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1

Certain Steel Wire Rod. Investigation No. NAFTA-312-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of the information in the investigation, the Commission determines that a surge in imports of certain steel wire rod from Canada and Mexico, respectively, undermines the effectiveness of the import relief on wire rod provided for in President...

2001-01-01

2

75 FR 21658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago AGENCY: United States International...steel wire rod (``wire rod'') from Trinidad and Tobago. For further information...by reason of imports of wire rod from Trinidad and Tobago that were sold in the...

2010-04-26

3

75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis...steel wire rod from Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...Okun dissenting with respect to Korea and...

2010-06-08

4

Continuously Cast Eutectoid Wire Rod Steels: Final Report, May 1, 1982-October 31, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study concentrated on the development of steels of new composition which ensure higher strength levels on wire rod and drawn wire while maintaining the fine pearlite structure, suitable for direct drawing. The experiment concerned two principal lines...

A. Mascanzoni E. Stampa G. Crispoldi G. Chesi

1986-01-01

5

High-carbon wire rod made of high-chromium steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study of the quality of experimental wire rod made of steel C82D2 with 0.30% chromium has shown that this\\u000a material can be used as a replacement for vanadium-bearing wire rod. In this case, it is necessary to subject the rod to two-stage\\u000a cooling on a Stelmor line in a process that includes the following: • coil formation at

A. B. Sychkov; M. A. Zhigarev; A. V. Perchatkin; V. A. Berkovskii; A. I. Krulik

2006-01-01

6

Wire rod of boron-bearing low-carbon steel for direct deep drawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moldavian Metallurgical Plant has developed an integrated technology for making steel, a continous-cast semifinished product, and wire rod in accordance with the requirements of international standards. The technology involves optimizing the chemical composition of the steel (normalizing the contents of the chemical elements and the carbon equivalent Ce, inoculating the steel with calcium to lower its content of nonmetallic

V. V. Parusov; A. B. Sychkov; M. A. Zhigarev; A. V. Perchatkin

2004-01-01

7

Fine microstructure of wire rods manufactured from Sv08G2S high-plasticity steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of transmission-electron-microscope and scanning-electron-microscope studies of the fine structure\\u000a of wire rod made from Sv-08G2S silicon-manganese welding steel, including electron microscope images used to identify the\\u000a structural components of the wire-rod metal and determine the dislocation density. The wire-rod microstructure was compared\\u000a against that obtained when a new, optimized process was developed for heat-treatment of

A. M. Nesterenko; A. B. Sychkov; S. Yu. Zhukova; V. I. Sukhomlin

2008-01-01

8

Mechanical behavior of ultrahigh strength ultrahigh carbon steel wire and rod  

SciTech Connect

Ultrahigh-carbon steels (UHCSS) can achieve very high strengths in wire or rod form. These high strengths result from the mechanical work introduced during wire and rod processing. These strengths have been observed to increase with carbon content. In wire form, tensile strengths approaching 6000 MPa are predicted for UHCS containing 1. 8%C. In this paper, we will discuss the influence of processing (including rapid transformation during wire patenting) and micros ct- ure on the mechanical behavior of UHCS wire. The tensile properties of as- extruded rods are described as a function of extrusion temperature and composition. For spheroidized steels, yield and ultimate tensile strength are a function of grain size, interparticle spacing and particle size. For pearlitic steels, yield and ultimate strength were found to be functions of colony size, carbide size and plate spacing and orientation. Alloying additions (such as C, Cr, Si, Al and Co) can influence the effect of processing on these microstructural features. For spheroidized steels, fracture was found to be a function of the size of coarse carbides and of composition.

Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sberby, O.D.; Whittenherger, W.D.

1997-07-22

9

Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Egypt, South Africa, and Venezuela. Investigation Nos. 731-TA-955, 960 and 963 (Preliminary) (Second Remand).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By decision dated June 7, 2005, the Court of International Trade (the 'Court') remanded the Commission's preliminary determinations that subject imports of carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod ('wire rod') from South Africa individually, and Egypt, Sou...

2005-01-01

10

77 FR 66954 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...available in Notice of Antidumping Duty Orders: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine, 67 FR 65945 (October 29, 2002), remains dispositive. On October 1, 2012, the...

2012-11-08

11

The effect of controlled cooling after hot rolling on the mechanical properties of a commercial high carbon steel wire rod  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the effects of different cooling conditions after hot rolling in Stelmor conveyor line on the mechanical properties of a commercial high carbon steel wire rod are investigated. By opening and closing the lids, turning on and off the fans in Stelmor system, an air patenting process is performed on a commercial high carbon steel to improve its

M Kazeminezhad; A Karimi Taheri

2003-01-01

12

72 FR 73880 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Canada, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with full reviews pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. Sec. 1675(c)(5)) to determine whether revocation of the countervailing duty order on wire rod from Brazil and the antidumping duty orders on wire rod from Brazil, Canada, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine would be likely to lead to......

2007-12-28

13

Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part III. Mathematical model-formulation and predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this final part of the study, a mathematical model incorporating heat flow, microstructural phenomena, and structure-composition-mechanical property relationships has been developed to compute the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of steel rod control cooled on a Stelmor line. The predictive capability of the model, in terms of temperature response, microstructural evolution, and strength of the rods, has been tested by comparison to measurements from an extensive set of laboratory and plant trials. Thus, the model has been shown to simulate the complex heat flow and microstructural phenomena in the steel rod very well, although improvements need to be sought in the characterization of the austenite-ferrite transformation kinetics and of pearlite interlamellar spacing. The latter variable has a significant influence on the strength of eutectoid steels. Nonetheless, the model consistently is capable of predicting the strengths of plain-carbon steel rods ranging from 1020 to 1080 to within ± 10 pet.

Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

1991-11-01

14

Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part III. Mathematical model-formulation and predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this final part of the study, a mathematical model incorporating heat flow, microstructural phenomena, and structure-composition-mechanical property relationships has been developed to compute the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of steel rod control cooled on a Stelmor line. The predictive capability of the model, in terms of temperature response, microstructural evolution, and strength of the rods,

P. C. Campbell; E. B. Hawbolt; J. K. Brimacombe

1991-01-01

15

Influence of cooling rate on the structure and formation of oxide scale in low carbon steel wire rods during hot rolling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, oxide scale formed on low carbon steel during conventional wire rod rolling (?1.4 °C s?1 cooling rate after laying head temperature, LHT, at 900 °C) was investigated. The ?-?Fe transformation temperature of the grade was determined using thermomechanical simulator. Subsequently, the formation of FeO type scale was engineered through modification in cooling rate (?1.4 °C s?1

R. Bhattacharya; G. Jha; S. Kundu; R. Shankar; N. Gope

2006-01-01

16

70 FR 72781 - Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...process for CASWR occurs in two stages: the melt shop and rolling mill. In the melt shop a furnace melts scrap steel or pig...casts the liquid steel into billets. Next, in the rolling mill, the billets are reheated, rolled into CASWR,...

2005-12-07

17

67 FR 39357 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy: Notice of Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in the...

2002-06-07

18

67 FR 63619 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy: Notice of Final Results of Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in the...

2002-10-15

19

63 FR 49327 - Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

1998-09-15

20

66 FR 31613 - Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Wire Rod...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

2001-06-12

21

62 FR 45224 - Initiation of Antidumping Investigations: Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Germany, Italy, Japan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in the...

1997-08-26

22

67 FR 6685 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Korea; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

2002-02-13

23

62 FR 45229 - Notice of Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation: Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rod...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in the...

1997-08-26

24

63 FR 49329 - Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Sweden  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

1998-09-15

25

Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part III. Mathematical model-formulation and predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this final part of the study, a mathematical model incorporating heat flow, microstructural phenomena, and structure-composition-mechanical\\u000a property relationships has been developed to compute the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of steel\\u000a rod control cooled on a Stelmor line. The predictive capability of the model, in terms of temperature response, microstructural\\u000a evolution, and strength of the rods,

P. C. Campbell; E. B. Hawbolt; J. K. Brimacombe

1991-01-01

26

Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part I. Experimental design and heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model which incorporates heat flow, phase transformation kinetics, and property-structure-composition relationships to predict the mechanical properties of steel rod being control cooled under industrial conditions. Thus, the principles of microstructural engineering have been brought to bear on this interdisciplinary problem by combining computer modeling with laboratory measurements of heat flow, austenite decomposition kinetics, microstructure and mechanical properties, and industrial trials to determine heat transfer and obtain rod samples under known conditions. Owing to the length and diversity of the study, it is reported in three parts,[8191]the first of which is concerned with the heat flow measurements. A relatively simple and reliable technique, involving a preheated steel rod instrumented with a thermocouple secured at its centerline, has been devised to determine the cooling rate in different regions of the moving bed of rod loops on an operating Stelmor line. The measured thermal response of the rod has been analyzed by two transient conduction models (lumped and distributed parameter, respectively) to yield overall heat-transfer coefficients for radiation and convection. The adequacy of the technique has been checked by cooling instrumented rods under well-defined, air crossflow conditions in the laboratory and comparing measured heat-transfer coefficients to values predicted from well-established equations. The industrial thermal measurements have permitted the characterization of a coefficient to account for radiative interaction among adjacent rod loops near the edge and at the center of the bed.

Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

1991-11-01

27

Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part II. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the second part of this paper, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of plain-carbon steel rods which have been subjected to known cooling conditions are described. Specifically, the isothermal phase transformation kinetics for the decomposition of austenite into ferrite and pearlite have been determined with a diametral dilatometer and characterized in terms of empirical coefficients in the Avrami equation.

P. C. Campbell; E. B. Hawbolt; J. K. Brimacombe

1991-01-01

28

Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part I. Experimental design and heat transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model which incorporates heat flow, phase transformation kinetics, and property-structure-composition relationships to predict the mechanical properties of steel rod being control cooled under industrial conditions. Thus, the principles of microstructural engineering have been brought to bear on this interdisciplinary problem by combining computer modeling with laboratory measurements of heat flow,

P. C. Campbell; E. B. Hawbolt; J. K. Brimacombe

1991-01-01

29

76 FR 33218 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods...0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.008 percent...

2011-06-08

30

Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part II. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the second part of this paper, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of plain-carbon steel rods which have been subjected to known cooling conditions are described. Specifically, the isothermal phase transformation kinetics for the decomposition of austenite into ferrite and pearlite have been determined with a diametral dilatometer and characterized in terms of empirical coefficients in the Avrami equation. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) start time, fraction ferrite, ferrite grain diameter, and pearlite interlamellar spacing have been quantified and correlated with steel composition and cooling rate. Tensile tests have been conducted to obtain yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS), which, with literature data, have been related to the microstructure and composition of the steels. These correlations, which apply to both hypoeutectoid and eutectoid steels, have been incorporated in a mathematical model of the Stelmor process, to be described in Part III of this article.[441

Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

1991-11-01

31

Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part II. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the second part of this paper, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of plain-carbon steel rods which\\u000a have been subjected to known cooling conditions are described. Specifically, the isothermal phase transformation kinetics\\u000a for the decomposition of austenite into ferrite and pearlite have been determined with a diametral dilatometer and characterized\\u000a in terms of empirical coefficients in the Avrami equation.

P. C. Campbell; E. B. Hawbolt; J. K. Brimacombe

1991-01-01

32

Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part I. Experimental design and heat transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model which incorporates heat flow, phase transformation kinetics, and\\u000a property-structure-composition relationships to predict the mechanical properties of steel rod being control cooled under\\u000a industrial conditions. Thus, the principles of microstructural engineering have been brought to bear on this interdisciplinary\\u000a problem by combining computer modeling with laboratory measurements of heat flow,

P. C. Campbell; E. B. Hawbolt; J. K. Brimacombe

1991-01-01

33

63 FR 40391 - Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Spain  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing...requires more passes through the rolling mill than larger diameter SSWR, can...starting up'' its refurbished rolling mill and pickling facility. Based...

1998-07-29

34

73 FR 26958 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...October 1, 2005, through September 30, 2006, for Ivaco Rolling Mills 2004 L.P. (``IRM'') and Sivaco Ontario (a division...measured along the axis--that is, the direction of rolling--of the rod) over thickness (measured on the...

2008-05-12

35

72 FR 6528 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire- drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

2007-02-12

36

68 FR 68864 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Japan; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

2003-12-10

37

71 FR 24643 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy: Notice of Final Results of Changed Circumstances Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

2006-04-26

38

63 FR 40433 - Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Stainless Steel Wire Rod from...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

1998-07-29

39

68 FR 68863 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From South Korea; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

2003-12-10

40

63 FR 10847 - Notice of Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Stainless Steel Wire Rod...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

1998-03-05

41

63 FR 40449 - Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Sweden  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

1998-07-29

42

74 FR 56179 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan: Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

2009-10-30

43

63 FR 40404 - Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Korea  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

1998-07-29

44

68 FR 68865 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Taiwan; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

2003-12-10

45

71 FR 59739 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

2006-10-11

46

67 FR 11096 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Korea; Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5.5 millimeters or 0.217 inches in diameter, which represents the smallest size that normally is produced on a rolling mill and is the size that most wire-drawing machines are set up to draw. The range of SSWR sizes normally sold in...

2002-03-12

47

Wire-rod type electrohydrodynamic gas pumps with and without insulation cover over corona wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of an insulation cover on a corona wire for a wire–rod type electrohydrodynamic (EHD) gas pump was experimentally investigated and onedimensional cross sectional averaged analyses were performed. The insulation cover over the corona wire causes a fluctuation of the discharge current, resulting in fluctuations of the EHD gas flow. The insulation cover also changes the EHD force distribution,

Nozomi Takeuchi; Koichi Yasuoka; Jen-Shih Chang

2011-01-01

48

MODELLING CORED WIRE INJECTION IN STEEL MELTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cored wire injection is an essential feature of liquid steel processing. An estimation of the time for melting of the wire sheath (casing) and the subsequent release of the filling material cannot be done without resorting to an elaborate mathematical model due to the complexity of the heat transfer from the bath to the wire. In particular, the formation of

Sarbendu Sanyal; Sanjay Chandra; Amreekh Singh; G G Roy

49

Fracture toughness evaluation of high-strength cold-drawn eutectoid steel wires used in wire ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High carbon (eutectoid) steel wires are used in many modern engineering applications which require high strength and durability. The most demanding applications are those for wire ropes, tire reinforcements, engine valve springs, and structural strands used for long span cable stayed bridges. In this study, a test method based on Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) was used to evaluate fracture toughness, KC, for various grades of wire which were of 0.072? nominal diameter. An extensive review of literature on mechanical behavior of wire ropes is presented. Also a very thorough review of technical literature on the applications of LEFM in high strength rods and wires is provided. Various stress intensity factor solutions (K-solutions) are evaluated and compared. The most applicable K-solutions for application in KC determination in circular rods and wires with semi-elliptical surface cracks are recommended. Plane-stress K-solutions for straight-edge surface cracks in 0.072? diameter steel wire were also developed by a 3D FEA model. An experimental fracture toughness test procedure based on principles of LEFM is described in detail. Experimental tensile fracture data is presented for 285 pre-cracked fracture samples. SEM fractographs documenting fracture surface topography of various fracture modes are described and characterized. For each wire grade and condition an average value of KC was determined. Statistical treatment of data and 90% confidence intervals are also provided. Average KC values ranged from 52Ksiin to 60Ksiin for wires ranging in tensile strength from 289 Ksi to 336 Ksi. Delamination toughening phenomenon was observed in some wire fracture samples and documented. As high as 60% increase in KC value was observed for some delaminated wires. The effect of crack aspect ratio in semi-elliptical cracks was considered and found to be very significant.

Pourladian, Bamdad

50

The technology of testing the safety of steel wire ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To estimate the security of steel wire rope, the broken wire condition, the capability of the rope to bear weight and the state of stress balance of each wire in the steel wire rope were investigated. The wavelet translation method was applied to analyze the signals of magnetic field leakage from the steel wire rope. The result of the time-frequency analysis of the signals can be used to make certain of he position and the amount of the broken wire. Using the static surveillance method as a basis, a dynamic surveillance method was designed to detect the stress balance of the steel wire rope. This technology makes it possible to check the stress condition of each wire on line. It can be concluded that a wavelet translation analysis and the dynamic surveillance technique are effective methods to detect on line and real-time the broken wire and the stress balance of multistrand wire ropes.

Zhang, Xiaochun; Hu, Caiwen

2005-12-01

51

The study of weaving steel wire brokens's detecting sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mainly aims at the weaving steel wire which is used in the engineering of racking wires and drawing, detects brokens of steel wire according to the principle of magnetic resistance. Adopts the differential transformer as sensor, and analyses the electromagnetic field and structure design of sensor

Zhang Bingyi; Wang Fenglin; Zeng Yifan; Feng Guihong; Gong Shuqiu

2005-01-01

52

75 FR 4104 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY...China of prestressed concrete steel wire strand, provided for in...nonstainless, non-galvanized steel, which is suitable for use...the zinc and/or zinc oxide coating meets or exceeds the...

2010-01-26

53

Efficiency of a Wire-Rod Type Electrohydrodynamic Gas Pump Under Negative Corona Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire-rod type electrohydrodynamic (EHD) gas pump was driven by a negative applied voltage with pipes of different inner diameters. An EHD gas flow was generated from a wire electrode to a rod electrode under a negative corona discharge. The flow velocity was proportional to the applied voltage and the square root of the discharge current. Before spark onset, the

Nozomi Takeuchi; Koichi Yasuoka

2009-01-01

54

Brazing of AM350 stainless steel LWBR fuel rod support grids (LWBR Development Program)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brazing process has been developed wherein several hundred stamped AM-350 stainless steel sheet metal components, wire components and machined bar components were simultaneously joined together to fabricate about 400 grids of different sizes for the LWBR fuel rod support system. High temperature (2110F +- 20F) vacuum brazing was employed using Ni--Cr--Si braze alloy filler metal in the form of

Ebejer

1979-01-01

55

75 FR 36678 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1160 (Final)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations...of imports from China of prestressed concrete steel wire strand (PC strand), provided...June 2010), entitled Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from China:...

2010-06-28

56

16. VIEW OF STEEL FLOOR BEAMS WITH TIE RODS, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW OF STEEL FLOOR BEAMS WITH TIE RODS, SHOWING SWAY BRACING, SUPPORT TIMBER STRINGERS AND BECK, WEST END, LOOKING WEST - Hot Springs Bridge, Spanning Bruneau River, Hot Springs Road, Bruneau, Owyhee County, ID

57

Neutron strain scanning in straightened eutectoid steel rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron strain scanning has been performed on a neutectoid steel rod at a reactor-based source (REST diffractometer, at NFL) and at a pulsed source (ENGIN diffractometer, at ISIS). The rod is primarily obtained from a drawing process and has been subject to bending and straightening procedures, which induce residual stress. The material exhibits a pearlitic microstructure, with alternating ferrite (90

M. L. Martínez; C. R. Borlado; F. J. Mompeán; R. L. Peng; M. R. Daymond; J. Ruiz; M. García-Hernández

2002-01-01

58

Improvement of Sternal Closure Stability With Reinforced Steel Wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Sternal dehiscence occurs when steel wires pull through sternal bone. This study tests the hypothesis that closure stability can be improved by jacketing sternal wires with stainless steel coils, which distribute the force exerted on the bone over a larger area. Methods. Midline sternotomies were performed in 6 human cadavers (4 male). Two sternal closure techniques were tested: (1)

Walter E. McGregor; Maryann Payne; Dennis R. Trumble; Kathleen M. Farkas; James A. Magovern

59

Corrosion and embrittlement of high-strength steel bridge wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspension bridge cable inspections have revealed severely corroded and broken wires in some main cables. Accelerated cyclic corrosion studies were conducted to assess the relative effect of corrosion on high-strength steel bridge wire. Galvanized and ungalvanized wire samples were corroded under various levels of sustained loads in a cabinet that cyclically applied an acidic salt spray, dry conditions, and 100%

Garry Wayne Vermaas

2001-01-01

60

Nondestructive quantitative stress characterization of wire rope and steel cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new approach to nondestructive and quantitative characterization of residual and applied stress (absolute stress) on wire rope and steel cable. Examples are given from both field work as well as laboratory tests, including stress characterization of post-tensioning cables, bridge suspension cables, wire rope and thin strand steel wire. The approach is based on x-ray diffraction techniques. A detailed description of the results and the methodologies used to obtain them are provided.

Brauss, Michael E.; Pineault, James A.; Belassel, M.; Teodoropol, S. I.

1998-03-01

61

78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-990] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's...preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire...suitable for use as prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie...

2013-12-12

62

Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

1966-01-01

63

75 FR 8113 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-464 and 731-TA-1160 (Final)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the...

2010-02-23

64

78 FR 66382 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand Determinations On the basis of the record...injured by reason of imports from India and Thailand of certain steel threaded rod, provided...imports of certain steel threaded rod from Thailand. Accordingly, effective June 27,...

2013-11-05

65

78 FR 76815 - Steel Threaded Rod From India: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar...variety of finishes or coatings, such as plain oil...In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar...variety of finishes or coatings, such as plain oil...similar finishes and coatings, may be applied...investigation are steel threaded rod,...

2013-12-19

66

ACMOD-2D—A heat transfer model for the simulation of the cooling of wire rod  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe the heat transfer in the air-cooling (“AC”) line of wire rolling mills (Stelmor), a model (“MOD”) is developed which takes account of the relevant influencing variables. The packing density of the wire loops on the conveyor is particularly significant for the cooling of the wire rod. In this context, an analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the wire

A. Lindemann; J. Schmidt

2005-01-01

67

7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand. 1755.370 Section 1755.370 ...specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference...Specification for Zinc-Coated Steel Wire Strand, issued May 1978. All seven wire...

2009-01-01

68

7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand. 1755.370 Section 1755.370 ...specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference...Specification for Zinc-Coated Steel Wire Strand, issued May 1978. All seven wire...

2010-01-01

69

Recrystallization and Grain Growth of 316L Stainless Steel Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recrystallization and grain growth behaviors of 316L stainless steel wires with a diameter of 12 µm were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction techniques. Heavily cold-drawn wires were isothermally held at temperatures from 1073 K to 1223 K (800 °C to 950 °C) for various holding times. Optical microscopy and TEM observations showed that recrystallization grains have irregular shape and that twins exist. The texture formed during drawing and annealing processes of the wires, as measured by X-ray methods, showed a fiber texture approximated by a <111> and a <100> component. The value of the grain growth exponent n was calculated, and the kinetic rates were plotted using the Arrhenius equation. Results show that the activation energy of the grain growth for 316L stainless steel wire was determined to be 407 kJ/mol, which was much higher than that of the bulk 316L stainless steel. The small wire diameter and the existence of texture played important roles in the increase of the activation energy for grain growth of the wire.

Zhao, Xiuyun; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yan; Feng, Ping; Tang, Huiping

2014-07-01

70

Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires  

SciTech Connect

Hypereutectoid steels have the potential for dramatically increasing the strength of wire used in tire cord and in other high strength wire applications. The basis for this possible breakthrough is the elimination of a brittle proeutectoid network that can form along grain boundaries if appropriate processing procedures and alloy additions are used. A review is made of work done by Japanese and other researchers on eutectoid and mildly hypereutectoid wires. A linear extrapolation of the tensile strength of fine wires predicts higher strengths at higher carbon contents. The influence of processing, alloy additions and carbon content in optimizing the strength, ductility and fracture behavior of hypereutectoid steels is presented. It is proposed that the tensile strength of pearlitic wires is dictated by the fracture strength of the carbide lamella at grain boundary locations in the carbide. Methods to improve the strength of carbide grain boundaries and to decrease the carbide plate thickness will contribute to enhancing the ultrahigh strength obtainable in hypereutectoid steel wires. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Kim, D.K.

1996-06-25

71

Measurements of Peripherical Static Pressure and Pressure Drop in a Rod Bundle with Helical Wire Wrap Spacers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fuel element of a LMFBR nuclear reactor consists of a wire wrapped rod bundle with triangular array with the coolant flowing parallel to the rods. By using this type of element with seven rods conected to an air open loop, the hydrodynamics behavior o...

H. Ballve M. C. Graca E. Fernandez y Fernandez P. Carajilescov

1981-01-01

72

78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nos. 731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution...materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico, and Thailand,...

2013-04-30

73

77 FR 2958 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration [A-549-820] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC Strand'') from Thailand....

2012-01-20

74

75 FR 32747 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION [A-201-831] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC Strand'') from Mexico for...

2010-06-09

75

78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico...Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire, provided for in...reason of LTFV imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China,...

2013-06-20

76

Corrosion and embrittlement of high-strength steel bridge wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspension bridge cable inspections have revealed severely corroded and broken wires in some main cables. Accelerated cyclic corrosion studies were conducted to assess the relative effect of corrosion on high-strength steel bridge wire. Galvanized and ungalvanized wire samples were corroded under various levels of sustained loads in a cabinet that cyclically applied an acidic salt spray, dry conditions, and 100% relative humidity at elevated temperature. Mass loss, hydrogen concentration, ultimate load, and elongation at failure were measured for corroded and uncorroded samples. Elongation measurements indicated a significant embrittlement of the wires that could not be explained only by the presence of absorbed hydrogen (hydrogen embrittlement). The main cause of reduction of wire elongation was found to be the surface irregularities induced by the corrosion process. The corrosion process in a high-strength steel wire was modeled and analyzed using finite element methods. Forty-one separate FEM tests were run and this data was compared to the experimental data. In addition, for the purpose of comparison, a previously developed hydrogen embrittlement model was analyzed and its validity was discussed in detail. SEM photographs of the fracture surfaces were taken and possible causes and mechanisms of fracture were suggested by observations of the fracture morphology. It was shown through this experimental and numerical research work that the geometry of the wire, determined by the amount of corrosion, pitting, and surface irregularities, controls the ultimate elongation of the wire sample, as also confirmed by the SEM analysis of the fracture surfaces. It was also shown that, using a generally accepted hydrogen embrittlement model, there is no evidence that hydrogen embrittlement is occurring, or at least that hydrogen evolution is not the controlling factor in the loss of wire's ductility.

Vermaas, Garry Wayne

77

Effect of interlamellar spacing on cementite dissolution during wire drawing of pearlitic steel wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold drawing is an effective process to increase the strength of fully pearlitic steels with an acceptable level of ductility. Microstructural changes and deformation behavior of the pearlite during wire drawing are closely related to the initial microstructure of the pearlite. The main features of the changes while increasing drawing strain are a progressive alignment of lamellae along the drawing

Wong Jong Nam; Chul Min Bae; Sei J Oh; Soon-Ju Kwon

2000-01-01

78

The wire rod superficial processing and the quality and environmental criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Purpose of the presented paper is meant to enlight the common points between the application of practically well-matched methods of investigation and opinion of quality and usage of the modern technical, technological or organizational solutions, in this issue in the technological processes of preparation the wire rod surface to the plastic processing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: Applied for the survey has comprised

T. Karkoszka; D. Szewieczek

2008-01-01

79

78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-201-843] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary...preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire...suitable for use as prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie...

2013-12-12

80

78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-549-829] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary...preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tire wire (``PC tie wire...suitable for use as prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie...

2013-12-12

81

Simulating microstructure development in high-carbon steel cross-wire welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-wire welding is a resistance welding process for joining steel bars into steel grids. The wire meshes discussed in this paper are made from high-carbon steel, which gives the product good wear resistance, but increases the difficulty of welding.Cracks sometimes develop during or after welding in high-carbon steel cross-wires unless an appropriate postweld heating schedule is applied. The purpose of

R. Pan; D. F. Watt

1995-01-01

82

TEM observations of void-lobed defects and the origin of stringers in copper rod and drawn magnet wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we have discovered a defect, which we call a void-lobed defect, in copper\\u000a precursor rod and in sections of failed copper magnet wire. This defect is the origin of, or basis for, stringers or stringer\\u000a defects in copper rod and wire, and consists of a contaminated, solidified copper microdroplet which is entrained in the solidifying

L. E. Murr; C.-S. Niou; J. T. Farraro; G. Liu; D. Martinez

1997-01-01

83

Wire-Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Protects Steel Against Corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aluminum coatings wire-arc sprayed onto steel substrates found effective in protecting substrates against corrosion. Coatings also satisfy stringent requirements for adhesion and flexibility, both at room temperature and at temperatures as low as liquid hydrogen. Developed as alternatives to corrosion-inhibiting primers and paints required by law to be phased out because they contain and emit such toxic substances as chromium and volatile organic compounds.

Zimmerman, Frank R.; Poorman, Richard; Sanders, Heather L.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Bonds, James W., Jr.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

1995-01-01

84

78 FR 44526 - Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applied. In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar...variety of finishes or coatings, such as plain oil finish...rust protectant, zinc coating (i.e., galvanized...similar finishes and coatings, may be applied to the...these investigations are steel threaded rod,...

2013-07-24

85

75 FR 37382 - Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PRC. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's...non-stainless, non-galvanized steel, which is suitable for use...the zinc and/or zinc oxide coating meets or exceeds the 0.40...find in Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the...

2010-06-29

86

78 FR 79670 - Steel Threaded Rod From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar...variety of finishes or coatings, such as plain oil...In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar...variety of finishes or coatings, such as plain oil...similar finishes and coatings, may be applied...investigation are steel threaded rod,...

2013-12-31

87

The Microstructure and Hardness of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel During Wire Drawing  

SciTech Connect

The steel wire samples are hot-dip-galvanized. The zinc coating is preformed using the standard method. To recognize the behavior of the zinc coated steel wire during the submission to deformation, the wire samples are drawn on a machine designed for this aim and then investigated. In this research is represented the phase structure of the zinc coated samples. Afterwards the thickness of the layer and the hardness of the hot-dip galvanized steel depending on the drawing is represented.

Klmaku, Snukn; Syla, Nairn [University of Prishtina, Sheshi Neena Terezee, 10000, Prishtinee, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Dilo, Teuta [University of Tirana, Sheshi Nenee Tereza, Tirana (Albania)

2010-01-21

88

The Microstructure and Hardness of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel During Wire Drawing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steel wire samples are hot-dip-galvanized. The zinc coating is preformed using the standard method. To recognize the behavior of the zinc coated steel wire during the submission to deformation, the wire samples are drawn on a machine designed for this aim and then investigated. In this research is represented the phase structure of the zinc coated samples. Afterwards the thickness of the layer and the hardness of the hot-dip galvanized steel depending on the drawing is represented.

Klmaku, Snukn; Dilo, Teuta; Syla, Nairn

2010-01-01

89

Electroretinographic findings in the Standard Wire Haired Dachshund with inherited early onset cone–rod dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To describe electroretinographic (ERG) findings in a strain of Standard Wire Haired Dachshund (SWHD)-derived dogs at the ages\\u000a of approximately 5, 8 and 52 weeks selected for inherited early onset cone–rod dystrophy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Nineteen affected and 13 age-matched control SWHDs were included in the study. All dogs were subjected to standardized bilateral\\u000a Ganzfeld ERGs and ophthalmoscopic examinations at regular intervals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Photopic cone-derived

Ernst O. Ropstad; Ellen Bjerkås; Kristina Narfström

2007-01-01

90

Decarburization of AM-350 Stainless Steel LWBR Fuel Rod Support Grids (Lwbr Development Program).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique has been developed to controllably decarburize AM-350 stainless steel fuel rod support grids using a controlled frost point hydrogen atmosphere. Two processes have been extensively investigated: one in which the grid array is decarburized prio...

B. R. Gourley

1977-01-01

91

Fractal roughness structures of precision-machined WC-Co- and Inconel 625-coated steel rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally sprayed WC-Co coatings on steel rods were machined by grinding and turning using diamond tools, and thermally sprayed\\u000a Inconel 625 coatings on steel rods were machined by turning using various WC tools. Four of these samples were selected for\\u000a surface characterization using a stylus roughness tester. The results show that precision-machined WC-Co and Inconel-625 surfaces\\u000a can be identified as

Z. W. Zhong; Z. F. Peng

2007-01-01

92

Joints of Glulam Structures Based on Glued-in Ribbed Steel Rods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Glued-in ribbed steel rod joints of glulam were studied with three different experiments. (1) In test series of single-rod joints, two types of epoxy and polyurethane adhesive were used. Both compression and tensile series were made. In compression series...

J. Kangas

1994-01-01

93

78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-549-829, A-570-990] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand...investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand...People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico,...

2013-09-19

94

DESIGN OF WIRE-WRAPPED ROD BUNDLE MATCHED INDEX-OF-REFRACTION EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Experiments will be conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility [1] to characterize the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a wire-wrapped rod bundle typically employed in liquid-metal cooled fast reactors and to provide benchmark data for computer code validation. Sodium cooled fast reactors are under consideration for use in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. The experiment model will be constructed of quartz components and the working fluid will be mineral oil. Accurate temperature control (to within 0.05 oC) matches the index-of-refraction of mineral oil with that of quartz and renders the model transparent to the wavelength of laser light employed for optical measurements. The model will be a scaled 7-pin rod bundle enclosed in a hexagonal canister. Flow field measurements will be obtained with a LaVision 3-D particle image velocimeter (PIV) and complimented by near-wall velocity measurements obtained from a 2-D laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). These measurements will be used as benchmark data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation. The rod bundle model dimensions will be scaled up from the typical dimensions of a fast reactor fuel assembly to provide the maximum Reynolds number achievable in the MIR flow loop. A range of flows from laminar to fully-turbulent will be available with a maximum Reynolds number, based on bundle hydraulic diameter, of approximately 22,000. The fuel pins will be simulated by 85 mm diameter quartz tubes (closed on the inlet ends) and the wire-wrap will be simulated by 25 mm diameter quartz rods. The canister walls will be constructed from quartz plates. The model will be approximately 2.13 m in length. Bundle pressure losses will also be measured and the data recorded for code comparisons. The experiment design and preliminary CFD calculations, which will be used to provide qualitative hydrodynamic information, are presented in this paper.

Hugh McIlroy; Hongbin Zhang; Kurt Hamman

2008-05-01

95

Tension-band wiring of transverse fractures of patella. The effect of site of wire twists and orientation of stainless steel wire loop: a biomechanical investigation.  

PubMed

Tension-band wiring is commonly used to treat transverse patella fractures. The most common configuration has parallel Kirschner (K) wires and a stainless steel wire loop placed in a vertically oriented figure of eight. Early mobilisation is important but can cause detrimental displacement at the fracture site. A wooden model of a transversely fractured patella was used to compare different fixation constructs. The fracture was fixed using two K wires and a stainless steel wire loop. One or two wire twists were used, placed either arbitrarily or at corners of the loop. The loop was oriented either vertically or horizontally. Interfragmentary compression at the point of wire breakage and permanent displacement on cyclic loading was measured for each construct. Placement of the figure of eight in a horizontal orientation with two wire twists at the corner improved interfragmentary compression by 63% (p<0.05, Tukey post hoc test). On cyclic loading, all constructs with vertical figure of eight but none with a horizontal construct failed (p=0.01; Fisher's exact test). Permanent fracture displacement after cyclic loading was 67% lower with horizontal figure of eight constructs (p<0.05; t test). Placing wire twists at the corner and a horizontal placement of figure of eight improves stability of the construct. PMID:17033766

John, J; Wagner, W W; Kuiper, J H

2007-10-01

96

Tension-band wiring of transverse fractures of patella. The effect of site of wire twists and orientation of stainless steel wire loop: a biomechanical investigation  

PubMed Central

Tension-band wiring is commonly used to treat transverse patella fractures. The most common configuration has parallel Kirschner (K) wires and a stainless steel wire loop placed in a vertically oriented figure of eight. Early mobilisation is important but can cause detrimental displacement at the fracture site. A wooden model of a transversely fractured patella was used to compare different fixation constructs. The fracture was fixed using two K wires and a stainless steel wire loop. One or two wire twists were used, placed either arbitrarily or at corners of the loop. The loop was oriented either vertically or horizontally. Interfragmentary compression at the point of wire breakage and permanent displacement on cyclic loading was measured for each construct. Placement of the figure of eight in a horizontal orientation with two wire twists at the corner improved interfragmentary compression by 63% (p<0.05, Tukey post hoc test). On cyclic loading, all constructs with vertical figure of eight but none with a horizontal construct failed (p=0.01; Fisher’s exact test). Permanent fracture displacement after cyclic loading was 67% lower with horizontal figure of eight constructs (p<0.05; t test). Placing wire twists at the corner and a horizontal placement of figure of eight improves stability of the construct.

Wagner, W. W.; Kuiper, J. H.

2006-01-01

97

75 FR 28560 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office 9: Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's...revalued the surrogate values for steel belt and coal consumed by WJMP...non-stainless, non-galvanized steel, which is suitable for use...the zinc and/or zinc oxide coating meets or exceeds the...

2010-05-21

98

Corrosion behavior of wire-arc-sprayed stainless steel coating on mild steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion characteristics of a wire-are-sprayed stainless steel coating on mild steel have been investigated in regards to atomizing gases and sealing treatment. Salt spray test was performed. The corrosion behavior of the coating was observed under a microscope succesively through a cycling test of wetting and drying in a salt solution. The sealing-treated coating was found to rust faster compared with the non-sealing-treated coating; it protected the mild steel substrate against corrosion, but even it deteriorated the coating itself due to the interruption of the substrate as an anode. The air-atomized coating ruste more heavily than the nitrogen-atomized one. Four different phases were observed in the coating in regards to corrosion behavior; namely, chromium-based oxide, iron-based oxide, chromium-depleted metallic phase, and stainless steel matrix phase. It was found that the chromium-depleted metallic phase and the iron-based oxide are non-corrosion-resistant, whereas the chromium-based oxide and the stainless steel matrix phase are corrosion-resistant.

Zeng, Z.; Sakoda, N.; Tajiri, T.

2006-09-01

99

Corrosion resistance of premodeled wires made of stainless steel used for heart electrotherapy leaders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study is to evaluate resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wire made of X10CrNi18-8 stainless steel designed for use in cardiology treatment. The influence of strain formed in the premodeling process and methods of wire surface preparation to corrosive resistance in artificial plasma solution were analysed. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in the solution of artificial plasma. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of recorded curves of anodic polarization by means of potentiodynamic method. Potentiodynamic tests carried out enabled to determine how the resistance to pitting corrosion of wire changes, depending on strain formed in the premodeling process as well as on the method of wire surface preparation. For evaluation of phenomena occurring on the surface of tested steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied. Deterioration of corrosive properties of wire along with the increase in the formed strain hardening was observed.

Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; M?ynarski, R.; Szatka, W.

2012-05-01

100

Feasibility demonstration of using wire electrical-discharge machining, abrasive flow honing, and laser spot welding to manufacture high-precision triangular-pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel-rod-support grids  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported supporting the feasibility of manufacturing high precision machined triangular pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel rod support grids for application in water cooled nuclear power reactors. The manufacturing processes investigated included wire electrical discharge machining of the fuel rod and guide tube cells in Zircaloy plate stock to provide the grid body, multistep pickling of the machined grid to provide smooth and corrosion resistant surfaces, and laser welding of thin Zircaloy cover plates to both sides of the grid body to capture separate AM-350 stainless steel insert springs in the grid body. Results indicated that dimensional accuracy better than +- 0.001 and +- 0.002 inch could be obtained on cell shape and position respectively after wire EDM and surface pickling. Results on strength, corrosion resistance, and internal quality of laser spot welds are provided.

Horwood, W.A.

1982-05-01

101

Polydopamine supported preparation method for solid-phase microextraction coatings on stainless steel wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduced a novel and versatile route to prepare solid-phase microextraction coatings on the chemically inert stainless steel wire. Polydopamine films can be created on metallic substrates by an oxidant-induced polymerization and subsequently support various secondary reactions to prepare functional surfaces. In the present work, polydopamine-bioactivated stainless steel wire was successfully modified by nanostructured hydroxyapatite. Extraction performance

Juanjuan Feng; Min Sun; Jubai Li; Lili Xu; Xia Liu; Shengxiang Jiang

2011-01-01

102

Tensile Tests of Type 305 Stainless Steel Mine Sweeping Wire Rope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Coastal Systems Center submitted to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) approximately 360 feet of each of two different AISI 305 stainless steel wire ropes for testing. Both wire ropes were nominally 5/8 inch in diameter. O...

T. R. Shives S. R. Low

1989-01-01

103

Perforation of HY-100 steel plates with 4340 R{sub c} 38 and T-250 maraging steel rod projectiles  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted perforation experiments with 4340 Rc 38 and T-250 maraging steel, long rod projectiles and HY-100 steel target plates at striking velocities between 80 and 370 m/s. Flat-end rod projectiles with lengths of 89 and 282 mm were machined to nominally 30-mm-diameter so they could be launched from a 30-mm-powder gun without sabots. The target plates were rigidly clamped at a 305-mm-diameter and had nominal thicknesses of 5.3 and 10.5 mm. Four sets of experiments were conducted to show the effects of rod length and plate thickness on the measured ballistic limit and residual velocities. In addition to measuring striking and residual projectile velocities, they obtained framing camera data on the back surfaces of several plates that showed clearly the plate deformation and plug ejection process. They also present a beam model that exhibits qualitatively the experimentally observed mechanisms.

Forrestal, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanchak, S.J. [Univ. of Dayton Research Inst., OH (United States)

1998-05-25

104

77 FR 27022 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applied. In addition, the steel threaded rod, bar...variety of finishes or coatings, such as plain oil finish...rust protectant, zinc coating (i.e., galvanized...similar finishes and coatings, may be applied to the...scope of the order are steel threaded rod,...

2012-05-08

105

75 FR 28557 - Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...investigation, PC strand is steel wire strand, other than of stainless steel, which is suitable for use...the zinc and/or zinc oxide coating meets or exceeds the 0.40...See Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from China,...

2010-05-21

106

75 FR 38977 - Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...See Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's...is PC strand. PC strand is steel wire strand, other than of stainless steel, which is suitable for use...the zinc and/or zinc oxide coating meets or exceeds the...

2010-07-07

107

Laser brazing of a steel\\/aluminium assembly with hot filler wire (88% Al, 12% Si)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main problem in joining steel to aluminium by a thermal process (e.g. TIG, MIG) is the formation of brittle intermetallic phases, that causes the mechanical performance of the assembly to be poor. A laser beam, however, can localize the fusion and inhibit the formation of these phases. This article presents a feasibility study for steel\\/aluminium assemblies with filler wire

Alexandre Mathieu; Sébastien Pontevicci; Jean-claude Viala; Eugen Cicala; Simone Matteï; Dominique Grevey

2006-01-01

108

Timber Frame Moment Joints with Glued-In Steel Rods - A Designer's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method of evaluating joint strength for moment and axial forces based on traditional mechanics theory adapted for use with timber. It takes into consideration the effects of time dependant deformation in timber at bearing interfaces and considers also the effects of stress concentrations imposed by the steel rods on the timber. The approach provides a methodology

Mark L Batchelar

109

77 FR 32930 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Response at Exhibit 34. The Hamico Companies report that Nam A also received exemptions on...sources during the POI. Instead, they report that they either imported wire rod from...the issuance of the last verification report. See 19 CFR 351.309(c) (for a...

2012-06-04

110

75 FR 1755 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-945] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final Determination AGENCY: Import...

2010-01-13

111

Mechanical properties of drawn dual phase steel wire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dual-phase steels are a class of composite high strength, low alloy steels. The outstanding properties of ferrite/martensite dual-phase steels include its very high work-hardening rates and resistance to fatigue failure. The high work-hardening rates make...

S. M. Miyasato

1987-01-01

112

A comparison of the frictional characteristics of five initial alignment wires and stainless steel brackets at three bracket to wire angulations--an in vitro study.  

PubMed

The study investigated static planar frictional resistance between five initial alignment wires and stainless steel brackets at three bracket to wire angulations (0, 5 and 10 degrees). It was demonstrated that static frictional resistance increased significantly with increasing bracket to wire angulation due to binding within the system. Epoxy-coated steel had the highest static frictional resistance and coaxial stainless steel the lowest. Fibre-optic glass (Optiflex) had low frictional resistance. The coefficient of friction followed the trends of static frictional resistance in all respects. PMID:8199160

Dickson, J A; Jones, S P; Davies, E H

1994-02-01

113

Radiative Properties of Implosions of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays with Application to Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments with different stainless steel (SS) wire loads were performed on the 1 MA Zebra Z-pinch generator at University of Nevada, Reno. The wire array loads consisted of 7.6 ?m SS wires and had 10 wires for the planar wire array with an interwire gap of 1 mm and 8 wires for the cylindrical wire array of a 16 mm diameter. In addition, a single-wire experiment with a 25 ?m SS wire was carried out. The different wire loads were used to provide a broader spectrum of plasma conditions. Time-integrated and time-gated x-ray images, as well as time-integrated, spatially-resolved and spatially-integrated x-ray spectra, were collected and analyzed. Both K-shell and L-shell radiation were recorded using LiF and KAP crystal spectrometers, respectively. Non-LTE kinetic models of Fe and Ni are employed to derive plasma parameters. For axially resolved L-shell spectra, the resulting electron temperatures are between 230 and 300 eV (higher near the cathode) and electron densities vary from 1019 to 1020 cm-3 dependent on the load. The advantage of using Z-pinch plasmas for astrophysical applications is highlighted.

Safronova, A. S.; Ouart, N. D.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, U. I.; Williamson, K. M.; Shrestha, I.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.; Deeney, C.

2009-01-01

114

Prospects of increasing the strength of aluminum by reinforcing it with stainless steel wire (a review)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical and experimental strength of aluminum reinforced with stainless steel wire is analyzed. Various methods of producing the composite material and it's static and cyclical strengths are considered. The reinforcement of aluminum with stainless steel wire was accomplished from the perspective of increasing the specific strength of aluminum and it's alloys, increasing the strength of the material with respect to high and low temperatures, as well as increasing the cyclical strength. The production of the composite aluminum-stainless steel wire material with approximated or calculated strengthening is possible by any of the considered methods. The selection of the proper production technology depends on precise details and conditions of application of the material.

Botvina, L. R.; Ivanova, V. S.; Kopev, I. M.

1982-01-01

115

Experimental research on stable fretting wear of stainless steel wires in transformable component  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cool-drawn 1Cr18Ni9 stainless steel wires of phi 0.1~0.5 mm can be woven and punched to prepare transformable component which has loose, reticulate structures. When it is uploaded with vibrating force, the displacement will cause intense frictions between wires' surfaces which will dissipate abundant energy and thus it can serve as dampers like natural rubbers. Since such new type of material

Xiu-Ping Dong; Guo-Quan Liu; Li Zhang; Hong-Bai Bai; Jian-Chun Yang

2009-01-01

116

Clinical Variability in Arch Wires: A Preliminary Study Evaluating Mechanical and Surface Characteristics of Two Different Sized Rectangular Stainless Steel Wires  

PubMed Central

Experimental characterization of arch wires has been performed in many previous studies; however with the advent of new arch wire materials being introduced, some new experimental methods and characterization are required. Since literature is available for comparison, this paper examines mechanical and physical characteristics of steel arch wires to quantify their variability in engineering terms. Furthermore, the effect of wire size on properties was evaluated using two of the most common wire sizes. Finally, manufacturing consistency was verified by testing samples from different lots.

Vena, Alessandro; Carey, Jason; Badawi, Hisham

2007-01-01

117

Comparing the cyclic behavior of concrete cylinders confined by shape memory alloy wire or steel jackets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets for concrete are distinct from conventional jackets of steel or fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) since they provide active confinement which can be easily achieved due to the shape memory effect of SMAs. This study uses NiTiNb SMA wires of 1.0 mm diameter to confine concrete cylinders with the dimensions of 300 mm × 150 mm (L × D). The NiTiNb SMAs have a relatively wider temperature hysteresis than NiTi SMAs; thus, they are more suitable for the severe temperature-variation environments to which civil structures are exposed. Steel jackets of passive confinement are also prepared in order to compare the cyclic behavior of actively and passively confined concrete cylinders. For this purpose, monotonic and cyclic compressive loading tests are conducted to obtain axial and circumferential strain. Both strains are used to estimate the volumetric strains of concrete cylinders. Plastic strains from cyclic behavior are also estimated. For the cylinders jacketed by NiTiNb SMA wires, the monotonic axial behavior differs from the envelope of cyclic behavior. The plastic strains of the actively confined concrete show a similar trend to those of passive confinement. This study proposed plastic strain models for concrete confined by SMA wire or steel jackets. For the volumetric strain, the active jackets of NiTiNb SMA wires provide more energy dissipation than the passive jacket of steel.

Park, Joonam; Choi, Eunsoo; Park, Kyoungsoo; Kim, Hong-Taek

2011-09-01

118

Research on the fatigue and fracture behavior due to the fretting wear of steel wire in hoisting rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoisting steel rope is an important component of the winding equipment in coalmines. Fretting wear and its induced fatigue and fracture of wires have been the major failure modes of the hoisting ropes. In this paper, a series of experiments on the fretting friction and wear of steel wires were performed on an elastic beam oscillation test rig. The worn

D. K. Zhang; S. R. Ge; Y. H. Qiang

2003-01-01

119

Experimental research on stable fretting wear of stainless steel wires in transformable component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cool-drawn 1Cr18Ni9 stainless steel wires of ? 0.1~0.5 mm can be woven and punched to prepare transformable component which has loose, reticulate structures. When it is uploaded with vibrating force, the displacement will cause intense frictions between wires' surfaces which will dissipate abundant energy and thus it can serve as dampers like natural rubbers. Since such new type of material has double characteristics of both rubbers and metals, it is commonly called "Metal Rubber". There is certain amount of contact point/surface on wires in the transformable component and the displacements between wires are at micron levels. Experiments showed that wear course of 'fretting cell' could be plotted as four phases: polish, adherence, forming of the third bed and stabilization. The stabilization phase, in which the friction coefficients are comparatively stable, dominates the whole course. Based on data of Metal Rubber vibration fatigue experiment, ? 0.3 mm cool-drawn 1Cr18Ni9 stainless steel wires' dry fretting experiments at 10 N load are made on SRV high temperature wear tester, friction coefficients are collected and fret traces are studied by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Results indicate that wire's stabilization wear phase is the circulation process of grindings' forming, concentrating to blocks of ? 20 ?m, busting and discharging. Deformation induced martensite transit in wire's cool drawing has significant effects on grinding blocks' bursting performances.

Dong, Xiu-Ping; Liu, Guo-Quan; Zhang, Li; Bai, Hong-Bai; Yang, Jian-Chun

2009-07-01

120

Tribological testing of some potential PVD and CVD coatings for steel wire drawing dies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to replace cemented carbide wire drawing dies with CVD or PVD coated steel dies. Material pick-up tendency, friction and wear characteristics of four different commercial coatings – CVD TiC and PVD (Ti,Al)N, CrN and CrC\\/C – in sliding contact with ASTM 52100 bearing steel were evaluated using pin-on-disc testing. The

Maria Nilsson; Mikael Olsson

2011-01-01

121

Effect of abrasive wear on the tensile strength of steel wire rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known amounts of external abrasive wear were introduced into a new 6-strand steel wire rope and the effects of this wear on the tensile strength of the rope examined against the rope discard criteria for wear stated in ISO 4309: 1990 and other selected international standards. The variations of strength with degree of wear in the test rope were compared

A. R. T. de Silva; Long Woon Fong

2002-01-01

122

Temperature Response of OPGW with Armored Aluminum Covered Steel Wires Submitted to Short-Circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper focuses on the heat transfer problem that describes the heat conduction effects in an OPGW submitted to short-circuit. An analytical solution is proposed which accounts for the effect of the temperature gradients in the aluminum covered steel wires, and the contact thermal resistance in the effective contact surface between the fiber extruded aluminum tube and the aluminum

Sergio Colle; Marcelo A. Andrade; João T. Pinho; João C. V. da Silva; Mauro Bedia; Carlos E. Veiga; Júlio N. Scussel

123

Correlations between operating conditions, microstructure and mechanical properties of twin wire arc sprayed steel coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental design matrix was set up in which carbon steel coatings were deposited with a twin wire arc spray gun (TAFA 9000™), using either compressed air or nitrogen as spraying gas. The coating's mechanical properties were studied. Some correlations were made between these properties, spraying conditions and the microstructure of the deposits. Young's modulus was estimated by the single

G. Jandin; H. Liao; Z. Q. Feng; C. Coddet

2003-01-01

124

The Process Metallurgy of Zinc-Coated Steel Wire and Galfan® Bath Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical metallurgy and related process and product performance concepts for the zinc and zinc alloy hot dip coating of steel wire are briefly reviewed, and are illustrated with a detailed model of aluminum behavior in Galfan® process technology. Applications to hot dip bath management practices are set forth.

Frank E. Goodwin; Roger N. Wright

125

Manganese oxides with rod-, wire-, tube-, and flower-like morphologies: highly effective catalysts for the removal of toluene.  

PubMed

Nanosized rod-like, wire-like, and tubular ?-MnO(2) and flower-like spherical Mn(2)O(3) have been prepared via the hydrothermal method and the CCl(4) solution method, respectively. The physicochemical properties of the materials were characterized using numerous analytical techniques. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated for toluene oxidation. It is shown that ?-MnO(2) nanorods, nanowires, and nanotubes with a surface area of 45-83 m(2)/g were tetragonal in crystal structure, whereas flower-like spherical Mn(2)O(3) with a surface area of 162 m(2)/g was of cubic crystal structure. There were the presence of surface Mn ions in multiple oxidation states (e.g., Mn(3+), Mn(4+), or even Mn(2+)) and the formation of surface oxygen vacancies. The oxygen adspecies concentration and low-temperature reducibility decreased in the order of rod-like ?-MnO(2) > tube-like ?-MnO(2) > flower-like Mn(2)O(3) > wire-like ?-MnO(2), in good agreement with the sequence of the catalytic performance of these samples. The best-performing rod-like ?-MnO(2) catalyst could effectively catalyze the total oxidation of toluene at lower temperatures (T(50%) = 210 °C and T(90%) = 225 °C at space velocity = 20,000 mL/(g h)). It is concluded that the excellent catalytic performance of ?-MnO(2) nanorods might be associated with the high oxygen adspecies concentration and good low-temperature reducibility. We are sure that such one-dimensional well-defined morphological manganese oxides are promising materials for the catalytic elimination of air pollutants. PMID:22413904

Wang, Fang; Dai, Hongxing; Deng, Jiguang; Bai, Guangmei; Ji, Kemeng; Liu, Yuxi

2012-04-01

126

Ablation dominated implosion dynamics of aluminum and stainless steel nested cylindrical wire arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of experiments with combined aluminum (Al) and stainless steel (SS) alloy 304, nested wire arrays from the 1 MA COBRA generator at Cornell University are presented. The loads studied consisted of a 6 mm diameter inner array and a 13 mm diameter outer array with a different material in each array: SS or aluminum. Al implodes before SS in all loads studied, even when Al was on the inner array. The new wire ablation dynamic model and spectroscopic modeling are used to interpret these data. The observed implosion dynamics are likely a result of the higher ablation rate of Al. These initial results suggest that combining wire materials with different ablation rates in wire array loads could be developed into a useful technique for x-ray pulse shaping and radiation yield optimization.

Williamson, K. M.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Ouart, N. D.; Yilmaz, F. M.; Shrestha, I. K.; Shlyaptseva, V.; McBride, R. D.; Chalenski, D. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.

2009-01-01

127

Comparative electrochemical and impedance studies of self-assembled rigid-rod molecular wires and alkanethiols on gold substrates.  

PubMed

A study of the charge transfer and self-assembly characteristics of two new rigid-rod molecular wires 1 and 2 assembled on polycrystalline gold electrodes was carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. This class of wires have precisely controlled (ca. 1.5-2.5 nm) lengths of ?-conjugation, with extended HOMO and LUMO wavefunctions. While rotations can occur around the C-C single bonds, the molecules cannot isomerise or fold due to their rigid backbone structures. The behaviour of these wires was compared with SAMs of heptanethiol (HPT) and dodecanethiol (DDT). It was found that SAMs of 1, which bears flexible hexyloxy sidechains, had randomly distributed pinholes which show microelectrode behaviour even when diluted with DDT. SAMs of 2, which do not have any sidechains, were well-organised at open-circuit potentials enabling evaluation of electron transfer kinetics assuming an average film thickness. However, impedance studies show that deviations from open circuit potentials resulted in an exponential decrease in charge transfer resistance, whereas capacitance remained constant, possibly attributable to conformational changes of the SAM. The syntheses and characterisation of the molecules is described. PMID:20890500

Aguiar, Francisco A; Campos, Rui; Wang, Changsheng; Jitchati, Rukkiat; Batsanov, Andrei S; Bryce, Martin R; Kataky, Ritu

2010-11-28

128

Penetration of Long Steel Rods into Thick Steel and Sandstone Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a ogive-nosed steel projectile into thick sandstone and steel targets has been simulated over impact velocities from 200 m?s to 750 m?s, and the projectile deceleration histories compared. Both targets have an entrance phase in which deceleration increases sharply. This phase is followed in a steel target by a steady deceleration phase. In sandstone, however, a double-peak

Vishal Mehra; Shashank Chaturvedi

2011-01-01

129

The surface alloying behavior of martensitic stainless steel cut with wire electrical discharge machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface alloying behavior of tempered martensitic stainless steel multi-cut with wire electrical discharge machine (WEDM) is studied in this paper. Before machined with WEDM, the steel specimens were quenched at 1050 °C and then tempered at 200 °C, 400 °C, and 600 °C, respectively. The microstructure and surface morphology of the multi-cut surfaces were examined with scanning and transmission electron microscopes integrated with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer for chemical composition analysis. Experimental results show that the cut surfaces of the steel specimens were alloyed with wire-electrode material in various extent. Especially the cut surface was much more alloyed when the steel was cut with the first rough cutting pass by using negatively biased potential and final fine cutting using positively biased potential. Alloying degree of cut surfaces can be distinguished with their anodic polarization curves in 0.5 M HClO 4 + 0.2 wt% NaCl at 27 °C. Higher passive current density induces deeper alloyed surface. On the severely alloyed surface, a secondary anodic peak in the potential of 120 mV (versus Ag/AgCl sat.) of its anodic polarization curve was observed. The presence of the secondary anodic peak was attributed to dissolution of copper, which was the major element of wire-electrode material from the alloyed surface.

Huang, Ching An; Shih, Chwen Lin; Li, Kung Cheng; Chang, Yau-Zen

2006-02-01

130

Exploding wire phenomena in various micron-diameter graphite and stainless steel fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this experiment was to examine the exploding wire phenomena in various diameter fibers and correlate the results with previous work performed oil wires of much larger diameter. With the onset of the age of microtechnology and miniaturization of circuits, the expansion of knowledge in this area into the nearly microscopic realm is vital. In 1965, German scientists R. Winkler, W. Bertoldi, and H. Kressner proposed a classification scheme based on the physical processes which occur following the explosion of a wire. Their scheme consists of four classes of explosion: (1)melting, (2)explosion with current cutoff, (3)explosion with dark interval, and (4)explosion without dark interval. Winkler's work with copper wires also suggested smaller diameter samples would require less energy for the initiation of the exploding wire phenomena. In this work Winkler's classification scheme is applied to commercially available fibers (pitch graphite, pan graphite, and stainless steel). The concept of smaller energy requirements for explosion at smaller diameters was examined. Winkler's wires were 0.07 and 0.14 mm in diameter. Fiber diameters used in this work were 3.7 and 8.0 micron pan graphite, 10.0 micron pitch graphite. 4.0, 8.0, and 12.0 rnicron uncoated stainless steel. and 8.0 and 12.0 micron coated stainless steel. Coatings on the stainless steel fibers were polyvinylchlorlde (PVA). Diameter measurements were made using scanning electron microscopy, and conductivity measurements were made using a four-point probe. These measurements were used in calculations to determine if the skin effect was a contributing factor to the exploding wire phenomena for the samples studied. Fibers were mounted across high- voltage electrodes. Current vs. time waveforms were obtained when the fibers were destroyed by high-energy current pulses. These waveforms were compared to those in Winkler's classification scherne. Based oil Winkler's scheme, most waveforms were consistent with the explosion without dark interval classification. Stored energy) in the capacitor used to explode the fibers was 0.566 Joules (Wsec) as compared to the minimum of 5 to 50 Joules (Wsec) Winkler required to achieve explosion without dark interval for his wires.

Cash, Cynthia Laverne

1999-10-01

131

Comparing Mersilene* tape and stainless steel wire as sublaminar spinal fixation in the Chagma baboon (Papio ursinus).  

PubMed

The development of segmental instrumentation has been a major advancement in the treatment of spinal problems, but the use of sublaminar stainless steel wire (SSW) has not been without untoward effects. This study reports a comparison of Mersilene* tape (MT) and stainless steel wire (SSW) used for sublaminar fixation in the Chagma baboon (Papio Ursinus). A similar comparative study has not been reported, although the local effects of sublaminar SSW in the spinal canal have previously been described. The adult Chagma baboon was selected as the experimental animal due to its partial upright posture and spinal anatomy, similar to that of the human. Six levels of the thoracolumbar spine were instrumented with custom designed Harrington hooks and regular one-quarter inch threaded rods used as a distraction system. The four intervening laminae were fixed to the rods using doubled-over, eighteen gauge sublaminar SSW in six cases and five millimeter MT in six cases. Computed axial tomography used to measure the AP diameter of the bony spinal canal revealed the AP space occupied by the SSW and MT to be 32 percent and 14.8 percent respectively. In the MT group, the overlying dura mater was found to be totally intact and revealed no signs of abnormal tissue response. A well-formed connective tissue membrane consisting of dense connective tissue surrounded the MT and was found to consist of more mature fibers than that found in the SSW group. The dura-implant interface was examined histologically and a distinct membrane was identified between the dura and the superficial aspect of the MT's, as well as intervening between the two MT's. Following removal of the MT, in contrast to the SSW, it was apparent that the underlying dura was not injured, most probably due to the soft consistency of the Mersilene* tape and the well-formed overlying membrane. On clinical grounds the fixation in both groups was adequate but the MT group formed a well-circumscribed membrane that made removal of the MT easier and potentially safer. The AP space occupied by the spinal implant was also found to be less with MT as opposed to SSW. PMID:9234971

Grobler, L J; Gaines, R W; Kempff, P G

1997-01-01

132

78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). DATES: Effective Date: February...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Case History In accordance with section 705...steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam.\\1\\ On January 28,...

2013-02-05

133

77 FR 75980 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ We invited interested...steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam are being, or are likely to...From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Case History The Department published...

2012-12-26

134

The Electrical Properties of Single-Layer Aluminum Conductors, Steel Reinforced (ACSR), Having Single Steel Core Wires with Heavy Aluminum Coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses electrical tests made on representative sizes of single layer alminum conductors, steel reinforced with galvanized and heavy aluminum coatings. Analysis of 60-cycle a-c (alternating current) test data indicates that the conductors with aluminum-clad core wires than the same sizes of ACSR conductors in which the core wires are of galvanized steel. The differences are in the order

C. H. Jensen; R. E. Demuth; R. W. Mowery

1962-01-01

135

Radiation Cooling and Spectra from Imploding Stainless Steel Wire Arrays on Z  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate and model the radiative behavior of stainless steel wire arrays imploded on the Z facility using several different methodologies that have been employed in modeling radiation production and radiation transport in Z-pinch plasmas. The SS-304 wires have a composition (by mass) of Fe 72%, Cr 18.6%, Ni 8.2%, Mn 0.7%, and Si 0.5%. The consequences which stem from the compromises and trade-offs that result from different approximations used for the ionization dynamics and the solution of the transport equation are discussed. The models investigated include detailed configuration non-equilibrium, CRE and LTE probability-of-escape radiation transport and LTE radiation diffusion. We explore the role radiation plays in the dynamic evolution of the wire plasma and evaluate the impact that radiation cooling has on the pinch dynamics.

Davis, J.; Giuliani, R. W.; Clark, Jr.; Coverdale, C. A.; Deeney, C.

2000-10-01

136

Bonding Mechanisms in Resistance Microwelding of 316 Low-Carbon Vacuum Melted Stainless Steel Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistance microwelding (RMW) is an important joining process used in the fabrication of miniature instruments, such as electrical and medical devices. The excellent corrosion resistance of 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) wire makes it ideal for biomedical applications. The current study examines the microstructure and mechanical properties of crossed resistance microwelded 316LVM wire. Microtensile and microhardness testing was used to analyze the mechanical performance of welds, and fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Finally, a bonding mechanism is proposed based on optimum joint breaking force (JBF) using metallurgical observations of weld cross sections. Moreover, comparisons with RMWs of Ni, Au-plated Ni, and SUS304 SS wire are discussed.

Khan, M. I.; Kim, J. M.; Kuntz, M. L.; Zhou, Y.

2009-04-01

137

Multi-field coupled numerical simulation of hot reversible rolling process of GCr15 steel rod  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, based on rolling technology of hot reversible rolling mill, a multi-filed coupled finite element (FE) model of hot reversible rolling process of large dimension cross-section GCr15 steel rod is established. Thermal, mechanical and microstructural phenomena during the rolling process are coupled in the model. By employing grain growth experiment, double and single hit hot compression experiments, the austenite grain size growth mathematical model and recrystallization behavior mathematical models are determined. And a designed subprogram is coupled in the FE model. Actual hot reversible rolling process of GCr15 steel is simulated using the model and the distribution and evolution of different filed-variables, such as temperature, effective strain and austenite grain size are obtained. To verify the model predictions, hot rolling experiments are carried out and the temperature and microstructure of the rolling metal are compared with the predicted results. The comparison between the two sets of data shows a good agreement.

Gu, Sendong; Zhang, Liwen; Ruan, Jinhua; Mei, Hongyu; Zhen, Yu; Shi, Xinhua

2013-05-01

138

Investigation on short-term burst pressure of plastic pipes reinforced by cross helically wound steel wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic pipes reinforced by cross helically wound steel wires (PSP), which have exhibited excellent mechanical performance,\\u000a consist of inner polyethylene (PE) layer, winding layer and outer PE layer. The winding layer is composed of two monolayers\\u000a where steel wires are cross helically wound. An analytical procedure is developed to predict the short-term burst pressure\\u000a of PSP as the monolayer is

Jin-yang Zheng; Yong-jian Gao; Xiang Li; Xiu-feng Lin; Yu-bin Lu; Yan-cong Zhu

2008-01-01

139

The impact toughness characteristics of steel wire-reinforced polymer composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the impact toughness properties of fine steel wire-reinforced polymer matrix composites is presented and discussed. Strips of the polymer composite is attached on to a standard Charpy V-notch impact specimen. Temperature influences, in the range from cryogenic (?190°C) to ambient (30°C) on the impact toughness properties of the polymer composites are highlighted in light of energy absorbed

T. S Srivatsan; P. C Lam; J Krause

1999-01-01

140

A fretting fatigue tester for steel wires and its measuring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-made fretting fatigue tester for steel wire based on the computer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo fatigue testing machine is introduced in the paper. The working principle and experimental method are described. The signals of contact load, fretting tangential force and fretting amplitude are collected using force and displacement sensors. Synchronous acquisition and dynamic display of the signals of various parameters are

Dagang Wang; Xiaofan Jia; Dekun Zhang; Songquan Wang

2010-01-01

141

Time-Integrated Synthetic X-Ray Spectroscopy for Stainless Steel Wire Array -Pinches  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a collisional-radiative spectroscopic model to generate a stainless steel (SS) atomic model to analyze the implosion dynamics of an array of SS wires on the Z and\\/or refurbished Z accelerator at the U.S. Sandia National Laboratories. This approach combines the completeness of highly averaged Rydberg state models with the accuracy of detailed models for all important excited

Arati Dasgupta; John L. Giuliani; Jack Davis; Robert W. Clark; Christine A. Coverdale; Brent Jones; David J. Ampleford

2010-01-01

142

Investigation about the Chrome Steel Wire Arc Spray Process and the Resulting Coating Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, wire-arc spraying of chromium steel has gained an important market share for corrosion and wear protection applications.\\u000a However, detailed studies are the basis for further process optimization. In order to optimize the process parameters and\\u000a to evaluate the effects of the spray parameters DoE-based experiments had been carried out with high-speed camera shoots.\\u000a In this article, the effects of

J. Wilden; J. P. Bergmann; S. Jahn; S. Knapp; F. van Rodijnen; G. Fischer

2007-01-01

143

Design of dual energy x-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dual energy X-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. Conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is one of primary transfer equipments in modern production. The traditional test methods like electromagnetic induction principle could not display inner image of steel wire ropes directly. So X-ray detection technology has used to detect the conveyor belt. However the image was not so clear by the interference of the rubber belt. Therefore, the dualenergy X-ray detection technology with subtraction method is developed to numerically remove the rubber belt from radiograph, thus improving the definition of the ropes image. The purpose of this research is to design a dual energy Xray detector that could make the operator easier to found the faulty of the belt. This detection system is composed of Xray source, detector controlled by FPGA chip, PC for running image processing system and so on. With the result of the simulating, this design really improved the capability of the staff to test the conveyor belt.

Dai, Yue; Miao, Changyun; Rong, Feng

2009-07-01

144

Surface Preparation of Powder Metallurgical Tool Steels by Means of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface of two types of powder metallurgical (PM) tool steels ( i.e., with and without nitrogen) was prepared using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). From each grade of tool steel, seven surfaces corresponding to one to seven passes of WEDM were prepared. The WEDM process was carried out using a brass wire as electrode and deionized water as dielectric. After each WEDM pass the surface of the tool steels was thoroughly examined. Surface residual stresses were measured by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The measured stresses were found to be of tensile nature. The surface roughness of the WEDM specimens was measured using interference microscopy. The surface roughness as well as the residual stress measurements indicated an insignificant improvement of these parameters after four passes of WEDM. In addition, the formed recast layer was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The characterization investigation clearly shows diffusion of copper and zinc from the wire electrode into the work material, even after the final WEDM step. Finally, the importance of eliminating excessive WEDM steps is thoroughly discussed.

Hatami, Sepehr; Shahabi-Navid, Mehrdad; Nyborg, Lars

2012-09-01

145

Penetration of Long Steel Rods into Thick Steel and Sandstone Targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of a ogive-nosed steel projectile into thick sandstone and steel targets has been simulated over impact velocities from 200 m/s to 750 m/s, and the projectile deceleration histories compared. Both targets have an entrance phase in which deceleration increases sharply. This phase is followed in a steel target by a steady deceleration phase. In sandstone, however, a double-peak structure is seen in the 300-550 m/s range. This is similar to the double peak that was observed in a reported rock penetration experiment at 520 m/s. These studies are aimed at determination of material-specific parameters related to dynamic strength and fracture properties.

Mehra, Vishal; Chaturvedi, Shashank

2011-07-01

146

Effects of carbon percentage, Stelmor cooling rate and laying head temperature on tensile strength gain in low carbon steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low carbon steel wire rods are used to produce finished products such as fine wire, coat hangers, staples, and roofing nails. These products are subjected to excessively high work hardening rates during wire drawing process resulting in a variation in wire tensile strength. This research analyzes the effects of carbon percentage, StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature on the

Surya Prakash Gade

2004-01-01

147

76 FR 16379 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the First Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...produced from any type of steel, and have a variety...are not limited to, coating in vinyl, zinc (galvanized...Financial Ratios Comment 4: Steel Wire Rod Surrogate Value...Values A. Copper Coated Steel Welding Wire B. Coatings C. Glass Balls...

2011-03-23

148

Irradiation effects on strength and toughness of three-wire series- arc stainless steel weld overlay cladding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for stainless steel cladding to improve the fracture behavior of an operating nuclear reactor pressure vessel, particularly during certain overcooling transients, may depend greatly on the properties of the irradiated cladding. Therefore, three-wire stainless steel cladding irradiated at temperatures and to fluences relevant to power reactor operation was examined. Postirradiation tensile testing results show that, in the test

F. M. Haggag; W. R. Corwin; R. K. Nanstad

1990-01-01

149

An experimental study on the shattering behavior of a high strength armour steel under blast and long rod penetrator impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Armour steel plates with drilled holes are filled with explosive and subjected to single or multiple blasts to induce shattering. The critical diameter for shattering under explosive detonation, found from the experiments matches closely with that of the long rod penetrator impacted plates. The damage pattern and fracture surface of the tested samples under blast effect have been compared with

Bidyapati Mishra; Pradipta Kumar Jena; B. Hazarika; K. Siva Kumar; T. Balakrishna Bhat

2010-01-01

150

Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from deformable steel plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from oblique steel plates with a finite thickness was investigated numerically using a full three-dimensional explicit finite element method. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated for various impact velocities and strengths of the target plates. It was predicted that critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocities and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. Numerical predictions were compared with existing two-dimensional analytical models. Experiments were also carried out and the results supported the predictions of the numerical analysis.

Lee, Woong; Lee, Heon-Joo; Shin, Hyunho

2002-10-01

151

Fuzzy logic modeling and control of steel rod quenching after hot rolling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reinforced concrete rod produced by European Community countries must comply with standards that establish minimum strength and tensile properties along with other technological and geometrical characteristics; however, possible variability within the assigned limits is not specified. Consequently, a number of manufacturing methods are now used, with the result that over time the mechanical properties of these products vary widely. Increased competition has led to the development of new procedures incorporating both process and quality control. One example is a process based on the heat treatment undergone by the metal bars leaving the final stand of the rolling mill train. In this way, the mechanical and technological properties can be graduated, thereby enhancing strength (particularly yield point) without altering the deformability of the material. This procedure does away with the need to alter the chemical composition of the steel used to manufacture the rods. Process adjustment still relies on the experience of the production manager, however. This paper examines the possibility of applying fuzzy logic computer techniques to the heat treatment process in order to render it more rational and independent of operator unreliability.

Giorleo, G.; Memola Capece Minutolo, F.; Sergi, V.

1997-10-01

152

Arc spraying of nano-structured wire on carbon steel: examination of coating microstructures  

SciTech Connect

Arc spraying of nano-structured wire (TAFA 95MX) onto carbon steel is carried out. The workpieces coated were heat treated at temperature similar to the operating temperature of the hot-path components of power gas turbines. The morphological and microstructural changes in the coating are examined using optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The surface roughness and microhardness of the resulting coatings are measured. It is found that the formation of dimples like structure at surface increased the surface roughness of the coating. The microhardness of the resulting coating is significantly higher than the base material hardness. Heat treatment does not alter the microstructure and microhardness of the coating.

Al Askandarani, A.; Hashmi, M. S. J. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Eng., DCU, Dublin (Ireland); Yilbas, B. S. [Mechanical Eng. Dept., King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2011-01-17

153

Stainless steel wire mesh flow-fields for polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

The high cost of fuel cells has delayed their potential widespread use. Stack manufacturers have historically used high-Pt loading membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) and intricately machined graphite bipolar plates. We have focused our efforts on decreasing the cost of these components in order to demonstrate an inexpensive, yet high performance PEM fuel cell. This paper describes the design and demonstration of a 100 cm{sup 2} (active area) cell that utilizes ultra-low Pt loading MEAs and inexpensive stainless steel wire screen flow fields.

Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1996-10-01

154

Feasibility Demonstration of Using Wire Electrical-Discharge Machining, Abrasive Flow Honing, and Laser Spot Welding to Manufacture High-Precision Triangular-Pitch Zircaloy-4 Fuel-Rod-Support Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are reported supporting the feasibility of manufacturing high precision machined triangular pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel rod support grids for application in water cooled nuclear power reactors. The manufacturing processes investigated included wire elec...

W. A. Horwood

1982-01-01

155

Dissimilar material joining using laser (aluminum to steel using zinc-based filler wire)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joining steel with aluminum involving the fusion of one or both materials is possible by laser beam welding technique. This paper describes a method, called laser braze welding, which is a suitable process to realize this structure. The main problem with thermal joining of steel/aluminum assembly with processes such as TIG or MIG is the formation of fragile intermetallic phases, which are detrimental to the mechanical performances of such joints. Braze welding permits a localized fusion of the materials resulting in a limitation on the growth of fragile phases. This article presents the results of a statistical approach for an overlap assembly configuration using a filler wire composed of 85% Zn and 15% Al. Tensile tests carried on these assemblies demonstrate a good performance of the joints. The fracture mechanisms of the joints are analyzed by a detailed characterization of the seams.

Mathieu, Alexandre; Shabadi, Rajashekar; Deschamps, Alexis; Suery, Michel; Matteï, Simone; Grevey, Dominique; Cicala, Eugen

2007-04-01

156

Frictional behavior of stainless steel bracket-wire combinations subjected to small oscillating displacements.  

PubMed

In orthodontic treatment, sliding is frequently used to cause tooth movement. Inherent to this technique is the generation of a counteracting frictional force. In this pilot study, a fretting test consisting of reciprocating tangential displacements was used to investigate test parameters influencing frictional forces during sliding processes. Tests were run at a normal load of 2 N and a frequency of 1 Hz for tangential displacement strokes of 200 microm. Stainless steel orthodontic wires with cross-sections of .017 x .025 in (W17) and .018 x .025 in (W18), and brackets with slot sizes of .018 in (B18) and .022 in (B22) were used. A specific centered positioning method was developed to achieve a parallel alignment of the wire and the bracket slot. The experimental results indicated the significant role of the centered positioning method on the friction value. Implementation of the centered positioning method resulted in a friction force ranging from 0.89 N to 0.97 N at a 200 microm displacement amplitude and 1 Hz frequency, corresponding to a coefficient of friction ranging from 0.45 to 0.49 for the B18-W17 and the B22-W17 bracket-wire combinations, respectively. When the centered positioning method was not used, significantly higher values for the coefficient of friction were found for both bracket-wire combinations. The slot-filling, bracket-wire combinations (B18-W18 and B22-W22) resulted in an increased coefficient of friction and therefore are not recommended as sliding systems. PMID:11606961

Willems, G; Clocheret, K; Celis, J P; Verbeke, G; Chatzicharalampous, E; Carels, C

2001-10-01

157

Research of x-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An X-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. The principle of X-ray nondestructive testing (NDT) is analyzed, the general scheme of the X-ray nondestructive testing system is proposed, and the nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is developed. The hardware of system is designed with Xilinx's VIRTEX-4 FPGA that embeds PowerPC and MAC IP core, and its network communication software based on TCP/IP protocol is programmed by loading LwIP to PowerPC. The nondestructive testing of high-speed conveyor belt with steel wire ropes and network transfer function are implemented. It is a strong real-time system with rapid scanning speed, high reliability and remotely nondestructive testing function. The nondestructive detector can be applied to the detection of product line in industry.

Wang, Junfeng; Miao, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Lu, Xiaocui

2008-03-01

158

Soldagem Tig de tubos de aco inox AISI 316 para varetas combustiveis. (Tig welding of stainless steel AISI 316 tubes for fuel rods).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sealing of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316 tubes (20% cold worked). By welding end-caps material was studied, aiming their utilization as fuel rods for nuclear reactors. It was used the autogenous TIG welding process. (author). (Atomindex citation 25:...

M. Siqueira Queiroz Bittencourt

1985-01-01

159

Influence of timber density on the axial strength of joints made with glued-in steel rods: An experimental approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joints made with glued-in steel rods have many possibilities in the design of timber structures. They can be used for new buildings or for the rehabilitation of old structural elements damaged by the attack of biotic agents or humidity.Since the 1970s many studies have been carried out to characterize the strength of these joints when made with glued laminated timber

M. D. Otero Chans; J. Estévez Cimadevila; E. Martín Gutiérrez; J. A. Vázquez Rodríguez

2010-01-01

160

77 FR 59892 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Final Determination of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...constitutes merchandise altered in form or appearance in such minor respects that it should...constitutes merchandise altered in form or appearance in such minor respects that it should...constitutes merchandise altered in form or appearance in such minor respects that it...

2012-10-01

161

78 FR 2658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...proprietary information disclosed under an APO in accordance with 19 CPR 351.305(a)(3). Timely written notification of the return...777(i)(1) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, and 19 CPR 351.213(d)(4). Dated: January 7, 2012....

2013-01-14

162

The effect of humidity on the sliding wear of plasma transfer wire arc thermal sprayed low carbon steel coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low carbon steel coatings were applied on 319 Al alloy substrates using a plasma transfer wire arc (PTWA) type thermal spraying process. A pin on disc type wear tester placed in an environmental test chamber was used for the wear tests. Tests were performed in an atmospheres with various humidity levels in the range of 10-99% RH. At low load

A Edrisy; T Perry; Y. T Cheng; A. T Alpas

2001-01-01

163

Hemilaryngeal reconstruction using an axial island cheek flap supported by Marlex and stainless steel wire mesh.  

PubMed

The defect that remains after an extended hemilaryngectomy continues to be a challenge to the reconstructing surgeon. The reconstruction ideally must provide airway protection against aspiration, allow for phonation, and provide a durable mucosal surface. It also must be accomplished in one stage. Nine Labrador dogs underwent successful reconstruction of the hemilarynx using an axial island cheek flap based on the facial artery and vein. Adequate laryngeal function was demonstrated by maintenance of body weight, normal barium swallows, return of strong bark, and no evidence of aspiration pneumonia. Pathologic review confirmed a viable mucosal surface and incorporation of the Marlex and stainless steel wire mesh in a fibrous reaction. We have concluded that this method of reconstruction provides a result superior to currently used techniques. PMID:3177742

Winek, T G; Sasaki, T M; Luallin, D; Cook, D W; Galey, W T; Baker, H W

1988-10-01

164

Comparison of Inclusions in Cold Drawn Wire and Precursor Hot-Rolled Rod Coil in VIM-VAR Nickel-Titanium Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusion content is important for the mechanical behavior and performance of Nitinol wires, particularly in fatigue-rated devices. The purpose of this work was to make a quantitative comparison between inclusion populations in cold drawn wires and the precursor populations in hot-rolled rod coil. Inclusion content was examined in a series of VIM-VAR alloys with different transformation temperatures (TTR) controlled by the Ni to Ti ratio. This range of chemistry was chosen to assess the effect of Ni to Ti ratio on inclusion formation. In order to understand the differences in behavior between carbides and intermetallic oxides in wire drawing, carbides, and intermetallic oxide inclusions were measured separately using optical metallography pursuant to ASTM F2063. In VIM-VAR alloys at higher Ni to Ti ratios about 50.79 a/o Ni the formation of intermetallic oxides appears to be suppressed in the as-cast material through the presence of carbon and the precipitation of eutectic TiC in place of eutectic Ti4Ni2O x . The structure of VIM-VAR alloy also varies after hot working depending on the TTR of the alloy. Higher TTR binary alloys with lower Ni to Ti ratios tend to have more and larger intermetallic oxides and fewer and smaller carbides after hot working. Microsegregation plays a role in inclusion formation. That is, during solidification, C, O, N diffuse to the interdendritic regions. This increases the potential for the precipitation of nonmetallic species. Carbides and intermetallic oxides behave differently in hot working and cold drawing. The change in maximum carbide size from coil to wire is very near zero for all Ni to Ti ratios. The change in maximum inclusion size from coil to wire is driven mainly by the fracture of intermetallic oxides and the formation of intermetallic oxide stringers.

Sczerzenie, Frank; Paul, Graeme; Belden, Clarence

2011-07-01

165

Calculated and measured normal state resistivity of 19-filament MgB2/Ti/Cu/stainless steel wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the resistivity evolution of filamentary MgB2/Ti/Cu/stainless steel wire under the influence of solid state interaction between individual elements of the composite. The experimental samples were heat treated at temperatures of 650-850?°C and the properties of the interface layers have been estimated on the basis of solid state growth of intermetallic compounds formed by diffusion. The corresponding composite resistivity along the longitudinal direction was calculated using a model represented by an equivalent parallel circuit of n resistors. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity was measured for the experimental sample, a specially prepared Cu/Ti couple, and all individual metallic components used in the sample, using a cryogen-free characterization system. Very good agreement between the calculated ?(T) dependences and the experimentally measured resistivity of 19-filament MgB2/Ti/Cu/stainless steel wire has been obtained.

Kopera, L.; Ková?, P.; Hušek, I.

2012-02-01

166

Preparation of a polymeric ionic liquid-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber by surface radical chain-transfer polymerization with stainless steel wire as support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymeric 1-vinyl-3-octylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was synthesized in situ on stainless steel wire by surface radical chain-transfer polymerization and used as sensitive coatings in solid-phase microextraction. The outer surface of the stainless steel wire was firstly coated with microstructured silver layer via silver mirror reaction and then functionalized with self-assembled monolayers of 1,8-octanedithiol, which acted as chain transfer agent in the polymerization.

Juanjuan Feng; Min Sun; Lili Xu; Jubai Li; Xia Liu; Shengxiang Jiang

2011-01-01

167

Research on an X-ray non-destructive testing system for conveyer belt with steel wire ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis conducts a deep research on an X-ray non-destructive testing system for the conveyer belt with steel wire ropes, and proposes the detailed design program. By researching the image processing algorithm of the conveyer belt, the research realized the marginal check, joint elongation check and breakdown location. Meanwhile, a system software was developed by using the C#.NET programming design

Ye Chunqing; Miao Changyun

2010-01-01

168

Microstructural Study of Al-Si-Mg Alloy Reinforced with Stainless Steel Wires Composite via Casting Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructural study of Al-Si-Mg alloy reinforced with stainless steel wires (Al-Si-Mg\\/SSw) has been investigated and focused on the both microstructures in the matrix and near to the interface and also the wetting condition at the interface. The wettability of solid metals by liquid metals is very important in determining the needed properties of the composite systems. In this study,

Mazlee Mohd. Noor; Shamsul Baharin Jamaludin; Kamarudin Hussin

2008-01-01

169

Heat Generation and Transfer Behaviors of Ti-Coated Carbon Steel Rod Adaptable for Ablation Therapy of Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

For the purpose of developing a novel ablation therapy for oral cancer, the heat generation and transfer properties of a Ti-coated carbon steel rod with 20-mm length and 1.8-mm outer diameter were investigated by means of a high-frequency induction technique at 300 kHz. The heat generation measurement performed using water (15 mL) revealed that the difference of the inclination angles (? = 0°, 45° and 90°) relative to the magnetic flux direction only slightly affects the heating behavior, exhibiting the overlapped temperature curves during an induction time of 1200 s. These results suggest that the effect of the shape magnetic anisotropy is almost eliminated, being convenient for the precise control of the ablation temperature in clinical use. In the experiments utilizing a tissue-mimicking phantom, the heat transfer concentrically occurred in the lateral direction for both the planar surface and a 10-mm deep cross-section. However, the former exhibited a considerably lower increase in temperature (?T), probably due to the effect of heat dissipation to the ambient air. No significant heat transfer was found to occur to the lower side of the inserted Ti-coated carbon steel rod, which is situated in the longitudinal direction.

Naohara, Takashi; Aono, Hiromichi; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Hirazawa, Hideyuki; Matsutomo, Shinya; Watanabe, Yuji

2013-01-01

170

Heat generation and transfer behaviors of ti-coated carbon steel rod adaptable for ablation therapy of oral cancer.  

PubMed

For the purpose of developing a novel ablation therapy for oral cancer, the heat generation and transfer properties of a Ti-coated carbon steel rod with 20-mm length and 1.8-mm outer diameter were investigated by means of a high-frequency induction technique at 300 kHz. The heat generation measurement performed using water (15 mL) revealed that the difference of the inclination angles (? = 0°, 45° and 90°) relative to the magnetic flux direction only slightly affects the heating behavior, exhibiting the overlapped temperature curves during an induction time of 1200 s. These results suggest that the effect of the shape magnetic anisotropy is almost eliminated, being convenient for the precise control of the ablation temperature in clinical use. In the experiments utilizing a tissue-mimicking phantom, the heat transfer concentrically occurred in the lateral direction for both the planar surface and a 10-mm deep cross-section. However, the former exhibited a considerably lower increase in temperature (?T), probably due to the effect of heat dissipation to the ambient air. No significant heat transfer was found to occur to the lower side of the inserted Ti-coated carbon steel rod, which is situated in the longitudinal direction. PMID:24955829

Naohara, Takashi; Aono, Hiromichi; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Hirazawa, Hideyuki; Matsutomo, Shinya; Watanabe, Yuji

2013-01-01

171

Control rod cluster arrangement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a nuclear reactor including nuclear core which is cooled and moderated by light water, the nuclear core comprising a plurality of parallel arranged openings therethrough and interspersed among the fuel assemblies. A control rod cluster arrangement comprises load follow control rod cluster assemblies with each load follow control rod cluster assembly being adapted to slidingly fit within each of some of the fuel assemblies in the parallel arranged openings, the load follow control rod cluster assemblies each comprising a plurality of elongated parallel arranged rods attached to a single spider, and including a first group of rods and a second group of rods, the first group of rods and the second each consisting of a plurality of absorber rods. The first group of rods consist of absorber rods taken from the group consisting of B/sub 4/C, hafnium, or silver-indium-cadmium and the second group of rods consist of absorber rods each consisting of stainless steel, the first group of rods and the second group of rods each being integrally attached at all times to the single spider, the absorber rods of the second group of rods being dispersed throughout the control rod cluster assembly. The first group of rods have a first neutron capture cross section and the second group of rods have a second neutron capture cross section different from the first cross section.

Orr, W.L.; Doshi, P.K.; Mildrum, C.M.; Freeman, T.R.

1987-02-10

172

Lubrication Basics for Wire Ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire rope forms an important part of many machines and structures. It is comprised of continuous wire strands wound around a central core. There are many kinds of wire rope designed for different applications. Most of them are steel wires made into strands wound with each other. The core can be made of steel, rope or even plastics. Wire ropes

Jeffrey E. Turner; Christopher Barnes

173

Tissue reaction to middle ear prostheses: in vivo observation (rabbit ear lobe) of polyethylene tube, stainless steel wire and absorbable gelatin sponge used in middle ear surgery.  

PubMed

Over the past ten years, polyethylene tube, stainless steel wire and absorbable gelatin sponge have come to be used in middle ear surgery. A modified Williams' steel chamber with a transparent central area was embedded in a rabbit ear lobe surgically, and cross-sectioned polyethylene tube, stainless steel wire or absorbable gelatin sponge were inserted respectively. The in vivo tissue reaction to each of these installed materials was observed daily microscopically. Finally, in the case of both the cross-sectioned polyethylene tube and the stainless steel wire, the chambers were fixed with 10% formalin solution and the contents stained for histological study. The results were as follows: Absorbable gelatin sponge was absorbed completely by phagocytosis in 62 days. Polyethylene tube was encapsulated by a layer of fibroblasts by day 110 in one case and by day 140 in another case; these findings were confirmed histologically on day 110 and 281. Almost all the surface of the stainless steel wire was encapsulated by a layer consisting of giant cells, on which a dense fibrous layer was superimposed by day 82. It is concluded that polyethylene tube, stainless steel wire, and absorbable gelatin sponge should be well tolerated in middle ear surgery. PMID:137659

Ohsaki, K; Saito, R

1976-10-01

174

Mechanical properties of Fe -10Ni -7Mn martensitic steel subjected to severe plastic deformation via cold rolling and wire drawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steels are one of the major groups of ultra-high strength steels that have good mechanical properties and ductility in as annealed condition but they suffer from severe inter-granular embitterment after aging. In this paper, the effect of heavy shaped cold rolling and wire drawing on the mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn steel was investigated. This process could provide a

H. Ghasemi-Nanesa; M. Nili-Ahmadabadi; H. Shirazi

2010-01-01

175

Evaluation of load-deflection properties of fiber-reinforced composites and its comparison with stainless steel wires  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of common sized fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) to different deflections due to bending forces and comparing it with stainless steel (SS) wires. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two FRC groups with 0.75 mm and 1.2 mm diameters (Everstick Ortho, Stick Tech, Finland) and three SS groups with 0.016 × 0.022 inch, 0.0215 × 0.028 inch and 0.7 mm diameters (3M Uniteck, Monrovia, California, USA) were tested. Each group contained 10 samples that were tested according to a three point bending test. Each group was tested at deflections of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm and the data was analyzed using the repeated measure ANOVA by SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, IBM SPSS, Inc. in Chicago, Illinois, USA). P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The highest recorded load belonged to the 1.2 mm FRC and after that 0.7 mm SS wire, 0.75 mm FRC, 0.0215 × 0.028 inch SS wire and finally 0.016 × 0.022 inch SS wire. The 0.7 mm SS wire and 0.75 mm FRC were compared as retainers and the results showed the 0.7 mm SS wire showed significantly higher load compared with 0.75 mm FRC (P < 0.05). The 1.2 mm FRC had significantly higher load compared to 0.0215 × 0.028 inch and 0.016 × 0.022 inch SS wires (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that the 1.2 mm FRC group had significantly higher load compared to SS wires and other FRC groups under the 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm deflections. Therefore, it can be suggested that FRC can be used as an esthetic replacement for SS wires for active and passive purposes in orthodontics.

Alavi, Shiva; Mamavi, Tayebe

2014-01-01

176

Comparative short-term in vitro analysis of mutans streptococci adhesion on esthetic, nickel-titanium, and stainless-steel arch wires.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Objective: To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in mutans streptococci (MS) adhesion between esthetic and metallic orthodontic arch wires based on their surface characteristics. Materials and Methods: Surface roughness (Ra) and apparent surface free energy (SFE) were measured for six wires-four esthetic, one nickel-titanium (NiTi), and one stainless-steel (SS)-using profilometry and dynamic contact angle analysis, respectively. The amount of MS (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus) adhering to the wires was quantified using the colony-counting method. The surfaces, coating layers, and MS adhesion were also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. Results: The Ra values of the esthetic wires were significantly different from one another depending on the coating method (P < .05). The NiTi wire showed the highest SFE, followed by the SS wire and then the four esthetic wires. The NiTi wires produced a significantly higher MS adhesion than did the SS wires (P < .05). The esthetic wires showed significantly lower MS adhesions than did the NiTi wire (P < .05). Pearson correlation analyses found moderate significant positive correlations between the SFE and the S mutans and S sobrinus adhesions (r ?=? .636/.427, P < .001/P ?=? .001, respectively). Conclusions: The hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that some esthetic coatings on NiTi alloy might reduce MS adhesion in vitro in the short term. PMID:24308530

Kim, In-Hye; Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Young Kyung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

2014-07-01

177

Preliminary design and manufacturing feasibility study for a machined Zircaloy triangular pitch fuel rod support system (grids) (AWBA development program)  

SciTech Connect

General design features and manufacturing operations for a high precision machined Zircaloy fuel rod support grid intended for use in advanced light water prebreeder or breeder reactor designs are described. The grid system consists of a Zircaloy main body with fuel rod and guide tube cells machined using wire EDM, a separate AM-350 stainless steel insert spring which fits into a full length T-slot in each fuel rod cell, and a thin (0.025'' or 0.040'' thick) wire EDM machined Zircaloy coverplate laser welded to each side of the grid body to retain the insert springs. The fuel rods are placed in a triangular pitch array with a tight rod-to-rod spacing of 0.063 inch nominal. Two dimples are positioned at the mid-thickness of the grid (single level) with a 90/sup 0/ included angle. Data is provided on the effectiveness of the manufacturing operations chosen for grid machining and assembly.

Horwood, W A [ed.] [ed.

1981-07-01

178

Sintered wire annode  

DOEpatents

A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

Falce, Louis R. (Surprise, AZ); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

2007-12-25

179

Residual stress profiling in the ferrite and cementite phases of cold-drawn steel rods by synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction  

SciTech Connect

Residual stress profiles have been measured in the ferrite and cementite phases of a cold-drawn eutectoid steel rod by neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction in three orientations (axial, radial and hoop). Neutron diffraction was employed to measure the ferrite stresses, whereas synchrotron radiation was used for ferrite and cementite stresses. Experimental results in the ferrite phase showed excellent agreement between both experimental techniques when gauge volume effects were accounted for. Axial cementite stresses were always tensile, with a maximum value close to 1700 MPa at the rod surface. Radial and hoop cementite stresses were compressive along the diameter of the rod, with a minimum of -1900 MPa at the rod center. A 3D-finite element simulation of the macro residual stresses resulting from cold-drawing showed remarkable agreement with those determined from the experimental measurements in the ferrite and cementite phases.

Martinez-Perez, M.L. [ICMM, CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Mompean, F.J. [ICMM, CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Hervias, J. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, UPM, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, c/ Profesor Aranguren s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: jr@mater.upm.es; Borlado, C.R. [ICMM, CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Atienza, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, UPM, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, c/ Profesor Aranguren s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Hernandez, M. [ICMM, CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Elices, M. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, UPM, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, c/ Profesor Aranguren s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Gil-Sevillano, J. [CEIT, Paseo de Manuel Lardizabal 15, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Peng Rulin [NFL Studsvik, Uppsala University, S-61182 Nykoeping (Sweden); Buslaps, T. [ESRF, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

2004-10-18

180

Effect of Stopper-Rod Misalignment on Fluid Flow in Continuous Casting of Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misalignment of metal-delivery systems can cause asymmetric fluid flow in the mold region of continuous casters, leading to\\u000a abnormal surface turbulence, insufficient superheat transport to the meniscus, slag entrainment, inclusion entrapment, and\\u000a other quality problems. This work investigates the effect of stopper-rod misalignment on nozzle and mold flow velocities in\\u000a a conventional continuous casting process using both a water model

R. Chaudhary; Go-Gi Lee; B. G. Thomas; Seong-Mook Cho; Seon-Hyo Kim; Oh-Duck Kwon

2011-01-01

181

Effect of Stopper-Rod Misalignment on Fluid Flow in Continuous Casting of Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Misalignment of metal-delivery systems can cause asymmetric fluid flow in the mold region of continuous casters, leading to abnormal surface turbulence, insufficient superheat transport to the meniscus, slag entrainment, inclusion entrapment, and other quality problems. This work investigates the effect of stopper-rod misalignment on nozzle and mold flow velocities in a conventional continuous casting process using both a water model and a computational model. Three stopper-rod configurations are studied (aligned, front misaligned by 2 mm, and left misaligned by 2 mm). The 3-D steady k- ? finite-volume model matched well with impeller probe measurements of both velocity and its fluctuations. Negligible asymmetry was found near the narrow faces. Asymmetry close to submerged entry nozzle is the main cause of vortex formation observed in all cases. The left-misaligned stopper-rod produces a shallower jet with a higher flow rate from the right port, leading to higher surface velocities on the right surface. This produced substantially more large vortices on the left side. The asymmetry produced by the nozzle length bore diameter ratio of ~21 in this work is consistent with the theoretical critical entrance length of ~24 for turbulent pipe flow.

Chaudhary, R.; Lee, Go-Gi; Thomas, B. G.; Cho, Seong-Mook; Kim, Seon-Hyo; Kwon, Oh-Duck

2011-04-01

182

Mechanical properties of Fe -10Ni -7Mn martensitic steel subjected to severe plastic deformation via cold rolling and wire drawing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steels are one of the major groups of ultra-high strength steels that have good mechanical properties and ductility in as annealed condition but they suffer from severe inter-granular embitterment after aging. In this paper, the effect of heavy shaped cold rolling and wire drawing on the mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn steel was investigated. This process could provide a large strain deformation in this alloy. The total strain was epsilon ~7. Aging behavior and tensile properties of Fe-10Ni-7Mn were studied after aging at 753 K. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and ductility after cold rolling, wire drawing and aging increased up to 2540 MPa and 7.1 %, respectively, while the conventional steels show a premature fracture stress of 830 MPa with about zero ductility after aging.

Ghasemi-Nanesa, H.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.; Shirazi, H.

2010-07-01

183

One hundred angstrom niobium wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite of fine niobium wires in copper is used to study the size and proximity effects of a superconductor in a normal matrix. The niobium rod was drawn to a 100 angstrom diameter wire on a copper tubing.

Cline, H. E.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

1968-01-01

184

Total simulation model of the thermo-mechanical process in shape rolling of steel rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of steel reinforcing bars for civil engineering is investigated by means of FEM-simulation. An integrated system for computing appropriate thermo-mechanical parameters of the rolling process is proposed. Generalized plane strain approach and coupled thermal-mechanical solution are applied. The microstructural model combines both the effect of the recrystallization mechanisms (static, dynamic and metadynamic) upon the austenite grain forming in

N. Bontcheva; G. Petzov

2005-01-01

185

Failure of crane wire rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A failure analysis of a broken multi strand wire rope from a crane was performed. The fracture of the steel wires in the wire rope showed characteristics of fatigue. On the wire surface were observed decarburised cracks which act as initiation sites for fatigue crack propagation during the application of the wire rope. The main reasons for the failure of

M. Torkar; B. Arzenšek

2002-01-01

186

The Corrosion Resistance of Composite Arch Wire Laser-Welded By NiTi Shape Memory Alloy and Stainless Steel Wires with Cu Interlayer in Artificial Saliva with Protein  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the corrosion resistance of laser-welded composite arch wire (CoAW) with Cu interlayer between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire in artificial saliva with different concentrations of protein was studied. It was found that protein addition had a significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Low concentration of protein caused the corrosion resistance of CoAW decrease in electrochemical corrosion and immersion corrosion tests. High concentration of protein could reduce this effect.

Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Hou, Xu; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Daqian

2013-01-01

187

The corrosion resistance of composite arch wire laser-welded by NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wires with Cu interlayer in artificial saliva with protein.  

PubMed

In this paper, the corrosion resistance of laser-welded composite arch wire (CoAW) with Cu interlayer between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire in artificial saliva with different concentrations of protein was studied. It was found that protein addition had a significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Low concentration of protein caused the corrosion resistance of CoAW decrease in electrochemical corrosion and immersion corrosion tests. High concentration of protein could reduce this effect. PMID:23801895

Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Hou, Xu; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Daqian

2013-01-01

188

Using boride compounds in flux-cored wires for depositing maraging steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of investigations of the structure and properties of the deposited metal of the maraging steel of the Fe–Ni–Mo–Cr–V–Si–Ti–Al alloying system, hardened with boron compounds, are presented. The role of borides in the formation of the phase composition and the structural state of the steel in tempering is analysed. It is shown that this metal has high thermal and

E. N. Eremin

2012-01-01

189

Experiments on the penetration of thin long-rod projectiles into thick long-cylindrical borosilicate targets under pressure-free polycarbonate, aluminum and steel confinements  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that confinement pressure inhibits comminution and fragment-flow during projectile penetration of ceramics. Here, a high-pressure gas gun is used to investigate the role of confinement wave impedance on the failure kinetics of ceramics during penetration. Tool-steel rods of fixed lengths and L\\/D ratios of 12, 16 and 24 impact and penetrate unconfined borosilicate cylinders and those

Mulalo Doyoyo

2003-01-01

190

CNT-TiO2 coating bonded onto stainless steel wire as a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber.  

PubMed

A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber based on carbon nanotubes-titanium oxide (CNT-TiO2) composite coating bonded onto stainless steel wire was prepared via electroless plating and sol-gel techniques. The SPME coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microscopy. Coupled to gas chromatography (GC), the fiber was investigated with seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in direct-immersion mode. The SPME-GC analytical method was evaluated under optimized extraction conditions. Compared with other reports, higher sensitivity (LODs, 0.002-0.004 ?g L(-1)) and better linear range (0.01-100 and 0.01-200 ?g L(-1)) were obtained by the proposed method. The fiber exhibited high thermal stability to 300 °C and excellent durability in HCl and NaOH solutions. The as-established SPME-GC method was used to analyze the real water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:23953442

Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Qiu, Huamin; Fan, Lulu; Li, Xiangjun; Luo, Chuannan

2013-09-30

191

Design of modified electromagnetic main-flux for steel wire rope inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and construction of modified main-flux equipment for wire rope inspection which has advantages over the in-service inspection and indirect axial-flux measurement used by ordinary main-flux and return-flux methods. The equipment can be adjusted high electromagnetic field strength to produce leakage filed from flaws of various large-diameter ropes. Unique coil sensors connected in series were employed

C. Jomdecha; A. Prateepasen

2009-01-01

192

Ultrasonic inspection of multi-wire steel strands with the aid of the wavelet transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-destructive detection of structural defects in multi-wire strands used as post-tensioned tendons and cable stays is a challenging, yet critical task. A promising method under investigation is based on the use of ultrasonic stress waves that propagate within the strand and interact with structural discontinuities. The waveguide-like geometry of the strands lends itself to the monitoring of long lengths

Piervincenzo Rizzo; Francesco Lanza Di Scalea

2005-01-01

193

75 FR 34424 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...more of chromium, with or without other elements. These products are manufactured only by hot-rolling or hot-rolling, annealing, and/or pickling and/or descaling, are normally sold in coiled form, and are of solid cross- section. The...

2010-06-17

194

Field Testing of Electrical Grounding Rods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 7-year program of field testing metal rods for electrical grounding was conducted. Single rods of galvanized steel, copper-clad steel, Ni-Resist cast iron, type 302 stainless steel, type 304 stainless-clad steel, zinc, magnesium, and aluminum were teste...

R. W. Drisko A. E. Hanna

1970-01-01

195

The effect of strain hardening on resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wires for orthopaedics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to evaluate electrochemical corrosion resistance of wire with modified surface, made of stainless steel of Cr-Ni-Mo type, widely used in implants for orthopaedics, depending on hardening created in the process of drawing. Tests have been carried out in the environment imitating human osseous tissue. Pitting corrosion was determined on the ground of registered anodic polarisation curves by means of potentiodynamic method with application of electrochemical testing system VoltaLab® PGP 201. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in Tyrode solution on samples that were electrochemically polished as well as electrochemically polished and finally chemically passivated. Initial material for tests was wire rod made of X2CrNiMo17-12-2 steel with diameter of 5.5 mm in supersaturated condition. Wire rod was drawn up to diameter of 1.35 mm. This work shows the course of flow curve of wire made of this grade of steel and mathematical form of yield stress function. The study also presents exemplary curves showing the dependence of polarisation resistance in strain function in the drawing process of electrochemically passivated and electrochemically polished and then chemically passivated wire.

Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; Hadasik, E.; Szymszal, J.

2012-05-01

196

Characteristics of the rough-cut surface of quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steel using wire electrical discharge machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article studies the surface characteristics of quench- and temper-treated AISI 440A martensitic stainless steels, which were rough cut using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). The microstructure of the recast layer on the cut surface was investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopes, and the phase compositions were analyzed with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer. Experimental results showed that the thickness of the recast layer varied with the heat-treatment condition of the workpiece, the largest thickness was obtained with a quenched specimen, and the thickness decreased with increasing tempering temperature. Intergranular surface cracks were observed only from the as-quenched specimen, whereas surface cracks were not found in the rough-cut specimens after tempering above 200 °C. It is reckoned that reliefing of the thermal residual stress in the quenched workpiece induced the surface intergranular cracks. Microstructures of the recast layer on the rough-cut surfaces of the 600 °C tempered specimen were examined using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens. An amorphous layer exists at some parts of the outermost cut surface. A high density of wire electrode droplets of spherical shape, approximately 10 to 60 nm in size, was found throughout the porous recast layer. Besides, many high-chromium containing sigma spheres with sizes of approximately 120 to 200 nm were precipitated at the bottom part of the recast layer, and its formation mechanism was proposed. Adjacent to the recast layer was a heat-affected zone (HAZ) with a thickness of about 4 µm, in which temper-induced carbides were fully dissolved. The HAZ comprised basically two distinct regions: the first region adjacent to the recast layer was composed of a lath martensite structure, while the other region was an annealed ferrite structure.

Huang, C. A.; Tu, G. C.; Yao, H. T.; Kuo, H. H.

2004-04-01

197

Solid-state flow, mechanical alloying, and melt-related phenomena for [001] single-crystal tungsten ballistic rod penetrators interacting with steel targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research program consists of a detailed microstructural investigation of in-target, single-crystal [001], clad (with Inconel 718) and unclad, W long-rod, ballistic penetrators. The rods were shot into rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) steel targets approximately 76 mm in thickness at impact velocities ranging from 1100 m/s to 1350 m/s. A comprehensive microstructural overview of the penetration process was obtained from this investigation. Solid-state flow/erosion, solid-state target/rod mixing as well as influencing factors such as strain rate, penetration performance, cladding interference and the interaction between target and projectile were emphasized. Some of the microstructural features observed, including deformation twins, cleaving, adiabatic shear bands and DRX support an overall solid-state penetration process. Furthermore they provide for a unifying perspective for the applicability of the hydrodynamic paradigm (DOP ? l?rp/rt ) and earlier mechanistic erosion approaches. DRX and grain growth within adiabatic shear bands observed at specific high strain/strain-rate zones within the rods suggest that the projectile erodes by means of these microstructures in a solid-state form. This erosion process contributes to the performance of the rod by either allowing optimum flow of rod material which would increase penetration depth, or by maximizing rod material consumption which would reduce it. Since flow and/or erosion are also necessary in the target for perforation to occur, it is not surprising that the erosion process in the target was observed to mirror the one in the projectile. That is both target and projectile developed erosion zones with DRX facilitating the extreme deformation via dense overlapping shear band formation. Mechanical alloying and/or mixing of the target (steel) and rod (W, or W-Inconel 718) was also observed and investigated. Selective etching techniques as well as energy-dispersive x-ray mapping revealed unambiguous evidence of the latter. Considerable mixture (target/rod) material was observed to intercalate into vehicles of erosion including shear bands. These mixtures, which included some isolated melt regimes, differ in composition for clad and unclad samples. The Inconel 718 alloy clad material which is used in order to prevent fragmentation of the projectile during launch, also contributed to the penetration deformation and to the projectile/target interaction. The cladding material appears to influence the solid-state flow by functioning as the principal flow interaction regime between the target and penetrator at the penetrating interface. Since material flow efficiency at the target/rod interface and erosion initiation zones was found to be a necessary condition for increasing penetration depth, a penetrator design strategy can include the careful selection of cladding material. That is the cladding can function first as a solid-state lubricant at the penetrating target/rod interface and secondly as an intercalated mixture in vehicles of erosion allowing for optimum flow.

Pizana, Carlos

198

Nitrogen implantation into steel wire coated with zinc used as reinforcement in power transmission conductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In tropical environments, diversity of climatic factors such as temperature, relative humidity, deposition of environmental contaminants (such as sulfates and chlorides) affect a large proportion of materials exposed to the weather, and electrochemical corrosion is one of the phenomena that occur in the case of metals and alloys [1, 2]. It is therefore particularly important to study this behavior in the Zinc-coated steel, since this material is used for its economy in the industry specifically in the area of transport of electricity.

Castro-Maldonado, J. J.; Dulcé-Moreno, H. J.; V-Niño, E. D.

2013-11-01

199

Nano-structured polyaniline-ionic liquid composite film coated steel wire for headspace solid-phase microextraction of organochlorine pesticides in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel nano-structured polyaniline-ionic liquid (i.e. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, BMIPF6) composite (BPAN) film coated steel wire was prepared by electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the obtained porous BPAN coating consisted of nanofibers, whose diameter ranged from 50 to 80nm. Furthermore, the novel nano-structured composite coating was very stable at relatively high temperatures (up to 350°C) and it could

Zhanqi Gao; Wenchao Li; Benzhi Liu; Feng Liang; Huan He; Shaogui Yang; Cheng Sun

2011-01-01

200

Effects of carbon percentage, Stelmor cooling rate and laying head temperature on tensile strength gain in low carbon steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low carbon steel wire rods are used to produce finished products such as fine wire, coat hangers, staples, and roofing nails. These products are subjected to excessively high work hardening rates during wire drawing process resulting in a variation in wire tensile strength. This research analyzes the effects of carbon percentage, StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature on the tensile strength gain in wire drawn low carbon steels using design of experiments. The probable reasons for variations in tensile strength gain are analyzed by observing the microstructural changes during experiments. Microstructural analysis was done extensively using optical microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and it was found that the tensile strength gain variation is mainly caused by the increase in the dislocation density in wire rod and wire due to high cooling rate and high laying head temperature, within the range considered. This research concludes that a low carbon wire rod can be produced with minimum tensile strength gain, lower dislocation density and finer ferrite grain size by maintaining a low cooling rate in the StelmorRTM cooling zone and low laying head temperature, which is the temperature at which the wire rod coils are laid on the Stelmor RTM deck. It is also concluded from the results of the present study that: (1) The lowest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 (0.07 wt.% Carbon) with low cooling rate of 14°F/s and low laying head temperature of 1500°F. (2) The highest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 with high cooling rate of 26°F/s and high laying head temperature of 1650°F. (3) The effect of StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature and their interaction are found to be the significant factors causing the variation in wire tensile strength gain. The StelmorRTM cooling rate has the most significant effect on tensile strength gain among the three factors. (4) The effect of carbon percentage on wire tensile strength gain is very minimal. (5) With an increase in the StelmorRTM cooling rate from 14°F/s to 26°F/s, there is a substantial increase in the dislocation densities in the wire rods and wires, which is the primary cause of the increase in the tensile strength gain. (6) The effect of carbon percentage on wire tensile strength gain is very minimal. North Star Steel Texas would benefit substantially from this research by being able to produce better quality wire rods, through better understanding of the factors affecting the tensile strength gain variation. This is expected to lead to a reduction in customer complaints on failure of wire products.

Gade, Surya Prakash

201

Crossed-Wire Laser Microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 Low-Carbon Vacuum Melted Stainless Steel: Part I. Mechanism of Joint Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excellent biocompatibility and corrosion properties of Pt alloys and 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) make them attractive for biomedical applications. With the increasing complexity of medical devices and in order to lower costs, the challenge of joining dissimilar materials arises. In this study, laser microwelding (LMW) of crossed Pt-10 pct Ir to 316 LVM SS wires was performed and the weldability of these materials was determined. The joint geometry, joining mechanism, joint breaking force (JBF), and fracture modes were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and microtensile testing. It was shown that the mechanisms of joint formation transitioned from (1) brazing, (2) a combination of brazing and fusion welding, and (3) fusion welding with increasing pulsed laser energy. The joints demonstrated various tensile failure modes including (1) interfacial failure below a peak power of 0.24 kW, (2) partial interfacial failure that propagated into the Pt-Ir wire, (3) failure in the Pt-Ir wire, and (4) failure in the SS wire due to porosity and severe undercutting caused by overwelding. During this study, the optimal laser peak power range was identified to produce joints with good joint geometry and 90 pct of the tensile strength of the Pt-10 pct Ir wire.

Zou, G. S.; Huang, Y. D.; Pequegnat, A.; Li, X. G.; Khan, M. I.; Zhou, Y.

2012-04-01

202

Fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro. Methods Roots of human mandibular central incisors were covered with silicone, mimicking the periodontal ligament, and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate. The specimens (N = 50), with two teeth each, were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/group) according to the retainer materials: (1) Interlig (E-glass), (2) everStick Ortho (E-glass), (3) DentaPreg Splint (S2-glass), (4) Ribbond (polyethylene), and (5) Quad Cat wire (stainless steel). After the recommended adhesive procedures, the retainers were bonded to the teeth by using flowable composite resin (Tetric Flow). The teeth were subjected to 10,00,000 cyclic loads (8 Hz, 3 - 100 N, 45° angle, under 37 ± 3? water) at their incisoproximal contact, and debonding forces were measured with a universal testing machine (1 mm/min crosshead speed). Failure sites were examined under a stereomicroscope (×40 magnification). Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Results All the specimens survived the cyclic loading. Their mean debonding forces were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The DentaPreg Splint group (80%) showed the highest incidence of complete adhesive debonding, followed by the Interlig group (60%). The everStick Ortho group (80%) presented predominantly partial adhesive debonding. The Quad Cat wire group (50%) presented overlying composite detachment. Conclusions Cyclic loading did not cause debonding. The retainers presented similar debonding forces but different failure types. Braided stainless steel wire retainers presented the most repairable failure type.

Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Ozcan, Mutlu

2013-01-01

203

Self-organized and self-catalyst growth of semiconductor and metal wires by vapour phase epitaxy: GaN rods versus Cu whiskers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wires represent a new class of nanostructures that offer unprecedented freedom in materials design and new physical properties. Amongst the very different growth mechanisms reported in literature, the vapour-phase growth of self-catalyzed wires has the advantages of simplicity and rapidity with a low level of contaminants. The elaborations of semiconducting and metallic wires are usually considered as very distinct fields and no significant analogies have been noticed yet. This paper illustrates significant similarities of the mechanisms involved in the GaN and Cu wire growths that highlight firstly the role of the substrate surface preparation (with the deposition of an intermediate layer on the substrate surface impacting the nucleation seeds) and secondly the role of the different diffusion paths contributing to the one-dimensional growth in particular the influence of the surrounding gas phase and respective diffusion lengths on the substrate surface and wire sidewall. Experimental data describing the evolution of the wire diameter and length as a function of the growth time are quantitatively analyzed to evidence different growth regimes.

Eymery, Joël; Chen, Xiaojun; Durand, Christophe; Kolb, Matthias; Richter, Gunther

2013-02-01

204

Detection of birdcaging in steel wire rope of a hoisting winch system by analysis of load torque and stator current  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyze theoretically and experimentally the stator current of a three phase induction machine and load torque signals in a hoisting winch system, in order to show how they are influenced by the wire rope faulty condition. When the wire rope is subjected to axial and torsional loads, the outer strands can separate from

H. Henao; S. M. J. Rastegar Fatemi; S. Sieg-Zieba; G. A. Capolino

2009-01-01

205

On the Thermal Contact Resistance Effects in Aluminum-Galvanized Steel Wires OPGW Submitted to a Short-Circuit Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat transfer during the short-circuit test of an OPGW manufactured with aluminum tube and galvanized wires, has been investigated by many authors. In spite of the fact the temperature gradient in the aluminum wires can be neglected, it is shown in this paper the temperature gradient have a significant effect on the cooling of the aluminum tube. The present

Sergio Colle; Marcelo de Araújo Andrade

206

78 FR 29325 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...subject merchandise in order to report the relevant factors and costs...132 F. Supp. 2d 1, 8 (CIT 2001) (citing Algoma Steel...reported in the 2011 Annual Report of STEMCOR, a steel trading...reported in the 2011 Annual Report of STEMCOR, a steel...

2013-05-20

207

Steel Wire Pressure Aesthesiometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to neurological test apparatus, and more particularly to sensory response testing equipment for use in the assessment of abnormal sensory patterns such as those associated with leprosy neuritis and similar diseases.

F. N. Kantani

1980-01-01

208

Rod Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem allows students an opportunity to think about fraction comparisons and equivalencies in a different way using interactive rods. Students are given two different fraction rods of unknown lengths and the goal is to find out what fraction the shorter rod is of the longer rod. A Teacher's Notes page, hints, solution, and printable pages are provided.

2005-10-01

209

Parametric study of factors affecting the pull-out strength of steel rods bonded into precast concrete panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the effect of bond thickness, embedment length and type of epoxy adhesive formulation on the adhesion of steel anchors to concrete. The test results indicate that the shear strength of the epoxy adhesive formulation prepared from a diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and an ethyleneamine curing agent is independent of bond thickness from approximately 1–4mm. However,

Adnan Çolak

2001-01-01

210

Potential risk of sternal wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To understand the potential fracture mechanism of sternal wires, we collected extracted stainless steel sternal wires from patients with sternal dehiscence following open-heart operations. Surface alterations and fractured ends of sternal wires were inspected and analyzed. Methods: Eight fractured and 12 non-fractured wires extracted from five patients (closure method: figure-of-eight or straight twisted; two without and three with mediastinitis)

Chun-Che Shih; Chun-Ming Shih; Yea-Yang Su; Shing-Jong Lin

2004-01-01

211

Potential risk of sternal wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To understand the potential fracture mechanism of sternal wires, we collected extracted stainless steel sternal wires from patients with sternal dehiscence following open-heart operations. Surface alterations and fractured ends of sternal wires were inspected and analyzed. Methods: Eight fractured and 12 non-fractured wires extracted from five patients (closure method: figure-of-eight or straight twisted; two without and three with mediastinitis)

Chun-Che Shih; Chun-Ming Shih; Yea-Yang Sua; Shing-Jong Lina

2010-01-01

212

Developments in HSLA steel products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of microalloyed steels is expanding beyond its original emphasis on low-carbon, severely control-rolled strip and plate products. A variety of economical, high-strength, tough, as-rolled or as-forged microalloyed products are replacing more expensive heat-treated steels. Recrystallization-controlled rolling is being utilized to produce very fine ferrite grain sizes and good toughness in strip, plate and bar products processed with relatively high rolling temperatures. High-strength microalloyed long products such as railroad joint bars, truck frame rails and flat bars for truck trailer construction are replacing heat-treated parts. Microalloyed, medium-carbon forging steels are used extensively for automobile engine and suspension components. Fully pearlitic high-carbon rods are being microalloyed to enhance the properties of wire and springs.

Paules, John R.

1991-01-01

213

Neutron diffraction measurement of the residual stress in the cementite and ferrite phases of cold-drawn steel wires  

SciTech Connect

The residual stress state in both the cementite and ferrite phases of cold-drawn pearlitic wires has been measured by neutron diffraction. The phase microstress in the axial direction is obtained. It is found that the cementite lamellae are subjected to a high tensile stress, up to 2,000 MPa, after cold drawing. Measurements on etched wires showed that the phase microstress is nearly constant with the distance to the wire axis. Combination of these data with complementary X-ray diffraction measurements on the ferrite determines the response of each phase to the macrostress or an applied stress. Additionally, the peak broadening and texture of both phases have been studied using the neutron diffraction technique. The texture is less sharp in the cementite than in the ferrite. In the cold-drawn samples the diffraction peaks are very broad, which suggests plastic deformation of the cementite lamellae.

Van Acker, K.; Van Houtte, P.; Aernoudt, E. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering] [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; Root, J. [AECL, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada). Neutron and Condensed Matter Science Branch] [AECL, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada). Neutron and Condensed Matter Science Branch

1996-10-01

214

A wire-guided transducer for acoustic emission sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel transducer for active or passive sensing has been developed and tested experimentally. It features a steel wire acting as a wave guide between a piezoceramic element and the structure under test. Some advantages of the wire-guided transducer include its applicability to structures operating at high temperature, which otherwise preclude the surface mounting of piezoceramics, its small contact area to the structure, which enables several such transducers to be deployed in an arc around a known crack location as an acoustic emission sensor array, and its low cost and ease of installation. Another potential advantage is simplified signal processing for source localization, which is developed in this paper and evaluated experimentally. The various steel wires used in our experiments to date are less than 1 mm in diameter and between 10 cm and 100 cm in length. The wire guides have been studied with active excitation under a pulse excitation as used in ultrasonic testing, at a relatively high frequency such as 1 MHz, and in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 500 kHz which is often of interest for Lamb wave generation in thin plates or for acoustic emission sensing. Our tests confirm that the wire acts as a cylindrical rod in which the fastest wave is the lowest longitudinal mode, displaying a sharp arrival, and in which the lowest flexural mode and lowest torsional mode are also excited; we report excellent agreement between measured and predicted wave speeds, as expected. We show experimental results in which a group of wire-guided transducers permit the localization of an impact on a thin plate and discuss the automation of this task for use in the field. We also show the ability of the wire-guided transducer to detect acoustic emission events simulated physically by pencil lead breaks.

Neill, Ian T.; Oppenheim, I. J.; Greve, D. W.

2007-05-01

215

Stiffness Corrections for the Vibration Frequency of a Stretched Wire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need of introducing corrections due to wire stiffness arising from end constraints and wire axis distribution curvature in the measurement of ac electrical frequency by exciting transverse standing waves in a stretched steel wire. (SL)

Hornung, H. G.; Durie, M. J.

1977-01-01

216

Reduction of work hardening rate in low-carbon steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low carbon grades of steel rods are used to produce finished products such as fine wire, coat hangers, staples, and roofing nails. These products are subject to ductility failures during production due to excessively high work hardening rates during wire drawing. The high work hardening rates are attributed to the presence of residuals, free nitrogen, or combinations thereof. This research concludes that the most cost-effective way to reduce the work hardening rate during wire drawing is to combine boron with nitrogen to form boron nitride, and thus reducing its work hardening contribution. The results of this study also conclude the following: (1) Boron/Nitrogen ratio is the more significant factor than rod tensile strength, which affects work hardening rate. Higher ratio is better in the 0.79 to 1.19 range. (2) Maintaining this narrow B/N range requires precise process control. (3) Process conditions such as dissolved oxygen (<25 ppm), carbon (?0.05%) and ladle refining temperature (<2930°F) are necessary for optimizing boron recovery. (4) An average of 89% boron recovery is obtained with the above controlled process conditions. (5) Use of Boron has no adverse effects on the several metallurgical properties tested except with minor difficulty with scale for descaling. North Star Steel Texas (North Star) benefited from this research by being able to provide a competitive edge in both quality and cost of its low carbon boron grades thus making North Star a preferred supplier of wire rod for these products.

Yalamanchili, Bhaskar Rao

217

Strain measurement in a concrete beam by use of the Brillouin-scattering-based distributed fiber sensor with single-mode fibers embedded in glass fiber reinforced polymer rods and bonded to steel reinforcing bars.  

PubMed

The strain measurement of a 1.65-m reinforced concrete beam by use of a distributed fiber strain sensor with a 50-cm spatial resolution and 5-cm readout resolution is reported. The strain-measurement accuracy is +/-15 microepsilon (microm/m) according to the system calibration in the laboratory environment with non-uniform-distributed strain and +/-5 microepsilon with uniform strain distribution. The strain distribution has been measured for one-point and two-point loading patterns for optical fibers embedded in pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) rods and those bonded to steel reinforcing bars. In the one-point loading case, the strain deviations are +/-7 and +/-15 microepsilon for fibers embedded in the GFRP rods and fibers bonded to steel reinforcing bars, respectively, whereas the strain deviation is +/-20 microepsilon for the two-point loading case. PMID:12206221

Zeng, Xiaodong; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chhoa, Chia Yee; Bremner, Theodore W; Brown, Anthony W; DeMerchant, Michael D; Ferrier, Graham; Kalamkarov, Alexander L; Georgiades, Anastasis V

2002-08-20

218

Forming condition and control strategy of ferrite decarburization in 60Si2MnA spring steel wires for automotive suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ferrite decarburization behavior of 60Si2MnA spring steel wires for automotive suspensions, including the forming condition and the influence of heating time and cooling rate after hot rolling, was investigated comprehensively. Also, a control strategy during the reheating process and cooling process after rolling was put forward to protect against ferrite decarburization. The results show that ferrite decarburization, which has the strong temperature dependence due to phase transformation, is produced between 675 and 875°C. The maximum depth is found at 750°C. Heating time and cooling rate after rolling have an important influence on decarburization. Reasonable preheating temperature in the billet reheating process and austenitizing temperature in the heat-treatment process are suggested to protect against ferrite decarburization.

Zhang, Chao-Lei; Liu, Ya-Zheng; Zhou, Le-Yu; Jiang, Chao; Xiao, Jin-Fu

2012-02-01

219

Crossed-Wire Laser Microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 LVM Stainless Steel: Part II. Effect of Orientation on Joining Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing complexity of medical devices and with efforts to reduce manufacturing costs, challenges arise in joining dissimilar materials. In this study, the laser weldability of dissimilar joints between Pt-10 pct Ir and 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) crossed wires was investigated by characterizing the weld geometry, joint strength, morphology of weld cross sections, and differences in joining behavior, depending on which material is subject to the incident laser beam. With the Pt-Ir alloy on top, a significant amount of porosity was observed on the surface of the welds as well as throughout the weld cross sections. This unique form of porosity is believed to be a result of preferential vaporization of 316 LVM SS alloying elements that become mixed with the molten Pt-10 pct Ir during welding. The joining mechanism documented in micrographs of cross-sectioned welds was found to transition from laser brazing to fusion welding. It is inferred that the orientation of the two dissimilar metals ( i.e., which material is subject to the incident laser beam) plays an important role in weld quality of crossed-wire laser welds.

Huang, Y. D.; Pequegnat, A.; Zou, G. S.; Feng, J. C.; Khan, M. I.; Zhou, Y.

2012-04-01

220

Method for making a hot wire anemometer and product thereof  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hot wire anemometer probe is described that includes a ceramic body supporting two conductive rods parallel to each other. The body has a narrow edge surface from which the rods protrude. A probe wire is welded to the rods and extends along the edge surface. A ceramic adhesive is used to secure the probe wire to the surface so that the probe wire is rigid. A method for fabricating the probe is also described in which the body is molded and precisely shaped by machining techniques before the probe wires are installed.

Milkulla, V. (inventor)

1977-01-01

221

Electrodeposition of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on a stainless steel wire for solid phase microextraction and GC determination of some esters with high boiling points.  

PubMed

In this work, 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) emulsion is prepared by ultrasonication agitation and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating is fabricated on a stainless steel wire by electrochemical method from a 0.10M sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate aqueous solution containing EDOT. The coating is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, and it presents cauliflower-like structure. When the resulted PEDOT/steel fiber is used for the headspace solid phase-microextraction of some esters (i.e. methyl anthranilate, dimethyl phthalate, ethyl-o-aminobenzoate, methyl laurate and diethyl phthalate) and their GC detection, the limits of detection (LOD) are ca. 7.8-31 ng L(-1) (S/N=3) and the linear ranges are 0.25-800 ?g L(-1). The fiber shows high thermal stability (up to 320 °C), good reproducibility and long lifetime (more than 183 times). It also has good chemical stability. After it is immersed in acid, alkali and dichloromethane for 4h its extraction efficiency remains almost unchanged. Besides esters the fiber also exhibits high extraction efficiency for alcohols and aromatic compounds. PMID:23597884

Ma, Yuyu; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

2013-01-30

222

Analytical procedure for modelling recursively and wire by wire stranded ropes subjected to traction and torsion loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to introduce a new theoretical procedure for modelling wire ropes subjected simultaneously to tensile and torsional loads. The procedure is based upon the beam assumption and takes account wire by wire of the double helical wires on the basis of general thin rod theory developed by [Love, A., 1944. Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. Dover

H. Usabiaga; J. M. Pagalday

2008-01-01

223

76 FR 23548 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...with an actual diameter of 0.5842 mm (0.0230 inch) or more, plated or coated with zinc (whether by hot- dipping or electroplating). Steel products to be included in the scope of these investigations, regardless of Harmonized Tariff Schedule of...

2011-04-27

224

76 FR 72721 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...with an actual diameter of 0.5842 mm (0.0230 inch) or more, plated or coated with zinc (whether by hot-dipping or electroplating). Steel products to be included in the scope of this investigation, regardless of Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

2011-11-25

225

Digital wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study hardware implementations of cellular automata as reliable, adjustable, and secure commication lines. We discuss energy efficient digital wires on a nano-scale, all-optical digital wires, and digital wires as power lines and present performance data of a prototype digital wire, a six cells wide and ten cells long Boolean network. We show that digital wires have the following advantages:

Alfred Hübler

2009-01-01

226

Enhancing wire-composite bond strength of bonded retainers with wire surface treatment.  

PubMed

Bonded orthodontic retainers with wires embedded in composite resin are commonly used for orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to test, in vitro, various wire surface treatments to determine the optimal method of enhancing the wire-composite bond strength. Coaxial wires and stainless steel wires with different surface treatments were bonded to bovine enamel and then pulled along their long axes with an Instron universal testing machine. Wire surface treatments included placing a right-angle bend in the wire, microetching the wire, and treating the wire with adhesion promoters; combinations of treatments were also examined. The results demonstrated a 24-fold increase in the wire-composite bond strength of wire that was microetched (sandblasted), compared with that of untreated straight wire. The difference between the amount of force required to break the bond produced by microetching alone (246.1 +/- 46.0 MPa) and that required for the bonds produced by the retentive bend (87.8 +/- 16.3 MPa), the adhesion promoters (silane, 11.0 +/- 3.1 MPa; Metal Primer, 28.5 +/- 15.8 MPa), or for any combination of surface treatments, was statistically significant. Microetching a stainless steel wire produced a higher wire-composite bond strength than that obtained from a coaxial wire (113.5 +/- 27.5 MPa). The results of this study indicate that microetching or sandblasting a stainless steel wire significantly increases the strength of the wire-composite bond. PMID:11395707

Oesterle, L J; Shellhart, W C; Henderson, S

2001-06-01

227

Wire Maze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students gain a basic understanding of electrical circuits. They build wire circuits and pass paperclips through the mazes, trying not to touch the wires. Touching a wire with a paperclip causes the circuit to close, which activates an indicator.

K-12 Outreach Office,

228

Reliable Wiring Harness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New harness for electrical wiring includes plugs that do not loosen from vibration. Ground braids prevented from detaching from connectors and constrained so braids do not open into swollen "birdcage" sections. Spring of stainless steel encircles ground braid. Self-locking connector contains ratchet not only preventing connector from opening, but tightens when vibrated.

Gaspar, Kenneth C.

1987-01-01

229

Coated Antenna Wire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of this project was to develop a method for coating high modulus steel and tungsten wires with a material containing a stable high atomic number particulate filler. Since the matrix material in this composite coating is sacrificed during use a ...

D. M. Bigg M. M. Epstein R. E. Maringer

1976-01-01

230

Criticality Experiments with Subcritical Clusters of 2.35 Wt% and 4.31 Wt% {sup 235}U Enriched UO{sub 2} Rods in Water with Steel Reflecting Walls  

SciTech Connect

A series of criticality experiments with 2.35 wt% and 4.31 wt% {sup 235}U enriched UO{sub 2} rods in water were performed to provide well defined benchmark type data on the effects of thick steel reflecting walls. For each fuel enrichment. the critical separation between three subcritical fuel clusters was observed to increase as 178.5 mm thick reflecting walls of reactor grade steel was moved towards the fuel. This increase was observed for fuel clusters having an undermoderated water-to-fuel volume ratio of 1.6 and for fuel clusters having near optimum neutron moderation (2.92 for the 2.35 wt% {sup 235}U enriched fuel and 3,88 for the 4.31 wt% {sup 235}U enriched fuel). In all cases the critical separation between fuel clusters increased to a maximum as the steel walls were moved towards the fuel clusters. This maximum effect was observed with about 10 mm of water between the fuel clusters and the steel reflecting walls. As this water gap was decreased, the critical separation between the fuel clusters also decreased slightly. Measurement data were also obtained for each enrichment with neutron absorber plates between the fuel clusters having the l .6 water-to-fuel volume ratio. During these measurements, the steel reflecting walls were at the near optimum distance from the fuel clusters. The fixed neutron absorbers for which data were obtained include 304-L steel, borated 304-L steel, copper, copper containing 1 wt% cadmium, cadmium, and two trade name materials containing boron (Boral and Boroflex), A comparison between these data and data from previous experiments indicates a slight reduction in the effectiveness of the absorber plates when the steel reflecting walls are present.

Bierman, S. R.; Clayton, E. D.

1981-04-01

231

Corrosion of silver soldered orthodontic wires.  

PubMed

The amounts of metals liberated from silver soldered stainless steel and cobalt-chromium orthodontic wires were measured. Measurements were taken after 3 days and 24 days immersion in 0.9% sodium chloride solution. High amounts of copper and zinc and some cadmium from the silver solder were found. The silver soldered stainless steel wire corroded more than the cobalt-chromium type, and liberated more nickel and chromium than did the cobalt-chromium wires. PMID:6125077

Berge, M; Gjerdet, N R; Erichsen, E S

1982-01-01

232

High current pulse testing for ground rod integrity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test technique was developed to assess various grounding system concepts used for mobile facilities. The test technique involves applying a high current pulse to the grounding system with the proper waveshape and magnitude to simulate a lightning return stroke. Of concern were the step voltages present along the ground near the point of lightning strike. Step voltage is equated to how fast the current pulse is dissipated by the grounding system. The applied current pulse was produced by a high current capacitor bank with a total energy content of 80 kilojoules. A series of pulse tests were performed on two types of mobile facility grounding systems. One system consisted of an array of four 10 foot copper clad steel ground rods connected by 1/0 gauge wire. The other system was an array of 10 inch long tapered ground rods, strung on stainless steel cable. The focus here is on the pulse test technique used and its relevance to actual lightning strike conditions.

Walko, Lawrence C.

1991-01-01

233

Digital Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study hardware implementations of cellular automata as reliable, adjustable, and secure commication lines. We discuss energy efficient digital wires on a nano-scale, all-optical digital wires, and digital wires as power lines and present performance data of a prototype digital wire, a six cells wide and ten cells long Boolean network. We show that digital wires have the following advantages: (i) Fixed pulse shape (pulses have a rectangular shape with a constant height and a constant width and produce no echos); (ii) Robust against electric smog. Digital wires based on semiconductor technology are effectively inert against electro-magnetic radiation, except for low-frequency radiation (heat) and high frequency radiation (X-rays). Digital wires based on plasma technology have in addition a very high tolerance for heat and X-rays. In digital wire the pulse speed can be rapidly adjusted. Signals on digital wires can be encrypted. Some digital wires can be used as general purpose computers. The data and the code are the input of the wire. Then both travel along the wire and `collide'. The collision is the computation. The result travels to the end of the wire, for further processing, as parallel input by a CPU, an actuator, or another digital wire.

Brown, Benny; Hubler, Alfred

2009-03-01

234

Strain measurement in a concrete beam by use of the Brillouin-scattering-based distributed fiber sensor with single-mode fibers embedded in glass fiber reinforced polymer rods and bonded to steel reinforcing bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strain measurement of a 1.65-m reinforced concrete beam by use of a distributed fiber strain sensor with a 50-cm spatial resolution and 5-cm readout resolution is reported. The strain-measurement accuracy is plus-or-minus15 mu][epsilon (mum/m) according to the system calibration in the laboratory environment with non-uniform-distributed strain and plus-or-minus5 mu][epsilon with uniform strain distribution. The strain distribution has been measured for one-point and two-point loading patterns for optical fibers embedded in pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) rods and those bonded to steel reinforcing bars. In the one-point loading case, the strain deviations are plus-or-minus7 and plus-or-minus15 mu][epsilon for fibers embedded in the GFRP rods and fibers bonded to steel reinforcing bars, respectively, whereas the strain deviation is plus-or-minus20 mu][epsilon for the two-point loading case.

Zeng, Xiaodong; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chhoa, Chia Yee; Bremner, Theodore W.; Brown, Anthony W.; DeMerchant, Michael D.; Ferrier, Graham; Kalamkarov, Alexander L.; Georgiades, Anastasis V.

2002-08-01

235

Fixed abrasive diamond wire machining—part I: process monitoring and wire tension force  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process monitoring and mechanics of fixed abrasive diamond wire saw machining are investigated in this study. New techniques to affix diamond particles to a steel wire core have advanced to make this process feasible for the machining of ceramics, wood, and foam materials. Developments in fixed abrasive diamond wire machining are first reviewed. Advantages of using fixed abrasive diamond

W. I. Clark; A. J. Shih; C. W. Hardin; R. L. Lemaster; S. B. McSpadden

2003-01-01

236

Wire Maze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners create an electrical-circuit maze out of wire, then try to pass a paperclip through the maze without touching the wire. If the paper clip touches the wire, it closes the circuit, causing a light to come on or a buzzer to sound. This activity requires a basic understanding of how to build an electrical circuit.

Institute, Worcester P.

2005-01-01

237

Nano-structured polyaniline-ionic liquid composite film coated steel wire for headspace solid-phase microextraction of organochlorine pesticides in water.  

PubMed

A novel nano-structured polyaniline-ionic liquid (i.e. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, BMIPF(6)) composite (BPAN) film coated steel wire was prepared by electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the obtained porous BPAN coating consisted of nanofibers, whose diameter ranged from 50 to 80 nm. Furthermore, the novel nano-structured composite coating was very stable at relatively high temperatures (up to 350 °C) and it could be used for more 250 times without obvious decrease of the extraction efficiency. The novel BPAN coating was used for the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of organochlorine pesticides (i.e. hexachlorocyolohexane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The BPAN coating showed better analytical capability on the whole compared with common polyaniline (PANI) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coatings. The key parameters influencing extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including desorption time, stirring speed, extraction temperature, extraction time and ionic strength. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for single fiber repeatability ranged from 2.3 to 8.7% (n=6) and the RSDs for fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (n=6) were 4.2-12.1%, respectively. The linear ranges exceeded three magnitudes with correlation coefficients above 0.99. The detection limits were 0.12-0.31 ng L(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in lake water, waste water and sewage treatment plant effluent with good recoveries from 88.9 to 112.9%. PMID:21821255

Gao, Zhanqi; Li, Wenchao; Liu, Benzhi; Liang, Feng; He, Huan; Yang, Shaogui; Sun, Cheng

2011-09-16

238

Rod Has High Tensile Strength And Low Thermal Expansion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thoriated tungsten extension rod fabricated to replace stainless-steel extension rod attached to linear variable-differential transformer in gap-measuring gauge. Threads formed on end of rod by machining with special fixtures and carefully chosen combination of speeds and feeds.

Smith, D. E.; Everton, R. L.; Howe, E.; O'Malley, M.

1996-01-01

239

VIEW NORTHEAST, LEFT BUILDING 40 WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) RIGHT BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW NORTHEAST, LEFT BUILDING 40 WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) RIGHT BUILDING 42 ROPE SHOP (1910) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

240

Rod centralizer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a well tool. It includes a pump rod and a centralizer having a single piece cylindrical body rigidly mounted on the rod, an upper pair of ribs integral with an upper portion of the body and extending outwardly therefrom in opposite directions, and a lower pair of ribs integral with a lower portion of the body and extending outwardly therefrom in opposite directions. The lower pair of ribs being displaced on the body from the upper pair of ribs ninety degrees about the central longitudinal axis of the rod, the body having a circumferential intermediate portion integral with the upper and lower portions between the top ends of the lower ribs and the bottom ends of the upper pair of ribs, the intermediate portion of the body being of lower mechanical strength than the portions thereof provided with the ribs.

Sable, D.E.

1991-03-05

241

Improved method of preparing composite superconducting wire  

DOEpatents

An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb/sub 3/Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin is described. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb/sub 3/Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Finnemore, D.K.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schmidt, F.A.; Owen, C.V.

1981-04-24

242

Method of preparing composite superconducting wire  

DOEpatents

An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb.sub.3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb.sub.3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Finnemore, Douglas K. (Ames, IA); Ostenson, Jerome E. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Owen, Charles V. (Ames, IA)

1985-08-06

243

The Effects of a Hydrogen Environment on the Lifetime of Small-Diameter Drift Chamber Anode Wires  

SciTech Connect

Possible deterioration of anode sense wires used in a hydrogen-filled neutron detector is investigated. Wires were loaded with free weights and put into a wire detector environment. Stainless Steel, Tungsten, and Platinum wires did not break after exposure to charge equivalent to many wire lifetimes. Furthermore, exposure to hydrogen gas caused no noticeable surface degradation or change in wire yield strength.

King, J; Smith, T; Kunkle, J; Castelaz, J; Thomson, S; Burstein, Z; Bernstein, A; Rosenberg, L; Hefner, M

2005-04-29

244

The effects of a hydrogen environment on the lifetime of small-diameter drift chamber anode wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possible deterioration of anode sense wires used in a hydrogen-filled neutron detector is investigated. Wires were loaded with free weights and put into a wire detector environment. Stainless steel, tungsten, and platinum wires did not break after exposure to charge equivalent to many wire lifetimes. Furthermore, exposure to hydrogen gas caused no noticeable surface degradation or change in wire yield strength.

Smith, T.; Kunkle, J.; Castelaz, J.; Thomson, S.; Burstein, Z.; Bernstein, A.; Rosenberg, L.; Heffner, M.; King, J.

2005-09-01

245

Chinese NiTi wire--a new orthodontic alloy.  

PubMed

Chinese NiTi wire was studied by means of a bending test to determine wire stiffness, springback, and maximum bending moments. Chinese NiTi wire has an unusual deactivation curve (unlike steel and nitinol wires) in which relatively constant forces are produced over a long range of action. The characteristic flexural stiffness of NiTi wire is determined by the amount of activation. At large activations NiTi wires has a stiffness of only 7% that of a comparable stainless steel wire, and at small activations 28% of steel wire. For the same activation at large deflections, the forces produced are 36% that of a comparable nitinol wire. Chinese NiTi wire demonstrates phenomenal springback. It can be deflected 1.6 times as far as nitinol wire or 4.4 times as far as stainless steel wire without appreciable permanent deformation. NiTi wire is highly useful in clinical situations that require a low-stiffness wire with an extremely large springback. PMID:3890554

Burstone, C J; Qin, B; Morton, J Y

1985-06-01

246

Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (?=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of ~1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 ?m. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90° with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 ?m. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 ?m) and steel wire d=25 ?m were exploded in vacuum (10-5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire.

Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, Vitaly; Wessel, F. J.; van Drie, A.

1999-01-01

247

Casting of wire-inserted composite aluminum alloy strip using a twin roll caster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire-inserted composite strip could be cast using a twin toll caster. In the present study, the effects of the melt temperature and diameter of the wire on the fabrication of the wire-inserted strip were investigated. A downward melt drag twin roll caster was used. The matrix was 1050 aluminum alloy, and mild steel wire was inserted. The wire was neither

T. Haga; K. Takahashi; H. Watari; S. Kumai

2007-01-01

248

Comparison of nickel-titanium and beta titanium wire sizes to conventional orthodontic arch wire materials.  

PubMed

The theoretical strength, stiffness, and range of nickel-titanium and beta titanium arch wires are compared with several stainless steel or cobalt-chrome wires. With the apparent stiffness as the criterion, equivalent force systems are established in the elastic region between the conventional and the new arch wire alloys. In bending, such calculations show that the nickel-titanium alloy makes superior starting wire, 0.016, 0.018, and 0.018 by 0.018 inch wires having stiffnesses similar to multistranded 0.0175, round 0.012, and 0.014 inch stainless steel wires, respectively, but with about twice the strength and range. By the same method of analysis, the beta titanium alloy makes a particularly good intermediate arch wire, the 0.017 by 0.025 and the 0.019 by 0.025 inch sizes having about twice the stiffness in the horizontal plane but equal rigidity in the vertical plane when compared with 0.016 and 0.018 inch stainless steel. In torsion not even the largest sizes of nickel-titanium (0.021 by 0.025 inch) or beta titanium (0.019 by 0.025 inch) wire meet the stiffness requirements of an 0.019 by 0.026 inch stainless steel wire, thereby making the established alloys the finishing wire of choice. PMID:6940456

Kusy, R P

1981-06-01

249

Residential Wiring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second in a series of three curriculum packages on wiring, these materials for a five-unit course were developed to prepare postsecondary students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The five units are: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) rough-in; (3) service; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; and (5) load…

Taylor, Mark

250

Electrochemical preparation of poly(p-phenylenediamine-co-aniline) composite coating on a stainless steel wire for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic determination of some derivatives of benzene.  

PubMed

A poly(p-phenylenediamine-co-aniline) composite coating was prepared on a stainless steel wire through electrochemical method. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and thermogravimetry. It showed thin slice shape and netlike microstructure, and thus it had large surface area and large extraction capacity. When the resulting fiber was used for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of some derivatives of benzene (i.e. chlorobenzene, 1,3-dimethylbenzene, 1,2-dimethylbenzene, 2-chlorotoluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene), followed by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis, it presented better performance than the polyaniline coated stainless steel wire. Under the optimized conditions, the GC peak areas were linear to their concentration in the ranges of about 0.5-500 ?g L(-1), with correlation coefficients of 0.9911-0.9989; the detection limits were 0.2-0.88 ?g L(-1)(S/N=3). The run-to-run RSD was smaller than 5.5% (n=5), and the fiber-to-fiber RSD was 3.5%-12.7% (n=3). The fiber was quite stable and durable; after it was used for about 140 times, its extraction efficiency kept almost unchanged. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of the derivatives of benzene in waste water, and the recoveries were 86.9%-107.7%. PMID:22939158

Rong, Xu; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

2012-08-30

251

Singing Rod  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can a solid metal rod be made to emit a high-pitched squeal? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate the resonance and acoustic properties that result from stroking a solid aluminum bar and causing it to resonate. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable K-12 national science education standards. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions, and presentation techniques. The content of the activity is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve

2004-01-01

252

Wire Wise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

Swanquist, Barry

1998-01-01

253

Manufacturing and Properties of Yarns Containing Metal Wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, conductive yarn manufacturing that is formed by wrapping metal wire around the cotton yarn is described. Roving material at different thicknesses and copper and stainless steel-based wires having different diameters were fed into the ring frame to produce yarns containing metal wires. Performance of the composite yarns was tested by measuring yarn count, hairiness, and tensile properties.

Ayse Bedeloglu; Nilsen Sunter; Yalcin Bozkurt

2011-01-01

254

Computer simulations to study the effect of adiabatic heating on rod penetration  

SciTech Connect

We use computer simulations to help us understand the experimental observation that depleted uranium (DU) rods penetrate more steel than equal density tungsten alloy (WA) rods, and that this advantage depends on velocity and fineness ratio. Our simulations used thermal softening. Although the DU rods exhibit shear fracture instead, both phenomena result in a loss of hoop strength, and help to keep the projectile residue from interfering with the incoming rod. Our simulations show that rods of DU (or other alloy with strong thermal softening) penetrate more steel than rods of WA (for alloys with little thermal softening), and show velocity and fineness ratio dependencies that are in qualitative agreement with experiment.

Reaugh, J.E.

1993-08-01

255

Mechanical properties and clinical applications of orthodontic wires.  

PubMed

This review article describes the mechanical properties and clinical applications of stainless steel, cobalt-chromium, nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and multistranded wires. The consolidation of this literature will provide the clinician with the basic working knowledge on orthodontic wire characteristics and usage. Mechanical properties of these wires are generally assessed by tensile, bending, and torsional tests. Although wire characteristics determined by these tests do not necessarily reflect the behavior of the wires under clinical conditions, they provide a basis for comparison of these wires. The characteristics desirable in an orthodontic wire are a large springback, low stiffness, good formability, high stored energy, biocompatibility and environmental stability, low surface friction, and the capability to be welded or soldered to auxiliaries. Stainless steel wires have remained popular since their introduction to orthodontics because of their formability, biocompatibility and environmental stability, stiffness, resilience, and low cost. Cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) wires can be manipulated in a softened state and then subjected to heat treatment. Heat treatment of Co-Cr wires results in a wire with properties similar to those of stainless steel. Nitinol wires have a good springback and low stiffness. This alloy, however, has poor formability and joinability. Beta-titanium wires provide a combination of adequate springback, average stiffness, good formability, and can be welded to auxiliaries. Multistranded wires have a high springback and low stiffness when compared with solid stainless steel wires. Optimal use of these orthodontic wires can be made by carefully selecting the appropriate wire type and size to meet the demands of a particular clinical situation. PMID:2667330

Kapila, S; Sachdeva, R

1989-08-01

256

Influence of AlB 2 compound on elimination of incoherent precipitation in artificial aging of wires drawn from redraw rod extruded from billets cast of alloy AA6101 by vertical direct chill casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a processing method of high conductive (HC) and extra-high conductive (EHC) electrical wires from AA-6101 alloy to manufacture aerial non-composite, composite, and various types of OPGW conductors has been presented. In HV-transmission lines, the most important problem is optimisation between tensile strength of conductor material and electrical conductivity. Alloys AA-6101 and AA-6201 are the best 6xxx series

Sedat Karabay

2008-01-01

257

VIEW SOUTHEAST LEFTBUILDING 25NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW SOUTHEAST LEFT-BUILDING 25-NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) CENTER BUILDING 27 PATTERN SHOP (c.1853) NEXT BUILDING 28 BLACKSMITH SHOP (1885) NEXT BUILDING 32 MACHINE SHOP (1890) EXTREME RIGHT-DOBBINS BUILDING (NOT AM STEEL & WIRE) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

258

39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod or poker at right was used to unplug iron notch. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

259

University Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University Wire is a daily Internet news service for college newspapers. Included are a story of the day, a large list of pointers to Internet resources in topics such as current headlines, politics, medicine and health, and women's resources; a "Kopyedit Korner," with pointers to writing reference materials; a placement center with job openings lists for college journalists; a large selection of pointers to college newspapers; and pointers to general circulation newspapers. Pointers to student and professional journalism organizations, as well as a calendar of journalism related events, are also provided. University Wire is a service of The Main Quad.

1997-01-01

260

Ford nuclear reactor shim-safety rod replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shim-safety rods in the Ford nuclear reactor core are borated stainless steel and were installed in 1962. Rod reactivities have decreased in the 10 to 20% range over the intervening 33 yr. Replacement rods of essentially identical metallurgical composition are not available. A boron-aluminum alloy replacement material was made available to the Ford nuclear reactor by Eagle-Picher, a leading

Burn

1995-01-01

261

Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires  

SciTech Connect

Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

2008-07-11

262

Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rods are described, wherein geometric combinations of relatively weak neutron absorber materials such as stainless steel, zirconium or INCONEL, and relatively strong neutron absorber materials, such as hafnium, silver-indium cadmium and boron carbide, are used to obtain the reactivity worths required to reach zero boron change load follow. One embodiment includes a grey rod which has

John V. Miller; William R. Carlson; Michael B. Yarbrough

1991-01-01

263

An electrode array study of electrochemical inhomogeneity of zinc in zinc\\/steel couple during galvanic corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local electrochemical properties of anodic metal within a zinc\\/steel couple immersed in seawater was studied via an electrode array composed of zinc and mild steel wire sensors. It showed that the potential and current density distribution of zinc wires were inhomogeneous, and the main anodic area moved from the zinc wires adjacent to the steel wires and even further

Da-Lei Zhang; Wei Wang; Yan Li

2010-01-01

264

Novel unbreakable solid-phase microextraction fibers on stainless steel wire and application for the determination of oxadiargyl in environmental and agricultural samples in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Sol-gel based solid-phase microextraction fibers supported by a stainless steel wire were fabricated and employed for GC-MS determination of oxadiargyl in real samples. The fibers were based on four compounds with different polarity: polar and non-polar (end-capped) poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and poly(ethylene-propyleneglycol)-monobutyl ether (UCON). For this purpose, the surface of the stainless steel was initially modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane. The results of the modification procedure were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. After the modification, four different sol-gel based SPME fibers with different values of polarity, polar and non-polar PDMS, PEG, and UCON have been prepared and investigated. They are supposed to be employed to determinate oxadiargyl in agricultural and environmental samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Most important parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were also optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was found to be linear for the concentrations ranging from 100ngL(-1) to 2mgL(-1) with R(2)=0.997. Limit of detection (LOD) of 40ngL(-1) and relative standard deviation of less than 10% were obtained. Relative recovery in environmental and agricultural samples was in the range of 73-96%. PMID:25059153

Es-Haghi, Ali; Baghernejad, Masoud; Bagheri, Habib

2014-10-01

265

VIEW SOUTH, LEFT BUILDING 40WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) CENTER BUILDING 42ROPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW SOUTH, LEFT- BUILDING 40-WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) CENTER- BUILDING 42-ROPE SHOP (1910) RIGHT- BUILDING 32; MACHINE SHOP (1890) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

266

VIEW SOUTHLEFTBUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) CENTERBUILDING 27WIRE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW SOUTH-LEFT-BUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) CENTER-BUILDING 27-WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

267

Effect of fluoride on friction between bracket and wire  

PubMed Central

Background: Friction is usually encountered during sliding technique for orthodontic space closure. This study aims to investigate the effect of fluoride on frictional resistance between stainless steel orthodontic brackets and steel and NiTi arch wires. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 standard 022 stainless steel brackets were used in this experimental study. 0.016 and 0.019 × 0.025 inch steel and NiTi arch wires were tested. The frictional resistance between wires and brackets immersed in the following three solutions were measured: Sultan fluoride gel containing 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride at pH 3.5 for 4 minutes, aquafresh mouth wash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride at pH of 5.1 for 1 minute twice a day for 8 weeks and physiologic serum (pH=7) as the control group. Static and dynamic frictional forces were measured using Testometric machine. Surface topography of wires and brackets was qualitatively assessed using electron microscopy. Three-way and two-way variance analysis and complementary Tuckey analysis were applied to compare the groups for any significant differences (P<0.05). Results: The average static and dynamic frictional forces for all bracket-wire combinations immersed in Sultan fluoride gel were higher than those immersed in NAF and control groups (P<0.001).The forces measured for rectangular wires were higher than round wires (P<0.001). Frictional resistance of 0.016 inch NiTi wire was more than that of the steel one but the difference between steel and NiTi 0.019 × 0.25 arch wires was not significant. Conclusion: Friction between steel brackets and nickel titanium and steel wires is affected by prophylactic agents containing high doses of fluoride and acidity.

Alavi, Shiva; Farahi, Ali

2011-01-01

268

Comparative study on corrosion behaviour of Nitinol and stainless steel orthodontic wires in simulated saliva solution in presence of fluoride ions.  

PubMed

Localized corrosion and effects of pre-passivation treatment of Nitinol and SS304 orthodontic wires in simulated saliva solution in the presence and absence of fluoride ions were investigated by means of potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarisations. Results revealed that Nitinol does not show pitting corrosion in saliva solution however, SS304 shows pitting corrosion. Meanwhile fluoride ion has deteriorative effect on pitting corrosion of Nitinol, while its effect on SS304 was marginally constructive. Additionally, the presence of artificial crevice has no effect on corrosion behaviour in the presence of fluoride. Pre-passivation treatment has positive influence on pitting corrosion of both alloys in the presence of F(-) ions. PMID:23498236

Mirjalili, M; Momeni, M; Ebrahimi, N; Moayed, M H

2013-05-01

269

Computer simulations to study the effect of adiabatic heating on rod penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use computer simulations to help us understand the experimental observation that depleted uranium (DU) rods penetrate more steel than equal density tungsten alloy (WA) rods, and that this advantage depends on velocity and fineness ratio. Our simulations used thermal softening. Although the DU rods exhibit shear fracture instead, both phenomena result in a loss of hoop strength, and help

Reaugh

1993-01-01

270

An aging study of wire chambers with dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect

The authors report results on the aging of different types of resistive and non-resistive wires in wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. Among the Freon impurities detected in our DME batches, only Freon-11 was found to contribute to the aging process. Of the resistive wires, Nicotin and Stablohm produced fast aging, whereas stainless steel withstood extended irradiation in purified DME (up to 1 C/cm) without any apparent damage. Gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires produced results comparable to those of the stainless steel.

Jibaly, M.; Chrusch, P. Jr.; Hilgenberg, G.; Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.; Sauli, F.; Gaudaen, J.

1989-02-01

271

Porous Body Model for Predicting Temperature Distributions in Wire Wrapped Fuel and Blanket Assemblies of a Lmfbr.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Existing methods of thermal analysis of a wire wrapped rod bundle of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor are based on the principle of subchannel analysis. A model for thermal transport in wire wrapped rod bundles is developed here. The model is similar i...

E. U. Khan W. M. Rohsenow A. A. Sonin N. E. Todreas

1975-01-01

272

Porous body model for predicting temperature distributions in wire wrapped fuel and blanket assemblies of a LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing methods of thermal analysis of a wire wrapped rod bundle of a ; Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor are based on the principle of subchannel ; analysis. A model for thermal transport in wire wrapped rod bundles is developed ; here. The model is similar in principle to the one which has long been ; successfully used in chemical

E. U. Khan; W. M. Rohsenow; A. A. Sonin; N. E. Todreas

1975-01-01

273

Metallurgical Analysis of Crack Initiation of Wire-Cut Electrical Discharge-Machined Spline Actuators Made of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spline actuators made of investment cast 17-4 PH (precipitation hardening) stainless steel were found to contain micro-cracks.\\u000a The cracked actuators were subjected to optical and scanning electron microscopy and hardness testing, which revealed that\\u000a the failure occurred due to fatigue crack initiation and growth after electrical discharge machining (EDM). The rehardened\\u000a layer produced by the EDM remained after machining, and

Ahmad-Reza Etemadi; Bahram Fazel; Armin Emami

274

75 FR 26199 - Stainless Steel Bar from India: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...February 1, 2010). On February 24, 2010, Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd. requested an...Petitioners''), for a review of Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd., Facor Steels...antidumping duty administrative review, covering Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd/Precision...

2010-05-11

275

Fungal-induced corrosion of wire rope  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was found on the interior so the wooden spools, and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments and an extensive review of the literature demonstrated causal relationships between storage conditions and fungal growth and localized corrosion.

Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P. [Naval Research Lab., Stennis Space Center, MS (United States)

1995-10-01

276

Fatigue behaviour of friction welded medium carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel dissimilar joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the fatigue behaviour of friction welded medium carbon steel–austenitic stainless steel (MCS–ASS) dissimilar joints. Commercial grade medium carbon steel rods of 12mm diameter and AISI 304 grade austenitic stainless steel rods of 12mm diameter were used to fabricate the joints. A constant speed, continuous drive friction welding machine was used to fabricate the joints. Fatigue life of

R. Paventhan; P. R. Lakshminarayanan; V. Balasubramanian

2011-01-01

277

Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires in tension, bending, and torsion.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of three sizes of stainless steel (SS), nickel-titanium (NT), and titanium-molybdenum (TM) orthodontic wires were studied in tension, bending, and torsion. The wires (0.016 inch, 0.017 by 0.025 inch, and 0.019 by 0.025 inch) were tested in the as-received condition. Tensile testing and stiffness testing machines along with a torsional instrument were used. Mean values and standard deviations of properties were computed. The data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance using a factorial design. Means were ranked by a Tukey interval calculated at the 95 percent level of confidence. In tension, the stainless steel wires had the least maximum elastic strain or springback, whereas the titanium-molybdenum wires had the most. Higher values of springback indicate the capacity for an increased range of activation clinically. In bending and torsion, the stainless steel wires had the least stored energy at a fixed moment, whereas the nickel-titanium wires had the most. Spring rates in bending and torsion, however, were highest for stainless steel wires and lowest for nickel-titanium wires. A titanium-molybdenum teardrop closing loop delivered less than one half the force of a comparable stainless steel loop for similar activations. PMID:6961793

Drake, S R; Wayne, D M; Powers, J M; Asgar, K

1982-09-01

278

Control rod drive  

DOEpatents

A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

Hawke, Basil C. (Solana Beach, CA)

1986-01-01

279

Lightning discharge protection rod  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for protecting an in-air vehicle from damage due to a lighning strike is disclosed. It is an extremely simple device consisting of a sacrificial graphite composite rod, approximately the diameter of a pencil with a length of about five inches. The sacrificial rod is constructed with the graphite fibers running axially within the rod in a manner that best provides a path of conduction axially from the trailing edge of an aircraft to the trailing end of the rod. The sacrificial rod is inserted into an attachment hole machined into trailing edges of aircraft flight surfaces, such as a vertical fin cap and attached with adhesive in a manner not prohibiting the conduction path between the rod and the aircraft. The trailing end of the rod may be tapered for aerodynamic and esthetic requirements. This rod is sacrificial but has the capability to sustain several lightning strikes and still provide protection.

Bryan, Charles F., Jr. (inventor)

1987-01-01

280

Results from the irradiation of stainless steel and copper by 23 MeV ?-quanta in the atmosphere of molecular deuterium at a pressure of 2 kbar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal samples were arranged inside a "finger-type" high-pressure chamber (DHPC-FT) filled by deuterium. They were two aluminum rods, a copper rod, two specimens of homogeneous YMn2 alloy, and a stainless steel wire. The pressure of molecular deuterium in DHPC-FT was about 2 kbar. The samples were irradiated by braking ?-quanta at a threshold energy of 23 MeV. All the samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray (roentgen) microelement probe analysis (RMPA). Considerable changes in the surface structure and elemental composition were found for the samples of copper, aluminum, YMn2 alloy, and stainless steel. Unusual results were analyzed in detail and compared with the earlier data.

Didyk, A. Yu.; Wisniewski, R.

2014-05-01

281

Piston rod seal  

DOEpatents

In a piston rod seal of the type comprising a gland through which the piston rod is passed the piston is provided with a sleeve surrounding the piston rod and extending axially so as to axially partly overlap the gland when the piston is in its bottom dead center position.

Lindskoug, Stefan (Malmo, SE)

1984-01-01

282

Control rod cluster arrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a nuclear reactor including nuclear core which is cooled and moderated by light water, the nuclear core comprising a plurality of parallel arranged openings therethrough and interspersed among the fuel assemblies. A control rod cluster arrangement comprises load follow control rod cluster assemblies with each load follow control rod cluster assembly being adapted to slidingly fit within

W. L. Orr; P. K. Doshi; C. M. Mildrum; T. R. Freeman

1987-01-01

283

Rod Ricochet Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model to predict the ballistic ricochet of rod penetrators is presented. The model is based on the premise that the phenomenology of ricochet is one where the impacting rod feeds into a plastic hinge located at the rod/ target interface, and is thus div...

S. B. Segletes

2004-01-01

284

Applications of surface analysis in the wire industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of wire is judged not only by its physical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue resistance, but also by its surface finish. The surface roughness, oxide formation, cleanliness, and plating homogeneity and porosity are just a few of the surface properties than can influence the performance of a wire product. Coupled to this is the large amount of surface area generated in drawing wire. For example, a ten pound spool holds nine miles of 0.006? diameter stainless steel wire. For these reasons surface analysis has become important both to the manufacturer and consumer of wire products. When surface analysis equipment such as AES, ESCA, and SIMS was first becoming commercially available in the late sixties and early seventies, the wire industry was beginning to enter a phase of technological development for many of its products. Wire manufacturers and users began using surface analysis to investigate such topics as adhesion of brass plated automobile tire cord to rubber and diffusion of layered deposits. Examples of surface analysis used for process control, problem solving, and project development include discoloration problems on stainless steel wire, welding problems with composite wires, diffusion formed brass coatings, and diffusion problems with solder coated and Cu plated steel wire.

Stout, David A.

285

More on the Transition from Rigid to Eroding-Rod Penetration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of rigid long rods, during deep penetration into thick metallic targets, is quite different from that of eroding rods. These differences are discussed in the present paper, through a series of 2D numerical simulations, compared with experimental data, on steel rods impacting aluminum targets. Special emphasis is placed on the threshold impact velocity, where the rods are starting to deform. At these velocities, penetration depths of the rods decrease substantially, and we were trying to account for these reductions in our simulations. We also study the effect of rod aspect ratio (L/D) on its penetration efficiency (P/L).

Dekel, E.; Rosenberg, Z.

2004-07-01

286

In vitro corrosion characteristics of commercially available orthodontic wires.  

PubMed

The corrosion characteristics of orthodontic alloy wires were investigated both in as-received and grinded conditions in 0.9% NaCl solution by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The amount of each metal ion released from most alloys was larger for the grinded wires than for the as-received wires (p<0.01). The fact that the beta-Ti alloy wire (Ti-Mo-Zr) does not contain allergenic metals such as Ni, Co, and Cr, and the finding that resistance to both general and localized corrosion is the highest among the six wires investigated suggest that this wire is the most biocompatible orthodontic wire. Since a small amount of Ni, Cr or Co ions were released from Ni-Ti, Co-Cr and stainless steel wires, special attention should be paid during their clinical use for patients with allergic tendencies. PMID:15287568

Yonekura, Yasuyuki; Endo, Kazuhiko; Iijima, Masahiro; Ohno, Hiroki; Mizoguchi, Itaru

2004-06-01

287

Multiple fuel rod gripper  

SciTech Connect

The multiple fuel rod gripper comprises a plurality of split tube collets arranged to be inserted into corresponding tapered holes in a locking plate. When the gripper has been positioned to have a plurality of fuel rods disposed in the holes of locking plate, an actuating mechanism causes the collets to be inserted into the tapered holes thereby causing the fuel rods to be inserted in the collets. The taper of the holes forces the collets into locking engagement with the fuel rods so that the fuel rods may be extracted from the fuel assembly.

Shields, E. P.

1985-11-05

288

New Developments in Clad Metal Wire and Shielding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the technical properties and characteristics of two of these new developments, namely, aluminum-steel-copper shielding tape for direct buried cable, and copper clad aluminum wire for communications and electrical applications.

H. H. Friedman J. J. Ronan

1966-01-01

289

Development of a solid-phase microextraction fiber by chemical binding of polymeric ionic liquid on a silica coated stainless steel wire.  

PubMed

A novel approach was developed for the fabrication of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber by coating stainless steel fiber with a polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) through covalent bond. The stainless steel fiber was sequentially coated with a gold film by replacement reaction between Fe and Au when immerged in chloroauric acid, assembled with a monolayer of 3-(mercaptopropyl) triethoxysilane on the gold layer through the Au-S bond, and coated with a silica layer by the hydrolysis and polycondensation reaction of the surface-bonded siloxane moieties and the active silicate solution. Then, 1-vinyl-3-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazolium chloride ionic liquid was anchored on the silica layer by covalent bond, and the PIL film was further formed by free radical copolymerization between 1-vinyl-3-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazdium and vinyl-substituted imidazolium with azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. Parameters influencing the preparation of PIL fiber were optimized, and the developed SPME fiber has a coating thickness of ~20 ?m with good thermal stability and long lifetime. The performance of the PIL fiber was evaluated by analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. The developed PIL fiber showed good linearity between 0.5 and 20 ?g l(-1) with regression coefficient in the range of 0.963-0.999, detection limit ranging from 0.05 to 0.25 ?g l(-1), and relative standard deviation of 9.2-29% (n=7). This developed PIL fiber exhibited comparable analytical performance to commercial 7 ?m thickness PDMS fiber in the extraction of PAHs. The spiked recoveries for three real water samples at 0.5-5 ?g l(-1) levels were 49.6-111% for the PIL fiber and 40.8-103% for the commercial PDMS fiber. PMID:22340892

Pang, Long; Liu, Jing-Fu

2012-03-23

290

General Nonlinear Equilibrium Equation Solution of the Straight Wire Strand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most analyses of wire ropes are based on the well known classical treatise on elasticity by Love in 1944. A general theory of thin rods are included and investigated extensively. General equilibrium equations of a thin rod on arc length are derived and presented. The analytical and numerical solutions of wire ropes are based on the equilibrium equations as the starting point for the solutions in most of the papers. Helical rod model is first introduced by Phillips and Costello based on the equilibrium equations given by Love. General nonlinear equilibrium equation solution of the straight wire strand is given in this study and showed that it is harmonious with the results presented by Costello.

Erdönmez, C.; Imrak, C. E.

2007-09-01

291

Development of a precision wire feeder for small-diameter wire  

SciTech Connect

At Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, the author designed and fabricated a precision wire feeder to be used with high energy density (electron beam and laser beam) welding for weld joints where filler wire might be needed to fill a gap or to adjust the chemical composition so that a crack-free weld could be made. The wire feeder incorporates a 25,000 step-per-revolution motor to power a urethane-coated drive roll. A microprocessor-based controller provides precise control of the motor and allows both continuous and pulsed feeding of the wire. A unidirectional 0.75-in.-dia ball bearing is used to press the wire against the drive roll. A slight constant backward tension is maintained on the wire spool by a Bodine torque motor. A Teflon tube is used to guide the wire from the drive roll to the vicinity of the weld, where a hypodermic needle is used to aim the wire into the weld pool. The operation of the wire feeder was demonstrated by feeding a 10-mil-dia, Type 304 stainless steel wire into a variety of CO{sub 2} laser beam welds. The resulting welds are smooth and continuous, and the welds are considered to be completely satisfactory for a variety of applications.

Brandon, E.D.

1995-03-01

292

Fatigue Property of Stainless Steel FES Electrode in Hanks' Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue property of the wire rope with 19 strands used as an FES electrode was investigated. The wire rope was made of high manganese high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. Fatigue life of the wire rope in Hanks' solution at 310 K was evaluated using a dual-driven rotating-bending fatigue machine. Each wire of the rope was worn out and the cross

Y. Iguchi; T. Narushima; K. Suzuki; S. Yoshida; M. Watanabe; T. Kinami; C. Ouchi

293

Places Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you curious to learn more about cities? You'd do well to make a beeline for the Places Wire site, which offers a cornucopia of material on urban parks, public policy, architecture, planning, and other topics. In sum total, the site is a "curated feed of news and commentary on architecture, landscape and urbanism." The site has partnered with 20 different organizations to provide new content on a daily basis. Some of the recent articles that have found their way to the site include "9 Suggestions for Changing DC's Height Limit" and "The Demise of the Public Hearing." Visitors can also use the drop-down View tab to scroll through the last few hours or days, as the content is quite dynamic. One gem that should not be missed is the archived appearance of Frank Lloyd Wright as a guest on the 1950s television program "What's My Line?"

294

Titanium-niobium, a new finishing wire alloy.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of the newly introduced titanium-niobium finishing wires were investigated. Both in bending and torsional loading mode, the stiffness, yield point, post-yield behavior, and springback of titanium-niobium wires were experimentally determined and compared to those of equally sized stainless steel wires. The experimentally obtained values were also validated with theoretical values from engineering formulas of cantilever deformations. The ratios for these parameters for the two materials proved to be different in bending and torsion. The stiffness of titanium-niobium in bending is roughly half of that of stainless steel, whereas in torsion it is roughly one-third. These characteristics enable the clinician to use titanium-niobium for creative bends without the excessive force levels of steel wires. The springback of titanium-niobium in bending is 14% lower than that of steel, whereas in torsion it is about the same or even slightly higher than that of steel, thus making it possible to utilize the wire for even major third-order corrections. Finally, the weldability of titanium-niobium wires was found to be good, so it is possible to weld wires of different dimensions together for the generation of differentiated force systems. PMID:11168279

Dalstra, M; Denes, G; Melsen, B

2000-02-01

295

The tensile fatigue of wire rope: A new approach  

SciTech Connect

The fatigue behaviour in air and seawater of zinc coated steel wire taken from a 40 mm diameter wire rope has been studied. Seawater had little effect on short term tensile strength but it reduced fatigue life by an amount which increased with increasing mean stress and decreasing test frequency. The application of fretting during fatigue testing resulted in very low endurances, which were similar to those measured in fatigue tests on wire ropes.

Thorpe, T.W.; Rance, A.

1983-05-01

296

Hydrogen embrittlement failure of hot dip galvanised high tensile wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of failure of high carbon eutectoid steel wires is investigated. During the production stage, i.e. cold drawing and subsequent coiling\\/stranding operations, the wires of ?4.0 mm diameter failed by central splitting along longitudinal planes. Microscopic examination, fractography and mechanical tests along with acoustic emission monitoring were carried out on the wire samples. The experimental results confirm that the

N. K Mukhopadhyay; G Sridhar; N Parida; S Tarafder; V. R Ranganath

1999-01-01

297

Multi-composite wire for high performance pulsed magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multi-composite (MC) wire is a new concept in the pursuit of obtaining the ideal conductor for high performance pulsed magnets. The MC wire consists of a braided, insulating sleeve enclosing a bundle of thin wires: conductor (Cu, CuNb) and reinforcement (e.g., high strength steel), with all free spaces filled by a tight packing of high strength fibers that do

Kris Rossel; Fritz Herlach; Johan Vanacken; J. VanHumbeeck

2004-01-01

298

VIEW NORTHLEFTBUILDING 27 WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) CENTERBUILDING 102 ELMER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW NORTH-LEFT-BUILDING 27 WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) CENTER-BUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) RIGHT-BUILDING 101 CLARK STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

299

Wire Chamber Aging and Wire Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on wire chamber aging has shown surprising results indicating that anode wire material may have a strong influence on the useful life-time of a chamber or counter. The aging process discussed here is related to changes in the surface characteristics of the anode wires. Those changes may be due to an oxidation process involving molecules produced from the

Muzaffer Atac

1987-01-01

300

Properties and potential for application of steel reinforced polymer and steel reinforced grout composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces steel reinforced polymer (SRP) and steel reinforced grout (SRG) composites that are considered for application in civil engineering for bridge and concrete buildings upgrade. These composites consist of steel cords formed by interwoven steel wires embedded within a polymer resin or cementitious grout matrix. The properties of SRP are evaluated experimentally and compared to micromechanical equations to

X. Huang; V. Birman; A. Nanni; G. Tunis

2005-01-01

301

Design of strong, ductile, HSLA and dual phase steels  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes our alloy design programs at Berkeley which utilize the concept of two-phase steels as a means of optimizing these mutually exclusive properties. The underlying principle here is to design composite microstructures whereby the advantages of the second phase are optimized while the less desirable features of this phase are simultaneously mitigated by the presence of the other constituent phase. The size, distribution, shape and volume fraction of the second phase critically control the mechanical properties, especially fracture and fatigue of the dual phase systems. As a consequence, these structures offer a degree of metallurgical flexibility that is absent in single phase structures or in many precipitation strengthened systems, for attaining optimum sets of mechanical properties. Examples are presented here of martensite/austenite (approx.2 to 5%) mixtures designed for optimum combinations of high strength, toughness, and wear properties in medium carbon steels, e.g., for mining and agricultural applications, and martensite/ferrite (approx.80%) structure for high strength, cold formability and improved low temperature ductility in low carbon steels. Applications to sheet, line pipe rods and wires will be demonstrated for the latter class of steels.

Thomas, G.

1986-01-01

302

Pull rod assembly  

DOEpatents

A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

Cioletti, O.C.

1988-04-21

303

Status of rod consolidation  

SciTech Connect

Two of the factors that need to be taken into account with rod consolidation are (1) the effects on rods from their removal from the fuel assembly and (2) the effects on rods as a result of the consolidation process. Potential components of both factors are described in the report. Discussed under (1) are scratches on the fuel rod surfaces, rod breakage, crud, extended burnup, and possible cladding embrittlement due to hydrogen injection at BWRs. Discussed under (2) are the increased water temperature (less than 10/sup 0/C) because of closer packing of the rods, formation of crevices between rods in the close-packed mode, contact with dissimilar metals, and the potential for rapid heating of fuel rods following the loss of water from a spent fuel storage pool. Another factor that plays an important role in rod consolidation is the cost of disposal of the nonfuel-bearing components of the fuel assembly. Also, the dose rate from the components - especially Inconel spacer grids - can affect the handling procedures. Several licensing issues that exist are described. A list of recommendations is provided. 98 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Bailey, W.J.

1985-04-01

304

Optimal wiring between rectangles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of wiring together two parallel rows of points under a variety of conditions. The options include whether we allow the rows to slide relative to one another, whether we use only rectilinear wires or arbitrary wires, and whether we can use wires in one layer or several layers. In almost all of these combinations of conditions,

Danny Dolev; Kevin Karplus; Alan Siegel; Alex Strong; Jeffrey D. Ullman

1981-01-01

305

Performance of a Clad Tungsten Rod Spallation Neutron Source Target  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tungsten rods, slip-clad with Type 304L stainless steel, performed successfully as a spallation neutron source target operating to a peak fluence of â4 x 10²¹ p\\/cm². The target was used as a neutron source during the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) materials irradiation program at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Tungsten rods of 2.642-mm diameter were slip-fit in Type

Walter F. Sommer; Stuart A. Maloy; McIntyre R. Louthan; Gordon J. Willcutt; Phillip D. Ferguson; Michael R. James

2005-01-01

306

Textured powder wires  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for fabricating a wire from textured powder includes compressing a powder comprising a plurality of particles into a ribbon. The method further includes encasing the ribbon between two foil sheets to create a sheet of encased ribbon. The method additionally includes rolling the encased ribbon into a substantially cylindrical undrawn wire. The method further includes drawing the undrawn wire to create a substantially cylindrical wire having a diameter less than a diameter of the substantially cylindrical undrawn wire.

2013-11-26

307

Foucault Rod Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Foucault Rod model displays the vibration of a circumnavigating rod. One end of the rod is firmly secured to a support. The free end of the rod has a weight attached, like the bob of a pendulum. The support of the rod is circumnavigating a central axis. The plane of swing of the Foucault rod is affected by the rotation in the same way as the Foucault pendulum is. The simulation shows simultaneously the motion with respect to the inertial coordinate system, and the motion as seen from a co-rotating point of view. For the co-rotating view there is a close-up view and an overview. You can examine and modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen EJS Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Foucault Rod model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_nl_teunissen_foucault_rod.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Additional information about this model can be found by visiting the authorâs web site: http://www.cleonis.nl/index.htm.

Teunissen, Cleon

2009-11-03

308

Weld between Low Alloy Steel and 316 Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several locations of the pressurized water reactors, dissimilar metal welds using Inconel welding wires are used to join the low alloy steel components to stainless steel pipes. Because of the existence of different materials and chemistry variation within welds, the mechanical properties, such as tensile and fracture properties, are expected to show spatial variation. For design and integrity assessment

Changheui Jang; Jounghoon Lee; Jong Sung Kim; Tae Eun Jin

309

Test plan for Enraf Series 854 level gauge wire testing  

SciTech Connect

An Enraf Series 854 level gauge was installed on tank 241-S-106 during the first week of June 1994. On August 11, 1994, the gauge`s stainless steel measuring wire broke. After examination and laboratory analysis, it was determined that the wire broke due to severe chloride ion corrosion. It is suspected that the chloride ion contamination came from the radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liner. It is well documented that the breakdown of PVC due to radiation produces chloride containing compounds. This document provides a qualification test plan to remove and have analyzed the wire in all of the Enraf Series 854 that have been installed to date. These tests will confirm the presence or absence of chloride ions in the PVC liners and/or on the Enraf measuring wires installed in the tanks. This test will involve removing the 316 stainless steel wire drums from all of the existing Enraf Series 854 level gauges that have been installed. New 316 stainless steel wire drums shall be installed into the gauges and the gauges will be placed back into service. The wire that is removed from the gauges shall be sent to the 222-S Lab or the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. Additional wire replacements will occur at intervals as determined necessary by the results of the laboratory analyses.

Barnes, G.A.

1994-09-15

310

Rod Photoreceptors Detect Rapid Flicker  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rod-isolation techniques show that light-adapted human rods detect flicker frequencies as high as 28 hertz, and that the function relating rod critical flicker frequency to stimulus intensity contains two distinct branches. (MLH)

Conner, J. D.; MacLeod, Donald I. A.

1977-01-01

311

Wire Test Grip Fixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wire-testing issues, such as the gripping strains imposed on the wire, play a critical role in obtaining clean data. In a standard test frame fitted with flat wedge grips, the gripping action alone creates stresses on the wire specimen that cause the wire to fail at the grip location. A new test frame, which is outfitted with a vacuum chamber, negated the use of any conventional commercially available wire test fixtures, as only 7 in. (17.8 cm) existed between the grip faces. An innovative grip fixture was designed to test thin gauge wire for a variety of applications in an existing Instron test frame outfitted with a vacuum chamber.

Burke, Christopher S.

2011-01-01

312

Mechanical modeling and analysis of the impact testing of wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new experimental test method and its associated mechanics description is reported for the instrumented impact of small diameter rod and wire. The use of this test lies in its ability to quickly and effectively measure impact fracture energy at various dynamic strain rates while indirectly providing a measure of the material's dynamic yield stress. The basic outline of the

G. Laird; K. K. Schrems

1997-01-01

313

Microstructures and Properties of Molybdenum Wires Doped with La.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structures and properties of the La-doped molybdenum (La-Mo) powder, compact, rods and wires annealed at different temperatures were investigated. The experimental results show that the La exists in the powders in the forms of lanthanum nitrate, lanth...

M. L. Zhou J. Li T. Zuo

1995-01-01

314

Control rod driveline and grapple  

DOEpatents

A control rod driveline and grapple is disclosed for placement between a control rod drive and a nuclear reactor control rod containing poison for parasitic neutron absorption required for reactor shutdown. The control rod is provided with an enlarged cylindrical handle which terminates in an upwardly extending rod to provide a grapple point for the driveline. The grapple mechanism includes a tension rod which receives the upwardly extending handle and is provided with a lower annular flange. A plurality of preferably six grapple segments surround and grip the control rod handle. Each grapple rod segment grips the flange on the tension rod at an interior upper annular indentation, bears against the enlarged cylindrical handle at an intermediate annulus and captures the upwardly flaring frustum shaped handle at a lower and complementary female segment. The tension rods and grapple segments are surrounded by and encased within a cylinder. The cylinder terminates immediately and outward extending annulus at the lower portion of the grapple segments. Excursion of the tension rod relative to the encasing cylinder causes rod release at the handle by permitting the grapple segments to pivot outwardly and about the annulus on the tension rod so as to open the lower defined frustum shaped annulus and drop the rod. Relative movement between the tension rod and cylinder can occur either due to electromagnetic release of the tension rod within defined limits of travel or differential thermal expansion as between the tension rod and cylinder as where the reactor exceeds design thermal limits.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1987-01-01

315

Failure analysis of explanted sternal wires.  

PubMed

To classify and understand the mechanisms of surface damages and fracture mechanisms of sternal wires, explanted stainless steel sternal wires were collected from patients with sternal dehiscence following open-heart surgery. Surface alterations and fractured ends of sternal wires were examined and analyzed. Eighty fractured wires extracted from 25 patients from January 1999 to December 2003, with mean implantation interval of 55+/-149 days (range 5-729 days) after cardiac surgery, were studied by various techniques. The extracted wires were cleaned and the fibrotic tissues were removed. Irregularities and fractured ends were assayed by a scanning electron microscopy. After stereomicroscopy and documentation, the explants were cleaned with 1% sodium hypochlorite to remove the blood and tissues and was followed by cleaned with deionized water and alcohol. The explants were examined by stereomicroscopy, and irregularities on surface and fracture surfaces of sternal wires were assayed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and X-ray mapping. The explants with surrounding fibrotic tissue were stained and examined with stereomicroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Corrosion pits were found on the surface of explanted sternal wires. EDAX and X-ray mapping examinations revealed diminution of nickel concentration in the severely corroded pits on sternal wires. A feature of transgranular cracking was observed for stress corrosion cracking and striation character for typical corrosion fatigue was also identified. TEM examination of tissue showed the metallic particles in phagolysosomes of macrophages inside the surrounding sternal tissue. The synergic effect of hostile environment and the stress could be the precursors of failures for sternal wires. PMID:15576179

Shih, Chun-Ming; Su, Yea-Yang; Lin, Shing-Jong; Shih, Chun-Che

2005-05-01

316

Evaluation of Organic Coolants for the Transportation of LMFBR Spent Fuel Rods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The physical and chemical processes that are likely to occur when sodium coated LMFBR spent fuel rods are submerged in various aromatic organic coolants was defined by means of immersion experiments carried out with sodium coated 304 stainless steel coupo...

C. Arnold

1978-01-01

317

Nonlinearity and noise at the rod - rod bipolar cell synapse  

PubMed Central

In the retina, rod bipolar (RBP) cells synapse with many rods, and suppression of rod outer segment and synaptic noise is necessary for their detection of rod single photon responses (SPRs). Depending on the rods’ signal to noise ratio (SNR), the suppression mechanism will likely eliminate some SPRs as well, resulting in decreased quantum efficiency. We examined this synapse in rabbit, where 100 rods converge onto each RBP. Suction electrode recordings showed that rabbit rod SPRs were difficult to distinguish from noise (independent SNR estimates were 2.3 and 2.8). Nonlinear transmission from rods to RBPs improved response detection (SNR = 8.7), but a large portion of the rod SPRs were discarded. For the dimmest flashes, the loss approached 90%. Despite the high rejection ratio, noise of two distinct types were apparent in the RBP traces: low amplitude rumblings and discrete events that resembled the SPR. The SPR-like event frequency suggests they result from thermal isomerizations of rhodopsin, which occured at the rate 0.033 s?1rod?1. The presence of low amplitude noise is explained by a sigmoidal input-output relationship at the rod - RBP synapse and the input of noisy rods. The rabbit rod SNR and RBP quantum efficiency are the lowest yet reported, suggesting that the quantum efficiency of the rod - RBP synapse may depend on the SNR in rods. These results point to the possibility that fewer photoisomerizations are discarded for species such as primate, which has a higher rod SNR.

Trexler, E. Brady; Casti, Alexander R.R.; Zhang, Yu

2010-01-01

318

A study of the regional load deflection rate of multiloop edgewise arch wire.  

PubMed

To quantify the unique mechanical properties of multiloop edgewise arch wire (MEAW), its load deflection rate (LDR) and the LDR of various arch wires in the individual interbracket span were measured and compared. The MEAW arch wires were made out of .016 x .022-inch Permachrome stainless steel wire with L-loops of 4 different sizes. Five samples of each size were prepared for the comparison against wires of plain stainless steel, TMA, and nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires, all of the same dimensions. Five specimens for each of the various wires were used to eliminate the possibility of change in the physical properties of wires caused by the stress from repeated measurement. The LDR was measured by using the Instron model 4466 at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min and maximum deflection of 1.0 mm. The regional wire stiffness of MEAW was calculated from the LDR in the interbracket spans that were measured by the Instron. The findings were as follows: (1) The LDR of the L-loop of MEAW at an individual interbracket span rate was 1:7.54 of the plain stainless steel wire, 1:1.76 of the NiTi, and 1:2.72 of TMA. (2) The L-loop at an individual interbracket span showed much lower wire stiffness than the entire arch wire, and the value of the stiffness differed according to the region. PMID:11302585

Yang, W S; Kim, B H; Kim, Y H

2001-04-01

319

Cable Bundle Wire Derating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

1998-01-01

320

Cable Bundle Wire Derating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

1998-01-01

321

Operational experience with and post-irradiation examinations on boiling water reactor control rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control rods of the KRB-I 250-MW (electric) boiling water reactor contain Vipac BâC powder in Type 304 stainless steel tubes as a neutron-absorbing material. Because of an increase in the reactor coolant ³H activity, defective control rods were suspected. The hot cell examination of a highly exposed control rod revealed BâC losses. The mechanism of failure was shown to

N. Eickelpash; J. Mullauer; R. W. Seepolt; W. Spalthoff

1983-01-01

322

CGE Rod Amplifier Modules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance and development history of the neodymium glass laser rod amplifiers in use at NRL on the Pharos II laser system is reviewed. The impact of possible future modifications is assessed. (Author)

J. M. McMahon

1978-01-01

323

Characteristics of large capacity ultrasonic complex vibration sources with stepped complex transverse vibration rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Configurations of large capacity ultrasonic complex vibration sources with multiple longitudinal transducers are proposed and studied. The ultrasonic complex vibration systems are effective and essential for new applications in various industries. The complex vibration source of 27 kHz consists of a complex transverse rod with a welding tip (aluminum alloy, stainless steel and titanium alloy), a complex vibration rod with

J. Tsujino; T. Ueoka

2004-01-01

324

Principle of rationalizing the criteria for abnormal transients of the Super LWR with fuel rod analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed fuel rod design is carried out for the first time in the development of Supercritical-pressure Light Water Reactor (Super LWR). The fuel rod design is similar to that of LWR, consisting of UO2 pellets, a gas plenum and a Stainless Steel Cladding. The principle of rationalizing the criteria for abnormal transients of the Super LWR is developed. The

A. Yamaji; Y. Oka; Y. Ishiwatari; J. Liu; M. Suzuki

2006-01-01

325

Modeling the impact deformation of rods of a pressed PTFE\\/Al composite mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite element simulations have been performed for the impact onto steel anvils of solid rods of a pressed composite mixture of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and aluminum powders. Photographs of the reactive rods prior to significant impact initiation for three previously performed experiments at impact velocities of 104, 222, and 466m\\/s have been digitized for comparison with the simulations. Simulations were performed

M. N. Raftenberg; W MOCKJR; G. C. Kirby

2008-01-01

326

Slide the wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The animation shows a top view of four wires in a conducting loop and a galvanometer. Determine the direction of the magnetic field, Bz(x), passing through the wires at various postions by click-dragging the black wire back and forth and observing the galvanometer reading.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-09

327

Flying wires at Fermilab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transverse beam profile measurement systems called flying wires have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. A flying wire is a device that passes (flies) a 25-?m carbon filament through a particle beam, transversely, at a constant velocity of between 2 and 5 m\\/s. Collisions between the beam particles and the wire produce secondary

J. Gannon; C. Crawford; D. Finley; R. Flora; T. Groves; M. MacPherson

1989-01-01

328

Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a grey rod for use in controlling reactivity of a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor. It comprises tubular, elongated, cladding selected from the weak neutron absorbing material group consisting of stainless steel, zirconium and inconel; a first cladding insert including pellets selected from the strong, neutron absorbing material group consisting of hafnium, silver- indium-cadmium, and boron

J. V. Miller; W. R. Carlson; M. B. Yarbrough

1991-01-01

329

Fast Burst Reactor burst rod adaptor failure analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure of a 440C stainless steel burst rod adaptor from the White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor is analyzed. The operational history of the adaptor, including nature of loading, radiation accumulation, and thermal environment, was examined. Problems associated with handling radioactive materials were overcome through careful monitoring and disposal. The chemical composition of the adaptor material was checked by

W. C. Hull; D. L. Welch

1977-01-01

330

Gold wire stress analysis of wire feed system in automatic wire bonder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wire feed system is an important subsystem of typical automatic wire bonder. The resistance control of wire transmission and tensile force control are the key technologies of the wire feed system, which has a strong impact on the bonding quality. This paper describes the stress analysis of gold wire in the automatic wire bonder. The analysis is useful in

Yuetao Liu; Yanjie Liu; Lining Sun; Ji Li

2009-01-01

331

Energy harvesting from millimetric ZnO single wire piezo-generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports on investigations into the possibility of harvesting energy from the piezoelectric response of millimetric ZnO rods to movement. SEM & PL studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO rods revealed sizes ranging from 1 - 3 mm x 100 - 400 microns and suggested that each was a wurtzite monocrystal. Studies of current & voltage responses as a function of time during bending with a probe arm gave responses coherent with those reported elsewhere in the literature for ZnO nanowires or micro-rod single wire generators. The larger scale of these rods provided some advantages over such nano- and microstructures in terms of contacting ease, signal level & robustness.

Rogers, D. J.; Carroll, C.; Bove, P.; Sandana, V. E.; Goubert, L.; Largeteau, A.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Demazeau, G.; McClintock, R.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Razeghi, M.

2012-02-01

332

Self-monitoring Composite Rods for Sustainable Construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development and properties assessment of braided reinforced composite rods (BCR) able to both reinforce and monitor the stress state of concrete infrastructures. The research study aims at understanding the tensile behaviour and self-monitoring ability of composite rods reinforced by a textile structure - braided structure with core reinforcement - for civil engineering applications, namely for concrete internal reinforcement, as a steel substitute, in order to improve structures safety and sustainability. Seven types of braided composite rods have been produced using an author patented technique based on a modified conventional braiding machine. The tensile properties of the braided reinforced composite rods were evaluated in order to identify the type(s) of fibre(s) to be used as core reinforcement. BCR have been tested under bending while the variation of the electrical resistance was simultaneously monitored.

Gonilho-Pereira, Cristiana; Zdraveva, Emilija; Fangueiro, Raul; Lanceros-Mendez, S.; Jalali, Said; de Araújo, Mário

333

Superconducting wires based on a yttrium ceramic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the fabrication of high temperature superconducting ceramic wires based on yttrium in various metallic shells. The shells used in the process were 10-mm-diameter thin-walled tubes of stainless steel (Kh18N10T), Nimonic alloy (Kh20N80), copper, and silver. Measurements of the critical current density is presented for the best specimens of round and rectangular cross sections. It is

V. A. Mitrokhin; A. M. Dzhetymov; I. P. Radchenko; G. G. Svalov; V. E. Sytnikov; V. V. Aleksandrov; P. Miuller; M. Shubert

1991-01-01

334

Effects of orientation and symmetry of rods on the complete acoustic band gap in two-dimensional periodic solid/gas systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study numerically the acoustic band structures of five different shapes of steel rods (regular triangle, square, hexagon, octagon prisms and columns) placed, respectively, in air with a square lattice. The dependences of the complete acoustic band gaps (CABGs) on the orientation of the above noncircular rods and the maximum of CABG on the rods' symmetry are discussed.

Zhong, Lanhua; Wu, Fugen; Zhang, Xin; Zhong, Huilin; Zhong, Shao

2005-05-01

335

Effects of an upstream inclined rod on the circular cylinder-flat plate junction flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inclined rod is installed upstream of a circular cylinder mounted on a flat plate to mitigate the horseshoe vortices in the junction flow. Smoke-wire visualization, hot-wire velocity measurement and surface pressure measurement are employed to study the effects of the inclined rod on the laminar and turbulent junction flows. The results show a properly placed inclined rod can significantly weaken the horseshoe vortices in front of the cylinder, depress the unsteady oscillation of the vortex system, change the separation position on the flat plate and narrow the wake of the cylinder. The inclined rod method provides a promising way to suppress the horseshoe vortices in the junction flow because of its effectiveness and its easiness to implement and adjust to fit different flow conditions.

Wang, J. M.; Bi, W. T.; Wei, Q. D.

2009-06-01

336

Marine corrosion of selected small wire ropes and strands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breakage loads of nine different small mooring lines are experimentally related to time of immersion in a marine environment. Samples of a single steel wire, five different strands ranging from 0.05 inch1 times 7to 7\\/64 inch1 times 19, and three small wire ropes 3\\/32 inch7 times 7were fully immersed in Puget Sound for 38, 115, and 150 days. Tensile

C. J. Sandwith; R. C. Clark

1975-01-01

337

Optimum fuel rod dimensions  

SciTech Connect

ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) evaluated two fuel rod designs with different moderator-to-fuel ratios: (1) a standard ABB CE rod for 16 X 16 fuel with high uranium loading: value-added pellets, and (2) a thinner rod with reduced clad surface area, clad thickness, and uranium loading: here called the 16 X 16 OFA (optimized fuel assembly). It is well known that all pressurized water reactors are under-moderated; this ensures a negative moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). Increasing the lattice moderation is thus expected to improve uranium utilization while having a detrimental effect on MTC. This study was performed to quantify the uranium utilization benefit and other effects of increased moderation.

Jonsson, A.; Gavin, P.H.; Terney, W.B.; Dixon, D.J. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

1997-12-01

338

Plate perforation by eroding rod projectiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration and perforation of stationary, oblique steel plates by hypervelocity tungsten-alloy projectiles is examined here. Simulations have been performed for L\\/D 10 projectiles against one- and two-plate target configurations. The plate thickness-to-rod diameter ratio t\\/D varied slightly, as did the plate spacing-to-plate thickness ratio tgap\\/t. For all simulations, t\\/D?[1.2,1.6] and tgap\\/t?[0.7,1]. Normalized line-of-sight perforation is one measure of performance,

D. J. Gee

2003-01-01

339

FePt Nano-particles and Nano -wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have studied the microstructure and magnetic properties of FePt nano-particles, nano-rods, and nano-wires synthesized by a modified chemical synthesis route described elsewhere^[1],[2] The effect of synthesis parameters on the particle shape has been investigated for nanoparticles with sizes of 5-7 nm, for nano-rods and nano-wires with a diameter of 2-3 nm and a length of 20 and 100 nm, respectively. Low injection temperature for the iron precursor and usage of surfactants as reaction solvents resulted in 7 nm nano-cubes whereas a high heating rate to refluxing temperature and high injection temperature resulted in spherical shapes with 5 nm diameter. Nano-rods and nano-wires are formed by simply adjusting the relative ratios of surfactants to reaction solvents (oleic acid, oleyl amine and octadecene/benzylether) and the refluxing time. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies show that usage of high concentrations of oleyl amine and longer refluxing times induce nano-wire formation. HRTEM and magnetometry studies are currently in progress to investigate the development of particle morphology and microstructure during the synthesis and determine their influence on the magnetic properties. 1. C.Wang et. al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46,1-4. 2. M. Chen et. al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 6348-6349.

Colak, Levent; Hadjipanayis, George

2008-03-01

340

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J.

1983-03-01

341

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (inventors)

1983-01-01

342

Evaluation of the TIG Welding Mechanical Behavior in AISI 316 Tubes for Fuel Rods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of service temperature, the mechanical resistance and the creep behaviour of a steel which is intended to be used as fuel rods in Nuclear Reactors was investigated. The tests were performed in seamless tubes of austenitic stainless steel, AISI ...

M. S. Q. Bittencourt S. Carvalho Perdigao

1985-01-01

343

Noise Radiation from Single and Multiple Rod Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic measurements were performed on single and multiple rod configurations to study the effect of Reynolds number, surface roughness, freestream turbulence, proximity and wake interference on the radiated noise. The Reynolds number ranged from 3.8 x 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 5). Directivity measurements were performed to determine how well the dipole assumption for the radiation of vortex shedding noise holds for the different model configurations tested. The dependence of the peak Sound Pressure Level on velocity was also examined. Several concepts for the reduction of the noise radiating from cylindrical rods were tested. It was shown that wire wraps and collar distributions could be used to significantly reduce the noise radiating from rods in tandem configurations.

Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.

2006-01-01

344

Most wired 2011.  

PubMed

Hospitals made steady progress over the past year in their use of information technology, but federal criteria for meaningful use have thrown a bit of a monkey wrench in those efforts. H&HN's annual Most Wired Survey shows how far the field has come and where it must sharpen its focus. The 2011 Most Wired list includes 154 organizations. We also name the Most Improved, Most Wired-Small and Rural and the Innovators. PMID:21834435

Weinstock, Matthew; Hoppszallern, Suzanna

2011-07-01

345

Choosing the proper self-shielded FCAW wire  

SciTech Connect

When attempting to select the appropriate wire for each joining application, welders must choose from a menu of welding wires. Flux cored arc welding gas-shielded (FCAW-G) wires, such as an A5.20 E71T-1 type, may be conceived as the ``meat and potatoes,`` in other words, suitable for all mild steel fabrication. The same is not true, however, of the flux cored arc welding self-shielded (FCAW-S) wires. From inception, the complexity of the open arc continuous welding process has begrudgingly yielded designs uniquely suited only for a narrow range of metal joining operations. The uniqueness of each design is primarily a result of how the nitrogen naturally encountered within the arc is handled. In the selection of an FCAW-S wire, that same awareness of the bill of fare is indispensable. The user must know the applications best suited to each wire type because the application overlap of each type is very narrow. Consequently, selecting a type that ``may do`` could be costly or possibly disastrous. The list of FCAW-S ``multiple-pass wires with toughness`` completes the full menu. Selecting the proper type of wire from this list may never be as pleasurable as reviewing a dining menu; however, when shielded metal arc welding is not economical and gas-shielded flux cored welding is compromised by the wind, or when the application is simply done best with an FCAW-S wire, this menu should be helpful.

Amata, M.; Fiore, S.R. [ESAB Welding and Cutting Products, Hanover, PA (United States)

1996-06-01

346

Shape memory alloy wire-based smart natural rubber bearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, two types of smart elastomeric bearings are presented using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. Due to the unique characteristics of SMAs, such as the superelastic effect and the recentering capability, the residual deformation in SMA-based natural rubber bearings (SMA-NRBs) is significantly reduced whereas the energy dissipation capacity is increased. Two different configurations of SMA wires incorporated in elastomeric bearings are considered. The effect of several parameters, including the shear strain amplitude, the type of SMA, the aspect ratio of the base isolator, the thickness of SMA wire, and the amount of pre-strain in the wires on the performance of SMA-NRBs is investigated. Rubber bearings are composed of natural rubber layers bonded to steel shims as reinforcement. Results show that ferrous SMA wire, FeNiCuAlTaB, with 13.5% superelastic strain and a very low austenite finish temperature (-62?°C), is the best candidate to be used in SMA-NRBs subjected to high shear strain amplitudes. In terms of the lateral flexibility and wire strain level, the smart rubber bearing with a cross configuration of SMA wires is more efficient. Moreover, the cross configuration can be implemented in high-aspect-ratio elastomeric bearings since the strain induced in the wire does not exceed the superelastic range. When cross SMA wires with 2% pre-strain are used in a smart NRB, the dissipated energy is increased by 74% and the residual deformation is decreased by 15%.

Hedayati Dezfuli, F.; Shahria Alam, M.

2013-04-01

347

Concealed wire tracing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

348

Rod Pinch Diode.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent discloses an improved diode for forming an intense electron beam and propagating the beam. The diode includes a cathode having a bore, and a rod-shaped anode having a medial tapered section which extends, approximately coaxially, through the b...

R. A. Mahaffey S. A. Goldstein J. Golden G. Cooperstein

1980-01-01

349

Rod Pinch Diode.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved diode, for forming an intense electron beam and propagating the beam, is described. The diode includes a cathode having a bore, and a rod-shaped anode having a medial tapered section which extends, approximately coaxially, through the bore of ...

R. A. Mahaffey

1978-01-01

350

A tool for measuring the bending length in thin wires.  

PubMed

Great effort is currently being put into the development and construction of the second generation, advanced gravitational wave detectors, Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO. The development of new low thermal noise suspensions of mirrors, based on the experience gained in the previous experiments, is part of this task. Quasi-monolithic suspensions with fused silica wires avoid the problem of rubbing friction introduced by steel cradle arrangements by directly welding the wires to silica blocks bonded to the mirror. Moreover, the mechanical loss level introduced by silica (?fs ? 10(-7) in thin fused silica wires) is by far less than the one associated with steel. The low frequency dynamical behaviour of the suspension can be computed and optimized, provided that the wire bending shape under pendulum motion is known. Due to the production process, fused silica wires are thicker near the two ends (necks), so that analytical bending computations are very complicated. We developed a tool to directly measure the low frequency bending parameters of fused silica wires, and we tested it on the wires produced for the Virgo+ monolithic suspensions. The working principle and a set of test measurements are presented and explained. PMID:23556827

Lorenzini, M; Cagnoli, G; Cesarini, E; Losurdo, G; Martelli, F; Piergiovanni, F; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A

2013-03-01

351

A tool for measuring the bending length in thin wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great effort is currently being put into the development and construction of the second generation, advanced gravitational wave detectors, Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO. The development of new low thermal noise suspensions of mirrors, based on the experience gained in the previous experiments, is part of this task. Quasi-monolithic suspensions with fused silica wires avoid the problem of rubbing friction introduced by steel cradle arrangements by directly welding the wires to silica blocks bonded to the mirror. Moreover, the mechanical loss level introduced by silica (?fs ~ 10-7 in thin fused silica wires) is by far less than the one associated with steel. The low frequency dynamical behaviour of the suspension can be computed and optimized, provided that the wire bending shape under pendulum motion is known. Due to the production process, fused silica wires are thicker near the two ends (necks), so that analytical bending computations are very complicated. We developed a tool to directly measure the low frequency bending parameters of fused silica wires, and we tested it on the wires produced for the Virgo+ monolithic suspensions. The working principle and a set of test measurements are presented and explained.

Lorenzini, M.; Cagnoli, G.; Cesarini, E.; Losurdo, G.; Martelli, F.; Piergiovanni, F.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.

2013-03-01

352

Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.  

PubMed

The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

1997-07-01

353

Wire Array Photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction arrays. These devices offer potential efficiencies of 34%, as demonstrated through an analytical model and optoelectronic simulations. SiGe and Ge wires were fabricated via chemical-vapor deposition and reactive ion etching. GaAs was then grown on these substrates at the National Renewable Energy Lab and yielded ns lifetime components, as required for achieving high efficiency devices.

Turner-Evans, Dan

354

Vortices in vibrated granular rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the experimental observation of vortex patterns in vertically vibrated granular rods. Above a critical packing fraction, moving ordered domains of nearly vertical rods spontaneously form and coexist with horizontal rods. The domains of vertical rods coarsen in time to form large vortices. We investigate the conditions under which the vortices occur by varying the number of rods, vibration amplitude, and frequency. The size of the vortices increases with the number of rods. We characterize the growth of the ordered domains by measuring the area fraction of the ordered regions as a function of time. A void-filling model is presented to describe the nucleation and growth of the vertical domains. We track the ends of the vertical rods and obtain the velocity fields of the vortices. The rotation speed of the rods is observed to depend on the vibration velocity of the container and on the packing. To investigate the impact of the direction of driving on the observed phenomena, we performed experiments with the container vibrated horizontally. Although vertical domains form, vortices are not observed. We therefore argue that the motion is generated due to the interaction of the inclination of the rods with the bottom of a vertically vibrated container. We also perform simple experiments with a single row of rods in an annulus. These experiments directly demonstrate that the rod motion is generated when the rods are inclined from the vertical, and is always in the direction of the inclination.

Blair, Daniel L.; Neicu, T.; Kudrolli, A.

2003-03-01

355

SQA(TM): Surface Quality Assured Steel Bar Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT) has led this SQA (Surface Quality Assured Steel Bar) program to solve the major surface quality problems plaguing the US special quality steel bars and rods industry and their customers, based on crosscutting sensors and controls technologies. Surface defects in steel formed in a hot rolling process are one of the most common quality issues faced

Tzyy-Shuh Chang; Jianjun Shi; Shiyu Zhou

2009-01-01

356

Fabrication of lotus-type porous carbon steel via continuous zone melting and its mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lotus-type porous carbon steel (lotus carbon steel) AISI1018 rods with long cylindrical pores aligned in one direction were fabricated using the continuous zone melting technique under nitrogen gas pressure of 2.5MPa. The porosity decreased with increasing transference velocities of 40–160?ms?1. Tensile tests of the fabricated lotus-type carbon steel rods were performed. The elongation of lotus carbon steel increased after normalizing

M. Kashihara; H. Yonetani; T. Kobi; S. K. Hyun; S. Suzuki; H. Nakajima

2009-01-01

357

Control rod calibration including the rod coupling effect  

SciTech Connect

In a reactor containing more than one control rod, which includes all reactors licensed in the United States, there will be a 'coupling' or 'shadowing' of control rod flux at the location of a control rod as a result of the flux depression caused by another control rod. It was decided to investigate this phenomenon further, and eventually to put calibration table data or formulae in a small computer in the control room, so once could insert the positions of the three control rods and receive the excess reactivity without referring to separate tables. For this to be accomplished, a 'three control- rod reactivity function' would be used which would include the flux coupling between the rods. The function is design and measured data was fitted into it to determine the calibration constants. The input data for fitting the trial functions consisted of 254 data points, each consisting of the position of the reg, shim, and transient rods, and the total excess reactivity. (About 200 of these points were 'critical balance points', that is the rod positions for which reactor was critical, and the remainder were determined by positive period measurements.) Although this may be unrealistic from a physical viewpoint, the function derived gave a very accurate recalculation of the input data, and thus would faithfully give the excess reactivity for any possible combination of the locations of the three control rods. The next step, incorporation of the three-rod function into the minicomputer, will be pursued in the summer and fall of 1984.

Szilard, R.; Nelson, G.W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1984-07-01

358

PEEK rod systems for the spine.  

PubMed

Traditional materials for the spine such as titanium and stainless steel have produced satisfying long-term fusion rates, mainly due to their strength and stiffness. However, although fixation with titanium rods leads to high fusion rates, increased stiffness of titanium constructs may also contribute to stress shielding and adjacent segment degeneration. Dynamic and flexible materials such as the Dynesys system allow better stress distribution to all of the spinal columns, but increase the rate of complications including screw loosening, infection, back and leg pain, and endplate vertebral fracture. Semi-rigid instrumentation systems using rods made from synthetic polymers such as the polyetheretherketone (PEEK) have been recently introduced as an alternative biomaterial for the spine. PEEK is a fully biocompatible and inert semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer with minimal toxicity; it has a modulus of elasticity between that of cortical and cancellous bone, and significantly lower than titanium. However, there are very few clinical studies with small sample size and short-term follow-up using PEEK rod-pedicle screw spinal instrumentation systems. Additionally, their results are conflicting. To enhance the literature, this review discusses the effect of this medical for the spine and summarizes the results of the most important related series. PMID:24487665

Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Vottis, Christos; Triantafyllopoulos, George; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Pneumaticos, Spyros G

2014-07-01

359

Retrieval and analysis of intramedullary rods.  

PubMed

We examined ten intramedullary rods of similar design after routine retrieval from patients. Of these ten rods, four were found to exhibit cracking around their proximal third. This behavior could not be attributed to the surgical techniques employed or to the length of time in vivo of these rods. Rather, the cracking was a function of both the metal alloy used and the method of manufacture, which occasionally allowed a weld zone to be located at the point of maximum stress with the result that cracking occurred. A change in alloy composition to a low-carbon form of 316 stainless steel probably would reduce the risk of cracking. Clinical relevance: In the treatment of orthopaedic disorders, it is important for the operating physician to appreciate the problems that may be encountered in using implants. One of the most important of these problems is the possibility of implant failure. The present report illustrates how a combination of both metallurgical and fabrication factors may cause such an event to occur. PMID:7320035

Weinstein, A M; Clemow, A J; Starkebaum, W; Milicic, M; Klawitter, J J; Skinner, H B

1981-12-01

360

DEVELOPMENT OF BORON-BEARING MATERIALS FOR PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR (PWR) CONTROL RODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron-bearing materials were investigated for possible application as ; low-cost, high-performance PWR control rods. Two types of materials were ; considered. These included (1) stainless steel-enriched boron powder dispersion ; inserts contained in compartmented stainless steel structural alloys and (2) ; copper-natural boron carbide ppwder dispersions clad by roll-bonding to stainless ; steel. Both types of materials presented several serious

E. F. Losco; H. J. Snyder

1958-01-01

361

Fuse Wire Arc Tester.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To compare the viability of the new fuse wire arc test (FWAT) as a substitute for the comparative tracking index (CTI) for determining surface resistance to electrical tracking, the Bureau of Mines constructed a fuse wire arc tester and undertook a detail...

P. G. Kovalchik

1987-01-01

362

Commercial and Industrial Wiring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

363

Wire Bond Temperature Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports the first demonstration of a bond pad test structure with embedded thermopile sensors for the measurement of the transient temperature response during the wire bonding operation. This paper will present the design and operation of the bond pad test structure and show and discuss temperature measurements during the wire bonding operation. The test structure can be used

Shivesh Suman; Michael Gaitan; Yogendra Joshi; George Harman

364

Army Wire Rope Inspection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers an investigation into the Army's wire rope nondestructive inspection procedures and needs. Major Army users of wire rope were located and surveyed for information on their wire rope inspection procedures. The Navy has conducted an inves...

K. S. Chapman

1983-01-01

365

Growth control of ZnO nano-rod with various seeds and photovoltaic application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO has attracted much interesting as one of unique materials. Especially, it is suitable for the easy fabrication of nano-structures such as rod, wire and tube as well as particles. ZnO nano-rod is one of good sensitized electrodes because it has good electron transfer and is easily fabricated. In the chemical bath deposition process, seed layer plays an important role in the growth of nano-rod. This work investigated and analyzed the effect of seed layer on the growth of ZnO nano-rod. Fabricated nano-rods were applied to dye-sensitized solar cell. For better performance, ZnO was surface-modified by TiO2. Surface-modified ZnO had improved electron transfer and wider surface area. Consequently, the current and fill factor were much improved and overall performance was also enhanced with them.

Seo, Hyunwoong; Wang, Yuting; Uchida, Giichiro; Kamataki, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

2013-06-01

366

Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wire scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million sca...

C. Field, D. McCormick, P. Raimondi, M. Ross

1998-01-01

367

Novel Stacked Wire Mesh Compact Heat Exchangers Produced Using Cold Spray  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the feasibility of using the pulsed gas dynamic spraying (PGDS) process to deposit metal powder on the\\u000a outer surfaces of metal wire mesh wafers for use as high-performance compact heat exchangers. Plain-square weave woven mesh\\u000a produced from stainless steel wires were stacked and sintered to form wire mesh bricks, which were then cut into wafers. The\\u000a outer

Jamil Assaad; Antoine Corbeil; Patrick F. Richer; Bertrand Jodoin

368

Localized corrosion behaviour in simulated human body fluids of commercial Ni–Ti orthodontic wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion performances in simulated human body fluids of commercial equiatomic Ni–Ti orthodontic wires having various shape and size and produced by different manufacturers were evaluated; for comparison purposes wires made of stainless steel and of cobalt-based alloy were also examined. Potentiodynamic tests in artificial saliva at 40°C indicated a sufficient pitting resistance for the Ni–Ti wires, similar to that

G. Rondelli; B. Vicentini

1999-01-01

369

Annular burnable absorber rod  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a neutron irradiation environment of a water cooled and moderated reactor core a fuel assembly having a discrete annular burnable absorber rod, the rod being free of nuclear fuel material the rod comprising a first elongated hollow tube having opposed ends, a second elongated hollow tube having opposed ends. The first and second tubes are constructed of a zirconium material, the first and second tubes concentrically arranged about a common axis to provide a coextensive annular space therebetween and a path for the water through the first tube along the common axis. A sealing means seals the annular space at common opposed ends of the first and second tube and a hollow niobium tubular support is arranged within the annular space. The tubular support has an inner and outer surface, a layer of burnable neutron absorber material provided on at least a portion of one of the surfaces of the support the layer of the burnable neutron absorber material selected from the group of boron compounds consisting of boron carbide, boron nitride and zirconium diboride; and the layer of the burnable neutron absorber material having a thickness between 0.002 to 0.010 inches.

Chubb, W.

1986-12-02

370

Safety rod latch inspection  

SciTech Connect

During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small ``button`` in the latch mechanism had broken off of the ``lock plunger`` and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

Leader, D.R.

1992-02-01

371

Safety rod latch inspection  

SciTech Connect

During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small button'' in the latch mechanism had broken off of the lock plunger'' and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

Leader, D.R.

1992-02-01

372

76 FR 34964 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...February 1, 2011). On February 28, 2011, Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd (``Venus'') and Chandan Steel Limited (``Chandan...collectively, ``Petitioners''), for a review of Venus, Ambica Steels Limited (``Ambica''),...

2011-06-15

373

Next Generation Wiring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

2007-01-01

374

Further experiences with aluminium wire seals for bakeable vacuum systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of aluminium cemented seals in vacuum systems has been further investigated to find the effect of the flange surface finish on the adhesion of the aluminium joint and the performance of such seals in bakeable apparatus. Aluminium wire clamped between stainless-steel flanges and baked at 300° C formed more adherent joints as the surface finish was decreased from

L. Elsworth; L. Holland; L. Laurenson

1960-01-01

375

Application of High Strength Grooved Wire in Fiber Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

V Grooves were successfully machined on the high strength steel wire of around 3 mm diameter. Eight of thin coated fibers were protected in these grooves against pulling force of greater than 150kg(allowing 0.2% strain) and lateral pressure of greater 400...

Y. Kamata M. Niijima H. Kawazoe M. Ogai T. Ninomiya

1986-01-01

376

Inflatable oil well hole plug with reinforcing wires  

SciTech Connect

An inflatable packer assembly having an inflatable bladder having reinforcing means where the steel wires are arranged as a series of parallel inline cables positioning within the bladder and their ends are anchored in an upper and a lower shoe means and is embedded in elastomeric compounds having preferably special physicals and a cover of a tough elastomer.

Schisler, R. C.; Eisenzimmer, G. W.

1985-02-19

377

Distribution of wire deformation within strands of wire ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ANSYS software, we developed a modeling program for several kinds of wire ropes with metal cores and built a geometric model for the 6×19 IWS wire rope. Through proper grid partitioning, a finite element model for calculating the deformation of wire rope was obtained. Completely constraining one end of the wire rope and applying an axial force to the

Jun MA; Shi-rong GE; De-kun ZHANG

2008-01-01

378

Evaluation of spinal instrumentation rod bending characteristics for in-situ contouring.  

PubMed

Bending characteristics were studied in rods used for spinal instrumentation at in-situ contouring conditions. Five groups of five 6 mm diameter rods made from: cobalt alloy (VITALLIUM), titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (SDI™), ?-titanium alloy (TNTZ), cold worked stainless steel (STIFF), and annealed stainless steel (MALLEABLE) were studied. The bending procedure was similar to that typically applied for in-situ contouring in the operating room and included two bending cycles: first--bending to 21-24° under load with further release of loading for 10 min, and second--bending to 34-37° at the previously bent site and release of load for 10 min. Applied load, bending stiffness, and springback effect were studied. Statistical evaluation included ANOVA, correlation and regression analysis. TNTZ and SDI™ rods showed the highest (p < 0.05) springback at both bending cycles. VITALLIUM and STIFF rods showed mild springback (p < 0.05). The least (p < 0.05) springback was observed in the MALLEABLE rods. Springback significantly correlated with the bend angle under load (p < 0.001). To reach the necessary bend angle after unloading, over bending should be 37-40% of the required angle in TNTZ and SDI™ rods, 27-30% in VITALLIUM and STIFF rods, and around 20% in MALLEABLE rods. PMID:21563305

Noshchenko, Andriy; Xianfeng, Yao; Armour, Grant Alan; Baldini, Todd; Patel, Vikas V; Ayers, Reed; Burger, Evalina

2011-07-01

379

75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...wire rack decking,'' ``wire mesh decking,'' ``bulk storage shelving...decking.'' Wire decking consists of wire mesh that is reinforced with structural supports...structural supports, that reinforce the wire mesh and that are welded or otherwise...

2010-01-28

380

Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

Peterson, R. V.

1994-01-01

381

Discrete Wire Effects on Wire Array Instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend earlier theory (F.S. Felber, N. Rostoker. Phys. Fluids, v. 24, p. 1049 (1981).) ( A.A. Samokhin. J. Appl. Mech. Techn. Physics, v. 29, p. 243 (1988).) of wire array Z-pinch instability in the limit of wire radius, r, small compared to interwire spacing, d, to arbitrary azimuthal and axial mode structure. We assume scales <<<< array radius so the array curvature is neglected. We find the dominant growth rate approaches the classical Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) value for a thin shell once d/r becomes less than ~ 10. We also examine flow effects on instability. Recent calculations (see poster by D. B. Reisman in this session) show that the plasma is composed of high density cores surrounded by low density plasma until well into the main current pulse. Plasma flows from the RT unstable region near the cores into the interwire gap. We will estimate the effect of the flow on RT growth.

Hammer, James H.; Ruytuv, D.; Tabak, Max; Toor, A.; Liberman, M.; Reisman, D.; Degroot, J. S.

1998-11-01

382

Wire Rope Slings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Safe working load tables, in metric units, were prepared for the Divisional Accident Prevention Advisory Committee. At the same time an investigation was made into the possibility of preparing a Divisional Standard for wire rope slings. It is recommended ...

P. J. Bramhill

1972-01-01

383

Wire Object Detection Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytic study and an experimental feasibility demonstration of the detection of wire objects has been completed. The techniques employed were based upon the geometric compatibility of the object to be detected and the sensor used, which in this instan...

R. Kleehammer

1978-01-01

384

Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a grey rod for use in controlling reactivity of a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor. It comprises tubular, elongated, cladding selected from the weak neutron absorbing material group consisting of stainless steel, zirconium and inconel; a first cladding insert including pellets selected from the strong, neutron absorbing material group consisting of hafnium, silver- indium-cadmium, and boron carbide; and a second cladding insert including pellets selected from the weak neutron absorbing material group consisting of stainless steel, inconel, zirconium and zircaloy, wherein the first and second inserts extend substantially along the length of the cladding, and wherein pellets from the alternate.

Miller, J.V.; Carlson, W.R.; Yarbrough, M.B.

1991-11-12

385

Axial Fatigue of Wire Rope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Axial fatigue tests in air were conducted on wire rope, strand, and single wires under the same load spectrum with an Amsler Vibrophore machine. The wire rope tests permitted a comparison of lang and regular construction with independent wire rope core (I...

F. Matanzo S. R. Heller

1971-01-01

386

Cryogenic Pressure Seal for Wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-pressure-seal formed by forcing polyurethane into space surrounding wire or cable in special fitting. Wire or cable routed through fitting then through a tightly fitting cap. Wire insulation left intact. Cap filled with sealant and forced onto the fitting: this pushes sealant into fitting so it seals wire or cable in fitting as well as in cap.

Ciana, J. J.

1984-01-01

387

Dual wire weld feed proportioner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

Nugent, R. E.

1968-01-01

388

Reactor control rod timing system  

DOEpatents

A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

Wu, Peter T. K. (Clifton Park, NY)

1982-01-01

389

Joining of Aluminum and Steel in Car Body Manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc-coated steel sheets have been joined with aluminum samples in an overlapping as well as in a butt-joint configuration. A bimetal- wire composed from aluminum and steel was used for additional welding experiments. An advantage of the laser-assisted bi-metal-wire welding is that the welding process is simplified since the primary joint between aluminium and steel exists already and laser welding occurs only between similar materials. FEM-simulations of the process were chosen to determine the ideal dimensions with respect to the formability of the bi-metal-wire. A prototype demonstrated the feasibility of the process.

Liedl, Gerhard; Bielak, Robert; Ivanova, Julia; Enzinger, Norbert; Figner, Gunter; Bruckner, Jürgen; Pasic, Haris; Pudar, Milan; Hampel, Stefan

390

Cone rod dystrophies.  

PubMed

Cone rod dystrophies (CRDs) (prevalence 1/40,000) are inherited retinal dystrophies that belong to the group of pigmentary retinopathies. CRDs are characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination, predominantly localized to the macular region. In contrast to typical retinitis pigmentosa (RP), also called the rod cone dystrophies (RCDs) resulting from the primary loss in rod photoreceptors and later followed by the secondary loss in cone photoreceptors, CRDs reflect the opposite sequence of events. CRD is characterized by primary cone involvement, or, sometimes, by concomitant loss of both cones and rods that explains the predominant symptoms of CRDs: decreased visual acuity, color vision defects, photoaversion and decreased sensitivity in the central visual field, later followed by progressive loss in peripheral vision and night blindness. The clinical course of CRDs is generally more severe and rapid than that of RCDs, leading to earlier legal blindness and disability. At end stage, however, CRDs do not differ from RCDs. CRDs are most frequently non syndromic, but they may also be part of several syndromes, such as Bardet Biedl syndrome and Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7 (SCA7). Non syndromic CRDs are genetically heterogeneous (ten cloned genes and three loci have been identified so far). The four major causative genes involved in the pathogenesis of CRDs are ABCA4 (which causes Stargardt disease and also 30 to 60% of autosomal recessive CRDs), CRX and GUCY2D (which are responsible for many reported cases of autosomal dominant CRDs), and RPGR (which causes about 2/3 of X-linked RP and also an undetermined percentage of X-linked CRDs). It is likely that highly deleterious mutations in genes that otherwise cause RP or macular dystrophy may also lead to CRDs. The diagnosis of CRDs is based on clinical history, fundus examination and electroretinogram. Molecular diagnosis can be made for some genes, genetic counseling is always advised. Currently, there is no therapy that stops the evolution of the disease or restores the vision, and the visual prognosis is poor. Management aims at slowing down the degenerative process, treating the complications and helping patients to cope with the social and psychological impact of blindness. PMID:17270046

Hamel, Christian P

2007-01-01

391

Fiber optic laser rod  

DOEpatents

A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

Erickson, G.F.

1988-04-13

392

SQA (Trade Name): Surface Quality Assured Steel Bar Program. (Final Report, January 1, 2004-December 31, 2008)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT) has led this SQA (Surface Quality Assured Steel Bar) program to solve the major surface quality problems plaguing the US special quality steel bars and rods industry and their customers, based on crosscutting sensors and contro...

T. Chang

2008-01-01

393

Making Highly Pure Glass Rods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed quasi-containerless method for making glass rods or fibers minimizes contact between processing equipment and product. Method allows greater range of product sizes and shapes than achieved in experiments on containerless processing. Molten zone established in polycrystalline rod. Furnace sections separated, and glass rod solidifies between them. Clamp supports solid glass as it grows in length. Pulling clamp rapidly away from melt draws glass fiber. Fiber diameter controlled by adjustment of pulling rate.

Naumann, R. J.

1986-01-01

394

Automatic safety rod for reactors  

DOEpatents

An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

395

Scaleup of powder metallurgy processed Nb-Al multifilamentary wire  

SciTech Connect

Power metallurgy processed Nb-Al superconducting wires were fabricated from billets up to 45 mm o.d. with nominal areal reduction ratios, R, up to 2 X 10/sup 5/, Nb powder sizes from 40 to 300 ..mu..m from various sources, Al powder sizes from 9 to 75 ..mu..m, Al concentrations from 3 to 25 wt % Al and with a wide range of heat treatments. All the compacts used tap density powder in a Cu tube and swaging and/or rod rolling and subsequent wire drawing. Both single strand and bundled wires were made. Overall critical current densities, J /SUB c/, of 2 X 10/sup 4/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 14 T and 10/sup 4/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 16 T were achieved for 6 to 8 wt % Al in Nb.

Thieme, C.; Foner, S.; Otubo, J.; Pourrahimi, S.; Schwartz, B.; Zhang, H.

1983-05-01

396

Piston and connecting rod assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A piston and connecting rod assembly includes a piston crown, a piston skirt, a connecting rod, and a bearing insert. The piston skirt is a component separate from the piston crown and is connected to the piston crown to provide a piston body. The bearing insert is a component separate from the piston crown and the piston skirt and is fixedly disposed within the piston body. A bearing surface of a connecting rod contacts the bearing insert to thereby movably associate the connecting rod and the piston body.

Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor); Chatten, John K. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

397

Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

1990-01-01

398

Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth  

DOEpatents

Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rods are described, wherein geometric combinations of relatively weak neutron absorber materials such as stainless steel, zirconium or INCONEL, and relatively strong neutron absorber materials, such as hafnium, silver-indium cadmium and boron carbide, are used to obtain the reactivity worths required to reach zero boron change load follow. One embodiment includes a grey rod which has combinations of weak and strong neutron absorber pellets in a stainless steel cladding. The respective pellets can be of differing heights. A second embodiment includes a grey rod with a relatively thick stainless steel cladding receiving relatively strong neutron absorber pellets only. A third embodiment includes annular relatively weak netron absorber pellets with a smaller diameter pellet of relatively strong absorber material contained within the aperture of each relatively weak absorber pellet. The fourth embodiment includes pellets made of a homogeneous alloy of hafnium and a relatively weak absorber material, with the percentage of hafnium chosen to obtain the desired reactivity worth.

Miller, John V. (Munhall, PA); Carlson, William R. (Scott Township, Allegheny County, PA); Yarbrough, Michael B. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1991-01-01

399

Localized corrosion behaviour in simulated human body fluids of commercial Ni-Ti orthodontic wires.  

PubMed

The corrosion performances in simulated human body fluids of commercial equiatomic Ni-Ti orthodontic wires having various shape and size and produced by different manufacturers were evaluated; for comparison purposes wires made of stainless steel and of cobalt-based alloy were also examined. Potentiodynamic tests in artificial saliva at 40 degrees C indicated a sufficient pitting resistance for the Ni-Ti wires, similar to that of cobalt-based alloy wire; the stainless steel wire, instead, exhibited low pitting potential. Potentiodynamic tests at 40 degrees C in isotonic saline solution (0.9% NaCl) showed, for Ni-Ti and stainless steel wires, pitting potential values in the range approximately 200-400 mV and approximately 350 mV versus SCE, respectively: consequently, according to literature data (Hoar TP, Mears DC. Proc Roy Soc A 1996;294:486-510), these materials should be considered potentially susceptible to pitting; only the cobalt-based alloy should be immune from pitting. The localized corrosion potentials determined in the same environment by the ASTM F746 test (approximately 0-200 mV and 130 mV versus SCE for Ni-Ti and stainless steel, respectively) pointed out that for these materials an even higher risk of localized corrosion. Slight differences in localized corrosion behaviour among the various Ni-Ti wires were detected. PMID:10353661

Rondelli, G; Vicentini, B

1999-04-01

400

Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

1941-01-01

401

Estimation of the activity generated by neutron activation in control rods of a BWR.  

PubMed

Control rods are activated by neutron reactions into the reactor. The activation is produced mainly in stainless steel and its impurities. The dose produced by this activity is not important inside the reactor, but it has to be taken into account when the rod is withdrawn from the reactor. Activation reactions produced have been modelled by the MCNP5 code based on the Monte Carlo method. The code gives the number of reactions that can be converted into activity. PMID:19836253

Ródenas, José; Gallardo, Sergio; Abarca, Agustín; Juan, Violeta

2010-01-01

402

Pullout and bond of glass-fibre rods embedded in concrete and cement grout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration is being given to replacing steel rebars with glass-fibre rods in some specific areas, particularly those in\\u000a which premature failure due to corrosion has been observed. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of pullout\\u000a behaviour and bond characteristics of glass-fibre rods embedded in normal and high-strength concretes and in cement grout.\\u000a The results of the study

O. Chaallal; B. Benmokrane

1993-01-01

403

Landing Gear Components Noise Study - PIV and Hot-Wire Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PIV and hot-wire measurements of the wake flow from rods and bars are presented. The test models include rods of different diameters and cross sections and a rod juxtaposed to a plate. The latter is representative of the latch door that is attached to an aircraft landing gear when the gear is deployed, while the single and multiple rod configurations tested are representative of some of the various struts and cables configuration present on an aircraft landing gear. The test set up is described and the flow measurements are presented. The effect of model surface treatment and freestream turbulence on the spanwise coherence of the vortex shedding is studied for several rod and bar configurations.

Hutcheson, Florence V.; Burley, Casey L.; Stead, Daniel J.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Price, Jennifer L.

2010-01-01

404

Alumina–mild steel friction welded at lower rotational speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joining of ceramic–metal can be done using different techniques such as brazing, diffusion bonding, and friction welding. However, the mechanism of ceramic–metal joining has still not been fully understood. In this study, an alumina rod was bonded to a mild steel rod via the friction welding technique by using an Al 1100 sheet as an interlayer. The diameters of

Mohamad Zaky Noh; Luay Bakir Hussain; Zainal Arifin Ahmad

2008-01-01

405

Rod Microglia: A Morphological Definition  

PubMed Central

Brain microglial morphology relates to function, with ramified microglia surveying the micro-environment and amoeboid microglia engulfing debris. One subgroup of microglia, rod microglia, have been observed in a number of pathological conditions, however neither a function nor specific morphology has been defined. Historically, rod microglia have been described intermittently as cells with a sausage-shaped soma and long, thin processes, which align adjacent to neurons. More recently, our group has described rod microglia aligning end-to-end with one another to form trains adjacent to neuronal processes. Confusion in the literature regarding rod microglia arises from some reports referring to the sausage-shaped cell body, while ignoring the spatial distribution of processes. Here, we systematically define the morphological characteristics of rod microglia that form after diffuse brain injury in the rat, which differ morphologically from the spurious rod microglia found in uninjured sham. Rod microglia in the diffuse-injured rat brain show a ratio of 1.79±0.03 cell length?cell width at day 1 post-injury, which increases to 3.35±0.05 at day 7, compared to sham (1.17±0.02). The soma length?width differs only at day 7 post-injury (2.92±0.07 length?width), compared to sham (2.49±0.05). Further analysis indicated that rod microglia may not elongate in cell length but rather narrow in cell width, and retract planar (side) processes. These morphological characteristics serve as a tool for distinguishing rod microglia from other morphologies. The function of rod microglia remains enigmatic; based on morphology we propose origins and functions for rod microglia after acute neurological insult, which may provide biomarkers or therapeutic targets.

Taylor, Samuel E.; Morganti-Kossmann, Cristina

2014-01-01

406

Engineering task plan and status of 241-S-106 Enraf level gauge wire break  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the findings of a task team which was formed which identified the need for short-term actions to re-establish tank waste level monitoring and to permanently address wire failure. The failed wire was removed and sent to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. It was determined that the cause of the wire failure was due to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the 316 stainless steel (SS) wire. Radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the source of the chloride ions.

Moore, T.L.

1994-09-01

407

Micromechanical Modelling of Time-Dependent Stress-Corrosion Behaviour of High-Strength Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides micromechanical bases to explain the time-dependent stress corrosion behaviour of high-strength prestressing steel wires. To this end, two eutectoid steels in the form of hot rolled bar and cold drawn wire were subjected to slow strain rate tests in aqueous environments in corrosive conditions corresponding to localized anodic dissolution and hydrogen assisted cracking. While a tensile crack

J. Toribio

1998-01-01

408

Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array/polymer composite films showed that their energy-conversion properties were comparable to those of an array attached to the growth substrate. High quantum efficiencies were observed relative to the packing density of the wires, particularly with illumination at high angles of incidence. The results indicate that an inexpensive, solid-state Si wire array solar cell is possible, and a plan is presented to develop one.

Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

409

Impact Initiation of Rods of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Aluminum Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gas gun has been used to investigate the shock initiation of rods of a mixture of 74 wt% PTFE and 26 wt% aluminum powders. The rods were sabot-launched into 4340 steel anvils at impact velocities ranging from 104 to 963 m/s. A framing camera was used to observe the time sequence of events. At low velocity, no initiation occurred. Above an initiation threshold, the initiation time dropped abruptly from 56 ?s just above threshold to 4 ?s at the highest impact velocity. Several high velocity experiments were performed for pure PTFE material for comparison with the PTFE/Al rods.

Mock, Willis; Holt, William H.

2006-07-01

410

Determination of Poisson's ratio of solid circular rods by impact-echo method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new and quick approach is proposed to evaluate Poisson's ratio of materials with only the measured longitudinal and cross-sectional resonance frequencies from the impact-echo test on a solid circular rod of known dimension. Both the longitudinal and guided wave propagation theories are used to derive the required equations through regression analysis. Procedure to verify the adequate length of solid rod specimen to obtain a valid Poisson's ratio is described. Experimental data of four materials, concrete, steel, stainless steel and brass, illustrated with the proposed approach show satisfactory results.

Wang, Jin-Jun; Chang, Ta-Peng; Chen, Bo-Tsun; Wang, Helsin

2012-02-01

411

Liquid ``Wires" for Microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate liquid ``wires'' in a simple solution measurement device. This device highlights the possibility of fabricating liquid circuits. These ``wires'' were formed by filling micro-milled PMMA channels with 5M NaCl solution. Wires were connected to these salt solution channels; the impedance of a test channel filled with solution was measured by an HP 4294A Impedance Analyzer. Deionized water, 2-propanol, and 5M NaCl were measured. Numerical simulations were performed on the channel cross-section to determine the predicted impedance of the device. The simulated results were compared to the experimental data. Graphs of simulations and experiments are presented for the frequency range 1 KHz to 110 MHz. The data show electrode polarization at the electrode-electrolyte interface, as well as parasitic capacitance inherent in the experimental arrangement.

Kellis, Nathan; Mazzeo, Aaron; Mazzeo, Brian

2009-10-01

412

Flying wires at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

1989-03-01

413

Molecular photonic wire  

SciTech Connect

We felt that an appropriate synthetic array of pigments could function as a molecular photonic wire. The structure of the molecular photonic wire is shown. A boron-dipyrromethene dye provides an optical input at one end, a linear array of three zinc porphyrins is employed as a signal transmission element, and a free base porphyrin provides an optical output at the other end. The synthesis combines modular building blocks in a stepwise manner using coupling reactions similar to those in our synthesis of multi-porphyrin light-harvesting arrays. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Wagner, R.W.; Lindsey, J.S. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1994-10-10

414

Wiring and Cabling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module introduces students to wiring and cabling principles, including transmission lines, computer network and wireless systems, and troubleshooting. The Knowledge Probes allow students to answer open-ended questions covering the content of the module, and the Learning Resources present activities, laboratories, and games to further solidify the material. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource for vocational electronics educators as a ready-made classroom introduction to wiring and cabling.

2008-12-08

415

Evaluation of torque moment in a novel elastic bendable orthodontic wire.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to measure the torque moment delivered by a novel elastic bendable wire, Ti-Nb wire, and to compare it with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) and titanium-molybdenum (Ti-Mo) alloy wires. Two sizes of Ti-Nb, Ni-Ti and Ti-Mo alloy wires and 0.022-inch slot stainless steel brackets were ligated with elastic modules or ligature wires. The torque moment delivered by the various wire-bracket combinations was measured using a torque gauge at the temperature and humidity of 37°C and 50%, respectively. As the degree of applied torque and the inserted wire size increased, the torque moment gradually increased. The torque moment of Ti-Nb wires was smaller than those of Ni-Ti wires and Ti-Mo wires, at more than 20 degrees applied torque. The torque moment with wire ligation was significantly larger than those with elastic ligation. PMID:24786348

Kuroda, Shingo; Watanabe, Hiroto; Nakajima, Akira; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Tanaka, Eiji

2014-05-31

416

Status of rod consolidation, 1988  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that the spent fuel storage pools at some domestic light-water reactors will run out of space before 2003, the year that the US Department of Energy currently predicts it will have a repository available. Of the methods being studied to alleviate the problem, rod consolidation is one of the leading candidates for achieving more efficient use of existing space in spent fuel storage pools. Rod consolidation involves mechanically removing all the fuel rods from the fuel assembly hardware (i.e., the structural components) and placing the fuel rods in a close-packed array in a canister without space grids. A typical goal of rod consolidation systems is to insert the fuel rods from two fuel assemblies into a canister that has the same exterior dimensions as one standard fuel assembly (i.e., to achieve a consolidation or compaction ratio of 2:1) and to compact the nonfuel-bearing structural components from those two fuel assemblies by a factor of 10 to 20. This report provides an overview of the current status of rod consolidation in the United States and a small amount of information on related activities in other countries. 85 refs., 36 figs., 5 tabs.

Bailey, W.J.

1989-01-01

417

Limtraeramar med Foerband av Inlimmade Stalstaenger (Glued Laminated Timber Frames with Glued-In Steel Bar Connections).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Protal frame knees with glued-in steel plates and steel rods subjected to static loading have been studied experimentally. The plates and rods respectively where placed in slots on the outer and inner side of the glulam frame knee. The slots were manufact...

C. J. Johansson

1992-01-01

418

Wiedemann effect of Fe—Ga based magnetostrictive wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Fe83Ga17)98Cr2 wires each with a diameter of 0.7 mm are prepared by hot swaging and warm drawing from the casting rods directly, because the ductility of Fe83Ga17 alloy is improved by adding Cr element. The Wiedemann twists and dependences on magnetostrictions of Fe83Ga17 and (Fe83Ga17)98Cr2 wires are investigated. The largest observed Wiedemann twists of 245 s·cm-1 and 182 s·cm-1 are detected in the annealed Fe83Ga17 and (Fe83Ga17)98Cr2 wires, respectively. The magnetostrictions of the annealed Fe83Ga17 and (Fe83Ga17)98Cr2 wires are 160 ppm and 107 ppm, respectively. The maximum of the Wiedemann twist increases with magnetostriction increasing. However the magnetostriction is just one important factor that affects the Wiedemann effect of alloy wire, and the relationship between magnetostriction and Wiedemann effect is a complex function rather than a simple function.

Li, Ji-Heng; Gao, Xue-Xu; Zhu, Jie; Bao, Xiao-Qian; Cheng, Liang; Xie, Jian-Xin

2012-08-01

419

Fabrication of Wire Mesh Heat Exchangers for Waste Heat Recovery Using Wire-Arc Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste heat can be recovered from hot combustion gases using water-cooled heat exchangers. Adding fins to the external surfaces of the water pipes inserted into the hot gases increases their surface area and enhances heat transfer, increasing the efficiency of heat recovery. A method of increasing the heat transfer surface area has been developed using a twin wire-arc thermal spray system to generate a dense, high-strength coating that bonds wire mesh to the outside surfaces of stainless steel pipes through which water passes. At the optimum spray distance of 150 mm, the oxide content, coating porosity, and the adhesion strength of the coating were measured to be 7%, 2%, and 24 MPa, respectively. Experiments were done in which heat exchangers were placed inside a high-temperature oven with temperature varying from 300 to 900 °C. Several different heat exchanger designs were tested to estimate the total heat transfer in each case. The efficiency of heat transfer was found to depend strongly on the quality of the bond between the wire meshes and pipes and the size of openings in the wire mesh.

Rezaey, R.; Salavati, S.; Pershin, L.; Coyle, T.; Chandra, S.; Mostaghimi, J.

2014-04-01

420

Improved wire chamber  

DOEpatents

An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

Atac, M.

1987-05-12

421

Wires by Patchy Particles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Simulation Software: Glotzer Group Code Simulation Method: Brownian Dynamics A system of 80 spherical particles with two patches at a concentration of 0.20, was run starting at an effectively infinite temperature then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of 0.5. The final equillibrium structure is wires or chains. Simulation Model: United Atom Rigid Body with Lennard-Jones

Zhang, Zhenli

2005-01-31

422

NewsWire, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

2002-01-01

423

Polyphosphazene Wire Coverings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 2:3 ((C6H5O)2PN- (4-C2H5C6H4O)2PN)n copolymer was selected from several candidates for compounding studies to develop fire-retardant electrical wire insulation. All formulations prepared did not contain halogen either in the polymer or in the filler sys...

K. A. Reynard J. C. Vicic

1976-01-01

424

BookWire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BookWire, "the first place to look for book information on the world wide web," offers many literary and publishing sites, including the Hungry Mind Review and the Boston Book Review, as well as links to publishers, authors, and booksellers.

425

Residential Wiring. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…

Taylor, Mark; And Others

426

Basic Wiring. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…

Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

427

Stress controlling superconductor wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a superconductor wire. It comprises a thin-walled tube extending from a first end to a second end; superconductor filaments disposed within the lumen of the tube for transmitting electricity from the first end to the second end of the tube; and a solid filler contained in the tube and surrounding the filaments to provide support for the

R. L. Creedon; Y. H. L. Hsu

1991-01-01

428

WiredSafety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet has afforded hundreds of millions of people the opportunity to access thousands of sites on almost every topic imaginable, and has created a myriad of new employment opportunities, interest groups, and cybercommunities. Regrettably, not every person merging onto the information superhighway is there for such laudable reasons. Stepping into the fray of n'er-do wells is the WiredSafety website, headed by Perry Aftab, an international cyberspace privacy and security lawyer and children's advocate. Registered as a non-profit organization, WiredSafety offers help for online victims of cybercrime and harassment, educational materials about cybercrime, and assistance for law enforcement worldwide on preventing and investigating cybercrimes. A good place to start on the site is Parry's Internet Safety Guide for Parents, which offers a number of helpful tips for parents about monitoring their children's interactions with others over the Internet. WiredSafety also offers Wired-Ed, which is offered free of charge and allows users to learn more about surfing the net safely. Also featured is a wide range of other online courses.

429

Semiautomatic labeling of small wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semi-automatic-wire labeling equipment installs heat-shrink identification sleeves on small-diameter wires for moderate-size production runs. Supply reel contains wire of desired diameter and is cut into lengths set on the measuring rolls. Required number of identification sleeves are slipped over wire, which is then placed through sleeve-releasing mechanism. Sleeves are shrunk at 350 degrees F in an infrared oven.

David, L. P.; Heisman, R. M.; Keir, A. R.

1977-01-01

430

Wire EDM for Refractory Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

1982-01-01

431

Clinical experience of patellar fracture fixation using metal wire or non-absorbable polyester — a study of 37 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of patellar fracture fixation using metal wire and non-absorbable polyester (5 Ethibond) are presented. In group 1 (21 cases), the standard ‘AO’ technique using stainless steel wire was used, and in group 2 (16 cases) we used 5 Ethibond. Patients were assigned to the two groups on surgeon preference. Post-operative management in the two groups was similar, with

Harminder S. Gosal; Parminder Singh; Richard E. Field

2001-01-01

432

Rod coupling for oil well sucker rods and the like  

SciTech Connect

A coupling is described for joining solid reciprocating sucker rods to form a rod string in a well pump or the like comprising a unitary metal sleeve having an axial threaded bore and an irregular outer surface, and a homogeneous and non-fibrous coating on the sleeve over the outer surface providing an externally substantially cylindrical coupling, the coating comprising a flexible and abrasive resistant thermoplastic hydrourethane polymer formed on the irregular outer surface of the sleeve while in the molten state.

Bowers, R.

1986-07-29

433

49 CFR 234.231 - Fouling wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...when the train detection circuit is shunted. Installation of a single duplex wire with single plug acting as fouling wires is prohibited. Existing installations having single duplex wires with a single plug for fouling wires may be continued in...

2013-10-01

434

Extending wire rope service life  

SciTech Connect

Selecting the proper wire rope is not a simple procedure. Wire rope is a precision mining machine with scores of moving parts. It is therefore important for mining equipment users to know wire rope and how it is designed and constructed. Good lubrication and regular inspection is important for a safe and long service life.

Not Available

1982-06-01

435

Resonance of metallic wire structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic wire structures form a common class of physical systems. We illustrate how to understand the general physics of the wire systems with a specific example, the split ring resonantor. We derived simple polynomial equations to determine the entire resonance spectra of split ring structures, which can be analytically solved in the limit of narrow wires. A resonance spectrum very

Lei Zhou; Y. Zhang; Siu Tat Chui

2008-01-01

436

Nano wires by self assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique to fabricate nano wires on silicon substrates without any lithography. The wires are 50 nm or less in width, but their lengths can be 10 s of micro meters. They can be formed by a single or multiple layers of metals. The wires can be designed to form a network which can be partially released from

Taher Saif; Erdem Alaca; Huseyin Sehitoglu

2003-01-01

437

Wire vibration, bowing, and breakage in wire electrical discharge machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an analysis of the wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. The causes of wire vibration, bowing, and breakage are identified. The cross sectional configuration of an eroded wire is derived from basic physics under the assumption that the erosion rate is constant. This configuration is verified experimentally with further explanation as to why numerous experimental studies have yielded different configurations. A computational model has been developed that can evaluate the systematic effects that lead to wire breakage by determining the stress induced by wire erosion and the stress induced by the sparks during the operation of a wire-cutting EDM machine. This model is also capable of determining the extent of wire bowing and vibrations in these machines but only in the frontal direction. The model is supported by data from experiments performed on an AGIECUT 612 wire machine cutting a 10 mm high copper bar with a 0.15 mm brass wire to acquire wire breakage data. The nearly parabolic shape of the bowed wire agrees with the results of other authors making more restrictive assumptions.

Arunachalam, C.; Aulia, M.; Bozkurt, B.; Eubank, P. T.

2001-04-01

438

Geometrical Modeling of Steel Ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the mathematical geometric modeling of the ropes of circular cross- section. Such rope can be formed from strands of different shapes. There is considered steel rope made up of six strands, whose crosssection has oval, triangular or circular profil in this paper. The wires of these types of the strands are presented by parametric equations of the wire axis. The equations are implemented in the Pro/Engineer Wildfire V5 software for creating the geometrical model of the strand.

Stanová, Eva

2013-11-01

439

Coupled Multi-Electrode Investigation of Crevice Corrosion of 316 Stainless Steel and NiCrMo Alloy 625  

SciTech Connect

Crevice corrosion is currently mostly studied using either one of two techniques depending on the information desired. The first method involves two multicrevice formers or washers fastened on both sides of a sample plate. This technique provides exposure information regarding the severity of crevice corrosion (depth, position, frequency of attack) but delivers little or no electrochemical information. The second method involves the potentiodynamic or potentiostatic study of an uncreviced sample in a model crevice solution or under a crevice former in aggressive solution where crevice corrosion may initiate and propagate and global current is recorded. However, crevice corrosion initiation and propagation behavior is highly dependent on exact position in the crevice over time. The distance from the crevice mouth will affect the solution composition, the pH, the ohmic potential drop and the true potential in the crevice. Coupled multi-electrode arrays (MEA) were used to study crevice corrosion in order to take in account spatial and temporal evolution of electrochemistry simultaneously. Scaling laws were used to rescale the crevice geometry while keeping the corrosion electrochemical properties equivalent to that of a natural crevice at a smaller length scale. one of the advantages was to be able to use commercial alloys available as wires electrode and, in the case of MEA, to spread the crevice corrosion over many individual electrodes so each one of them will have a near homogeneous electrochemical behavior. The initial step was to obtain anodic polarization curves for the relevant material in acid chloride solution which simulated the crevice electrolyte. using the software Crevicer{trademark}, the potential distribution inside the crevice as a function of the distance from the crevice mouth was determined for various crevice gaps and applied potentials, assuming constant chemistry throughout the crevice. The crevice corrosion initiation location x{sub crit} is the position where the potential drops to E{sub Flade}. Figure 1 illustrates the resulting x{sub crit} vs. G scaling laws for 316 Stainless Steel in 1 M HCl at 50 C. The coupled multi-wire array is composed of one hundred identical 316 Stainless Steel wires in a five by twenty formation inserted in a groove of a 316 Stainless Steel rod such that the ends of the wires are flush mounted with the rod. The 100 wires are coupled electrically through in-line zero resistance ammeters. The diameter of the wires (250 {micro}m) was chosen so that x{sub crit} (critical initiation distance from the crevice mouth) and the expected zone of crevice corrosion (predicted from the scaling law) would be larger than the radius of a single wire. The array created a flush mounted planar electrode with the surface/volume ratio obtained in planar crevices. The observation of the current evolution as a function of position inside and outside the crevice as function of time was made possible as illustrated in Figure 2 in 0.6 M NaCl at 50 C.

F. Bocher; F.J. Presuel-Moreno; J.R. Scully

2006-06-08

440

Release of Fission Products from a Fuel Rod with an Artificial Hole Through Cladding Irradiated in an in-Pile Water Loop, (2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To make clear the iodine spiking phenomenon from a defective fuel rod into the primary coolant, the fuel rod (UO sub 2 pellets, with stainless steel sheath) with an artificial pin hole was irradiated in the inpile test section of water loop JMTR.OWL-1. Ex...

N. Ishiwatari

1978-01-01

441

Effects of Manufacturing-Induced Residual Stresses and Strains on Hydrogen Embrittlement of Cold Drawn Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) plays a relevant role in the performance of prestressing steel wires. In this framework, the knowledge\\u000a of residual stresses and plastic strains in wires due to cold-drawing (manufacturing-induced residual stresses), as well as\\u000a of wires hydrogenation from harsh environments are the keys to successful predictions of wire lives. This paper advances previous\\u000a analyses of HE in cold-drawn

J. Toribio; M. Lorenzo; D. Vergara; V. Kharin

442

Nuclear design of Helical Cruciform Fuel rods  

SciTech Connect

In order to increase the power density of current and new light water reactor designs, the Helical Cruciform Fuel (HCF) rods are proposed. The HCF rods are equivalent to a cylindrical rod, with the fuel in a cruciform shaped, twisted axially. The HCF rods increase the surface area to volume ratio and inter-subchannel mixing behavior due to their cruciform and helical shapes, respectively. In a previous study, the HCF rods have shown the potential to up-rate existing PWRs by 50% and BWRs by 25%. However, HCF rods do display different neutronics modeling and performance. The cruciform cross section of HCF rods creates radially asymmetric heat generation and temperature distribution. The nominal HCF rod's beginning of life reactivity is reduced, compared to a cylindrical rod with the same fuel volume, by 500 pcm, due to increase in absorption in cladding. The rotation of these rods accounts for reactivity changes, which depends on the H/HM ratio of the pin cell. The HCF geometry shows large sensitivities to U{sup 235} or gadolinium enrichments compared to a cylindrical geometry. In addition, the gadolinium-containing HCF rods show a stronger effect on neighboring HCF rods than in case of cylindrical rods, depending on the orientation of the HCF rods. The helical geometry of the rods introduces axial shadowing of about 600 pcm, not seen in typical cylindrical rods. (authors)

Shirvan, K.; Kazimi, M. S. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Sciences, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue 24-215 (United States)

2012-07-01

443

LWBR development program: Flow-induced vibrational wear behavior of zircaloy clad simulated fuel rods in a grid support system  

SciTech Connect

Vibrational wear behavior of flow-tested simulated fuel rods supported in AM-350 stainless steel grids is described. Zircaloy-4 tubes containing copper pellets were tested in 515 and 530/sup 0/F, 1615 and 2000 psia, upward flowing water at various flow rates for periods of 420 to 11,871 hours while supported by normal and off-normal grid conditions. The simulated fuel rods were attached at either top or bottom base plates. Rod wear spots were usually deepest at the free end grid level. Wear spots 9.9 to 17.0 mils deep were produced on several rods for off-normal conditions where the grid closest to the rod free end did not apply spring force to the rod. Expected core conditions are less severe due to a continual shift in rod-grid contact locations as rods lengthen from irradiation induced growth. High wear at free-end grids was most common on top-mounted rods, but it was observed on bottom-mounted rods also.

Galtz, C.S.; Stackhouse, R.M.; Campbell, W.R.

1987-03-01

444

Magnetic Force Three Wires Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Magnetic Force Three Wires model investigates the force between long straight current-carrying wires. Initially, the simulation shows a cross-section view of three long straight parallel wires, each on the corner of an equilateral triangle. The wires carry currents that have different magnitudes, and the currents are directed either into or out of the page. The task in this simulation is to rank the wires based on the magnitude of their currents, from largest to smallest. The Magnetic Force Three Wires model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_Three_Wires.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. This is part of a collection of similar tutorial simulations created by the author.

Duffy, Andrew

2009-10-20

445

Absorption in atomic wires  

SciTech Connect

The transfer matrix formalism is implemented in the form of the multiple collision technique to account for dissipative transmission processes by using complex potentials in several models of atomic chains. The absorption term is rigorously treated to recover unitarity for the non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. In contrast to other models of parametrized scatterers we assemble explicit potentials profiles in the form of delta arrays, Poeschl-Teller holes, and complex Scarf potentials. The techniques developed provide analytical expressions for the scattering and absorption probabilities of arbitrarily long wires. The approach presented is suitable for modeling molecular aggregate potentials and also supports new models of continuous disordered systems. The results obtained also suggest the possibility of using these complex potentials within disordered wires to study the loss of coherence in the electronic localization regime due to phase-breaking inelastic processes.

Cervero, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Alberto [Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

2004-11-01

446

Wire insulation defect detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wiring defects are located by detecting a reflected signal that is developed when an arc occurs through the defect to a nearby ground. The time between the generation of the signal and the return of the reflected signal provides an indication of the distance of the arc (and therefore the defect) from the signal source. To ensure arcing, a signal is repeated at gradually increasing voltages while the wire being tested and a nearby ground are immersed in a conductive medium. In order to ensure that the arcing occurs at an identifiable time, the signal whose reflection is to be detected is always made to reach the highest potential yet seen by the system.

Greulich, Owen R. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

447

Dental Arch Wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

1979-01-01

448

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

1972-01-01

449

Superconducting magnet wire  

DOEpatents

A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL); Banerjee, Indrajit (San Jose, CA)

1986-01-01

450

Plasmonic properties of the metallic nanosphere/thin wire system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasmon hybridization method [1] is applied to a metallic nanosphere positioned near an infinitely long metallic wire. The plasmon resonances of the sphere are found to be shifted and to depend on the polarization of the incident light. In the limit of a thin wire, a virtual state consisting of propagating low energy wire plasmons is induced. The state is similar in nature to the virtual thin film state recently predicted and observed for a nanosphere near a thin metallic film [2]. [1] E. Prodan and P. Nordlander, J. Chem. Phys. 120(2004)5444-5454. [2] F. Le, N. Z. Lwin, J.M. Steele, M. Kall, N.J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Nano Lett. 5(2005)2009-2013.

Hao, Feng; Nordlander, P.

2006-03-01

451

MORPHOGENESIS OF THE RETINAL RODS  

PubMed Central

The morphogenesis of the retinal rods has been studied with the electron microscope in white mice from birth up to the 16th day of age. Observations have been mainly concentrated on specimens of the 8th and 12th days and on the differentiation of the inner and outer segments of the retinal rods. In the morphogenesis of the outer segment three main stages have been considered. The first stage consists in the development of a primitive cilium projecting from a bulge of protoplasm which constitutes the primordium of the inner segment. A basal body, nine pairs of peripheral filaments, a surface membrane, and a matrix filled with a fine vesicular material have been recognized as components of the primitive cilium. The vesicles are called "morphogenetic material" because it is believed that they represent the macromolecular primordium of the rod sacs of the future outer segment. The second stage corresponds to the great enlargment of the apical region of the primitive cilium due to the rapid building up of the lamellar material of the rod sacs. The primitive rod sacs appear to be connected with the ciliary filaments. The basal portion of the primitive cilium remains undifferentiated and constitutes the connecting cilium of the adult rod (1). The third stage consists in the remodelling and reorientation of the rod sacs into their permanent transverse disposition. This process starts in the middle portion of the outer segments and proceeds towards both extremities which can be considered as zones of growth of the outer segment. The inner segment is at the beginning a bulge of protoplasm containing unoriented mitochondria, a basal body, a small Golgi zone, and numerous dense particles. Then this region becomes elongated and the different components assume the stratified disposition found in the adult (1). The demonstration that the entire outer segment of the rod cell is the result of the differentiation of a primitive cilium is discussed in view of the conflicting interpretations found in the literature. The possible macromolecular mechanisms that may be involved in the submicroscopic morphogenesis of the rod sacs are discussed and the possible role of the morphogenetic material is considered. The results described in this paper confirm and extend the interpretation of the submicroscopic morphology of the adult rod cell as presented in a previous paper (1).

De Robertis, E.

1956-01-01

452

Development of hafnium and comparison with other pressurized water reactor control rod materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a special application of hafnium for pressurized water reactor control rods is discussed. A unique feature of the design is the sealing of the hafnium material inside protective stainless steel tubing, whereas in prior applications the hafnium material was exposed directly to the reactor primary coolant. A comparison is made of the new hafnium design with silver-indium-cadmium and

H. W. Keller; D. A. Hollein; A. C. Hott; J. M. Shallenberger

1982-01-01

453

Design and qualification of fiber optic ground wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber Optic Ground Wire (FOGW) designs incorporate a fiber optic core with a protective covering over which is stranded a layer of Aluminum-Clad extra-high-strength steel. The unique placement of the fibers and the respective stranding of the buffer tubes assures strain-free fiber behavior throughout the service life of the FOGW, a quality required to assure a 50-year service life.

Hani M. Nassar; R. D. Adamson

1986-01-01

454

Design and qualification of fiber optic ground wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber Optic Ground Wire (FOGW) designs incorporate a fiber optic core with a protective covering over which is stranded a layer of Aluminum-Clad extra-high-strength steel. The unique placement of the fibers and the respective stranding of the buffer tubes assures strain-free fiber behavior throughout the service life of the FOGW, a quality required to assure a 50-year service life.

Nassar, Hani M.; Adamson, R. D.

1986-11-01

455

On the Entrance Phase in Long Rod Penetration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The penetration of long rods into semi-infinite targets is a three-stage process, in which the first (entrance) and last are very short, and transient, while the second phase (primary penetration) is a long and quasi-steady process. The present paper summarizes our recent work on the entrance phase using 2D numerical simulations of strengthless steel rods (L/D=5-20) impacting aluminum targets at 1-4 km/s. We look for the significance of this phase as impact velocity, target strength, and penetrator's length are increased. We also show that the target free surface (impact face) is not the cause for the entrance phase. Rather, it is the passage from a cylindrically-shaped to a mushroom-shaped penetrator nose which is responsible for this phase.

Rosenberg, Z.; Dekel, E.

2002-07-01

456

EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND RESIDUAL STRESS OF CARBON-STEEL COATING OBTAINED BY ELECTRIC-ARC SPRAYING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arc spraying is a key technology applied in maintaining, rebuilding and forming parts. High carbon steel wire, a type of arc spraying feed stock with high melting point, is an ideal material used to spray form tools. In this study, the 0.8% carbon steel wire was used to deposit coating, subsequently the coated samples were heated and held at 550?,

Yong-Xiong Chen; Yan Liu; Xiu-Bing Liang; Shi-Cheng Wei; Bin-Shi Xu

457

Microstructures and sliding wear resistances of 0.2% carbon steel coatings deposited by HVOF and PTWA thermal spray processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructures, and sliding wear resistances of low carbon (0.2% C) steel coatings produced using a plasma transfer wire arc (PTWA) process, and a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process were compared. The wire feed stock used for both coatings was low carbon steel with a nominal 1020 composition. Results are also presented for HVOF coatings that had a

A. Edrisy; A. T Alpas

2002-01-01

458

The erosive wear and corrosion behavior of zinc- and aluminum-coated steels in simulated coastal environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The telecommunication systems outside plants are made of a variety of materials; metals, alloys, polymers, concrete and so on. The interaction between the outside plant metal components and the environment leads to various types of corrosion. Metal-coated steel wires are widely used as supports for telecommunication cables. In coastal areas the metal-coated steel wire corrodes and even fractures in a

Y. T Horng; T. C Chang; J. W Hsu; H. C Shih

2003-01-01

459

Inertia welding of 1100 aluminum to Type 316 stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

This work describes development done for inertia welds of 1100 aluminum of approximately an H-18 work hardened condition, to Type 316 stainless steel. The welding was done with a Caterpillar Model 90 inertia welding machine. Rod diameters were 0.625 inch for the stainless steel and 1.00 inch for the aluminum. A broad range of weld parameters, as well as various steel surface geometries, were investigated for this work.

Yashan, D.; Tsang, S.; Doughty, M.W.

1986-01-01

460

Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

461

Dual wire welding torch and method  

DOEpatents

A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

Diez, Fernando Martinez (Peoria, IL); Stump, Kevin S. (Sherman, IL); Ludewig, Howard W. (Groveland, IL); Kilty, Alan L. (Peoria, IL); Robinson, Matthew M. (Peoria, IL); Egland, Keith M. (Peoria, IL)

2009-04-28

462

Oxidation during electric arc spray forming of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twin wire electric arc spraying is being developed as a technique to form thick steel deposits for rapid production tooling by robotically manipulating several arc guns over a ceramic pattern. Even though nitrogen atomising gas is used to spray the steel, entrainment of oxygen from the surrounding atmosphere of the large extraction booth results in deposits that are high in

A. P. Newbery; P. S. Grant

2006-01-01

463

A microstructural study of dislocation substructures formed in metal foil substrates during ultrasonic wire bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been conducted on the deformation mechanisms in metal substrates subject to aluminum ultrasonic wire bonding (UWB).\\u000a Aluminum wires were bonded to copper, nickel, stainless steel, and aluminum bronze foil substrates and then removed in aqueous\\u000a sodium hydroxide to permit thin sections of bonded areas to be examined in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The\\u000a results showed a

Nikhil Murdeshwar; James E. Krzanowski

1997-01-01

464

Wavelet transform of signal for enhancement of SNR in wire rope inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In magnetic testing of steel wire rope the MFL signals of broken wires may be corrupted by background noise arising from the probe lift-off, vibration and white noise, resulting in unreliable detection and inaccurate characterization of rope weakness. In this paper, a signal processing technique is presented to reduce this background noise by the use of a wavelet transform. The results of processing signals from testing rope pieces show that proposed technique is effective for extracting defect signals. .

Lunin, V.; Barat, V.

2002-05-01

465

Scattering and absorption by thin metal wires in rectangular waveguide-FDTD simulation and physical experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-frequency internal impedance model of a round ohmic conductor is incorporated into the subcell thin-wire formulation of the finite-difference time-domain method to model the microwave properties of metal wires. For magnetic metals, such as steel, an effective conductivity is introduced to account for the increase in ohmic loss due to the high-frequency permeability. Physical experiments with half-wave resonant copper-

Marianne Bingle; David Bruce Davidson; J. H. Cloete

2002-01-01

466

Combining wire and coaxial powder feeding in laser direct metal deposition for rapid prototyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder and wire deposition have been used separately in many laser-cladding, rapid prototyping and other additive manufacturing applications. In this paper, a new approach is investigated by simultaneously feeding powder from a coaxial nozzle and wire from an off-axis nozzle into the deposition melt pool. Multilayer parts are built from 316L steel using a 1.5kW diode laser and different configurations

Waheed Ul Haq Syed; Andrew J. Pinkerton; Lin Li

2006-01-01

467

Combining wire and coaxial powder feeding in laser direct metal deposition for rapid prototyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder and wire deposition have been used separately in many laser-cladding, rapid prototyping and other additive manufacturing applications. In this paper, a new approach is investigated by simultaneously feeding powder from a coaxial nozzle and wire from an off-axis nozzle into the deposition melt pool. Multilayer parts are built from 316L steel using a 1.5 kW diode laser and different

Waheed Ul Haq Syed; Andrew J. Pinkerton; Lin Li

2006-01-01

468

Optimizing SUS 304 wire drawing process by grey relational analysis utilizing Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the stainless steel 304 (SUS 304) wire drawing process, optimizing the die life and wire tensile strength, which are the larger-the-better quality characteristics (QCH) types, is of main interest. Three control factors, involving reduction ratio, lubricant temperature, and drawing speed, were investigated utilizing L9(34) orthogonal array (OA). The grey relational analysis was conducted for the normalized signal-to-noise (S\\/N) ratios.

Al-Refaie Abbas; Ming-Hsien Li; Kuo-Cheng Tai

2008-01-01

469

Fungal induced corrosion of wire rope exposed in humid atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was observed on the interiors of wooden spools and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments were designed to demonstrate a causal relationship between storage conditions, fungal growth, and localized corrosion.

Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P.

1995-03-01

470

Rod guide/paraffin scraper  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes improvement in a rod guide and paraffin scraper. It comprises: a body including longitudinal ribs spaced radially and extending out from the body; having two identical halves with the body surrounding a bore to accept a sucker rod, and each of the identical halves having a locking and tightening feature using a tongue and groove concept for interfitting the halves together over the sucker rod. This improvement comprises a rod guide and paraffin scraper with two identical halves comprising; a cylindrical central body including, at each end, three longitudinal ribs radially spaced to form a triad leaving three flow channels, at each end of the body, of essentially the same size and spacing as the ribs; and an angular wedge with opposingly ramped sides at the inside end of each of the ribs for scraping and directing material into the flow channels; and a set of triangular shaped tongues that interfit with a set of triangular shaped grooves for tightening the identical halves together and over the sucker rod; and a pair of cone-shaped male locks at one end of the identical half to mate with a pair of cone-shaped female locks at the opposite end of the other identical half.

Mabry, J.F.

1991-02-26

471

Mechanical property variation within Inconel 82\\/182 dissimilar metal weld between low alloy steel and 316 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several locations of pressurized water reactors, dissimilar metal welds using Inconel welding wires are used to join the low alloy steel components to stainless-steel pipes. Because of the existence of different materials and chemistry variation within welds, mechanical properties, such as tensile and fracture properties, are expected to show spatial variation. For design and integrity assessment of the dissimilar

Changheui Jang; Jounghoon Lee; Jong Sung Kim; Tae Eun Jin

2008-01-01

472

Advanced gray rod control assembly  

DOEpatents

An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

2013-09-17

473

Eddy current measurements on case hardened steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The case-hardening process modifies the near-surface permeability and conductivity of steel, as can be observed through changes in eddy current probe signals measured over a range of frequency. In this work, experiments have been performed using normal absolute probe coils on flat steel specimens and coils encircling case-hardened steel rods. By fitting model results to the experimental data, estimates of electrical material properties are found. The approach also allows an assessment of the sensitivity of the measurements to the case depth. .

Sun, H.; Bowler, J. R.; Bowler, N.; Johnson, M. J.

2002-05-01

474

Novel quantum wire infrared photodetectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes novel semiconductor quantum wire infrared photodetectors in the long- and very long-wavelength regions. The infrared photodetectors are based on intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wires and have the potential for higher operational temperature, increased signal-to-noise ratio, reduced dark current, wider spectral range and sensitivity to normal incident radiation. The quantum wire IR detectors are implemented using a

Biswajit Das; Pavan Singaraju

2005-01-01

475

On-Wire Lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a high-throughput procedure for lithographically processing one-dimensional nanowires. This procedure, termed on-wire lithography, combines advances in template-directed synthesis of nanowires with electrochemical deposition and wet-chemical etching and allows routine fabrication of face-to-face disk arrays and gap structures in the range of five to several hundred nanometers. We studied the transport properties of 13-nanometer gaps with and without nanoscopic amounts of conducting polymers deposited within by dip-pen nanolithography.

Qin, Lidong; Park, Sungho; Huang, Ling; Mirkin, Chad A.

2005-07-01

476

Stress controlling superconductor wire  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a superconductor wire. It comprises a thin-walled tube extending from a first end to a second end; superconductor filaments disposed within the lumen of the tube for transmitting electricity from the first end to the second end of the tube; and a solid filler contained in the tube and surrounding the filaments to provide support for the filaments. The filler being a solder selected from the group consisting of alloys of lead bismuth, silver, indium or mixtures thereof and the filler being a material capable of being heated to a liquified state within the tube.

Creedon, R.L.; Hsu, Y.H.L.

1991-02-05

477

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

Carpenter, K. H.

1974-01-01

478

NetNewsWire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Keeping tabs on the news (or anything else) online can be a bit overwhelming, so it's nice to know that NetNewsWire can help out. While this RSS reader can perform the usual tasks of fetching and displaying news from thousands of different websites and weblogs, it also includes a weblog editor that allows users to post to a host of different popular blogging sites. The program also features an integrated podcast manager, which will automatically send new podcasts to a selected music jukebox. This version is compatible with computers running Mac OS X 10.4 or greater.

2008-01-01

479

Doping molecular wires.  

PubMed

The concept of doping inorganic semiconductors enabled their successful application in electronic devices. Furthermore, the discovery of metal-like conduction in doped polymers started the entire field of organic electronics. In the present theoretical study, we extend the concept of doping to monomolecular wires suspended between two metal electrodes. Upon doping, the conductivity of representative model systems is found to increase by 2 orders of magnitude. More importantly, by providing a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms, our results pave the way for the development of novel molecular components envisioned as functional units in nanoscale devices. PMID:19505133

Heimel, Georg; Zojer, Egbert; Romaner, Lorenz; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Stellacci, Francesco

2009-07-01

480

Texture development in Galfenol wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong <110> (?) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

2013-05-01

481

Subminiature Hot-Wire Probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Class of improved subminiature hot-wire flow-measuring probes developed. Smaller sizes yield improved resolution in measurements of practical aerodynamic flows. Probe made in one-wire, two-perpendicular-wire, and three-perpendicular-wire version for measurement of one, two, or all three components of flow. Oriented and positioned on micromanipulator stage and viewed under microscope during fabrication. Tested by taking measurements in constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. New probes give improved measurements of turbulence quantities near surfaces and anisotropies of flows strongly influence relative errors caused by phenomena related to spatial resolution.

Westphal, R. V.; Lemos, F. R.; Ligrani, P. M.

1989-01-01

482

The role of oxide structure on copper wire to the rubber adhesion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most metals have an oxide layer on the surface. However, the structure of the oxide varies with the matrix composition, and depends upon the environmental conditions. A bronze coating, nominal composition of 98.5% Cu and balance of Sn, is applied to steel wire for reinforcing pneumatic tire beads and to provide adhesion to rubber. This work studied the influence of copper oxides on the bronze coating on adhesion during vulcanization. To emphasize the oxide structures, electrolytic tough pitch (ETP) copper wire was used instead of the traditional bronze-coated tire bead wire. Experimental results confirmed the hypothesis that cuprous oxide (Cu 2O) could significantly improve bonding between copper wire and rubber, and demonstrated that the interaction between rubber and oxide layer on wire is an electrochemical reaction.

Su, Yea-Yang; Shemenski, Robert M.

2000-07-01

483

Lateral compliance and elastic stability of a dual-coated optical fiber of finite length, with application to nano-rods embedded into low-modulus elastic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the lateral compliance and elastic stability of a dual-coated fiber of finite length (such as, e.g., an optical fiber interconnect) and apply the obtained solution to a nano-rod (nano-wire, nano-fiber, carbon nano-tube) embedded into a low-modulus elastic medium. The latter situation is encountered in nano-composites, as well as in some advanced heat-spreaders employing nano-rod-arrays. Both the photonic (dual-coated

E. Suhir

2009-01-01

484

Fretting wear of a high-strength heavily work-hardened eutectoid steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the second paper in an informal series of three on the fretting behavior of a heavily work-hardened eutectoid steel wire, used in the construction of locked coil steel ropes. The fretting behavior of the wire, both in the service surface condition and after mechanical abrasion, is examined. Residual solid die lubricant, from the wire drawing manufacturing process, present both on the surface of the wire and as a reservoir in the drawing marks is determined to play an important role in the fretting behavior. In particular, it is capable of maintaining the coefficient of friction at a low value, at least during the early stages of fretting.

Waterhouse, R. B.; McColl, I. R.; Harris, S. J.; Tsujikawa, M.

1994-06-01

485

AC application of second generation HTS wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the production of Second Generation (2G) YBCO High Temperature Superconductor wire American Superconductor uses a wide-strip MOD-YBCO/RABiTSTM process, a low-cost approach for commercial manufacturing. It can be engineered with a high degree of flexibility to manufacture practical 2G conductors with architectures and properties tailored for specific applications and operating conditions. For ac applications conductor and coil design can be geared towards low hysteretic losses. For applications which experience high frequency ac fields, the stabilizer needs to be adjusted for l