These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

77 FR 3231 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order...certain stainless steel wire rods from India would likely lead to continuation or recurrence...steel wire rods (``wire rods'') from India,\\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c)...

2012-01-23

2

78 FR 76653 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago...certain alloy steel wire rod from Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago...certain alloy steel wire rod from Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

2013-12-18

3

76 FR 67672 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-808] Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results...the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel wire rods from India, pursuant...the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel wire rods from India (wire...

2011-11-02

4

76 FR 38686 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning...Order on Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India AGENCY: United States International Trade...order on stainless steel wire rod from India would be likely to lead to...

2011-07-01

5

76 FR 64105 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-638 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Scheduling...Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India AGENCY: United...revocation of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod from India would be...

2011-10-17

6

Effect of rolling with shear on the properties of steel 08G2S rods and wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hereditary effect of the structure of a wire rod on the structure and physicomechanical properties of the steel 08G2S wire produced by rolling with shear is studied in comparison with the wire produced according to the standard technology in OAO Metal Steel Krivoi Rog.

Pashinskaya, E. G.; Tolpa, A. A.; Myshlyaev, M. M.; Grishaev, V. V.; Zavdoveev, A. V.

2011-11-01

7

Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes  

DOEpatents

An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar[sub 3] temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics. 3 figs.

Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.; Kim, N.J.

1986-10-28

8

Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes  

DOEpatents

An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA); Ahn, Jae-Hwan (Albany, CA); Kim, Nack-Joon (Laramie, WY)

1986-01-01

9

Low carbon dual phase steels for high strength wire  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows that dual phase steels can be designed and processed as new, economical low carbon steels for cold drawing into high tensile strength steel wires. Current work indicates wires of tensile strengths up to 400,000 psi can be obtained. Potential applications for dual phase steel wire include bead wire, tire cord, wire rope and prestressed concrete. It should be possible to produce wire rods in existing rod mills by adapting the controlled rolling and quenching procedures outlined in this paper.

Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.

1985-08-01

10

76 FR 68407 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of Sales at...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...produces some steel in South Africa, through one of its subsidiaries...of steel produced in South Africa...Indonesia, Ukraine and South Africa disqualified, the Department...Atlas (``GTA'') import statistics for Thai steel wire rod...

2011-11-04

11

75 FR 42685 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-918] Steel Wire Garment Hangers...manually in China.'' See Steel Wire Garment Hangers...country; (2) level of research and development in the...machinery or equipment, no research and development are required...tubes but rather the steel wire rod drawing...

2010-07-22

12

64 FR 378 - Brazing Copper Wire and Rod From New Zealand and South Africa  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wire and Rod From New Zealand and South Africa AGENCY: United States International...wire and rod from New Zealand and South Africa...wire and rod from New Zealand and South Africa would be likely to lead to...

1999-01-04

13

77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of...of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the...entitled Galvanized Steel Wire from China and Mexico: Investigation Nos....

2012-05-14

14

76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of...injured by reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided...of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective...

2011-05-20

15

Certification of offshore mooring steel wire ropes  

SciTech Connect

The trend to produce oil in increasingly deeper water has led to the development of floating production solutions for the exploitation of the energy resources in these areas. It is a fact that steel wire ropes have been used and are being proposed as line segments in the majority of the mooring systems of these units/ships. This paper specifies requirements for the materials, design, manufacture and testing of large diameter offshore mooring steel wire ropes and may serve as a technical reference document in contractual matters between the purchaser and the manufacturer. Typical applications covered are permanently moored floating production systems (FPS), offshore loading systems and mobile offshore units.

Lohne, P.W. [Det Norske Veritas AS, Oslo (Norway)

1996-12-31

16

The technology of testing the safety of steel wire ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To estimate the security of steel wire rope, the broken wire condition, the capability of the rope to bear weight and the state of stress balance of each wire in the steel wire rope were investigated. The wavelet translation method was applied to analyze the signals of magnetic field leakage from the steel wire rope. The result of the time-frequency analysis of the signals can be used to make certain of he position and the amount of the broken wire. Using the static surveillance method as a basis, a dynamic surveillance method was designed to detect the stress balance of the steel wire rope. This technology makes it possible to check the stress condition of each wire on line. It can be concluded that a wavelet translation analysis and the dynamic surveillance technique are effective methods to detect on line and real-time the broken wire and the stress balance of multistrand wire ropes.

Zhang, Xiaochun; Hu, Caiwen

2005-12-01

17

7. DETAIL VIEW UNDER BRIDGE OF CORRUGATED STEEL, BEAMS, RODS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. DETAIL VIEW UNDER BRIDGE OF CORRUGATED STEEL, BEAMS, RODS, AND ABUTMENT - Price River Bridge, Spanning Price River, 760 North Street in Carbonville, 1 mile northwest of Price, Carbonville, Carbon County, UT

18

16. VIEW OF STEEL FLOOR BEAMS WITH TIE RODS, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW OF STEEL FLOOR BEAMS WITH TIE RODS, SHOWING SWAY BRACING, SUPPORT TIMBER STRINGERS AND BECK, WEST END, LOOKING WEST - Hot Springs Bridge, Spanning Bruneau River, Hot Springs Road, Bruneau, Owyhee County, ID

19

76 FR 27007 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-570-918] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's...Determination We preliminarily determine that steel wire garment hangers (``garment hangers...See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the...

2011-05-10

20

Nondestructive quantitative stress characterization of wire rope and steel cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new approach to nondestructive and quantitative characterization of residual and applied stress (absolute stress) on wire rope and steel cable. Examples are given from both field work as well as laboratory tests, including stress characterization of post-tensioning cables, bridge suspension cables, wire rope and thin strand steel wire. The approach is based on x-ray diffraction techniques. A detailed description of the results and the methodologies used to obtain them are provided.

Brauss, Michael E.; Pineault, James A.; Belassel, M.; Teodoropol, Stefan I.

1998-03-01

21

76 FR 21914 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-479 and 731-TA-1183-1184 (Preliminary)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject antidumping...

2011-04-19

22

Research on overlaying welding rod of high hardness maraging steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new maraging steel overlaying welding rod, which contains Co, Mo, W and V alloy, solved the problems of\\u000a poor homogeneity of hardness and mechanical process, prolonged the service life of wear-resistant components and increased\\u000a the productive efficiency of repairing, greatly benefiting the national economy.

Yong-ming Pan; Shao-wei Chen

2006-01-01

23

1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central Furnace Works -- Sketch of Plant Showing Tracks & Buildings, 1913, Revised 3/10/31.' Drawing courtesy United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. Credit Berni Rich, Score Photographs, August 1979, for photos 1 through 4 and 7 through 11. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

24

2. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Company, Central ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Company, Central Furnaces & Docks, General Plan of Works Showing Trestle, 1-3-39.' Drawing courtesy of United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

25

76 FR 13665 - Arcelor Mittal, Formerly Known as Mittal Steel Walker Wire, a Subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mittal, Formerly Known as Mittal Steel Walker Wire, a Subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal...Mittal, formerly known as Mittal Steel Walker Wire, a subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal...issued for all workers of Mittal Steel Walker Wire, Inc., Ferndale, Michigan,...

2011-03-14

26

Recrystallization and Grain Growth of 316L Stainless Steel Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recrystallization and grain growth behaviors of 316L stainless steel wires with a diameter of 12 µm were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction techniques. Heavily cold-drawn wires were isothermally held at temperatures from 1073 K to 1223 K (800 °C to 950 °C) for various holding times. Optical microscopy and TEM observations showed that recrystallization grains have irregular shape and that twins exist. The texture formed during drawing and annealing processes of the wires, as measured by X-ray methods, showed a fiber texture approximated by a <111> and a <100> component. The value of the grain growth exponent n was calculated, and the kinetic rates were plotted using the Arrhenius equation. Results show that the activation energy of the grain growth for 316L stainless steel wire was determined to be 407 kJ/mol, which was much higher than that of the bulk 316L stainless steel. The small wire diameter and the existence of texture played important roles in the increase of the activation energy for grain growth of the wire.

Zhao, Xiuyun; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yan; Feng, Ping; Tang, Huiping

2014-07-01

27

Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires  

SciTech Connect

Hypereutectoid steels have the potential for dramatically increasing the strength of wire used in tire cord and in other high strength wire applications. The basis for this possible breakthrough is the elimination of a brittle proeutectoid network that can form along grain boundaries if appropriate processing procedures and alloy additions are used. A review is made of work done by Japanese and other researchers on eutectoid and mildly hypereutectoid wires. A linear extrapolation of the tensile strength of fine wires predicts higher strengths at higher carbon contents. The influence of processing, alloy additions and carbon content in optimizing the strength, ductility and fracture behavior of hypereutectoid steels is presented. It is proposed that the tensile strength of pearlitic wires is dictated by the fracture strength of the carbide lamella at grain boundary locations in the carbide. Methods to improve the strength of carbide grain boundaries and to decrease the carbide plate thickness will contribute to enhancing the ultrahigh strength obtainable in hypereutectoid steel wires. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Kim, D.K.

1996-06-25

28

78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of antidumping duty investigations...from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico, and Thailand, provided for in subheading...

2013-04-30

29

78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations...injured by reason of imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed...concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico, and Thailand....

2013-06-20

30

Wire-Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Protects Steel Against Corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aluminum coatings wire-arc sprayed onto steel substrates found effective in protecting substrates against corrosion. Coatings also satisfy stringent requirements for adhesion and flexibility, both at room temperature and at temperatures as low as liquid hydrogen. Developed as alternatives to corrosion-inhibiting primers and paints required by law to be phased out because they contain and emit such toxic substances as chromium and volatile organic compounds.

Zimmerman, Frank R.; Poorman, Richard; Sanders, Heather L.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Bonds, James W., Jr.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

1995-01-01

31

76 FR 66895 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration, re: Steel Wire Garment Hangers...B) the level of research and development in the...the lack of evidence of research and development...Lead and Bismuth Carbon Steel Products from Germany...Circumvention Inquiry on Steel Wire Garment...

2011-10-28

32

Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm ({epsilon} = 0) to 2 nm ({epsilon} = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {l_brace}110{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} or {l_brace}112{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} slip plane traces in the ferrite.

Zhang Xiaodan [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Godfrey, Andrew, E-mail: awgodfrey@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu [Center for Fundamental Research: Metal Structures in Four Dimensions, Materials Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Liu Wei [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Liu Qing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030 (China)

2010-01-15

33

The Microstructure and Hardness of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel During Wire Drawing  

SciTech Connect

The steel wire samples are hot-dip-galvanized. The zinc coating is preformed using the standard method. To recognize the behavior of the zinc coated steel wire during the submission to deformation, the wire samples are drawn on a machine designed for this aim and then investigated. In this research is represented the phase structure of the zinc coated samples. Afterwards the thickness of the layer and the hardness of the hot-dip galvanized steel depending on the drawing is represented.

Klmaku, Snukn; Syla, Nairn [University of Prishtina, Sheshi Neena Terezee, 10000, Prishtinee, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Dilo, Teuta [University of Tirana, Sheshi Nenee Tereza, Tirana (Albania)

2010-01-21

34

Variation in the dispersion of axisymmetric waves in infinite circular rods with crystallographic wire texture  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the solution to the frequency equation for a number of polycrystalline, textured circular rods having transverse isotropy. The effective, second-order elastic stiffness tensors were estimated using the recursive general Hill arithmetic mean (GHAM). The velocity dispersion curves for a number of combinations of materials and crystallographic fiber or wire textures were calculated and the variation due to texture displayed. At large wavelengths, the velocity dispersion of fiber textured materials exhibits a lowest-order axisymmetric mode which varies only with the directional Poisson[close quote]s ratios in a manner similar to that of isotropic aggregates. In this wavelength regime, the waves propagate nondispersively at the wave speed, C[sub 0], as dictated by the directional Young[close quote]s modulus. At wavelengths smaller than the rod radius, the dispersion curves were more influenced by the full anisotropy of the wire textures. At these wavelengths, the dispersion curves for the anisotropic materials deviated significantly from those of the isotropic materials and one another with the higher axisymmetric vibration modes exhibiting extreme differences. This deviation is a function of the single crystal anisotropy and nature of the wire textures. < --[AN] -->

Mason, T.A. (Materials Science and Technology Division, MS G755, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

1999-09-01

35

Fractal roughness structures of precision-machined WC-Co- and Inconel 625-coated steel rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally sprayed WC-Co coatings on steel rods were machined by grinding and turning using diamond tools, and thermally sprayed\\u000a Inconel 625 coatings on steel rods were machined by turning using various WC tools. Four of these samples were selected for\\u000a surface characterization using a stylus roughness tester. The results show that precision-machined WC-Co and Inconel-625 surfaces\\u000a can be identified as

Z. W. Zhong; Z. F. Peng

2007-01-01

36

Alternating current potential-drop measurement of the depth of case hardening in steel rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case depth of induction-hardened steel rods has been determined using multi-frequency alternating current potential-drop measurements. Experimental results are analyzed using a model which approximates the variation in the material properties of a hardened rod by assuming that a homogeneous core is surrounded by a homogeneous case-hardened layer of uniform thickness. Experimental measurements on an untreated rod are used to

John R. Bowler; Yongqiang Huang; Haiyan Sun; Jonathan Brown; Nicola Bowler

2008-01-01

37

76 FR 72721 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1183-1184 (Final)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing...subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in...

2011-11-25

38

Corrosion resistance of stressed NiTi and stainless steel orthodontic wires in acid artificial saliva.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of stressed NiTi and stainless steel orthodontic wires using cyclic potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests in acid artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. An atomic force microscope was used to measure the 3-D surface topography of as-received wires. Scanning electron microscope observations were carried out before and after the cyclic potentiodynamic tests. The surface chemical analysis was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy after the potentiostatic tests. The cyclic potentiodynamic test results showed that the pH had a significant influence on the corrosion parameters of the stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires (p < 0.05). The pitting potential, protection potential, and passive range of stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires decreased on decreasing pH, whereas the passive current density increased on decreasing pH. The load had no significant influence on the above corrosion parameters (p > 0.05). For all pH and load conditions, stainless steel wire showed higher pitting potential and wider passive range than NiTi wire (p < 0.001), whereas NiTi wire had lower passive current density than stainless steel wire (p < 0.001). The corrosion resistance of the stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires was related to the surface characterizations, including surface defect and passive film. PMID:12926035

Huang, Her-Hsiung

2003-09-15

39

77 FR 50713 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the...by reason of subsidized imports from Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers and less- than-fair-value imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers,...

2012-08-22

40

78 FR 40170 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand; Institution of...by reason of imports from India and Thailand of certain steel...subsidized by the Government of India.\\1\\ Unless the Department...Commerce (Commerce) extends the time for initiation pursuant to...

2013-07-03

41

Arc characteristics of submerged arc welding with stainless steel wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arc characteristics of submerged arc welding (SAW) with stainless steel wire were studied by using Analysator Hannover (AH). The tests were carried out under the same preset arc voltage combined with different welding currents. By comparing the probability density distribution (PDD) curves of arc voltage and welding current, the changes were analyzed, the metal transfer mode in SAW was deduced, and the characteristics of a stable arc were summarized. The analysis results show that, with an increase of welding parameters, the short-circuiting peak in the PDD curves of arc voltage decreases gradually until it disappears, and the dominant metal transfer mode changes from flux-wall guided transfer to projected transfer and then to streaming transfer. Moreover, when the PDD curves of arc voltage are both unimodal and generally symmetrical, the greater the peak probability and the smaller the peak span, the more stable the arc becomes.

Li, Ke; Wu, Zhi-sheng; Liu, Cui-rong; Chen, Feng-hua

2014-08-01

42

DESIGN OF WIRE-WRAPPED ROD BUNDLE MATCHED INDEX-OF-REFRACTION EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Experiments will be conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility [1] to characterize the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a wire-wrapped rod bundle typically employed in liquid-metal cooled fast reactors and to provide benchmark data for computer code validation. Sodium cooled fast reactors are under consideration for use in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. The experiment model will be constructed of quartz components and the working fluid will be mineral oil. Accurate temperature control (to within 0.05 oC) matches the index-of-refraction of mineral oil with that of quartz and renders the model transparent to the wavelength of laser light employed for optical measurements. The model will be a scaled 7-pin rod bundle enclosed in a hexagonal canister. Flow field measurements will be obtained with a LaVision 3-D particle image velocimeter (PIV) and complimented by near-wall velocity measurements obtained from a 2-D laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). These measurements will be used as benchmark data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation. The rod bundle model dimensions will be scaled up from the typical dimensions of a fast reactor fuel assembly to provide the maximum Reynolds number achievable in the MIR flow loop. A range of flows from laminar to fully-turbulent will be available with a maximum Reynolds number, based on bundle hydraulic diameter, of approximately 22,000. The fuel pins will be simulated by 85 mm diameter quartz tubes (closed on the inlet ends) and the wire-wrap will be simulated by 25 mm diameter quartz rods. The canister walls will be constructed from quartz plates. The model will be approximately 2.13 m in length. Bundle pressure losses will also be measured and the data recorded for code comparisons. The experiment design and preliminary CFD calculations, which will be used to provide qualitative hydrodynamic information, are presented in this paper.

Hugh McIlroy; Hongbin Zhang; Kurt Hamman

2008-05-01

43

78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') is being, or...from the People's Republic of China,'' from Christian Marsh...Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, The People's Republic of China, and Thailand:...

2013-12-12

44

Study of high toughness ferrite wire for submerged arc welding of pipeline steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of steel plate and the need of high toughness pipeline, it is necessary to develop wire and flux for high efficiency submerged arc welding to produce weld metal, which can match the properties of the base metal. The weld metal is designed to mainly consist of acicular ferrite. The variations of elements between wire and weld metal,

Yun Peng; Wuzhu Chen; Zuze Xu

2001-01-01

45

Influence of filler wire composition on weld microstructures of a 444 ferritic stainless steel grade  

E-print Network

1 Influence of filler wire composition on weld microstructures of a 444 ferritic stainless steel'Aumône, France. Abstract Seven compositions of metal cored filler wires for Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW. This was due to the low Ti transfer ratio during arc welding. Moreover, Ti increased the wetting angle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

46

Inelastic behaviour in steel wire pull-out from Portland cement mortar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study of the factors influencing the pull-out force of stainless steel wires embedded in Portland cement mortar. The first part provides a theoretical elastic analysis of the pull-out force in terms of the misfit between wire and matrix, the coefficient of friction at the wire-matrix interface and the elastic constants of the materials. The resulting equation

D. J. Pinchin; D. Tabor

1978-01-01

47

76 FR 19382 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Effective Date: March 31, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Angela Newell (202-708-5409), Office of Investigations, U...instituted in response to a petition filed on March 31, 2011, by Davis Wire Corp., Irwindale, CA; Johnstown Wire...

2011-04-07

48

Process design of multi-stage wet wire drawing for improving the drawing speed for 0.72 wt% C steel wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is the design of a multi-stage wet wire drawing process for improving the drawing speed for high carbon (0.72wt% C) steel wire. In this study, the pass schedule and the design of a multi-stage wet drawing machine have been executed for achieving the objective. In the high-carbon steel wet wire drawing process under high speed,

Sang-Kon Lee; Seon-Bong Lee; Byung-Min Kim

2010-01-01

49

77 FR 17430 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Duties on Galvanized Steel Wire from Mexico and Antidumping and Countervailing...Wire from the People's Republic of China filed on March 31, 2011 (the...the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

2012-03-26

50

Holonic control of a water cooling system for a steel rod mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the intelligent manufacturing systems feasibility study on holonic manufacturing systems, a benchmark study whose objective was to develop an architecture of a holonic cooling control system for a steel rod rolling mill is described. The resulting architecture was simulated to illustrate benefits that could be obtained with the holonic system compared with a conventional system. A generic

J. R. Agre; G. Elsley; D. McFarlane; J. Cheng; B. Gunn

1994-01-01

51

Dilution control in single-wire stainless steel submerged arc cladding  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study of the effects of bead-to-bead stepover, wire size, wire feed speed, voltage, flux chromium content, and polarity on dilution and ferrite in single-wire submerged arc cladding of ER309L on mild steel plate is described. Low dilution was found to be promoted by reduced stepover, reduced wire feed speed, and DC electrode negative polarity. Use of a high-chromium flux can broaden the tolerance for dilution, providing an austenitic deposit free of martensite, and containing at least 4 FN for assurance of freedom from hot cracking over a broader range of dilutions.

Kotecki, D.J. [Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1996-02-01

52

Prospects of increasing the strength of aluminum by reinforcing it with stainless steel wire (a review)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical and experimental strength of aluminum reinforced with stainless steel wire is analyzed. Various methods of producing the composite material and it's static and cyclical strengths are considered. The reinforcement of aluminum with stainless steel wire was accomplished from the perspective of increasing the specific strength of aluminum and it's alloys, increasing the strength of the material with respect to high and low temperatures, as well as increasing the cyclical strength. The production of the composite aluminum-stainless steel wire material with approximated or calculated strengthening is possible by any of the considered methods. The selection of the proper production technology depends on precise details and conditions of application of the material.

Botvina, L. R.; Ivanova, V. S.; Kopev, I. M.

1982-01-01

53

Comparing the cyclic behavior of concrete cylinders confined by shape memory alloy wire or steel jackets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets for concrete are distinct from conventional jackets of steel or fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) since they provide active confinement which can be easily achieved due to the shape memory effect of SMAs. This study uses NiTiNb SMA wires of 1.0 mm diameter to confine concrete cylinders with the dimensions of 300 mm × 150 mm (L × D). The NiTiNb SMAs have a relatively wider temperature hysteresis than NiTi SMAs; thus, they are more suitable for the severe temperature-variation environments to which civil structures are exposed. Steel jackets of passive confinement are also prepared in order to compare the cyclic behavior of actively and passively confined concrete cylinders. For this purpose, monotonic and cyclic compressive loading tests are conducted to obtain axial and circumferential strain. Both strains are used to estimate the volumetric strains of concrete cylinders. Plastic strains from cyclic behavior are also estimated. For the cylinders jacketed by NiTiNb SMA wires, the monotonic axial behavior differs from the envelope of cyclic behavior. The plastic strains of the actively confined concrete show a similar trend to those of passive confinement. This study proposed plastic strain models for concrete confined by SMA wire or steel jackets. For the volumetric strain, the active jackets of NiTiNb SMA wires provide more energy dissipation than the passive jacket of steel.

Park, Joonam; Choi, Eunsoo; Park, Kyoungsoo; Kim, Hong-Taek

2011-09-01

54

Materials, manufacturing and testing requirements for offshore mooring steel wire ropes  

SciTech Connect

The trend to produce oil at constantly deeper water has led to the development of floating production solutions for the exploitation of the energy resources in these areas. It is a fact that steel wire ropes have been used and are being proposed for use as line segments in the majority of the mooring systems of these units/ships. This paper specifies requirements for the materials, design, manufacture and testing of large diameter offshore mooring steel wire ropes and may serve as a technical reference document in contractual matters between the purchaser and the manufacturer. Typical applications covered are permanent moored floating production systems (FPS), offshore loading systems and mobile offshore units.

Lohne, P.W.

1996-12-31

55

Clinical Variability in Arch Wires: A Preliminary Study Evaluating Mechanical and Surface Characteristics of Two Different Sized Rectangular Stainless Steel Wires  

PubMed Central

Experimental characterization of arch wires has been performed in many previous studies; however with the advent of new arch wire materials being introduced, some new experimental methods and characterization are required. Since literature is available for comparison, this paper examines mechanical and physical characteristics of steel arch wires to quantify their variability in engineering terms. Furthermore, the effect of wire size on properties was evaluated using two of the most common wire sizes. Finally, manufacturing consistency was verified by testing samples from different lots. PMID:19662123

Vena, Alessandro; Carey, Jason; Badawi, Hisham

2007-01-01

56

75 FR 28557 - Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...investigation. See Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the...limited to, pre-stressed concrete (both pre-tensioned and...but not limited to, grease, plastic sheath, or epoxy. This merchandise...merchandise. See Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from...

2010-05-21

57

Research on the fatigue and fracture behavior due to the fretting wear of steel wire in hoisting rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoisting steel rope is an important component of the winding equipment in coalmines. Fretting wear and its induced fatigue and fracture of wires have been the major failure modes of the hoisting ropes. In this paper, a series of experiments on the fretting friction and wear of steel wires were performed on an elastic beam oscillation test rig. The worn

D. K. Zhang; S. R. Ge; Y. H. Qiang

2003-01-01

58

Results of titanium locking plate and stainless steel cerclage wire combination in femoral fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: Some in vitro studies warn combining different metals in orthopedic surgery. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of combining titanium and stainless steel on bone healing and the clinical course of patients undergoing internal fixation of femoral fractures. Materials and Methods: 69 patients with femoral fractures had polyaxial locking plate osteosynthesis. The locking plate was made of a titanium alloy. Two different cohorts were defined: (a) sole plating and (b) additional stainless steel cerclage wiring. Postoperative radiographs and clinical followup were performed at 6 weeks, 3 months and 12 months. Results: Cohorts A and B had 36 and 33 patients, respectively. Patient demographics and comorbidities were similar in both groups. In two cases in cohort A, surgical revision was necessary. No complication could be attributed to the combination of titanium and stainless steel. Conclusion: The combination of stainless steel cerclage wires and titanium plates does not compromise fracture healing or the postoperative clinical course. PMID:24133304

El-Zayat, Bilal Farouk; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Efe, Turgay; Paletta, Jürgen; Kreslo, Dimitri; Zettl, Ralph

2013-01-01

59

FLUID MIXING EXPERIMENTS WITH A WIRE WRAPPED 7ROD BUNDLE FUEL ASSEMBLY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a 7-rod bundle nuclear fuel element in a circular coolant ; tube results in distinct flow sub-channels. To allow maximum power generation in ; the rod bundle, it is necessary to overcome the effects of unbalance between the ; heat transfer surface and the coolant flow rates in these subchannels by forcing ; inter-channel mixing to occur.

1961-01-01

60

Effect of abrasive wear on the tensile strength of steel wire rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known amounts of external abrasive wear were introduced into a new 6-strand steel wire rope and the effects of this wear on the tensile strength of the rope examined against the rope discard criteria for wear stated in ISO 4309: 1990 and other selected international standards. The variations of strength with degree of wear in the test rope were compared

A. R. T. de Silva; Long Woon Fong

2002-01-01

61

75 FR 4104 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...inches to 0.70 inches in diameter. PC strand made from galvanized wire is only excluded from the scope if the zinc and/or zinc oxide coating meets or exceeds the 0.40 oz./ft\\2\\ standard set forth in ASTM-A-475. The PC strand...

2010-01-26

62

Research of selected properties of two types of high manganese steel wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents results of tests that aimed at establishing the impact of deformation on properties of wires made of two types of high manganese steels. The deformation process was carried out with the use of a draw bench machine at a speed of 0.5 m min-1. Mechanical properties and structure of strengthened and annealed wires for both steels at different levels of relative reduction in cross-section were determined. Strength of the tested materials was determined in the tensile test, while its hardness was measured with the Vickers hardness test method. Fractographic tests were performed using a scanning electron microscope. It was shown that at the beginning of tensile test, the investigated high manganese steels were characterized by very high plasticity and become stronger as the degree of deformation grows. Surfaces of fractures that were created in the areas where the sample was torn were analyzed. These fractures indicate the presence of transcrystalline ductile fractures.

Tomaszewska, A.; Jab?o?ska, M.; Hadasik, E.; Niewielski, G.; Kawalla, R.

2011-05-01

63

Formation quality optimization of laser hot wire cladding for repairing martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser cladding is an advantaged repairing technology due to its low heat input and high flexibility. With preheating wire by resistance heat, laser hot wire cladding shows better process stability and higher deposition efficiency compared to laser cold wire/powder cladding. Multi-pass layer were cladded on the surface of martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel FV520B by fiber laser with ER410NiMo wire. Wire feed rate and preheat current were optimized to obtain stable wire transfer, which guaranteed good formation quality of single pass cladding. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters and predict formation quality of multi-pass cladding. Laser power P, scanning speed Vs, wire feed rate Vf and overlap ratio ? were selected as the input variables, while flatness ratio, dilution and incomplete fusion value as the responses. Optimal clad layer with flat surface, low dilution and no incomplete fusion was obtained by appropriately reducing Vf, and increasing P, Vs and ?. No defect like pore or crack was found. The tensile strength and impact toughness of the clad layer is respectively 96% and 86% of those of the substrate. The clad layer showed nonuniform microstructure and was divided into quenched areas with coarse lath martensite and tempered areas with tempered martensite due to different thermal cycles in adjacent areas. The tempered areas showed similar hardness to the substrate.

Wen, Peng; Feng, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shiqing

2015-01-01

64

RAPID COMMUNICATION: Influence of Ti and Ta doping on the irreversible strain limit of ternary Nb3Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nb3Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process (RRP®) were found to have a dramatically improved resilience to axial tensile strain when alloyed with Ti as compared to Ta. Whereas Ta-alloyed Nb3Sn in RRP wires showed permanent damage to its current-carrying capacity (Ic) when tensioned beyond an intrinsic strain as small as 0.04%, Ti-doped Nb3Sn in RRP strands exhibits a

N. Cheggour; L. F. Goodrich; T. C. Stauffer; J. D. Splett; X. F. Lu; A. K. Ghosh; G. Ambrosio

2010-01-01

65

Investigation on short-term burst pressure of plastic pipes reinforced by cross helically wound steel wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic pipes reinforced by cross helically wound steel wires (PSP), which have exhibited excellent mechanical performance,\\u000a consist of inner polyethylene (PE) layer, winding layer and outer PE layer. The winding layer is composed of two monolayers\\u000a where steel wires are cross helically wound. An analytical procedure is developed to predict the short-term burst pressure\\u000a of PSP as the monolayer is

Jin-yang Zheng; Yong-jian Gao; Xiang Li; Xiu-feng Lin; Yu-bin Lu; Yan-cong Zhu

2008-01-01

66

Bonding Mechanisms in Resistance Microwelding of 316 Low-Carbon Vacuum Melted Stainless Steel Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistance microwelding (RMW) is an important joining process used in the fabrication of miniature instruments, such as electrical and medical devices. The excellent corrosion resistance of 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) wire makes it ideal for biomedical applications. The current study examines the microstructure and mechanical properties of crossed resistance microwelded 316LVM wire. Microtensile and microhardness testing was used to analyze the mechanical performance of welds, and fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Finally, a bonding mechanism is proposed based on optimum joint breaking force (JBF) using metallurgical observations of weld cross sections. Moreover, comparisons with RMWs of Ni, Au-plated Ni, and SUS304 SS wire are discussed.

Khan, M. I.; Kim, J. M.; Kuntz, M. L.; Zhou, Y.

2009-04-01

67

Time-Integrated Synthetic X-Ray Spectroscopy for Stainless Steel Wire Array -Pinches  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a collisional-radiative spectroscopic model to generate a stainless steel (SS) atomic model to analyze the implosion dynamics of an array of SS wires on the Z and\\/or refurbished Z accelerator at the U.S. Sandia National Laboratories. This approach combines the completeness of highly averaged Rydberg state models with the accuracy of detailed models for all important excited

Arati Dasgupta; John L. Giuliani; Jack Davis; Robert W. Clark; Christine A. Coverdale; Brent Jones; David J. Ampleford

2010-01-01

68

Penetration of Long Steel Rods into Thick Steel and Sandstone Targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of a ogive-nosed steel projectile into thick sandstone and steel targets has been simulated over impact velocities from 200 m/s to 750 m/s, and the projectile deceleration histories compared. Both targets have an entrance phase in which deceleration increases sharply. This phase is followed in a steel target by a steady deceleration phase. In sandstone, however, a double-peak structure is seen in the 300-550 m/s range. This is similar to the double peak that was observed in a reported rock penetration experiment at 520 m/s. These studies are aimed at determination of material-specific parameters related to dynamic strength and fracture properties.

Mehra, Vishal; Chaturvedi, Shashank

2011-07-01

69

Design of dual energy x-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dual energy X-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. Conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is one of primary transfer equipments in modern production. The traditional test methods like electromagnetic induction principle could not display inner image of steel wire ropes directly. So X-ray detection technology has used to detect the conveyor belt. However the image was not so clear by the interference of the rubber belt. Therefore, the dualenergy X-ray detection technology with subtraction method is developed to numerically remove the rubber belt from radiograph, thus improving the definition of the ropes image. The purpose of this research is to design a dual energy Xray detector that could make the operator easier to found the faulty of the belt. This detection system is composed of Xray source, detector controlled by FPGA chip, PC for running image processing system and so on. With the result of the simulating, this design really improved the capability of the staff to test the conveyor belt.

Dai, Yue; Miao, Changyun; Rong, Feng

2009-07-01

70

Surface Preparation of Powder Metallurgical Tool Steels by Means of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface of two types of powder metallurgical (PM) tool steels ( i.e., with and without nitrogen) was prepared using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). From each grade of tool steel, seven surfaces corresponding to one to seven passes of WEDM were prepared. The WEDM process was carried out using a brass wire as electrode and deionized water as dielectric. After each WEDM pass the surface of the tool steels was thoroughly examined. Surface residual stresses were measured by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The measured stresses were found to be of tensile nature. The surface roughness of the WEDM specimens was measured using interference microscopy. The surface roughness as well as the residual stress measurements indicated an insignificant improvement of these parameters after four passes of WEDM. In addition, the formed recast layer was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The characterization investigation clearly shows diffusion of copper and zinc from the wire electrode into the work material, even after the final WEDM step. Finally, the importance of eliminating excessive WEDM steps is thoroughly discussed.

Hatami, Sepehr; Shahabi-Navid, Mehrdad; Nyborg, Lars

2012-09-01

71

Evaluation of two AISI 4037 cold heading quality steel wires for improved tool life and product quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

One automobile fastener is manufactured from a cold heading quality (CHQ) steel wire obtained from two different sources.\\u000a Both wires are spheroidize annealed and phosphate coated. Their microstructures, compositions, and mechanical properties have\\u000a been evaluated in order to establish the characteristics of a good stock wire that can improve the tool life leading to higher\\u000a productivity and product quality. The

T. Das; J. Y. Li; E. Summerville

2002-01-01

72

Effect of microalloying on the strength of high carbon wire steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microalloying additions of V, Nb, and N were investigated as means of increasing strength of eutectoid steels for wire applications. In order to examine the effects of microalloying additions during several stages of wire processing, continuous cooling experiments with and without deformation as well as patenting simulations were conducted using a Gleeble® 3500 thermomechanical simulator. Continuous cooling was performed from industrial austenitizing (1093 °C) and laying head (950 °C and 880 °C) temperatures, at rates ranging from 1 50 °C/s. Deformation was induced via hot torsion testing, which was followed by continuous cooling from 950 °C at rates of 5, 10, and 25 °C/s. Industrial wire patenting was simulated by austenitizing at 1093 °C or 950 °C for 30 sec, then rapid cooling to isothermal transformation temperatures of 575, 600, 625, and 650 °C for 15 sec before cooling to room temperature. Metallography, Vickers hardness, pearlite colony size and pearlite interlamellar spacing (ILS) measurements were used to examine the effects of these treatments. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves were constructed for four steels: 1080, V, V+N, and V+Nb. In the V-microalloyed steel, additional N accelerated pearlite transformation and Nb delayed pearlite transformation. Observed N effects are in agreement with the theory of VN nucleating grain boundary ferrite and accelerating pearlite transformation, proposed by Han et al. [1995], and also consistent with observations by Brownrigg and Prior [2002]. Delay of transformation temperatures has been observed due to Nb effects [De Ardo, 2009]. A larger delay observed with higher austenitizing temperatures suggests that Nb precipitates may not be as effective at delaying transformation. V strengthening effects were observed in all microalloyed steels using a model that predicted hardness of eutectoid steels by incorporating colony size and ILS measurements, with maximum strengthening observed for the V+N steel. The V+Nb steel was found to have the greatest refinement of colony size and ILS, and subsequently higher hardness among the test alloys in both the undeformed and deformed conditions, consistent with the delay of pearlite transformation. In general, undeformed samples had much higher hardness values. Patenting simulations performed on microalloyed steels showed the potential for increased strength with V addition with a sufficiently high austenitizing temperature. All microalloyed steels showed higher hardness than 1080 when austenitized at 1093 °C, with V and V+Nb having the greatest strength increase. The effect was not observed with a 950 °C reheat potentially related to insufficient dissolution of precipitates.

Miller, Stephanie L.

73

Microstructure and mechanical properties of V–Ti–N microalloyed steel used for fracture splitting connecting rod  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new kind of V–Ti–N high strength microalloyed medium carbon steel has been developed, which is used for fracture splitting\\u000a connecting rod. In this article, the characteristics of this carbon steel and its production process were studied. The microstructure,\\u000a precipitated phases and their effects on mechanical properties were investigated by optical microscope, SEM, and TEM. The\\u000a results showed that the

Xianzhong Zhang; Qizhou Cai; Guifeng Zhou; Qingfeng Chen; Yuzhang Xiong

2011-01-01

74

Dilution control in single-wire stainless steel submerged arc cladding  

SciTech Connect

Work by Jackson and others has shown that dilution of single weld beads can be controlled to a limited extent by choice of welding parameters in single wire submerged arc overlay. Inquiries from fabricators about limiting dilution in single-wire submerged arc cladding continue to be received. Accordingly, a procedure development program was undertaken to provide technical support to fabricators. A table, with a lead screw for accurately and reproducibly indexing the stepover from bead to bead, was constructed. Overlays, at least eight beads wide, were deposited on 1-in. thick mild steel using ER309L wire, in sizes 1/8, 3/32, and 5/64- in. More than 50 different cladding conditions have been examined. A number of overlays were made with 1/8 in. wire at 80 ipm wire feed speed (about 16.5 lb/h deposition rate), DCEP, with a chromium-compensating flux. Voltage, tilt of the electrode back towards the previous bead, and stepover were principle variables. In single-wire submerged arc cladding with ER309L, stepover is a very important variable in determining dilution and ferrite. However, if too little stepover is used, lack of fusion of the overlay with the base metal results. Use of DCEN can be helpful in limiting dilution and obtaining ferrite, but many fluxes do not perform well on DCEN. A chromium-adding flux designed for DCEN can be of assistance in limiting dilution and obtaining ferrite over a broader range of stepovers. Quantitative dilution data are presented for a variety of single-layer overlay conditions.

Kotecki, D.J., Ogborn, J.S.

1994-12-31

75

Defects in Carbon-Rich Ferrite of Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By means of X-ray line profile analysis and positron lifetime spectroscopy, densities of deformation-induced defects in carbon-rich ferrite of a series of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires with true strains (?) up to 5 are characterized. It is shown that both the dislocation densities and the vacancy cluster concentrations increase continuously with increasing ?. On the basis of the measured defect densities, values of defect hardening are estimated. The result shows that contributions of the defect hardening to the total tensile strength of the wires reach nearly 40 pct, which is mainly ascribed to the dislocation hardening. Chemical surroundings of the defects in the carbon-rich ferrite are investigated by coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy. The association of carbon with the defects in ferrite is demonstrated.

Chen, Y. Z.; Csiszár, G.; Cizek, J.; Westerkamp, S.; Borchers, C.; Ungár, T.; Goto, S.; Liu, F.; Kirchheim, R.

2013-08-01

76

Research of x-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An X-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. The principle of X-ray nondestructive testing (NDT) is analyzed, the general scheme of the X-ray nondestructive testing system is proposed, and the nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is developed. The hardware of system is designed with Xilinx's VIRTEX-4 FPGA that embeds PowerPC and MAC IP core, and its network communication software based on TCP/IP protocol is programmed by loading LwIP to PowerPC. The nondestructive testing of high-speed conveyor belt with steel wire ropes and network transfer function are implemented. It is a strong real-time system with rapid scanning speed, high reliability and remotely nondestructive testing function. The nondestructive detector can be applied to the detection of product line in industry.

Wang, Junfeng; Miao, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Lu, Xiaocui

2008-03-01

77

78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Department of Commerce (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from Mexico is being, or is likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (``LTFV''), as provided in section 733(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). The period of investigation (``POI'') is April 1, 2012, through March 31, 2013.......

2013-12-12

78

78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Department of Commerce (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tire wire (``PC tie wire'') from Thailand is not being, or likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (``LTFV''), as provided in section 733(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). The period of investigation (``POI'') is April 1, 2012, through March 31,......

2013-12-12

79

Development of Process Maps in Two-Wire Tandem Submerged Arc Welding Process of HSLA Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Appropriate selection of welding conditions to guarantee requisite weld joint mechanical properties is ever difficult because of their complex interactions. An approach is presented here to identify suitable welding conditions in typical two-wire tandem submerged arc welding (SAW-T) that involves many welding variables. First, an objective function is defined, which depicts the squared error between the mechanical properties of weld joint and of base material. A set of artificial neural network (ANN)-based models are developed next to estimate the weld joint properties as function of welding conditions using experimentally measured results. The neural network model-based predictions are used next to create a set of process map contours that depict the minimum achievable values of the objective function and the corresponding welding conditions. In typical SAW-T of HSLA steel, welding speed from 9.0 to 11.5 mm/s, leading wire current from 530 to 580 A, and trailing wire negative current from 680 to 910 A are found to be the most optimal.

Kiran, D. V.; Alam, S. A.; De, A.

2013-04-01

80

Crystallographic Texture Difference Between Center and Sub-Surface of Thin Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The texture difference between the center and sub-surface of pearlitic steel wires, which were manufactured by continuous cold drawing, was investigated by orientation distribution function based on electron back-scattered diffraction at different drawing passes. A perfect <110> fiber texture parallel to drawing direction develops gradually with drawing strain increasing at the wire center, while at the sub-surface, a quasi <110> fiber texture with the <111> orientation nearly parallel to the circumferential direction is found. This texture at the sub-surface is softer than the perfect <110> fiber texture in tension. The reasons for this texture difference and influences on the wire's mechanical properties are discussed.

Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Song, Hong-Wu; Cheng, Ming; Zhang, Shi-Hong

2014-09-01

81

RAPID COMMUNICATION: Influence of Ti and Ta doping on the irreversible strain limit of ternary Nb3Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nb3Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process (RRP®) were found to have a dramatically improved resilience to axial tensile strain when alloyed with Ti as compared to Ta. Whereas Ta-alloyed Nb3Sn in RRP wires showed permanent damage to its current-carrying capacity (Ic) when tensioned beyond an intrinsic strain as small as 0.04%, Ti-doped Nb3Sn in RRP strands exhibits a remarkable reversibility up to a tensile strain of about 0.25%, conceivably making Ti-doped RRP wires more suitable for the high field magnets used in particle accelerators and nuclear magnetic resonance applications where mechanical forces are intense. A strain cycling experiment at room temperature caused a significant drop of Ic in Ta-alloyed wires, but induced an increase of Ic in the case of Ti-doped strands. Whereas either Ti or Ta doping yield a similar enhancement of the upper critical field of Nb3Sn, the much improved mechanical behavior of Ti-alloyed wires possibly makes Ti a better choice over Ta, at least for the RRP wire processing technique. Contribution of NIST, an agency of the US government, not subjected to copyright.

Cheggour, N.; Goodrich, L. F.; Stauffer, T. C.; Splett, J. D.; Lu, X. F.; Ghosh, A. K.; Ambrosio, G.

2010-05-01

82

Influence of Ti and Ta doping on the irreversible strain limit of ternary Nb3Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process  

SciTech Connect

Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process (RRP{reg_sign}) were found to have a dramatically improved resilience to axial tensile strain when alloyed with Ti as compared to Ta. Whereas Ta-alloyed Nb{sub 3}Sn in RRP wires showed permanent damage to its current-carrying capacity (I{sub c}) when tensioned beyond an intrinsic strain as small as 0.04%, Ti-doped Nb{sub 3}Sn in RRP strands exhibits a remarkable reversibility up to a tensile strain of about 0.25%, conceivably making Ti-doped RRP wires more suitable for the high field magnets used in particle accelerators and nuclear magnetic resonance applications where mechanical forces are intense. A strain cycling experiment at room temperature caused a significant drop of I{sub c} in Ta-alloyed wires, but induced an increase of I{sub c} in the case of Ti-doped strands. Whereas either Ti or Ta doping yield a similar enhancement of the upper critical field of Nb{sub 3}Sn, the much improved mechanical behavior of Ti-alloyed wires possibly makes Ti a better choice over Ta, at least for the RRP wire processing technique.

Cheggour, N.; Ghosh, A.; Goodrich, L.F., Stauffer, T.C., Splett, J.D., Lu, X.F., Ambrosio, G.

2010-06-22

83

Thermodynamic analysis of the compositional control of inclusions in cutting-wire steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from a thermodynamic database and the calculation software FactSage were used to investigate the phase diagrams of the MnO-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system in cutting-wire steel and the effects of oxide components on the low-melting-point (LMP) zone in the corresponding phase diagrams. Furthermore, the activities of oxide components in the quaternary system at an Al2O3 content of 25wt% were calculated. The contents of dissolved [Al] and [O] in liquid steel in equilibrium with LMP inclusions in the MnO-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system were optimized. The results show that the MnO-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system possesses the largest LMP zone (below 1400°C) at an Al2O3 content of 25wt% and that the CaO content should be simultaneously controlled in the range of 40wt% to 45wt%. The activities of the oxide components CaO, MnO, and SiO2 should be restricted in the ranges of 0 to 0.05, 0.01 to 0.6, and 0.001 to 0.8, respectively. To obtain LMP inclusions, the [Al] and [O] contents in cutting-wire steel must be controlled within the ranges of 0.5 × 10-6 to 1.0 × 10-5 and 3.0 × 10-6 to 5.0 × 10-5, respectively.

Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fu-ming; Li, Chang-rong

2014-07-01

84

Analytical solution for the pull-out response of FRP rods embedded in steel tubes filled with cement grout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) tendons have been widely used for ground anchors in civil engineering. Although various pull-out\\u000a tests of FRP rods from grout-filled steel tubes have been conducted to simulate ground anchors in rock, there are relatively\\u000a few theoretical studies reported in the literature for this type of bonded anchorages. The intention of this paper is to present\\u000a an analytical

Zhimin Wu; Shutong Yang; Jianjun Zheng; Xiaozhi Hu

2010-01-01

85

POSTIRRADIATION EXAMINATION OF 17-4 PH STAINLESS STEEL CONTROL ROD DRIVE RACK FROM SM1 REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portion of the control rod drive system in the SM-1 Reactor, ; fabricated from l7-4 PH stainless steel, was examined at the Oak Ridge National ; Laboratory (ORNL) hot cells after successful operation in a pressurized-water ; environment for approximately three years. Examination included visual ; inspection, magnetic-particle tests, fluorescent penetrant tests, and ; metallography. No evidence of stress-corrosion

K. K. Klindt; A. E. Richt; W. C. Thurber

1961-01-01

86

Cold drawn steel wires-processing, residual stresses and ductility-part I: metallography and finite element analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold drawing steel wires lead to an increase of their mechanical strength and to a drop of their ductility. The increase of their mechanical strength has long been related to the reduction of the various material scales by plastic deformation, but the mechanisms controlling their elongation to failure have received relatively little attention. It is usually found that heavily deformed

A. PHELIPPEAU; S. POMMIER; T. TSAKALAKOS; M. CLAVEL; C. PRIOUL

2006-01-01

87

75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2\\ Chairman Shara L. Aranoff, Vice Chairman Daniel R. Pearson, and Commissioner Deanna Tanner Okun dissenting with respect to Italy. Vice Chairman Daniel R. Pearson and Commissioner Deanna Tanner Okun dissenting with respect to...

2010-06-08

88

63 FR 40474 - Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination: Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...land and buildings were sold to the Autonomous Region of Valle d'Aosta which now...remuneration. Through this lease, the Autonomous Region of Valle d'Aosta made a financial...Regional Law 64/92 Law 64/92 of the Autonomous Region of Valle d'Aosta provides...

1998-07-29

89

Cold Drawn Steel Wires-Processing, Residual Stresses and Ductility-Part I: Metallography and Finite Element Analyses  

SciTech Connect

Cold drawing steel wires lead to an increase of their mechanical strength and to a drop of their ductility. The increase of their mechanical strength has long been related to the reduction of the various material scales by plastic deformation, but the mechanisms controlling their elongation to failure have received relatively little attention. It is usually found that heavily deformed materials show a tendency to plastic strain localization and necking. However, in this paper it is shown that, though the steel wires are plastically deformed up to strain levels as high as 3.5, a significant capability of plastic deformation is preserved in as-drawn wires. This apparent contradiction is resolved by the existence of residual stresses inside the wire. Finite element analyses have been conducted in order to show that residual stresses, inherited from the drawing process, are sufficient to produce a significant hardening effect during a post-drawing tensile test, without introducing any hardening in the local material behavior. The main conclusion of this paper is that once the material has lost its hardening capabilities, residual stresses, inherited from the process, control the elongation of cold drawn wires. The finite element method allowed also the determination of the residual stress field that would lead to the best agreement between the simulated and the experimental stress strain curve of as-drawn wires.

Phelippeau,A.; Pommier, S.; Tsakalakos, T.; Clavel, M.; Prioul, C.

2006-01-01

90

Investigation of Basic Characteristics of Current-limiting Fuse Using Stainless Steel Wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, owing to the high demand and high dependence on electric power, the reliability of the distribution voltage of electric power systems has become more important. 22 kV high voltage cutout fuses have been used widely, but some breaking accidents occurred because of pollution ? contamination of bushings. With the increase in contaminants on bushings, the electric fields on the fuse element surface rise to a critical level and trigger corona discharge. The fuse element material which is more resistant to corona discharge compared to Ag element is desired. A new type current-limiting fuse made of stainless steel wire of low cost and simple design has been developed. Some characteristic tests including : breaking test with a high surge current and noise intensity when a voltage was applied. It was confirmed that the new type fuse possesses similar performance characteristics as compared with the Ag element using model fuse.

Yuji, Toshifumi; Otsubo, Masahisa; Honda, Chikahisa; Inaba, Tsuginori; Akatsuka, Hiroshi

91

Graphene coating bonded onto stainless steel wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber.  

PubMed

A graphene coating bonded onto stainless steel wire was fabricated and investigated as a solid-phase microextraction fiber. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The coating with rough and crinkled structure was about 1 ?m. These characteristics were helpful for promoting extraction. Using five n-alkanes (n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane) as analytes, the fiber was evaluated in direct-immersion mode by coupling with gas chromatography (GC). Through optimizing extraction and desorption conditions, a sensitive SPME-GC analytical method was established. SPME-GC method provided wide linearity range (0.2-150?gL(-1)) and low limits of determination (0.05-0.5?gL(-1)). It was applied to analyze rain water and a soil sample, and analytes were quantified in the range of 0.85-1.96?gL(-1) and 0.09-3.34?gg(-1), respectively. The recoveries of samples spiked at 10?gL(-1) were in the range of 90.1-120% and 80.6-94.2%, respectively. The fiber also exhibited high thermal and chemical stability, due to the covalent bonds between graphene coating and wire, and the natural resistance of graphene for thermal, acid and basic conditions. PMID:25618658

Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin; Luo, Chuannan

2015-03-01

92

Investigation of stainless steel clad fuel rod failures and fuel performance in the Connecticut Yankee Reactor. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Significant levels of fuel rod failures were observed in the batch 8 fuel assemblies of the Connecticut Yankee reactor. Failure of 304 stainless steel cladding in a PWR environment was not expected. Therefore a detailed poolside and hot cell examination program was conducted to determine the cause of failure and identify differences between batch 8 fuel and previous batches which had operated without failures. Hot cell work conducted consisted of detailed nondestructive and destructive examination of fuel rods from batches 7 and 8. The results indicate that the batch 8 failure mechanism was stress corrosion cracking initiating on the clad outer surface. The sources of cladding stresses are believed to be (a) fuel pellet chips wedged in the cladding gap, (b) swelling of highly nondensifying batch 8 fuel and (c) potentially harmful effects of a power change event that occurred near the end of the second cycle of irradiation for batch 8.

Pasupathi, V.; Klingensmith, R. W.

1981-11-01

93

77 FR 62492 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') has determined that imports of steel wire garment hangers (``hangers'') from Taiwan are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (``LTFV''), as provided in section 735 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the ``Act''). The estimated margins of sales at LTFV are listed in the ``Continuation of Suspension of......

2012-10-15

94

Growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire using chemical vapour deposition and their photocatalytic activity.  

PubMed

The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small I(uv)/I(vis) ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics. PMID:24587716

Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

2014-01-01

95

Growth of ZnO Nanorods on Stainless Steel Wire Using Chemical Vapour Deposition and Their Photocatalytic Activity  

PubMed Central

The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5?eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small Iuv/Ivis ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics. PMID:24587716

Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

2014-01-01

96

Tensile Damage Effects in Steel Plate Perforation by a Tungsten Rod  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EPIC wavecode was used to simulate an experiment in which a tungsten rod impacted at 1.57 km\\/s and perforated a rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) plate. The rod's residual length, L_r, and the hole's final diameter, \\\\overlineD, were experimentally determined. The Johnson-Cook strength model was used for RHA with two sets of constants, J83 and G94. When the Johnson-Cook phfracture

Martin N. Raftenberg

1997-01-01

97

Heat generation and transfer behaviors of ti-coated carbon steel rod adaptable for ablation therapy of oral cancer.  

PubMed

For the purpose of developing a novel ablation therapy for oral cancer, the heat generation and transfer properties of a Ti-coated carbon steel rod with 20-mm length and 1.8-mm outer diameter were investigated by means of a high-frequency induction technique at 300 kHz. The heat generation measurement performed using water (15 mL) revealed that the difference of the inclination angles (? = 0°, 45° and 90°) relative to the magnetic flux direction only slightly affects the heating behavior, exhibiting the overlapped temperature curves during an induction time of 1200 s. These results suggest that the effect of the shape magnetic anisotropy is almost eliminated, being convenient for the precise control of the ablation temperature in clinical use. In the experiments utilizing a tissue-mimicking phantom, the heat transfer concentrically occurred in the lateral direction for both the planar surface and a 10-mm deep cross-section. However, the former exhibited a considerably lower increase in temperature (?T), probably due to the effect of heat dissipation to the ambient air. No significant heat transfer was found to occur to the lower side of the inserted Ti-coated carbon steel rod, which is situated in the longitudinal direction. PMID:24955829

Naohara, Takashi; Aono, Hiromichi; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Hirazawa, Hideyuki; Matsutomo, Shinya; Watanabe, Yuji

2013-01-01

98

77 FR 73430 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative Determination of Critical...wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam) with the exception of imports from the Hamico...

2012-12-10

99

Influence of Ti and Ta doping on the irreversible strain limit of ternary Nb3Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod processContribution of NIST, an agency of the US government, not subjected to copyright  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nb3Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process (RRP®) were found to have a dramatically improved resilience to axial tensile strain when alloyed with Ti as compared to Ta. Whereas Ta-alloyed Nb3Sn in RRP wires showed permanent damage to its current-carrying capacity (Ic) when tensioned beyond an intrinsic strain as small as 0.04%, Ti-doped Nb3Sn in RRP strands exhibits a

N. Cheggour; L F Goodrich; T C Stauffer; J D Splett; X F Lu; A K Ghosh; G. Ambrosio

2010-01-01

100

Comparison of a multifilament stainless steel suture with FiberWire for flexor tendon repairs--an in vitro biomechanical study.  

PubMed

Our goal was to investigate and compare the mechanical properties of multifilament stainless steel suture (MFSS) and polyethylene multi-filament core FiberWire in flexor tendon repairs. Flexor digitorum profundus tendons were repaired in human cadaver hands with either a 4-strand cruciate cross-lock repair or 6-strand modified Savage repair using 4-0 and 3-0 multifilament stainless steel or FiberWire. The multifilament stainless steel repairs were as strong as those performed with FiberWire in terms of ultimate load and load at 2 mm gap. This study suggests that MFSS provides as strong a repair as FiberWire. The mode of failure of the MFSS occurred by the suture pulling through the tendon, which suggests an advantage in terms of suture strength. PMID:22745156

McDonald, E; Gordon, J A; Buckley, J M; Gordon, L

2013-05-01

101

Lubrication Basics for Wire Ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire rope forms an important part of many machines and structures. It is comprised of continuous wire strands wound around a central core. There are many kinds of wire rope designed for different applications. Most of them are steel wires made into strands wound with each other. The core can be made of steel, rope or even plastics. Wire ropes

Jeffrey E. Turner; Christopher Barnes

102

Evaluation of load-deflection properties of fiber-reinforced composites and its comparison with stainless steel wires  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of common sized fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) to different deflections due to bending forces and comparing it with stainless steel (SS) wires. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two FRC groups with 0.75 mm and 1.2 mm diameters (Everstick Ortho, Stick Tech, Finland) and three SS groups with 0.016 × 0.022 inch, 0.0215 × 0.028 inch and 0.7 mm diameters (3M Uniteck, Monrovia, California, USA) were tested. Each group contained 10 samples that were tested according to a three point bending test. Each group was tested at deflections of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm and the data was analyzed using the repeated measure ANOVA by SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, IBM SPSS, Inc. in Chicago, Illinois, USA). P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The highest recorded load belonged to the 1.2 mm FRC and after that 0.7 mm SS wire, 0.75 mm FRC, 0.0215 × 0.028 inch SS wire and finally 0.016 × 0.022 inch SS wire. The 0.7 mm SS wire and 0.75 mm FRC were compared as retainers and the results showed the 0.7 mm SS wire showed significantly higher load compared with 0.75 mm FRC (P < 0.05). The 1.2 mm FRC had significantly higher load compared to 0.0215 × 0.028 inch and 0.016 × 0.022 inch SS wires (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that the 1.2 mm FRC group had significantly higher load compared to SS wires and other FRC groups under the 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm deflections. Therefore, it can be suggested that FRC can be used as an esthetic replacement for SS wires for active and passive purposes in orthodontics. PMID:24932195

Alavi, Shiva; Mamavi, Tayebe

2014-01-01

103

Selection of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process Parameters on Stainless Steel AISI Grade-304 using Design of Experiments Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a specialized thermal machining process capable of accurately machining parts of hard materials with complex shapes. Parts having sharp edges that pose difficulties to be machined by the main stream machining processes can be easily machined by WEDM process. Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been reported in this work for stainless steel AISI grade-304 which is used in cryogenic vessels, evaporators, hospital surgical equipment, marine equipment, fasteners, nuclear vessels, feed water tubing, valves, refrigeration equipment, etc., is machined by WEDM with brass wire electrode. The DOE method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyze the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics, and to predict the optimal choice for each WEDM parameter such as voltage, pulse ON, pulse OFF and wire feed. It is found that these parameters have a significant influence on machining characteristic such as metal removal rate (MRR), kerf width and surface roughness (SR). The analysis of the DOE reveals that, in general the pulse ON time significantly affects the kerf width and the wire feed rate affects SR, while, the input voltage mainly affects the MRR.

Lingadurai, K.; Nagasivamuni, B.; Muthu Kamatchi, M.; Palavesam, J.

2012-06-01

104

Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture of concrete targets impacted by steel rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture of concrete target blocks, impacted by steel projectiles, was performed in the present study. The specific impact configuration of this study follows the experiment series conducted by Hanchak et al., where 610 à 610 à 178mm³ reinforced concrete blocks were impacted by 25.4 mm diameter, 143.7 mm long, 0.5 kg, 3.0 caliber-radius-head, ogival nose steel

1992-01-01

105

Sintered wire annode  

DOEpatents

A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

Falce, Louis R. (Surprise, AZ); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

2007-12-25

106

Mechanical properties of Fe -10Ni -7Mn martensitic steel subjected to severe plastic deformation via cold rolling and wire drawing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steels are one of the major groups of ultra-high strength steels that have good mechanical properties and ductility in as annealed condition but they suffer from severe inter-granular embitterment after aging. In this paper, the effect of heavy shaped cold rolling and wire drawing on the mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn steel was investigated. This process could provide a large strain deformation in this alloy. The total strain was epsilon ~7. Aging behavior and tensile properties of Fe-10Ni-7Mn were studied after aging at 753 K. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and ductility after cold rolling, wire drawing and aging increased up to 2540 MPa and 7.1 %, respectively, while the conventional steels show a premature fracture stress of 830 MPa with about zero ductility after aging.

Ghasemi-Nanesa, H.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.; Shirazi, H.

2010-07-01

107

Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture of concrete targets impacted by steel rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture of concrete target blocks, impacted by steel projectiles, was performed in the present study. The specific impact configuration of this study follows the experiment series conducted by Hanchak et al., where 610 [times] 610 [times] 178mm[sup 3] reinforced concrete blocks were impacted by 25.4 mm diameter, 143.7 mm long, 0.5 kg, 3.0 caliber-radius-head, ogival nose

1992-01-01

108

Failure analysis of silicon nitride rings for hot rolling of highly alloyed steel and superalloy wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rolls for rolling of metal wires are traditionally made from cemented carbides, but they suffer from roughening of the working surfaces and severe wear which restrict the roll lifetimes. Silicon nitride ceramics are feasible alternative materials for rolls (and other components in rolling mills) due to their good combination of properties, e.g. high strength and hardness, excellent high-temperature properties, oxidation

Walter Harrer; Roger Morrell; Markus Lengauer; Robert Danzer; Karl Berroth; Walter Zleppnig

2011-01-01

109

75 FR 37382 - Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...inches to 0.70 inches in diameter. PC strand made from galvanized wire is only excluded from the scope if the zinc and/or zinc oxide coating meets or exceeds the 0.40 oz./ft \\2\\ standard set forth in ASTM-A-475. The PC strand...

2010-06-29

110

The Corrosion Resistance of Composite Arch Wire Laser-Welded By NiTi Shape Memory Alloy and Stainless Steel Wires with Cu Interlayer in Artificial Saliva with Protein  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the corrosion resistance of laser-welded composite arch wire (CoAW) with Cu interlayer between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire in artificial saliva with different concentrations of protein was studied. It was found that protein addition had a significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Low concentration of protein caused the corrosion resistance of CoAW decrease in electrochemical corrosion and immersion corrosion tests. High concentration of protein could reduce this effect. PMID:23801895

Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Hou, Xu; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Daqian

2013-01-01

111

Plasma-Based Steel Rod or Rebar Production From In Situ Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The probability of lunar ice has redefined the importance of earlier research reporting Fe as a byproduct of O production from lunar regolith. That emphasis is now on Fe and other materials for in situ resources for construction. In pursuit of O from lunar ilmenite, we have tried (1) a resonating cavity microwave plasma reactor, (2) a nontransferred arc plasma torch feeding a cylindrical reactor, and (3) an inductively coupled plasma reactor feeding a quench chamber with relative success. Instead of using these or other O-focused strategies, and instead of using commercial submerged electric arc smelting of ilmenite to produce Fe, a compact, portable, light, plasma-based cyclone reactor could be adapted as another choice. Cyclone reactors have been under development for several decades, and P. R. Taylor and coworkers have extended their evolution and used them effectively on iron taconites as well as other materials. The advantages of the plasma reactor over other current steel making processes include continuous operation, higher through puts in small reactors, enhanced heat and mass transfer rates, higher temperatures, easy separation of liquids and gases, capture and recycle of plasma gases, and no feed agglomeration. The procedure for producing steel was to feed taconite and CO/CO2 mixtures into the cyclone reactor (Fig. 1), The results were excellent. The procedure and results for lunar ilmenite would be similar. Electrostatically concentrated ilmenite and magnetically concentrated Fe and associated agglutinates would be fed into the reactor along with reductant. Plasma reactors can be modified to produce Al, Ti, glass, ceramics, and advanced materials, and an already automated reactor system can be further automated for remote operation.

White, H.; Prisbrey, Keith

1998-01-01

112

Atomic scale investigation of redistribution of alloying elements in pearlitic steel wires upon cold-drawing and annealing.  

PubMed

A local electrode atom probe has been employed to analyze the redistribution of alloying elements including Si, Mn, and Cr in pearlitic steel wires upon cold-drawing and subsequent annealing. It has been found that the three elements undergo mechanical mixing upon cold-drawing at large strains, where Mn and Cr exhibit a nearly homogeneous distribution throughout both ferrite and cementite, whereas Si only dissolves slightly in cementite. Annealing at elevated temperatures leads to a reversion of the mechanical alloying. Si atoms mainly segregate at well-defined ferrite (sub)grain boundaries formed during annealing. Cr and Mn are strongly concentrated in cementite adjacent to the ferrite/cementite interface due to their lower diffusivities in cementite than in ferrite. PMID:23237772

Li, Y J; Choi, P; Goto, S; Borchers, C; Raabe, D; Kirchheim, R

2013-09-01

113

Influence of Nb Additions on Microstructural Evolution of a V-Microalloyed High-Carbon Wire Steel During Patenting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the feasibility of microalloying strategies for improving the strength of high-carbon wire products subjected to industrial patenting heat treatments for two eutectoid steels: a 0.8C-0.5Mn-0.2Cr-0.08 V alloy (wt.%) and the same composition with an additional 100 ppm Nb. A Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator (Dynamic Systems Inc., Poestenkill, NY, USA) was used to perform heat treatments consisting of a 30 s austenitization at 1093 °C, 950 °C, or 880 °C followed by a 15 s isothermal transformation step at 650 °C, 625 °C, 600 °C, or 575 °C. Vickers hardness, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and pearlite interlamellar spacing measurements were conducted to assess the effects of the heat treatments. Niobium microalloying additions were found to provide no hardness increase, but they extended the pearlitic regime to lower isothermal transformation temperatures.

Miller, Stephanie L.; de Moor, Emmanuel

2014-08-01

114

Failure of crane wire rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A failure analysis of a broken multi strand wire rope from a crane was performed. The fracture of the steel wires in the wire rope showed characteristics of fatigue. On the wire surface were observed decarburised cracks which act as initiation sites for fatigue crack propagation during the application of the wire rope. The main reasons for the failure of

M. Torkar; B. Arzenšek

2002-01-01

115

Design of modified electromagnetic main-flux for steel wire rope inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and construction of modified main-flux equipment for wire rope inspection which has advantages over the in-service inspection and indirect axial-flux measurement used by ordinary main-flux and return-flux methods. The equipment can be adjusted high electromagnetic field strength to produce leakage filed from flaws of various large-diameter ropes. Unique coil sensors connected in series were employed

C. Jomdecha; A. Prateepasen

2009-01-01

116

Embrittlement of cold-drawn high carbon, high chromium steel Kh 18  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Steel Kh18 should not be heated for rolling to over 1150°C since overheating results in stable retained austenite in the as-rolled structure of the wire rod.2.Storage of the hot-rolled steel at room or subnormal temperature of normally rolled and overheated steel is not permissible. After normal rolling, embrittlement is caused by residual stresses produced after air cooling in the overheated

N. P. Zhetvin; L. N. Podvoiskii; L. I. Krylova

1960-01-01

117

78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and...People's Republic of China: Postponement...rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand, and...People's Republic of China. See Prestressed...Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and...

2013-09-19

118

Characterization of hardened cylindrical C1018 steel rods (0.14%-0.2% C, 0.6%-0.9% Mn) using photothermal radiometry.  

PubMed

Frequency-domain photothermal radiometry has been used for the evaluation of the hardened case depth and the measurement of the thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity and diffusivity) of cylindrical C1018 heat-treated steel rods. The measurement results of several steel cylinders nominally hardened identically during a common heat-treating process were consistent with each other and also with mechanical indentation hardness test results. The application of the two-layer composite cylinder thermal-wave theory yielded an effective case depth within the discrete two-layer thermal-wave approximation. This technique provides a relatively simple noncontact and nondestructive method for evaluating the thermophysical parameters of layered cylindrical samples. The good fit of the experimental frequency scans to the two-layer thermal-wave model was shown to constitute a reasonable method for calibrating actual continuously decreasing hardness depth profiles by means of abrupt two-layer-equivalent profiles. PMID:17552852

Wang, Chinhua; Mandelis, Andreas

2007-05-01

119

78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration...wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). DATES: Effective Date: February 5, 2013....

2013-02-05

120

Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1–3 M 0.016” NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016” NiTi, group 3–3 M 0.019” *0.025” SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at ×2000, ×4000 and ×6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0). Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics.

Kararia, Vandana; Jain, Pradeep; Chaudhary, Seema; Kararia, Nitin

2015-01-01

121

Fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro. Methods Roots of human mandibular central incisors were covered with silicone, mimicking the periodontal ligament, and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate. The specimens (N = 50), with two teeth each, were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/group) according to the retainer materials: (1) Interlig (E-glass), (2) everStick Ortho (E-glass), (3) DentaPreg Splint (S2-glass), (4) Ribbond (polyethylene), and (5) Quad Cat wire (stainless steel). After the recommended adhesive procedures, the retainers were bonded to the teeth by using flowable composite resin (Tetric Flow). The teeth were subjected to 10,00,000 cyclic loads (8 Hz, 3 - 100 N, 45° angle, under 37 ± 3? water) at their incisoproximal contact, and debonding forces were measured with a universal testing machine (1 mm/min crosshead speed). Failure sites were examined under a stereomicroscope (×40 magnification). Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Results All the specimens survived the cyclic loading. Their mean debonding forces were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The DentaPreg Splint group (80%) showed the highest incidence of complete adhesive debonding, followed by the Interlig group (60%). The everStick Ortho group (80%) presented predominantly partial adhesive debonding. The Quad Cat wire group (50%) presented overlying composite detachment. Conclusions Cyclic loading did not cause debonding. The retainers presented similar debonding forces but different failure types. Braided stainless steel wire retainers presented the most repairable failure type. PMID:24015388

Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Özcan, Mutlu

2013-01-01

122

FABRICATION OF FUEL RODS BY TANDEM ROLLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tandem rolling process used industrially to manufacture tubular ; resistance heating elements was investigated to determine its applicability for ; fabricating rod-type fuel elements. Approximately 90 stainless steel clad fuel ; rods containing natural UOâ were tandem-rolled to establish optimum rolling ; parameters and fuel rod design. Fuel rod diameter, cladding wall thickness, UO\\/; sub 2\\/ particle size, rolling

Lingafelter

1961-01-01

123

Wire core reactor for NTP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution.

Harty, R. B.

1991-01-01

124

Detection of birdcaging in steel wire rope of a hoisting winch system by analysis of load torque and stator current  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyze theoretically and experimentally the stator current of a three phase induction machine and load torque signals in a hoisting winch system, in order to show how they are influenced by the wire rope faulty condition. When the wire rope is subjected to axial and torsional loads, the outer strands can separate from

H. Henao; S. M. J. Rastegar Fatemi; S. Sieg-Zieba; G. A. Capolino

2009-01-01

125

Thermomechanical processing and mechanical properties of hypereutectoid steels and cast irons  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in metallurgy of hypereutectoid steels and cast irons show that unique properties, such ultrahigh hardness and strength, and superplasticity, are achievable. This book focuses on the mechanical properties of hypereutectoid steels and cast irons as influenced by thermomechanical processing and microstructure. Some topics covered are: (1) Hot workability of hypereutectoid tool steels; (2) Thermomechanical processing of austempered ductile iron: An overview; (3) Mechanical behavior of ultrahigh strength, ultrahigh carbon steel wire and rod; and (4) Tensile elongation behavior of fine-grained Fe-C alloys at elevated temperatures.

Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D. (eds.)

1998-01-01

126

Developments in HSLA steel products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of microalloyed steels is expanding beyond its original emphasis on low-carbon, severely control-rolled strip and plate products. A variety of economical, high-strength, tough, as-rolled or as-forged microalloyed products are replacing more expensive heat-treated steels. Recrystallization-controlled rolling is being utilized to produce very fine ferrite grain sizes and good toughness in strip, plate and bar products processed with relatively high rolling temperatures. High-strength microalloyed long products such as railroad joint bars, truck frame rails and flat bars for truck trailer construction are replacing heat-treated parts. Microalloyed, medium-carbon forging steels are used extensively for automobile engine and suspension components. Fully pearlitic high-carbon rods are being microalloyed to enhance the properties of wire and springs.

Paules, John R.

1991-01-01

127

75 FR 38977 - Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commerce. SUMMARY: Based on affirmative final...and/or zinc oxide coating meets or exceeds...rates, or any rates based solely on the facts...Xinhua), Xinyu Iron and Steel Joint Stock...Xinyu), and Xingang Iron and Steel Joint Stock...merchandise in an amount based on the amended...

2010-07-07

128

Strain measurement in a concrete beam by use of the Brillouin-scattering-based distributed fiber sensor with single-mode fibers embedded in glass fiber reinforced polymer rods and bonded to steel reinforcing bars.  

PubMed

The strain measurement of a 1.65-m reinforced concrete beam by use of a distributed fiber strain sensor with a 50-cm spatial resolution and 5-cm readout resolution is reported. The strain-measurement accuracy is +/-15 microepsilon (microm/m) according to the system calibration in the laboratory environment with non-uniform-distributed strain and +/-5 microepsilon with uniform strain distribution. The strain distribution has been measured for one-point and two-point loading patterns for optical fibers embedded in pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) rods and those bonded to steel reinforcing bars. In the one-point loading case, the strain deviations are +/-7 and +/-15 microepsilon for fibers embedded in the GFRP rods and fibers bonded to steel reinforcing bars, respectively, whereas the strain deviation is +/-20 microepsilon for the two-point loading case. PMID:12206221

Zeng, Xiaodong; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chhoa, Chia Yee; Bremner, Theodore W; Brown, Anthony W; DeMerchant, Michael D; Ferrier, Graham; Kalamkarov, Alexander L; Georgiades, Anastasis V

2002-08-20

129

Silicon nitride tools for the hot rolling of high-alloyed steel and superalloy wires – Crack growth and lifetime prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the hot rolling of wire, tools are nowadays made of cemented carbides. In service, these rollers suffer primarily from wear. Due to the properties of ceramics, improvements in tool behaviour could be expected. In a recent paper the thermal and mechanical stresses in silicon nitride rollers were analysed. In field tests – when rolling materials with high-deformation resistance –

M. Lengauer; R. Danzer

2008-01-01

130

Stiffness Corrections for the Vibration Frequency of a Stretched Wire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need of introducing corrections due to wire stiffness arising from end constraints and wire axis distribution curvature in the measurement of ac electrical frequency by exciting transverse standing waves in a stretched steel wire. (SL)

Hornung, H. G.; Durie, M. J.

1977-01-01

131

Forming condition and control strategy of ferrite decarburization in 60Si2MnA spring steel wires for automotive suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ferrite decarburization behavior of 60Si2MnA spring steel wires for automotive suspensions, including the forming condition and the influence of heating time and cooling rate after hot rolling, was investigated comprehensively. Also, a control strategy during the reheating process and cooling process after rolling was put forward to protect against ferrite decarburization. The results show that ferrite decarburization, which has the strong temperature dependence due to phase transformation, is produced between 675 and 875°C. The maximum depth is found at 750°C. Heating time and cooling rate after rolling have an important influence on decarburization. Reasonable preheating temperature in the billet reheating process and austenitizing temperature in the heat-treatment process are suggested to protect against ferrite decarburization.

Zhang, Chao-Lei; Liu, Ya-Zheng; Zhou, Le-Yu; Jiang, Chao; Xiao, Jin-Fu

2012-02-01

132

Rod Ratios  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity builds student knowledge of ratios by using Cuisenaire rods to determine proportion and form equivalent ratios. Students may use the Cuisenaire rod environment embedded in this resource or they may use actual Cuisenaire rods depending on preference/ability/accessibility. This resource includes teacher notes, solution, and suggestions for questioning.

Team, Nrich

2013-01-01

133

Method for making a hot wire anemometer and product thereof  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hot wire anemometer probe is described that includes a ceramic body supporting two conductive rods parallel to each other. The body has a narrow edge surface from which the rods protrude. A probe wire is welded to the rods and extends along the edge surface. A ceramic adhesive is used to secure the probe wire to the surface so that the probe wire is rigid. A method for fabricating the probe is also described in which the body is molded and precisely shaped by machining techniques before the probe wires are installed.

Milkulla, V. (inventor)

1977-01-01

134

Analytical procedure for modelling recursively and wire by wire stranded ropes subjected to traction and torsion loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to introduce a new theoretical procedure for modelling wire ropes subjected simultaneously to tensile and torsional loads. The procedure is based upon the beam assumption and takes account wire by wire of the double helical wires on the basis of general thin rod theory developed by [Love, A., 1944. Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. Dover

H. Usabiaga; J. M. Pagalday

2008-01-01

135

Vanishing Rods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a quick activity/demonstration that introduces learners to the concept of index of refraction. Learners place stirring rods in a jar of water and notice they can see them clearly. They will be surprised when they place the stirring rods in a jar of vegetable oil and the rods appear practically invisible! This is a dramatic demonstration that effectively illustrates how light can bend and fool the eye.

University, Colorado S.

2009-01-01

136

Influence of different brazing and welding methods on tensile strength and microhardness of orthodontic stainless steel wire.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength and microhardness of joints made by conventional brazing and tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding. A standardized end-to-end joint configuration of the orthodontic wire material in spring hard quality was used. The joints were made using five different methods: brazing (soldering > 450 degrees C) with universal silver solder, two TIG, and two laser welders. Laser parameters and welding conditions were used according to the manufacturers' guidance. The tensile strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). The microhardness measurements were carried out with a hardness tester (Zwick 3202). Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's post hoc correction (P < 0.05). In all cases, brazing joints ruptured at low levels of tensile strength (198 +/- 146 MPa). Significant differences (P < 0.001) between brazing and TIG or laser welding were found. The highest means were observed for TIG welding (699-754 MPa). Laser welding showed a significantly lower mean tensile strength (369-520 MPa) compared with TIG welding. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were found between the original orthodontic wire and the mean microhardness at the centre of the welded area. The mean microhardness differed significantly between brazing (1.99 GPa), TIG (2.22-2.39 GPa) and laser welding (2.21-2.68 GPa). For orthodontic purposes, laser and TIG welding are solder-free alternatives to joining metal. TIG welding with a lower investment cost is comparable with laser welding. However, while expensive, the laser technique is a sophisticated and simple method. PMID:18617503

Bock, Jens Johannes; Fraenzel, Wolfgang; Bailly, Jacqueline; Gernhardt, Christian Ralf; Fuhrmann, Robert Andreas Werner

2008-08-01

137

Wire Maze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students gain a basic understanding of electrical circuits. They build wire circuits and pass paperclips through the mazes, trying not to touch the wires. Touching a wire with a paperclip causes the circuit to close, which activates an indicator.

K-12 Outreach Office,

138

Silicon Ingot Wire Cutting Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Quicktime animation is of a single wire slicing the silicon ingot into thin wafers. By using a thinner wire, and by cutting all wafers at that same time, this minimizes material loss. This animation is the third in a series showing silicon wafer production process after it has been ground to the correct diameter.The previous animation showing silicon ingot rod grinding can be seen here.The next animation in this sequence about silicon wafer lapping can be seen here.

2009-07-30

139

High current pulse testing for ground rod integrity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test technique was developed to assess various grounding system concepts used for mobile facilities. The test technique involves applying a high current pulse to the grounding system with the proper waveshape and magnitude to simulate a lightning return stroke. Of concern were the step voltages present along the ground near the point of lightning strike. Step voltage is equated to how fast the current pulse is dissipated by the grounding system. The applied current pulse was produced by a high current capacitor bank with a total energy content of 80 kilojoules. A series of pulse tests were performed on two types of mobile facility grounding systems. One system consisted of an array of four 10 foot copper clad steel ground rods connected by 1/0 gauge wire. The other system was an array of 10 inch long tapered ground rods, strung on stainless steel cable. The focus here is on the pulse test technique used and its relevance to actual lightning strike conditions.

Walko, Lawrence C.

1991-01-01

140

Rodding Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... and After Their Child is in the Hospital.” Potential Complications Rodding is major surgery, and as with any major surgical procedure, there are potential complications. Complications from surgery include risks related to ...

141

Fabrication and application of zinc-zinc oxide nanosheets coating on an etched stainless steel wire as a selective solid-phase microextraction fiber.  

PubMed

A novel zinc-zinc oxide (Zn-ZnO) nanosheets coating was directly fabricated on an etched stainless steel wire substrate as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber via previous electrodeposition of robust Zn coating. The scanning electron micrograph of the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coated fiber exhibits a flower-like nanostructure with high surface area. The SPME performance of as-fabricated fiber was investigated for the concentration and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and ultraviolet (UV) filters coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). It was found that the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coating exhibited high extraction capability, good selectivity and rapid mass transfer for some UV filters. The main parameters affecting extraction performance were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graphs were linear over the range of 0.1-200?gL(-1). The limits of detection of the proposed method were 0.052-0.084?gL(-1) (S/N=3). The single fiber repeatability varied from 5.18% to 7.56% and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility ranged from 6.74% to 8.83% for the extraction of spiked water with 50?gL(-1) UV filters (n=5). The established SPME-HPLC-UV method was successfully applied to the selective concentration and sensitive determination of target UV filters from real environmental water samples with recoveries from 85.8% to 105% at the spiking level of 10?gL(-1) and 30?gL(-1). The relative standard deviations were below 9.7%. PMID:25662065

Song, Wenlan; Guo, Mei; Zhang, Yida; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

2015-03-01

142

VIEW NORTHEAST, LEFT BUILDING 40 WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) RIGHT BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW NORTHEAST, LEFT BUILDING 40 WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) RIGHT BUILDING 42 ROPE SHOP (1910) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

143

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01

144

Wire Maze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners create an electrical-circuit maze out of wire, then try to pass a paperclip through the maze without touching the wire. If the paper clip touches the wire, it closes the circuit, causing a light to come on or a buzzer to sound. This activity requires a basic understanding of how to build an electrical circuit.

Worcester Polytechnic Institute

2013-01-01

145

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIALS FOR APPLICATION TO CONTROL ROD SYSTEMS IN GRAPHITE-MODERATED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test and fabrication experience with control m terials for graphite ; moderated tube type reactors indicated that a wide variety of satisfactory rod ; designs are possible using either boron which is integral with the control rod ; sheath or BâC graphite and sintered BiC--aluminum within metallic rod ; sheaths. The control effectiveness of tubular boron stainless steel rods can

G. E. Wade; F. J. Kempf

1963-01-01

146

Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (?=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of ˜1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 ?m. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90° with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 ?m. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 ?m) and steel wire d=25 ?m were exploded in vacuum (10-5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire.

Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, Vitaly; Wessel, F. J.; Van Drie, A.

1999-01-01

147

Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve  

DOEpatents

A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

Gorscak, Donald A. (Bethel Park, PA); Maringo, John J. (McKeesport, PA); Nilsen, Roy J. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

1988-01-01

148

Corrosion and biocompatibility of orthodontic wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing number of orthodontic treatments using devices containing nickel and the growing prevalence of nickel allergy in the average population, biocompatibility studies of these devices have become a topic of major interest. The corrosion behavior of orthodontic wires is a decisive factor determining their biocompatibility. Therefore four nickel–titanium guiding arches, a titanium–molybdenum and a stainless steel wire were

F. Widu; D. Drescher; R. Junker; C. Bourauel

1999-01-01

149

Wire chamber  

DOEpatents

A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

Atac, Muzaffer (Wheaton, IL)

1989-01-01

150

Singing Rod  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can a solid metal rod be made to emit a high-pitched squeal? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate the resonance and acoustic properties that result from stroking a solid aluminum bar and causing it to resonate. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable K-12 national science education standards. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions, and presentation techniques. The content of the activity is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

2004-01-01

151

Wire Wise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

Swanquist, Barry

1998-01-01

152

Stretching Wires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners determine the elastic and plastic properties of different types of metal wires. Learners discover that wires of the same gauge, but made of different metals, typically support different loads (masses) before going through the elastic to plastic transition. Learners also learn the difference between elastic deformation, which is recoverable after the load is removed, and plastic deformation, which is not recoverable. Note: one way to save time on this lab is to have different groups test different metals.

2013-01-04

153

39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod or poker at right was used to unplug iron notch. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

154

Electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles onto an etched stainless steel wire followed by a self-assembled monolayer of octanedithiol as a fiber coating for selective solid-phase microextraction.  

PubMed

In the present study, a novel approach for rapid electrodeposition on an etched stainless steel (SS) wire followed by self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was proposed for the fabrication of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The etched SS wire offers a rough surface structure for subsequent electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). As a result, uniform AuNPs coating was tightly attached to the etched SS wire substrate. After SAM of 1,8-octanedithiol onto AuNPs coating via Au-S bonding, a unique floccular structure with extremely large surface area was obtained for the fabricated fiber. The mercaptooctyl groups modified AuNPs coated etched SS fiber (C8-S-AuNPs/SS) was then assessed for SPME of phthalate esters (PAEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols (CPs), ultraviolet (UV) filters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and substituted anilines coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. This fiber exhibits higher extraction capability and better selectivity for some PCBs, CPs, UV filters and PAHs. Extraction conditions were investigated and optimized for SPME performance of UV filters. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method showed good linearity between 0.10 and 400?gL(-1) with corresponding coefficients in the range of 0.9989-0.9998. The limits of detection ranged from 0.025 to 0.056?gL(-1). The relative standard deviation for fiber-to-fiber reproducibility of five fabricated fibers was less than 9.4%. The developed method was successfully applied to the preconcentration and determination of trace UV filters from environmental water samples. Furthermore the fabrication of the C8-S-AuNPs/SS fiber can be performed in a highly reproducible manner. This fabricated fiber exhibits good stability and long lifetime, and could be a potential alternative for the conventional fused silica fiber. PMID:25465004

Yang, Yaoxia; Li, Yi; Liu, Haixia; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

2014-11-01

155

P. Adams/LSU Live wires. These 7-micron-thick wires  

E-print Network

. Improved versions of the wires could be used in the electromagnets needed in a new class of spacecraft-millimeter-long nickel- coated carbon fibers in an evacuated tube with magnesium vapor and then heated, their carbon cores could make them stronger than steel, so an electromagnet made from the wires wouldn't need

Adams, Philip W.

156

Rod examination gauge  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

1991-12-31

157

University Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University Wire is a daily Internet news service for college newspapers. Included are a story of the day, a large list of pointers to Internet resources in topics such as current headlines, politics, medicine and health, and women's resources; a "Kopyedit Korner," with pointers to writing reference materials; a placement center with job openings lists for college journalists; a large selection of pointers to college newspapers; and pointers to general circulation newspapers. Pointers to student and professional journalism organizations, as well as a calendar of journalism related events, are also provided. University Wire is a service of The Main Quad.

1997-01-01

158

VIEW SOUTHLEFTBUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) CENTERBUILDING 27WIRE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW SOUTH-LEFT-BUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) CENTER-BUILDING 27-WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

159

VIEW SOUTH, LEFT BUILDING 40WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) CENTER BUILDING 42ROPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW SOUTH, LEFT- BUILDING 40-WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) CENTER- BUILDING 42-ROPE SHOP (1910) RIGHT- BUILDING 32; MACHINE SHOP (1890) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

160

Comparative study on corrosion behaviour of Nitinol and stainless steel orthodontic wires in simulated saliva solution in presence of fluoride ions.  

PubMed

Localized corrosion and effects of pre-passivation treatment of Nitinol and SS304 orthodontic wires in simulated saliva solution in the presence and absence of fluoride ions were investigated by means of potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarisations. Results revealed that Nitinol does not show pitting corrosion in saliva solution however, SS304 shows pitting corrosion. Meanwhile fluoride ion has deteriorative effect on pitting corrosion of Nitinol, while its effect on SS304 was marginally constructive. Additionally, the presence of artificial crevice has no effect on corrosion behaviour in the presence of fluoride. Pre-passivation treatment has positive influence on pitting corrosion of both alloys in the presence of F(-) ions. PMID:23498236

Mirjalili, M; Momeni, M; Ebrahimi, N; Moayed, M H

2013-05-01

161

Metallic hot wire anemometer. [for high speed wind tunnel tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hot wire anemometer is described which has a body formed of heat resistant metal such as an alloy high in nickel content which supports a probe wire disposed in a V groove in the body. The V groove contains a high temperature ceramic adhesive that partially encompasses the downstream side of the probe wire. Mechanical and electrical connection to the probe wire is achieved through conductive support rods that are constructed of the same high temperature metal, insulation between the body and the conductor rods being provided by a coating of an oxide of the same material which coating is formed in situ. The oxide coating insulates the conductor rods from the body, mechanically fixes the conductors within the body, and maintains its integrity at elevated temperatures.

Lemos, F. R. (inventor)

1977-01-01

162

Metallurgical Analysis of Crack Initiation of Wire-Cut Electrical Discharge-Machined Spline Actuators Made of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spline actuators made of investment cast 17-4 PH (precipitation hardening) stainless steel were found to contain micro-cracks.\\u000a The cracked actuators were subjected to optical and scanning electron microscopy and hardness testing, which revealed that\\u000a the failure occurred due to fatigue crack initiation and growth after electrical discharge machining (EDM). The rehardened\\u000a layer produced by the EDM remained after machining, and

Ahmad-Reza Etemadi; Bahram Fazel; Armin Emami

163

An aging study of wire chambers with dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect

The authors report results on the aging of different types of resistive and non-resistive wires in wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. Among the Freon impurities detected in our DME batches, only Freon-11 was found to contribute to the aging process. Of the resistive wires, Nicotin and Stablohm produced fast aging, whereas stainless steel withstood extended irradiation in purified DME (up to 1 C/cm) without any apparent damage. Gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires produced results comparable to those of the stainless steel.

Jibaly, M.; Chrusch, P. Jr.; Hilgenberg, G.; Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.; Sauli, F.; Gaudaen, J.

1989-02-01

164

The use of modified scaling factors in the design of high-power, non-linear, transmitting rod-core antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we develop a technique for designing high-power, non-linear, transmitting rod-core antennas by using simple modified scale factors rather than running labor-intensive numerical models. By using modified scale factors, a designer can predict changes in magnetic moment, inductance, core series loss resistance, etc. We define modified scale factors as the case when all physical dimensions of the rod antenna are scaled by p, except for the cross-sectional area of the individual wires or strips that are used to construct the core. This allows one to make measurements on a scaled-down version of the rod antenna using the same core material that will be used in the final antenna design. The modified scale factors were derived from prolate spheroidal analytical expressions for a finite-length rod antenna and were verified with experimental results. The modified scaling factors can only be used if the magnetic flux densities within the two scaled cores are the same. With the magnetic flux density constant, the two scaled cores will operate with the same complex permeability, thus changing the non-linear problem to a quasi-linear problem. We also demonstrate that by holding the number of turns times the drive current constant, while changing the number of turns, the inductance and core series loss resistance change by the number of turns squared. Experimental measurements were made on rod cores made from varying diameters of black oxide, low carbon steel wires and different widths of Metglas foil. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the modified scale factors work even in the presence of eddy currents within the core material.

Jordan, Jared Williams; Dvorak, Steven L.; Sternberg, Ben K.

2010-10-01

165

Fungal-induced corrosion of wire rope  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was found on the interior so the wooden spools, and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments and an extensive review of the literature demonstrated causal relationships between storage conditions and fungal growth and localized corrosion.

Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P. [Naval Research Lab., Stennis Space Center, MS (United States)

1995-10-01

166

Control rod drive  

DOEpatents

A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

Hawke, Basil C. (Solana Beach, CA)

1986-01-01

167

Lightning discharge protection rod  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for protecting an in-air vehicle from damage due to a lighning strike is disclosed. It is an extremely simple device consisting of a sacrificial graphite composite rod, approximately the diameter of a pencil with a length of about five inches. The sacrificial rod is constructed with the graphite fibers running axially within the rod in a manner that best provides a path of conduction axially from the trailing edge of an aircraft to the trailing end of the rod. The sacrificial rod is inserted into an attachment hole machined into trailing edges of aircraft flight surfaces, such as a vertical fin cap and attached with adhesive in a manner not prohibiting the conduction path between the rod and the aircraft. The trailing end of the rod may be tapered for aerodynamic and esthetic requirements. This rod is sacrificial but has the capability to sustain several lightning strikes and still provide protection.

Bryan, Charles F., Jr. (inventor)

1987-01-01

168

Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire  

DOEpatents

A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

1992-08-11

169

Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire  

DOEpatents

A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

Brandon, Eldon D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hooper, Frederick M. (Albuquerque, NM); Reichenbach, Marvin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

170

Wire-free fixation of jaw fractures.  

PubMed

Stainless steel wire is often used in the management of jaw fractures to provide intraoperative or postoperative intermaxillary fixation (IMF). Wiring of the jaws is time-consuming, a second procedure is needed to remove it, and needlestick injuries occur during placement. We report on 151 consecutive patients who had wire-free fixation of jaw fractures, and outline the value of a system of plastic anchorage points applied to individual teeth in both jaws that allows for wire-free IMF when they are linked by elastics (Rapid IMF, Synthes, PA, USA). A total of 150 successive patients had wire-free fixation of 146 mandibular and 5 maxillary fractures. Ninety-eight were hand-held in occlusion, and 52 were treated using Rapid IMF. There were few complications. PMID:19608310

Cousin, G C S

2009-10-01

171

Fatigue Property of Stainless Steel FES Electrode in Hanks' Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue property of the wire rope with 19 strands used as an FES electrode was investigated. The wire rope was made of high manganese high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. Fatigue life of the wire rope in Hanks' solution at 310 K was evaluated using a dual-driven rotating-bending fatigue machine. Each wire of the rope was worn out and the cross

Y. Iguchi; T. Narushima; K. Suzuki; S. Yoshida; M. Watanabe; T. Kinami; C. Ouchi

172

General Nonlinear Equilibrium Equation Solution of the Straight Wire Strand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most analyses of wire ropes are based on the well known classical treatise on elasticity by Love in 1944. A general theory of thin rods are included and investigated extensively. General equilibrium equations of a thin rod on arc length are derived and presented. The analytical and numerical solutions of wire ropes are based on the equilibrium equations as the starting point for the solutions in most of the papers. Helical rod model is first introduced by Phillips and Costello based on the equilibrium equations given by Love. General nonlinear equilibrium equation solution of the straight wire strand is given in this study and showed that it is harmonious with the results presented by Costello.

Erdönmez, C.; Imrak, C. E.

2007-09-01

173

VIEW NORTHLEFTBUILDING 27 WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) CENTERBUILDING 102 ELMER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW NORTH-LEFT-BUILDING 27 WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) CENTER-BUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) RIGHT-BUILDING 101 CLARK STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

174

The tensile fatigue of wire rope: A new approach  

SciTech Connect

The fatigue behaviour in air and seawater of zinc coated steel wire taken from a 40 mm diameter wire rope has been studied. Seawater had little effect on short term tensile strength but it reduced fatigue life by an amount which increased with increasing mean stress and decreasing test frequency. The application of fretting during fatigue testing resulted in very low endurances, which were similar to those measured in fatigue tests on wire ropes.

Thorpe, T.W.; Rance, A.

1983-05-01

175

Pull rod assembly  

DOEpatents

A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

Cioletti, O.C.

1988-04-21

176

Status of rod consolidation  

SciTech Connect

Two of the factors that need to be taken into account with rod consolidation are (1) the effects on rods from their removal from the fuel assembly and (2) the effects on rods as a result of the consolidation process. Potential components of both factors are described in the report. Discussed under (1) are scratches on the fuel rod surfaces, rod breakage, crud, extended burnup, and possible cladding embrittlement due to hydrogen injection at BWRs. Discussed under (2) are the increased water temperature (less than 10/sup 0/C) because of closer packing of the rods, formation of crevices between rods in the close-packed mode, contact with dissimilar metals, and the potential for rapid heating of fuel rods following the loss of water from a spent fuel storage pool. Another factor that plays an important role in rod consolidation is the cost of disposal of the nonfuel-bearing components of the fuel assembly. Also, the dose rate from the components - especially Inconel spacer grids - can affect the handling procedures. Several licensing issues that exist are described. A list of recommendations is provided. 98 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Bailey, W.J.

1985-04-01

177

VIEW WESTBUILDING 23WIRE MILL & PATENTING (c.1853 & c.1900)CENTER BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW WEST-BUILDING 23-WIRE MILL & PATENTING (c.1853 & c.1900)-CENTER BUILDING 25- NO 2 WIRE MILL (c.1853) BEHIND 23 TO RIGHT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

178

Radiological characterization of spent control rod assemblies  

SciTech Connect

This document represents the final report of an ongoing study to provide radiological characterizations, classifications, and assessments in support of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations. This report describes the results of non-destructive and laboratory radionuclide measurements, as well as waste classification assessments, of BWR and PWR spent control rod assemblies. The radionuclide inventories of these spent control rods were determined by three separate methodologies, including (1) direct assay techniques, (2) calculational techniques, and (3) by sampling and laboratory radiochemical analyses. For the BWR control rod blade (CRB) and PWR burnable poison rod assembly (BPRA), {sup 60}Co and {sup 63}Ni, present in the stainless steel cladding, were the most abundant neutron activation products. The most abundant radionuclide in the PWR rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) was {sup 108m}Ag (130 yr halflife) produced in the Ag-In-Cd alloy used as the neutron poison. This radionuclide will be the dominant contributor to the gamma dose rate for many hundreds of years. The results of the direct assay methods agree very well ({+-}10%) with the sampling/radiochemical measurements. The results of the calculational methods agreed fairly well with the empirical measurements for the BPRA, but often varied by a factor of 5 to 10 for the CRB and the RCCA assemblies. If concentration averaging and encapsulation, as allowed by 10CFR61.55, is performed, then each of the entire control assemblies would be classified as Class C low-level radioactive waste.

Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Pratt, S.L.; Haggard, D.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-10-01

179

Spring loaded beaded cable makes efficient wire puller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient wire puller consists of a steel probe with a hole in one end fastened to a steel cable which is strung with metal beads compressed by spring loaded ferrules. This device allows cables to be pulled or forced around bends and elbows in pipes or tubes.

1965-01-01

180

Study of Wire Contact Resistance in Single and Multi-wire Z-Pinch Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contact resistance of single and multi-wire array z-pinch has been measured for aluminum, stainless steel, and tungsten wires; diameters ranged from 7.5 to 30.5 micron. DC contact resistance in these experiments accounted for approximately 80% of load resistance, and resistance measurements varied from wire-to-wire by up to 15%. These DC measurements show that the resistance is highly dependent on both the wire material and the mass of the wire weights (0.8 g to 3.6 g). Marx pulses of 120 kV, 18 kA, 150 ns risetime were applied to the z-pinch. Wire plasma expansion velocity was measured using a streak camera, and expansion profile of the wires was determined using laser schlieren imaging. Electron temperature of individual wire plasmas is being determined by visible/UV spectra. Results will be presented of several methods being explored to reduce the contact resistance. *This work was supported by U. S. DoE through Sandia National Laboratories award number 240985 to the University of Michigan. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J.; Tang, W.; French, D. M.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

2007-11-01

181

Windows: Life after Wire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

Razwick, Jerry

2003-01-01

182

Foucault Rod Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Foucault Rod model displays the vibration of a circumnavigating rod. One end of the rod is firmly secured to a support. The free end of the rod has a weight attached, like the bob of a pendulum. The support of the rod is circumnavigating a central axis. The plane of swing of the Foucault rod is affected by the rotation in the same way as the Foucault pendulum is. The simulation shows simultaneously the motion with respect to the inertial coordinate system, and the motion as seen from a co-rotating point of view. For the co-rotating view there is a close-up view and an overview. You can examine and modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen EJS Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Foucault Rod model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_nl_teunissen_foucault_rod.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Additional information about this model can be found by visiting the authorâs web site: http://www.cleonis.nl/index.htm.

Teunissen, Cleon

2009-11-03

183

Rod sequence advisor  

SciTech Connect

During startup and power shaping maneuvers of boiling water reactors (BWR's), control rods are sequentially withdrawn from the reactor core. The withdrawal sequences determine the overall reactor power and the local core power density and are based on the knowledge of station engineers. It is important that the control rods are withdrawn in such a manner that the local power level does not become excessive while the desired reactor power is generated. Rules that constrain the relative positions of control rod groups have been developed to do this. While these rules are relatively simple, applying them to all possible movements of the 17 control rod groups in a typical BWR is complex and time consuming. SMARTRODS, is a rule based pilot expert system, was developed in LISP for the determination of the rod sequences.

Wood, R.M. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)); Lu, Yi (Kaman Sciences Corp., Utica, NY (United States)); Furia, R.V.; Thompson, R.J. (GPU Nuclear Corp., Parsippany, NJ (United States)); Lin, Ching-lu (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1992-01-01

184

Rod Photoreceptors Detect Rapid Flicker  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rod-isolation techniques show that light-adapted human rods detect flicker frequencies as high as 28 hertz, and that the function relating rod critical flicker frequency to stimulus intensity contains two distinct branches. (MLH)

Conner, J. D.; MacLeod, Donald I. A.

1977-01-01

185

Stretched Wire Mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

2005-09-06

186

Recent progress on improvement to mechanical properties of DI-BSCCO wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the mechanical properties of silver-sheathed BSCCO wire, the laminated BSCCO wires with stainless steel were made under some experimental conditions. The dependence of the stainless steel thickness and the dependence of the pre-tension of stainless steel tapes on the laminated BSCCO were investigated by mechanical tests (tensile test at 77 K and RT and double-bending test at RT)

K Yamazaki; T Kagiyama; M Kikuchi; S Yamade; T Nakashima; S Kobayashi; G Osabe; J Fujikami; K Hayashi; K Sato

2012-01-01

187

Study of Wire Contact Resistance in Single and Multiwire Z-Pinch Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact resistance of single and multi-wire array z-pinch has been measured for aluminum, stainless steel, and tungsten wires; diameters ranged from 7.5 to 30.5 micron. DC contact resistance in these experiments accounted for approximately 80% of load resistance, and resistance measurements varied from wire-to-wire by up to 15%. These DC measurements show that the resistance is highly dependent on both

M. R. Gomez; J. Zier; W. Tang; D. M. French; R. M. Gilgenbach; Y. Y. Lau; M. E. Cuneo; M. D. Johnston; M. G. Mazarakis; T. A. Mehlhorn

2007-01-01

188

Control rod driveline and grapple  

DOEpatents

A control rod driveline and grapple is disclosed for placement between a control rod drive and a nuclear reactor control rod containing poison for parasitic neutron absorption required for reactor shutdown. The control rod is provided with an enlarged cylindrical handle which terminates in an upwardly extending rod to provide a grapple point for the driveline. The grapple mechanism includes a tension rod which receives the upwardly extending handle and is provided with a lower annular flange. A plurality of preferably six grapple segments surround and grip the control rod handle. Each grapple rod segment grips the flange on the tension rod at an interior upper annular indentation, bears against the enlarged cylindrical handle at an intermediate annulus and captures the upwardly flaring frustum shaped handle at a lower and complementary female segment. The tension rods and grapple segments are surrounded by and encased within a cylinder. The cylinder terminates immediately and outward extending annulus at the lower portion of the grapple segments. Excursion of the tension rod relative to the encasing cylinder causes rod release at the handle by permitting the grapple segments to pivot outwardly and about the annulus on the tension rod so as to open the lower defined frustum shaped annulus and drop the rod. Relative movement between the tension rod and cylinder can occur either due to electromagnetic release of the tension rod within defined limits of travel or differential thermal expansion as between the tension rod and cylinder as where the reactor exceeds design thermal limits.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1987-01-01

189

Modeling the impact deformation of rods of a pressed PTFE\\/Al composite mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite element simulations have been performed for the impact onto steel anvils of solid rods of a pressed composite mixture of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and aluminum powders. Photographs of the reactive rods prior to significant impact initiation for three previously performed experiments at impact velocities of 104, 222, and 466m\\/s have been digitized for comparison with the simulations. Simulations were performed

M. N. Raftenberg; W MOCKJR; G. C. Kirby

2008-01-01

190

Method of Making Steel Strapping and Strip  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet written for the Inventions and Innovation Program about a new method for making steel strapping and strip from rod stock produced from scrap steel. There is a large movement in the American steel industry to utilize more recycled steel. Recycled steel melted in the electric arc furnaces of mini-mills is being used as the source of raw materials for an increasing number of products, largely due to its lower price. However, conventional processes for producing steel strapping and cold-rolled strip steel restrict manufacturers from using more than 50% recycled steel. In addition, steel strapping and cold-rolled strip steel traditionally require many production steps. They are produced from primary steel that has been cast into slab, heated, rolled to achieve the desired thickness, and slit to the desired width. The slitting process produces microcracks along the edge of the strapping or strip, which reduce tensile strength. A new continuous process produces steel strapping and 1/2 inch to 6 inch strip steel from the rod and strip stock made from scrap steel in mini-mills. The new process creates steel strapping and strip with improved strength and quality due to the absence of microcracks caused by the conventional slitting process. The finished product is cheaper because of the lower cost associated with using rod ad lower conversion costs. In addition, the higher tensile strength of the product allows for thinner strapping. The process represents a new approach to producing any steel strapping used for bundling and packaging items for storage or transport. In addition, this innovative new process can be used to produce cold-rolled strip steel, a basic raw material for automobile parts, hardware, office equipment, and many other products.

NONE

1999-12-10

191

RESULTS OF NS SAVANNAH CORE I FUEL ROD IRRADIATION PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An irradiation test program was carried out to confirm the NMSR Core I ; fuel rod design. This program provided data on the behavior of the UOâ ; fuel and stainless steel cladding materials tested in the range of Core I ; operating conditions. The coolant water temperature and pressure are 508 F ; and 1750 psi. The average and

C. A. Burkart; W. R. DeBoskey

1962-01-01

192

Large Wire Strain Gauges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wires yield data on average strains over distances ranging from inches to many feet. Long constantan wires used to measure average strains over distances characteristic of vehicles or buildings. Connected in bridge circuit, wires measure strain accurately within 1 percent, and linearly, within 0.1 percent. Wires stretch as much as 0.15 percent and still return to zero residual strain after release.

Bryner, B. D.

1987-01-01

193

Laser Wire Stripper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

1983-01-01

194

Slide the wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The animation shows a top view of four wires in a conducting loop and a galvanometer. Determine the direction of the magnetic field, Bz(x), passing through the wires at various postions by click-dragging the black wire back and forth and observing the galvanometer reading.

Wolfgang Christian

195

Transducin translocation contributes to rod survival and enhances synaptic transmission from rods to rod bipolar cells  

PubMed Central

In rod photoreceptors, several phototransduction components display light-dependent translocation between cellular compartments. Notably, the G protein transducin translocates from rod outer segments to inner segments/spherules in bright light, but the functional consequences of translocation remain unclear. We generated transgenic mice where light-induced transducin translocation is impaired. These mice exhibited slow photoreceptor degeneration, which was prevented if they were dark-reared. Physiological recordings showed that control and transgenic rods and rod bipolar cells displayed similar sensitivity in darkness. After bright light exposure, control rods were more strongly desensitized than transgenic rods. However, in rod bipolar cells, this effect was reversed; transgenic rod bipolar cells were more strongly desensitized than control. This sensitivity reversal indicates that transducin translocation in rods enhances signaling to rod bipolar cells. The enhancement could not be explained by modulation of inner segment conductances or the voltage sensitivity of the synaptic Ca2+ current, suggesting interactions of transducin with the synaptic machinery. PMID:23836670

Majumder, Anurima; Pahlberg, Johan; Boyd, Kimberly K.; Kerov, Vasily; Kolandaivelu, Saravanan; Ramamurthy, Visvanathan; Sampath, Alapakkam P.; Artemyev, Nikolai O.

2013-01-01

196

Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.  

PubMed

The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

1997-07-01

197

Marine corrosion of selected small wire ropes and strands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breakage loads of nine different small mooring lines are experimentally related to time of immersion in a marine environment. Samples of a single steel wire, five different strands ranging from 0.05 inch1 times 7to 7\\/64 inch1 times 19, and three small wire ropes 3\\/32 inch7 times 7were fully immersed in Puget Sound for 38, 115, and 150 days. Tensile

C. J. Sandwith; R. C. Clark

1975-01-01

198

Laser Wire Deposition (WireFeed) for Fully Dense Shapes LDRD  

SciTech Connect

Direct metal deposition technologies produce complex, near net shape components from Computer Aided Design (CAD) solid models. Most of these techniques fabricate a component by melting powder in a laser weld pool, rastering the weld bead to form a layer, and additively constructing subsequent layers. This report will describe anew direct metal deposition process, known as WireFeed, whereby a small diameter wire is used instead of powder as the feed material to fabricate components. Currently, parts are being fabricated from stainless steel alloys. Microscopy studies show the WireFeed parts to be filly dense with fine microstructural features. Mechanical tests show stainless steel parts to have high strength values with retained ductility. A model was developed to simulate the microstructural evolution and coarsening during the WireFeed process. Simulations demonstrate the importance of knowing the temperature distribution during fabrication of a WireFeed part. The temperature distribution influences microstructural evolution and, therefore, must be controlled to tailor the microstructure for optimal performance.

GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.; ENSZ,MARK T.; GREENE,DONALD L.; RECKAWAY,DARYL E.; MORIN,JACOB A.; BUCHHEIT,THOMAS E.; LAVAN,DAVID A.; CRENSHAW,THOMAS B.; TIKARE,VEENA; ROMERO,JOSEPH A.

1999-11-01

199

Noise Radiation from Single and Multiple Rod Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic measurements were performed on single and multiple rod configurations to study the effect of Reynolds number, surface roughness, freestream turbulence, proximity and wake interference on the radiated noise. The Reynolds number ranged from 3.8 x 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 5). Directivity measurements were performed to determine how well the dipole assumption for the radiation of vortex shedding noise holds for the different model configurations tested. The dependence of the peak Sound Pressure Level on velocity was also examined. Several concepts for the reduction of the noise radiating from cylindrical rods were tested. It was shown that wire wraps and collar distributions could be used to significantly reduce the noise radiating from rods in tandem configurations.

Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.

2006-01-01

200

Disappearing Glass Rods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners discover how they can make glass objects "disappear." Learners submerge glass objects like stirring rods into a beaker of Wesson™ oil to explore how the principles of reflection and refraction affect what we see. Use this activity as a demonstration or allow learners to experiment on their own.

2011-12-05

201

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (inventors)

1983-01-01

202

Shape memory alloy wire-based smart natural rubber bearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, two types of smart elastomeric bearings are presented using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. Due to the unique characteristics of SMAs, such as the superelastic effect and the recentering capability, the residual deformation in SMA-based natural rubber bearings (SMA-NRBs) is significantly reduced whereas the energy dissipation capacity is increased. Two different configurations of SMA wires incorporated in elastomeric bearings are considered. The effect of several parameters, including the shear strain amplitude, the type of SMA, the aspect ratio of the base isolator, the thickness of SMA wire, and the amount of pre-strain in the wires on the performance of SMA-NRBs is investigated. Rubber bearings are composed of natural rubber layers bonded to steel shims as reinforcement. Results show that ferrous SMA wire, FeNiCuAlTaB, with 13.5% superelastic strain and a very low austenite finish temperature (-62?°C), is the best candidate to be used in SMA-NRBs subjected to high shear strain amplitudes. In terms of the lateral flexibility and wire strain level, the smart rubber bearing with a cross configuration of SMA wires is more efficient. Moreover, the cross configuration can be implemented in high-aspect-ratio elastomeric bearings since the strain induced in the wire does not exceed the superelastic range. When cross SMA wires with 2% pre-strain are used in a smart NRB, the dissipated energy is increased by 74% and the residual deformation is decreased by 15%.

Hedayati Dezfuli, F.; Shahria Alam, M.

2013-04-01

203

Lingual straight wire method.  

PubMed

The mushroom arch-wire is mainly used in lingual orthodontic treatment but the complicated wire bending it requires affects both the treatment results and the time spent at the chair. The author proposes a new lingual straight wire method (LSW) in order to facilitate arch coordination and simplify the mechanics. The attention paid to the set-up model and bracket positioning and bonding plus the use of the new LSW method will also improve patient comfort. PMID:20303920

Takemoto, Kyoto; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, L U C A; Takemoto, Y U I

2009-12-01

204

Wire-inhomogeneity detector  

DOEpatents

A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

1982-08-31

205

Control of inclusion characteristics in direct cast steel billets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two main criteria are used to characterize steel cleanliness. First the number and size of inclusions must be at the minimum level achievable with state-of-the-art steelmaking and casting equipment and procedures. Second the remaining small inclusions must have a chemical composition suitable for the steel application. In high carbon steel destined for wire drawing, inclusions need to be as deformable

Martin Gagné; Eric Thibault

1999-01-01

206

Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2 nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

2014-12-01

207

New Materials for Bonding Wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Insulated wire for Fine pad pitch bonding and 3D PKG technology, Cu wire and Au-Ag wire for cost reduction, and Ag wire in response to bond pad metallization change are reviewed from technology aspect. With only few tens of nanometers thick coating layer, insulated wire forms stable free air ball with good 1 st bond bondability. As

Jeong Tak Moon; June Sub Hwang; Jong Su Cho; Seong Hyoun Kim

208

Wire Array Photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction arrays. These devices offer potential efficiencies of 34%, as demonstrated through an analytical model and optoelectronic simulations. SiGe and Ge wires were fabricated via chemical-vapor deposition and reactive ion etching. GaAs was then grown on these substrates at the National Renewable Energy Lab and yielded ns lifetime components, as required for achieving high efficiency devices.

Turner-Evans, Dan

209

Reduction in the Modulus of Elasticity in Orthodontic Wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulus of elasticity of stainless steel orthodontic wires was found to be 20% below the normally assumed range of 19.3 to 20.0 X 104 MPa (28.0 to 29.0 × 106 psi). Use of the latter value can result in significant computational errors in orthodontic applicance mechanics. The lower modulus was attributed to severe cold drawing.

A. Jon Goldberg; R. Vanderby; C. J. Burstone

1977-01-01

210

Next Generation Wiring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

2007-01-01

211

Wire mesh current collectors for passive direct methanol fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the feasibility of the stainless steel wire mesh as current collector in the passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFCs-W). A novel single cell fixture is designed and fabricated. The cell performance is evaluated and compared with five different wire mesh current collectors. The supporting plates are optimized for every mesh. The performance of DMFCs-W is compared with the conventional passive DMFC which uses perforated metal plate as current collector (DMFC-P). The polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are performed to investigate the different aspects of the cell performance. The results reveal that the DMFCs-W yield better performance than the DMFC-P. Also, more uniform fuel distribution at catalyst layer and higher cell temperature is achieved with wire mesh current collectors. It is found that the wire mesh geometry has significant effect on the cell performance and the mesh made of relatively thick wires gives better cell performance. This study identifies the stainless steel wire mesh as promising material to be used as current collector and potential substitute to the perforated plate current collectors in the passive DMFC.

Shrivastava, Naveen K.; Thombre, Shashikant B.; Motghare, Ramani V.

2014-12-01

212

Core design study of a supercritical light water reactor with double row fuel rods  

SciTech Connect

An equilibrium core for supercritical light water reactor has been designed. A novel type of fuel assembly with dual rows of fuel rods between water rods is chosen and optimized to get more uniform assembly power distributions. Stainless steel is used for fuel rod cladding and structural material. Honeycomb structure filled with thermal isolation is introduced to reduce the usage of stainless steel and to keep moderator temperature below the pseudo critical temperature. Water flow scheme with ascending coolant flow in inner regions is carried out to achieve high outlet temperature. In order to enhance coolant outlet temperature, the radial power distributions needs to be as flat as possible through operation cycle. Fuel loading pattern and control rod pattern are optimized to flatten power distribution at inner regions. Axial fuel enrichment is divided into three parts to control axial power peak, which affects maximum cladding surface temperature. (authors)

Zhao, C.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.; Zheng, Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi'an, ShannXi, 710049 (China); Yang, J.; Zhang, Y. [China Nuclear Power Technology Research Inst., Yitian Road, ShenZhen, GuangDong, 518026 (China)

2012-07-01

213

Distribution of wire deformation within strands of wire ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ANSYS software, we developed a modeling program for several kinds of wire ropes with metal cores and built a geometric model for the 6×19 IWS wire rope. Through proper grid partitioning, a finite element model for calculating the deformation of wire rope was obtained. Completely constraining one end of the wire rope and applying an axial force to the

Jun MA; Shi-rong GE; De-kun ZHANG

2008-01-01

214

Reactor control rod timing system  

DOEpatents

A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

Wu, Peter T. K. (Clifton Park, NY)

1982-01-01

215

[The long-term fracture resistance of orthodontic nickel-titanium wires].  

PubMed

This study reports on the long-term fracture resistance of orthodontic nickel titanium wires, a material property that has not been investigated thoroughly, yet. A computer-controlled apparatus was designed to perform long-term bending tests. The investigated material comprised 9 nickel titanium wires (dimensions 0.016", round and 0.016" x 0.022", rectangular) as well as a stainless steel and a beta-titanium wire that were included as reference. Compared with the steel wire, the nickel titanium wires exhibited 2- to 5-fold higher yield forces in bending. At a specified deflection angle, the generated bending forces of the nickel titanium wires reached one half to one fourth of the values of steel. The fracture resistance under longterm loading was determined using the Wöhler-method. After 10(5) loadings, 0.016" nickel titanium wires were subject to break failure, if forces exceed values greater than 1.2 to 3.1 N. Steel and TMA wires could be loaded with forces of up to 4.4 and 3.7 N, respectively. The 0.016" x 0.022"-rectangular wires allowed forces of approximately twice this magnitude. Elastic fatigue of the superelastic specimens "Memorywire", "Rematitan Lite", and "Sentalloy medium" showed up as hardening of the wire by up to 70%. Material degradation lead to a severe deformation of the hysteresis loop and to plastic deformation. Work-hardened martensitic NiTi wires did not show these effects to this extent. PMID:8023109

Drescher, D; Bourauel, C; Sonneborn, W; Schmuth, G P

1994-01-01

216

Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth  

DOEpatents

Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rods are described, wherein geometric combinations of relatively weak neutron absorber materials such as stainless steel, zirconium or INCONEL, and relatively strong neutron absorber materials, such as hafnium, silver-indium cadmium and boron carbide, are used to obtain the reactivity worths required to reach zero boron change load follow. One embodiment includes a grey rod which has combinations of weak and strong neutron absorber pellets in a stainless steel cladding. The respective pellets can be of differing heights. A second embodiment includes a grey rod with a relatively thick stainless steel cladding receiving relatively strong neutron absorber pellets only. A third embodiment includes annular relatively weak netron absorber pellets with a smaller diameter pellet of relatively strong absorber material contained within the aperture of each relatively weak absorber pellet. The fourth embodiment includes pellets made of a homogeneous alloy of hafnium and a relatively weak absorber material, with the percentage of hafnium chosen to obtain the desired reactivity worth.

Miller, John V. (Munhall, PA); Carlson, William R. (Scott Township, Allegheny County, PA); Yarbrough, Michael B. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1991-01-01

217

Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

1941-01-01

218

Fiber optic laser rod  

DOEpatents

A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

Erickson, G.F.

1988-04-13

219

Automatic safety rod for reactors  

DOEpatents

An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

220

Comparison of frictional forces between aesthetic orthodontic coated wires and self-ligation brackets  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of polymer- and rhodium-coated wires compared to uncoated wires by measuring the frictional forces using self-ligation brackets. Methods 0.016-inch nickel titanium (NiTi) wires and 0.017 × 0.025-inch stainless steel (SS) wires were used, and the angulations between the brackets and wires were set to 0°, 5°, and 10°. Upper maxillary premolar brackets (Clippy-C®) with a 0.022-inch slot were selected for the study and a tensile test was performed with a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The maximum static frictional forces and kinetic frictional forces were recorded and compared. Results The maximum static frictional forces and the kinetic frictional forces of coated wires were equal to or higher than those of the uncoated wires (p < 0.05). The maximum static frictional forces of rhodium-coated wires were significantly higher than those of polymer-coated wires when the angulations between the brackets and wires were set to (i) 5° in the 0.016-inch NiTi wires and (ii) all angulations in the 0.017 × 0.025-inch SS wires (p < 0.05). The kinetic frictional forces of rhodium-coated wires were higher than those of polymer-coated wires, except when the angulations were set to 0° in the 0.016-inch NiTi wires (p < 0.05). Conclusions Although the frictional forces of the coated wires with regards to aesthetics were equal to or greater than those of the uncoated wires, a study under similar conditions regarding the oral cavity is needed in order to establish the clinical implications. PMID:25133130

Kim, Yunmi; Cha, Jung-Yul; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Tahk, Seon Gun

2014-01-01

221

Prospective, randomized, single blinded pilot study of a new FlatWire based sternal closure system  

PubMed Central

Background Unstable steel wire cerclage following open heart surgery may result in increased pain, sternal cut-through, non-union, or dehiscence. These complications lead to longer hospital stays, increased cost, higher morbidity, and patient dissatisfaction. The Figure 8 FlatWire Sternal Closure System is a new construct which is a simple, intuitive, and inexpensive alternative for primary sternal repair following open heart surgery. Prior bench-top testing of FlatWire has demonstrated superior strength and stiffness compared to traditional steel wire. We present our initial experience in a prospective, randomized, single blinded pilot study utilizing this FDA approved system. Methods Sixty-three patients undergoing elective complete sternotomies at a single institution were randomly assigned to receive either the Figure 8 FlatWire or standard steel wire cerclage. All surgeries were performed by a single board certified cardiothoracic surgeon. Data collected included: Age, BMI, pump time, off pump to surgical stop time, length of hospital stay after surgery, cost from time of surgery to discharge, and pain on a visual analog pain scale on the day of discharge, day 30, and day 60. Results The groups were well matched. Patients receiving the Figure 8 FlatWire (33) had a reduction in length of stay compared to patients receiving steel wire circlage (30), but it was not statistically significant (6.8 vs. 7.8 days respectively, p?Wire reported significantly decreased pain at day of discharge (3.07 vs. 4.92 points on pain scale, p?Wire vs. steel wires (55.7 vs. 71.6 minutes, p?=?0.00025). Mean cost from surgery until discharge was $87,820.98 in the FlatWire group vs. $91,930.29 in the steel wire group (p?Wire provides excellent stability, which resulted in significantly diminished postoperative pain at discharge. Although not significant there was a trend toward decreased length of stay, and reduced cost. Further clinical research is warranted to expand upon these initial trends and validate long term outcomes. PMID:24889138

2014-01-01

222

Piston and connecting rod assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A piston and connecting rod assembly includes a piston crown, a piston skirt, a connecting rod, and a bearing insert. The piston skirt is a component separate from the piston crown and is connected to the piston crown to provide a piston body. The bearing insert is a component separate from the piston crown and the piston skirt and is fixedly disposed within the piston body. A bearing surface of a connecting rod contacts the bearing insert to thereby movably associate the connecting rod and the piston body.

Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor); Chatten, John K. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

223

Segmental spinal correction of idiopathic scoliosis. Luque rods and Hartshill rectangle in 30 patients followed for 2-6 years.  

PubMed

30 patients with idiopathic scoliosis were treated by posterior spinal arthrodesis using the Luque (8 patients) and Hartshill (22 patients) rodding systems with sublaminar segmental wiring. Patients were followed for 2 to 6 years. In most cases, postoperative correction exceeded safety correction limits (lateral bending film plus 10 degrees). Final correction was 55%, while derotation was not significant (average 3 degrees). No neurological deficit was noted. Postoperative bracing was not applied and there was 1 patient with broken rods (Luque trolley system without fusion) and 1 patient with broken wires in 4 segments. Allogenic blood transfusion was avoided in 19 patients by preoperative donation of autologous blood, in combination with salvage of intraoperative shed blood. We found segmental spinal wiring with either rods or rectangles to be a safe method for correction of scoliosis in experienced hands. It offered satisfactory stability and fusion rate with no need for external support. PMID:9385255

Christodoulou, A G; Kapetanos, G; Apostolou, T; Pournaras, J; Symeonides, P P

1997-10-01

224

A comparison of wire- and Kevlar-reinforced provisional restorations.  

PubMed

Stainless steel wire 0.036 inch in diameter was compared with Kevlar 49 polyaramid fiber as a means of reinforcing a four-unit posterior provisional fixed restoration with 2 pontics. Three reinforcement patterns for wire and two for Kevlar 49 were evaluated and compared with the control, which was an unreinforced provisional restoration. A central tensile load was placed on the cemented provisional restoration and the variables were measured: (1) the initial stiffness; (2) the load at initial fracture; and (3) the unit toughness, or the energy stored in the beam at a point where the load had undergone a 1.0-mm deflection. Statistical analysis showed (1) the bent wire configuration had a significantly higher initial stiffness (P < or = .05), (2) there was no difference between designs for load at initial fracture, and (3) the bent wire had a significantly higher unit toughness value (P < or = .05). PMID:8179789

Powell, D B; Nicholls, J I; Yuodelis, R A; Strygler, H

1994-01-01

225

Localized corrosion behaviour in simulated human body fluids of commercial Ni-Ti orthodontic wires.  

PubMed

The corrosion performances in simulated human body fluids of commercial equiatomic Ni-Ti orthodontic wires having various shape and size and produced by different manufacturers were evaluated; for comparison purposes wires made of stainless steel and of cobalt-based alloy were also examined. Potentiodynamic tests in artificial saliva at 40 degrees C indicated a sufficient pitting resistance for the Ni-Ti wires, similar to that of cobalt-based alloy wire; the stainless steel wire, instead, exhibited low pitting potential. Potentiodynamic tests at 40 degrees C in isotonic saline solution (0.9% NaCl) showed, for Ni-Ti and stainless steel wires, pitting potential values in the range approximately 200-400 mV and approximately 350 mV versus SCE, respectively: consequently, according to literature data (Hoar TP, Mears DC. Proc Roy Soc A 1996;294:486-510), these materials should be considered potentially susceptible to pitting; only the cobalt-based alloy should be immune from pitting. The localized corrosion potentials determined in the same environment by the ASTM F746 test (approximately 0-200 mV and 130 mV versus SCE for Ni-Ti and stainless steel, respectively) pointed out that for these materials an even higher risk of localized corrosion. Slight differences in localized corrosion behaviour among the various Ni-Ti wires were detected. PMID:10353661

Rondelli, G; Vicentini, B

1999-04-01

226

Impact Initiation of Rods of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Aluminum Powders  

SciTech Connect

A gas gun has been used to investigate the shock initiation of rods of a mixture of 74 wt% PTFE and 26 wt% aluminum powders. The rods were sabot-launched into 4340 steel anvils at impact velocities ranging from 104 to 963 m/s. A framing camera was used to observe the time sequence of events. At low velocity, no initiation occurred. Above an initiation threshold, the initiation time dropped abruptly from 56 {mu}s just above threshold to 4 {mu}s at the highest impact velocity. Several high velocity experiments were performed for pure PTFE material for comparison with the PTFE/Al rods.

Mock, Willis Jr.; Holt, William H. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division, Dahlgren, VA 22448-5100 (United States)

2006-07-28

227

Impact Initiation of Rods of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Aluminum Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gas gun has been used to investigate the shock initiation of rods of a mixture of 74 wt% PTFE and 26 wt% aluminum powders. The rods were sabot-launched into 4340 steel anvils at impact velocities ranging from 104 to 963 m/s. A framing camera was used to observe the time sequence of events. At low velocity, no initiation occurred. Above an initiation threshold, the initiation time dropped abruptly from 56 ?s just above threshold to 4 ?s at the highest impact velocity. Several high velocity experiments were performed for pure PTFE material for comparison with the PTFE/Al rods.

Mock, Willis; Holt, William H.

2006-07-01

228

Strain sensing systems tailored for tensile measurement of fragile wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental stress versus strain measurements were completed on superconducting Nb3Sn wires within the framework of IEC/TC90 and VAMAS/TWA16. A key task was the assessment of sensing systems regarding resolution, accuracy, and precision when measuring Young's modulus. Prior to actual Nb3Sn wire measurements metallic wires, consisting of copper and stainless steel having diameters similar to the Nb3Sn wire, were extensively investigated with respect to their elastic line properties using different types of extensometers. After these calibration tests Nb3Sn wire measurements of different companies resulted in several important facts with respect to total size and weight of the used extensometers. The size could be correlated to the initial stage of stress versus strain behaviour. In fact, the effect of wire curls resulting from the production line had a profound effect on Young's modulus measurements. Within this context, the possibility of determining Young's modulus from unloading compliance lines in the plastic regime of the stress-strain curve was considered. The data obtained using this test methodology were discussed under consideration of the composite nature of Nb3Sn wire. In addition, a non-contacting sensing system based on a double-beam laser extensometer was used to investigate the potential of this new sensing system.

Nyilas, Arman

2005-12-01

229

30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2012-07-01

230

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2012-07-01

231

30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2011-07-01

232

30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2013-07-01

233

30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2014-07-01

234

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2013-07-01

235

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2014-07-01

236

30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2010-07-01

237

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2010-07-01

238

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

2011-07-01

239

Modeling Fractions with Cuisenaire Rods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive simulation students must determine the values for each of the Cuisenaire Rods based on the information that they are given in the prompt. This activity allows students to reason about how fractional values change based on the size of the whole. Students may use the Cuisenaire Rod activity space or use hands-on manipulatives to complete this activity.

2013-01-01

240

Heterogeneity effects of stainless steel subassembly walls in FBR blankets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron absorption in stainless steel in a fast reactor with fuel rods lumped into a hexagonal lattice surrounded by the subassembly wall, may be considerably less than that calculated from conventional homogeneous approximations. This is particularly the case for the softer neutron spectra of blanket regions. A methodology is developed to treat the heterogeneity effect of stainless steel subassembly

1989-01-01

241

Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array/polymer composite films showed that their energy-conversion properties were comparable to those of an array attached to the growth substrate. High quantum efficiencies were observed relative to the packing density of the wires, particularly with illumination at high angles of incidence. The results indicate that an inexpensive, solid-state Si wire array solar cell is possible, and a plan is presented to develop one.

Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

242

Geometrical Modeling of Steel Ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the mathematical geometric modeling of the ropes of circular cross- section. Such rope can be formed from strands of different shapes. There is considered steel rope made up of six strands, whose crosssection has oval, triangular or circular profil in this paper. The wires of these types of the strands are presented by parametric equations of the wire axis. The equations are implemented in the Pro/Engineer Wildfire V5 software for creating the geometrical model of the strand.

Stanová, Eva

2013-11-01

243

Numerical study on the turbulence structures in closely spaced rod bundle subchannels  

SciTech Connect

Fully developed turbulent flow through simulated rod bundle subchannels formed by a rod-trapezoidal duct was numerically studied. With a simple coordinate system transformation from an orthogonal cylindrical system to a nonorthogonal curvilinear system, the highly irregular flow passage of a rod-trapezoidal duct was converted to that of a regular rectangle. An empirical anisotropic eddy viscosity distribution based on existing experimental data was used in conjunction with the algebraic stress model to address the influence of coherent large-scale cross-gap eddy motion, whose existence in closely spaced rod bundle subchannels has bene substantiated by extensive hot-wire measurements. Results of the calculation are compared with experimental data, with emphasis on secondary flow and turbulence kinetic energy. The credibility of this numerical scheme was establishment through a series of numerical tests on simple geometry flows.

Wu, X. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1994-06-01

244

The effects of sterilization on the tensile strength of orthodontic wires.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization on the tensile strength of 0.016" beta-titanium, nickel titanium and stainless steel wires. Three common methods of sterilization--autoclaving, dry heat and ethylene oxide--were evaluated in three test trials involving zero, one and five sterilization cycles. For each of the test trials, five pieces each of 0.016" TMA, 0.016" Sentalloy and 0.016" Tru-chrome stainless steel wires were sterilized using a standard autoclave. Five other pieces of each of the same wires were sterilized in a dryclave, while an additional five pieces of each of the three wire types were sterilized using ethylene oxide. The ultimate tensile strengths of the wires were then determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The data were compared for statistical differences using analysis of variance. The results showed that dry heat sterilization significantly increased the tensile strength of TMA wires after one cycle, but not after five cycles. Autoclaving and ethylene oxide sterilization did not significantly alter the tensile strength of TMA wires. Dry heat and autoclave sterilization also significantly increased the tensile strength of Sentalloy wires, but the mean strength after five sterilization cycles was not significantly different than after one cycle. Ethylene oxide sterilization of Sentalloy wires did not significantly alter the tensile strengths of that wire. There were no significant differences in the tensile strengths of the stainless steel wires following zero, one or five cycles for any of the sterilization methods. PMID:8498702

Staggers, J A; Margeson, D

1993-01-01

245

OrchidWire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by orchid enthusiasts Wendell and Theresa Kozak of Vancouver Island, Canada, OrchidWire website is a great resource for anyone interested in orchids. This site is an online orchid resource directory with links to 3911 images and 1184 sites in 51 countries. Site visitors can peruse orchid resources by using an alphabetical appendix or by selecting from different categories like Wild, Culture, Geographic, Genera, and many more. Specific orchid listings or images can be located by using the site search engine. Site users can also submit suggestions for addition to the OrchidWire database.

Kozak, Theresa

246

The confining effectiveness of NiTiNb and NiTi SMA wire jackets for concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to assess the confining effectiveness of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets for concrete. The performance of SMA wire jackets was compared to that of steel jackets. A prestrained martensitic SMA wire was wrapped around a concrete cylinder and then heated by a heating jacket. In the process, a confining stress around the cylinder was developed in the SMA wire due to the shape memory effect; this jacketing method can increase the strength and ductility of the cylinder under an axial compressive load. In this study, NiTi and NiTiNb SMA wires of 1.0 mm in diameter were used for the confinement. Recovery tests were conducted on the wires to assess their recovery and residual stress. The confinement by SMA wire jackets increased the strength slightly and greatly increased the ductility compared to the strength and ductility of plain concrete cylinders. The NiTiNb SMA wire jacket showed better performance than that of the NiTi SMA wire jacket. The confining effectiveness of the SMA wire jackets of this study was estimated to be similar to that of the steel jackets. This study showed the potential of the SMA wire jacketing method to retrofit reinforced concrete columns and protect them from seismic risks.

Choi, Eunsoo; Chung, Young-Soo; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Hong-Taek; Lee, Hacksoo

2010-03-01

247

Quantum cards and quantum rods  

E-print Network

Quantum mechanical analysis of a rigid rod with one end fixed to a flat table is presented. It is shown, that for a macroscopic rod the ground state is orientationally delocalized only if the table is absolutely horizontal. In this latter case the rod, assumed to be initally in the upright orientation, falls down symmetrically and simultaneously in both directions, as claimed by Tegmark and Wheeler. In addition, the time of fall is calculated using WKB wavefunctions representing energy eigenstates near the barrier summit.

Milan Batista; Joze Peternelj

2006-11-02

248

Nickel ion release from orthodontic NiTi wires under simulation of realistic in-situ conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of nickel containing devices in orthodontics and the growing prevalence of nickel allergy in the population significantly increases the interest in biocompatibility studies of these devices. The decisive factor determining the biocompatibility of orthodontic wires is their corrosion behaviour. Therefore seven nickel titanium levelling arches, one titanium molybdenum, a cobalt chromium and three stainless steel wires were

M. Arndt; A. Brück; T. Scully; A. Jäger; C. Bourauel

2005-01-01

249

Fabrication of Wire Mesh Heat Exchangers for Waste Heat Recovery Using Wire-Arc Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste heat can be recovered from hot combustion gases using water-cooled heat exchangers. Adding fins to the external surfaces of the water pipes inserted into the hot gases increases their surface area and enhances heat transfer, increasing the efficiency of heat recovery. A method of increasing the heat transfer surface area has been developed using a twin wire-arc thermal spray system to generate a dense, high-strength coating that bonds wire mesh to the outside surfaces of stainless steel pipes through which water passes. At the optimum spray distance of 150 mm, the oxide content, coating porosity, and the adhesion strength of the coating were measured to be 7%, 2%, and 24 MPa, respectively. Experiments were done in which heat exchangers were placed inside a high-temperature oven with temperature varying from 300 to 900 °C. Several different heat exchanger designs were tested to estimate the total heat transfer in each case. The efficiency of heat transfer was found to depend strongly on the quality of the bond between the wire meshes and pipes and the size of openings in the wire mesh.

Rezaey, R.; Salavati, S.; Pershin, L.; Coyle, T.; Chandra, S.; Mostaghimi, J.

2014-04-01

250

Rod coupling for oil well sucker rods and the like  

SciTech Connect

A coupling is described for joining solid reciprocating sucker rods to form a rod string in a well pump or the like comprising a unitary metal sleeve having an axial threaded bore and an irregular outer surface, and a homogeneous and non-fibrous coating on the sleeve over the outer surface providing an externally substantially cylindrical coupling, the coating comprising a flexible and abrasive resistant thermoplastic hydrourethane polymer formed on the irregular outer surface of the sleeve while in the molten state.

Bowers, R.

1986-07-29

251

Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.

Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M. [and others

2000-02-24

252

RIGBY SPECIALITY WIRES LIMITED NEW WIRE PRODUCT IS ALL  

E-print Network

RIGBY SPECIALITY WIRES LIMITED NEW WIRE PRODUCT IS ALL WRAPPED UP KTP BENEFITS Knowledge Transfer Partnerships are designed to benefit everyone involved Businesses will acquire new knowledge and expertise KTP WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS TO DEVELOP A NEW MANUFACTURING PROCESS TO WRAP COPPER WIRE IN MICA TAPE, TO THE REQUIRED

Berzins, M.

253

A World without Wires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

Panettieri, Joseph C.

2006-01-01

254

WiredSafety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet has afforded hundreds of millions of people the opportunity to access thousands of sites on almost every topic imaginable, and has created a myriad of new employment opportunities, interest groups, and cybercommunities. Regrettably, not every person merging onto the information superhighway is there for such laudable reasons. Stepping into the fray of n'er-do wells is the WiredSafety website, headed by Perry Aftab, an international cyberspace privacy and security lawyer and children's advocate. Registered as a non-profit organization, WiredSafety offers help for online victims of cybercrime and harassment, educational materials about cybercrime, and assistance for law enforcement worldwide on preventing and investigating cybercrimes. A good place to start on the site is Parry's Internet Safety Guide for Parents, which offers a number of helpful tips for parents about monitoring their children's interactions with others over the Internet. WiredSafety also offers Wired-Ed, which is offered free of charge and allows users to learn more about surfing the net safely. Also featured is a wide range of other online courses.

255

One-wire thermocouple  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nickel alloy/constantan device accurately measures surface temperature at precise locations. Device is moderate in cost and simplifies fabrication of highly-instrumented seamless-surface heat-transfer models. Device also applies to metal surfaces if constantan wire has insulative coat.

Goodrich, W. D.; Staimach, C. J.

1977-01-01

256

Improved wire chamber  

DOEpatents

An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

Atac, M.

1987-05-12

257

Modeling Fractions with Cuisenaire Rods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted for grades 3–5 from Annenberg Learner’s Teaching Math Grades 6–8, use virtual Cuisenaire® Rods to represent fractions and to perform operations with fractions.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-06-29

258

1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

NONE

1997-04-01

259

Extending wire rope service life  

SciTech Connect

Selecting the proper wire rope is not a simple procedure. Wire rope is a precision mining machine with scores of moving parts. It is therefore important for mining equipment users to know wire rope and how it is designed and constructed. Good lubrication and regular inspection is important for a safe and long service life.

Not Available

1982-06-01

260

Tungsten Wire & VISAR Goran Skoro  

E-print Network

in parallel (n=20) · Estimated temperature rise in the 0.2 mm diameter tungsten wire (at room temperature radial or/and longitudinal displacement of the wire Issues: Results of calculations -> following pages temperature; for 10m and 30m delay-leg) - flatline Conclusion: We won't see anything here #12;VISAR wire tests

McDonald, Kirk

261

Production of hot-wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several methods for producing hot-wire probes are described. Discussion includes the manufacture of probe bodies, soldering plated wires to the prongs etching Walaston type wires, and finishing the probe. This report is written as an instruction manual for researchers who desire to produce or repair their own sensors.

Dickinson, S. C.

1983-04-01

262

Electrical explosion of segmented wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomena occurring during the electrical explosion of segmented wires are described. It was observed that with a wire of varying thickness, the smaller diameter parts explode first, ejecting metal vapor radially. Breakdown occurs through the vapor, creating current carrying channels which bypass the larger diameter parts of the wire. This may result, in some cases, in the larger diameter

Y. Me-Bar; R. Harel

1996-01-01

263

Evaluation of organic coolants for the transportation of LMFBR spent fuel rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and chemical processes that are likely to occur when sodium coated LMFBR spent fuel rods are submerged in various aromatic organic coolants was defined by means of immersion experiments carried out with sodium coated 304 stainless steel coupons. Upon immersion of sodium coated coupons at 220°C in hydrocarbon type coolants such as Therminol 88, a mixture of terphenyls,

C. Jr

1978-01-01

264

Recent progress on improvement to mechanical properties of DI-BSCCO wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the mechanical properties of silver-sheathed BSCCO wire, the laminated BSCCO wires with stainless steel were made under some experimental conditions. The dependence of the stainless steel thickness and the dependence of the pre-tension of stainless steel tapes on the laminated BSCCO were investigated by mechanical tests (tensile test at 77 K and RT and double-bending test at RT) using short samples. Due to the difference of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and the relaxation to equilibrium after removing the total pre-tension of no laminated BSCCO (insert tape) and stainless steel tapes, the residual axial compressive strain applies to an insert tape after the lamination process. A high compressive strain up to the compressive yield of the silver-alloy is so useful for improvement of the mechanical properties of BSCCO wire. Measurement results were approximately the same as the simple model calculated from the residual strain applied to an insert tape by the difference of CTE and pre-tension. The stainless-steel-laminated BSCCO wire ‘Type HT-SS’ has been able to be achieved over 500 MPa at 77 K by increasing stainless steel thickness and the residual axial compression for an insert tape. The developed tough DI-BSCCO has a higher hoop force to compare with YBCO-coated conductor using Hastelloy substrates under the same circumstances such as magnetic field, winding diameter and transport current.

Yamazaki, K.; Kagiyama, T.; Kikuchi, M.; Yamade, S.; Nakashima, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Osabe, G.; Fujikami, J.; Hayashi, K.; Sato, K.

2012-05-01

265

Top slag refining for inclusion composition transform control in tire cord steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling conditions for inclusion plasticization were calculated by FactSage, and the steel/slag reaction equilibration time was determined by pre-equilibrium experiments. Laboratory experiments with different top slags were carried out in 90 min, and industrial tests were performed based on the results of calculation and laboratory experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to determine the morphology and composition of inclusions in tire cord steel. It is found that the shape of inclusions can be controlled well, and the composition of inclusions varies in the industrial test as the following transformation route: MnO-Al2O3-SiO2?CaO-Al2O3-SiO2?MnO-Al2O3-SiO2. Inclusion plasticization can be achieved by controlling the binary basicity of top slag (CaO/SiO2 by mass) around 1.0 and the (Al2O3) content in top slag below 10wt%. Under these controlling conditions in the industrial test, almost all of inclusions in the wire rods achieve plastic deformation.

Chen, Shu-hao; Jiang, Min; He, Xiao-fei; Wang, Xin-hua

2012-06-01

266

Magnetic Force Three Wires Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Magnetic Force Three Wires model investigates the force between long straight current-carrying wires. Initially, the simulation shows a cross-section view of three long straight parallel wires, each on the corner of an equilateral triangle. The wires carry currents that have different magnitudes, and the currents are directed either into or out of the page. The task in this simulation is to rank the wires based on the magnitude of their currents, from largest to smallest. The Magnetic Force Three Wires model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_Three_Wires.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. This is part of a collection of similar tutorial simulations created by the author.

Duffy, Andrew

2009-10-20

267

Transport in Quantum Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a model to explain the flat and gate voltage independent renormalisations of the conductance quantisation in quantum wires. We model the contact regions themselves as short Luttinger liquids and allow for different Luttinger liquid parameters in the wire and contact regions. By introducing small barriers between the contacts and the leads and using the standard techniques of bosonisation and renormalisation group, we are able to qualitatively reproduce all of the experimental results including the temperature and length dependence. In the presence of a magnetic field, the theory also gives rise to an interesting odd-even effect, with bands with spins parallel to the magnetic field getting renormalised differently from the bands with spins anti-parallel to the magnetic field. This has also been experimentally seen. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 026801 (2001) and cond-mat/0104402].

Rao, Sumathi; Lal, Siddhartha; Sen, Diptiman

2002-03-01

268

Dental Arch Wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

1979-01-01

269

Wire chamber gases  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging.

Va'vra, J.

1992-04-01

270

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

1972-01-01

271

Wiring for aerospace applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

1992-01-01

272

Gaseous wire detectors  

SciTech Connect

This article represents a series of three lectures describing topics needed to understand the design of typical gaseous wire detectors used in large high energy physics experiments; including the electrostatic design, drift of electrons in the electric and magnetic field, the avalanche, signal creation, limits on the position accuracy as well as some problems one encounters in practical operations. Reader should also refer to Ref. 1{endash}4. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Vavra, J. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

1998-02-01

273

Understanding Guitar Wiring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This zipped file provides a number of documents which will help students understand the particulars of guitar wiring. The documents cover the three-way toggle switch, the 5-way lever-action switch, magnetic pick-ups, mini toggle switches, output jacks, selector switches and other details. Once the zipped file is downloaded, the documents (which are in Microsoft Word doc file format) may be viewed.

2012-08-13

274

Magnetoconductance of quantum wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At low temperatures the conductance of a quantum wires exhibit characteristic plate-aus due to the quantization of the transverse modes [1]. In the presence of high in-plane magnetic fields these spin-split transverse modes cross. Recently, these crossings were observed experimentally [2] via measurements of the differential conductance as a function of the gate voltage and the in-plane magnetic-field. These show structures described as either anti-crossings or magnetic phase transitions. Motivated by our previous works on magnetotransport in 2DEGs via the Spin Density Functional Theory (SDFT) [3], here we propose a similar model to investigate the magnetoconductance of quantum wires. We use (i) the SDFT via the Kohn-Sham self-consistent scheme within the local spin density approximation to obtain the electronic structure and (ii) the Landauer-Buettiker formalism to calculate the conductance of a quantum wire. Our results show qualitative agreement with the data of Ref. [2]. [1] B. J. van Wees et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 848 (1988). [2] A. C. Graham et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 226804 (2008). [3] H. J. P. Freire, and J. C. Egues, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 026801 (2007); G. J. Ferreira, and J. Carlos Egues, J. Supercond. Nov. Mag., in press; G. J. Ferreira, H. J. P. Freire, J. Carlos Egues, submitted.

Ferreira, Gerson J.; Sammarco, Filipe; Egues, Carlos

2010-03-01

275

Wavelet transform of signal for enhancement of SNR in wire rope inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In magnetic testing of steel wire rope the MFL signals of broken wires may be corrupted by background noise arising from the probe lift-off, vibration and white noise, resulting in unreliable detection and inaccurate characterization of rope weakness. In this paper, a signal processing technique is presented to reduce this background noise by the use of a wavelet transform. The results of processing signals from testing rope pieces show that proposed technique is effective for extracting defect signals.

Lunin, V.; Barat, V.

2002-05-01

276

Fungal induced corrosion of wire rope exposed in humid atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was observed on the interiors of wooden spools and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments were designed to demonstrate a causal relationship between storage conditions, fungal growth, and localized corrosion.

Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P.

1995-03-01

277

Scattering and absorption by thin metal wires in rectangular waveguide-FDTD simulation and physical experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-frequency internal impedance model of a round ohmic conductor is incorporated into the subcell thin-wire formulation of the finite-difference time-domain method to model the microwave properties of metal wires. For magnetic metals, such as steel, an effective conductivity is introduced to account for the increase in ohmic loss due to the high-frequency permeability. Physical experiments with half-wave resonant copper-

Marianne Bingle; David Bruce Davidson; J. H. Cloete

2002-01-01

278

Fretting wear of a high-strength heavily work-hardened eutectoid steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the second paper in an informal series of three on the fretting behavior of a heavily work-hardened eutectoid steel wire, used in the construction of locked coil steel ropes. The fretting behavior of the wire, both in the service surface condition and after mechanical abrasion, is examined. Residual solid die lubricant, from the wire drawing manufacturing process, present both on the surface of the wire and as a reservoir in the drawing marks is determined to play an important role in the fretting behavior. In particular, it is capable of maintaining the coefficient of friction at a low value, at least during the early stages of fretting.

Waterhouse, R. B.; McColl, I. R.; Harris, S. J.; Tsujikawa, M.

1994-06-01

279

Take it to the limit: The dynamics of rod load and rod reversal in reciprocating compressors  

SciTech Connect

A major factor the engineer must consider when designing a reciprocating compressor package is the structural limit of the compressor. This limit is referred to as the rod load or frame load and is the maximum continuous operating force the compressor can safely withstand. Our discussion will include static rod load, inertia rod load, dynamic rod load, and rod reversal, with guidelines for minimizing rod reversal in the field.

Gajjar, H.

1996-09-01

280

CERN-SPS Wire Scanner Impedance and Wire Heating Studies  

E-print Network

This article describes a study performed on one of the CERN-SPS vertical rotational wire scanners in order to investigate the breakage of the wire, which occurred on several occasions during operation in 2012. The thermionic emission current of the wire was measured to evaluate temperature changes, and was observed to rise significantly as the wire approached the ultimate LHC beam in the SPS, indicating the possibility of strong coupling between the beam’s electromagnetic field and the wire. Different laboratory measurements, complemented by CST Microwave Studio simulations, have therefore been performed to try and understand the RF modes responsible for this heating. These results are presented here, along with the subsequent modifications adopted on all of the operational SPS wire scanners.

Berrig, OE; Dehning, B; Emery, J; Hamani, M; Kuczerowski, J; Piselli, E; Salvant, B; Sautier, R; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Vuitton, C; Zannini, C

2014-01-01

281

Submerged arc fillet welds between mild steel and stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Submerged arc fillet welds between mild steel and Type 304 stainless steel, made with ER309L wire, may contain no ferrite and be at risk of hot cracking, or they may be sufficiently diluted that they transform to martensite with both hot cracking risk and low ductility. This situation is most prevalent when direct current electrode positive (DCEP) polarity is used and when the flange is the mild steel part of the T-joint. A flux that adds chromium to the weld can somewhat alleviate this tendency. Direct current electrode negative (DCEN) polarity greatly reduces this tendency by limiting dilution. Fillet weld compositions and dilutions are obtained for a number of welding conditions and fluxes.

Kotecki, D.J.; Rajan, V.B. [Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1997-02-01

282

Wire detecting apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receiver`s position with respect to the wiring. The receiver`s audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receiver`s coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring`s concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-12-31

283

Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

284

Dual wire welding torch and method  

DOEpatents

A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

Diez, Fernando Martinez (Peoria, IL); Stump, Kevin S. (Sherman, IL); Ludewig, Howard W. (Groveland, IL); Kilty, Alan L. (Peoria, IL); Robinson, Matthew M. (Peoria, IL); Egland, Keith M. (Peoria, IL)

2009-04-28

285

Corrosion Test of US Steels in Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) and Kinetic Modeling of Corrosion in LBE Systems  

E-print Network

1 Corrosion Test of US Steels in Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) and Kinetic Modeling of Corrosion Federation Abstract We present the LBE corrosion test results of several US steels, and a preliminary analysis using a kinetic model for corrosion in LBE systems. Tube and rod specimens of austenitic steels

McDonald, Kirk

286

Advanced gray rod control assembly  

DOEpatents

An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

2013-09-17

287

Rail-Roading Technique Using 18 Gauge Intravenous Catheter and Silicon Rod for Frontalis Suspension in Blepharophimosis Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Silicon rods are widely employed for frontalis sling suspension. However, on passing through the tissues, at times, the silicon rod gets detached from the stainless steel needle. This occurs more commonly in patients of blepharophimosis syndrome, in which hypoplasia of superior orbital rim with deficiency of skin between lid and brow, causes difficulty in passage of the needle when it is manipulated upwards from lid towards the brow. To overcome these problems we describe the use of an 18 G intravenous catheter to railroad the needle with the silicon rod, obviating the blind upward maneuvers with the needle and protecting against the damage to the silicon rod –needle assembly. The technique is easily reproducible, safe and can be used in all silicon rod suspensions. PMID:25674190

Goel, Ruchi; A.G, Apoorva; Jain, Sparshi; K.P.S, Malik; Nagpal, Smriti; Kishore, Divya

2015-01-01

288

Aerosol behavior during SIC control rod failure in QUENCH-13 test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a nuclear reactor severe accident, radioactive fission products as well as structural materials are released from the core by evaporation, and the released gases form particles by nucleation and condensation. In addition, aerosol particles may be generated by droplet formation and fragmentation of the core. In pressurized water reactors (PWR), a commonly used control rod material is silver-indium-cadmium (SIC) covered with stainless steel cladding. The control rod elements, Cd, In and Ag, have relatively low melting temperatures, and especially Cd has also a very low boiling point. Control rods are likely to fail early on in the accident due to melting of the stainless steel cladding which can be accelerated by eutectic interaction between stainless steel and the surrounding Zircaloy guide tube. The release of the control rod materials would follow the cladding failure thus affecting aerosol source term as well as fuel rod degradation. The QUENCH experimental program at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe investigates phenomena associated with reflood of a degrading core under postulated severe accident conditions. QUENCH-13 test was the first in this program to include a silver-indium-cadmium control rod of prototypic PWR design. To characterize the extent of aerosol release during the control rod failure, aerosol particle size distribution and concentration measurements in the off-gas pipe of the QUENCH facility were carried out. For the first time, it was possible to determine on-line the aerosol concentration and size distribution released from the core. These results are of prime importance for model development for the proper calculation of the source term resulting from control rod failure. The on-line measurement showed that the main aerosol release started at the bundle temperature maximum of T ˜ 1570 K at hottest bundle elevation. A very large burst of aerosols was detected 660 s later at the bundle temperature maximum of T ˜ 1650 K, followed by a relatively steady aerosol release until core cooling by quench when the on-line measurements were stopped. Cd was released first from the control rod, followed by In, and finally, by Ag. The particle size distributions were bimodal indicating two aerosol formation mechanisms, evaporation followed by nucleation and condensation, as well as droplet and fragment generation. Generally, release is modelled as evaporation from molten regions of control rod materials. Clearly, results of this investigation give evidence of contribution by entrainment of droplets and fragmented material.

Lind, Terttaliisa; Csordás, Anna Pintér; Nagy, Imre; Stuckert, Juri

2010-02-01

289

Review of wire chamber aging  

SciTech Connect

This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

Va'Vra, J.

1986-02-01

290

Z-Pinch Wire-Electrode Contact Resistance Studies Using Weighted and Soft Metal Gasket Contacts*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contact made between z-pinch wires and electrodes has a significant effect on both the energy deposited in the wires and the uniformity of the expansion profile of the wires. We have shown that using soft metal gaskets can improve wire-electrode contact significantly over typical weighted contacts. Images of wire expansion profile and wire plasma emission will be presented for single and double wire shots on a 16 kA, 100 kV 4-stage Marx bank with 150 ns risetime. Bench resistance measurements for aluminum, stainless steel, and tungsten wires with diameters ranging from 7.5 um to 30 um will be presented. These measurements utilized both soft metal gasket contacts (gaskets include: indium, silver, aluminum, tin, and lead) and double-ended wire weight contacts (weights ranged from 0.4 g to 1.9 g). *This research was supported by U. S. DoE through Sandia National Laboratories award document numbers 240985, 768225, 790791 and 805234 to the University of Michigan. MRG supported by NNSA Fellowship and JCZ supported by NPSC Fellowship sponsored by Sandia National Labs.

Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J. C.; Thurtell, A. F.; French, D. M.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Tang, W.; Lau, Y. Y.

2008-11-01

291

Instabilities of electrically exploded wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental results summarized in this paper, which have been obtained with thin tungsten, copper, and constantan wires, give further evidence that electromagnetic macroinstabilities may develop near the melting point of thin wires which are heated by the sudden release of electrical energy and lead to their disintegration. At low-energy-input rates, screw-type instabilities develop in all the wire materials used.

Antonios E. Vlasto´s

1973-01-01

292

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

Carpenter, K. H.

1974-01-01

293

Texture development in Galfenol wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong <110> (?) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

2013-05-01

294

Stability of nonlinearly elastic rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes previously unknown stabilities and instabilities of planar equilibrium configurations of a nonlinearly elastic rod that is buckled under the action of a dead-load. The governing equations are derived from variational principles, including ones of isoperimetric type. Properties of stability are accordingly determined by study of the second variation. Stabilities to deformations both in the plane and out

J. H. Maddocks; S. ANTMAN

1984-01-01

295

Cool Hot Rod (Thermal Expansion)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is thermal expansion of copper. This demonstration allows an observer to see the effect of heating (and cooling) a copper tube. When heated, the copper tube lengthens and thickens. When cooled, the tube shrinks. The lengthening of the rod rotates a toothpick with an attached flag to make the expansion visible and measurable.

296

Control rods in LMFBRs: a physics assessment  

SciTech Connect

This physics assessment is based on roughly 300 control rod worth measurements in ZPPR from 1972 to 1981. All ZPPR assemblies simulated mixed-oxide LMFBRs, representing sizes of 350, 700, and 900 MWe. Control rod worth measurements included single rods, various combinations of rods, and Ta and Eu rods. Additional measurements studied variations in B/sub 4/C enrichment, rod interaction effects, variations in rod geometry, neutron streaming in sodium-filled channels, and axial worth profiles. Analyses were done with design-equivalent methods, using ENDF/B Version IV data. Some computations for the sensitivities to approximations in the methods have been included. Comparisons of these analyses with the experiments have allowed the status of control rod physics in the US to be clearly defined.

McFarlane, H.F.; Collins, P.J.

1982-08-01

297

Diamond Wire Saw for Precision Machining of Laser Target Components  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication of precision laser targets requires a wide variety of specialized mesoscale manufacturing techniques. The diamond wire saw developed in this study provides the capability to precisely section meso-scale workpieces mounted on the assembly stations used by the Target Fabrication Group. This new capability greatly simplifies the fabrication of many types of targets and reduces the time and cost required to build the targets. A variety of materials are used to fabricate targets, including metals, plastics with custom designed chemical formulas, and aerogels of various densities. The materials are usually provided in the form of small pieces or cast rods that must be machined to the required shape. Many of these materials, such as metals and some plastics, can be trimmed using a parting tool on a diamond turning machine. However, other materials, such as aerogels and brittle materials, cannot be adequately cut with a parting tool. In addition, the geometry of the parts often requires that the workpieces be held in a special assembly station, which excludes the use of a parting tool. In the past, these materials were sectioned using a small, handheld coping saw that used a diamond-impregnated wire as a blade. This miniature coping saw was effective, but it required several hours to cut through certain materials. Furthermore, the saw was guided by hand and often caused significant damage to fragile aerogels. To solve these problems, the diamond wire saw shown in Figure 1 was developed. The diamond wire saw is designed to machine through materials that are mounted in the Target Fabrication Group's benchtop assembly stations. These assembly stations are the primary means of aligning and assembling target components, and there is often a need to machine materials while they are mounted in the assembly stations. Unfortunately, commercially available saws are designed for very different applications and are far too large to be used with the assembly stations. Therefore, a custom diamond wire saw was designed and constructed. The diamond wire saw cuts through workpieces using a continuous loop of diamond-impregnated wire of length 840 mm. The wire loop runs around several idler pulleys and is driven by a simple geared DC motor that rotates at 17 rpm. The linear speed of the wire is 107 inches/minute. The saw is oriented at an angle of 20{sup o} from horizontal, so the operator can view the wire through the cutout at the front end of the saw. When looking through a microscope or camera with a horizontal line of sight, the operator can clearly see the wire as it cuts through the workpiece, as shown in the right side of Figure 1. The saw is mounted on a two-axis stage that allows the operator to align the wire with the workpiece. To cut through the workpiece, the operator drives the wire through the workpiece by turning the feed micrometer. An image of the interior of the diamond wire saw appears in Figure 2. This picture was taken after removing the protective cover plate from the saw.

Bono, M J; Bennett, D W

2005-08-08

298

WIRE, SOFIA and SIRTF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

WIRE, SOFIA and SIRTF are three planned NASA missions for infrared astronomy. Each will make significant contributions to the study of exo-zodiacal dust, planetary debris disks, and/or the zodiacal material within our own solar system. These missions and their measurement and scientific capabilities are synopsized. The principal contribution of these missions to this field of study will be to establish and strengthen its intellectual foundations rather than to pinpoint specific targets for planetary searches. This is consistent with their relatively near-term availability. Moreover, this intellectual understanding can assure that subsequent missions approach this subject from a sound scientific perspective which will yield valuable results independent of the success of a particular planet finding strategy. Each of these missions - most urgently WIRE with its Fall, 1998 launch date - would make good use of a list of candidate target stars for exo-zodiacal/planet-finding studies. The preparation of such a list was one of the recommendations of the exo-zodiacal workshop.

Werner, Michael

1998-01-01

299

30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

2011-07-01

300

30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

2013-07-01

301

30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

2012-07-01

302

30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.  

...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

2014-07-01

303

30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be approved if: (a) The...

2010-07-01

304

Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T < 600{degrees}C) with slow thermal ramp rates (slow cladding strain rates) resulted from localized dissolution of the stainless steel cladding by the cadmium/aluminum solution and subsequent ductility exhaustion and rupture. The slow thermal ramp rate is believed to be the root cause for the failures; specifically, the slow ramp rate led to localized cladding shear deformation which ruptured the protective oxide film on the cladding inner surface and allowed dissolution to initiate. The test results and proposed failure mechanism support the conclusion that the rods would not fail below 500{degrees}C even at slow ramp rates. The safety rod thermal test specimen failures which occurred at high temperature (T > 800{degrees}C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B{sub 4}C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B{sub 4}C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs.

Thomas, J.K.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.

1992-01-01

305

Two-Wire to Four-Wire Audio Converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple circuit provides interface between normally incompatible voicecommunication lines. Circuit maintains 40 dB of isolation between input and output halves of four-wire line permitting two-wire line to be connected. Balancing potentiometer, Rg, adjusts gain of IC2 to null feed through from input to output. Adjustment is done on workbench just after assembly.

Talley, G. L., Jr; Seale, B. L.

1983-01-01

306

A hot probe setup for the measurement of Seebeck coefficient of thin wires and thin films using integral method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental setup is developed for the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of thin wires and thin films in the temperature range of 300-650 K. The setup makes use of the integral method for measuring the Seebeck voltage across the sample. Two pointed copper rods with in-built thermocouples serve as hot and cold probes as well as leads for measuring

S. R. Sarath Kumar; S. Kasiviswanathan

2008-01-01

307

Solid-state-laser-rod holder  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a solid state laser rod holder comprising Invar, copper tubing, and epoxy joints. Materials and coefficients of expansion of the components of the holder combine with the rod to produce a joint which will give before the rod itself will. The rod may be lased at about 70 to 80/sup 0/K and returned from such a temperature to room temperature repeatedly without its or the holder's destruction.

Gettemy, D.J.; Barnes, N.P.; Griggs, J.E.

1981-08-11

308

49 CFR 236.793 - Rod, lock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.793 Rod, lock. A rod, attached to the front rod or lug of a switch, movable-point frog or derail, through which a locking plunger may extend when the switch points or derail are in the normal or reverse...

2012-10-01

309

49 CFR 236.793 - Rod, lock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.793 Rod, lock. A rod, attached to the front rod or lug of a switch, movable-point frog or derail, through which a locking plunger may extend when the switch points or derail are in the normal or reverse...

2011-10-01

310

49 CFR 236.793 - Rod, lock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.793 Rod, lock. A rod, attached to the front rod or lug of a switch, movable-point frog or derail, through which a locking plunger may extend when the switch points or derail are in the normal or reverse...

2010-10-01

311

49 CFR 236.793 - Rod, lock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.793 Rod, lock. A rod, attached to the front rod or lug of a switch, movable-point frog or derail, through which a locking plunger may extend when the switch points or derail are in the normal or reverse...

2013-10-01

312

Hydraulic Actuator for Ganged Control Rods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydraulic actuator moves several nuclear-reactor control rods in unison. Electromagnetic pump pushes liquid lithium against ends of control rods, forcing them out of or into nuclear reactor. Color arrows show lithium flow for reactor startup and operation. Flow reversed for shutdown. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, actuator principle applied to terrestrial hydraulic machinery involving motion of ganged rods.

Thompson, D. C.; Robey, R. M.

1986-01-01

313

Investigation of Minimum Film boiling Phenomena on Fuel Rods Under Blowdown Cooling Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Blowdon cooling heat transfer is an important process that occurs early in a hypothetical large break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor. During blowdown, the flow through the hot assembly is a post-critical heat flux dispersed droplet flow. The heat transfer mechanisms that occur in blowdown cooling are complex and depend on droplet and heated surface interaction. In a safety analysis, it is of considerable importance to determine the thermal-hydraulic conditions leading to the minimum film boiling temperature, Tmin. A flow boiling rig for measurement of blowdown cooling heat transfer and quench phenomena on a nuclear fuel rod simulator was designed and constructed for operation at up to 12.4 MPa. The test section consisted of a concentric annulus, with a 9.5 mm OD nuclear fuel rod simulator at the center. The rod was contained within a 0.85 mm thick, 19 mm OD 316 stainless steel tube, forming the flow channel. Two types of rods were tested; one type was sheathed with Inconel 600 while the other was clad with Zircaloy-2. Water was injected into the test section at the top of the heated length through an injection header. This header was an annular sign that fit around the fuel rod simulator and within the stainless steel tube. Small spacers aligned the injection header and prevented contract with either the heater rod or the tube. A series of small diameter holes at the bottom of the header caused the formation of droplets that became entrained with the steam flow. The test section design was such that quench would take place on the rod, and not along the channel outer annulus.

Stephen M. Bajorek; Michael Gawron; Timothy Etzel; Lucas Peterson

2003-06-30

314

Constitutive Model Parameter Study for Armor Steel and Tungsten Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A computational parametric study was performed to assess the influence of the selection of Johnson- Cook constitutive model\\u000a parameters on the numerical simulation of tungsten rods penetrating rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) steel targets. The parameter\\u000a space involved two sets of Johnson-Cook model parameters for RHA, two sets of Johnson-Cook parameters for the tungsten rod\\u000a material, four tungsten rod length-to-diameter (L\\/D)

Stephen J. Schraml

315

The effect of cross-section geometry of bonding wire on wire sweep for semiconductor packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire diameter reduction is an effective way to reduce cost, as gold content accounts for the majority of bonding wire costs. Replacing gold wire with copper wire is another way to reduce cost. The advantages of using Cu instead of Au wire are the lower price and the higher electrical conductivity. However, the oxidation problem of copper wire during the

Huang-Kuang Kung; Bo-Wun Huang; Hsiang-Chen Hsu

2010-01-01

316

Transient current pulses in rocket-extended wires used to trigger lightning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze current, electric field, and optical signatures of the sudden electrical breakdown processes (precursors) that occur at the top of the upward extending, grounded, Kevlar-covered copper wires used to artificially trigger lightning. For one launch, before the sustained upward positive leader initiated, we estimate that up to 10,000 precursors occurred (one every few hundred microseconds) with peak currents from 1 to more than 100 A. Luminosity at the wire tip was observed for 339 of 410 precursors examined in detail and, in seven cases, discharge channels developed to lengths of 3 to 8 m over times of several hundred microseconds. The measured propagation speeds of current pulses on the triggering wires were less than the speed of light, and decreased from about 2.8 × 108 m s-1 to about 2.3 × 108 m s-1with increasing wire-top heights from about 80 m to about 340 m. The triggering wire and its grounding system are modeled as uniform transmission lines with model predictions that are consistent with the measured wire-base precursor current signatures. The modeling shows that (1) the characteristic impedance of the triggering wire, the ratio of the propagating precursor voltage pulse to its associated current pulse, is between 600 and 800 ?; (2) the 25 m ground rod grounding impedance for the peak precursor current is about 100 ?, while the DC grounding resistance is 20 ?; and (3) the current reflection coefficient at ground for peak precursor current is ˜0.9.

Biagi, C. J.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Rakov, V. A.; Jordan, D. M.

2012-04-01

317

The Current in a Wire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

Thompson, Keith

2009-01-01

318

The Tungsten Wire Temperature Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tungsten wire 1 mil diameter, when used in a parachute-borne temperature sensor, is in free molecule flow for most of its flight. The heat transfer coefficient for free molecule flow may be found from theory and is directly proportional to the ambient air density. The wire has a time constant <1 sec below 64 km and will therefore quickly arrive

Peter Hyson

1968-01-01

319

Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

Rabinowitz, Sandy

2009-01-01

320

Single-phase convective heat transfer in rod bundles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The convective heat transfer for turbulent flow through rod bundles representative of nuclear fuel rods used in pressurized water reactors is examined. The rod bundles consist of a square array of parallel rods that are held on a constant pitch by support grids spaced axially along the rod bundle. Split-vane pair support grids, which create swirling flow in the rod

Mary V. Holloway; Donald E. Beasley; Michael E. Conner

2008-01-01

321

Measurement of wire electrode temperature in WEDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire temperature is an important parameter in the wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) process because overheating of the\\u000a wire can cause the wire to break. It is difficult, however, to measure the wire temperature directly under the condition that\\u000a the wire is emerged in water and surrounded by the workpiece. Only mathematical analyses by now have been reported to determine\\u000a such

Fuzhu Han; Gang Cheng; Zhijing Feng; Isago Soichiro

2009-01-01

322

Fuel rod assembly to manifold attachment  

DOEpatents

A fuel element is formed with a plurality of fuel rod assemblies detachably connected to an overhead support with each of the fuel rod assemblies having a gas tight seal with the support to allow internal fission gaseous products to flow without leakage from the fuel rod assemblies into a vent manifold passageway system on the support. The upper ends of the fuel rod assemblies are located at vertically extending openings in the support and upper threaded members are threaded to the fuel rod assemblies to connect the latter to the support. The preferred threaded members are cap nuts having a dome wall encircling an upper threaded end on the fuel rod assembly and having an upper sealing surface for sealing contact with the support. Another and lower seal is achieved by abutting a sealing surface on each fuel rod assembly with the support. A deformable portion on the cap nut locks the latter against inadvertent turning off the fuel rod assembly. Orienting means on the fuel rod and support primarily locates the fuel rods azimuthally for reception of a deforming tool for the cap nut. A cross port in the fuel rod end plug discharges into a sealed annulus within the support, which serves as a circumferential chamber, connecting the manifold gas passageways in the support.

Donck, Harry A. (San Diego, CA); Veca, Anthony R. (San Diego, CA); Snyder, Jr., Harold J. (San Diego, CA)

1980-01-01

323

LOFT lead rod test results evaluation. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

The purpose for evaluating the LOFT Lead Rod Test (simulations of large break, loss-of-coolant accidents) data was to determine; (a) if the centerline thermocouple and fuel rod elongation sensor data show indications of the collapsed fuel rod cladding, (b) the capability of the FRAP-T5 computer code to accurately predict cladding collapse, and (c) if cladding surface thermocouples enhance fuel rod cooling. With consideration to unresolved questions on data integrity, it was concluded that: the fuel rod centerline thermocouple and elongation sensor data do show indications of the fuel rod cladding collapse; the FRAP-T5 code conservatively predicts cladding collapse; and there is an indication that cladding surface thermocouples are enhancing fuel rod cooling.

Driskell, W.B.; Tolman, E.L.

1980-07-30

324

Exploiting rod technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

ROD development was proceeding apace until recent budgetary decisions caused funding support for ROD development to be drastically reduced. The funding which was originally provided by DARPA and the Balanced Technology Initiative (BTI) Office has been cut back to zero from $800K. To determine the aeroballistic coefficients of a candidate dart, ARDEC is currently supporting development out of its own 6.2 funds at about $100K. ARDEC has made slow progress toward achieving this end because of failures in the original dart during testing. It appears that the next dart design to be tested will diverge from the original concept visualized by DARPA and Science and Technology Associates (STA). STA, the design engineer, takes exception to these changes on the basis of inappropriate test conditions and insufficient testing. At this time, the full resolution of this issue will be difficult because of the current management structure, which separates the developer (ARDEC) from the designer (STA).

NONE

1990-06-01

325

Study of transparent and nontransparent regimes of implosion in star wire arrays  

SciTech Connect

Star wire arrays were used to control the imploding plasma flows and study plasma interpenetration. These arrays consisted of linear 'rays' aligned azimuthally and extending from the vertical axis. Star arrays with two close located wires ('gates') instead of a single wire on the inner cylinder were studied for transparent and nontransparent regimes of propagation of imploding plasma through the gates. Nontransparent mode of collision is typical for regular star wire arrays and it was also observed in Al stars with gate wires of regular length and with the gate width of 0.3-2 mm. The cascade process of implosion in stars and trapping of imploding plasma in 1-2 mm gates were modeled with the three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics code. The intermediate semitransparent mode of collision was observed in Al stars with long Al 'gate' wires. A transparent mode was observed in Al stars with long stainless steel or W gate wires. Applications of wire arrays with controlled plasma flows are discussed.

Ivanov, V. V.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Papp, D.; Altemara, S. D. [University of Nevada, Reno, 5625 Fox Ave., Reno, Nevada 89506 (United States); Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Jones, B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States)

2010-10-15

326

Mapping corrosion kinetics using the wire beam electrode in conjunction with electrochemical noise resistance measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire beam electrode (WBE) has been used, in conjunction with the electrochemical noise resistance method, to determine the kinetics of nonuniform corrosion of mild steel in a carbon dioxide saturated brine. Local electrochemical parameters including corrosion potential, galvanic current, and electrochemical noise resistance were measured from local areas of a WBE surface. These parameters were used to calculate the

Y. J. Tan; S. Bailey; B. Kinsella; A. Lowe

2000-01-01

327

Phase behavior of wormlike rods  

E-print Network

By employing Molecular Dynamics computer simulations, the phase behavior of systems of rodlike particles with varying degree of internal flexibility has been traced from the perfectly rigid rod limit till very flexible particles, and from the high density region till the isotropic phase. From the perfectly rigid rod limit and enhancing the internal flexibility, the range of the smectic A phase is squeezed out by the concomitant action of the scarcely affected crystalline phase at higher density and the nematic phase at lower density, until it disappears. These results confirm the supposition, drawn from previous theoretical, simulational and experimental studies, that the smectic A phase is destabilized by introducing and enhancing the degree of particle internal flexibility. However, no significant changes in the order of nematic--to--smectic A phase transition, which appears always first order, nor in the value of the layer spacing, are observed upon varying the degree of particle internal flexibility. Moreover, no evidence of a columnar phase, which was tought of as a possible superseder of the smectic A phase in flexible rods, has been obtained.

Giorgio Cinacchi; Luca De Gaetani

2007-11-12

328

Remote Gamma Scanning System for Characterization of BWR and PWR Fuel Rod Sections  

SciTech Connect

Sometimes challenges with the design and deployment of automated equipment in remote environments deals more with the constraints imposed by the remote environment than it does with the details of the automation. This paper discusses the development of a scanning system used to provide gamma radiation profiles of irradiated fuel rod segments. The system needed the capability to provide axial scans of cut segments of BWR and PWR fuel rods. The scanning location is A-Cell at the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Hanford site in Washington State. The criteria for the scanning equipment included axial scanning increments of a tenth of an inch or less, ability to scan fuel rods with diameters ranging from 3/8 inch to 5/8 inch in diameter, and fuel rod segments up to seven feet in length. Constraints imposed by the environment included having the gamma detector and operator controls on the outside of the hot cell and the scanning hardware on the inside of the hot cell. This entailed getting a narrow, collimated beam of radiation from the fuel rod to the detector on the outside of the hot cell while minimizing the radiation exposure caused by openings for the wires and cables traversing the hot cell walls. Setup and operation of all of the in-cell hardware needed to accommodate limited access ports and use of hot cell manipulators. The radiation levels inside the cell also imposed constraints on the materials used.

Crowell, Shannon L.; Alzheimer, James M.

2011-08-08

329

Metallurgical investigation on fatigue failure of stainless steel chain in a continuous casting machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels strips (chains) are used for the connection of dam blocks in belt casting machines. Thermal cycling and repetitive stressing under complex loading conditions due to tension and bending are the most frequent function modes during production. Samples from fractured stainless steel strips used for the connection of dam blocks in a copper rod continuous casting line, were sent

G. Pantazopoulos; A. Vazdirvanidis

2009-01-01

330

Stiffness and Confinement Ratios of SMA Wire Jackets for Confining Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the effects of the stiffness and confinement ratios of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets on the behavior of confined concrete. SMA wire jackets are an effective confining material to improve concrete behavior; for example, by increasing peak strength and failure strain. The stiffness and confinement ratios of fiber-reinforced polymer jackets have been extensively discussed and their effects are well known. However, assessment of the stiffness and confinement ratios of SMA wire jackets has not previously been conducted. In this study, we investigate the effects of the stiffness and confinement ratios of steel jackets, and then compare the results with those of SMA wire jackets. In general, the stiffness ratios of SMA wire jackets are relatively smaller than those of steel jackets, and most of them have lower stiffness ratios because the Young's moduli of the SMAs are relatively small. The active confining pressure of the SMA wires does not improve the lower stiffness-ratio effect since the amount of active confining pressure is not sufficiently large.

Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dong Joo; Youn, Heejung

2014-07-01

331

Rolling contact fatigue of surface modified 440C using a 'Ge-Polymet' type disc rod test rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through hardened 440 C martensitic stainless steel test specimens were surface modified and tested for changes in rolling contact fatigue using a disc on rod test rig. The surface modifications consisted of nitrogen, boron, titanium, chromium, tantalum, carbon, or molybdenum ion implantation at various ion fluences and energies. Tests were also performed on specimens reactively sputtered with titanium nitride.

Thom, Robert L.

1989-01-01

332

Monte Carlo estimation of the dose and heating of cobalt adjuster rods irradiated in the CANDU 6 reactor core.  

PubMed

The present work is a part of a more complex project related to the replacement of the original stainless steel adjuster rods with cobalt assemblies in the CANDU 6 reactor core. The 60Co produced by 59Co irradiation could be used extensively in medicine and industry. The paper will mainly describe some of the reactor physics and safety requirements that must be carried into practice for the Co adjuster rods. The computations related to the neutronic equivalence of the stainless steel adjusters with the Co adjuster assemblies, as well as the estimations of the activity and heating of the irradiated cobalt rods, are performed using the Monte Carlo codes MCNP5 and MONTEBURNS 2.1. The activity values are used to evaluate the dose at the surface of the device designed to transport the cobalt adjusters. PMID:16604599

Gugiu, Daniela; Dumitrache, Ion

2005-01-01

333

Investigation of Backscatter X-ray imaging techniques for Uranium Dioxide Fuel Rods  

SciTech Connect

Radiography by Selective Detection (RSD), was investigated for its ability to determine the presence and types of defects in a UO{sub 2} fuel rod surrounded by zirconium cladding. Images created using a Monte Carlo model compared favorably with actual X-ray backscatter images from mock fuel rods. A fuel rod was modeled as a rectangular parallelepiped with zirconium cladding, and pencil beam X-ray sources of 160 kVp (79 keV avg) and 480 kVp (218 keV avg) were generated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code to attempt to image void and palladium (Pd) defects in the interior and on the surface of the fuel pellet. It was found that the 160 kVp spectrum was unable to detect the presence of interior defects, whereas the 480 kVp spectrum detected them with both the standard and the RSD backscatter methods, though the RSD method was very inefficient. It was also found that both energy spectra were able to detect void and Pd defects on the surface using both imaging methods. Additionally, two mock fuel rods were imaged using a backscatter X-ray imaging system, one consisting of hafnium pellets in a Zircaloy-4 cladding and the other consisting of steel pellets in a Zircalloy-4 cladding which was then encased in a steel cladding (a double encapsulation configuration employed in irradiation and experiments). It was found that the system was capable of detecting individual HfO{sub 2} pellets in a Zircaloy-4 cladding and may be capable of detecting individual steel pellets in the double-encapsulated sample. It is expected that the system would also be capable of detecting individual UO{sub 2} pellets in a Zircaloy-4 cladding, though no UO{sub 2} fuel rod was available for imaging.

Jackson, Timothy D [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Hollenbach, Daniel F [ORNL; Shedlock, Daniel [Nucsafe, Inc.

2011-01-01

334

The Rod Photoreceptor Lineage of Teleost Fish  

PubMed Central

The retinas of postembryonic teleost fish continue to grow for the lifetime of the fish. New retinal cells are added continuously at the retinal margin, by stem cells residing at the circumferential germinal zone. Some of these retinal cells differentiate as Müller glia with cell bodies that reside within the inner nuclear layer. These glia retain some stem cell properties in that they carry out asymmetric cell divisions and continuously generate a population of transit-amplifying cells – the rod photoreceptor lineage – that are committed to rod photoreceptor neurogenesis. These rod progenitors progress through a stereotyped sequence of changes in gene expression as they continue to divide and migrate to the outer nuclear layer. Now referred to as rod precursors, they undergo terminal mitoses and then differentiate as rods, which are inserted into the existing array of rod and cone photoreceptors. The rod lineage displays developmental plasticity, as rod precursors can respond to the loss of rods through increased proliferation, resulting in rod replacement. The stem cells of the rod lineage, Müller glia, respond to acute damage of other retinal cell types by increasing their rate of proliferation. In addition, the Müller glia in an acutely damaged retina dedifferentiate and become multipotent, generating new, functional neurons. This review focuses on the cells of the rod lineage and includes discussions of experiments over the last 30 years that led to their identification and characterization, and the discovery of the stem cells residing at the apex of the lineage. The plasticity of cells of the rod lineage, their relationships to cone progenitors, and the applications of this information for developing future treatments for human retinal disorders will also be discussed. PMID:21742053

Stenkamp, Deborah L.

2011-01-01

335

Novel Gapped Quantum Wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality state of the art quantum wires (QWRs) can be fabricated by the novel cleaved edge overgrowth technique, proposed by (Pfeiffer et al., 1990). Transverse quantization in these QWRs leads to a succession of nested energy bands. With the lowest two successive energy levels occupied, gapped phases are possible including, e.g, an intersubband charge density wave (ICDW) and a Cooper phase with strong superconducting fluctuations (Starykh et al., 2000). Due to the possibility of density reorganization, in which it becomes favorable for the two lowest subbands to match their densities, the ICDW is usually the most likely state. Recently, by exploiting the valley degeneracy in AlAs, a single QWR has been fabricated with two degenerate nonoverlapping bands separated in k space by half an Umklapp vector (Moser et al. 2004). For low densities this structure is able to access a multiple subband regime that is not subject to the density reorganizing ICDW, leaving the Cooper phase to flourish. Using Abelian bosonization, we explore the relevant interaction terms for this system, including Umklapp assisted Cooper scattering, and discuss the phase diagram.

Datta, Trinanjan

2005-03-01

336

Novel Gapped Quantum Wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality state of the art quantum wires (QWRs) can be fabricated by the novel Cleaved Edge Overgrowth (CEO) technique, proposed by (Pfeiffer et al, 1990). Transverse quantization in these QWRs leads to a succession of nested energy bands. With the lowest two successive energy levels occupied, gapped phases are possible including, e.g., an intersubband charge density wave (ICDW) and a Cooper phase with strong superconducting fluctuations (Starykh et al, 2000). Due to the possibility of density reorganization, in which it becomes favorable for the two lowest subbands to match their densities, the ICDW is usually the most likely state. Recently, by exploiting the valley degeneracy in AlAs, a single QWR has been fabricated with two degenerate nonoverlapping bands separated in k space by half an Umklapp vector (Moser et al 2004). For low densities the structure is able to access a multiple subband regime that is not subject to the density reorganizing ICDW, leaving a Cooper phase to flourish. Using Abelian bosonization, we explore the relevant interaction terms for this system, including Umklapp assisted Cooper scattering and discuss the phase diagram.

Datta, Trinanjan

2005-04-01

337

Electrical explosion of segmented wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomena occurring during the electrical explosion of segmented wires are described. It was observed that with a wire of varying thickness, the smaller diameter parts explode first, ejecting metal vapor radially. Breakdown occurs through the vapor, creating current carrying channels which bypass the larger diameter parts of the wire. This may result, in some cases, in the larger diameter parts not exploding at all. Only slight deformations occur at their ends. On the boundary between the exploding and nonexploding sections of the wire, such deformations may cause the evolution of an accelerated slug, similar to that of a ``self-forging fragment.'' The phenomenon of the current bypassing metallic parts may offer an explanation to the way the ``segmented diverters'' work on a lightning stricken aircraft radome.

Me-Bar, Y.; Harel, R.

1996-02-01

338

Fuel rod retention device for a nuclear reactor  

DOEpatents

A device is described for supporting a nuclear fuel rod in a fuel rod assembly which allows the rod to be removed without disturbing other rods in the assembly. A fuel rod cap connects the rod to a bolt which is supported in the assembly end fitting by means of a locking assembly. The device is designed so that the bolt is held securely during normal reactor operation yet may be easily disengaged and the fuel rod removed when desired.

Hylton, Charles L. (Madison Heights, VA)

1984-01-01

339

Method of manufacturing superconductor wire  

SciTech Connect

A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

Motowidlo, Leszek

2014-09-16

340

Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations  

ScienceCinema

Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

2014-04-09

341

Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations  

SciTech Connect

Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

2014-03-03

342

29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

2012-07-01

343

29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

2010-07-01

344

29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.  

...Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

2014-07-01

345

29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

2013-07-01

346

29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the...

2011-07-01

347

[Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of orthodontic wires by electrochemical measures and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)].  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to study the corrosion resistance of orthodontic wires made of different alloys (stainless steel, chrome-cobalt, nickel-titanium and ?-titanium) and for the same alloy from different vendors (GAC(®), RMO(®), 3M(®) and ORMCO(®)). Different electrochemical techniques (corrosion potential monitoring as a function of immersion time, current-potential curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) were used. The wires' resistance to corrosion was measured and compared with the surface condition, assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using the recorded data, a rating system based on the corrosion resistance of orthodontic wires was developed. The comparison of these data with the results of SEM shows that the surface chemical composition plays a primary role in the electrochemical behavior of the orthodontic wires and, unlike surface defects, is a key parameter for the corrosion resistance of the alloy. PMID:24280552

Zoghbi, André El; Klein, Lorena; Frateur, Isabelle

2013-12-01

348

Novel Stacked Wire Mesh Compact Heat Exchangers Produced Using Cold Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the feasibility of using the pulsed gas dynamic spraying (PGDS) process to deposit metal powder on the outer surfaces of metal wire mesh wafers for use as high-performance compact heat exchangers. Plain-square weave woven mesh produced from stainless steel wires were stacked and sintered to form wire mesh bricks, which were then cut into wafers. The outer surfaces of the wafers were sealed using the PGDS deposition technique as opposed to the more traditional brazing sheet solution. This approach provides more intimate contact between the mesh wire tips and sealed surface, thereby promoting conduction through the outer walls and improving the heat exchanger efficiency. In addition, PGDS is an attractive alternative to brazing sheets for this application because of its potential for reduced manufacturing costs. Burst and tensile tests of the PGDS coated wafers were carried out.

Assaad, Jamil; Corbeil, Antoine; Richer, Patrick F.; Jodoin, Bertrand

2011-12-01

349

Rod hue biases produced on CRT displays.  

PubMed

Studies of rod hue biases using monochromatic stimuli have shown that rod stimulation can shift the balance of hues at mesopic light levels. We found that the CRT display produced all three previously identified rod hue biases, which shifted the loci of all four unique hues at low mesopic light levels. Rod hue biases occurred at 2.6 cd/m(2) for some observers but not at 26 cd/m(2). At optimal light levels below 0.5 cd/m(2), rod hue biases varied among observers but generally (1) enhanced green versus red at unique yellow and sometimes at unique blue, (2) enhanced blue versus yellow at both unique green and unique red, and (3) enhanced red versus green at unique blue. Rod hue biases persisted for some observers even for smaller foveal stimuli. PMID:22330401

Buck, Steven L; Juve, Ryan; Wisner, David; Concepcion, Aldebert

2012-02-01

350

Reactor control rod timing system. [LMFBR  

DOEpatents

A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system is described for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

Wu, P.T.K.

1980-03-18

351

HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

Not Available

1994-07-01

352

Tethered Rod Smectic C phase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Simulation Software: Glotzer Group Code Simulation Method: Brownian Dynamics A system of 800 building blocks of composition rod5b-tether6b at a concentration of 0.20, was run starting at a temperature of effecitvely infinite then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of 1.0. The system was then run for 3,000,000 time steps forming a Smetic C phase.The solve was selective for the neutral Simulation Model: United Atom Bead Spring with Lennard-Jones and FENE

Zhang, Zhenli

2005-01-31

353

1 mil gold bond wire study.  

SciTech Connect

In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

2013-05-01

354

Impact of AD995 alumina rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas guns and velocity interferometric techniques have been used to determine the loading behavior of AD995 alumina rods 19 mm in diameter by 75 mm and 150 mm long, respectively. Graded-density materials were used to impact both bare and sleeved alumina rods while the velocity interferometer was used to monitor the axial-velocity of the free end of the rods. Results

L. C. Chbabildas; M. D. Furnish; W. D. Reinhart; D. E. Grady

1998-01-01

355

Impact of AD995 Alumina Rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas gun experiments combined with velocity interferometric techniques have been used to determine the loading behavior of an AD995 alumina rod 19mm in diameter by 75mm and 150mm long, respectively. Graded-density materials were used to impact both bare and sleeved alumina rods, while the velocity interferometer was used to monitor the axial-velocity of the free end of the rods. Results

L. C. Chhabildas; M. D. Furnish; W. D. Reinhart; D. E. Grady

1997-01-01

356

Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release  

DOEpatents

A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

Hutter, E.; Pardini, J.A.; Walker, D.E.

1984-03-13

357

Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release  

DOEpatents

A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

Hutter, Ernest (Wilmette, IL); Pardini, John A. (Brookfield, IL); Walker, David E. (Naperville, IL)

1987-01-01

358

Growth and Morphology of Rod Eutectics  

SciTech Connect

The formation of rod eutectic microstructure is investigated systematically in a succinonitrile-camphor alloy of eutectic composition by using the directional solidification technique. A new rod eutectic configuration is observed in which the rods form with elliptical cylindrical shape. Two different orientations of the ellipse are observed that differ by a 90{sup o} rotation such that the major and the minor axes are interchanged. Critical experiments in thin samples, where a single layer of rods forms, show that the spacing and orientation of the elliptic rods are governed by the growth rate and the sample thickness. In thicker samples, multi layers of rods form with circular cross-section and the scaling law between the spacing and velocity predicted by the Jackson and Hunt model is validated. A theoretical model is developed for a two-dimensional array of elliptical rods that are arranged in a hexagonal or a square array, and the results are shown to be consistent with the experimental observations. The model of elliptic rods is also shown to reduce to that for the circular rod eutectic when the lengths of the two axes are equal, and to the lamellar eutectic model when one of the axes is much larger than the other one.

Jing Teng; Shan Liu; R. Trivedi

2008-03-17

359

Connecting to Thermocouples with Fewer Lead Wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple technique has been devised to reduce the number of lead wires needed to connect an array of thermocouples to the instruments (e.g., voltmeters) used to read their output voltages. Because thermocouple wires are usually made of expensive metal alloys, reducing the number of lead wires can effect a considerable reduction in the cost of such an array. Reducing the number of wires also reduces the number of terminals and the amount of space needed to accommodate the wires.

Goldsby, Jon C.

2003-01-01

360

Repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades using austenitic and martensitic stainless-steel consumables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedure for repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades made of martensitic stainless steels has been developed using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Weld repair procedures were developed using both ER 316L austenitic and ER 410 martensitic stainless-steel filler wire. The overall development of the repair welding procedure included selection of welding consumables (for austenitic filler metal), optimisation

A. K Bhaduri; T. P. S Gill; S. K Albert; K Shanmugam; D. R Iyer

2001-01-01

361

Drug-eluting Ti wires with titania nanotube arrays for bone fixation and reduced bone infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current bone fixation technology which uses stainless steel wires known as Kirschner wires for fracture fixing often causes infection and reduced skeletal load resulting in implant failure. Creating new wires with drug-eluting properties to locally deliver drugs is an appealing approach to address some of these problems. This study presents the use of titanium [Ti] wires with titania nanotube [TNT] arrays formed with a drug delivery capability to design alternative bone fixation tools for orthopaedic applications. A titania layer with an array of nanotube structures was synthesised on the surface of a Ti wire by electrochemical anodisation and loaded with antibiotic (gentamicin) used as a model of bone anti-bacterial drug. Successful fabrication of TNT structures with pore diameters of approximately 170 nm and length of 70 ?m is demonstrated for the first time in the form of wires. The drug release characteristics of TNT-Ti wires were evaluated, showing a two-phase release, with a burst release (37%) and a slow release with zero-order kinetics over 11 days. These results confirmed our system's ability to be applied as a drug-eluting tool for orthopaedic applications. The established biocompatibility of TNT structures, closer modulus of elasticity to natural bones and possible inclusion of desired drugs, proteins or growth factors make this system a promising alternative to replace conventional bone implants to prevent bone infection and to be used for targeted treatment of bone cancer, osteomyelitis and other orthopaedic diseases.

Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

2011-10-01

362

Optimization of Single-Photon Response Transmission at the Rod-to-Rod Bipolar Synapse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our ability to see in dim light is limited by the statistics of light absorption in rod photoreceptors and the faithful transmission of the light-evoked signals through the retina. This article reviews the physiological mechanisms at the synapse between rods and rod bipolar cells, the first relay in a pathway that mediates vision near absolute threshold.

2007-08-01

363

Analysis of Plasma Formation in an Experiment with Pulsed Megagauss Field on 1.0-mm Diameter Aluminum Rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The physics of the interaction between large magnetic field and conducting media is important to wire-array z-pinches, high current fuses, magnetically insulated transmission lines, ultrahigh magnetic field generators, magnetized target fusion, and astrophysics. In an experiment on the 1 MA UNR Zebra Marx generator, megagauss magnetic field was pulsed on the surface of 1.0-mm-diameter aluminum rods.

T. J. Awe; B. S. Bauer; R. E. Siemon; S. Fuelling; V. Makhin; T. Goodrich; V. V. Ivanov; B. Le Galloudec; A. Oxner; R. Presura

2007-01-01

364

The Effect of Annealing on the Elastic Modulus of Orthodontic Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires are currently used in orthodontic treatment due to their heat activated properties and their delivery of constant force. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of annealing on the elastic modulus of Nickel Titanium, Stainless Steel and Beta-titanium (TMA) wires. Different points along the wire were tested in order to determine how far from the annealed ends the elastic modulus of the wires was affected. Methods: Eighty (80) orthodontic wires consisting of 4 equal groups (SS/TMA/Classic NitinolRTM/Super Elastic NitinolRTM) were used as the specimens for this study. All wires were measured and marked at 5mm measurements, and cut into 33.00mm sections. The wires were heated with a butane torch until the first 13.00mm of the wires were red hot. Load deflection tests using an InstronRTM universal testing machine were run at 5mm distances from the end of the wire that had been annealed. The change in elastic modulus was then determined. Results: There was a significant difference (F = 533.001, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four distances. There was also a significant difference (F = 57.571, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four wire types. There was a significant interaction (F = 19.601, p = 0.005) between wire type and distance, however this interaction negated the differences between the wires. Conclusion: 1) There are significant differences in the changes in elastic modulus between the areas of the wires within the annealed section and those areas 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section. The change in elastic modulus within the annealed section was significantly greater at 8 mm than it was at 13mm, and this was significantly greater than 18mm and 23mm (5mm and 10mm beyond the annealed section). However, there was no statistical difference in the change in elastic modulus between 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section (18mm and 23mm respectively). 2) Regardless of the wire type, no clinically important effects were seen 5mm and 10mm beyond the annealed portion.

Higginbottom, Kyle

365

Microstructural Evolution During Friction Surfacing of Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304 on Low Carbon Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 coating was deposited over low carbon steel substrate by means of friction surfacing and the microstructural evolution was studied. The microstructural characterization of the coating was carried out by optical microscopy (OM), electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The coating exhibited refined grains (average size of 5 ?m) as compared to the coarse grains (average size of 40 ?m) in as-received consumable rod. The results from the microstructural characterization studies show that discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) is the responsible mechanism for grain evolution as a consequence of severe plastic deformation.

Khalid Rafi, H.; Kishore Babu, N.; Phanikumar, G.; Prasad Rao, K.

2013-01-01

366

Neutron irradiation and temperature effects on induced voltages in various mineral insulated cables and ceramic-coated wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

U-shaped single copper and stainless steel core mineral insulated cables (with outer diameter 1.0 and 1.5mm), dual core mineral insulated cables (also with copper and stainless steel cores) and three types of ceramic-coated wires have been irradiated in the BR2 research reactor up to a maximum thermal neutron fluence of 1020n\\/cm2. The cables were guided through a 25cm long double

Ludo Vermeeren

2011-01-01

367

Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed  

DOEpatents

A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

Hooper, Frederick M (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

368

TRANSURANUS: a fuel rod analysis code ready for use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TRANSURANUS is a computer program for the thermal and mechanical analysis of fuel rods in nuclear reactors and was developed at the European Institute for Transuranium Elements (TUI). The TRANSURANUS code consists of a clearly defined mechanical-mathematical framework into which physical models can easily be incorporated. Besides its flexibility for different fuel rod designs the TRANSURANUS code can deal with very different situations, as given for instance in an experiment, under normal, off-normal and accident conditions. The time scale of the problems to be treated may range from milliseconds to years. The code has a comprehensive material data bank for oxide, mixed oxide, carbide and nitride fuels, Zircaloy and steel claddings and different coolants. During its development great effort was spent on obtaining an extremely flexible tool which is easy to handle, exhibiting very fast running times. The total development effort is approximately 40 man-years. In recent years the interest to use this code grew and the code is in use in several organisations, both research and private industry. The code is now available to all interested parties. The paper outlines the main features and capabilities of the TRANSURANUS code, its validation and treats also some practical aspects.

Lassmann, K.

1992-06-01

369

Hands On Math Using Colored Rods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students enjoy learning by doing and by manipulating objects. This paper describes classroom activities using rods with various lengths and different colors. The activities included are: (1) preparation of rods; (2) elementary addition and subtraction; (3) fractions; (4) concept of greater than, less than, and equals; (5) simple division and…

Barry, Dana Malloy

370

Joule heating of a titanium rod  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the steady-state heat conduction solution for constant heat generation in a rod to determine the maximum temperature difference between the center and surface of a titanium rod heated by electric current; also sketch temperature history from the time when current is turned on.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2002-10-04

371

Tipping Time of a Quantum Rod  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The behaviour of a quantum rod, pivoted at its lower end on an impenetrable floor and restricted to moving in the vertical plane under the gravitational potential, is studied analytically under the approximation that the rod is initially localized to a "small-enough" neighbourhood around the point of classical unstable equilibrium. It is shown…

Parrikar, Onkar

2010-01-01

372

SATURATION AND ADAPTATION IN THE ROD SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A background that is briefly flashed to a dark-adapted eye saturates the rod system. This transient saturation occurs with backgrounds that are as much as 2 log units dimmer than those producing saturation under steady viewing. Rod threshold is highest when the background is first turned on, and falls as adaptation proceeds. The nature of the adaptive processes are studied

Edward H. Adelson

373

Effects of surface preparation on pitting resistance, residual stress, and stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface finishing treatments such as shot blasting and wire brushing can be beneficial in improving the integrity of machined\\u000a surfaces of austenitic stainless steels. These operations optimize in-service properties such as resistance to pitting corrosion\\u000a and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In this study, ground steel surfaces were subjected to a series of sand blasting and\\u000a wire brushing treatments. The surfaces

A. Ben Rhouma; H. Sidhom; C. Braham; J. Lédion; M. E. Fitzpatrick

2001-01-01

374

Rod-Coil Block Polyimide Copolymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention is a series of rod-coil block polyimide copolymers that are easy to fabricate into mechanically resilient films with acceptable ionic or protonic conductivity at a variety of temperatures. The copolymers consist of short-rigid polyimide rod segments alternating with polyether coil segments. The rods and coil segments can be linear, branched or mixtures of linear and branched segments. The highly incompatible rods and coil segments phase separate, providing nanoscale channels for ion conduction. The polyimide segments provide dimensional and mechanical stability and can be functionalized in a number of ways to provide specialized functions for a given application. These rod-coil black polyimide copolymers are particularly useful in the preparation of ion conductive membranes for use in the manufacture of fuel cells and lithium based polymer batteries.

Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

375

Wires for Shape Memory Actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of non-conventional electrical pulse treatment on microstructure and shape memory response of Ni49Ti51 wires was studied. High-power rapid current square pulses were applied to cold-drawn wires of 25 µm diameter. The TEM microstructures showed equiaxial recrystallization, with average grain size in the 100 nm range, after a double current pulse lasting 10 ms. Rapid current pulse treatment in Ti-rich NiTi induces shape memory effect with reduced thermal hysteresis and high recovery strain values. This novel treatment might replace conventional pre-device shape setting/training of the wire with a post-device shape setting with promising industrial advantages.

Casati, R.; Vedani, M.; Gialanella, S.; Tuissi, A.

2014-07-01

376

Processing of High-Performance Nb3Sn Wires Through a New Diffusion Reaction Using sn Based Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tightly consolidated Sn-Ta and Sn-B based alloys have been prepared by the reaction among constituent metal powders at 750-775° C. Sn-Ta and Sn-B based alloys exhibit quite similar microstructures. A small amount of Ti addition seems to improve the bonding between Ta or B particles and Sn matrix. Nb3Sn wires have been fabricated by the Jelly Roll (JR) and Multi-rod (MR) process using Sn based alloy sheet and rod, respectively. Thick Nb3Sn layers with nearly stoichiometric A15 composition are synthesized through a new diffusion mechanism between Nb and Sn based alloy. Bc2 (4.2 K)'s of 26.9 T (mid) and 26.5 T (mid) have been obtained in the JR and MR processed wires, respectively, using Sn-Ta based alloy. These wires exhibit enough non-Cu Jc to be used above 20 T and 4.2 K. Tc of JR wires using Sn-B based sheet is 18.14 K (offset) which is slightly higher than that of wires using Sn-Ta based sheet.

Tachikawa, K.; Sasaki, H.; Yamaguchi, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Nakata, K.; Takeuchi, T.

2010-04-01

377

PROCESSING OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE Nb{sub 3}Sn WIRES THROUGH A NEW DIFFUSION REACTION USING Sn BASED ALLOYS  

SciTech Connect

Tightly consolidated Sn-Ta and Sn-B based alloys have been prepared by the reaction among constituent metal powders at 750-775 deg. C. Sn-Ta and Sn-B based alloys exhibit quite similar microstructures. A small amount of Ti addition seems to improve the bonding between Ta or B particles and Sn matrix. Nb{sub 3}Sn wires have been fabricated by the Jelly Roll (JR) and Multi-rod (MR) process using Sn based alloy sheet and rod, respectively. Thick Nb{sub 3}Sn layers with nearly stoichiometric A15 composition are synthesized through a new diffusion mechanism between Nb and Sn based alloy. B{sub c2}(4.2 K)'s of 26.9 T (mid) and 26.5 T (mid) have been obtained in the JR and MR processed wires, respectively, using Sn-Ta based alloy. These wires exhibit enough non-Cu J{sub c} to be used above 20 T and 4.2 K. T{sub c} of JR wires using Sn-B based sheet is 18.14 K (offset) which is slightly higher than that of wires using Sn-Ta based sheet.

Tachikawa, K.; Sasaki, H.; Yamaguchi, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Nakata, K. [Faculty of Engineering, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

2010-04-08

378

Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. Since they are very thin, their detection early enough so that the pilot has enough time to take evasive action is difficult, as their images can be less than one or two pixels wide. Two approaches were explored for this purpose. The first approach involved a technique for sub-pixel edge detection and subsequent post processing, in order to reduce the false alarms. After reviewing the line detection literature, an algorithm for sub-pixel edge detection proposed by Steger was identified as having good potential to solve the considered task. The algorithm was tested using a set of images synthetically generated by combining real outdoor images with computer generated wire images. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated both, at the pixel and the wire levels. It was observed that the algorithm performs well, provided that the wires are not too thin (or distant) and that some post processing is performed to remove false alarms due to clutter. The second approach involved the use of an example-based learning scheme namely, Support Vector Machines. The purpose of this approach was to explore the feasibility of an example-based learning based approach for the task of detecting wires from their images. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have emerged as a promising pattern classification tool and have been used in various applications. It was found that this approach is not suitable for very thin wires and of course, not suitable at all for sub-pixel thick wires. High dimensionality of the data as such does not present a major problem for SVMs. However it is desirable to have a large number of training examples especially for high dimensional data. The main difficulty in using SVMs (or any other example-based learning method) is the need for a very good set of positive and negative examples since the performance depends on the quality of the training set.

Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia I.

2002-01-01

379

Observations of Wire Array Dynamics on the Z Accelerator using Optical Frames and Streak Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first laser shadowgraph measurements of wire array dynamics on Z using a sub-nanosecond visible framing camera to record 6 sequential frames. Simultaneously, a streak camera records the radial intensity versus time at a fixed height on the wire array. This set of complimentary diagnostics provides new possibilities for the direct observation of wire array ablation and stagnation dynamics with a 20-MA current driver. We observe a strong disagreement between experimental results and a 0-D compression trajectory. The compression starts later in time and has a steeper trajectory than the 0-D prediction due to prolonged plasma generation. Stainless steel wires are measured to expand with an initial velocity during the prepulse of 1.3 km/s. During the main pulse, the wires expansion velocity reaches values of 27 km/s. The velocity of the wire-array at stagnation is 200-400 km/s. Density perturbations are observed along the Z-axis as plasma, ablated from the wires, streams to the axis. The spatial period of this instability is 250 mm. Early in time, we observe small-scale perturbations in the wire array boundary, which transform to larger structures later in the implosion. Similar instabilities are observed in the creation of plasma on the return current conductor, which contains the wire array. Possible origins and growth rates for the instabilities, such as Rayleigh Taylor, the thermo-electric effect and other mechanisms will be discussed. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

Bliss, David E.; Sarkisov, Gennady S.; Rogowski, Sonrisa T.; Jones, Brent M.; Deeney, Chris; Nash, Thomas J.; Struve, Kenneth W.; McDaniel, Dillon H.

2003-10-01

380

Ion-nitriding of austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Although ion-nitriding is an extensively industrialized process enabling steel surfaces to be hardened by nitrogen diffusion, with a resulting increase in wear, seizure and fatigue resistance, its direct application to stainless steels, while enhancing their mechanical properties, also causes a marked degradation in their oxidation resistance. However, by adaption of the nitriding process, it is possible to maintain the improved wear resistant properties while retaining the oxidation resistance of the stainless steel. The controlled diffusion permits the growth of a nitrogen supersaturated austenite layer on parts made of stainless steel (AISI 304L and 316L) without chromium nitride precipitation. The diffusion layer remains stable during post heat treatments up to 650 F for 5,000 hrs and maintains a hardness of 900 HV. A very low and stable friction coefficient is achieved which provides good wear resistance against stainless steels under diverse conditions. Electrochemical and chemical tests in various media confirm the preservation of the stainless steel characteristics. An example of the application of this process is the treatment of Reactor Control Rod Cluster Assemblies (RCCAs) for Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactors.

Pacheco, O. [BW Fuel Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Hertz, D. [Framatome-Nuclear Fuel, Lyon (France); Lebrun, J.P. [Nitruvid, Argenteuil (France); Michel, H. [EMN/LSGS, Nancy (France)

1995-12-31

381

Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

Bich, George J. (Penn Hills, PA); Gupta, Tapan K. (Monroeville, PA)

1984-01-01

382

Illumination system for wire bonding inspection.  

PubMed

A novel lighting system was devised for 3D defect inspection in the wire bonding process. Gold wires of 20 microm in diameter were bonded to connect the integrated circuit (IC) chip with the substrate. Bonding wire defects can be classified as 2D type and 3D type. The 2D-type defects include missed, shifted, or shorted wires. These defects can be inspected from a 2D top-view image of the wire. The 3D-type bonding wire defects are sagging wires, and are difficult to inspect from a 2D top-view image. A structured lighting system was designed and developed to facilitate all 2D-type and 3D-type defect inspection. The devised lighting system can be programmed to turn the structured LEDs on or off independently. Experiments show that the devised illumination system is effective for wire bonding inspection and will be valuable for further applications. PMID:17279128

Perng, Der-Baau; Chou, Cheng-Chuan; Lee, Shu-Ming

2007-02-20

383

Quality control of microelectronic wire bonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report evaluates ultrasonic bonding of small-diameter aluminum wire joined to ceramic substrates metalized with thin-film and thick-film gold. Quick testing technique for nondestructive location of poor wire bonds is also presented.

Thiel, R. A.; Schmidt, G. D.

1975-01-01

384

Technique for stripping Teflon insulated wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic stripping of Teflon insulated wire leaves no residue and produces no physical damage. After the wire is immersed in liquid nitrogen, bent slightly, and returned to room temperature, the Teflon is removed by fingernails or flat-nosed pliers.

Babb, B. D.

1967-01-01

385

Wire Capture Programs for Macintosh and IBM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses wire capture programs (computer programs which gather and process wire services such as the Associated Press or United Press) for computer labs in journalism departments. Describes details of such programs for Macintosh, IBM, and IBM clones. (SR)

Wiley, Gale

1989-01-01

386

30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

2011-07-01

387

30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

2012-07-01

388

30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.  

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

2014-07-01

389

30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

2010-07-01

390

30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

2010-07-01

391

30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

2012-07-01

392

30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

2013-07-01

393

30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.  

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

2014-07-01

394

Lourie-Love No OIT Wiring  

E-print Network

1942 1941 Lourie-Love 1922 1940 58 No OIT Wiring Building Wiring Type Category 3 or Mixed Category Streicker Bridge 63/65/67 Gulick Pavilion Lourie-Love Pavilion Lenz Tennis Center Neuro-Institute Psychology

395

Laboratory manual for static pressure drop experiments in LMFBR wire wrapped rod bundles  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this experiment is to determine both interior and edge subchannel axial pressure drops for a range of Reynolds numbers. The subchannel static pressure drop is used to calculate subchannel and bundle average friction factors, which can be used to verify existing friction factor correlations. The correlations for subchannel friction factors are used as input to computer codes which solve the coupled energy, continuity, and momentum equations, and are also used to develop flow split correlations which are needed as input to codes which solve only the energy equation. The bundle average friction factor is used to calculate the overall bundle pressure drop, which determines the required pumping power.

Burns, K.J.; Todreas, N.E.

1980-07-01

396

Fluid-mixing studies in a hexagonal 217-pin wire-wrapped rod bundle. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Mixing, pressure drop, and flow split experiments were performed on a 217 pin LMFBR fuel bundle with a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.25 and a lead length of 12 inches. It was found that the turbulent flow data could best be characterized by the energy parameter C/sub 1L/=.106, which is 9% higher than the value from the correlation of Chiu et al. Chiu's correlation was developed on a data base of 61 and 91 pins. The spread of existing data about the correlation is +- 25%, but the error band on our data is expected to be less (approx. +- 10% since injection depth effects were not previously considered). This result is consistent with the concept of increased swirl flow in larger bundles (more pins).

Symolon, P.D.; Todreas, N.E.

1981-02-01

397

Breakdown testing of wiring insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dielectric strength of potential wiring insulation, recommended by NASA Lewis Research Center to replace existing M81381 (polyimide), was evaluated at high temperature. Results, given in view-graph format, show that their is no dependence of breakdown strength on temperature for the constructions tested and that their was little effect of frequency on the breakdown characteristics.

Laghari, Javaid R.

1994-01-01

398

Wire-Wrap Chatter Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring circuit responds to changes in resistance as little as 0.1 ohm. Has been used to detect defective wire-wrap connections during thermal and vibration tests. Defect is indicated to operator by light-emitting diode and by increase in count on a two-digit display.

Fisch, G. Z.; Borden, T. J.

1982-01-01

399

Flexible substrate for printed wiring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

1982-01-01

400

Failure mechanisms in wire ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inevitable attrition of wire rope in service is discussed with an overview of the consequences in terms of inspection and replacement criteria. Details are presented of specific degradation mechanisms observed in three different applications: a mine hoist rope operating on a drum winder, a mooring rope for an offshore structure and a spin-resistant single-fall offshore crane rope. In each

C. R. Chaplin

1995-01-01

401

Fabrication of tungsten wire needles  

SciTech Connect

Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

Roder, A.

1983-02-01

402

Telesynergy V3 Wiring Diagram  

Cancer.gov

Extron 8 port Video/Audio Switch WAVE Camera Telesynergy v3 Wiring Diagram ISDN T1/PRI Module CTRLR 0 Legend: S-Video Audio VGA DVI USB RS-232 Serial Microphone Ethernet Planar C5i AMD Exam Cam Canon Document Camera Olympus BX51 Sony DVD Recorder JVC

403

Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation deals with the use of carbon nanotubes as a transport system. Contact, defects, tubular bend, phonons, and mechanical deformations all contribute to reflection within the nanotube wire. Bragg reflection, however, is native to an ideal energy transport system. Transmission resistance depends primarily on the level of energy present. Finally, the details regarding coupling between carbon nanotubes and simple metals are presented.

Anantram, M. P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

404

Plated wire random access memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

Gouldin, L. D.

1975-01-01

405

Reusable packaging [for magnet wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reusable packaging has been with the magnet wire industry for 30 years. It has primarily been limited to plastic spools and reels. What had been very apparent over the years is that loss and damage to those reels has been very high. With a large customer base, knowing if the reels and spools have come back has been impossible. Many

L. G. Ditton

1997-01-01

406

Life prediction of aging aircraft wiring systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program goal is to develop a computerized life prediction model capable of identifying present aging progress and predicting end of life for aircraft wiring. A summary is given in viewgraph format of progress made on phase 1 objectives, which were to identify critical aircraft wiring problems; relate most common failures identified to the wire mechanism causing the failure; assess wiring requirments, materials, and stress environment for fighter aircraft; and demonstrate the feasibility of a time-temperature-environment model.

Slenski, George

1995-01-01

407

Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

2014-01-01

408

Force on a Current Carrying Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a simple set up consisting of a current carrying wire and a magnet to explore the forces which enable biomedical imaging. In doing so, students run a current through a wire and then hold magnets in various positions to establish and explore the magnetic force acting on the wire. They move the magnets and change the current in the wire to explore how the force changes.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

409

Reversible stress-induced anomalies in the strain function of Nb3Sn wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The full-matrix set of combined temperature (4.2-14 K) and applied axial strain (?a) data for the bulk pinning force of a technological Nb3Sn wire (OST type-I) has been studied at fields up to 19 T by combining transport (variable ?a) and magnetic (variable T) measurements. Some length of the wire was also jacketed with AISI 316L stainless steel, in order to apply a radial strain and to simulate the thermally induced axial compressive strain that the Nb3Sn wires experience in a cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC). Within the framework of the unified scaling law, raw scaling data for the effective upper critical field, {B}_{{c2}}^{\\ast }(T,\\varepsilon ), have been used in order to experimentally determine the strain function, s(?), of both the bare and the jacketed wires. A direct testing of the various proposed models for s(?) has been carried out, including the power law, the deviatoric description and the polynomial form. All models adequately fit to the s(?) of the bare wire, but in the jacketed wire none of them is able to describe the tensile strain region above the Ic maximum, where the enhanced radial compression cannot be neglected. The origin of the onset of a reduced Bc2 is also discussed.

De Marzi, G.; Corato, V.; Muzzi, L.; della Corte, A.; Mondonico, G.; Seeber, B.; Senatore, C.

2012-02-01

410

Improvement of electromechanical properties of an ITER internal tin Nb3Sn wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical current of an internal tin Nb3Sn wire developed by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) (OST type-I, billet No. 7567) has been studied under axial strain at fields between 12 and 19 T at 4.2 K. Simulating the situation in a cable in conduit, where thermally induced compressive strain is important, a single wire (strand) was jacketed with AISI 316L stainless steel. The reinforced wire shows an important increase in ?m, the applied strain where Ic reaches its maximum, from 0.25% to 0.57%. In addition the irreversibility limit, ?irr, is improved from 0.50% applied strain to >1.10%. It could also be shown that the Ic at zero intrinsic strain is almost identical. This demonstrates that jacketing does not influence the physical parameters of the original wire. Experimental data of the bare wire has been well fitted by different strain functions. However, it was not possible to model the data of the jacketed wire. There are indications that only models which take into account the multidimensional character of strain are able to describe the behavior but further development is required.

Mondonico, G.; Seeber, B.; Senatore, C.; Flükiger, R.; Corato, V.; De Marzi, G.; Muzzi, L.

2010-11-01

411

Bi-2212 Wire Porosity Reduction by HIP Processing Reduce porosity in the wire  

E-print Network

Bi-2212 Wire Porosity Reduction by HIP Processing Reduce porosity in the wire Develop method to reduce the porosity Increase Jc of the wire by increasing the density of the BSCCO core, thus increasing standard Bi-2212 heat treatment profile Procedure Quenched Green Wire without HIP treatment ­ Porosity

Weston, Ken

412

30 CFR 56.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 56.12053...MINES Electricity § 56.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall...

2014-07-01

413

STABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING WIRE IN MAGNETIC FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental experiment was carried out to study the motion of superconducting wire under the influence of electromagnetic force. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying the experimental conditions such as applied tension to test superconducting wire, insulating material used at the interface of superconducting wire and base material. The experimental method and the test results are reported in

K. Ruwali; Y. Teramoto; Ohtsu Katata; K. Nakanishi; K. Hosoyama

414

Steam-Resistivity of Wire Insulating Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam is a very harsh environment for insulating materials. It is a combination of water and high temperature and sets the materials prone to hydrolysis. The aim of the study was to find suitable magnet wire and suitable connection wires for a hermetically sealed turbo-generator, which is filled with low- pressure steam. Seven differently insulated wires were tested in hot,

V. Sihvo; J. Pyrhonen

2007-01-01

415

Field measurement of branch circuit wire temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature excursions of residential branch circuit wiring under field conditions were monitored to develop a field data base needed to determine the prevailing conditions in the field and to respond to various assertions that the encapsulation of branch circuit wiring within thermal insulation is a potential hazard. Previous laboratory investigations demonstrated that buried wires, when operated continuously at rated ampacity,

T. K. Falson

1981-01-01

416

The Selection of Coatings for Printed Wiring  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that printed wiring has given rise to a serious surface leakage problem, in contrast to standard wiring where volume leakage is predominant. Suitable insulating coatings are credited with protection against contamination and moisture entry, as well as with control of corona at high altitudes. A coating material suitable for use on printed wiring boards is described

R. Martel; L. Martin

1957-01-01

417

Post-irradiation analysis of SINQ target rods by thermal neutron radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cylindrical lead rods from the SINQ spallation neutron source target have been investigated by thermal neutron-radiography/-tomography using a setup for highly activated samples and dysprosium loaded imaging plates. 2D radiography and 3D tomography results have been obtained from lead target rods from SINQ Target-5 irradiated for 2 years, corresponding a total proton charge accumulation of 10.85 Ah. This was the only non-destructive evaluation method capable to visualize macroscopic material changes induced by proton and/or neutron irradiation. The size and location of defects were identified and areas of interest could be selected for further destructive testing. The high sensitivity of neutrons for hydrogen makes this technique particularly useful when looking for metal hydrides. The formation of lens-shaped zirconium hydride blisters has been identified at the steel/Zircaloy interface of a lead rod with a combined steel/zircaloy cladding. Qualitative and quantitative information has been derived from this neutron radiography inspection.

Vontobel, Peter; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Mori, Noriaki; Ashida, Takaki; Zanini, Luca; Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Jaggi, Matthias

2006-09-01

418

Welding and properties of welds of TMCP-steel  

SciTech Connect

Thermomechanical control process (TMCP) of steel includes a multiplicity of processing schedules of combined thermal and mechanical working treatments that have been developed to optimize the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties of various steel grades. Weld metal properties of multipass submerged arc welded (SAW) TMCP steel joints were investigated in order to study the influences of different welding wires and heat inputs. Weld metal characterization consisted of tensile, Charpy-V Notch (CVN) and hardness testing, and microstructural examination. Cross-weld tensile specimens were tested principally to examine whether HAZ softening, which might have occurred, causes failure in this region. The tests verified that by using the right welding wire; it is possible to achieve weld joint which fulfills the strength requirements and gives satisfactory toughness at low temperatures.

Brederholm, A.T.; Kotamies, J.M.N.; Haenninen, H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Engineering Materials

1995-12-31

419

Electromagnetic methods for measuring materials properties of cylindrical rods and array probes for rapid flaw inspection  

SciTech Connect

The case-hardening process modifies the near-surface permeability and conductivity of steel, as can be observed through changes in alternating current potential drop (ACPD) along a rod. In order to evaluate case depth of case hardened steel rods, analytical expressions are derived for the alternating current potential drop on the surface of a homogeneous rod, a two-layered and a three-layered rod. The case-hardened rod is first modeled by a two-layer rod that has a homogeneous substrate with a single, uniformly thick, homogeneous surface layer, in which the conductivity and permeability values differ from those in the substrate. By fitting model results to multi-frequency ACPD experimental data, estimates of conductivity, permeability and case depth are found. Although the estimated case depth by the two-layer model is in reasonable agreement with the effective case depth from the hardness profile, it is consistently higher than the effective case depth. This led to the development of the three-layer model. It is anticipated that the new three-layered model will improve the results and thus makes the ACPD method a novel technique in nondestructive measurement of case depth. Another way to evaluate case depth of a case hardened steel rod is to use induction coils. Integral form solutions for an infinite rod encircled by a coaxial coil are well known, but for a finite length conductor, additional boundary conditions must be satisfied at the ends. In this work, calculations of eddy currents are performed for a two-layer conducting rod of finite length excited by a coaxial circular coil carrying an alternating current. The solution is found using the truncated region eigenfunction expansion (TREE) method. By truncating the solution region to a finite length in the axial direction, the magnetic vector potential can be expressed as a series expansion of orthogonal eigenfunctions instead of as a Fourier integral. Closed-form expressions are derived for the electromagnetic field in the presence of a finite a two-layer rod and a conductive tube. The results are in very good agreement with those obtained by using a 2D finite element code. In the third part, a new probe technology with enhanced flaw detection capability is described. The new probe can reduce inspection time through the use of multiple Hall sensors. A prototype Hall array probe has been built and tested with eight individual Hall sensor ICs and a racetrack coil. Electronic hardware was developed to interface the probes to an oscilloscope or an eddy current instrument. To achieve high spatial resolution and to limit the overall probe size, high-sensitivity Hall sensor arrays were fabricated directly on a wafer using photolithographic techniques and then mounted in their unencapsulated form. The electronic hardware was then updated to interface the new probes to a laptop computer.

Sun, Haiyan

2005-05-01

420

Control rod drive hydraulic system  

DOEpatents

A hydraulic system for a control rod drive (CRD) includes a variable output-pressure CR pump operable in a charging mode for providing pressurized fluid at a charging pressure, and in a normal mode for providing the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure, less than the charging pressure. Charging and purge lines are disposed in parallel flow between the CRD pump and the CRD. A hydraulic control unit is disposed in flow communication in the charging line and includes a scram accumulator. An isolation valve is provided in the charging line between the CRD pump and the scram accumulator. A controller is operatively connected to the CRD pump and the isolation valve and is effective for opening the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a charging mode for charging the scram accumulator, and closing the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a normal mode for providing to the CRD through the purge line the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure lower than the charging pressure.

Ose, Richard A. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01

421

The use of three-dimensional oral mucosa cell cultures to assess the toxicity of soldered and welded wires.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a difference in toxicity and loss of viability of three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed human oral epithelium (RHOE) cell cultures induced by point-welded (PW), laser-welded (LW), and silver-soldered (SiS) orthodontic wires. Three types of soldered stainless steel (SS) wires: PW, LW, and SiS were prepared (n = 3) and subjected to multiple end-point analysis (MEA). Six pieces were cut from each wire. Each piece was placed on the triplicate cell cultures (RHOE model based on TR 146 cells). After 24 hours of topical exposure, the cell cultures were cut and stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Toxicity was assessed by evaluating the morphological changes and classifying these as mild, moderate, or severe. The in vitro cell cultures were subjected to a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in order to quantify viability. Copper wires served as the control to determine severe toxicity and native cell cultures were used as a baseline. Untreated SS wire (0.9 mm) was included for comparison with the welded wires. Histological evaluation with respect to toxicity and measurement of viability in the 3D cell cultures showed no severe toxicity or loss of viability for any of the wires. The morphological ranking of the tested wires from mild to severe toxicity was: SS = PW = LW < SiS. MTT tests revealed the following mean viability values: native cell line (negative control) 98.1 per cent, SS 96.8 per cent, PW 95.5 per cent, LW 95.5 per cent, SiS 85.7 per cent, and copper wires (positive control) 51.2 per cent. Relative comparison between the different welding techniques tested on RHOE revealed, however, that LW and PW wires induced less toxicity/loss of viability compared with SiS wires. PMID:17290016

Vande Vannet, Bart; Hanssens, Jean-Louis; Wehrbein, Heinrich

2007-02-01

422

Frequency response in short thermocouple wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical expressions are derived for the steady state frequency response of a thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for a nonuniform wire with unequal material properties and wire diameters across the junction. The amplitude ratio at low frequency omega approaches 0 agrees with the results of Scadron and Warshawsky (1952) for a steady state temperature distribution. Moreover, the frequency response for a nonuniform wire in the limit of infinite length l approaches infinity is shown to reduce to a simple expression that is analogous to the classic first order solution for a thermocouple wire with uniform properties. Theoretical expressions are also derived for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire and a two material wire with unequal material properties across the junction. For the case of a one material supported wire, an exact solution is derived which compares favorably with an approximate expression that only matches temperatures at the support junction. Moreover, for the case of a two material supported wire, an analytical expression is derived that closely correlates numerical results. Experimental measurements are made for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire (type K) and a two material wire (type T) with unequal material properties across the junction. The data for the amplitude ratio and phase angle are correlated to within 10 pct. with the theoretical predictions of Forney and Fralick (1991). This is accomplished by choosing a natural frequency omega sub n for the wire data to correlate the first order response at large gas temperature frequencies. It is found that a large bead size, however, will increase the amplitude ratio at low frequencies but decrease the natural frequency of the wire. The phase angle data are also distorted for imperfect junctions.

Forney, L. J.; Meeks, E. L.; Ma, J.; Fralick, G. C.

1992-10-01

423

How and why cells grow as rods.  

PubMed

The rod is a ubiquitous shape adopted by walled cells from diverse organisms ranging from bacteria to fungi to plants. Although rod-like shapes are found in cells of vastly different sizes and are constructed by diverse mechanisms, the geometric similarities among these shapes across kingdoms suggest that there are common evolutionary advantages, which may result from simple physical principles in combination with chemical and physiological constraints. Here, we review mechanisms of constructing rod-shaped cells and the bases of different biophysical models of morphogenesis, comparing and contrasting model organisms in different kingdoms. We then speculate on possible advantages of the rod shape, and suggest strategies for elucidating the relative importance of each of these advantages. PMID:25185019

Chang, Fred; Huang, Kerwyn

2014-08-01

424

Impact of AD995 alumina rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas guns and velocity interferometric techniques have been used to determine the loading behavior of AD995 alumina rods 19 mm in diameter by 75 mm and 150 mm long, respectively. Graded-density materials were used to impact both bare and sleeved alumina rods while the velocity interferometer was used to monitor the axial-velocity of the free end of the rods. Results of these experiments demonstrate that (1) a time-dependent stress pulse generated during impact allows an efficient transition from the initial uniaxial strain loading to a uniaxial stress state as the stress pulse propagates through the rod, and (2) the intermediate loading rates obtained in this configuration lie between split Hopkinson bar and shock-loading techniques.

Chbabildas, L. C.; Furnish, M. D.; Reinhart, W. D.; Grady, D. E.

1998-07-01

425

Bouncing Balls and Hot Rod Races.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the Bouncing Ball Experiment which models quadratic and exponential functions, and the Hot Rod Races activity that explores velocity and acceleration. Activities include directions for the use of TI-82 and TI-83 calculators. (YDS)

Tibbs, Peggy; Sherrill, Donna

426

Coiling of elastic rods on rigid substrates  

E-print Network

We investigate the deployment of a thin elastic rod onto a rigid substrate and study the resulting coiling patterns. In our approach, we combine precision model experiments, scaling analyses, and computer simulations towards ...

Khalid Jawed, Mohammad

2014-01-01

427

Mechanical behavior of elastic rods under constraint  

E-print Network

We present the results of an experimental investigation of the mechanics of thin elastic rods under a variety of loading conditions. Four scenarios are explored, with increasing complexity: i) the shape of a naturally ...

Miller, James Thomas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

428

Impact of AD995 alumina rods  

SciTech Connect

Gas guns and velocity interferometric techniques have been used to determine the loading behavior of an AD995 alumina rod 19 mm in diameter by 75 mm and 150 mm long, respectively. Graded-density materials were used to impact both bare and sleeved alumina rods while the velocity interferometer was used to monitor the axial-velocity of the free end of the rods. Results of these experiments demonstrate that (1) a time-dependent stress pulse generated during impact allows an efficient transition from the initial uniaxial strain loading to a uniaxial stress state as the stress pulse propagates through the rod, and (2) the intermediate loading rates obtained in this configuration lie between split Hopkinson bar and shock-loading techniques.

Chhabildas, L.C.; Furnish, M.D.; Reinhart, W.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grady, D.E. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01

429

Alignment of Rods and Partition of Integers  

E-print Network

Alignment of Rods and Partition of Integers Eli Ben-Naim Los Alamos National Laboratory Poster possible for arbitrary averaging rates E. Ben-Naim and P.L. Krapivsky, Phys. Rev. E 73, 031109 (2006) #12;

Ben-Naim, Eli

430

Arc tracking properties of the aging wires in aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modern commercial aircraft contains hundreds of miles of wiring. This vastly increased use of wiring, in conjunction with decreased insulation thickness, has increased the incidence of wire-related aircraft safety problems. Due to thermal, electrical, mechanical and chemical overstress, the aircraft wiring will be aged and the wire insulation will be decreased. Microscopic cracking occurs in wire insulation as the

Wang Yongxing; Dong Enyuan; Cong Jiyuan; Zou Jiyan; Dieter Koenig

2008-01-01

431

Plunging method for Nd : YAG laser cladding with wire feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of wire feeding direction and position, cladding time, and cladding speed on the quality of cladding layer for laser cladding with wire feeding are studied. Experiment results indicate that the wire feeding direction and position are important for wire laser cladding. By adopting the correct wire feeding direction and position, the wire can be plunged into the melt

Jae-Do Kim; Yun Peng

2000-01-01

432

Double-clad nuclear fuel safety rod  

DOEpatents

A device for shutting down a nuclear reactor during an undercooling or overpower event, whether or not the reactor's scram system operates properly. This is accomplished by double-clad fuel safety rods positioned at various locations throughout the reactor core, wherein melting of a secondary internal cladding of the rod allows the fuel column therein to shift from the reactor core to place the reactor in a subcritical condition.

McCarthy, William H. (Los Altos, CA); Atcheson, Donald B. (Cupertino, CA); Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan (San Jose, CA)

1984-01-01

433

Colloidal Interactions in Suspensions of Rods  

SciTech Connect

We report direct measurements of entropic interactions of colloidal spheres in suspensions of rodlike fd bacteriophage. We investigate the influence of sphere size, rod concentration, and ionic strength on these interactions. Although the results compare favorably with a recent calculation, small discrepancies reveal entropic effects due to rod flexibility. At high salt concentrations, the potential turns repulsive as a result of viral adsorption on the spheres and viral bridging between the spheres.

Lin, Keng-hui; Crocker, John C.; Zeri, Ana C.; Yodh, A. G.

2001-08-20

434

Wire rope and method of making same  

SciTech Connect

A wire rope, particularly a non-twistable wire rope, wherein an annulus of outer strands surrounds a wire rope center with a central strand and one or more annuli of neighboring strands surrounding the central strand. The wires of the strands in the center do not intersect each other. The entire center or at least some of its strands are densified prior to or during application of the outer strands. Alternatively, or in addition to such densification, at least some strands of the center are assembled of wires having an other than circular outline to thereby reduce the combined cross-sectional area of voids in the center.

Verreet, R.

1984-06-19

435

Length-Dependent Resistance of Thin Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical properties of wires with cross-sectional areas of order 1 × 10-11 cm2 and lengths as small as 0.2 ?m have been studied. At temperatures below about 10 K, the resistance of the wires increases with decreasing temperature, as found in previous studies of much longer wires. For wires shorter than about 5 ?m, the resistance rise decreases as the length of the wire is decreased. From these results a characteristic length scale of approximately 0.2 ?m at 1.5 K is found, in good agreement with the current theory.

Masden, J. T.; Giordano, N.

1982-09-01

436

Measurements of control rod efficiency in RBMK critical assembly upon dropping of the rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly was measured in the case where one manual-control rod (MCR) is dropped from a steady critical state, and several other MCRs were additionally dropped after 44 s. The measured number of neutrons in the assembly during and after dropping of the rods was used to calculate the efficiency values of the rods by solution of the system of point kinetics equations. A series of methods of the initial data treatment for determination of the desired values of reactivity without the calculated corrections were used.

Zhitarev, V. E.; Kachanov, V. M.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.; Lebedev, G. V.

2014-12-01

437

Fabrication and characterization of gold nano-wires templated on virus-like arrays of tobacco mosaic virus coat proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rod-shaped plant virus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is widely used as a nano-fabrication template, and chimeric peptide expression on its major coat protein has extended its potential applications. Here we describe a simple bacterial expression system for production and rapid purification of recombinant chimeric TMV coat protein carrying C-terminal peptide tags. These proteins do not bind TMV RNA or form disks at pH 7. However, they retain the ability to self-assemble into virus-like arrays at acidic pH. C-terminal peptide tags in such arrays are exposed on the protein surface, allowing interaction with target species. We have utilized a C-terminal His-tag to create virus coat protein-templated nano-rods able to bind gold nanoparticles uniformly. These can be transformed into gold nano-wires by deposition of additional gold atoms from solution, followed by thermal annealing. The resistivity of a typical annealed wire created by this approach is significantly less than values reported for other nano-wires made using different bio-templates. This expression construct is therefore a useful additional tool for the creation of chimeric TMV-like nano-rods for bio-templating.

Wn?k, M.; Górzny, M. ?.; Ward, M. B.; Wälti, C.; Davies, A. G.; Brydson, R.; Evans, S. D.; Stockley, P. G.

2013-01-01

438

International symposium on fuel rod simulators: development and application  

SciTech Connect

Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning fuel rod simulator operation and performance; simulator design and evaluation; clad heated fuel rod simulators and fuel rod simulators for cladding investigations; fuel rod simulator components and inspection; and simulator analytical modeling. Ten papers have previously been input to the Energy Data Base.

McCulloch, R.W. (comp.)

1981-05-01

439

Measurement and Modeling of Dispersive Pulse Propagation in Drawn Wire Waveguides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical model of dispersive pulse propagation in semi-infinite cylinders due to transient axially symmetric end conditions has been experimentally investigated. Specifically, the dispersive propagation of the first axially symmetric longitudinal mode in thin wire waveguides, which have ends in butt contact with longitudinal piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers, is examined. The method allows for prediction of a propagated waveform given a measured source waveform, together with the material properties of the cylinder. Alternatively, the source waveform can be extracted from measurement of the propagated waveform. The material properties required for implementation of the pulse propagation model are determined using guided wave phase velocity measurements. Hard tempered aluminum 1100 and 304 stainless steel wires, with 127, 305, and 406 micron diam., were examined. In general, the drawn wires were found to behave as transversely isotropic media.

Madaras, Eric I.; Kohl, Thomas W.; Rogers, Wayne P.

1995-01-01

440

NASA wiring for space applications program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

Schulze, Norman

1995-01-01

441

Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode  

DOEpatents

A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

2014-03-04

442

Extension of the TRANSURANUS code to the fuel rod performance analysis of LBE-cooled nuclear reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work intends to be a starting point for the extension of the TRANSURANUS fuel rod performance code to the modelling of the T91 steel, which is designed to be the cladding material in LBE (lead-bismuth eutectic) accelerator-driven systems (ADS). On the basis of the experimental data available in the recent literature on LBE and T91, a preliminary modelling of the T91 corrosion with flowing LBE under oxygen control is proposed, and the main issues (i.e., heat transfer, creep, swelling) relevant for the performance of this steel in a reactor are discussed, in order to be properly considered in TRANSURANUS.

Botazzoli, P.; Agosti, F.; di Marcello, V.; Luzzi, L.

443

Design of the Testing Set-up for a Nuclear Fuel Rod by Neutron Radiography at CARR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an experimental set-up dedicated to non-destructively test a 15cm-long Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear fuel rod by neutron radiography (NR) is described. It consists of three parts: transport container, imaging block and steel support. The design of the transport container was optimized with Monte-Carlo Simulation by the MCNP code. The material for the shell of the transport container was chosen to be lead with the thickness of 13 cm. Also, the mechanical devices were designed to control fuel rod movement inside the container. The imaging block was designed as the exposure platform, with three openings for the neutron beam, neutron converter foil, and specimen. Development and application of this experimental set-up will help gain much experience for investigating the actual irradiated fuel rod by neutron radiography at CARR in the future.

Wei, Guohai; Han, Songbai; Wang, Hongli; Hao, Lijie; Wu, Meimei; He, Linfeng; Wang, Yu; Liu, Yuntao; Sun, Kai; Chen, Dongfeng

444

Critique of Ground Wire Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper consists of three parts, I??Induced Potentials, II??Direct Hits, and III??Other Effects. The work of previous investigators is briefly reviewed, and the limitations of their premises pointed out. Under Part I a generalized theory of ideal ground wires is offered, which takes into account the law of cloud discharge, the distribution of bound charge, and the formation of traveling

L. V. Bewley

1931-01-01

445

Pin Wire Coating Trip Report  

SciTech Connect

A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there.

Spellman, G P

2004-03-18

446

Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel cleanliness; slab, billet or bloom disposition; and alloy development. Additional benefits of ASCAT include the identification of inclusions that tend to clog nozzles or interact with refractory materials. Several papers outlining the benefits of the ASCAT have been presented and published in the literature. The paper entitled ''Inclusion Analysis to Predict Casting Behavior'' was awarded the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Medal in 2004 for special merit and importance to the steel industry. The ASCAT represents a quantum leap in inclusion analysis and will allow steel producers to evaluate the quality of steel and implement appropriate process improvements. In terms of performance, the ASCAT (1) allows for accurate classification of inclusions by chemistry and morphological parameters, (2) can characterize hundreds of inclusions within minutes, (3) is easy to use (does not require experts), (4) is robust, and (5) has excellent image quality for conventional SEM investigations (e.g., the ASCAT can be utilized as a dual use instrument). In summary, the ASCAT will significantly advance the tools of the industry and addresses an urgent and broadly recognized need of the steel industry. Commercialization of the ASCAT will focus on (1) a sales strategy that leverages our Industry Partners; (2) use of ''technical selling'' through papers and seminars; (3) leveraging RJ Lee Group's consulting services, and packaging of the product with a extensive consulting and training program; (4) partnering with established SEM distributors; (5) establishing relationships with professional organizations associated with the steel industry; and (6) an individualized plant by plant direct sales program.

Gary Casuccio (RJ Lee Group); Michael Potter (RJ Lee Group); Fred Schwerer (RJ Lee Group); Dr. Richard J. Fruehan (Carnegie Mellon University); Dr. Scott Story (US Steel)

2005-12-30

447

Spectroscopy and implosion dynamics of low wire number nested arrays on the 1 MA COBRA generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low wire number nested array Z-pinch experiments have been carried out with wires made of aluminum, stainless steel (uniform), and combinations of these two materials (mixed) on the 1MA COBRA generator at Cornell University [J. D. Douglass, J. B. Greenly, D. A. Hammer et al., in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2005)]. The outer array consisted of eight wires, whereas the inner array had four or eight wires. The 10?m Al wires were alloy 5056 and the 6.25?m stainless steel wires were alloy SS304. The diagnostic suite included fast-x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) detectors, a time-gated x-ray pinhole camera, x-ray spectrometers, and laser shadow imaging. The main focus was made on the spectroscopic study of plasma evolution after the main x-ray burst though the data from photoconducting detector (PCD) and EUV signals over the whole period of current, and in addition laser shadowgraphy images before the main x-ray burst were analyzed. Modeling of the time-gated spectra recorded after the main x-ray burst indicates that the electron temperature Te either follows the PCD signals and peaks at times of the second (and the third if present) x-ray burst or has the higher value at the first frame (closest to the main x-ray burst), then slightly changes and increases at the last frame, which coincides with the second maximum of the current. It was also found that the values of Te never drop below 150eV, and the EUV signal remains intense even when the PCD signal is almost zero.

Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Ouart, N. D.; Yilmaz, M. F.; Williamson, K. M.; Shrestha, I.; Osborne, G. C.; Greenly, J. B.; Chandler, K. M.; McBride, R. D.; Chalenski, D. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; LePell, P. D.

2008-03-01

448

Dispersion interactions between semiconducting wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dispersion energy between extended molecular chains (or equivalently infinite wires) with nonzero band gaps is generally assumed to be expressible as a pair-wise sum of atom-atom terms which decay as R-6 . Using a model system of two parallel wires with a variable band gap, we show that this is not the case. The dispersion interaction scales as z-5 for large interwire separations z , as expected for an insulator, but as the band gap decreases the interaction is greatly enhanced; while at shorter (but nonoverlapping) separations it approaches a power-law scaling given by z-2 , i.e., the dispersion interaction expected between metallic wires. We demonstrate that these effects can be understood from the increasing length scale of the plasmon modes (charge fluctuations), and their increasing contribution to the molecular dipole polarizability and the dispersion interaction, as the band gaps are reduced. This result calls into question methods which invoke locality assumptions in deriving dispersion interactions between extended small-gap systems.

Misquitta, Alston J.; Spencer, James; Stone, Anthony J.; Alavi, Ali

2010-08-01

449

AmiiSteele  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Headlines Pediatric Oncology Branch Home > Pediatric Psycho-Oncology Professionals > Profiles > Amii Steele Headline Title Pediatric Psycho-Oncology Professionals Amii Corbisiero Steele Amii Steele First Name:Amii  Last Name:

450

A hot probe setup for the measurement of Seebeck coefficient of thin wires and thin films using integral method.  

PubMed

An experimental setup is developed for the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of thin wires and thin films in the temperature range of 300-650 K. The setup makes use of the integral method for measuring the Seebeck voltage across the sample. Two pointed copper rods with in-built thermocouples serve as hot and cold probes as well as leads for measuring the Seebeck voltage. The setup employs localized heating and enables easy sample loading using a spring loaded mounting system and is fully automated. Test measurements are made on a constantan wire and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film for illustration. The Seebeck voltage obtained for constantan wire is in agreement with the NIST data for copper constantan couple with an error of 1%. The calculated carrier concentration of ITO film from the Seebeck coefficient measurement is comparable with that obtained by electrical transport measurements. The error in the Seebeck coefficient is estimated to be within 3%. PMID:18315317

Kumar, S R Sarath; Kasiviswanathan, S

2008-02-01

451

A hot probe setup for the measurement of Seebeck coefficient of thin wires and thin films using integral method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental setup is developed for the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of thin wires and thin films in the temperature range of 300-650K. The setup makes use of the integral method for measuring the Seebeck voltage across the sample. Two pointed copper rods with in-built thermocouples serve as hot and cold probes as well as leads for measuring the Seebeck voltage. The setup employs localized heating and enables easy sample loading using a spring loaded mounting system and is fully automated. Test measurements are made on a constantan wire and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film for illustration. The Seebeck voltage obtained for constantan wire is in agreement with the NIST data for copper constantan couple with an error of 1%. The calculated carrier concentration of ITO film from the Seebeck coefficient measurement is comparable with that obtained by electrical transport measurements. The error in the Seebeck coefficient is estimated to be within 3%.

Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Kasiviswanathan, S.

2008-02-01

452

Development of Welding Consumables for High-Corrosion- Resistant Stainless Steel NSSC® 260A for Chemical Cargo Tankers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly corrosion-resistant stainless steel, NSSC260A, for application to chemical cargo tankers and welding consumables for the steel were developed. The stainless steel and welding consumables were designed to exhibit good resistance to corrosion by sulfuric acid, crude phosphoric acid and salt water. The developed welding consumables, flux-cored wire NITTETSU FC-317LNCU for CO 2 welding and NITTETSU BF-317LNCU (flux)××××× NITTETSU

Hiroshige INOUE; Ryo MATSUHASHI; Yutaka TADOKORO; Shigeo FUKUMOTO; Takeshi HASHIMOTO; Manabu MIZUMOTO; Hajime NAGASAKI

2007-01-01

453

Method and apparatus for laying wire arrays  

DOEpatents

Wire arrays (11) having a continuous wire (12) which is formed into a predetermined pattern and adhered to a backing material or substrate (13) are fabricated by applying adhesive material (16a, 16b) along opposite edge portions (17, 18) of the substrate, positioning a row of winding spools (21) along each of the edge portions and repeatedly extending the wire between and around successive spools at the opposite edge portions. The wound wire is then traveled along each spool toward the substrate and into contact with the adhesive. The spools are then removed and a coating of hardenable material (54) is applied to secure the wound wire to the substrate. Tension in the wire is relieved prior to contact of the wire with the adhesive and a small amount of slack is introduced into the wire before the final coating step. Mechanism (32) is provided for lifting the spools away from the substrate without disturbing the wound wire. The method and apparatus enable manufacture of precisely configured wire arrays without complex or costly equipment and do not require structural alterations in the substrate for the purpose of accommodating to fabrication equipment.

Horowitz, Seymour M. (6525 Swainland Dr., Oakland, CA 94611); Nesbitt, Dale D. (1712 Marin Ave., Berkeley, CA 94707)

1986-01-01

454

Texture in state-of-the-art Nb3Sn multifilamentary superconducting wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The texture of Nb3Sn in recent multifilamentary composite wires has been studied by neutron diffraction, synchrotron x-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. In powder-in-tube (PIT) type superconductors the Nb precursor filaments exhibit a strong <110> fiber texture as a consequence of the severe cold drawing process, and a <110> texture is also observed in the Nb3Sn. In the Nb-Ta precursor of the restacked rod process (RRP) strand there is an additional texture component, and in both Ta-alloyed and Ti-alloyed RRP type conductors the Nb3Sn grains grow with a preferential <100> orientation.

Scheuerlein, C.; Arnau, G.; Alknes, P.; Jimenez, N.; Bordini, B.; Ballarino, A.; Di Michiel, M.; Thilly, L.; Besara, T.; Siegrist, T.

2014-02-01

455

A coolant flow simulation in fast reactor wire-wrapped assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CFD model of a 19-rod wire-wrapped fuel assembly is developed. The effect the size of computation mesh in the calculated region and the type of turbulence models have on the pressure drop between the inlet to and outlet from the calculated region is investigated. The possibility of shifting from low-Reynolds to high-Reynolds turbulence models is substantiated. Such a shift allows the mesh size in the calculated region to be reduced by approximately a factor of 18. The obtained results are in good agreement with the empirical dependences and international calculations.

Volkov, V. Yu.; Belova, O. V.; Krutikov, A. A.; Skibin, A. P.

2013-06-01

456

Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Lingual Retainer Wires Bonded with Three Different Lingual Retainer Composites: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate microleakage when two types of retainer wires were bonded with two light cured and a self cured lingual retainer composites. Materials and Methods: Total 120 freshly extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were collected and separated into six subgroups of 20 teeth each. Two different wires, a 0.036 inch hard round stainless steel (HRSS) wire sandblasted at the ends and 0.0175 inch multistranded wire bonded onto the lingual surfaces of the incisors with three different types of composite resins of 3M company; Concise Orthodontic (self-cure), Transbond XT (light-cure) and Transbond LR (light-cure). Specimens were further sealed with a nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 hours, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope, and scored for microleakage for the enamel-composite and wire-composite interfaces. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Results: For HRSS wire, at the enamel-composite interface, the microleakage was least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and greatest for Transbond XT (p<0.05). At the wire composite interface too, the microleakage was in order of Transbond LRwire, at the enamel-composite interface, the microleakage was least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and Transbond XT (p<0.05). At the wire composite interface too, it was seen that microleakage was the least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and Transbond XT. Conclusion: Transbond LR in combination with 0.0175 inch multistranded wire showed least microleakage amongst the groups studied. PMID:25584325

Vaz, Anna; Patil, Pravinkumar G.

2014-01-01

457

Isolation and Characterization of Cytoplasmic Cofilin-Actin Rods*  

PubMed Central

Cofilin-actin bundles (rods), which form in axons and dendrites of stressed neurons, lead to synaptic dysfunction and may mediate cognitive deficits in dementias. Rods form abundantly in the cytoplasm of non-neuronal cells in response to many treatments that induce rods in neurons. Rods in cell lysates are not stable in detergents or with added calcium. Rods induced by ATP-depletion and released from cells by mechanical lysis were first isolated from two cell lines expressing chimeric actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin fluorescent proteins by differential and equilibrium sedimentation on OptiPrep gradients and then from neuronal and non-neuronal cells expressing only endogenous proteins. Rods contain ADF/cofilin and actin in a 1:1 ratio. Isolated rods are stable in dithiothreitol, EGTA, Ca2+, and ATP. Cofilin-GFP-containing rods are stable in 500 mm NaCl, whereas rods formed from endogenous proteins are significantly less stable in high salt. Proteomic analysis of rods formed from endogenous proteins identified other potential components whose presence in rods was examined by immunofluorescence staining of cells. Only actin and ADF/cofilin are in rods during all phases of their formation; furthermore, the rapid assembly of rods in vitro from these purified proteins at physiological concentration shows that they are the only proteins necessary for rod formation. Cytoplasmic rod formation is inhibited by cytochalasin D and jasplakinolide. Time lapse imaging of rod formation shows abundant small needle-shaped rods that coalesce over time. Rod filament lengths measured by ultrastructural tomography ranged from 22 to 1480 nm. These results suggest rods form by assembly of cofilin-actin subunits, followed by self-association of ADF/cofilin-saturated F-actin. PMID:20022956

Minamide, Laurie S.; Maiti, Sankar; Boyle, Judith A.; Davis, Richard C.; Coppinger, Judith A.; Bao, Yunhe; Huang, Timothy Y.; Yates, John; Bokoch, Gary M.; Bamburg, James R.

2010-01-01

458

Fuel rod mechanical deformation during the PBF/LOFT lead rod loss-of-coolant experiments  

SciTech Connect

Results of four PBF/LOFT Lead Rod (LLR) sequential blowdown tests conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) are presented. Each test employed four separately shrouded fuel rods. The primary objective of the test series was to evaluate the extent of mechanical deformation that would be expected to occur to low pressure (0.1 MPa), light water reactor design fuel rods when subjected to a series of double ended cold leg break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests, and to determine whether subjecting these deformed fuel rods to subsequent testing would result in rod failure. The extent of mechanical deformation (buckling, collapse, or waisting of the cladding) was evaluated by comparison of cladding temperature and system pressure measurements with out-of-pile experimental data, and by posttest visual examinations and cladding diametral measurements.

Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; MacDonald, P.E.; Shiozawa, S.; Driskell, W.E.

1980-01-01

459

Nano-Structured Mesoporous Silica Wires with Intra-Wire Lamellae via Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly in Space-Confined Channels  

SciTech Connect

Evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of silica sol-gel ethanol-water solution mixtures with block-copolymer were studied inside uniform micro/nano channels. Nano-structured mesoporous silica wires, with various intra-wire self-assembly structures including lamellae, were prepared via EISA process but in space-confined channels with the diameter ranging from 50 nm to 200 nm. Membranes made of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) and track-etched polycarbonate (EPC) were utilized as the arrays of space-confined channels (i.e., 50, 100, and 200-nm EPC and 200-nm AAO) for infiltration and drying of mixture solutions; these substrate membranes were submerged in mixture solutions consisting of a silica precursor, a structure-directing agent, ethanol, and water. After the substrate channels were filled with the solution under vacuum impregnation, the membrane was removed from the solution and dried in air. The silica precursor used was tetra-ethyl othosilicate (TEOS), and the structure-directing agent employed was triblock copolymer Pluronic-123 (P123). It was found that the formation of the mesoporous nanostructures in silica wires within uniform channels were significantly affected by the synthesis conditions including (1) pre-assemble TEOS aging time, (2) the evaporation rate during the vacuum impregnation, and (3) the air-dry temperature. The obtained intra-wire structures, including 2D-hexagonal rods and lamellae, were studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). A steric hindrance effect seems to explain well the observed polymer-silica mesophase formation tailored by TEOS aging time. The evaporation effect, air-drying effect, and AAO-vs-EPC substrate effect on the mesoporous structure of the formed silica wires were also presented and discussed.

Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Shi, Donglu [University of Cincinnati; Blom, Douglas Allen [ORNL

2014-01-01

460

Wire ablation dynamics model and its application to imploding wire arrays of different geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an extended description of the amplified wire ablation dynamics model (WADM), which accounts in a single simulation for the processes of wire ablation and implosion of a wire array load of arbitrary geometry and wire material composition. To investigate the role of wire ablation effects, the implosions of cylindrical and planar wire array loads at the university based generators Cobra (Cornell University) and Zebra (University of Nevada, Reno) have been analyzed. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the wire mass ablation rate can be described as a function of the current through the wire and some coefficient defined by the wire material properties. The aluminum wires were found to ablate with the highest rate, while the copper ablation is the slowest one. The lower wire ablation rate results in a higher inward velocity of the ablated plasma, a higher rate of the energy coupling with the ablated plasma, and a more significant delay of implosion for a heavy load due to the ablation effects, which manifest the most in a cylindrical array configuration and almost vanish in a single-planar array configuration. The WADM is an efficient tool suited for wire array load design and optimization in wide parameter ranges, including the loads with specific properties needed for the inertial confinement fusion research and laboratory astrophysics experiments. The data output from the WADM simulation can be used to simplify the radiation magnetohydrodynamics modeling of the wire array plasma.

Esaulov, A. A.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Velikovich, A. L.; Shrestha, I. K.; Williamson, K. M.; Osborne, G. C.

2012-10-01

461

Rod consolidation at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

A rod consolidation demonstration with irradiated pressurized water reactor fuel was recently conducted by personnel from Nuclear Assurance Corporation and West Valley Nuclear Services Company at the West Valley Demonstration Project in West Valley, New York. The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling all of the fuel rods from six fuel Assemblies. In general, the rod pulling proceeded smoothly. The highest compaction ratio attained was 1:8:1. Among the total of 1074 fuel rods were some known degraded rods (they had collapsed cladding, a result of in-reactor fuel densification), but no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. One aim was to gather information on the effect of rod consolidation operations on the integrity of the fuel rods during subsequent handling and storage. Another goal was to collect information on the condition and handling of intact, damaged, and failed fuel that has been in storage for an extended period. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Bailey, W.J.

1986-12-01

462

Influence of hardening and surface modification of endourological wires on corrosion resistance.  

PubMed

Guide wires with suitable functional characteristics are of crucial importance for proper urological treatment. This study presents an analysis of the effect of work hardening taking place in the process of wire cold drawing and the effect of surface modification by means of electrochemical polishing and chemical passivation on the resistance of wires made of X10CrNi18-8 steel used in urology. Corrosion resistance was evaluated on the grounds of the registered anodic polarisation curves by means of potentiodynamic method. The tests were made in solution simulating human urine. Anodic polarisation curves were presented for selected wire diameters. Mechanical properties were tested in a static uniaxial tensile test. The course of flow curve as well as mathematical form of flow stress function were determined. Curves presenting the relation of polarisation resistance as a function of strain applied in the drawing process are given. The tests carried out show that surface modification by means of electrochemical polishing and then chemical passivation of wires used in endourological treatment is fundamental. PMID:23140197

Walke, Witold; Przondziono, Joanna

2012-01-01

463

Wire frame to MOVIE. BYU transfer program  

SciTech Connect

At SNLA, the primary computer-aided drafting tool is the Applicon Graphics System (AGS). The data base for mechanical parts on the AGS is a wire frame model. This report summarizes a method of adding surface information to the wire frame and passing this information up stream to MOVIE.BYU which is on a VAX computer and is used to produce shaded graphics pictures of the AGS wire frame model on a RAMTEK 9400 display terminal.

Robbins, D.; Byers, L.D.; Benner, M.S.

1982-12-01

464

Induced EMF in a coil of wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a simple set up consisting of a coil of wire and a magnet to visualize induced EMF. First, students move a coil of wire near a magnet and observe the voltage that results. They then experiment with moving the wire, magnet, and a second, current carrying coil. Students connect the coil to a circuit and the current from the induced EMF charges a conductor.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

465

Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

Hunt, James B.

1990-01-01

466

Space Shuttle Columbia Aging Wiring Failure Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Space Shuttle Columbia main engine controller 14 AWG wire short circuited during the launch of STS-93. Post-flight examination divulged that the wire had electrically arced against the head of a nearby bolt. More extensive inspection revealed additional damage to the subject wire, and to other wires as well from the mid-body of Columbia. The shorted wire was to have been constructed from nickel-plated copper conductors surrounded by the polyimide insulation Kapton, top-coated with an aromatic polyimide resin. The wires were analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the polyimide. Exemplar testing under laboratory conditions was performed to replicate the mechanical damage characteristics evident on the failed wires. The exemplar testing included a step test, where, as the name implies, a person stepped on a simulated wire bundle that rested upon a bolt head. Likewise, a shear test that forced a bolt head and a torque tip against a wire was performed to attempt to damage the insulation and conductor. Additionally, a vibration test was performed to determine if a wire bundle would abrade when vibrated against the head of a bolt. Also, an abrasion test was undertaken to determine if the polyimide of the wire could be damaged by rubbing against convolex helical tubing. Finally, an impact test was performed to ascertain if the use of the tubing would protect the wire from the strike of a foreign object.

McDaniels, Steven J.

2005-01-01

467

Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

2004-01-01

468

Hot-Wire Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by a hot-wire generator at atmospheric pressure using a gold-platinum composite wire. At low gas flow velocities the nanoparticles were found to be agglomerates of partially sintered primary particles. By reducing the tube size via the insertion of a nozzle with a throat diameter of 3 mm, the hot-wire generator was found to produce small (<10

Adam M. Boies; Pingyan Lei; Steven Calder; Weon Gyu Shin; Steven L. Girshick

2011-01-01

469

Proposed silicon wire interleaver structure.  

PubMed

A Ring-resonator Mach-Zehnder interferometer (RR-MZI) optical interleaver structure comprising a ring resonator (RR) and a 3 dB directional coupler is proposed. The interleaver is fabricated with 300 nm x 300 nm silicon wires on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. The fabricated interleaver demonstrates a flat-top spectral response, and the measured free spectral range (FSR) is approximately 20 nm. The insertion loss (IL) of the device is approximately -10 dB and the polarization dependent loss (PDL) <5 dB. Both the experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. PMID:18545495

Song, Junfeng; Fang, Q; Tao, S H; Yu, M B; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L

2008-05-26

470

Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the the current carrying capacity of nanotube wires. Information is given on the motivation for the research, models and assumptions, Bragg reflection and Zener tunneling effects, and the influence of defects. Results show that dI/dv versus V does not increase in a manner commensurate with the increase in the number of subbands; in small diameter nanotubes, Zener tunneling is ineffective; Zener tunneling contributes to current with increase in nanotube diameter; and the increase in dI/dV with bias is much smaller than the increase in the number of subbands.

Anantram, M. P.; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

471

Power requirement of rotating rods in airflow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were performed to determine the power required for rotating a rotor disc fitted with a number of radially arranged rods placed into a ducted airflow. An array of stationary rods, also radially arranged, were placed upstream close to the rotor with a small gap between the rods to cause wake interference. The results show that power increased with increasing airflow and the rate of increase varied considerably. At lower values of airflow the rate of increase was larger than at higher airflow and definite power peaks occurred at certain airflow rates, where the power attained a maximum within the test airflow range. During the test a maximum blade passage frequency of 2037 Hz was attained.

Barna, P. S.; Crossman, G. R.

1974-01-01

472

Relativistic elasticity of rigid rods and strings  

E-print Network

We show that the equation of motion for a rigid one-dimensional elastic body (i.e. a rod or string whose speed of sound is equal to the speed of light) in a two-dimensional spacetime is simply the wave equation. We then solve this equation in a few simple examples: a rigid rod colliding with an unmovable wall, a rigid rod being pushed by a constant force, a rigid string whose endpoints are simultaneously set in motion (seen as a special case of Bell's spaceships paradox), and a radial rigid string that has partially crossed the event horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole while still being held from the outside.

Jose Natario

2014-06-03

473

Magnetic switch for reactor control rod. [LMFBR  

DOEpatents

A magnetic reed switch assembly is described for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electro-magnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

Germer, J.H.

1982-09-30

474

Torque requirement of rotating rods in airflow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were performed to determine the torque required for rotating a rotor disk fitted with a number of radially arranged rods placed into a ducted airflow. An array of stationary rods, also radially arranged, was placed upstream close to the rotor with a small gap between the rods to cause wake interference. The results show that torque generally increased with airflow and the rate of increase varied considerably. At lower values of airflow, the rate of increase was larger than at higher airflow, and definite torque peaks occurred at certain airflow rates, where the torque attained a maximum within the test airflow range. During the test, a maximum blade passage frequency of 2037 Hz was attained. The results also show that the torque peaks occurred at the same Strouhal number for all speeds.

Barna, P. S.; Crossman, G. R.

1979-01-01

475

MACHINING STABILITY OF WIRE EDM OF TITANIUM.  

E-print Network

??This work presents an experimental investigation of wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) of titanium alloy. The outstanding characteristics of titanium alloys such as their compatibility and… (more)

Nourbakhsh, Farnaz

2012-01-01

476

Hydrodynamics of self-propelled hard rods  

E-print Network

Motivated by recent simulations and by experiments on aggregation of gliding bacteria, we study a model of the collective dynamics of self-propelled hard rods on a substrate in two dimensions. The rods have finite size, interact via excluded volume and their dynamics is overdamped by the interaction with the substrate. Starting from a microscopic model with non-thermal noise sources, a continuum description of the system is derived. The hydrodynamic equations are then used to characterize the possible steady states of the systems and their stability as a function of the particles packing fraction and the speed of self propulsion.

Aparna Baskaran; M. Cristina Marchetti

2007-08-17

477

Method for producing titanium aluminide weld rod  

DOEpatents

A process for producing titanium aluminide weld rod comprising: attaching one end of a metal tube to a vacuum line; placing a means between said vacuum line and a junction of the metal tube to prevent powder from entering the vacuum line; inducing a vacuum within the tube; placing a mixture of titanium and aluminum powder in the tube and employing means to impact the powder in the tube to a filled tube; heating the tube in the vacuum at a temperature sufficient to initiate a high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction between the titanium and aluminum; and lowering the temperature to ambient temperature to obtain a intermetallic titanium aluminide alloy weld rod.

Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); Argetsinger, Edward R. (Albany, OR)

1995-01-01

478

Nuclear reactor fuel rod attachment system  

DOEpatents

A reusable system is described for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member. The locking cap has two opposing fingers shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed.

Not Available

1980-09-17

479

Alignment of rods and partition of integers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study dynamical ordering of rods. In this process, rod alignment via pairwise interactions competes with diffusive wiggling. Under strong diffusion, the system is disordered, but at weak diffusion, the system is ordered. We present an exact steady-state solution for the nonlinear and nonlocal kinetic theory of this process. We find the Fourier transform as a function of the order parameter, and show that Fourier modes decay exponentially with the wave number. We also obtain the order parameter in terms of the diffusion constant. This solution is obtained using iterated partitions of the integer numbers.

Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

2006-03-01

480

Pattern selection dynamics in rod eutectics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cooperative or diffusively coupled growth of multiple phases during solidification is one of the most widely observed and generally important classes of phase transformations in materials. Technologically, low melting temperature and small freezing range contribute to excellent casting fluidity and fine composite structures give rise to favorable properties. Both of these features contribute to the wide application of eutectic alloys in the casting, welding, and soldering of engineered components. Despite the broad-based technological importance, many fundamental questions regarding eutectic solidification remain unanswered, severely limiting our ability to employ computational methods in the prediction of microstructure for the effective design of new materials and processes. At the core of the most persistent questions, lie problems involving multicomponent thermodynamics, solid-liquid and solid-solid interfacial phenomena, morphological stability, chemical and thermal diffusion, and nucleation phenomena. In the current study, pattern selection dynamics in rod eutectics are investigated using systematic directional solidification experiments and phase field simulations. Directional solidification of a succinonitrile-camphor (SCN-DC) transparent alloy in thin slab geometries of various thicknesses reveals two main points. First, a velocity is indentified at which a transition in array basis vectors is observed in specimens with many rows of rods (i.e. bulk). This transition amounts to a 90 degree rotation of the rod array, shifting from alignment of 1st nearest neighbors to alignment of 2nd nearest neighbors along the slide wall. Second, significant array distortion is observed with decreasing slide thickness, delta, which ultimately leads to a single-row (quasi-3D) morphology where delta/lambda is on the order of unity. In our analysis of these observations, we use a geometrical model to describe the rod arrangement as a function of slide thickness, providing excellent agreement with observation, down to this quasi-3D regime. Further experimental investigation of the early stages of growth shows that the mechanisms involved in the initial dynamics are critical to the array development, especially under geometrical constraint. Phase field simulations show that several rod-type eutectic morphologies are stable over different growth/boundary conditions. Normal circular-rod staggered-array morphologies become unstable and give way to distorted rods and lamellar structures with decreasing material thickness. Distended or peanut-shaped rods are also observed under certain conditions. The boundaries of stability for these growth morphologies and the associated dynamics are investigated here.

Serefoglu, Melis

481

Intraoperative pulmonary embolism of Harrington rod during spinal surgery: the potential dangers of rod cutting.  

PubMed

This is a case report and laboratory-based biomechanics study. The objective is to report the first case of Titanium rod embolisation during scoliosis surgery into the Pulmonary artery. To investigate the potential of an unconstrained cut Titanium rod fragment to cause wounding with reference to recognised weapons. Embolisation of a foreign body to the heart is rare. Bullet embolisation to the heart and lungs is infrequently reported in the last 80 years. Iatrogenic cases of foreign body embolisation are very rare. Fifty 1-2 cm segments of Titanium rod were cut in an unconstrained manner and a novel method was used to calculate velocity. A high-speed camera (6,000 frames/s) was used to further measure velocity and study projectile motion. The wounding potential was investigated using lambs liver, high-speed photography and local dissection. Rod velocities were measured in excess of 23 m s(-1). Rods were seen to tumble end-over-end with a maximum speed of 560 revolutions/s. The maximum kinetic energy was 0.61 J which is approximately 2% that of a crossbow. This is sufficient to cause significant liver damage. The degree of surface damage and internal disruption was influenced by the orientation of the rod fragment at impact. An unconstrained cut segment of a Titanium rod has a significant potential to wound. Precautions should be taken to avoid this potentially disastrous but preventable complication. PMID:16804675

Aylott, Caspar E W; Hassan, Kamran; McNally, Donal; Webb, John K

2006-12-01

482

Investigation of ablation and implosion dynamics in linear wire arrays  

SciTech Connect

Ablation and implosion dynamics were investigated by optical probing in linear wire arrays of different geometry. Formation of ablation jets begins on the outermost wires. In the beginning of implosion plasma bubbles arise in breaks on the outer wires. Implosion bubbles move to the next wire in the array and hit the plasma column with the speed >250 km/s. Imploding plasma moves to the center of the array cascading from wire to wire. Configuration of magnetic fields in the linear array can be changed by variation of wire spacing. The regimes of ablation and implosion in the wire arrays are found to differ with different wire spacing.

Ivanov, V. V.; Sotnikov, V. I.; Haboub, A.; Sarkisov, G. E.; Presura, R.; Cowan, T. E. [University of Nevada, Reno, 5625 Fox Avenue, Reno, Nevada 89506 (United States); Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); University of Nevada, Reno, 5625 Fox Avenue, Reno, Nevada 89506 (United States)

2007-03-15

483

Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

Olson, Gregory B.

1995-01-01

484

Tuning a Tetrahertz Wire Laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/ or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique 'wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is much much less than lambda. Placing a movable object close to the wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of approximately equal to 137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at approximately equal to 3.8 THz.

Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

2009-01-01

485

a Wire Tension Meter for the LHCb Muon Chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire tension meter has been developed for the multiwire chambers of the LHCb muon detector. The wire tension is deduced from its mechanical resonance frequency. In the LHCb muon chambers, the wires are electrically connected in group of 14, so that the wire excitation method based on the interaction between a current sent into a wire and an external

A. Buccheri; E. Dané; A. Frenkel; G. Martellotti; A. Medvedkov; A. Pelosi; G. Penso; D. Pinci; G. Pirozzi; M. Dwuznik; A. Kachtchouk; B. Schmidt; G. Felici; C. Forti; V. V. Kulikov; A. Nedosekin

2004-01-01

486

Improving humidity bond reliability of copper bonding wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in Cu wire bonding for LSI interconnection due to cost savings and better electrical and mechanical properties. Conventional bare Cu bonding wires, in general, are severely limited in their use compared to Au wires. A coated Cu bonding wire (EX1) has been developed for LSI application. EX1 is a Pd-coated Cu wire to enhance the bondability.

Tomohiro Uno; Takashi Yamada

2010-01-01

487

The mechanical behavior of a wire rope with an independent wire rope core  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new model for simulating the mechanical response of a wire rope with an independent wire rope core is presented. The rope is subjected to both an axial load and an axial torque. In contrast with previous models that consider the effective response of wound strands, the present model fully considers the double-helix configuration of individual wires within the wound

D. Elata; R. Eshkenazy; M. P. Weiss

2004-01-01

488

Corrosion behaviors of US steels in flowing lead bismuth eutectic (LBE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion tests of several US martensitic and austenitic steels were performed in a forced circulation lead-bismuth eutectic non-isothermal loop at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Russia. Tube and rod specimens of austenitic steels 316/316L, D-9, and martensitic steels HT-9, T-410 were inserted in the loop. Experiments were carried out simultaneously at 460 °C and 550 °C for 1000, 2000 and 3000 h. The flow velocity at the test sections was 1.9 m/s and the oxygen concentration in LBE was in the range of 0.03-0.05 wppm. The results showed that at 460 °C, all the test steels have satisfactory corrosion resistance: a thin protective oxide layer formed on the steel surfaces and no observable dissolution of steel components occurred. At 550 °C, rod specimens suffered rather severe local liquid metal corrosion and slot corrosion; while tube specimens were subject to oxidation and formed double-layer oxide films that can be roughly described as a porous Fe 3O 4 outer layer over a chrome-rich spinel inner layer. Neglecting the mass transfer corrosion effects by the flowing LBE, calculations based on Wagner's theory reproduce the experimental results on the oxide thickness, indicating that the oxide growth mechanism of steels in LBE is similar to that of steels in air/steam, with slight modification by dissolution and oxide dissociation at the liquid metal interface.

Zhang, Jinsuo; Li, Ning; Chen, Yitung; Rusanov, A. E.

2005-01-01

489

Elevated Temperature Fracture Toughness and Fatigue Testing of Steels for Geothermal Applications  

SciTech Connect

Conventional drill bit steels exhibit increased wear and decreased toughness when run at elevated temperatures in geothermal wells. Bits are therefore run at lower speeds and lighter loads, resulting in lower penetration rates for geothermal drilling than for conventional rock drilling. Carpenter EX-00053, Timken CBS 600, Timken CBS 1000M and Vasco X-2M steels with improved hot hardness (improved wear resistance), were tested in conjunction with the steels used for cones (AISI 4829, 3915 and EX55) in conventional roller cones and lugs (AISI 8620, 9315 and EX55) in conventional roller cone rock bits. Short-rod fracture toughness measurements were made on each of these steels between room temperature and 400{degree}C. Fatigue crack resistance was determined at 300{degree}C for high-temperature steels and at room temperature for conventional steels. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of the fractured short-rod specimens were correlated with observed crack behavior from the test records. Materials testing results are discussed and steel selections made for improved geothermal bits. Carpenter EX-00053 and Timken CBS 1000M steels meet all design requirements for use in stabilizers, lugs and cones at temperatures to 400{degree}C. It is recommended that EX-00053 and CBS 1000M be manufactured for geothermal drilling at the Geysers site. [DJE 2005

Cutler, R.A.; Goodman, E.C.; Hendrickson, R.R.

1981-10-01

490

Simulation of single-phase mixing in fuel rod bundles, using an immersed boundary method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over recent decades, the study of turbulent flow structures and the mixing behavior in fuel rod bundles has been an active research topic. In this paper, the (isothermal) turbulent mixing in rod bundles is simulated for two different cases using a finite-volume/immersed boundary method with a staggered velocity discretization. The solution procedure is based on an efficient multigrid algorithm, and simulations are performed on state-of-the-art massively parallel computer architectures. As the first case, the cross-flow through a staggered tube bundle under fully turbulent conditions is computed using large eddy simulation. The computed velocities were compared with the experimental data from the literature, and the agreement between the experimental and the computational results was found to be rather good. As a second case, we considered an experiment performed in the SUBFLOW test facility. The SUBFLOW facility models a 4 × 4 vertical rod bundle and uses water in atmospheric conditions as the working fluid. Experiments are based on the wire-mesh sensor technique, which measures the conductivity of the working fluid, and report the distribution of the tracer inserted at various heights of the bundle. This case is even more challenging for large eddy simulations, since it does not feature large structures present in the flow crossing the bundles. However, large eddy simulations of the SUBFLOW facility reproduced the concentration of the tracer liquid and its fluctuations well. The good agreement obtained for the two cases of flows in rod bundles serves as a motivation to focus future research on the modeling of bubbly flows in the same arrangements.

Ni?eno, Bojan; Reiterer, Florian; Ylönen, Arto; Prasser, Horst-Michael

2013-07-01

491

Joining characteristics of titanium-based orthodontic wires connected by laser and electrical welding methods.  

PubMed

This study investigated the possibility of electrical and laser welding to connect titanium-based alloy (beta-titanium and nickel-titanium) wires and stainless-steel or cobalt-chromium alloy wires for fabrication of combination arch-wires. Four kinds of straight orthodontic rectangular wires (0.017 × 0.025 inch) were used: stainless-steel (S-S), cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr), beta-titanium alloy (?-Ti), and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti). Homogeneous and heterogeneous end-to-end joints (15 mm long each) were made by electrical welding and laser welding. Non-welded wires (30 mm long) were also used as a control. Maximum loads at fracture (N) and elongation (%) were measured by conducting tensile test. The data (n = 10) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance/Tukey test (P < 0.05).The S-S/S-S and Co-Cr/Co-Cr specimens showed significantly higher values of the maximum load (ML) at fracture and elongation (EL) than those of the Ni-Ti/Ni-Ti and ?-Ti/?-Ti specimens for electrical welding and those of the S-S/S-S and Co-Cr/Co-Cr specimens welded by laser. On the other hand, the laser-welded Ni-Ti/Ni-Ti and ?-Ti/?-Ti specimens exhibited higher values of the ML and EL compared to those of the corresponding specimens welded by electrical method. In the heterogeneously welded combinations, the electrically welded Ni-Ti/S-S, ?-Ti/S-S and ?-Ti/Co-Cr specimens showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher ML and EL than those of the corresponding specimens welded by laser. Electrical welding exhibited the higher values of maximum load at fracture and elongation for heterogeneously welded combinations than laser-welding. PMID:25595723

Matsunaga, Junko; Watanabe, Ikuya; Nakao, Noriko; Watanabe, Etsuko; Elshahawy, Waleed; Yoshida, Noriaki

2015-01-01

492

Modeling and Simulation of the Impact Response of Maraging Steel Linear Cellular Alloys for Structural Energetic Material Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A refined Johnson-Cook material strength model is developed for predicting the dynamic strain and fracture response of Maraging 250 steel at high-strain rates. Finite element simulations of rod-on-anvil impacts are carried out at velocities exceeding 100m\\/s and compared with experimental impact tests performed on a 7.62mm gas gun. The transient and final dimensions of the simulated and experimentally impacted rods

Adam Jakus; Anthony Fredenburg; Tammy McCoy; Joe Cochran; Naresh Thadhani

2009-01-01

493

49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section...Systems Wires and Cables § 236.76 Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each...

2013-10-01