (LOD) of 40 ng L(-1) and relative standard deviation of less than 10% were obtained. Relative recovery in environmental and agricultural samples was in the range of 73-96%. PMID:25059153

  13. 75 FR 26199 - Stainless Steel Bar from India: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...February 1, 2010). On February 24, 2010, Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd. requested an...Petitioners''), for a review of Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd., Facor Steels...antidumping duty administrative review, covering Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd/Precision...

  14. 75 FR 12199 - Stainless Steel Bar from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ...producers/ exporters: Ambica Steels Limited and Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd. We preliminarily find...we received a timely request for review from Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd. (``Venus Wire''). Also, on February 27, 2009,...

  15. Metallic hot wire anemometer. [for high speed wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemos, F. R. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A hot wire anemometer is described which has a body formed of heat resistant metal such as an alloy high in nickel content which supports a probe wire disposed in a V groove in the body. The V groove contains a high temperature ceramic adhesive that partially encompasses the downstream side of the probe wire. Mechanical and electrical connection to the probe wire is achieved through conductive support rods that are constructed of the same high temperature metal, insulation between the body and the conductor rods being provided by a coating of an oxide of the same material which coating is formed in situ. The oxide coating insulates the conductor rods from the body, mechanically fixes the conductors within the body, and maintains its integrity at elevated temperatures.

  16. 76 FR 30101 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...two-piece steel nails having plastic or steel washers (caps) already assembled to the...coils using materials such as plastic, paper, or wire. Certain...two-piece steel nails having plastic or steel washers (caps) already assembled to...

  17. Effect of fluoride on friction between bracket and wire

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Shiva; Farahi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Friction is usually encountered during sliding technique for orthodontic space closure. This study aims to investigate the effect of fluoride on frictional resistance between stainless steel orthodontic brackets and steel and NiTi arch wires. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 standard 022 stainless steel brackets were used in this experimental study. 0.016 and 0.019 × 0.025 inch steel and NiTi arch wires were tested. The frictional resistance between wires and brackets immersed in the following three solutions were measured: Sultan fluoride gel containing 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride at pH 3.5 for 4 minutes, aquafresh mouth wash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride at pH of 5.1 for 1 minute twice a day for 8 weeks and physiologic serum (pH=7) as the control group. Static and dynamic frictional forces were measured using Testometric machine. Surface topography of wires and brackets was qualitatively assessed using electron microscopy. Three-way and two-way variance analysis and complementary Tuckey analysis were applied to compare the groups for any significant differences (P<0.05). Results: The average static and dynamic frictional forces for all bracket-wire combinations immersed in Sultan fluoride gel were higher than those immersed in NAF and control groups (P<0.001).The forces measured for rectangular wires were higher than round wires (P<0.001). Frictional resistance of 0.016 inch NiTi wire was more than that of the steel one but the difference between steel and NiTi 0.019 × 0.25 arch wires was not significant. Conclusion: Friction between steel brackets and nickel titanium and steel wires is affected by prophylactic agents containing high doses of fluoride and acidity. PMID:23372594

  18. Comparative study on corrosion behaviour of Nitinol and stainless steel orthodontic wires in simulated saliva solution in presence of fluoride ions.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, M; Momeni, M; Ebrahimi, N; Moayed, M H

    2013-05-01

    Localized corrosion and effects of pre-passivation treatment of Nitinol and SS304 orthodontic wires in simulated saliva solution in the presence and absence of fluoride ions were investigated by means of potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarisations. Results revealed that Nitinol does not show pitting corrosion in saliva solution however, SS304 shows pitting corrosion. Meanwhile fluoride ion has deteriorative effect on pitting corrosion of Nitinol, while its effect on SS304 was marginally constructive. Additionally, the presence of artificial crevice has no effect on corrosion behaviour in the presence of fluoride. Pre-passivation treatment has positive influence on pitting corrosion of both alloys in the presence of F(-) ions. PMID:23498236

  19. Metallurgical Analysis of Crack Initiation of Wire-Cut Electrical Discharge-Machined Spline Actuators Made of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad-Reza Etemadi; Bahram Fazel; Armin Emami

    Spline actuators made of investment cast 17-4 PH (precipitation hardening) stainless steel were found to contain micro-cracks.\\u000a The cracked actuators were subjected to optical and scanning electron microscopy and hardness testing, which revealed that\\u000a the failure occurred due to fatigue crack initiation and growth after electrical discharge machining (EDM). The rehardened\\u000a layer produced by the EDM remained after machining, and

  20. Development and validation of a low-frequency modeling code for high-moment transmitter rod antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Jared Williams; Sternberg, Ben K.; Dvorak, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and validate a low-frequency modeling code for high-moment transmitter rod antennas to aid in the design of future low-frequency TX antennas with high magnetic moments. To accomplish this goal, a quasi-static modeling algorithm was developed to simulate finite-length, permeable-core, rod antennas. This quasi-static analysis is applicable for low frequencies where eddy currents are negligible, and it can handle solid or hollow cores with winding insulation thickness between the antenna's windings and its core. The theory was programmed in Matlab, and the modeling code has the ability to predict the TX antenna's gain, maximum magnetic moment, saturation current, series inductance, and core series loss resistance, provided the user enters the corresponding complex permeability for the desired core magnetic flux density. In order to utilize the linear modeling code to model the effects of nonlinear core materials, it is necessary to use the correct complex permeability for a specific core magnetic flux density. In order to test the modeling code, we demonstrated that it can accurately predict changes in the electrical parameters associated with variations in the rod length and the core thickness for antennas made out of low carbon steel wire. These tests demonstrate that the modeling code was successful in predicting the changes in the rod antenna characteristics under high-current nonlinear conditions due to changes in the physical dimensions of the rod provided that the flux density in the core was held constant in order to keep the complex permeability from changing.

  1. Fiberglass sucker rods - a futuristic solution to today's problem wells

    SciTech Connect

    Treadway, R.B.; Focazio, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    A new fiberglass sucker rod design was developed, which incorporated many new and major modifications to correct the problems that had plagued the previous rod. This paper documents the success of these rods in depths ranging from 5,000'-10,000', and production ranges of 150 - 700 barrels of fluid per day. In addition, Amoco had also installed over fifty strings of fiberglass rods in their other four West Texas and Eastern New Mexico districts, and several are being evaluated in East Texas and on the Gulf Coast. At the present time, all of these additional installations show the same success as those reported in this paper. The changes in the manufacturing process, the use of a computer program for performance prediction, and the development of a new load range diagram are also discussed. Final data indicate that, when designed and installed properly, fiberglass sucker rods are a viable, economic, and often preferable alternative to steel sucker rods.

  2. 1987 Sucker rod tables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This reference identifies manufacturers qualified to produce API sucker rods and related equipment, lists chemical and mechanical properties of the various types of rods and provides dimensional characteristics. In addition, similar information is given for non-API products such as fiberglass and hollow rods.

  3. Properties and potential for application of steel reinforced polymer and steel reinforced grout composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Huang; V. Birman; A. Nanni; G. Tunis

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces steel reinforced polymer (SRP) and steel reinforced grout (SRG) composites that are considered for application in civil engineering for bridge and concrete buildings upgrade. These composites consist of steel cords formed by interwoven steel wires embedded within a polymer resin or cementitious grout matrix. The properties of SRP are evaluated experimentally and compared to micromechanical equations to

  4. Free abrasive wire saw machining of ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Hsu; C. S. Chen; C. C. Tsao

    2009-01-01

    Currently, many kinds of ceramics are used in advanced industrial fields due to their superior mechanical properties, such\\u000a as thermal, wear, corrosion resistance, and lightweight features. Wire saw machining ceramic (Al2O3) was investigated by ultrasonic vibration in this study. Taguchi approach is a powerful design tool for high-quality systems.\\u000a Material removal rate, wafer surface roughness, steel wire wear, kerf width,

  5. Crippling Strength of Axially Loaded Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natalis, FR

    1921-01-01

    A new empirical formula was developed that holds good for any length and any material of a rod, and agrees well with the results of extensive strength tests. To facilitate calculations, three tables are included, giving the crippling load for solid and hollow sectioned wooden rods of different thickness and length, as well as for steel tubes manufactured according to the standards of Army Air Services Inspection. Further, a graphical method of calculation of the breaking load is derived in which a single curve is employed for determination of the allowable fiber stress. Finally, the theory is discussed of the elastic curve for a rod subject to compression, according to which no deflection occurs, and the apparent contradiction of this conclusion by test results is attributed to the fact that the rods under test are not perfectly straight, or that the wall thickness and the material are not uniform. Under the assumption of an eccentric rod having a slight initial bend according to a sine curve, a simple formula for the deflection is derived, which shows a surprising agreement with test results. From this a further formula is derived for the determination of the allowable load on an eccentric rod. The resulting relations are made clearer by means of a graphical representation of the relation of the moments of the outer and inner forces to the deflection.

  6. Sucker rod construction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.; Goodman, J.L.; Tickle, J.D.; Liskey, A.K.

    1987-03-31

    A sucker rod construction is described comprising: a connector member being formed to define a rod receptacle having a closed axially inner end and an open axially outer end, the rod receptacle having axially spaced, tapered annular surfaces, a cylindrical fiberglass rod having an end having an outer surface being received within the rod receptacle through the outer end and cooperating therewith to define an annular chamber between the outer surface of the end of the rod and the tapered annular surfaces, and a bonding means positioned in the annular chamber for bonding to the outer surface of the end of the rod to confront the tapered annular surfaces, each annular surface having an angle of taper with respect to the outer surface of the fiberglass rod, and each angle of taper being progressively and uniformly less toward the open end by an amount between one and one-half degrees and two degrees, inclusive, and a collet connected to the connector member adjacent the open axially outer end of the rod receptacle and having an axial bore therethrough retaining the end of the rod in coaxial position within the rod receptacle.

  7. Sucker rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.J.; Starks, J.A.

    1989-08-22

    This patent describes a sucker rod guide for mounting on a sucker rod and spacing the sucker rod from the tubing in an oil well. The guide comprising a generally cylindrically-shaped, extruded, ultra-high density polyethylene body having a substantially smooth outside surface; a longitudinal bore provided centrally of the body. The bore having a smaller diameter than the diameter of the sucker rod; a plurality of grooves provided in circumferential relationship in the bore; and a tapered slot extending longitudinally through the body from the outside surface to the bore. The tapered slot further comprising a slot mouth located at the outside surface and a slot throat spaced from the slot mouth. The slot throat lying adjacent to the sucker rod bore and wherein the slot throat is wider than the slot mouth for mounting the sucker rod guide on the sucker rod.

  8. Wear resistant rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, K.W.

    1991-12-03

    This paper describes a sucker rod guide. It comprises: a series of sucker rods connected end to end forming a sucker rod string, the sucker rod string extending down into a tubing string of a producing oil well from a pump jack located on the surface of the ground above the tubing string to a pump located at a bottom end of the tubing string, the pump forces produced fluid collected at the bottom end of the tubing string up to the ground's surface, the produced fluid occupies a space between the rod string and the tubing string through which the fluid is channeled from the bottom end of the tubing string to the ground's surface, the pump jack raises and lowers the rod string in the fluid being pumped up the tubing string while the fluid bathes the rod string within the tubing string, wherein the improvement comprises the following structure in combination with the above.

  9. Low turbulence rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, E.L.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes an improved sucker rod guide for fixedly engaging around a sucker rod at a selected location along the length of the rod. It comprises a substantially cylindrical polymeric body having a longitudinal axis, a terminal end substantially continually tapered to the rod, a radially-inward surface and a radially outward surface, the radially inward surface of the body adjacent to and in tripping engagement with the rod when the rod guide is fixedly engaged around the rod; and a plurality of substantially continuous, longitudinal vanes carried by the body, a vane having a selected length and width, and longitudinally disposed along the radially outward surface of the guide body, extending radially away from the guide body and having a radially outside wear surface.

  10. Laparoscopic extraction of fractured Kirschner wire from the pelvis.

    PubMed

    Thati, Vinaykumar N; Kamat, Manmohan M; Khandelwal, Nidhi K

    2014-04-01

    Kirschner wire is a sharp stainless steel guide wire commonly used in fixation of fractured bone segments. There are case reports of migrated K wire from the upper limb into the spine and chest, and from the lower limb in to the abdomen and pelvis. Here, we present a case report of accidental intra-operative fracture of K wire during percutaneous femoral nailing for sub-trochanteric fracture of right femur, which migrated in to the pelvis when the orthopaedician tried to retrieve the broken segment of the K wire. This case highlights the use of laparoscopy as minimally invasive surgical option. PMID:24761087

  11. Applications of surface analysis in the wire industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, David A.

    The quality of wire is judged not only by its physical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue resistance, but also by its surface finish. The surface roughness, oxide formation, cleanliness, and plating homogeneity and porosity are just a few of the surface properties than can influence the performance of a wire product. Coupled to this is the large amount of surface area generated in drawing wire. For example, a ten pound spool holds nine miles of 0.006? diameter stainless steel wire. For these reasons surface analysis has become important both to the manufacturer and consumer of wire products. When surface analysis equipment such as AES, ESCA, and SIMS was first becoming commercially available in the late sixties and early seventies, the wire industry was beginning to enter a phase of technological development for many of its products. Wire manufacturers and users began using surface analysis to investigate such topics as adhesion of brass plated automobile tire cord to rubber and diffusion of layered deposits. Examples of surface analysis used for process control, problem solving, and project development include discoloration problems on stainless steel wire, welding problems with composite wires, diffusion formed brass coatings, and diffusion problems with solder coated and Cu plated steel wire.

  12. Total recall: an update on orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Jyothikiran, H; Shantharaj, Ravi; Batra, Panchali; Subbiah, Pradeep; Lakshmi, Bhagya; Kudagi, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic therapy is a force management procedure largely based on use of arch wires for storing and distributing biologically tolerable forces by means of which position of teeth is altered. Advances in material science and technology has resulted in an array of newer arch wire materials, opening new vistas, in orthodontic treatment. Materials with widely diverging properties are in the market today and their usage has profound implications on appliance mechanics, and are very much different from stainless steel which is popular even today. The dentists who practise orthodontics have to therefore clearly outline the phases of treatment and select the arch wire most suited for attaining specific treatment goals. PMID:25745725

  13. Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap

    SciTech Connect

    Epperson, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described.

  14. ORRIBLE; rod bundle flow and temperature distribution. [IBM360,370\\/195; FORTRAN IV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wantland

    2008-01-01

    ORRIBLE is a group of programs used to predict flow and temperature distribution for steady single-phase flow through bundles of heated rods separated by helical wire-wrap spacers. Any combination of flow subchannels can be blocked at the inlet. Turbulent interaction, sweeping cross flow due to the wire wrap, and transverse thermal conduction are considered. The eleven ORRIBLE programs in the

  15. 76 FR 23559 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...coils using materials such as plastic, paper, or wire. Certain steel...two-piece steel nails having plastic or steel washers (``caps'') already assembled to the...inclusive; and an actual washer or cap diameter of 0.900'' to...

  16. Molecular Rods DOI: 10.1002/anie.200502991

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    Molecular Rods DOI: 10.1002/anie.200502991 Synthesis and Conformational Study of Water- Soluble, we describe the preparation of oligopiperidines as a new family of water-soluble, rigid oligomers, such as spacers, wires, and construction elements.[3] The poor water solubility of many current examples

  17. Development of a precision wire feeder for small-diameter wire

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, E.D.

    1995-03-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, the author designed and fabricated a precision wire feeder to be used with high energy density (electron beam and laser beam) welding for weld joints where filler wire might be needed to fill a gap or to adjust the chemical composition so that a crack-free weld could be made. The wire feeder incorporates a 25,000 step-per-revolution motor to power a urethane-coated drive roll. A microprocessor-based controller provides precise control of the motor and allows both continuous and pulsed feeding of the wire. A unidirectional 0.75-in.-dia ball bearing is used to press the wire against the drive roll. A slight constant backward tension is maintained on the wire spool by a Bodine torque motor. A Teflon tube is used to guide the wire from the drive roll to the vicinity of the weld, where a hypodermic needle is used to aim the wire into the weld pool. The operation of the wire feeder was demonstrated by feeding a 10-mil-dia, Type 304 stainless steel wire into a variety of CO{sub 2} laser beam welds. The resulting welds are smooth and continuous, and the welds are considered to be completely satisfactory for a variety of applications.

  18. The tensile fatigue of wire rope: A new approach

    SciTech Connect

    Thorpe, T.W.; Rance, A.

    1983-05-01

    The fatigue behaviour in air and seawater of zinc coated steel wire taken from a 40 mm diameter wire rope has been studied. Seawater had little effect on short term tensile strength but it reduced fatigue life by an amount which increased with increasing mean stress and decreasing test frequency. The application of fretting during fatigue testing resulted in very low endurances, which were similar to those measured in fatigue tests on wire ropes.

  19. Fuel rod leak detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention detects leaking fuel rods by means of a radiation detector that measures the concentration of xenon-133 (¹³³Xe) within each individual rod. A collimated detector that provides signals related to the energy of incident radiation is aligned with one of the ends of a fuel rod. A statistically significant sample of the gamma radiation (..gamma..-rays)

  20. Pull rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Cioletti, O.C.

    1988-04-21

    A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

  1. Radiological characterization of spent control rod assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Pratt, S.L.; Haggard, D.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document represents the final report of an ongoing study to provide radiological characterizations, classifications, and assessments in support of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations. This report describes the results of non-destructive and laboratory radionuclide measurements, as well as waste classification assessments, of BWR and PWR spent control rod assemblies. The radionuclide inventories of these spent control rods were determined by three separate methodologies, including (1) direct assay techniques, (2) calculational techniques, and (3) by sampling and laboratory radiochemical analyses. For the BWR control rod blade (CRB) and PWR burnable poison rod assembly (BPRA), {sup 60}Co and {sup 63}Ni, present in the stainless steel cladding, were the most abundant neutron activation products. The most abundant radionuclide in the PWR rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) was {sup 108m}Ag (130 yr halflife) produced in the Ag-In-Cd alloy used as the neutron poison. This radionuclide will be the dominant contributor to the gamma dose rate for many hundreds of years. The results of the direct assay methods agree very well ({+-}10%) with the sampling/radiochemical measurements. The results of the calculational methods agreed fairly well with the empirical measurements for the BPRA, but often varied by a factor of 5 to 10 for the CRB and the RCCA assemblies. If concentration averaging and encapsulation, as allowed by 10CFR61.55, is performed, then each of the entire control assemblies would be classified as Class C low-level radioactive waste.

  2. RMI Visits Marlin Wire & Lion Brothers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Regional Manufacturing Institute (RMI) of Maryland visited two of Maryland's manufacturing companies. This video presents interviews with employees from Marlin Steel Wire Products and The Lion Brothers Company. In this informative seven minute recording they discuss the present and future for Next Generation Manufacturing.

  3. VIEW WESTBUILDING 23WIRE MILL & PATENTING (c.1853 & c.1900)CENTER BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-BUILDING 23-WIRE MILL & PATENTING (c.1853 & c.1900)-CENTER BUILDING 25- NO 2 WIRE MILL (c.1853) BEHIND 23 TO RIGHT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  4. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Cryogenically Treated Music Wire

    E-print Network

    Heptonstall, A; Robertson, N A

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO - the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For th...

  5. Rod sequence advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.M. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)); Lu, Yi (Kaman Sciences Corp., Utica, NY (United States)); Furia, R.V.; Thompson, R.J. (GPU Nuclear Corp., Parsippany, NJ (United States)); Lin, Ching-lu (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    During startup and power shaping maneuvers of boiling water reactors (BWR's), control rods are sequentially withdrawn from the reactor core. The withdrawal sequences determine the overall reactor power and the local core power density and are based on the knowledge of station engineers. It is important that the control rods are withdrawn in such a manner that the local power level does not become excessive while the desired reactor power is generated. Rules that constrain the relative positions of control rod groups have been developed to do this. While these rules are relatively simple, applying them to all possible movements of the 17 control rod groups in a typical BWR is complex and time consuming. SMARTRODS, is a rule based pilot expert system, was developed in LISP for the determination of the rod sequences.

  6. 300 eMW OCR POWER SHAPING ROD POISON MATERIAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1959-01-01

    Studies were performed to optimize the poison material in the power ; shaping rods of the 3OO Mw(e) OCR for minimum annual cost. The following poison ; materials were investigated; EuâOâ, SmâOâ, GdâO\\/sub ; 3\\/, DyâO\\/ sub 3\\/, dispersed in stainless steel, and Bââ stainless ; steel alloys. The economic comparison of these materials is presented. (W. ; L.H.)

  7. The current status of high temperature superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, B. P.; Burkhanov, G. S.

    1991-12-01

    The principal technological difficulties associated with the manufacture of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) wires based on yttrium and lanthanum ceramics are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the superconducting and mechanical properties of HTSC wires or ribbons are largely determined by their microstructure. Particular attention is given to the currently used method of producing HTSC wires whereby the ceramic powder is encased in a pipe shell and then deformed by different methods, such as rolling, drawing, or pressing. The requirements for the shell material are examined, and current densities are presented for HTSC wires produced in shells of copper, silver, aluminum, nickel, stainless steel, and zirconium.

  8. Analysis of sucker rod and sinkerbar failures

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.R.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents results of a study of performance and failures of the sucker rod/sinkerbar string used in beam-pumping operations through metallography, finite element analysis, and failure data collection. Metallography showed that the microstructure of the steel bar stock needs to be considered to improve the fatigue resistance of the sucker rod strings. The current specification based on tensile strength, or yield strength, may not be appropriate since failure occurs because of fatigue and not yielding, and tensile strength is not always a good measure of fatigue resistance. Finite element analysis of the threaded connection quantitatively assesses the coupling designs under various loading conditions. Subcritical fractures in metallography are also suggested by calculated stress distribution in threaded coupling. Failure data illustrates both magnitude and frequency of failures, as well as categorizing the suspected cause of failure. Application of the results in each of these project areas is expected to yield improved choice of metal bar stock, thread design, and make-up practices which can significantly reduce the frequency of sucker rod failures. Sucker rod failures today are not inherent in the process, but can be minimized through the application of new technology and observation of common-sense practices.

  9. Wear simulation of sucker rod couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, W.J. (Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that sucker rod strings are devices used to actuate pumps located at the bottom of oil wells. The individual rods are connected together by threaded couplings. Since the couplings have a larger diameter than the rods, they sometimes contact the inside diameter of the tubing during the up and down pumping cycle. Usually, this is not problem unless buckling occurs in the downstroke; however, this can lead to accelerated wear of the coupling and tubing. In nonvertical wells (offset, deviated, or slanted), the contact is more severe and rapid wear takes place. Couplings are more easily replaced during shutdowns; it is very important to minimize wear to tubing since it is virtually impossible to replace. TRIBONIC 20, an iron-based alloy containing approximately 13% Mn, 5% Si, 5.5% Cr, and 5% Ni, was laboratory evaluated to determine whether or not it could solve the sucker rod coupling-production tubing wear problem. The alloy demonstrated outstanding wear resistance both to itself and in protecting type 1019 steel.

  10. Mechanical modeling and analysis of the impact testing of wire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Laird; K. K. Schrems

    1997-01-01

    A new experimental test method and its associated mechanics description is reported for the instrumented impact of small diameter rod and wire. The use of this test lies in its ability to quickly and effectively measure impact fracture energy at various dynamic strain rates while indirectly providing a measure of the material's dynamic yield stress. The basic outline of the

  11. Flexible sucker rod unit

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, L.F.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes a deep well having: a. an education tube with an inside diameter extending from the surface of the earth to far below the surface, b. a reciprocating pump housing attached to the bottom of the education tube, c. pump jack means at the surface for reciprocating the pump, d. a light sucker rod connected to the pump jack means and extending into the education tube, and e. a series of heavy sinker bars having a large cross sectional area in the education tube connecting the light sucker rod to the pump; f. an improved integral metal flexible rod unit interconnecting the sinker bars comprising in combination with the above: g. a coupling on each end of the integral metal flexible rod unit connecting the flexible rod unit to the contiguous sinker bar, h. a segment which is flexible as compared to the sinker bars connecting one of the couplings to i. an integral metal bearing adjacent to the other of the couplings, the bearing having j. a cylindrical surface with k. a diameter i. only slightly smaller than the inside diameter of the education tube thereby forming a sliding fit therewith, and ii. greater than the diameter of any other portion of the flexible rod unit and the sinker bar, and l. grooves in the cylindrical surface for the passage of fluid between in the education tube around the bearing.

  12. Scaled Long Rod Perforation Experiments Using Multiple Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Daniel; Proud, William

    2011-06-01

    A series of angled small-scale reverse ballistic long rod experiments were conducted using mild steel rods (6 mm dia., 90 mm long) against both 3 mm and 6 mm rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) plates at 30°. The impact velocity was varied from 450-780 m s-1 and the response of the system monitored by laser velocimetry, strain gauges and high-speed photography. This provided insight into the flexing of the rod during impact, the acceleration of the rear of the rod and the global penetration process. This experimental series involved ricochet, near-ricochet and full perforation, and so allows the sensitivity of the differing diagnostic outputs for these processes to be compared.

  13. Self-monitoring Composite Rods for Sustainable Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonilho-Pereira, Cristiana; Zdraveva, Emilija; Fangueiro, Raul; Lanceros-Mendez, S.; Jalali, Said; de Araújo, Mário

    This paper presents the development and properties assessment of braided reinforced composite rods (BCR) able to both reinforce and monitor the stress state of concrete infrastructures. The research study aims at understanding the tensile behaviour and self-monitoring ability of composite rods reinforced by a textile structure - braided structure with core reinforcement - for civil engineering applications, namely for concrete internal reinforcement, as a steel substitute, in order to improve structures safety and sustainability. Seven types of braided composite rods have been produced using an author patented technique based on a modified conventional braiding machine. The tensile properties of the braided reinforced composite rods were evaluated in order to identify the type(s) of fibre(s) to be used as core reinforcement. BCR have been tested under bending while the variation of the electrical resistance was simultaneously monitored.

  14. Failure analysis of explanted sternal wires.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ming; Su, Yea-Yang; Lin, Shing-Jong; Shih, Chun-Che

    2005-05-01

    To classify and understand the mechanisms of surface damages and fracture mechanisms of sternal wires, explanted stainless steel sternal wires were collected from patients with sternal dehiscence following open-heart surgery. Surface alterations and fractured ends of sternal wires were examined and analyzed. Eighty fractured wires extracted from 25 patients from January 1999 to December 2003, with mean implantation interval of 55+/-149 days (range 5-729 days) after cardiac surgery, were studied by various techniques. The extracted wires were cleaned and the fibrotic tissues were removed. Irregularities and fractured ends were assayed by a scanning electron microscopy. After stereomicroscopy and documentation, the explants were cleaned with 1% sodium hypochlorite to remove the blood and tissues and was followed by cleaned with deionized water and alcohol. The explants were examined by stereomicroscopy, and irregularities on surface and fracture surfaces of sternal wires were assayed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and X-ray mapping. The explants with surrounding fibrotic tissue were stained and examined with stereomicroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Corrosion pits were found on the surface of explanted sternal wires. EDAX and X-ray mapping examinations revealed diminution of nickel concentration in the severely corroded pits on sternal wires. A feature of transgranular cracking was observed for stress corrosion cracking and striation character for typical corrosion fatigue was also identified. TEM examination of tissue showed the metallic particles in phagolysosomes of macrophages inside the surrounding sternal tissue. The synergic effect of hostile environment and the stress could be the precursors of failures for sternal wires. PMID:15576179

  15. Wire Test Grip Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Wire-testing issues, such as the gripping strains imposed on the wire, play a critical role in obtaining clean data. In a standard test frame fitted with flat wedge grips, the gripping action alone creates stresses on the wire specimen that cause the wire to fail at the grip location. A new test frame, which is outfitted with a vacuum chamber, negated the use of any conventional commercially available wire test fixtures, as only 7 in. (17.8 cm) existed between the grip faces. An innovative grip fixture was designed to test thin gauge wire for a variety of applications in an existing Instron test frame outfitted with a vacuum chamber.

  16. Broken wires diagnosis method numerical simulation based on smart cable structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng; Zhou, Min; Yang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The smart cable with embedded distributed fiber optical Bragg grating (FBG) sensors was chosen as the object to study a new diagnosis method about broken wires of the bridge cable. The diagnosis strategy based on cable force and stress distribution state of steel wires was put forward. By establishing the bridge-cable and cable-steel wires model, the broken wires sample database was simulated numerically. A method of the characterization cable state pattern which can both represent the degree and location of broken wires inside a cable was put forward. The training and predicting results of the sample database by the back propagation (BP) neural network showed that the proposed broken wires diagnosis method was feasible and expanded the broken wires diagnosis research area by using the smart cable which was used to be only representing cable force.

  17. Mathematical modeling of steel fiber concrete under dynamic impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. N.; Yugov, N. T.; Kopanitsa, D. G.; Kopanitsa, G. D.; Yugov, A. A.; Shashkov, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a continuum mechanics mathematical model that describes the processes of deformation and destruction of steel-fiber-concrete under a shock wave impact. A computer modeling method was applied to study the processes of shock wave impact of a steel cylindrical rod and concrete and steel fiber concrete plates. The impact speeds were within 100-500 m/s.

  18. Joining of Aluminum and Steel in Car Body Manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Liedl; Robert Bielak; Julia Ivanova; Norbert Enzinger; Gunter Figner; Jürgen Bruckner; Haris Pasic; Milan Pudar; Stefan Hampel

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-coated steel sheets have been joined with aluminum samples in an overlapping as well as in a butt-joint configuration. A bimetal- wire composed from aluminum and steel was used for additional welding experiments. An advantage of the laser-assisted bi-metal-wire welding is that the welding process is simplified since the primary joint between aluminium and steel exists already and laser welding

  19. Wire harness twisting aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  20. The future of wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ho; K. W. Mai; M. A. Horowitz

    1991-01-01

    Concern about the performance of wires in scaled technologies has led to research exploring other communication methods. This paper examines wire and gate delays as technologies migrate from 0.18-m to 0.035-m feature sizes to better understand the magni-tude of the wiring problem. Wires that shorten in length as technolo-gies scale have delays that either track gate delays or grow slowly

  1. Noise Radiation from Single and Multiple Rod Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic measurements were performed on single and multiple rod configurations to study the effect of Reynolds number, surface roughness, freestream turbulence, proximity and wake interference on the radiated noise. The Reynolds number ranged from 3.8 x 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 5). Directivity measurements were performed to determine how well the dipole assumption for the radiation of vortex shedding noise holds for the different model configurations tested. The dependence of the peak Sound Pressure Level on velocity was also examined. Several concepts for the reduction of the noise radiating from cylindrical rods were tested. It was shown that wire wraps and collar distributions could be used to significantly reduce the noise radiating from rods in tandem configurations.

  2. Laser Wire Stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  3. Welded oil well pump rod

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.F.

    1986-06-10

    A friction welded multiple component oil well sucker rod is described which consists of an elongated cylindrical rod section and apposed coupling end portions welded to opposite ends of the rod section, the coupling end portions being of a nominal maximum diameter at least 1.5 times greater than the rod section and including means for connecting the sucker rod to an adjacent rod in end to end relationship. The couplings end portions each include an axial tapered portion between the connecting means and an end face adapted to be butted to the rod section, the coupling end portions being butted against the opposed end portions of the rod section during a friction welding operation to form a radially outward projecting bulge of displaced material on the rod section and the coupling end portions, respectively. A greater cross-sectional area is formed at the transition of the rod section to the coupling end portion to reduce the unit tensile stress on the sucker rod in the vicinity of the weld, wherein the displaced material is machined to form a tapered surface between the rod section and the axial tapered portion of the coupling end portion, the tapered surface having an angle of taper with respect to the longitudinal axis of the sucker rod less than the angle of taper of the coupling end portion.

  4. Substitute safety rods: Physics of operation and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, N.P.

    1991-11-18

    Under certain assumed accidents, an SRS reactor may lose most of its bulk moderator while maintaining flow to fuel assemblies. If this occurs immediately after operation at power, components normally dependent on convective heat transfer to the moderator will heat up with the possibility of melting that component. One component at risk is the currently used cadmium safety rod. A substitute safety rod consisting solely of sintered B{sub 4}C and stainless steel has been designed which is capable of withstanding much higher temperatures. This memorandum provides the physics basis for the adequacy of the rod for reactor shutdown and provides a set of criteria for acceptance in the NTG tests. This memorandum provides physics data for other aspects of operation. These include: Heat production and helium production, along with related phenomena, resulting from inadvertent irradiation at power. Gamma heat input under drained tank conditions. An equivalent rod design suitable for charge design and safety analyses. Degradation under normal operation. Thermal flux ripple in adjacent fuel due to axial striping of alternate B{sub 4}C and steel pellets. Possible effect on safety analyses. Safety rod withdrawal during reactor startup.

  5. Marine corrosion of selected small wire ropes and strands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Sandwith; R. C. Clark

    1975-01-01

    The breakage loads of nine different small mooring lines are experimentally related to time of immersion in a marine environment. Samples of a single steel wire, five different strands ranging from 0.05 inch1 times 7to 7\\/64 inch1 times 19, and three small wire ropes 3\\/32 inch7 times 7were fully immersed in Puget Sound for 38, 115, and 150 days. Tensile

  6. Defects and failure in ultra-fine copper magnet wire

    SciTech Connect

    Murr, L.E.; Flores, R.D. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering] [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    1998-08-04

    The flow processes in wire drawing and extrusion are extremely nonhomogeneous and depend prominently on the die half-angle, the fractional reduction, the velocity vector, the friction shear factor between the die and the wire surface, and the strain hardening capacity of the drawing metal. Structural damage during wire drawing for a given microstructure has been found to correlate with the amount of hydrostatic stress developed. Nonmetallic inclusions such as oxide particles and more recently hard metallic inclusions can nucleate voids and cracks along with an insidious phenomenon called central burst or cupping. In addition, there appears to be a microstructural distinction around the wire centerline which has not been investigated in any systematic manner. In fact, microstructural characterization of drawn copper magnet wires seems to have received little or no consideration, especially utilizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This study represents an effort to rectify these shortcomings by applying light metallography (LM) and TEM to the study of a wide range of copper rod and drawn wire microstructures, including ultra-fine wire microstructures. The authors define ultra-fine wire to be smaller than 44 gauge (<50 {micro}m diameter; which is roughly one-third the diameter of a human hair).

  7. Anchor for Fiberglas Guy Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Solution to problem of anchoring fiberglas guy rods to install nut with threads on outer circumference, followed by aluminum sleeve. Sleeve has opening oval at upper and round at bottom end. End of rod is split so fiberglas wedge can be inserted to form V-shaped end. Spread end of rod fits into tapered hole in sleeve and threaded aluminum coupling is put over rod and sleeve.

  8. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2 nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  9. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Li-jun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rupich, Martin W. [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Xiaoping [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  10. 76 FR 34964 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ...February 1, 2011). On February 28, 2011, Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd (``Venus'') and Chandan Steel Limited (``Chandan...collectively, ``Petitioners''), for a review of Venus, Ambica Steels Limited (``Ambica''),...

  11. 77 FR 53845 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...coils using materials such as plastic, paper, or wire. Certain...two-piece steel nails having plastic or steel washers (caps) already assembled to the nail...Limited; Wenzhou KLF Medical Plastics Co., Lt.; Wenzhou...

  12. Laser Wire Deposition (WireFeed) for Fully Dense Shapes LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.; ENSZ,MARK T.; GREENE,DONALD L.; RECKAWAY,DARYL E.; MORIN,JACOB A.; BUCHHEIT,THOMAS E.; LAVAN,DAVID A.; CRENSHAW,THOMAS B.; TIKARE,VEENA; ROMERO,JOSEPH A.

    1999-11-01

    Direct metal deposition technologies produce complex, near net shape components from Computer Aided Design (CAD) solid models. Most of these techniques fabricate a component by melting powder in a laser weld pool, rastering the weld bead to form a layer, and additively constructing subsequent layers. This report will describe anew direct metal deposition process, known as WireFeed, whereby a small diameter wire is used instead of powder as the feed material to fabricate components. Currently, parts are being fabricated from stainless steel alloys. Microscopy studies show the WireFeed parts to be filly dense with fine microstructural features. Mechanical tests show stainless steel parts to have high strength values with retained ductility. A model was developed to simulate the microstructural evolution and coarsening during the WireFeed process. Simulations demonstrate the importance of knowing the temperature distribution during fabrication of a WireFeed part. The temperature distribution influences microstructural evolution and, therefore, must be controlled to tailor the microstructure for optimal performance.

  13. 1D subsurface electromagnetic fields excited by energized steel casing

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    - length thin wire of piecewise-constant electric conductivity and magnetic permeability. The steel1D subsurface electromagnetic fields excited by energized steel casing Wei Yang1 , Carlos Torres the possibility of enabling steel-cased wells as galvanic sources to detect and quantify spatial variations

  14. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    E-print Network

    Roman Vetter; Falk K. Wittel; Hans J. Herrmann

    2015-04-03

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists, biologists and materials engineers alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, however. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, self-similar structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition.

  15. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    E-print Network

    Vetter, Roman; Herrmann, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists, biologists and materials engineers alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, however. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, self-similar structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition.

  16. Experimental and computational studies of rod-deployment mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalbe, L.A.; Wingate, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stofleth, J.H.; Greene, R.W.

    1996-08-01

    We describe experimental measurements and hydrocode simulations of two tests in which long (L/D=12), steel rods were accelerated laterally with charges of Detasheet-C high explosive (HE). In each test configuration, 84 rods were initially aligned parallel to one another in an array of four concentric rings. The first test had a central core of HE that dispersed the rods isotropically. The second test had a narrow, 180 degree strip of HE on one side of the assembly that focused the rods directionally. Using radiographic data taken at several milliseconds after HE initiation, we measured the dynamic distributions of the rods, and their translational velocities and tumble rates. To compare with the data, we also modeled the experiments with our smooth particle hydrocode SPHINX. Within the context of our numerical model, the hydrocode results agree satisfactorily with the test data. We include in our discussion many of the inferences and insights that our results provide to the phenomenology and performance of multimode, rod-deployment mechanisms.

  17. Growth control of ZnO nano-rod with various seeds and photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Wang, Yuting; Uchida, Giichiro; Kamataki, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2013-06-01

    ZnO has attracted much interesting as one of unique materials. Especially, it is suitable for the easy fabrication of nano-structures such as rod, wire and tube as well as particles. ZnO nano-rod is one of good sensitized electrodes because it has good electron transfer and is easily fabricated. In the chemical bath deposition process, seed layer plays an important role in the growth of nano-rod. This work investigated and analyzed the effect of seed layer on the growth of ZnO nano-rod. Fabricated nano-rods were applied to dye-sensitized solar cell. For better performance, ZnO was surface-modified by TiO2. Surface-modified ZnO had improved electron transfer and wider surface area. Consequently, the current and fill factor were much improved and overall performance was also enhanced with them.

  18. Strength of surgical wire fixation. A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Guadagni, J R; Drummond, D S

    1986-08-01

    Because of the frequent use of stainless steel wire in spinal surgery and to augment fracture fixation, several methods of securing wire fixation were tested in the laboratory to determine the relative strength of fixation. Any method of fixation stronger than the yield strength of the wire is sufficient. Square knots, knot twists, symmetric twists, and the AO loop-tuck techniques afforded acceptable resistance against tension loads, but the wire wrap and AO loop technique were unacceptable. The double symmetric twist, which is frequently used for tension banding, was barely acceptable. The symmetric twist technique was the most practical because it is strong enough, efficient in maintaining tension applied during fixation, and least likely to cause damage to the wire. To optimize the fixation strength of the symmetrical twist, at least two twists are required at a reasonably tight pitch. PMID:3731592

  19. A tool for measuring the bending length in thin wires.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, M; Cagnoli, G; Cesarini, E; Losurdo, G; Martelli, F; Piergiovanni, F; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A

    2013-03-01

    Great effort is currently being put into the development and construction of the second generation, advanced gravitational wave detectors, Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO. The development of new low thermal noise suspensions of mirrors, based on the experience gained in the previous experiments, is part of this task. Quasi-monolithic suspensions with fused silica wires avoid the problem of rubbing friction introduced by steel cradle arrangements by directly welding the wires to silica blocks bonded to the mirror. Moreover, the mechanical loss level introduced by silica (?fs ? 10(-7) in thin fused silica wires) is by far less than the one associated with steel. The low frequency dynamical behaviour of the suspension can be computed and optimized, provided that the wire bending shape under pendulum motion is known. Due to the production process, fused silica wires are thicker near the two ends (necks), so that analytical bending computations are very complicated. We developed a tool to directly measure the low frequency bending parameters of fused silica wires, and we tested it on the wires produced for the Virgo+ monolithic suspensions. The working principle and a set of test measurements are presented and explained. PMID:23556827

  20. Static pressure distribution in an angular channel with helicoidal wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delemos, Marcelo J. S.

    1988-12-01

    This work reports data on pressure drop distribution along a channel formed by a wire-wrapped rod placed inside a circular tube. This geometry simulates the flow field in the vicinity of a tropical fuel rod of a LMFBR (Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) fuel assembly. The working fluid was air and the range for the Reynolds number extended from 2.26 x 10(4) to 4.52 x 10(4). The aspect ratio, P/D and the lead-to-diameter ratio, 1/D, were 1.2 and 15, respectively.

  1. Do K-wires made from shape memory alloys increase pull-out forces? A preliminary experimental cadaver study in bovine bone.

    PubMed

    Wiebking, U; Gösling, T; Monschizada, W; Rau, T; Krettek, C

    2007-06-01

    After osteosynthesis of the proximal humerus by Kirschner wires (K-wire), loosening and secondary loss can occur. This study tested primary fixation of wires made from a shape memory alloy (SMA) Nitinol (NiTi), compared to conventional steel K-wires by pull-out tests. Blocks of cancellous bone were tested with three wire types: NiTi-K-wire with split apex geometry and conventional steel K-wires with and without threads. We found that NiTi-wires can be pulled out of bone more easily than steel wires (P=0.05), even though the former had rougher surfaces. The application of NiTi-wires through bone produced no better stability in comparison to normal steel K-wires, because of triggering the memory effect. Further studies are required to determine if NiTi wires of another appropriate design, surface and localization are superior to conventional wires in the context of this application. PMID:17541668

  2. Sucker rod centralizer

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas, O.; Newski, A.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes a device for centralizing at least one sucker rod within a production pipe downhole in a well and for reducing frictional forces between the pipe and at least one sucker rod. It comprises an elongate, substantially cylindrical body member having a longitudinal axis, a plurality of slots within the member and a rotatable member mounted within each slot, each of the plurality of slots has its major dimension along a first axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body member and is oriented with respect to the other seats so as to form a helicoidal array for maximizing the total surface contact area between the rotatable members and the pipe and for decreasing the forces acting on each rotatable member.

  3. Corrosion resistance of certain strength wires used in small fiber-optic cables exposed to seawater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin J. Sandwith; Robert L. Ruedisueli

    1997-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and the results of corrosion tests on fiber-optic cables with different strength wires and designs are used to evaluate the suitability of the cables as candidates for use on the sea bottom. The strength wires in the cables were made of certain Inconel, stainless steel, and steel alloys and had diameters ranging from 0.008 to 0.015 in. The

  4. Sucker rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.C.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes an improved guide for use in a string of sucker rods for reciprocation in a tubing string in a borehole, the sucker rods having threaded male ends, the guide comprising: an elongated upright cylindrical member of external diameter less than the internal diameter of tubing in which it is to be used, the member having sucker rod receiving female threaded openings at the upper and lower ends, the threaded openings being coaxial of the member cylindrical axis whereby the member may be positioned in a string of sucker rods, and including a plurality of spaced-apart parallel sided slots within the member, each slot being of semi-circular configuration and of depth greater than the radius and less than the diameter of the cylindrical member, the sidewalls of each slot being parallel to and equally spaced from a plane of the member cylindrical axis; the member having an axle bore therein for each of the slots, the axle bores being parallel and spaced apart from each other, a plane of the axis of each bore being perpendicular the member cylindrical axis and the axis of each bore being displaced away from the member cylindrical axis; an axle received in each axle bore; and a wheel received on each axle the diameter of each wheel being approximately the diameter of the cylindrical member, the periphery of each wheel extending beyond the member cylindrical wall whereby the wheels are positioned to engage and roll on the internal cylindrical surface of tubing, the planes of adjacent slots in the member being rotationally displaced from each other, a portion of each wheel extending beyond the cylindrical surface of the member, the opposed portion of each wheel being within the confines of the member cylindrical surface whereby each wheel can contact a tubing wall at only one point on its cylindrical surface.

  5. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small button'' in the latch mechanism had broken off of the lock plunger'' and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  6. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small ``button`` in the latch mechanism had broken off of the ``lock plunger`` and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  7. Sucker rod coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Klyne, A.A.

    1986-11-11

    An anti-friction sucker rod coupling is described for connecting a pair of sucker rods and centralizing them in a tubing string, comprising: an elongate, rigid, substantially cylindrical body member, each end of the body member forming means for threadably connecting the body member with a sucker rod. The body member further forms a transversely extending, substantially diametric, generally vertical slot extending therethrough. The body member further forms a pin bore, such pin bore extending transversely through the body member so as to intersect the slot substantially perpendicularly; a wheel member positioned within the slot to rotate in a generally vertical plane. The wheel member has a portion thereof extending beyond the periphery of the body member to engage the inner surface of the tubing string and centralize the coupling; and a pin mounted in the pin bore and supporting member thereon, whereby the wheel member is rotatable within the slot; the wheel member having sufficient clearance between its side surfaces and the wall surfaces of the slot, when the wheel member is centered in the slot on the pin, whereby the wheel member may shift along the pin to assist in ejecting sand and oil from the slot.

  8. Ultrasonic monitoring of material processing using clad buffer rod sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Franca, Demartonne

    Ultrasonic sensors and techniques are developed for in-line monitoring of polymer extrusion, cleanliness of molten metals and liquid flow speed at elevated temperature. Pulse-echo mode is used for the first two processes, while the through-transmission mode is applied in the third one. The ultrasonic probe consists of high performance clad buffer rods with different dimensions to thermally isolate the commercial ultrasonic transducer from materials at high temperature. The clad buffer rods are made of steel, polymer and ceramic. Steel clad buffer rods are introduced for in-line monitoring of polymer extrusion processes. Owing to its superior performance in pulse-echo mode, for the first time such a probe is installed and performs ultrasonic monitoring in the die of a co-extrusion machine and in the barrel section of a twin-screw extruder. It can reveal a variety of information relevant to process parameters, such as polymer layer thickness, interface location and adhesion quality, stability, or polymer composition change. For the ultrasonic monitoring of polymer processes, probes with acoustic impedance that matches that of the processed polymer may offer certain advantages such as quantitative viscoelastic evaluation; thus high temperature polymer clad buffer rods, in particular PEEK, are developed. It is demonstrated that this new probe exhibits unique advantages for in-line monitoring of the cure of epoxies and polymer extrusion process. Long steel clad buffer rods with a spherical focus lens machined at the probing end are proposed for cleanliness evaluation of molten metals. The potential of this focusing probe is demonstrated by means of high-resolution imaging and particles detection in molten zinc at temperatures higher than 600°C, using a single probe operated at pulse-echo mode. A contrapropagating ultrasonic flowmeter employing steel clad buffer rods is devised to operate at high temperature. It is demonstrated that these rods guide ultrasonic signals whose velocity is dependent on the average temperature of the flow. Thus, a novel technique to significantly reduce the temperature effects of ultrasonic flowmeters is successfully developed and tested in motor oil flow at 130°C.

  9. Modeling of wire EDM process using back propagation (BPN) and General Regression Neural Networks (GRNN)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. B. Reddy; C. H. R. V. Kumar; K. H. Reddy

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model is developed to predict the surface roughness in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) of Cr-Mo-V alloyed special steel, which is used in automobile industry. The neural network Models strained with experimental results conducted using L16 orthogonal array by considering the input parameters such as pulse duration, open voltage, wire speed and

  10. Lingual straight wire method.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kyoto; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, L U C A; Takemoto, Y U I

    2009-12-01

    The mushroom arch-wire is mainly used in lingual orthodontic treatment but the complicated wire bending it requires affects both the treatment results and the time spent at the chair. The author proposes a new lingual straight wire method (LSW) in order to facilitate arch coordination and simplify the mechanics. The attention paid to the set-up model and bracket positioning and bonding plus the use of the new LSW method will also improve patient comfort. PMID:20303920

  11. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  12. Core design study of a supercritical light water reactor with double row fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.; Zheng, Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi'an, ShannXi, 710049 (China); Yang, J.; Zhang, Y. [China Nuclear Power Technology Research Inst., Yitian Road, ShenZhen, GuangDong, 518026 (China)

    2012-07-01

    An equilibrium core for supercritical light water reactor has been designed. A novel type of fuel assembly with dual rows of fuel rods between water rods is chosen and optimized to get more uniform assembly power distributions. Stainless steel is used for fuel rod cladding and structural material. Honeycomb structure filled with thermal isolation is introduced to reduce the usage of stainless steel and to keep moderator temperature below the pseudo critical temperature. Water flow scheme with ascending coolant flow in inner regions is carried out to achieve high outlet temperature. In order to enhance coolant outlet temperature, the radial power distributions needs to be as flat as possible through operation cycle. Fuel loading pattern and control rod pattern are optimized to flatten power distribution at inner regions. Axial fuel enrichment is divided into three parts to control axial power peak, which affects maximum cladding surface temperature. (authors)

  13. Safety rod/thimble melt failure characterization experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Hawkes, G.L.

    1992-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) requested that he INEL perform experiments to study the thermal failure characteristics of a simulated Savannah River Site nuclear reactor safety rod and its surrounding thimble assembly. An electrically heated stainless steel rod simulated a reactor safety rod located eccentrically or concentrically within a perforated aluminum guide tube or thimble. A total of 37 experiments were conducted for a range of power levels and safety rod/thimble relative orientations. Video tapes were made of the four failure tests that were conducted to the melting point of the thimble. Although the primary emphasis of the experiments were to characterize the melting of the thimble qualitatively, experimental transient measurements included heater voltage and current, heater surface temperatures, aluminum thimble temperatures, and ambient temperature. Numerical studies were also performed in support of the experiments and data interpretation. Two finite element models were created to model the heat conduction-radiation between the stainless steel heater and thimble. The predicted temperatures were in good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Reactor control rod timing system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Peter T. K. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  15. Inflatable oil well hole plug with reinforcing wires

    SciTech Connect

    Schisler, R. C.; Eisenzimmer, G. W.

    1985-02-19

    An inflatable packer assembly having an inflatable bladder having reinforcing means where the steel wires are arranged as a series of parallel inline cables positioning within the bladder and their ends are anchored in an upper and a lower shoe means and is embedded in elastomeric compounds having preferably special physicals and a cover of a tough elastomer.

  16. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  17. Pressure drop measurements in LMFBR wire wrapped blanket assemblies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chiu; J. Hawley; W. M. Rohsenow; N. E. Todreas

    1977-01-01

    In this experiment, measurements of subchannel static pressure for an interior and edge subchannel were taken at two elevations in two wire-wrapped 61-pin bundles. One of the bundles has geometric characteristics of P\\/D = 1.067 and H\\/D = 8.0 (4 inch lead length and 0.501 inch rod diameter) and the other bundle has geometric characteristics of P\\/D = 1.067 and

  18. Wire Weight with Housing

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. In the background there is housing protected with dikes along the Missouri River in Mandan, ND....

  19. PBGA wire bonding development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K. Shu

    1996-01-01

    In a PBGA package, the existence of a glass transition temperature of 170~215°C for PCB substrate puts an upper ceiling to the usable wire bond temperature. The low thermal conductivity of PCB substrate and the need for a thicker material make fine pad pitch wire bonding even more difficult to do. To compensate for the limitation in thermal energy, high

  20. An experimental study of pressure drop correlations for wire-wrapped fuel assemblies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moon-Hyun Chun; Kyong-Won Seo; Seok-Ki Choi; Ho-Yun Nam

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to perform an experimental evaluation of five existing correlations for the subchannel\\u000a pressure drop analysis of a wire-wrapped fuel assembly. For this purpose, a series of water experiments have been performed\\u000a using a helical wire-wrapped 19-pin fuel assembly for various test parameters. For different test sections with different\\u000a pitch to rod diameter

  1. Sucker rod assembly and method

    SciTech Connect

    Pagan, A.J.

    1986-07-01

    An improved sucker rod assembly is described comprising, in combination: a. a sucker rod; and b. a pair of fittings secured to opposite ends of the rod, each fitting including: i. a rigid elongated casing having interior surfaces defining an open front end and cavity extending rearwardly from the open front end in which cavity one end of the sucker rod is disposed, the side portions of the interior surfaces being contoured to define, with the side portions of the sucker rod end a single, annular elongated tapered wedge-shaped space; and ii. anchoring means filling the space and bonding to the side portions of the rod end to lock the rod end in place, the anchoring means having a narrower diameter at the front end thereof than at about the rear end thereof and being generally frusto-conical, the anchoring means comprising a plurality of separate rigid inserts, the interior surfaces of which collectively define a central elongated passageway in which the rod end is received, the interior surfaces of the inserts being tightly bonded to the side portions of the rod, and the inserts being bonded to each other along the contact lines therebetween to form a unitary structure.

  2. Wire mesh current collectors for passive direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Naveen K.; Thombre, Shashikant B.; Motghare, Ramani V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of the stainless steel wire mesh as current collector in the passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFCs-W). A novel single cell fixture is designed and fabricated. The cell performance is evaluated and compared with five different wire mesh current collectors. The supporting plates are optimized for every mesh. The performance of DMFCs-W is compared with the conventional passive DMFC which uses perforated metal plate as current collector (DMFC-P). The polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are performed to investigate the different aspects of the cell performance. The results reveal that the DMFCs-W yield better performance than the DMFC-P. Also, more uniform fuel distribution at catalyst layer and higher cell temperature is achieved with wire mesh current collectors. It is found that the wire mesh geometry has significant effect on the cell performance and the mesh made of relatively thick wires gives better cell performance. This study identifies the stainless steel wire mesh as promising material to be used as current collector and potential substitute to the perforated plate current collectors in the passive DMFC.

  3. Wire tension versus wire frequency: an experimental Ilizarov frame study.

    PubMed

    La Russa, Valentina; Skallerud, Bjørn; Klaksvik, Jomar; Foss, Olav A

    2010-08-26

    Stability of an Ilizarov frame highly depends on maintenance of adequate tension in the wires. Wire tension should be measured accurately in experimental laboratory studies when new types of wire fixators are tested. In this study, 20 wires were tested using two different wire fixators. The wires were sequentially tensioned from 0 to 1275 N in 50 N intervals. For each tension value, corresponding vibration frequency was recorded. We then described the relationship between wire tension and wire vibration frequency in an empirical equation (R(2)=99.8). Wire vibration frequency can also be described theoretically by the Euler-Bernoulli equation for a thin beam. Theoretical frequencies were calculated and compared with corresponding experimental frequencies. A close agreement was found (95% limits of agreement, +/-3.2 Hz). This empirical equation represents a simple tool, applicable when investigating the effect of new wire fixators, pre-tensioning and frame constructions on wire tension. PMID:20472242

  4. 75 FR 54090 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...Ambica Steels Limited (``Ambica'') and Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd.,\\1\\ are...Preliminary Results, we have determined that Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd. and its affiliates...McDonald to the File, ``Relationship of Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd. and...

  5. Impact Initiation of Rods of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Aluminum Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Willis; Holt, William H.

    2006-07-01

    A gas gun has been used to investigate the shock initiation of rods of a mixture of 74 wt% PTFE and 26 wt% aluminum powders. The rods were sabot-launched into 4340 steel anvils at impact velocities ranging from 104 to 963 m/s. A framing camera was used to observe the time sequence of events. At low velocity, no initiation occurred. Above an initiation threshold, the initiation time dropped abruptly from 56 ?s just above threshold to 4 ?s at the highest impact velocity. Several high velocity experiments were performed for pure PTFE material for comparison with the PTFE/Al rods.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003 Mineral...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003 Mineral...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802 Mineral...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802 Mineral...

  10. Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

  11. Analysis of sucker rod and sinkerbar failures

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.R.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents results from a study to analyze the performance and failures of the sucker rod/sinkerbar string used in beam-pumping operations through metallography, structural finite element analysis, and detailed failure data collection. Metallography demonstrated that microstructure of steel bar stock needs to be considered. Current specification based on tensile strength, or yield strength, may not be appropriate since failure occurs because of fatigue and not yielding. Finite element analysis of the threaded connection identifies stress and fatigue concentrations and quantitatively assesses the performance and failure of coupling designs under a variety of loading conditions. Subcritical fractures observed in the metallography are also suggested by the calculated stress distribution in the threaded coupling. Failure data illustrates both magnitude and frequency of the failures, as well as categorizing the suspected cause of failure. This failure information alone can reduce failures by indicating specific problem areas. These results are expected to yield improved choice of metal bar stock, thread design, and make-up practices which can reduce sucker rod failures.

  12. Analysis of sucker rod and sinkerbar failures

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.R.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study to analyze the performance and failures of the sucker rod/sinkerbar string used in beam-pumping operations through metallography, structural finite element analysis, and detailed failure data collection. Metallography demonstrated that microstructure of steel bar stock needs to be considered. Current specification based on tensile strength, or yield strength, may not be appropriate since failure occurs because of fatigue and not yielding. Finite element analysis of the threaded connection identifies stress and fatigue concentrations and quantitatively assesses the performance and failure of coupling designs under a variety of loading conditions. Subcritical fractures observed in the metallography are also suggested by the calculated stress distribution in the threaded coupling. Failure data illustrates both magnitude and frequency of the failures, as well as categorizing the suspected cause of failure. This failure information alone can reduce failures by indicating specific problem areas. These results are expected to yield improved choice of metal bar stock, thread design, and make-up practices which can reduce sucker rod failures.

  13. Rods Cancel Cones in Flicker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald I. A. MacLeod

    1972-01-01

    THE retina of man is equipped with two separate receptor systems. Cones, operating best in relatively strong illumination, are the basis of daylight (photopic) vision. In dim illumination (scotopic vision) we rely on rod receptors alone, and the limitations of the rod receptor system are apparent in the character of our visual sensations: in scotopic conditions colour is absent, outlines

  14. Modeling Fractions with Cuisenaire Rods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    In this interactive simulation students must determine the values for each of the Cuisenaire Rods based on the information that they are given in the prompt. This activity allows students to reason about how fractional values change based on the size of the whole. Students may use the Cuisenaire Rod activity space or use hands-on manipulatives to complete this activity.

  15. Composite Lightning Rods for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Charles F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Composite, lightweight sacrificial tip with graphite designed reduces lightning-strike damage to composite parts of aircraft and dissipates harmful electrical energy. Device consists of slender composite rod fabricated from highly-conductive unidirectional reinforcing fibers in matrix material. Rods strategically installed in trailing edges of aircraft wings, tails, winglets, control surfaces, and rearward-most portion of aft fuselage.

  16. A comparison of wire- and Kevlar-reinforced provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Powell, D B; Nicholls, J I; Yuodelis, R A; Strygler, H

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel wire 0.036 inch in diameter was compared with Kevlar 49 polyaramid fiber as a means of reinforcing a four-unit posterior provisional fixed restoration with 2 pontics. Three reinforcement patterns for wire and two for Kevlar 49 were evaluated and compared with the control, which was an unreinforced provisional restoration. A central tensile load was placed on the cemented provisional restoration and the variables were measured: (1) the initial stiffness; (2) the load at initial fracture; and (3) the unit toughness, or the energy stored in the beam at a point where the load had undergone a 1.0-mm deflection. Statistical analysis showed (1) the bent wire configuration had a significantly higher initial stiffness (P < or = .05), (2) there was no difference between designs for load at initial fracture, and (3) the bent wire had a significantly higher unit toughness value (P < or = .05). PMID:8179789

  17. Landing Gear Components Noise Study - PIV and Hot-Wire Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Burley, Casey L.; Stead, Daniel J.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Price, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    PIV and hot-wire measurements of the wake flow from rods and bars are presented. The test models include rods of different diameters and cross sections and a rod juxtaposed to a plate. The latter is representative of the latch door that is attached to an aircraft landing gear when the gear is deployed, while the single and multiple rod configurations tested are representative of some of the various struts and cables configuration present on an aircraft landing gear. The test set up is described and the flow measurements are presented. The effect of model surface treatment and freestream turbulence on the spanwise coherence of the vortex shedding is studied for several rod and bar configurations.

  18. Towards plant wires.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. PMID:24928068

  19. Advanced copper wire bonding technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Meng Ho

    2010-01-01

    Wire bonding is the most dominant form of first-level chip interconnects in microelectronics with gold wire bonding taking the lead for the past few decades. Today, it is evident that the shift from gold to copper wire bonding is genuinely picking up, due to both a surge in gold prices and recent developments in copper wire bonding technology. The course

  20. Superconducting wires based on a yttrium ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrokhin, V. A.; Dzhetymov, A. M.; Radchenko, I. P.; Svalov, G. G.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Miuller, P.; Shubert, M.

    1991-12-01

    A study was made of the fabrication of high temperature superconducting ceramic wires based on yttrium in various metallic shells. The shells used in the process were 10-mm-diameter thin-walled tubes of stainless steel (Kh18N10T), Nimonic alloy (Kh20N80), copper, and silver. Measurements of the critical current density is presented for the best specimens of round and rectangular cross sections. It is found that alloying of the yttrium ceramic by silver and gold makes it possible to double its current-carrying capacity.

  1. Coupled Multi-Electrode Investigation of Crevice Corrosion of 316 Stainless Steel and NiCrMo Alloy 625

    SciTech Connect

    F. Bocher; F.J. Presuel-Moreno; J.R. Scully

    2006-06-08

    Crevice corrosion is currently mostly studied using either one of two techniques depending on the information desired. The first method involves two multicrevice formers or washers fastened on both sides of a sample plate. This technique provides exposure information regarding the severity of crevice corrosion (depth, position, frequency of attack) but delivers little or no electrochemical information. The second method involves the potentiodynamic or potentiostatic study of an uncreviced sample in a model crevice solution or under a crevice former in aggressive solution where crevice corrosion may initiate and propagate and global current is recorded. However, crevice corrosion initiation and propagation behavior is highly dependent on exact position in the crevice over time. The distance from the crevice mouth will affect the solution composition, the pH, the ohmic potential drop and the true potential in the crevice. Coupled multi-electrode arrays (MEA) were used to study crevice corrosion in order to take in account spatial and temporal evolution of electrochemistry simultaneously. Scaling laws were used to rescale the crevice geometry while keeping the corrosion electrochemical properties equivalent to that of a natural crevice at a smaller length scale. one of the advantages was to be able to use commercial alloys available as wires electrode and, in the case of MEA, to spread the crevice corrosion over many individual electrodes so each one of them will have a near homogeneous electrochemical behavior. The initial step was to obtain anodic polarization curves for the relevant material in acid chloride solution which simulated the crevice electrolyte. using the software Crevicer{trademark}, the potential distribution inside the crevice as a function of the distance from the crevice mouth was determined for various crevice gaps and applied potentials, assuming constant chemistry throughout the crevice. The crevice corrosion initiation location x{sub crit} is the position where the potential drops to E{sub Flade}. Figure 1 illustrates the resulting x{sub crit} vs. G scaling laws for 316 Stainless Steel in 1 M HCl at 50 C. The coupled multi-wire array is composed of one hundred identical 316 Stainless Steel wires in a five by twenty formation inserted in a groove of a 316 Stainless Steel rod such that the ends of the wires are flush mounted with the rod. The 100 wires are coupled electrically through in-line zero resistance ammeters. The diameter of the wires (250 {micro}m) was chosen so that x{sub crit} (critical initiation distance from the crevice mouth) and the expected zone of crevice corrosion (predicted from the scaling law) would be larger than the radius of a single wire. The array created a flush mounted planar electrode with the surface/volume ratio obtained in planar crevices. The observation of the current evolution as a function of position inside and outside the crevice as function of time was made possible as illustrated in Figure 2 in 0.6 M NaCl at 50 C.

  2. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  3. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  9. Status of rod consolidation, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that the spent fuel storage pools at some domestic light-water reactors will run out of space before 2003, the year that the US Department of Energy currently predicts it will have a repository available. Of the methods being studied to alleviate the problem, rod consolidation is one of the leading candidates for achieving more efficient use of existing space in spent fuel storage pools. Rod consolidation involves mechanically removing all the fuel rods from the fuel assembly hardware (i.e., the structural components) and placing the fuel rods in a close-packed array in a canister without space grids. A typical goal of rod consolidation systems is to insert the fuel rods from two fuel assemblies into a canister that has the same exterior dimensions as one standard fuel assembly (i.e., to achieve a consolidation or compaction ratio of 2:1) and to compact the nonfuel-bearing structural components from those two fuel assemblies by a factor of 10 to 20. This report provides an overview of the current status of rod consolidation in the United States and a small amount of information on related activities in other countries. 85 refs., 36 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of torque moment in a novel elastic bendable orthodontic wire.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Shingo; Watanabe, Hiroto; Nakajima, Akira; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the torque moment delivered by a novel elastic bendable wire, Ti-Nb wire, and to compare it with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) and titanium-molybdenum (Ti-Mo) alloy wires. Two sizes of Ti-Nb, Ni-Ti and Ti-Mo alloy wires and 0.022-inch slot stainless steel brackets were ligated with elastic modules or ligature wires. The torque moment delivered by the various wire-bracket combinations was measured using a torque gauge at the temperature and humidity of 37°C and 50%, respectively. As the degree of applied torque and the inserted wire size increased, the torque moment gradually increased. The torque moment of Ti-Nb wires was smaller than those of Ni-Ti wires and Ti-Mo wires, at more than 20 degrees applied torque. The torque moment with wire ligation was significantly larger than those with elastic ligation. PMID:24786348

  11. Electrical wiring and screening design for the MICHELLE Midinfrared Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, Joel

    1997-03-01

    The Michelle mid-infrared spectrometer and imager is being built for the UKIRT and Gemini telescopes on Mauna Kea. In common with many other instruments being built for the new generation of telescopes, the focal plane array detector used requires a large number of electrical connections. The Michelle instrument integrates the wiring in to the design of the Joule-Thompson cooler. Three thin-walled stainless steel tubes form part of the structure of the cooler. The output, bias and clock wiring pass down separate tubes. The wiring is made up of custom woven cables optimized for low capacitance (outputs) or controlled impedance (clocks). The wiring assemblies can be removed from the tubes without straining the wires in any way. The stainless-steel tubes also form part of a high integrity screen totally enclosing the array drive and data acquisition system. The only breaks in the screen are to allow light on to the array, power to the electronics, and fiber optic connections to the controller computing system.

  12. Rod coupling for oil well sucker rods and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, R.

    1986-07-29

    A coupling is described for joining solid reciprocating sucker rods to form a rod string in a well pump or the like comprising a unitary metal sleeve having an axial threaded bore and an irregular outer surface, and a homogeneous and non-fibrous coating on the sleeve over the outer surface providing an externally substantially cylindrical coupling, the coating comprising a flexible and abrasive resistant thermoplastic hydrourethane polymer formed on the irregular outer surface of the sleeve while in the molten state.

  13. Pitfalls and solutions of replacing gold wire with palladium coated copper wire in IC wire bonding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei-Jun Tang; Hong-Meng Ho; Wei Koh; Yue-Jia Zhang; Kay-Soon Goh; Chun-Shu Huang; Yung-Tsan Yu

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest in copper wire bonding for IC interconnection due to the cost savings and better material properties. Recently, palladium-coated copper (Pd-Cu) wire has emerged as the preferred choice over bare Cu wire in fine wire diameter applications, especially with BGA packages. The application of Pd-Cu wire is a solution to prevent copper oxidation during the bonding

  14. The confining effectiveness of NiTiNb and NiTi SMA wire jackets for concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chung, Young-Soo; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Hong-Taek; Lee, Hacksoo

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the confining effectiveness of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets for concrete. The performance of SMA wire jackets was compared to that of steel jackets. A prestrained martensitic SMA wire was wrapped around a concrete cylinder and then heated by a heating jacket. In the process, a confining stress around the cylinder was developed in the SMA wire due to the shape memory effect; this jacketing method can increase the strength and ductility of the cylinder under an axial compressive load. In this study, NiTi and NiTiNb SMA wires of 1.0 mm in diameter were used for the confinement. Recovery tests were conducted on the wires to assess their recovery and residual stress. The confinement by SMA wire jackets increased the strength slightly and greatly increased the ductility compared to the strength and ductility of plain concrete cylinders. The NiTiNb SMA wire jacket showed better performance than that of the NiTi SMA wire jacket. The confining effectiveness of the SMA wire jackets of this study was estimated to be similar to that of the steel jackets. This study showed the potential of the SMA wire jacketing method to retrofit reinforced concrete columns and protect them from seismic risks.

  15. Wear mechanism maps for thermal-spray steel coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Edrisy; A. T. Alpas; T. Perry

    2005-01-01

    Wear mechanisms in low-carbon-steel-based thermal-spray coatings deposited on aluminum alloys using a plasma-transfer wire-arc\\u000a (PTWA) process and a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process were studied. The coatings investigated consisted of PTWA 1020,\\u000a HVOF 1020 deposited from a low-carbon steel wire stock, and HVOF 1020-2.5 pct Al produced using a wire stock with 2.5 wt pct\\u000a Al added to the base AISI

  16. The erosive wear and corrosion behavior of zinc- and aluminum-coated steels in simulated coastal environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. T Horng; T. C Chang; J. W Hsu; H. C Shih

    2003-01-01

    The telecommunication systems outside plants are made of a variety of materials; metals, alloys, polymers, concrete and so on. The interaction between the outside plant metal components and the environment leads to various types of corrosion. Metal-coated steel wires are widely used as supports for telecommunication cables. In coastal areas the metal-coated steel wire corrodes and even fractures in a

  17. The use of artificial defects in the 5-ball-rod rolling contact fatigue experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C Dommarco; P. C Bastias; G. T Hahn; C. A Rubin

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue performance of steels under rolling contact loading is normally evaluated using time consuming rigs, though accelerated tests are also used. The present work reports the analysis carried out on tests accelerated by using artificial defects (ADs) over the wear track. Two modifications were introduced to the 3-ball-rod testing protocol. The first modification reduces the time required to produce

  18. Hopf solitons and elastic rods

    SciTech Connect

    Harland, Derek; Sutcliffe, Paul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Speight, Martin [School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Hopf solitons in the Skyrme-Faddeev model are stringlike topological solitons classified by the integer-valued Hopf charge. In this paper we introduce an approximate description of Hopf solitons in terms of elastic rods. The general form of the elastic rod energy is derived from the field theory energy and is found to be an extension of the classical Kirchhoff rod energy. Using a minimal extension of the Kirchhoff energy, it is shown that a simple elastic rod model can reproduce many of the qualitative features of Hopf solitons in the Skyrme-Faddeev model. Features that are captured by the model include the buckling of the charge three solution, the formation of links at charges five and six, and the minimal energy trefoil knot at charge seven.

  19. Rod coupling with mounted guide

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, M.L.

    1987-05-26

    This patent describes a well sucker rod string, in a well bore, the combination comprising: an axially elongated coupling section having threads at axially opposite ends thereof for coupling to and between successive sucker rods in the rod string, to transmit string loading. The section has first and second exposed surfaces adjacent an end of the section, and a third surface located between the first and second exposed surfaces; a rod guide consisting of molded plastic material extending about and bonded to the section third surface to project outwardly therefrom for engagement with the well bore during up and down stroking of the string; and one annular groove sunk in the section between the first and third surfaces, and another annular groove sunk in the section between the second and third surfaces. The depth of the one groove is less than about 15% of the radius of the section at the first surface.

  20. Selecting custom torque prescriptions for the straight-wire appliance.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Earl

    2013-04-01

    Selecting custom torque prescriptions based on the treatment needs of each patient can reduce the amount of routine archwire torque adjustment needed and speed torque correction, thus reducing the total treatment time. Using the appropriate torque prescription prevents iatrogenic torque problems and allows most torque corrections to be done earlier with more resilient nickel-titanium and beta-titanium wires. As a result, fewer time-consuming final torque adjustments are needed with stainless steel finishing wires, resulting in shorter treatment time. PMID:23540633

  1. Wear Mechanisms Map Proposal of Crane Sheave Steel Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Buk Ryu; Seock-Sam Kim; Young-Hun Chae

    2006-01-01

    In contact conditions of crane sheave steel materials against a wire rope the contact surface of the sheave generally metal wear. In this study. Alternating bending wear tests using the normalized low carbon cast steel were out under four kinds of applied loads, and rotation speeds at 28rpm. The wear characteristics, and wear mechanism map on the worn surfaces was

  2. Top slag refining for inclusion composition transform control in tire cord steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-hao; Jiang, Min; He, Xiao-fei; Wang, Xin-hua

    2012-06-01

    Controlling conditions for inclusion plasticization were calculated by FactSage, and the steel/slag reaction equilibration time was determined by pre-equilibrium experiments. Laboratory experiments with different top slags were carried out in 90 min, and industrial tests were performed based on the results of calculation and laboratory experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to determine the morphology and composition of inclusions in tire cord steel. It is found that the shape of inclusions can be controlled well, and the composition of inclusions varies in the industrial test as the following transformation route: MnO-Al2O3-SiO2?CaO-Al2O3-SiO2?MnO-Al2O3-SiO2. Inclusion plasticization can be achieved by controlling the binary basicity of top slag (CaO/SiO2 by mass) around 1.0 and the (Al2O3) content in top slag below 10wt%. Under these controlling conditions in the industrial test, almost all of inclusions in the wire rods achieve plastic deformation.

  3. Fabrication of Wire Mesh Heat Exchangers for Waste Heat Recovery Using Wire-Arc Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaey, R.; Salavati, S.; Pershin, L.; Coyle, T.; Chandra, S.; Mostaghimi, J.

    2014-04-01

    Waste heat can be recovered from hot combustion gases using water-cooled heat exchangers. Adding fins to the external surfaces of the water pipes inserted into the hot gases increases their surface area and enhances heat transfer, increasing the efficiency of heat recovery. A method of increasing the heat transfer surface area has been developed using a twin wire-arc thermal spray system to generate a dense, high-strength coating that bonds wire mesh to the outside surfaces of stainless steel pipes through which water passes. At the optimum spray distance of 150 mm, the oxide content, coating porosity, and the adhesion strength of the coating were measured to be 7%, 2%, and 24 MPa, respectively. Experiments were done in which heat exchangers were placed inside a high-temperature oven with temperature varying from 300 to 900 °C. Several different heat exchanger designs were tested to estimate the total heat transfer in each case. The efficiency of heat transfer was found to depend strongly on the quality of the bond between the wire meshes and pipes and the size of openings in the wire mesh.

  4. Tests pinpoint sucker-rod failures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Elshawesh; A. Elhoud; E. Elagdel

    1997-01-01

    A detailed metallurgical examination of a 7\\/8-inch and a 1-inch sucker rod revealed corrosion fatigue had caused their failure. The 7 to 8-inch rod had failed after a few months of service while the 1-inch rod failed after 1 year. Both rods had been used in a sweet-oil environment. Both rods failed by corrosion fatigue because of repeated loads during

  5. Dielectric coated wire antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.; Newman, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    An electrically thin dielectric insulating shell on an antenna composed of electrically thin circular cylindrical wires is examined. A moment method solution is obtained, and the insulating shell is modeled by equivalent volume polarization currents. These polarization currents are related in a simple manner to the surface charge density on the wire antenna. In this way the insulating shell causes no new unknowns to be introduced, and the size of the impedance matrix is the same as for the uninsulated wires. The insulation is accounted for entirely through a modification of the symmetric impedance matrix. This modification influences the current distribution, impedance, efficiency, field patterns, and scattering properties. The theory is compared with measurement for dielectric coated antennas in air.

  6. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  7. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, Richard A. (East Concord, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  8. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M. [and others

    2000-02-24

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.

  9. Wire bonding with Pd-coated copper wire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horst Clauberg; Bob Chylak; Nelson Wong; Johnny Yeung; Eugen Milke

    2010-01-01

    The last three years have seen an aggressive implementation of fine-pitch copper wire bonding in face of ever-increasing gold prices. Numerous technical hurdles associated with copper wire bonding have mostly been overcome. However, achieving process robustness equivalent to gold wire bonding is still challenging and requires enhanced manufacturing control procedures. Although the 2nd bond in copper wire bonding is generally

  10. OrchidWire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kozak, Theresa

    Created by orchid enthusiasts Wendell and Theresa Kozak of Vancouver Island, Canada, OrchidWire website is a great resource for anyone interested in orchids. This site is an online orchid resource directory with links to 3911 images and 1184 sites in 51 countries. Site visitors can peruse orchid resources by using an alphabetical appendix or by selecting from different categories like Wild, Culture, Geographic, Genera, and many more. Specific orchid listings or images can be located by using the site search engine. Site users can also submit suggestions for addition to the OrchidWire database.

  11. Corrosion behavior of nitinol wires in body fluid environments.

    PubMed

    Carroll, W M; Kelly, M J

    2003-12-15

    In this study, breakdown potentials were measured for unpolished and mechanically polished nitinol wires in simulated body fluids. These wires are similar to those used in the manufacture of stents. Considerable scatter was observed in the results indicating a variable surface state. After appropriate heat treatments, the measured breakdown values were lower but more reproducible for the mechanically polished samples. Significantly higher breakdown potentials were observed for cross-section wire samples. Some wires were tested in human blood and the breakdown values were higher than in Ringer and 0.9% NaCl solutions. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the surface layers indicated that oxide thickening occurred after heat treatments. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy also revealed thickened surface oxides on the wires. The oxide was predominantly made up of TiO(2) with a very thin layer of NiO at the outer surface. Galvanic corrosion tests were performed on nitinol wires coupled with gold, elgiloy/phynox, and stainless steel. Nitinol was found to be anodic in all cases yet the currents measured were small. In tests in which nitinol-gold couples were immersed in 0.9% NaCl for periods up to 12 months, only very small amounts of nickel (in the part per billion range) were released into solution and scanning electron microscopy examination revealed no corrosion. PMID:14624497

  12. Recent progress on improvement to mechanical properties of DI-BSCCO wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Kagiyama, T.; Kikuchi, M.; Yamade, S.; Nakashima, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Osabe, G.; Fujikami, J.; Hayashi, K.; Sato, K.

    2012-05-01

    To improve the mechanical properties of silver-sheathed BSCCO wire, the laminated BSCCO wires with stainless steel were made under some experimental conditions. The dependence of the stainless steel thickness and the dependence of the pre-tension of stainless steel tapes on the laminated BSCCO were investigated by mechanical tests (tensile test at 77 K and RT and double-bending test at RT) using short samples. Due to the difference of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and the relaxation to equilibrium after removing the total pre-tension of no laminated BSCCO (insert tape) and stainless steel tapes, the residual axial compressive strain applies to an insert tape after the lamination process. A high compressive strain up to the compressive yield of the silver-alloy is so useful for improvement of the mechanical properties of BSCCO wire. Measurement results were approximately the same as the simple model calculated from the residual strain applied to an insert tape by the difference of CTE and pre-tension. The stainless-steel-laminated BSCCO wire ‘Type HT-SS’ has been able to be achieved over 500 MPa at 77 K by increasing stainless steel thickness and the residual axial compression for an insert tape. The developed tough DI-BSCCO has a higher hoop force to compare with YBCO-coated conductor using Hastelloy substrates under the same circumstances such as magnetic field, winding diameter and transport current.

  13. A computational study of the influence of projectile strength on the performance of long-rod penetrators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Rosenberg; E. Dekel

    1996-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations were used to explore the penetration capability of long-rods as a function of their strength. Tungsten alloy rods of varying strengths were ‘shot’ at semi-infinite armor steel targets in the velocity range of 1.4–2.2 km\\/s. It is found that penetration depths versus penetrator strength curves have a maximum which depends on the impact velocity. This effect which,

  14. Fretting wear of a high-strength heavily work-hardened eutectoid steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterhouse, R. B.; McColl, I. R.; Harris, S. J.; Tsujikawa, M.

    1994-06-01

    This is the second paper in an informal series of three on the fretting behavior of a heavily work-hardened eutectoid steel wire, used in the construction of locked coil steel ropes. The fretting behavior of the wire, both in the service surface condition and after mechanical abrasion, is examined. Residual solid die lubricant, from the wire drawing manufacturing process, present both on the surface of the wire and as a reservoir in the drawing marks is determined to play an important role in the fretting behavior. In particular, it is capable of maintaining the coefficient of friction at a low value, at least during the early stages of fretting.

  15. Basic Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…

  16. BookWire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BookWire, "the first place to look for book information on the world wide web," offers many literary and publishing sites, including the Hungry Mind Review and the Boston Book Review, as well as links to publishers, authors, and booksellers.

  17. Debate: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

    2000-01-01

    Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

  18. Wires by Patchy Particles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Zhang, Zhenli

    2005-01-31

    Simulation Software: Glotzer Group Code Simulation Method: Brownian Dynamics A system of 80 spherical particles with two patches at a concentration of 0.20, was run starting at an effectively infinite temperature then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of 0.5. The final equillibrium structure is wires or chains. Simulation Model: United Atom Rigid Body with Lennard-Jones

  19. WIRE BOARD PROTOTYPING METHOD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kussul

    2006-01-01

    The modern development of new electronic devices requires rapid manufacturing of their prototypes. Printed circuit boards (PCB) used for this purpose are expensive and, as a rule, time consuming. PCB milling machines are also expensive. Here we propose a wire board manufacturing method that could be used in any laboratory for rapid prototyping of electronic devices. This method allows us

  20. WiredSafety

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Internet has afforded hundreds of millions of people the opportunity to access thousands of sites on almost every topic imaginable, and has created a myriad of new employment opportunities, interest groups, and cybercommunities. Regrettably, not every person merging onto the information superhighway is there for such laudable reasons. Stepping into the fray of n'er-do wells is the WiredSafety website, headed by Perry Aftab, an international cyberspace privacy and security lawyer and children's advocate. Registered as a non-profit organization, WiredSafety offers help for online victims of cybercrime and harassment, educational materials about cybercrime, and assistance for law enforcement worldwide on preventing and investigating cybercrimes. A good place to start on the site is Parry's Internet Safety Guide for Parents, which offers a number of helpful tips for parents about monitoring their children's interactions with others over the Internet. WiredSafety also offers Wired-Ed, which is offered free of charge and allows users to learn more about surfing the net safely. Also featured is a wide range of other online courses.

  1. 1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

  2. Approximations to wire grid inductance.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Merewether, Kimball O.

    2004-06-01

    By using a multipole-conformal mapping expansion for the wire currents we examine the accuracy of approximations for the transfer inductance of a one dimensional array of wires (wire grid). A simple uniform fit is constructed by introduction of the decay factor from bipolar coordinates into existing formulas for this inductance.

  3. Low temperature gold wire bonding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. Cheung; S. W; S. Ching

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrated that the bonding of gold wires for COB application was feasible at temperatures ~100°C or below by using a wedge bonder with a high frequency ultrasonic transducer (~138 kHz). An automatic rotary bondhead wedge bonder equipped with the transducer was employed to perform wire bonding. Bonding of gold wires was conducted on the aluminum pads of a test

  4. Heat-dissipating aluminum wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, J. D.; Stringer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Surface area, and consequently heat dissipation, is increased by using star-shaped, rather than round cross section, for aluminum wire. When used with modern high-temperature insulating materials, pointed-star wire is suitable for applications where low-cost light-weight wire is required.

  5. Rod guide/paraffin scraper

    SciTech Connect

    Mabry, J.F.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes improvement in a rod guide and paraffin scraper. It comprises: a body including longitudinal ribs spaced radially and extending out from the body; having two identical halves with the body surrounding a bore to accept a sucker rod, and each of the identical halves having a locking and tightening feature using a tongue and groove concept for interfitting the halves together over the sucker rod. This improvement comprises a rod guide and paraffin scraper with two identical halves comprising; a cylindrical central body including, at each end, three longitudinal ribs radially spaced to form a triad leaving three flow channels, at each end of the body, of essentially the same size and spacing as the ribs; and an angular wedge with opposingly ramped sides at the inside end of each of the ribs for scraping and directing material into the flow channels; and a set of triangular shaped tongues that interfit with a set of triangular shaped grooves for tightening the identical halves together and over the sucker rod; and a pair of cone-shaped male locks at one end of the identical half to mate with a pair of cone-shaped female locks at the opposite end of the other identical half.

  6. Deformation and bonding processes in aluminum ultrasonic wire wedge bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzanowski, James E.; Murdeshwar, Nikhil

    1990-09-01

    The ultrasonic wire bonding (UWB) process has been examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and standard wire pull testing techniques. Al-0.5 wt.% Mg wires 75 ?m in diameter were bonded to pure and alloyed Al substrates. The bonding parameters, surface roughness, and surface contamination levels were variables in the experiments. Cross-section TEM specimens were made from these samples. TEM analysis was conducted on the wire, wire/substrate interface and substrate. Pull tests showed that for the Al substrates the surface roughness or the presence of contamination did not effect the bond strength, whereas for contaminated stainless steel substrates, a three ?m surface finish resulted in the highest bond pull strength. The TEM observations revealed features such as low-angle grain boundaries, dislocation loops and the absence of a high dislocation density, indicating that the wire and substrate were dynamically annealed during bonding. Based on the width of a zone near a grain boundary in the wire which was depleted of dislocation loops, it was estimated that local heating equivalent to a temperature of 250° C for 90 msec was achieved in the wire during bonding. No evidence was found for melting along the bond interface, indicating that UWB is a solid-state process. Based on the TEM observations of the bond interface and the pull tests, it is concluded that the ultrasonic vibrations clean the surfaces to be joined to the extent that a good bond can be obtained by intimate metal-metal contact in the clean areas.

  7. Wire vibration, bowing, and breakage in wire electrical discharge machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, C.; Aulia, M.; Bozkurt, B.; Eubank, P. T.

    2001-04-01

    This article provides an analysis of the wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. The causes of wire vibration, bowing, and breakage are identified. The cross sectional configuration of an eroded wire is derived from basic physics under the assumption that the erosion rate is constant. This configuration is verified experimentally with further explanation as to why numerous experimental studies have yielded different configurations. A computational model has been developed that can evaluate the systematic effects that lead to wire breakage by determining the stress induced by wire erosion and the stress induced by the sparks during the operation of a wire-cutting EDM machine. This model is also capable of determining the extent of wire bowing and vibrations in these machines but only in the frontal direction. The model is supported by data from experiments performed on an AGIECUT 612 wire machine cutting a 10 mm high copper bar with a 0.15 mm brass wire to acquire wire breakage data. The nearly parabolic shape of the bowed wire agrees with the results of other authors making more restrictive assumptions.

  8. Effect of interfacial contact forces in radial contact wire strand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Gnanavel; N. S. Parthasarathy

    2011-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed to predict the behaviour of a stranded cable assembly under the influence of interfacial\\u000a radial contact forces and radial contraction of the core. A single layered cable assembly with six helical wires and a straight\\u000a cylindrical core, all made with the same material, Steel has been chosen to explain this phenomenon when the

  9. A Comparative Study of Bio Degradation of Various Orthodontic Arch Wires: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Gopikrishnan, S; Melath, Anil; Ajith, V V; Mathews, N Binoy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Orthodontic wires are the corner stones of the science and art of orthodontics and they remain in the patient’s mouth for a prolonged period of 18-24 months. It is but natural to expect that they will undergo some biodegradation when in the oral environment during that period. This study aims to compare the biodegradation characteristics of four different orthodontic wires, stainless steel, nickel titanium (NiTi), titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), and copper NiTi and to assess whether these biodegradation products, are within acceptable limits. Materials and Methods: This study involved the incubation of four different wires in artificial saliva and analyzing the amount of metal released from them at the end of a 28 days study period. The metals analyzed for where nickel, chromium, copper, cobalt, manganese, iron, molybdenum, and titanium. The artificial saliva was changed on days 7, 14, and 21 to prevent the saturation of metals in the artificial saliva. At the end of 28 days, these four samples of artificial saliva of each wire were mixed together and analyzed for the eight metals using an inductively coupled plasma spectroscope. Results: The results showed only the release of nickel, chromium, and iron from stainless steel wire, nickel from NiTi wire, nickel, and chromium from copper NiTi and none from TMA wire. Conclusion: The metals released from arch wires are of such minute quantities to be of any biologic hazard. The amount of metals released is well within acceptable biocompatible limits. Though this study has analyzed the biodegradation of various orthodontic wires, orthodontic wires are never used alone in mechanotherapy. Orthodontic wires along with multiband appliance system with which it is always used and in combination with accessories like face bows may release more metals. PMID:25709360

  10. Aerosol behavior during SIC control rod failure in QUENCH-13 test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Terttaliisa; Csordás, Anna Pintér; Nagy, Imre; Stuckert, Juri

    2010-02-01

    In a nuclear reactor severe accident, radioactive fission products as well as structural materials are released from the core by evaporation, and the released gases form particles by nucleation and condensation. In addition, aerosol particles may be generated by droplet formation and fragmentation of the core. In pressurized water reactors (PWR), a commonly used control rod material is silver-indium-cadmium (SIC) covered with stainless steel cladding. The control rod elements, Cd, In and Ag, have relatively low melting temperatures, and especially Cd has also a very low boiling point. Control rods are likely to fail early on in the accident due to melting of the stainless steel cladding which can be accelerated by eutectic interaction between stainless steel and the surrounding Zircaloy guide tube. The release of the control rod materials would follow the cladding failure thus affecting aerosol source term as well as fuel rod degradation. The QUENCH experimental program at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe investigates phenomena associated with reflood of a degrading core under postulated severe accident conditions. QUENCH-13 test was the first in this program to include a silver-indium-cadmium control rod of prototypic PWR design. To characterize the extent of aerosol release during the control rod failure, aerosol particle size distribution and concentration measurements in the off-gas pipe of the QUENCH facility were carried out. For the first time, it was possible to determine on-line the aerosol concentration and size distribution released from the core. These results are of prime importance for model development for the proper calculation of the source term resulting from control rod failure. The on-line measurement showed that the main aerosol release started at the bundle temperature maximum of T ˜ 1570 K at hottest bundle elevation. A very large burst of aerosols was detected 660 s later at the bundle temperature maximum of T ˜ 1650 K, followed by a relatively steady aerosol release until core cooling by quench when the on-line measurements were stopped. Cd was released first from the control rod, followed by In, and finally, by Ag. The particle size distributions were bimodal indicating two aerosol formation mechanisms, evaporation followed by nucleation and condensation, as well as droplet and fragment generation. Generally, release is modelled as evaporation from molten regions of control rod materials. Clearly, results of this investigation give evidence of contribution by entrainment of droplets and fragmented material.

  11. Structure and sliding wear behavior of 321 stainless steel\\/Al composite coating deposited by high velocity arc spraying technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-xiong CHEN; Bin-shi XU; Yan LIU; Xiu-bing LIANG; Yi XU

    2008-01-01

    A typical 321 stainless steel\\/aluminum composite coating (321\\/Al coating) was prepared by high velocity arc spraying technique (HVAS) with 321 stainless steel wire as the anode and aluminum wire as the cathode. The traditional 321 stainless steel coating was also prepared for comparison. Tribological properties of the coatings were evaluated with the ring-block wear tester under different conditions. The structure

  12. Phase Transition of High Carbon Steel Demonstration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this demonstration on the phase transition of high carbon steel. The crystalline structure of iron is different at different temperatures, and high-carbon steel alloys undergo a transformation from BCC to FCC in a very small temperature range. An interesting application of this theory is in determining the maximum temperature to which a piece of steel has been heated before it changes phases. In this module, a piece of piano wire is heated and phase changes are observed through the changes in length and magnetic properties of the wire.The lesson includes a step by step explanation of the laboratory procedure. Discussion questions are also included.

  13. Control rods in LMFBRs: a physics assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, H.F.; Collins, P.J.

    1982-08-01

    This physics assessment is based on roughly 300 control rod worth measurements in ZPPR from 1972 to 1981. All ZPPR assemblies simulated mixed-oxide LMFBRs, representing sizes of 350, 700, and 900 MWe. Control rod worth measurements included single rods, various combinations of rods, and Ta and Eu rods. Additional measurements studied variations in B/sub 4/C enrichment, rod interaction effects, variations in rod geometry, neutron streaming in sodium-filled channels, and axial worth profiles. Analyses were done with design-equivalent methods, using ENDF/B Version IV data. Some computations for the sensitivities to approximations in the methods have been included. Comparisons of these analyses with the experiments have allowed the status of control rod physics in the US to be clearly defined.

  14. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  15. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  16. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  17. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  18. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  19. What operators say about fiberglass sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1984-11-01

    This article presents the results of an informal survey of oil producing companies and one design engineering firm in the Permian Basin about the use and performance of fiberglass sucker rods in sucker rod pumps.

  20. Mechanical and damage analysis along a flat-rolled wire cold forming schedule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Massé; Yvan Chastel; Pierre Montmitonnet; Christian Bobadilla; Nicolas Persem; Sylvain Foissey

    Numerical simulation is used to study patented high-C steel flat-rolled wire cold forming processes. An elasto-plastic power\\u000a law, identified from mechanical tests, is used into Forge2005® finite element (FEM) package in order to describe the material\\u000a behaviour during wire drawing followed by cold rolling. A through-process approach has been favoured, transferring residual\\u000a wire-drawing stresses and strain into the flat-rolling preform.

  1. Superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL); Banerjee, Indrajit (San Jose, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  2. Understanding Guitar Wiring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This zipped file provides a number of documents which will help students understand the particulars of guitar wiring. The documents cover the three-way toggle switch, the 5-way lever-action switch, magnetic pick-ups, mini toggle switches, output jacks, selector switches and other details. Once the zipped file is downloaded, the documents (which are in Microsoft Word doc file format) may be viewed.

  3. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  4. Application of fiberglass sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, S.G. (Nabla Corporation (US))

    1991-05-01

    Fiberglass sucker rods are assuming a place in artificial-lift technology. This paper briefly describes the manufacturing process and gives some design and operational hints for practical applications. It also describes some mathematical modeling modifications needed for fiberglass wave-equation design programs.

  5. Cool Hot Rod (Thermal Expansion)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is thermal expansion of copper. This demonstration allows an observer to see the effect of heating (and cooling) a copper tube. When heated, the copper tube lengthens and thickens. When cooled, the tube shrinks. The lengthening of the rod rotates a toothpick with an attached flag to make the expansion visible and measurable.

  6. Dual wire welding torch and method

    DOEpatents

    Diez, Fernando Martinez (Peoria, IL); Stump, Kevin S. (Sherman, IL); Ludewig, Howard W. (Groveland, IL); Kilty, Alan L. (Peoria, IL); Robinson, Matthew M. (Peoria, IL); Egland, Keith M. (Peoria, IL)

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  7. An experiment on electron beam transport in an array of wires

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, R.A.; Denavit, J.; Rambo, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated experimentally the propagation of relativistic electron beam through an array of parallel conducting wires. Theory and particle simulation predict such an array will provide both charge and current neutralization, allowing beam transport above the drift tube limit. We injected a 60 ns, 17kA (120 A/cm/sup 2/) pulse of 1.4 MeV electrons into an array of 1 m long wires spaced 1 cm apart, filling a hexagon 15 cm across. Arrays have been tested with 12 mil diameter copper wire, 3 mil stainless steel wire, and 12 mil copper wires terminating on an insulated, segmented beam dump. /dot B/ probes and streak camera data show that 67% of the current is transported in the case of the stainless steel array. The copper wire array transported electrons for 20 ns only. The beam is injected with a 250 mrad divergence, and the transported beam has a divergence of less than 100 mrad. Follow-up experiments are to use thinner wires to improve the propagation and divergence of the beam. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Nickel content of as-received and retrieved NiTi and stainless steel archwires: assessing the nickel release hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Eliades, Theodore; Zinelis, Spiros; Papadopoulos, Moschos A; Eliades, George; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2004-04-01

    This study assesses the nickel content of as-received and retrieved stainless steel and NiTi archwires alloys. New and used brand-matched, composition-matched, and cross section-matched archwires were subjected to scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive electron probe microanalysis. Elemental analysis was performed on three randomly selected areas, and the nickel content, expressed as ratios of Ni/Ti (in NiTi wires) or Ni/Fe (in stainless steel), was statistically analyzed with a t-test (alpha = .05). No changes were detected with respect to Ni content ratios between as-received and retrieved NiTi or stainless steel wires, suggesting an absence of nickel release. Wear and delamination phenomena on the wire surface and the formation of galvanic couple between the stainless steel wires and bracket brazing materials intraorally may modify the corrosion susceptibility of the wire alloys in clinical conditions. PMID:15132439

  9. The size of rod signals

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, M.; Rushton, W. A. H.; Torii, S.

    1970-01-01

    1. This investigation is based upon Alpern's (1965) contrast flash observations. The threshold for the test flash ? (Fig. 2a) is raised if a second flash ? falls on the annular surround. Moreover, if ? excites rods at threshold, it is only the rods in the surround that contribute to the threshold rise. 2. The possibility that the rise in ? threshold might be due to light physically scattered from surround to centre we exclude by several different experiments. We conclude (Fig. 1b) that the ? flash sets up a nerve signal N which is conducted to some place C where it inhibits the signal from the centre. 3. If the luminous surround, instead of being a full circle (Fig. 2a) consists only of the sectors shown black in Fig. 2b, that occupy 1/m of the surround area, it is found (in the physiological range) that the light/area on those sectors must be m times as great to produce the same threshold rise at centre, i.e. the total surround illumination must remain the same. 4. This result would obviously follow if N, the inhibitory nerve signal, were proportional to the total surround illumination. We have established the converse; the signal must be proportional to the quantum catch. 5. Light can be increased indefinitely, nerve signals cannot. When ? increases sufficiently, N saturates in the same way that S-potentials and receptor potentials saturate, namely according to N = ?/(? + ?) where ?, the semi-saturation constant is about 200 td sec, or 800 quanta absorbed per rod per flash. 6. Thus the nerve signal N is proportional to the quantum catch over 4 log units in the physiological range, namely from 1 quantum per 100 rods to 100 quanta per rod per flash. Above this for another 2 log units N continues to increase, but now more slowly, after the manner of S-potentials and receptor potentials. PMID:5498455

  10. Effects of irradiation on the fracture properties of stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Haggag, F.M.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Stainless steel weld overlay cladding was fabricated using the submerged arc, single-wire, oscillating-electrode, and the three-wire, series-arc methods. Three layers of cladding were applied to a pressure vessel plate to provide adequate thickness for fabrication of test specimens, and irradiations were conducted at temperatures and to fluences relevant to power reactor operation. For the first single-wire method, the first layer was type 309, and the upper two layers were type 308 stainless steel. The type 309 was diluted considerably by excessive melting of the base plate. The three-wire method used various combinations of types 308, 309, and 304 stainless steel weld wires, and produced a highly controlled weld chemistry, microstructure, and fracture properties in all three layers of the weld. 14 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Wire detecting apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receiver`s position with respect to the wiring. The receiver`s audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receiver`s coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring`s concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  12. Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

  13. Equations determine reasonable rod pump submergence depth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Yongquan; Cai Wizhong

    1997-01-01

    A reasonable rod pump submergence depth can be calculated by combining fluid level changes with piston travel. Submergence depth is affected by the pump fill factor, reservoir fluid viscosity, rod pump type, and pumping parameters such as pump diameter, polished-rod stroke length, and pumping speed. Fluid level velocity can be obtained with an energy balance, and piston travel rate is

  14. Who makes API sucker rods and couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    This guide identifies manufacturers qualified to produce API sucker rods and related equipment, lists chemical and mechanical properties of the various types of rods and provides dimensional characteristics. In addition, similar information is given for non-API rods such as fiberglass and aluminum.

  15. 76 FR 75871 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ...coils using materials such as plastic, paper, or wire. Certain steel...two-piece steel nails having plastic or steel washers (caps) already assembled to the nail...inclusive; and an actual washer or cap diameter of 0.900'' to...

  16. 77 FR 24462 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ...coils using materials such as plastic, paper, or wire. Certain steel...two-piece steel nails having plastic or steel washers (caps) already assembled to the nail...inclusive; and an actual washer or cap diameter of 0.900'' to...

  17. Reduction in wire tension caused by wire clamping and wire tensioner removal: an experimental Ilizarov frame study.

    PubMed

    La Russa, Valentina; Skallerud, Bjørn; Klaksvik, Jomar; Foss, Olav A

    2011-03-01

    The stability of an external ring fixator mainly depends on wire tension. Wire fixators should maintain the tension during both wire clamping to the ring and removal of the tensioner device. In the present study the loss in wire tension related to fixator clamping and wire tensioner removal using three different wire fixator designs was studied. The fixators were based on two different cannulated bolts and a washer. Effects from two different pretension levels in combination with three different bolt torque levels upon loss in wire tension were described. Emitted wire vibration frequency was used to assess the corresponding wire tension. Wire tension was determined after each wire fixator tightening and after the removal of the wire tensioner. Increased bolt torque led to a small decrease in tension for both pretension levels. A considerable higher tension loss was measured when removing the wire tensioner. In all cases, the combination of a new cannulated bolt and a washer maintained the highest tension. PMID:21485324

  18. Development of new Nb-Ti wires with a Cu-Si alloy matrix for AC use

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Tanaka, Y. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Tochigi (Japan)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Nb-Ti ultrafine multifilamentary wires with Cu-Si alloy matrix have been fabricated for AC use. An AC coil of 100 kVA-class capacity was wound by the stranded wire, and the coil has been operated in AC mode successfully. The stranded wire is composed of six elemental wires of 0.203 mm in diameter and a central stainless steel wire for reinforcement. Each superconducting wire contains 164730 filaments of 0.14{mu}m in diameter. The authors investigated the effects of Si concentration in the matrix and Nb barriers around filaments on the fabricability of wire. Also, critical current density, AC loss and the proximity effect of these wires were compared with those of conventional AC superconducting wires with Cu-Ni alloy matrix. Present new wires show almost no degradation in AC quenching current at low magnetic fields below 0.5T. As a consequence, these results demonstrate that the new wires can be applied to AC devices.

  19. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  20. Review of wire chamber aging

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Radiation energetics of ICF-relevant wire-array Z pinches.

    PubMed

    Sinars, D B; Lemke, R W; Cuneo, M E; Lebedev, S V; Waisman, E M; Stygar, W A; Jones, B; Jones, M C; Yu, E P; Porter, J L; Wenger, D F

    2008-04-11

    Short-implosion-time 20-mm diameter, 300-wire tungsten arrays maintain high peak x-ray powers despite a reduction in peak current from 19 to 13 MA. The main radiation pulse on tests with a 1-mm on-axis rod may be explained by the observable j x B work done during the implosion, but bare-axis tests require sub-mm convergence of the magnetic field not seen except perhaps in >1 keV emission. The data include the first measurement of the imploding mass density profile of a wire-array Z pinch that further constrains simulation models. PMID:18518042

  2. Rod cluster having improved vane configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Shockling, L.A.; Francis, T.A.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes a pressurized water reactor vessel, the vessel defining a predetermined axial direction of the flow of coolant therewithin and having plural spider assemblies supporting, for vertical movement within the vessel, respective clusters of rods in spaced, parallel axial relationship, parallel to the predetermined axial direction of coolant flow, and a rod guide for each spider assembly and respective cluster of rods. The rod guide having horizontally oriented support plates therewithin, each plate having an interior opening for accommodating axial movement therethrough of the spider assembly and respective cluster of rods. The opening defining plural radially extending channels and corresponding parallel interior wall surfaces of the support plate.

  3. Lightning protection using energized Franklin rods

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Salam, M. [Assiut Univ. (Egypt). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Al-Abdul-Latif, U. [Construction Materials Co., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Management Div.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the onset criterion of the upward streamers from an energized Franklin rod is formulated as a function of the geometry of the rod and the height and current of the downward leader. The electric field in the vicinity of the lightning rod is calculated using the charge simulation technique. The dependency of the radius of protection on the amplitude of the pulse voltage applied to Franklin rod, the downward leader current and the tip radius and height of the rod is investigated.

  4. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  5. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  6. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  7. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  8. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

  9. Transient current pulses in rocket-extended wires used to trigger lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, C. J.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Rakov, V. A.; Jordan, D. M.

    2012-04-01

    We analyze current, electric field, and optical signatures of the sudden electrical breakdown processes (precursors) that occur at the top of the upward extending, grounded, Kevlar-covered copper wires used to artificially trigger lightning. For one launch, before the sustained upward positive leader initiated, we estimate that up to 10,000 precursors occurred (one every few hundred microseconds) with peak currents from 1 to more than 100 A. Luminosity at the wire tip was observed for 339 of 410 precursors examined in detail and, in seven cases, discharge channels developed to lengths of 3 to 8 m over times of several hundred microseconds. The measured propagation speeds of current pulses on the triggering wires were less than the speed of light, and decreased from about 2.8 × 108 m s-1 to about 2.3 × 108 m s-1with increasing wire-top heights from about 80 m to about 340 m. The triggering wire and its grounding system are modeled as uniform transmission lines with model predictions that are consistent with the measured wire-base precursor current signatures. The modeling shows that (1) the characteristic impedance of the triggering wire, the ratio of the propagating precursor voltage pulse to its associated current pulse, is between 600 and 800 ?; (2) the 25 m ground rod grounding impedance for the peak precursor current is about 100 ?, while the DC grounding resistance is 20 ?; and (3) the current reflection coefficient at ground for peak precursor current is ˜0.9.

  10. Texture development in Galfenol wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

    2013-05-01

    Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong <110> (?) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

  11. Subminiature Hot-Wire Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Lemos, F. R.; Ligrani, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Class of improved subminiature hot-wire flow-measuring probes developed. Smaller sizes yield improved resolution in measurements of practical aerodynamic flows. Probe made in one-wire, two-perpendicular-wire, and three-perpendicular-wire version for measurement of one, two, or all three components of flow. Oriented and positioned on micromanipulator stage and viewed under microscope during fabrication. Tested by taking measurements in constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. New probes give improved measurements of turbulence quantities near surfaces and anisotropies of flows strongly influence relative errors caused by phenomena related to spatial resolution.

  12. Plasma Formation Around Single Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duselis, Peter U.; Kusse, Bruce R.

    2002-12-01

    At Cornell's Laboratory of Plasma Studies, single wires of various metals were exploded using a ˜250 ns pulser with a rise time of ˜20 A/ns. It was found that the wires first experience a resistive heating phase that lasts 50-80 ns before a rapid collapse of voltage. From that point on, the voltage across the wire was negligible while the current through the wire continued to increase. We attribute this voltage collapse to the formation of plasma about the wire. Further confirmation of this explanation will be presented along with new experimental data describing preliminary spectroscopy results, the expansion rate of the plasma, and current flow along the wire as a function of radius. The resistance of the wire-electrode connection will be shown to significantly affect the energy deposition. Various diagnostics were used to obtain these experiments. Ultraviolet sensitive vacuum photodiodes and a framing camera with an 8 ns shutter were used to detect and measure the width of the visible light emitted by the plasma. A special wire holder was constructed that allowed the transfer of current from the wire to the surrounding plasma to be observed.

  13. Tests pinpoint sucker-rod failures

    SciTech Connect

    Elshawesh, F.; Elhoud, A.; Elagdel, E. [Petroleum Research Center, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    1997-05-26

    A detailed metallurgical examination of a 7/8-inch and a 1-inch sucker rod revealed corrosion fatigue had caused their failure. The 7 to 8-inch rod had failed after a few months of service while the 1-inch rod failed after 1 year. Both rods had been used in a sweet-oil environment. Both rods failed by corrosion fatigue because of repeated loads during operations. Pitting because of the presence of chloride ions and carbon dioxide was initiated on the rod surface, which in turn acted as a crack origin from which the fatigue crack initiated and propagated during operations. The pitting was on the external surface. These pits were large and penetrated through the rod cross-section. Fatigue cracking is initiated at the bottom of the pit where high stress concentration is expected and propagated because the rods were subjected to the alternating stresses during operation. The extent of the fatigue crack varied in the two examined rods because of the difference in the rod heat treatment and microstructure. The paper discusses fatigue failure, the visual examination, macroscopic and microscopic examinations, rod properties, and future operations.

  14. The challenges of copper wire bonding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T.-h. Lu

    2010-01-01

    Advantages of Cu wire bonding, such as less wire sweep, better performance for analog devices, are interpreted by its material properties. Alternative aspect from material properties on Cu wire bonding parameters is proposed to reflect the fact that Cu wire bonding may not necessarily damage the existing under-pad structure of integrated circuit designed for Au wire bonding. The challenge of

  15. Thermal-hydraulic design of tungsten rod bundles for the APT 3He neutron spallation target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willcutt, Gordon J. E.

    1995-01-01

    A preconceptual design has been developed for the 3He Target/Blanket System for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project. The design use tungsten wire-wrapped rods to produce neutrons when the rods are struck by a proton beam. The rods are contained in bundles inside hexagonal Inconel ducts and cooled by D2O. Rod bundles are grouped in patterns in the proton beam inside a chamber filled with 3He that is transmuted to tritium by the neutrons coming from the tungsten rods. Additional 3He is transmuted in a blanket region surrounding the helium chamber. This paper describes the initial thermal-hydraulic design and testing that has been completed to confirm the designed calculations for pressure drop through the bundle and heat transfer in the bundle. Heat transfer tests were run to verify steady-state operation. These tests were followed by increasing power until nucleate boiling occurs to determine operating margins. Changes that improve the initial design are described.

  16. Remote Gamma Scanning System for Characterization of BWR and PWR Fuel Rod Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, Shannon L.; Alzheimer, James M.

    2011-08-08

    Sometimes challenges with the design and deployment of automated equipment in remote environments deals more with the constraints imposed by the remote environment than it does with the details of the automation. This paper discusses the development of a scanning system used to provide gamma radiation profiles of irradiated fuel rod segments. The system needed the capability to provide axial scans of cut segments of BWR and PWR fuel rods. The scanning location is A-Cell at the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Hanford site in Washington State. The criteria for the scanning equipment included axial scanning increments of a tenth of an inch or less, ability to scan fuel rods with diameters ranging from 3/8 inch to 5/8 inch in diameter, and fuel rod segments up to seven feet in length. Constraints imposed by the environment included having the gamma detector and operator controls on the outside of the hot cell and the scanning hardware on the inside of the hot cell. This entailed getting a narrow, collimated beam of radiation from the fuel rod to the detector on the outside of the hot cell while minimizing the radiation exposure caused by openings for the wires and cables traversing the hot cell walls. Setup and operation of all of the in-cell hardware needed to accommodate limited access ports and use of hot cell manipulators. The radiation levels inside the cell also imposed constraints on the materials used.

  17. Exploiting rod technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1990-06-01

    ROD development was proceeding apace until recent budgetary decisions caused funding support for ROD development to be drastically reduced. The funding which was originally provided by DARPA and the Balanced Technology Initiative (BTI) Office has been cut back to zero from $800K. To determine the aeroballistic coefficients of a candidate dart, ARDEC is currently supporting development out of its own 6.2 funds at about $100K. ARDEC has made slow progress toward achieving this end because of failures in the original dart during testing. It appears that the next dart design to be tested will diverge from the original concept visualized by DARPA and Science and Technology Associates (STA). STA, the design engineer, takes exception to these changes on the basis of inappropriate test conditions and insufficient testing. At this time, the full resolution of this issue will be difficult because of the current management structure, which separates the developer (ARDEC) from the designer (STA).

  18. Guide for rotating sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrel, R.D.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes an improved guide for use in a string of sucker rods rotated in a tubing string in a borehole, the sucker rods having threaded male ends, the guide comprising: an elongated upright solid cylindrical coupling body of external diameter less than the internal diameter of tubing in which it is to be used; a pair of spaced apart axle holders positioned in three recess; an axle received in each recess in the coupling body, the axis of each axle being parallel and spaced from the body longitudinal axis; a roller rotatably received on each axle, the periphery of each roller extending exteriorly of the external cylindrical surface of the coupling body; and means to retain each of the holders in the coupling body recess.

  19. Effects of irradiation on the fracture properties of stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Haggag; W. R. Corwin; R. K. Nanstad

    1989-01-01

    Stainless steel weld overlay cladding was fabricated using the submerged arc, single-wire, oscillating-electrode, and the three-wire, series-arc methods. Three layers of cladding were applied to a pressure vessel plate to provide adequate thickness for fabrication of test specimens, and irradiations were conducted at temperatures and to fluences relevant to power reactor operation. For the first single-wire method, the first layer

  20. Two-Wire to Four-Wire Audio Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, G. L., Jr; Seale, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    Simple circuit provides interface between normally incompatible voicecommunication lines. Circuit maintains 40 dB of isolation between input and output halves of four-wire line permitting two-wire line to be connected. Balancing potentiometer, Rg, adjusts gain of IC2 to null feed through from input to output. Adjustment is done on workbench just after assembly.

  1. Monte Carlo estimation of the dose and heating of cobalt adjuster rods irradiated in the CANDU 6 reactor core.

    PubMed

    Gugiu, Daniela; Dumitrache, Ion

    2005-01-01

    The present work is a part of a more complex project related to the replacement of the original stainless steel adjuster rods with cobalt assemblies in the CANDU 6 reactor core. The 60Co produced by 59Co irradiation could be used extensively in medicine and industry. The paper will mainly describe some of the reactor physics and safety requirements that must be carried into practice for the Co adjuster rods. The computations related to the neutronic equivalence of the stainless steel adjusters with the Co adjuster assemblies, as well as the estimations of the activity and heating of the irradiated cobalt rods, are performed using the Monte Carlo codes MCNP5 and MONTEBURNS 2.1. The activity values are used to evaluate the dose at the surface of the device designed to transport the cobalt adjusters. PMID:16604599

  2. Use of Faraday probing to estimate current distribution in wire array z pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Bland, S. N.; Ampleford, D. J.; Bott, S. C.; Guite, A.; Hall, G. N.; Hardy, S. M.; Lebedev, S. V.; Shardlow, P.; Harvey-Thompson, A.; Suzuki, F.; Kwek, K. H. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2006-10-15

    In order to understand the formation and dynamics of plasma in wire array z-pinch experiments, measurements of the distribution of current throughout the array are required. We present details of two Faraday probing diagnostics aimed at exploring the magnetic fields and hence distribution of current in an array. An imaging Faraday system utilizes a short laser pulse to make estimates of the current distribution in the precursor column formed on axis before implosion. In a second system, a rod of high Verdet constant glass is placed close to the wires of an array and the polarization of a cw laser passing through the rod is monitored to examine the variance of current with time.

  3. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  4. Tuning the acoustic directional radiation by rotating square rods in two-dimensional phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Wu, Fugen; Zhong, Huilin; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Yuanwei

    2014-09-01

    Analysis is given to acoustic directional radiation tuned by rotating square rods in two-dimensional (2D) solid-fluid phononic crystals (PC). The contour line method is introduced which predicts how the acoustic waves propagate at different frequency. As a specific example, for the systems of steel rods with square cross-section in a water host, we employ this approach to the analysis of the directivity successfully. The directional radiation frequency of two lowest bands are studied in this paper. The results show that the directional radiation frequency can be turned in a wide range by rotating the square rods. While the directivity of acoustic propagation keeps unchanged when the acoustic directional radiation frequency is located in the same band. Moreover, PCs exhibit excellent characteristic of single radiation branch as a corner cut off in a finite structure. Our approach may supply a new way to tune the directional radiation frequency.

  5. Sliding mechanics of coated composite wires and the development of an engineering model for binding.

    PubMed

    Zufall, S W; Kusy, R P

    2000-02-01

    A tribological (friction and wear) study, which was designed to simulate clinical sliding mechanics, was conducted as part of an effort to determine the suitability of poly(chloro-p-xylylene) coatings for composite orthodontic archwires. Prototype composite wires, having stiffnesses similar to those of current initial and intermediate alignment wires, were tested against stainless steel and ceramic brackets in the passive and active configurations (with and without angulation). Kinetic coefficient of friction values, which were determined to quantify sliding resistances as functions of the normal forces of ligation, had a mean that was 72% greater than uncoated wire couples at 0.43. To improve analysis of the active configuration, a mathematical model was developed that related bracket angulation, bracket width, interbracket distance, wire geometry, and wire elastic modulus to sliding resistance. From this model, kinetic coefficients of binding were determined to quantify sliding resistances as functions of the normal forces of binding. The mean binding coefficient was the same as that of uncoated wire couples at 0.42. Although penetrations through the coating were observed on many specimens, the glass-fiber reinforcement within the composite wires was undamaged for all conditions tested. This finding implies that the risk of glass fiber release during clinical use would be eliminated by the coating. In addition, the frictional and binding coefficients were still within the limits outlined by conventional orthodontic wire-bracket couples. Consequently, the coatings were regarded as an improvement to the clinical acceptability of composite orthodontic archwires. PMID:10730674

  6. Northern Pacific Railroad Bridge and Wire Weight

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  7. The effect of strain hardening on resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wires for orthopaedics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Przondziono; W Walke; E Hadasik; J Szymszal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate electrochemical corrosion resistance of wire with modified surface, made of stainless steel of Cr-Ni-Mo type, widely used in implants for orthopaedics, depending on hardening created in the process of drawing. Tests have been carried out in the environment imitating human osseous tissue. Pitting corrosion was determined on the ground of registered anodic

  8. Economic analysis of grid and wire wrap supported hydride and oxide fueled pressurized water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Shuffler; P. Diller; J. Malen; N. Todreas; E. Greenspan; B. Petrovic

    2009-01-01

    An economic analysis is performed to calculate the levelized unit cost of electricity (COE) for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) retrofitted with a range of potential U (45wt.%)–ZrH1.6 hydride and UO2 oxide fueled geometries (i.e., combinations of rod diameter and pitch) supported by traditional grid spacers (square array) and wire wrap spacers (hexagonal array). The time frame considered in computing

  9. Wire Stripper Holds Insulation Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Allen D.; Morris, Henry S.; Bauer, Laverne

    1994-01-01

    Attachment to standard wire-stripping tool catches bits of insulation as they are removed from electrical wire and retains them for proper disposal. Prevents insulation particles from falling at random, contaminating electronic equipment and soiling workspace. Commercial tool modified by attaching small collection box to one of the jaws.

  10. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  11. A wire bond reliability model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Heleine; R. M. Murcko; S.-C. Wang

    1991-01-01

    A defect modeling approach is developed which allows the determination of the true failure rate with a minimal sample size. A model was developed using the proposed approach to estimate the failure rate of an aluminium\\/1% silicon wire ultrasonically bonded to aluminum and to gold pads. For this reliability model the variable was wire-bond width. Dependent upon the width of

  12. Wire bonds over active circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail Heinen; Roger J. Stierman; Darvin Edwards; L. Nye

    1994-01-01

    A reliable process-for wire bonding over active integrated circuits, which are subsequently assembled in plastic packages, has been developed. This technology accommodates reducing the silicon die area required for bond pads and for on-chip bussing. Further, it supports area array wire bonding by allowing larger bond pads with relaxed pitch without sacrificing silicon area. This is accomplished by processing an

  13. Failure Analysis of Wire Bonds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry A. Schafft

    1973-01-01

    Failure analysis of wire bonds has an important part to play in determining the causes of microelectronic device failure and ways for making and using devices to achieve greater reliability. Several tests and procedures used in the failure analysis of wire bonds are reviewed. Some of the inferences. about possible causes of permanent or intermittent failure that can be drawn

  14. Device to extrude indium wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ece; R. Devito; G. Vidali

    1986-01-01

    A homemade, versatile, low-cost device to extrude indium wire for vacuum seals is described. It has the advantage that no boule of indium has to be made in advance, thereby reducing the amount of poisonous indium vapors, and that wires of different sizes can be made.

  15. Device to extrude indium wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ece, M.; DeVito, R.; Vidali, G.

    1986-12-01

    A homemade, versatile, low-cost device to extrude indium wire for vacuum seals is described. It has the advantage that no boule of indium has to be made in advance, thereby reducing the amount of poisonous indium vapors, and that wires of different sizes can be made.

  16. The Rod Photoreceptor Lineage of Teleost Fish

    PubMed Central

    Stenkamp, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    The retinas of postembryonic teleost fish continue to grow for the lifetime of the fish. New retinal cells are added continuously at the retinal margin, by stem cells residing at the circumferential germinal zone. Some of these retinal cells differentiate as Müller glia with cell bodies that reside within the inner nuclear layer. These glia retain some stem cell properties in that they carry out asymmetric cell divisions and continuously generate a population of transit-amplifying cells – the rod photoreceptor lineage – that are committed to rod photoreceptor neurogenesis. These rod progenitors progress through a stereotyped sequence of changes in gene expression as they continue to divide and migrate to the outer nuclear layer. Now referred to as rod precursors, they undergo terminal mitoses and then differentiate as rods, which are inserted into the existing array of rod and cone photoreceptors. The rod lineage displays developmental plasticity, as rod precursors can respond to the loss of rods through increased proliferation, resulting in rod replacement. The stem cells of the rod lineage, Müller glia, respond to acute damage of other retinal cell types by increasing their rate of proliferation. In addition, the Müller glia in an acutely damaged retina dedifferentiate and become multipotent, generating new, functional neurons. This review focuses on the cells of the rod lineage and includes discussions of experiments over the last 30 years that led to their identification and characterization, and the discovery of the stem cells residing at the apex of the lineage. The plasticity of cells of the rod lineage, their relationships to cone progenitors, and the applications of this information for developing future treatments for human retinal disorders will also be discussed. PMID:21742053

  17. Internal wire guide for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a filler metal wire guide positioned within the torch, and within the shielding gas nozzle. The wire guide is adjacent to the tungsten electrode and has a ceramic liner through which the wire is fed. This reduces the size of the torch and eliminates the outside clearance problems that exit with external wire guides. Additionally, since the wire is always within the shielding gas, oxidizing of the wire is eliminated.

  18. Electrode carrying wire for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a hollow tungsten electrode including a ceramic liner and forms the filler metal wire guide. The wire is fed through the tungsten electrode thereby reducing the size of the torch to eliminate clearance problems which exist with external wire guides. Since the wire is preheated from the tungsten more wire may be fed into the weld puddle, and the wire will not oxidize because it is always within the shielding gas.

  19. Determination of the initial exothermic reaction of shredded tyres with wire content.

    PubMed

    Sellasie, Kassahun G; Moo-Young, Horace K; Lloyd, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents the cause of exothermic reactions in shredded tyre with exposed wire content in shredded tyre piles. Data indicate that the oxidation of exposed steel wires is the exothermic reaction in shredded tyre embankments. This would lead to spontaneous combustion. Reaction of the steel with the sulphur or the carbon black appears not to be the source of the exothermic. Laboratory tests have been conducted to determine the heat transfer properties of the materials that compose tyres (i.e., tyre rubber and wires) by using a hot-plate apparatus. In addition, one-dimensional heat conduction experiments were conducted to compare the flow of heat through the materials while varying the physical and environmental conditions. The physical conditions were the size of tyre shred, water content, and wire contents. An exothermic reaction occurred when exposed wire was present but not when it was absent. A one-dimensional heat transfer equation was developed, and parametric studies were conducted to verify the laboratory model. Exothermic reaction was found to increase linearly with temperature, size and shape of the shredded tyres, density, amount of wire in shredded tyres, and water content. PMID:15560440

  20. Fuel rod retention device for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hylton, Charles L. (Madison Heights, VA)

    1984-01-01

    A device is described for supporting a nuclear fuel rod in a fuel rod assembly which allows the rod to be removed without disturbing other rods in the assembly. A fuel rod cap connects the rod to a bolt which is supported in the assembly end fitting by means of a locking assembly. The device is designed so that the bolt is held securely during normal reactor operation yet may be easily disengaged and the fuel rod removed when desired.

  1. Reactor control rod timing system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Wu, P.T.K.

    1980-03-18

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system is described for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  2. Nano-storage wires.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-08-27

    We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals. PMID:23859333

  3. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  4. High temperature control rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vollman, Russell E. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  5. Tethered Rod Smectic C phase

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Zhang, Zhenli

    2005-01-31

    Simulation Software: Glotzer Group Code Simulation Method: Brownian Dynamics A system of 800 building blocks of composition rod5b-tether6b at a concentration of 0.20, was run starting at a temperature of effecitvely infinite then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of 1.0. The system was then run for 3,000,000 time steps forming a Smetic C phase.The solve was selective for the neutral Simulation Model: United Atom Bead Spring with Lennard-Jones and FENE

  6. Equations determine reasonable rod pump submergence depth

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yongquan; Cai Wizhong [Southwest Petroleum Inst., Nanchong (China)

    1997-03-24

    A reasonable rod pump submergence depth can be calculated by combining fluid level changes with piston travel. Submergence depth is affected by the pump fill factor, reservoir fluid viscosity, rod pump type, and pumping parameters such as pump diameter, polished-rod stroke length, and pumping speed. Fluid level velocity can be obtained with an energy balance, and piston travel rate is based on the polished-rod travel. The paper describes the pump fill factor, piston travel velocity, fluid level rise, flow coefficient, reasonable submergence depth, and results from equations.

  7. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest (Wilmette, IL); Pardini, John A. (Brookfield, IL); Walker, David E. (Naperville, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

  8. The directional sensitivity of retinal rods.

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, M; Ching, C C; Kitahara, K

    1983-01-01

    Rod field sensitivity, 10-S(r) (i.e. the reciprocal of the radiance of a background required for 10-fold elevation of rod threshold) was measured for monochromatic backgrounds traversing the pupil at various points (r) on three subjects. The wave-length dependency of the directional sensitivities of the three foveal cone mechanisms of the principal subject have been reported previously (Alpern & Kitahara, 1983). Rods, as cones, are less sensitive to obliquely incident, than to normally incident backgrounds. At the pupil margin (4 mm) the effect is between 0.368 and 0.976 log10 units smaller for rods. After correction for losses by corneal reflexion and by absorption in the lens, S(r) for rods is reasonably described by the parabolic equation used by Stiles (1937) to quantify the directional sensitivity of cones. The small effect for rods precludes a description as consistently precise as this equation provides for cones. The steepness of the parabolic curve best fitting the directional sensitivity data of the rods of the principal subject was independent of background wave number. For a second subject, whose rods are supposed to be smaller, it was directly proportional to the square of that wave number. The latter is the expectation if the directional sensitivity of this subject's rods were determined by principles outlined in the diffraction theory of Simon (1970). PMID:6644624

  9. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.; Pardini, J.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1984-03-13

    A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

  10. An improved model for sucker rod pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, D.R.; Schmidt, Z.

    1983-02-01

    An improved model for predicting the behavior of sucker rod pumping installations is presented. This model incorporates the dynamics of the liquid columns as well as the sucker rod string through a system of partial differential equations. This system of equations is solved by a modified method of characteristics on a digital computer. The model predicts the polished-rod and pump dynamometer cards and incorporates the effects of liquid inertia and viscosity. The model is capable of simulating a wide variety of pumping conditions for which liquid physical properties are important. The information predicted by the model is useful in the design and operation of sucker rod pumping installations.

  11. Improved model for sucker rod pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, D.R.; Schmidt, Z.

    1981-01-01

    An improved model for predicting the behavior of sucker rod pumping installations is presented. This model incorporates the dynamics of the liquid columns as well as the sucker rod string through a system of partial differential equations. The system of equations is solved by a modified method of characteristics on a digital computer. The model predicts the polished rod and pump dynamometer cards and incorporates the effects of liquid inertia and viscosity. It is capable of simulating a wide variety of pumping conditions where liquid physical properties are important. The information predicted by the model is useful in the design and operation of sucker rod pumping installations. Refs.

  12. Rapid prototyping by consolidation of stainless steel powder using an electrical arc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rangesh; William ONeill

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of using a pulsed Tungsten inert gas arc to fully melt and consolidate stainless steel powder onto a stainless steel substrate. The technology aims to bridge the gap between selective laser sintering or laser melting and wire fed weld deposition by providing good quality and better resolution at

  13. Residual stresses in a steel strand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.; Mills, G.

    1998-04-01

    Steel ``strands'', which comprise several wires wound together, are used in many engineering applications where both tensile strength and some flexibility are required. Civil engineers use strands in ''cable stayed`` bridges which are used for moderate spans. Bridges are subjected in service to both static and time-varying loads, such as vibration and resonance from traffic, wind and water. Fatigue in the strands, which is influenced by residual stresses generated during manufacture and construction, is a potential problem. Results are presented of a neutron investigation of the residual stress field in a seven-wire steel strand generated by the manufacturing process, which involves multi-pass cold-drawing, annealing, coiling and winding. The results show a strong characteristic radial variation of axial, hoop and radial residual stress components. A discussion is also included of the treatment of instrumental aberrations which could otherwise severely affect the quality and interpretation measurements close to a surface.

  14. Residual stresses in a steel strand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.; Mills, G.

    Steel “strands”, which comprise several wires wound together, are used in many engineering applications where both tensile strength and some flexibility are required. Civil engineers use strands in “cable stayed” bridges which are used for moderate spans. Bridges are subjected in service to both static and time-varying loads, such as vibration and resonance from traffic, wind and water. Fatigue in the strands, which is influenced by residual stresses generated during manufacture and construction, is a potential problem. Results are presented of a neutron investigation of the residual stress field in a seven-wire steel strand generated by the manufacturing process, which involves multi-pass cold-drawing, annealing, coiling and winding. The results show a strong characteristic radial variation of axial, hoop and radial residual stress components. A discussion is also included of the treatment of instrumental aberration which could otherwise severely affect the quality and interpretation measurements close to a surface.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of ceramic superconducting composite wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notis, Michael R.; Oh, Min-Seok; Avitzur, Betzalel; Liu, Qin-Fang; Jain, Himanshu

    Methods for fabricating sheathed high-Tc superconducting ceramic wire composites are examined. A thick wall silver tube packed with a variety of cuprate superconducting ceramic powders is used for fabrication by hydrostatic extrusion. For fabrication by wire drawing, a thin wall silver tube containing superconducting ceramic powder is placed in a thick wall tube of stainless steel, nickel, or copper. Several ceramic compositions are fabricated, including YBa2Cu3O7 (1-2-3) and the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. It is suggested that the reaction products which form between the ceramic core and the outer sheath during fabrication annealing are caused by a displacement reaction related to the oxidation potential development between the metallic sheath and the ceramic core.

  16. Novel Stacked Wire Mesh Compact Heat Exchangers Produced Using Cold Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaad, Jamil; Corbeil, Antoine; Richer, Patrick F.; Jodoin, Bertrand

    2011-12-01

    This study examines the feasibility of using the pulsed gas dynamic spraying (PGDS) process to deposit metal powder on the outer surfaces of metal wire mesh wafers for use as high-performance compact heat exchangers. Plain-square weave woven mesh produced from stainless steel wires were stacked and sintered to form wire mesh bricks, which were then cut into wafers. The outer surfaces of the wafers were sealed using the PGDS deposition technique as opposed to the more traditional brazing sheet solution. This approach provides more intimate contact between the mesh wire tips and sealed surface, thereby promoting conduction through the outer walls and improving the heat exchanger efficiency. In addition, PGDS is an attractive alternative to brazing sheets for this application because of its potential for reduced manufacturing costs. Burst and tensile tests of the PGDS coated wafers were carried out.

  17. Optimization of Single-Photon Response Transmission at the Rod-to-Rod Bipolar Synapse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-08-01

    Our ability to see in dim light is limited by the statistics of light absorption in rod photoreceptors and the faithful transmission of the light-evoked signals through the retina. This article reviews the physiological mechanisms at the synapse between rods and rod bipolar cells, the first relay in a pathway that mediates vision near absolute threshold.

  18. Static in situ test of the axial power shaping rod and shim safety control rod mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. T. Soberano; J. A. Gannon; K. A. Parlee

    1982-01-01

    There are eight Axial Power Shaping Rods (APSRs) and 61 Shim Safety Control Rods (SSCRs) within the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor core. This report describes the test results for all eight APSRs and three SSCRs. The tests were performed in situ from the Control Rod Drive (CRD) system logic cabinets and the transformer cabinets located in the

  19. Impact Initiation of Rods of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Aluminum Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Willis, Jr.

    2005-07-01

    A gas gun has been used to investigate the shock initiation of rods consisting of a mixture of 74 wt % PTFE (28 ?m particle size) and 26 wt % aluminum (5 ?m particle size) powders. The 7.6 mm diameter by 51 mm long rods were fabricated from material that had been pressed and sintered to a full density of 2.27 gm/cm^ 3. The rods were sabot-launched into 4340 steel anvils at impact velocities ranging from 104 to 777 m/s. This corresponds to calculated impact stresses of 3.3 to 48 kbar. The experiments were carried out in a 50-100 mtorr vacuum. A framing camera was used to observe the time sequence of events. These include changes in rod shape, fracture, and the initiation and evolution of the reaction phenomena. Observation of first visible light after impact was taken as the initiation time. Initiation of the reaction occurred at discrete locations in the rod material. At low velocity, no initiation occurred. Above an initiation threshold, the initiation time dropped abruptly from 56 ?s just above threshold to 4 ?s at the highest impact velocity. Two experiments were performed for pure PTFE material for comparison with the PTFE/Al rods. The pure PTFE showed more extensive radial flow without obvious brittle fracture. For the 784 m/s impact experiment, small points of light were observed on the edge of the mushroomed portion of the rod about 20 ?s after impact, suggesting the onset of chemical reaction.

  20. Numerical and experimental analysis of inhomogeneities in SMA wires induced by thermal boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furst, Stephen J.; Crews, John H.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    Published data on NiTi wire tensile tests display a surprising variety of results even though the same material has been studied. Hysteresis shapes can be observed that range from box- to cigar-like. In some cases, the variation may be the result of different post-fabrication treatment, such as annealing or cold working procedures. However, oftentimes local data are generated from average stress/strain concepts on the basis of global force and end displacement measurements. It is well known among experimentalists that this has a smoothening effect on data, but there is an additional, less well-known mechanism at work as well. This effect is due to thermomechanical coupling and the thermal boundary condition at the ends of the wires, and it manifests itself in a strong data dependence on the length of the employed specimen. This paper illustrates the effects of a thermal boundary layer in a 1D wire by means of an experimental study combined with a simulation based on the fully coupled momentum and energy balance equations. The system is modeled using COMSOL FEA software to simulate the distribution of strain, temperature, resistivity, and phase fractions. The local behavior is then integrated over the length of the wire to predict the expected behavior of the bulk wire as observed at its endpoints. Then, simulations are compared with results from a tensile test of a 100 mum diameter Dynalloy Flexinol wire between two large, steel clamps. Each step of the tensile test experiment is carefully controlled and then simulated via the boundary and initial conditions of the model. The simulated and experimental results show how the thermal boundary layer affects different length SMA wires and how the inhomogeneity prevents transition to austenite at the wire endpoints. Accordingly, shorter wires tend to be softer (more martensitic) than longer wires and exhibit a large reduction in recoverable strain because a larger percentage of their total length is impacted by the thermal boundary.

  1. A study of the fatigue properties of small diameter wires used in intramuscular electrodes.

    PubMed

    Scheiner, A; Mortimer, J T; Kicher, T P

    1991-05-01

    Single and multi-strand stainless steel and cobalt-nickel alloy wires, with strand diameters from 26 to 46 microns, were fatigue tested using a modified rotating bending test to determine what factors are most important in controlling fatigue life. The relation between cyclic strain and cyclic life was determined for each material by cyclically straining test specimens at various strain ranges and recording the number of cycles to failure. The results show that (a) the fatigue curves of the 316LVM, MP35N, DBS, and Syntacoben wires are very similar and have many of the same fatigue characteristics of specimens of large cross section. (b) Multi-stranded wires have the same average fatigue life as their individual constituent strands, but the variance of that life is smaller. (c) Deformities in the wire, which are created during the manufacturing, appear to have the effect of shortening the fatigue life of these small section wires. (d) Observation of wire fracture surfaces show a relatively small crack propagation zone and a large fast fracture zone suggesting that most of the fatigue life of these small wires is in the original crack formation, which creates a large stress concentration and quickly leads to wire failure. (e) The size of the wire cross sectional area is of secondary importance compared to the amplitude of the maximum cyclic strain of the individual strands in determining fatigue life of the cable. To maximize the fatigue life of electrodes in vivo, the highest fatigue life for a given bending radius of curvature is desired. This suggests wire strands should be manufactured at the smallest diameter possible (without introducing structural flaws) to maximize service life. PMID:1869576

  2. Fine pitch copper wire bonding — Why now?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd K. Appelt; Andy Tseng; Yi-Shao Lai

    2009-01-01

    Fine pitch Cu wire bonding is at the cusp of becoming main stream. Many challenges had to be overcome when making the transition from fine pitch Au wire bonding to fine pitch Cu wire bonding in a high volume manufacturing environment. The challenges for Cu wire bonding arise from the inherent properties of Cu: propensity to oxidize, increased hardness, slow

  3. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

  4. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

  5. Spring control of wire harness loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curcio, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Negator spring control guides wire harness between movable and fixed structure. It prevents electrical wire harness loop from jamming or being severed as wire moves in response to changes in position of aircraft rudder. Spring-loaded coiled cable controls wire loop regardless of rudder movement.

  6. Drug-eluting Ti wires with titania nanotube arrays for bone fixation and reduced bone infection.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    Current bone fixation technology which uses stainless steel wires known as Kirschner wires for fracture fixing often causes infection and reduced skeletal load resulting in implant failure. Creating new wires with drug-eluting properties to locally deliver drugs is an appealing approach to address some of these problems. This study presents the use of titanium [Ti] wires with titania nanotube [TNT] arrays formed with a drug delivery capability to design alternative bone fixation tools for orthopaedic applications. A titania layer with an array of nanotube structures was synthesised on the surface of a Ti wire by electrochemical anodisation and loaded with antibiotic (gentamicin) used as a model of bone anti-bacterial drug. Successful fabrication of TNT structures with pore diameters of approximately 170 nm and length of 70 ?m is demonstrated for the first time in the form of wires. The drug release characteristics of TNT-Ti wires were evaluated, showing a two-phase release, with a burst release (37%) and a slow release with zero-order kinetics over 11 days. These results confirmed our system's ability to be applied as a drug-eluting tool for orthopaedic applications. The established biocompatibility of TNT structures, closer modulus of elasticity to natural bones and possible inclusion of desired drugs, proteins or growth factors make this system a promising alternative to replace conventional bone implants to prevent bone infection and to be used for targeted treatment of bone cancer, osteomyelitis and other orthopaedic diseases. PMID:22039969

  7. Drug-eluting Ti wires with titania nanotube arrays for bone fixation and reduced bone infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2011-10-01

    Current bone fixation technology which uses stainless steel wires known as Kirschner wires for fracture fixing often causes infection and reduced skeletal load resulting in implant failure. Creating new wires with drug-eluting properties to locally deliver drugs is an appealing approach to address some of these problems. This study presents the use of titanium [Ti] wires with titania nanotube [TNT] arrays formed with a drug delivery capability to design alternative bone fixation tools for orthopaedic applications. A titania layer with an array of nanotube structures was synthesised on the surface of a Ti wire by electrochemical anodisation and loaded with antibiotic (gentamicin) used as a model of bone anti-bacterial drug. Successful fabrication of TNT structures with pore diameters of approximately 170 nm and length of 70 ?m is demonstrated for the first time in the form of wires. The drug release characteristics of TNT-Ti wires were evaluated, showing a two-phase release, with a burst release (37%) and a slow release with zero-order kinetics over 11 days. These results confirmed our system's ability to be applied as a drug-eluting tool for orthopaedic applications. The established biocompatibility of TNT structures, closer modulus of elasticity to natural bones and possible inclusion of desired drugs, proteins or growth factors make this system a promising alternative to replace conventional bone implants to prevent bone infection and to be used for targeted treatment of bone cancer, osteomyelitis and other orthopaedic diseases.

  8. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  9. Copper wire bond investigation on multiple surface finishes - enabling wire bond packages without gold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Oezkoek; Nigel White; Horst Clauberg

    2011-01-01

    During the past two years, fine pitch copper wire bonding has finally entered high volume production. It is estimated that nearly 15% of all wire bonders used in production are now equipped for copper wire bonding. Most of these are used exclusively for copper wire bonding. In terms of pitch, copper wire is only barely lagging behind the most advanced

  10. Galvanic current induced by heterogeneous structures on stainless steel wire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Che Shih; Chun-Ming Shih; Yea-Yang Su; Shing-Jong Lin

    2005-01-01

    Galvanic corrosion could be initialized between the heterogeneous structures of an implant and the resulting corrosion products could act as a trigger for thrombosis and inflammation leading to restenosis after deployment of implant inside the artery. Experimental evidence showed that there were significant differences in the electrochemical behaviors among the different grain sizes of an implant. Galvanic current was detected

  11. Fusion Zone Microstructures of Laser and Plasma Welded Dissimilar Steel Joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Sun

    1999-01-01

    Dissimilar steel joints between 13CrMo44 low-alloyed ferritic steel and A1SI 347 austenitic stainless steel were produced using laser beam and plasma arC welding. Both autogenous welding (without Filler) and welding with nickel-based filler wire were employed in each process. Fusion zone microstructures were characterized using both optical and scanning electron microscopy. Compositional analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy. Hardness

  12. TRANSURANUS: a fuel rod analysis code ready for use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassmann, K.

    1992-06-01

    TRANSURANUS is a computer program for the thermal and mechanical analysis of fuel rods in nuclear reactors and was developed at the European Institute for Transuranium Elements (TUI). The TRANSURANUS code consists of a clearly defined mechanical-mathematical framework into which physical models can easily be incorporated. Besides its flexibility for different fuel rod designs the TRANSURANUS code can deal with very different situations, as given for instance in an experiment, under normal, off-normal and accident conditions. The time scale of the problems to be treated may range from milliseconds to years. The code has a comprehensive material data bank for oxide, mixed oxide, carbide and nitride fuels, Zircaloy and steel claddings and different coolants. During its development great effort was spent on obtaining an extremely flexible tool which is easy to handle, exhibiting very fast running times. The total development effort is approximately 40 man-years. In recent years the interest to use this code grew and the code is in use in several organisations, both research and private industry. The code is now available to all interested parties. The paper outlines the main features and capabilities of the TRANSURANUS code, its validation and treats also some practical aspects.

  13. Lightweight carbon fibre rods and truss structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Schütze

    1997-01-01

    Lightweight carbon fibre rods and truss structures are of growing importance for modern transportation technologies. The struts of such frameworks are commonly designed as fibre-wound CFRP tubes. Here CFRP sandwich rods are an advantageous alternative. They have a lightweight foam core covered by a relative thin layer of composite material. In many real applications, however, the superior mechanical properties of

  14. Tipping Time of a Quantum Rod

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrikar, Onkar

    2010-01-01

    The behaviour of a quantum rod, pivoted at its lower end on an impenetrable floor and restricted to moving in the vertical plane under the gravitational potential, is studied analytically under the approximation that the rod is initially localized to a "small-enough" neighbourhood around the point of classical unstable equilibrium. It is shown…

  15. Rods Feed Cones to Keep them Alive.

    PubMed

    Krol, Jacek; Roska, Botond

    2015-05-01

    Cone photoreceptors, responsible for high-resolution and color vision, progressively degenerate following the death of rod photoreceptors in the blinding disease retinitis pigmentosa. Aït-Ali et al. describe a molecular mechanism by which RdCVF, a factor normally released by rods, controls glucose entry into cones, enhancing their survival. PMID:25957678

  16. Hands On Math Using Colored Rods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana Malloy

    Students enjoy learning by doing and by manipulating objects. This paper describes classroom activities using rods with various lengths and different colors. The activities included are: (1) preparation of rods; (2) elementary addition and subtraction; (3) fractions; (4) concept of greater than, less than, and equals; (5) simple division and…

  17. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  18. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    DOEpatents

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  19. Noise removal at the rod synapse of mammalian retina 

    E-print Network

    van Rossum, Mark; Smith, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Mammalian rods respond to single photons with a hyperpolarization of about 1 mV which is accompanied by continuous noise. Since the mammalian rod bipolar cell collects signals from 20-100 rods, the noise from the converging ...

  20. Looking South at North End of Rod Loading Line Including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking South at North End of Rod Loading Line Including Welding Area Within Rod Loading building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Rod Loading Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  1. Vibrating wires for beam diagnostics

    E-print Network

    Arutunian, S G; Wittenburg, Kay

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to the technique of scanning by wires is developed. Novelty of the method is that the wire heating quantity is used as a source of information about the number of interacting particles. To increase the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements the wire heating measurement is regenerated as a change of wire natural oscillations frequency. By the rigid fixing of the wire ends on the base an unprecedented sensitivity of the frequency to the temperature and to the corresponding flux of colliding particles. The range of used frequencies (tens of kHz) and speed of processes of heat transfer limit the speed characteristics of proposed scanning method, however, the high sensitivity make it a perspective one for investigation of beam halo and weak beam scanning. Traditional beam profile monitors generally focus on the beam core and loose sensitivity in the halo region where a large dynamic range of detection is necessary. The scanning by a vibrating wire can be also successfully used in profiling and det...

  2. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  3. Attachment for sucker rod depth adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.D.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a surface unit of an oil well pumping system, having a walking beam, a suspended carrier bar and an interconnected sucker rod assembly for stroking a reciprocating down-hole pump. It comprises a cross bar having a centrally located passage therein for the sucker rod assembly and adapted to be transversely supported by the carrier bar; a depth adjusting bar, having a centrally located passage therein for the sucker rod assembly, positioned at a selected fixed dimension above and parallel to the cross bar and adapted to operatively support the sucker rod assembly; clamping means for fixing the sucker rod relative to the depth adjusting bar; and hydraulically extendable means supportively connecting the depth adjusting bar to the cross bar on at least each side of the carrier bar for adjusting the selected fixed dimension and maintaining the adjustment during operation.

  4. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Li-jun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rupich, Martin W. [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Xiaoping [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  5. Artificial magnetism and left-handed media from dielectric rings and rods.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, L; Marqués, R

    2010-01-20

    It is shown that artificial magnetism with relatively large frequency bandwidth can be obtained from periodic arrangements of dielectric rings. Combined with dielectric rods, dielectric rings can provide 3D isotropic left-handed metamaterials which are an advantageous alternative to metallic split ring resonators (SRRs) and/or metallic wires when undetectability by low frequency external magnetic fields is desired. Furthermore it is shown that, unlike conventional SRRs, dielectric rings can also be combined with natural plasma-like media to obtain a left-handed metamaterial. PMID:21386264

  6. Epitaxial growth of quantum rods with high aspect ratio and compositional contrast

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L. H. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics, Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Patriarche, G. [LPN/CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Fiore, A. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-12-01

    The epitaxial growth of quantum rods (QRs) on GaAs was investigated. It was found that GaAs thickness in the GaAs/InAs superlattice used for QR formation plays a key role in improving the QR structural properties. Increasing the GaAs thickness results in both an increased In compositional contrast between the QRs and surrounding layer, and an increased QR length. QRs with an aspect ratio of up to 10 were obtained, representing quasiquantum wires in a GaAs matrix. Due to modified confinement and strain potential, such nanostructure is promising for controlling gain polarization.

  7. BiP prevents rod opsin aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiou, Dimitra; Kosmaoglou, Maria; Kanuga, Naheed; Novoselov, Sergey S.; Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C.; Chapple, J. Paul; Cheetham, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in rod opsin—the light-sensitive protein of rod cells—cause retinitis pigmentosa. Many rod opsin mutations lead to protein misfolding, and therefore it is important to understand the role of molecular chaperones in rod opsin biogenesis. We show that BiP (HSPA5) prevents the aggregation of rod opsin. Cleavage of BiP with the subtilase cytotoxin SubAB results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention and ubiquitylation of wild-type (WT) rod opsin (WT–green fluorescent protein [GFP]) at the ER. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching reveals that WT-GFP is usually mobile in the ER. By contrast, depletion of BiP activity by treatment with SubAB or coexpression of a BiP ATPase mutant, BiP(T37G), decreases WT-GFP mobility to below that of the misfolding P23H mutant of rod opsin (P23H-GFP), which is retained in the ER and can form cytoplasmic ubiquitylated inclusions. SubAB treatment of P23H-GFP–expressing cells decreases the mobility of the mutant protein further and leads to ubiquitylation throughout the ER. Of interest, BiP overexpression increases the mobility of P23H-GFP, suggesting that it can reduce mutant rod opsin aggregation. Therefore inhibition of BiP function results in aggregation of rod opsin in the ER, which suggests that BiP is important for maintaining the solubility of rod opsin in the ER. PMID:22855534

  8. Heterogeneous corrosion behaviour of carbon steel in water contaminated biodiesel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wang; Peter E. Jenkins; Zhiyong Ren

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel has been widely used as an additive to traditional fuel supplies, but the corrosion of metals used in biodiesel infrastructure is becoming an increasing concern. In this study, the influence of water contamination and corrosion behaviour of carbon steel in biodiesel, were characterized using the wire beam electrode (WBE) technique. In situ local current distributions among the electrodes showed

  9. Ice accretion on different aluminum cable steel reinforced

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fochi Wang; Yuzhen Lv; Qing Zhang; Zhou You; Chengrong Li

    2010-01-01

    Ice accretion on high voltage power lines is a severe problem for power network and it can cause insulator flashover, wire breakage and tower falling down. In the present work, hydrophobic aluminum cable steel reinforced was prepared with a simple chemical etching and modified with a fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) coating. Only partial area of the hydrophobic sample was covered by some

  10. Method speeds tapered rod design for directional well

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yongquan; Yuan Xiangzhong [Southwest Petroleum Inst., Nanchong, Sichuan (China)

    1995-10-16

    Determination of the minimum rod diameter, from statistical relationships, can decrease the time needed for designing a sucker-rod string for a directional well. A tapered rod string design for a directional well is more complex than for a vertical well. Based on the theory of a continuous beam column, the rod string design in a directional well is a trial and error method. The key to reduce the time to obtain a solution is to rapidly determine the minimum rod diameter. This can be done with a statistical relationship. The paper describes sucker rods, design method, basic analysis rod design, and minimum rod diameter.

  11. Debonding force and deformation of two multi-stranded lingual retainer wires bonded to incisor enamel: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Cooke, M E; Sherriff, M

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine, in vitro, the effect of a vertical force on the debond force and deformation of two multi-stranded wires bonded to the lingual enamel of lower incisor teeth. Two different stainless steel wires were used, 0.016 × 0.022 inch (Bond-A-Braid® Reliance Orthodontic Products) and a three-stranded 0.0175 inch wire (Ortho Technology). An in vitro model was used to simulate a vertical force at the interdental wire. Twenty-six pairs of incisors were placed in two groups. A 15 mm length of wire was bonded to the lingual surfaces of each pair of incisors using a common bonding technique. A vertical force was applied to the midpoint of the interdental wire, using an Instron universal testing machine. The failure characteristics examined included the maximum force for debond, the degree of wire deformation, and the site of failure. Significance was predetermined at P < 0.05 and multiple comparisons indicated no significant differences (P = 0.147) in the initial mean bond strength between the 0.0175 inch (41.44 N) and 0.016 × 0.022 inch (37.70 N) wires. The main failure type for both the initial and second debond events was fracture of composite bond at the wire-composite interface, cohesive failure. Both wires exhibited similar mean degrees of deflection of 1.30 and 1.51 mm for the 0.0175 inch and 0.016 × 0.022 inch wires, respectively. Rebonding to enamel resulted in significantly lower (P = 0.001) mean bond strength for both wires, 0.0175 inch (13.86 N) and 0.016 × 0.022 inch (14.17 N) in comparison with the initial bond strength. Rebonding to previously bonded enamel may be unpredictable and may lead to higher failure rates of bonded lingual retainers. PMID:20547494

  12. Control Rod Malfunction at the NRAD Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Maddock

    2010-05-01

    The neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) is a training, research, and isotope (TRIGA) reactor located at the INL. The reactor is normally shut down by the insertion of three control rods that drop into the core when power is removed from electromagnets. During a routine shutdown, indicator lights on the console showed that one of the control rods was not inserted. It was initially thought that the indicator lights were in error because of a limit switch that was out of adjustment. Through further testing, it was determined that the control rod did not drop when the scram switch was initially pressed. The control rod anomaly led to a six month shutdown of the reactor and an in depth investigation of the reactor protective system. The investigation looked into: scram switch operation, console modifications, and control rod drive mechanisms. A number of latent issues were discovered and corrected during the investigation. The cause of the control rod malfunction was found to be a buildup of corrosion in the control rod drive mechanism. The investigation resulted in modifications to equipment, changes to both operation and maintenance procedures, and additional training. No reoccurrences of the problem have been observed since corrective actions were implemented.

  13. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOEpatents

    Hooper, Frederick M (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  14. An evaluation of the wire mesh prosthesis in primary reconstruction of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Terz, J J; Bear, S E; Brown, P W; Watkins, J; Lawrence, W

    1978-06-01

    A stainless steel wire mesh prosthesis was used as a primary mandibular replacement in 102 patients after resection of malignant neoplasms arising in the head and neck. In sixty-seven patients the prosthesis was considered successful. Failure of the host to tolerate the prosthesis was associated with a history of previous irradiation, extensive resections, and loss of distant skin flaps used for coverage of the prosthesis. We conclude that the wire mesh mandibular prosthesis is an excellent means to accomplish prompt functional and cosmetic reconstruction after mandibular loss and does not preclude the use of a more complex modality of reconstruction if the initial implant is removed. PMID:665910

  15. Distributed hot-wire anemometry based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Michael T V; Brown, Anthony W; Colpitts, Bruce G

    2012-07-01

    A distributed hot-wire anemometer based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis is presented. The anemometer is created by passing a current through a stainless steel tube fibre bundle and monitoring Brillouin frequency changes in the presence of airflow. A wind tunnel is used to provide laminar airflow while the device response is calibrated against theoretical models. The sensitivity equation for this anemometer is derived and discussed. Airspeeds from 0 m/s to 10 m/s are examined, and the results show that a Brillouin scattering based distributed hot-wire anemometer is feasible. PMID:22772259

  16. Control rod housing alignment and repair method

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a method for underwater welding of a control rod drive housing inserted through a stub tube to maintain requisite alignment and elevation of the top of the control rod drive housing to an overlying and corresponding aperture in a core plate as measured by an alignment device which determines the relative elevation and angularity with respect to the aperture. It comprises providing a welding cylinder dependent from the alignment device such that the elevation of the top of the welding cylinder is in a fixed relationship to the alignment device and is gas-proof; pressurizing the welding cylinder with inert welding gas sufficient to maintain the interior of the welding cylinder dry; lowering the welding cylinder through the aperture in the core plate by depending the cylinder with respect to the alignment device, the lowering including lowering through and adjusting the elevation relationship of the welding cylinder to the alignment device such that when the alignment device is in position to measure the elevation and angularity of the new control rod drive housing, the lower distal end of the welding cylinder extends below the upper periphery of the stub where welding is to occur; inserting a new control rod drive housing through the stub tube and positioning the control rod drive housing to a predetermined relationship to the anticipated final position of the control rod drive housing; providing welding implements transversely rotatably mounted interior of the welding cylinder relative to the alignment device such that the welding implements may be accurately positioned for dispensing weldment around the periphery of the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing; measuring the elevation and angularity of the control rod drive housing; and dispensing weldment along the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing.

  17. Method of cleaning and inhibiting sucker rod corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M. B.; Griffin, J. B.

    1985-01-22

    Method of cleaning tubular goods, especially sucker rods, and inhibiting the sucker rods against corrosion as the rod string is being withdrawn from a borehole. The method is carried out by the provision of an enclosure which is attached to the upper end of a cased borehole. The upper end of the sucker rod string is extended axially through the enclosure as the rod string is withdrawn from the casing. A medial length of the rod string is engaged by a resilient packer device which wipes the rod clean of well fluids and loose debris. The rod string is next cleaned within a second chamber by impacting the outer surface thereof with an abrasive substance. The rod surface is again cleaned of any residual material. The rod is then moved through another chamber where corrosion inhibitor is applied to the external surface of the rod. As each treated joint of rod is withdrawn from the enclosure, the rod joints are sequentially unscrewed and suitably stacked, where the rods are protected from the elements, as well as being protected when the rods are subsequently made up into a rod string as the rod is replaced into a borehole.

  18. Bijels stabilized using rod-like particles.

    PubMed

    Hijnen, Niek; Cai, Dongyu; Clegg, Paul S

    2015-05-27

    Bicontinuous interfacially jammed emulsion gels, in short 'bijels', rely on a trapped layer of colloidal particles for their stability. These structures have traditionally been created using spherical colloidal particles. Here we show for the first time the use of rod-shape particles to stabilize bijels. We show that domain size decreases more rapidly with particle concentration in the case of rods compared to spheres. Large-scale analysis and detailed examination of images show that the packing fraction of rods is much higher than expected, in part, due to the role of 'flippers'. PMID:25884307

  19. Plasmonic Focusing in Rod–Sheath Heteronanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Can; Banholzer, Matthew J.; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of plasmonic focusing, free-standing rod–sheath heteronanostructures based on electrochemical templated synthesis and selective chemical etching. These heteronanostructures take advantage of plasmon interference together with field enhancements due to sharp junction structures to function as stand-alone SERS substrates containing Raman hot spots at the interface of the rod and sheath segments. This result is investigated with empirical and theoretical (discrete dipole approximation, DDA) methods, and we show how plasmon interference can be tuned by varying the sheath and rod lengths. PMID:19206253

  20. Electromagnetic methods for measuring materials properties of cylindrical rods and array probes for rapid flaw inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Haiyan

    2005-05-01

    The case-hardening process modifies the near-surface permeability and conductivity of steel, as can be observed through changes in alternating current potential drop (ACPD) along a rod. In order to evaluate case depth of case hardened steel rods, analytical expressions are derived for the alternating current potential drop on the surface of a homogeneous rod, a two-layered and a three-layered rod. The case-hardened rod is first modeled by a two-layer rod that has a homogeneous substrate with a single, uniformly thick, homogeneous surface layer, in which the conductivity and permeability values differ from those in the substrate. By fitting model results to multi-frequency ACPD experimental data, estimates of conductivity, permeability and case depth are found. Although the estimated case depth by the two-layer model is in reasonable agreement with the effective case depth from the hardness profile, it is consistently higher than the effective case depth. This led to the development of the three-layer model. It is anticipated that the new three-layered model will improve the results and thus makes the ACPD method a novel technique in nondestructive measurement of case depth. Another way to evaluate case depth of a case hardened steel rod is to use induction coils. Integral form solutions for an infinite rod encircled by a coaxial coil are well known, but for a finite length conductor, additional boundary conditions must be satisfied at the ends. In this work, calculations of eddy currents are performed for a two-layer conducting rod of finite length excited by a coaxial circular coil carrying an alternating current. The solution is found using the truncated region eigenfunction expansion (TREE) method. By truncating the solution region to a finite length in the axial direction, the magnetic vector potential can be expressed as a series expansion of orthogonal eigenfunctions instead of as a Fourier integral. Closed-form expressions are derived for the electromagnetic field in the presence of a finite a two-layer rod and a conductive tube. The results are in very good agreement with those obtained by using a 2D finite element code. In the third part, a new probe technology with enhanced flaw detection capability is described. The new probe can reduce inspection time through the use of multiple Hall sensors. A prototype Hall array probe has been built and tested with eight individual Hall sensor ICs and a racetrack coil. Electronic hardware was developed to interface the probes to an oscilloscope or an eddy current instrument. To achieve high spatial resolution and to limit the overall probe size, high-sensitivity Hall sensor arrays were fabricated directly on a wafer using photolithographic techniques and then mounted in their unencapsulated form. The electronic hardware was then updated to interface the new probes to a laptop computer.