Sample records for steel wire rods

  1. 75 FR 21658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ...731-TA-961 (Final) (Second Remand)] Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago AGENCY: United States...Investigation No. 731-TA-961 concerning carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (``wire rod'') from Trinidad and...

  2. 77 FR 3231 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order...certain stainless steel wire rods from India would likely lead to continuation or recurrence...steel wire rods (``wire rods'') from India,\\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c)...

  3. 78 FR 60316 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ...Second Review)] Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia...countervailing duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod from Brazil and antidumping duty orders on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod from Brazil,...

  4. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ...Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis...steel wire rod from Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...Okun dissenting with respect to Korea and...

  5. 78 FR 2658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...International Trade Administration [A-201-830] Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (``wire rod'') from Mexico for the...

  6. 77 FR 66954 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ...Administration [A-201-830] Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Preliminary...antidumping duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Mexico...subject to this order is carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod. The product is...

  7. 78 FR 60850 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...Administration [C-351-833] Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results...duty (CVD) order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Brazil...Circumstances Determination: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Brazil, 67 FR...

  8. 78 FR 28190 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...Administration [A-201-830] Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Final Results...antidumping duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Mexico...1\\ See Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico:...

  9. 76 FR 67672 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...Administration [A-533-808] Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results...the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel wire rods from India, pursuant...the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel wire rods from India (wire...

  10. 76 FR 64105 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ...No. 731-TA-638 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Scheduling...Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India AGENCY: United...revocation of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod from India would be...

  11. 76 FR 38686 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...Review)] Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning...Order on Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India AGENCY: United States International Trade...order on stainless steel wire rod from India would be likely to lead to...

  12. 75 FR 34424 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty...wire rod (SSWR) from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Spain, and Taiwan would likely lead to a...

  13. High strength, low carbon, dual phase steel rods and wires and process for making same

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA); Nakagawa, Alvin H. (Campbell, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility, low carbon, dual phase steel wire, bar or rod and process for making the same is provided. The steel wire, bar or rod is produced by cold drawing to the desired diameter in a single multipass operation a low carbon steel composition characterized by a duplex microstructure consisting essentially of a strong second phase dispersed in a soft ferrite matrix with a microstructure and morphology having sufficient cold formability to allow reductions in cross-sectional area of up to about 99.9%. Tensile strengths of at least 120 ksi to over 400 ksi may be obtained.

  14. 78 FR 33103 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ...957-959, 961, and 962 (Second Review)] Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From...revocation of the countervailing duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod...supply and demand conditions or business cycle for the Domestic Like Product that...

  15. 76 FR 34044 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ...International Trade Administration [A-201-830] Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Extension of Time Limits for the...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod from Mexico, covering the period October...

  16. Mechanical behavior of ultrahigh strength ultrahigh carbon steel wire and rod

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sberby, O.D.; Whittenherger, W.D.

    1997-07-22

    Ultrahigh-carbon steels (UHCSS) can achieve very high strengths in wire or rod form. These high strengths result from the mechanical work introduced during wire and rod processing. These strengths have been observed to increase with carbon content. In wire form, tensile strengths approaching 6000 MPa are predicted for UHCS containing 1. 8%C. In this paper, we will discuss the influence of processing (including rapid transformation during wire patenting) and micros ct- ure on the mechanical behavior of UHCS wire. The tensile properties of as- extruded rods are described as a function of extrusion temperature and composition. For spheroidized steels, yield and ultimate tensile strength are a function of grain size, interparticle spacing and particle size. For pearlitic steels, yield and ultimate strength were found to be functions of colony size, carbide size and plate spacing and orientation. Alloying additions (such as C, Cr, Si, Al and Co) can influence the effect of processing on these microstructural features. For spheroidized steels, fracture was found to be a function of the size of coarse carbides and of composition.

  17. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.; Kim, N.J.

    1986-10-28

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar[sub 3] temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics. 3 figs.

  18. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA); Ahn, Jae-Hwan (Albany, CA); Kim, Nack-Joon (Laramie, WY)

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  19. 77 FR 59892 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...2012, ArcelorMittal USA LLC, Gerdau Ameristeel...Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, and Trinidad...5.00 mm produced in Mexico and exported to the United...order on wire rod from Mexico. This affirmative finding...which continues to govern business proprietary...

  20. 76 FR 78882 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods...0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.008 percent...

  1. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth Thomas; Jae-Hwan Ahn; Nack-Joon Kim

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide

  2. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Thomas; J. H. Ahn; N. J. Kim

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar[sub 3] temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to

  3. 76 FR 16607 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ...ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods...0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.008 percent...

  4. 75 FR 8650 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Trinidad and Tobago; Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ...ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods...0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.008 percent...

  5. 76 FR 67407 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ...ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods...0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.008 percent...

  6. 77 FR 13545 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods...0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or...aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.008 percent...

  7. 77 FR 51514 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ...Carbon and Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Germany, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine: Preliminary Determination...Carbon and Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Germany, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine: Preliminary...

  8. 78 FR 76653 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ...Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine Scheduling...rod from Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine...rod from Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine...

  9. 78 FR 63450 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...Inc.; Arcelor Mittal USA LLC; \\1\\ Evraz Rocky...1\\ Arcelor Mittal USA LLC is not participating...from Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...reported that it is doing business as CF&I Steel LP, which...Russia. ArcelorMittal USA reported that it is...

  10. Quantitative texture analysis of 20 ?m Dual-phase ? + ?' steel wire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Read

    1997-01-01

    Dual-phase steels were developed in the late 1970`s as high-strength, low-alloy sheet steels characterized by a microstructure consisting primarily of a dispersion of hard martensite (10 to 40 vol.%) in soft, ductile ferrite, with the possible presence of some retained austenite or bainite. More recently, dual-phase steels have been developed for wire and rod applications. In order to optimize the

  11. Fracture toughness evaluation of high-strength cold-drawn eutectoid steel wires used in wire ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourladian, Bamdad

    High carbon (eutectoid) steel wires are used in many modern engineering applications which require high strength and durability. The most demanding applications are those for wire ropes, tire reinforcements, engine valve springs, and structural strands used for long span cable stayed bridges. In this study, a test method based on Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) was used to evaluate fracture toughness, KC, for various grades of wire which were of 0.072? nominal diameter. An extensive review of literature on mechanical behavior of wire ropes is presented. Also a very thorough review of technical literature on the applications of LEFM in high strength rods and wires is provided. Various stress intensity factor solutions (K-solutions) are evaluated and compared. The most applicable K-solutions for application in KC determination in circular rods and wires with semi-elliptical surface cracks are recommended. Plane-stress K-solutions for straight-edge surface cracks in 0.072? diameter steel wire were also developed by a 3D FEA model. An experimental fracture toughness test procedure based on principles of LEFM is described in detail. Experimental tensile fracture data is presented for 285 pre-cracked fracture samples. SEM fractographs documenting fracture surface topography of various fracture modes are described and characterized. For each wire grade and condition an average value of KC was determined. Statistical treatment of data and 90% confidence intervals are also provided. Average KC values ranged from 52Ksiin to 60Ksiin for wires ranging in tensile strength from 289 Ksi to 336 Ksi. Delamination toughening phenomenon was observed in some wire fracture samples and documented. As high as 60% increase in KC value was observed for some delaminated wires. The effect of crack aspect ratio in semi-elliptical cracks was considered and found to be very significant.

  12. Characterisation of severely deformed austenitic stainless steel wire

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    : Martensite, Mechanical Stabilization, Interface structure, Stainless steel Introduction Textiles woven using stainless steel threads have applications requiring softness, flexibility, abrasion resistanceCharacterisation of severely deformed austenitic stainless steel wire H. S. Wang1 , J. R. Yang1

  13. 78 FR 40170 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...Register Volume 78, Number 128 (Wednesday, July...Preliminary)] Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India...and Thailand of certain steel threaded rod, provided...1\\ Certain steel threaded rod may also...statistical reporting number...

  14. 78 FR 21101 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...Steel Threaded Rod from the People's Republic of China: Notice...Steel Threaded Rod from the People's Republic of China...2\\ Citing Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. v. United States...Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China:...

  15. 78 FR 8105 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...steel wire garment hangers with swivel hooks; (c) steel wire garment hangers with clips permanently affixed; and (d) chrome plated steel wire garment hangers with a diameter of 3.4 millimeters (``mm'') or greater. The products subject to...

  16. 75 FR 36678 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ...731-TA-1160 (Final)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations...of imports from China of prestressed concrete steel wire strand (PC strand), provided...June 2010), entitled Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from China:...

  17. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand. 1755.370 Section 1755...specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference...Standard Specification for Zinc-Coated Steel Wire Strand, issued May 1978. All...

  18. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand. 1755.370 Section 1755...specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference...Standard Specification for Zinc-Coated Steel Wire Strand, issued May 1978. All...

  19. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand. 1755.370 Section 1755...specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference...Standard Specification for Zinc-Coated Steel Wire Strand, issued May 1978. All...

  20. 7. DETAIL VIEW UNDER BRIDGE OF CORRUGATED STEEL, BEAMS, RODS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW UNDER BRIDGE OF CORRUGATED STEEL, BEAMS, RODS, AND ABUTMENT - Price River Bridge, Spanning Price River, 760 North Street in Carbonville, 1 mile northwest of Price, Carbonville, Carbon County, UT

  1. 75 FR 4104 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ...731-TA-1160 (Final)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY...less-than-fair-value imports from China of prestressed concrete steel wire strand, provided for in subheading...which is suitable for use in prestressed concrete (both pre-tensioned and post-...

  2. Potentiodynamic studies of stainless steel wire for endourology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Przondziono; W. Walke

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to evaluate resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wire made of Cr- Ni stainless steel, designed for use in endourological treatment. The influence of strain formed in the process of drawing and methods of wire surface preparation to corrosive resistance in artificial urine solution were analysed. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: Wire corrosion tests were carried out in

  3. 76 FR 26696 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ...Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...steel threaded rod'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC...See Certain Steel Threaded Rod from the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

  4. 75 FR 8113 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-464 and 731-TA-1160 (Final)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the...

  5. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  6. Application Of Numerical Modelling To Ribbed Wire Rod Dimensions Precision Increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szota, Piotr; Mróz, Sebastian; Stefanik, Andrzej

    2007-05-01

    The paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the process of rolling square ribbed wire rod designed for concrete reinforcement. Numerical modelling of the process of rolling in the finishing and pre-finishing grooves was carried out using the Forge2005® software. In the investigation, particular consideration was given to the analysis of the effect of pre-finished band shape on the formation of ribs on the finished wire rod in the finishing groove. The results of theoretical studies were verified in experimental tests, which were carried out in a wire rolling mill.

  7. 2. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Company, Central ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Company, Central Furnaces & Docks, General Plan of Works Showing Trestle, 1-3-39.' Drawing courtesy of United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. 1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central Furnace Works -- Sketch of Plant Showing Tracks & Buildings, 1913, Revised 3/10/31.' Drawing courtesy United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. Credit Berni Rich, Score Photographs, August 1979, for photos 1 through 4 and 7 through 11. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. 77 FR 3731 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ...steel wire garment hangers with swivel hooks; (c) steel wire garment hangers with clips permanently affixed; and (d) chrome plated steel wire garment hangers with a diameter of 3.4 mm or greater. The products subject to these investigations...

  10. Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Kim, D.K.

    1996-06-25

    Hypereutectoid steels have the potential for dramatically increasing the strength of wire used in tire cord and in other high strength wire applications. The basis for this possible breakthrough is the elimination of a brittle proeutectoid network that can form along grain boundaries if appropriate processing procedures and alloy additions are used. A review is made of work done by Japanese and other researchers on eutectoid and mildly hypereutectoid wires. A linear extrapolation of the tensile strength of fine wires predicts higher strengths at higher carbon contents. The influence of processing, alloy additions and carbon content in optimizing the strength, ductility and fracture behavior of hypereutectoid steels is presented. It is proposed that the tensile strength of pearlitic wires is dictated by the fracture strength of the carbide lamella at grain boundary locations in the carbide. Methods to improve the strength of carbide grain boundaries and to decrease the carbide plate thickness will contribute to enhancing the ultrahigh strength obtainable in hypereutectoid steel wires. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  11. 10. View of Riverside Bridge with Steel Reinforcing Rods in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of Riverside Bridge with Steel Reinforcing Rods in Place and with 'Tower for Concrete' in the Background. The function of the 'tower for concrete' is uncertain, but may have to do with the transport of concrete from the point of mixing to the point of use (suggestion by NDOT Bridge Section personnel, February 1990). Original snapshot taken July, 1920. - Riverside Bridge, Spanning Truckee River at Booth Street, Reno, Washoe County, NV

  12. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire...CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire...South Yarmouth, MA 02664, telephone number (508) 394-4424. (2) Factory...

  13. 77 FR 2958 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ...International Trade Administration [A-549-820] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC Strand'') from Thailand....

  14. 75 FR 32747 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION [A-201-831] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC Strand'') from Mexico for...

  15. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...Nos. 731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution...materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico, and Thailand,...

  16. 77 FR 73430 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...steel wire garment hangers with swivel hooks; (c) steel wire garment hangers with clips permanently affixed; and (d) chrome-plated steel wire garment hangers with a diameter of 3.4mm or greater. The products subject to the investigation are...

  17. 77 FR 75973 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...steel wire garment hangers with swivel hooks; (c) steel wire garment hangers with clips permanently affixed; and (d) chrome-plated steel wire garment hangers with a diameter of 3.4mm or greater. The products subject to the investigation are...

  18. 77 FR 3737 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ...steel wire garment hangers with swivel hooks; (c) steel wire garment hangers with clips permanently affixed; and (d) chrome-plated steel wire garment hangers with a diameter of 3.4mm or greater. The products subject to the investigation are...

  19. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico...Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire, provided for in...reason of LTFV imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China,...

  20. Smart FBG-based steel tie rod with self-monitoring functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jianping; Zhou, Zhi; Chen, Genda; Ou, Jinping

    2009-03-01

    Currently, it is difficult to measure the internal forces of steel tie rods under construction and in long-term service. A novel high-durable smart steel tie rod with functionality of self-monitoring was developed by utilizing fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and installation techniques combined with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP). The sensing features for the smart steel tie rod were investigated. The strain obtained from FBG strain sensors shows very good linearity and repeatability when the steel tie rod is under 85% of its ultimate load. The force calculated from the strain data obtained during the control loading supports those findings, within a 4% error. This type of smart steel tie rod easily reveals any stage of stress and can be regarded as a potential strain-based load cell for adjacent structures in a harsh environment.

  1. Cold drawn steel wires--processing, residual stresses and ductility Part II: Synchrotron and neutron diffraction

    E-print Network

    Cold drawn steel wires--processing, residual stresses and ductility Part II: Synchrotron Received in final form 29 September 2005 ABSTRACT Cold drawing of steel wires leads to an increase proposed that cold drawing would induce a phase transformation of the steel, possibly a martensitic

  2. 77 FR 67332 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...Steel Threaded Rod from the People's Republic of China...Steel Threaded Rod from the People's Republic of China: Notice...preliminarily determined that New Pole Power Systems Co., Ltd. (``New...Steel Threaded Rod from the People's Republic of China:...

  3. Neutron strain scanning in straightened eutectoid steel rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, M. L.; Borlado, C. R.; Mompeán, F. J.; Peng, R. L.; Daymond, M. R.; Ruiz, J.; García-Hernández, M.

    Neutron strain scanning has been performed on a neutectoid steel rod at a reactor-based source (REST diffractometer, at NFL) and at a pulsed source (ENGIN diffractometer, at ISIS). The rod is primarily obtained from a drawing process and has been subject to bending and straightening procedures, which induce residual stress. The material exhibits a pearlitic microstructure, with alternating ferrite (90 vol%) and cementite (10 vol%) layers. Strain profiles for the ferritic phase were measured on REST. Both phases were measured on ENGIN and analysed by single-peak (ferrite) and Rietveld refinement (ferrite and cementite) methods. The agreement between REST and ENGIN data is excellent for the three measured directions in the ferritic phase. Total stress profiles have been evaluated by combining phase stresses using the rule of mixtures. The experimental results compare well with analytical models for a two-phase material subject to bending and straightening operations under pure bending and unbending moments with perfect elastic behaviour up to the yield point and plastic Voce behaviour above.

  4. Variation in the dispersion of axisymmetric waves in infinite circular rods with crystallographic wire texture

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, T.A. (Materials Science and Technology Division, MS G755, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

    1999-09-01

    This paper presents the solution to the frequency equation for a number of polycrystalline, textured circular rods having transverse isotropy. The effective, second-order elastic stiffness tensors were estimated using the recursive general Hill arithmetic mean (GHAM). The velocity dispersion curves for a number of combinations of materials and crystallographic fiber or wire textures were calculated and the variation due to texture displayed. At large wavelengths, the velocity dispersion of fiber textured materials exhibits a lowest-order axisymmetric mode which varies only with the directional Poisson[close quote]s ratios in a manner similar to that of isotropic aggregates. In this wavelength regime, the waves propagate nondispersively at the wave speed, C[sub 0], as dictated by the directional Young[close quote]s modulus. At wavelengths smaller than the rod radius, the dispersion curves were more influenced by the full anisotropy of the wire textures. At these wavelengths, the dispersion curves for the anisotropic materials deviated significantly from those of the isotropic materials and one another with the higher axisymmetric vibration modes exhibiting extreme differences. This deviation is a function of the single crystal anisotropy and nature of the wire textures. < --[AN] -->

  5. Emission of dust and gases in tubular cored wire welding of steel.

    PubMed

    Matusiak, Jolanta; Rams, Beata

    2003-01-01

    The emission of dusts and gases, which are generated during tubular cored wire welding and which are hazardous to health and the environment, were studied. Tests included various kinds of tubular electrode wires used for welding steel, that is, rutile flux cored wires, basic flux cored wires, and metal cored wires for welding unalloyed, low-alloy, and high-alloy steels as well as self-shielded flux cored wires used for welding low-alloy steels. The research results make it possible to assess the influence of the type of wire and welding conditions on the emission volume and to compare chemical hazards generated during tubular cored wire welding with those typical for other arc welding processes. PMID:14577949

  6. Fractal roughness structures of precision-machined WC-Co- and Inconel 625-coated steel rods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. W. Zhong; Z. F. Peng

    2007-01-01

    Thermally sprayed WC-Co coatings on steel rods were machined by grinding and turning using diamond tools, and thermally sprayed\\u000a Inconel 625 coatings on steel rods were machined by turning using various WC tools. Four of these samples were selected for\\u000a surface characterization using a stylus roughness tester. The results show that precision-machined WC-Co and Inconel-625 surfaces\\u000a can be identified as

  7. 78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...steel wire garment hangers with swivel hooks; (c) steel wire garment hangers with clips permanently affixed; and (d) chrome-plated steel wire garment hangers with a diameter of 3.4mm or greater. The products subject to the order are...

  8. 77 FR 46055 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...Register Volume 77, Number 149 (Thursday, August...Administration [A-583-849] Steel Wire Garment Hangers...swivel hooks; (c) steel wire garment hangers...and (d) chrome plated steel wire garment hangers...when faced with a large number of exporters or...

  9. 77 FR 50713 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ...Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the...by reason of subsidized imports from Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers and less- than-fair-value imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers,...

  10. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ...A-549-829, A-570-990] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand...investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand...People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico,...

  11. 75 FR 28557 - Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...Administration [C-570-946] Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's...producers and exporters of pre-stressed concrete steel wire strand from the People's...October 27, 2009. See Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the...

  12. Cold drawn steel wires--processing, residual stresses and ductility--part I: metallography and finite element analyses

    E-print Network

    Cold drawn steel wires--processing, residual stresses and ductility--part I: metallography form 29 September 2005 ABSTRACT Cold drawing steel wires lead to an increase of their mechanical that, though the steel wires are plastically deformed up to strain levels as high as 3.5, a significant

  13. Ultrasonic detection of simulated corrosion in 1 inch diameter steel tieback rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Karl R.

    The research presented investigates the use of pulse-echo ultrasonic techniques to identify simulated corrosion in steel rods. The primary objective was to quantify loss of cross section due to corrosion of steel tieback rods in earth retention systems. Current techniques require excavation of rods for inspection; however this proposed nondestructive method utilizes the end of the rod protruding from the embankment in conjunction with an ultrasonic pulse-echo system to estimate the reduction in load capacity of the rod. An ultrasonic wave was initiated with a piezoelectric transducer coupled to the end of the rod. The same transducer converted the returning wave into an ultrasonic signal which was used to determine the physical geometry of simulated corrosion. The ultrasonic signal could identify the location of simulated corrosion on the rod using the time between the main bang and the first flaw echo. The diameter of simulated corrosion could be determined from the time between the back echo and the first trailing echo. The length of the corroded region was correlated with the ratio of the first trailing echo and the back echo. Flaw echoes from simulated corrosion could be detected for all transition angles down to 5°. A decrease in the transition angle resulted in a time delay in the arrival of the flaw echo up to 23.8 mus for the 5° transition, which corresponds to 5.5 in. in steel rods. Williams all-thread commercial tieback rods were tested. Ultrasonic signals generated in Williams rods embedded in various soils showed negligible attenuation of signal amplitude. Simulated corrosion geometry, including location, diameter, and length were inspectable in 1.0 in. diameter Williams tieback rods. Testing showed that ultrasonic testing could be used detected in rod lengths up to 40 feet.

  14. Arc characteristics of submerged arc welding with stainless steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Wu, Zhi-sheng; Liu, Cui-rong; Chen, Feng-hua

    2014-08-01

    The arc characteristics of submerged arc welding (SAW) with stainless steel wire were studied by using Analysator Hannover (AH). The tests were carried out under the same preset arc voltage combined with different welding currents. By comparing the probability density distribution (PDD) curves of arc voltage and welding current, the changes were analyzed, the metal transfer mode in SAW was deduced, and the characteristics of a stable arc were summarized. The analysis results show that, with an increase of welding parameters, the short-circuiting peak in the PDD curves of arc voltage decreases gradually until it disappears, and the dominant metal transfer mode changes from flux-wall guided transfer to projected transfer and then to streaming transfer. Moreover, when the PDD curves of arc voltage are both unimodal and generally symmetrical, the greater the peak probability and the smaller the peak span, the more stable the arc becomes.

  15. DESIGN OF WIRE-WRAPPED ROD BUNDLE MATCHED INDEX-OF-REFRACTION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh McIlroy; Hongbin Zhang; Kurt Hamman

    2008-05-01

    Experiments will be conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility [1] to characterize the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a wire-wrapped rod bundle typically employed in liquid-metal cooled fast reactors and to provide benchmark data for computer code validation. Sodium cooled fast reactors are under consideration for use in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. The experiment model will be constructed of quartz components and the working fluid will be mineral oil. Accurate temperature control (to within 0.05 oC) matches the index-of-refraction of mineral oil with that of quartz and renders the model transparent to the wavelength of laser light employed for optical measurements. The model will be a scaled 7-pin rod bundle enclosed in a hexagonal canister. Flow field measurements will be obtained with a LaVision 3-D particle image velocimeter (PIV) and complimented by near-wall velocity measurements obtained from a 2-D laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). These measurements will be used as benchmark data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation. The rod bundle model dimensions will be scaled up from the typical dimensions of a fast reactor fuel assembly to provide the maximum Reynolds number achievable in the MIR flow loop. A range of flows from laminar to fully-turbulent will be available with a maximum Reynolds number, based on bundle hydraulic diameter, of approximately 22,000. The fuel pins will be simulated by 85 mm diameter quartz tubes (closed on the inlet ends) and the wire-wrap will be simulated by 25 mm diameter quartz rods. The canister walls will be constructed from quartz plates. The model will be approximately 2.13 m in length. Bundle pressure losses will also be measured and the data recorded for code comparisons. The experiment design and preliminary CFD calculations, which will be used to provide qualitative hydrodynamic information, are presented in this paper.

  16. Corrosion resistance of premodeled wires made of stainless steel used for heart electrotherapy leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; M?ynarski, R.; Szatka, W.

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wire made of X10CrNi18-8 stainless steel designed for use in cardiology treatment. The influence of strain formed in the premodeling process and methods of wire surface preparation to corrosive resistance in artificial plasma solution were analysed. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in the solution of artificial plasma. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of recorded curves of anodic polarization by means of potentiodynamic method. Potentiodynamic tests carried out enabled to determine how the resistance to pitting corrosion of wire changes, depending on strain formed in the premodeling process as well as on the method of wire surface preparation. For evaluation of phenomena occurring on the surface of tested steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied. Deterioration of corrosive properties of wire along with the increase in the formed strain hardening was observed.

  17. Feasibility demonstration of using wire electrical-discharge machining, abrasive flow honing, and laser spot welding to manufacture high-precision triangular-pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel-rod-support grids

    SciTech Connect

    Horwood, W.A.

    1982-05-01

    Results are reported supporting the feasibility of manufacturing high precision machined triangular pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel rod support grids for application in water cooled nuclear power reactors. The manufacturing processes investigated included wire electrical discharge machining of the fuel rod and guide tube cells in Zircaloy plate stock to provide the grid body, multistep pickling of the machined grid to provide smooth and corrosion resistant surfaces, and laser welding of thin Zircaloy cover plates to both sides of the grid body to capture separate AM-350 stainless steel insert springs in the grid body. Results indicated that dimensional accuracy better than +- 0.001 and +- 0.002 inch could be obtained on cell shape and position respectively after wire EDM and surface pickling. Results on strength, corrosion resistance, and internal quality of laser spot welds are provided.

  18. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with single rod electrode.

    PubMed

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2014-11-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this method, the tips of rods are machined individually to form a specific surface, and then a number of the machined rods are arranged to construct an electrode for EDM. The repetition of the EDM process using the electrode enables a number of lens elements to be produced on the mold surface. The effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated by shaping a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, in which the EDM process with a single rod electrode is repeatedly conducted. PMID:25607880

  19. Perforation of HY-100 steel plates with 4340 R{sub c} 38 and T-250 maraging steel rod projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanchak, S.J. [Univ. of Dayton Research Inst., OH (United States)

    1998-05-25

    The authors conducted perforation experiments with 4340 Rc 38 and T-250 maraging steel, long rod projectiles and HY-100 steel target plates at striking velocities between 80 and 370 m/s. Flat-end rod projectiles with lengths of 89 and 282 mm were machined to nominally 30-mm-diameter so they could be launched from a 30-mm-powder gun without sabots. The target plates were rigidly clamped at a 305-mm-diameter and had nominal thicknesses of 5.3 and 10.5 mm. Four sets of experiments were conducted to show the effects of rod length and plate thickness on the measured ballistic limit and residual velocities. In addition to measuring striking and residual projectile velocities, they obtained framing camera data on the back surfaces of several plates that showed clearly the plate deformation and plug ejection process. They also present a beam model that exhibits qualitatively the experimentally observed mechanisms.

  20. An investigation on effects of wire-EDM machining parameters on surface roughness of newly developed DC53 die steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kanlayasiri; S. Boonmung

    2007-01-01

    DC53 is a newly developed cold die steel from Daido Steel, Japan. It is an improvement over the familiar cold die steel SKD11. Because DC53 is a new die steel, only little information is available in literature for its machining characteristics. This paper investigated the effects of machining parameters on surface roughness of wire EDMed DC53 die steel. The investigated

  1. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for steel wire monitoring in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Jan; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Steel wires are widely applied in industrial applications - in most cases as critical components fulfilling high safety requirements in harsh environments (e.g. dockside cranes). In this paper a technique for real-time monitoring of steel ropes applying optical strain sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings is presented. The optical sensors are integrated within the wire strand and replace the core. The strain transmission from the outer wires to the sensors is assured by the mechanical coupling between the optical fiber and the strand. The actual strain load and rope vibrations in the kilohertz range can be determined in real-time.

  2. 78 FR 12718 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... 0.10 percent of molybdenum, or 0.10 percent of niobium, or 0.41 percent of titanium, or 0.15 percent of vanadium, or 0.15 percent of zirconium. Steel threaded rod is currently classifiable under subheading 7318.15.5051,...

  3. 75 FR 1755 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-945] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final Determination AGENCY: Import...

  4. Prospects of increasing the strength of aluminum by reinforcing it with stainless steel wire (a review)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botvina, L. R.; Ivanova, V. S.; Kopev, I. M.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental strength of aluminum reinforced with stainless steel wire is analyzed. Various methods of producing the composite material and it's static and cyclical strengths are considered. The reinforcement of aluminum with stainless steel wire was accomplished from the perspective of increasing the specific strength of aluminum and it's alloys, increasing the strength of the material with respect to high and low temperatures, as well as increasing the cyclical strength. The production of the composite aluminum-stainless steel wire material with approximated or calculated strengthening is possible by any of the considered methods. The selection of the proper production technology depends on precise details and conditions of application of the material.

  5. Effect of residual stress-strain profiles on hydrogen-induced fracture of prestressing steel wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Toribio; V. Kharin

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the influence of the distributions of residual stresses and strains formed after the surface treatment of cold-drawn\\u000a steel wires used as the reinforcement of prestressed reinforced concrete on the susceptibility of these wires to hydrogen\\u000a embrittlement characterized by the time to fracture in the tests carried out according to the regulations of the FIP (Fdration\\u000a Internationale de la

  6. Experimental research on stable fretting wear of stainless steel wires in transformable component

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-Ping Dong; Guo-Quan Liu; Li Zhang; Hong-Bai Bai; Jian-Chun Yang

    2009-01-01

    Cool-drawn 1Cr18Ni9 stainless steel wires of phi 0.1~0.5 mm can be woven and punched to prepare transformable component which has loose, reticulate structures. When it is uploaded with vibrating force, the displacement will cause intense frictions between wires' surfaces which will dissipate abundant energy and thus it can serve as dampers like natural rubbers. Since such new type of material

  7. Clinical Variability in Arch Wires: A Preliminary Study Evaluating Mechanical and Surface Characteristics of Two Different Sized Rectangular Stainless Steel Wires

    PubMed Central

    Vena, Alessandro; Carey, Jason; Badawi, Hisham

    2007-01-01

    Experimental characterization of arch wires has been performed in many previous studies; however with the advent of new arch wire materials being introduced, some new experimental methods and characterization are required. Since literature is available for comparison, this paper examines mechanical and physical characteristics of steel arch wires to quantify their variability in engineering terms. Furthermore, the effect of wire size on properties was evaluated using two of the most common wire sizes. Finally, manufacturing consistency was verified by testing samples from different lots. PMID:19662123

  8. Effect of charging energy on droplet diameters and properties of high-carbon steel coatings sprayed by wire explosion spraying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Li; Qiu-zhi Song; Jian-zhong Wang; Ying-xian Duo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of charging energy on droplet diameters and the properties of high-carbon steel coatings sprayed by wire explosion spraying. With different charging energies, droplets were collected when high-carbon steel wire explosion occurred, and the coatings were sprayed on aluminum alloy substrates. Droplet diameter distributions were obtained by using a Laser Particle

  9. Experimental research on stable fretting wear of stainless steel wires in transformable component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiu-ping; Liu, Guo-quan; Zhang, Li; Bai, Hong-bai; Yang, Jian-chun

    2009-07-01

    Cool-drawn 1Cr18Ni9 stainless steel wires of ? 0.1~0.5 mm can be woven and punched to prepare transformable component which has loose, reticulate structures. When it is uploaded with vibrating force, the displacement will cause intense frictions between wires' surfaces which will dissipate abundant energy and thus it can serve as dampers like natural rubbers. Since such new type of material has double characteristics of both rubbers and metals, it is commonly called "Metal Rubber". There is certain amount of contact point/surface on wires in the transformable component and the displacements between wires are at micron levels. Experiments showed that wear course of 'fretting cell' could be plotted as four phases: polish, adherence, forming of the third bed and stabilization. The stabilization phase, in which the friction coefficients are comparatively stable, dominates the whole course. Based on data of Metal Rubber vibration fatigue experiment, ? 0.3 mm cool-drawn 1Cr18Ni9 stainless steel wires' dry fretting experiments at 10 N load are made on SRV high temperature wear tester, friction coefficients are collected and fret traces are studied by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Results indicate that wire's stabilization wear phase is the circulation process of grindings' forming, concentrating to blocks of ? 20 ?m, busting and discharging. Deformation induced martensite transit in wire's cool drawing has significant effects on grinding blocks' bursting performances.

  10. An analytic expression for P/L for WA long rods into armor steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C. E.; Walker, J. D.

    1996-05-01

    Analytical expressions for normalized penetration of tungsten alloy long rods into semi-infinite armor steel as a function of impact velocity have been analyzed. Adjustable parameters were determined by least-squares regression to experimental data for impact velocities from ˜0.4 km/s to ˜4.5 km/s. Further work has been performed to generalize the procedure to account for target hardness and projectile aspect ratio.

  11. Internal attachment of laser beam welded stainless steel sheathed thermocouples into stainless steel upper end caps in nuclear fuel rods for the LOFT reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Welty; R. D. Reid

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of laser welding a single 0.063 inch diameter stainless steel (304) sheathed thermocouple into a stainless steel (316) upper end cap for nuclear fuel rods was determined. A laser beam was selected because of the extremely high energy input in unit volume that can be achieved allowing local fusion of a small area irrespective of the difference in

  12. Formation quality optimization of laser hot wire cladding for repairing martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Peng; Feng, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Laser cladding is an advantaged repairing technology due to its low heat input and high flexibility. With preheating wire by resistance heat, laser hot wire cladding shows better process stability and higher deposition efficiency compared to laser cold wire/powder cladding. Multi-pass layer were cladded on the surface of martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel FV520B by fiber laser with ER410NiMo wire. Wire feed rate and preheat current were optimized to obtain stable wire transfer, which guaranteed good formation quality of single pass cladding. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters and predict formation quality of multi-pass cladding. Laser power P, scanning speed Vs, wire feed rate Vf and overlap ratio ? were selected as the input variables, while flatness ratio, dilution and incomplete fusion value as the responses. Optimal clad layer with flat surface, low dilution and no incomplete fusion was obtained by appropriately reducing Vf, and increasing P, Vs and ?. No defect like pore or crack was found. The tensile strength and impact toughness of the clad layer is respectively 96% and 86% of those of the substrate. The clad layer showed nonuniform microstructure and was divided into quenched areas with coarse lath martensite and tempered areas with tempered martensite due to different thermal cycles in adjacent areas. The tempered areas showed similar hardness to the substrate.

  13. Influence of severe plastic deformation on the structure and properties of ultrahigh carbon steel wire

    SciTech Connect

    Leseur, D R; Sherby, O D; Syn, C K

    1999-07-01

    Ultrahigh-carbon steel wire can achieve very high strength after severe plastic deformation, because of the fine, stable substructures produce. Tensile strengths approaching 6000 MPa are predicted for UHCS containing 1.8%C. This paper discusses the microstructural evolution during drawing of UHCS wire, the resulting strength produced and the factors influencing fracture. Drawing produces considerable alignment of the pearlite plates. Dislocation cells develop within the ferrite plates and, with increasing strain, the size normal to the axis ({lambda}) decreases. These dislocation cells resist dynamic recovery during wire drawing and thus extremely fine substructures can be developed ({lambda} < 10 nm). Increasing the carbon content reduces the mean free ferrite path in the as-patented wire and the cell size developed during drawing. For UHCS, the strength varies as {lambda}{sup {minus}5}. Fracture of these steels was found to be a function of carbide size and composition. The influence of processing and composition on achieving high strength in these wires during severe plastic deformation is discussed.

  14. Comparison of Inclusions in Cold Drawn Wire and Precursor Hot-Rolled Rod Coil in VIM-VAR Nickel-Titanium Alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Sczerzenie; Graeme Paul; Clarence Belden

    2011-01-01

    Inclusion content is important for the mechanical behavior and performance of Nitinol wires, particularly in fatigue-rated\\u000a devices. The purpose of this work was to make a quantitative comparison between inclusion populations in cold drawn wires\\u000a and the precursor populations in hot-rolled rod coil. Inclusion content was examined in a series of VIM-VAR alloys with different\\u000a transformation temperatures (TTR) controlled by

  15. 77 FR 62492 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ...clips permanently affixed; and (d) chrome plated steel wire garment hangers with...2\\ See, e.g., Chrome-Plated Lug Nuts from Taiwan; Preliminary...55234 (October 12, 1999), unchanged in Chrome-Plated Lug Nuts from Taiwan;...

  16. Multi-field coupled numerical simulation of hot reversible rolling process of GCr15 steel rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sendong; Zhang, Liwen; Ruan, Jinhua; Mei, Hongyu; Zhen, Yu; Shi, Xinhua

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, based on rolling technology of hot reversible rolling mill, a multi-filed coupled finite element (FE) model of hot reversible rolling process of large dimension cross-section GCr15 steel rod is established. Thermal, mechanical and microstructural phenomena during the rolling process are coupled in the model. By employing grain growth experiment, double and single hit hot compression experiments, the austenite grain size growth mathematical model and recrystallization behavior mathematical models are determined. And a designed subprogram is coupled in the FE model. Actual hot reversible rolling process of GCr15 steel is simulated using the model and the distribution and evolution of different filed-variables, such as temperature, effective strain and austenite grain size are obtained. To verify the model predictions, hot rolling experiments are carried out and the temperature and microstructure of the rolling metal are compared with the predicted results. The comparison between the two sets of data shows a good agreement.

  17. Bonding Mechanisms in Resistance Microwelding of 316 Low-Carbon Vacuum Melted Stainless Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. I.; Kim, J. M.; Kuntz, M. L.; Zhou, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Resistance microwelding (RMW) is an important joining process used in the fabrication of miniature instruments, such as electrical and medical devices. The excellent corrosion resistance of 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) wire makes it ideal for biomedical applications. The current study examines the microstructure and mechanical properties of crossed resistance microwelded 316LVM wire. Microtensile and microhardness testing was used to analyze the mechanical performance of welds, and fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Finally, a bonding mechanism is proposed based on optimum joint breaking force (JBF) using metallurgical observations of weld cross sections. Moreover, comparisons with RMWs of Ni, Au-plated Ni, and SUS304 SS wire are discussed.

  18. A hot wire device for cutting tissue culture flasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven W. McKelvey; Phillip A. Singer; John H. Lillie; Donald K. MacCallum

    1976-01-01

    Summary  A small hot wire device for cutting plastic culture ware can be constructed of steel rod, brass screws, nichrome wire and\\u000a acrylic plastic sheeting and tubing. The nichrome wire is heated using a variable power transformer. Four sequential cuts\\u000a are made in the culture flask bottom and the bottom separated from the remainder of the flask. Cultures can be stained,

  19. On the Effect of Counterface Materials on Tribo-Behavior of Steel Wire Sliding Under Dry Contact Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, Su Be; Al Shalabi, Ammar; Yousif, B. F.

    Steel wires are implemented in numerous systems and undergo frequent faults due to tribological loading conditions. Therefore, this paper presents a study on the tribological performance of steel wire sliding against different counterfaces, namely, aluminum alloy, stainless steel, and mild steel using a block-on-ring tribo-tester. According to common mechanisms, the tests were performed under 5 N applied load and 0.15 m/s sliding velocity under dry contact condition. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the damaged features on the worn surfaces of the steel wire. Weight loss and friction coefficient results were presented versus sliding distances (0-1.6 km). In general, the results showed that friction coefficient did not reach the steady state due to the transformation of the wear mechanism from adhesive to abrasive mode. Nevertheless, the average of friction coefficient was found to be about 0.7 ± 0.1 for stainless steel and 0.2 ± 0.1 for mild steel. Weight loss gradually increased with the increase of sliding distance. The micrographs of worn surfaces revealed that the contact mechanism was transformed from adhesive to abrasive wear mode as implied by the scars and grooves on the wire surface.

  20. Stainless steel reinforced multi-core MgB2 wire subjected to variable deformations, heat treatments and mechanical stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ková?, P.; Hušek, I.; Melišek, T.; Kopera, L.; Reissner, M.

    2010-06-01

    Multi-core MgB2 wire reinforced by stainless steel (SS) has been made by an in situ approach and subjected to additional deformations and mechanical stressing. A critical current density Jc of 104 A cm - 2 at 4.2 K was measured in an external field of 9.45-10 T. The filament density of drawn wire was increased by cold deformation without axial tension, which resulted in an increased Jc by approximately 17%. SS reinforced wire shows a high resistance to mechanical stresses. Only 10% Ic degradation was measured for wire twisted with Lt = 7.14 mm. The presented SS reinforced wire has the highest irreversible strain ?irr = 0.9% so far published.

  1. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Influence of Ti and Ta doping on the irreversible strain limit of ternary Nb3Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheggour, N.; Goodrich, L. F.; Stauffer, T. C.; Splett, J. D.; Lu, X. F.; Ghosh, A. K.; Ambrosio, G.

    2010-05-01

    Nb3Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process (RRP®) were found to have a dramatically improved resilience to axial tensile strain when alloyed with Ti as compared to Ta. Whereas Ta-alloyed Nb3Sn in RRP wires showed permanent damage to its current-carrying capacity (Ic) when tensioned beyond an intrinsic strain as small as 0.04%, Ti-doped Nb3Sn in RRP strands exhibits a remarkable reversibility up to a tensile strain of about 0.25%, conceivably making Ti-doped RRP wires more suitable for the high field magnets used in particle accelerators and nuclear magnetic resonance applications where mechanical forces are intense. A strain cycling experiment at room temperature caused a significant drop of Ic in Ta-alloyed wires, but induced an increase of Ic in the case of Ti-doped strands. Whereas either Ti or Ta doping yield a similar enhancement of the upper critical field of Nb3Sn, the much improved mechanical behavior of Ti-alloyed wires possibly makes Ti a better choice over Ta, at least for the RRP wire processing technique. Contribution of NIST, an agency of the US government, not subjected to copyright.

  2. POSTIRRADIATION EXAMINATION OF 17-4 PH STAINLESS STEEL CONTROL ROD DRIVE RACK FROM SM1 REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Klindt; A. E. Richt; W. C. Thurber

    1961-01-01

    A portion of the control rod drive system in the SM-1 Reactor, ; fabricated from l7-4 PH stainless steel, was examined at the Oak Ridge National ; Laboratory (ORNL) hot cells after successful operation in a pressurized-water ; environment for approximately three years. Examination included visual ; inspection, magnetic-particle tests, fluorescent penetrant tests, and ; metallography. No evidence of stress-corrosion

  3. Reduction of work hardening rate in low-carbon steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhaskar Rao Yalamanchili

    2003-01-01

    Low carbon grades of steel rods are used to produce finished products such as fine wire, coat hangers, staples, and roofing nails. These products are subject to ductility failures during production due to excessively high work hardening rates during wire drawing. The high work hardening rates are attributed to the presence of residuals, free nitrogen, or combinations thereof. This research

  4. Graphene coating bonded onto stainless steel wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-03-01

    A graphene coating bonded onto stainless steel wire was fabricated and investigated as a solid-phase microextraction fiber. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The coating with rough and crinkled structure was about 1 ?m. These characteristics were helpful for promoting extraction. Using five n-alkanes (n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane) as analytes, the fiber was evaluated in direct-immersion mode by coupling with gas chromatography (GC). Through optimizing extraction and desorption conditions, a sensitive SPME-GC analytical method was established. SPME-GC method provided wide linearity range (0.2-150 ?g L(-1)) and low limits of determination (0.05-0.5 ?g L(-1)). It was applied to analyze rain water and a soil sample, and analytes were quantified in the range of 0.85-1.96 ?g L(-1) and 0.09-3.34 ?g g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of samples spiked at 10 ?g L(-1) were in the range of 90.1-120% and 80.6-94.2%, respectively. The fiber also exhibited high thermal and chemical stability, due to the covalent bonds between graphene coating and wire, and the natural resistance of graphene for thermal, acid and basic conditions. PMID:25618658

  5. Effects of wire-EDM machining variables on surface roughness of newly developed DC 53 die steel: Design of experiments and regression model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kanlayasiri; S. Boonmung

    2007-01-01

    DC53 is a newly developed cold die steel from Daido Steel, Japan. It is an improvement over the familiar cold die steel SKD11. Because DC53 is a new die steel, only little information is available in literature for its machining characteristics. This paper presents an investigation of the effects of machining variables on the surface roughness of wire-EDMed DC53 die

  6. Comparison of Inclusions in Cold Drawn Wire and Precursor Hot-Rolled Rod Coil in VIM-VAR Nickel-Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sczerzenie, Frank; Paul, Graeme; Belden, Clarence

    2011-07-01

    Inclusion content is important for the mechanical behavior and performance of Nitinol wires, particularly in fatigue-rated devices. The purpose of this work was to make a quantitative comparison between inclusion populations in cold drawn wires and the precursor populations in hot-rolled rod coil. Inclusion content was examined in a series of VIM-VAR alloys with different transformation temperatures (TTR) controlled by the Ni to Ti ratio. This range of chemistry was chosen to assess the effect of Ni to Ti ratio on inclusion formation. In order to understand the differences in behavior between carbides and intermetallic oxides in wire drawing, carbides, and intermetallic oxide inclusions were measured separately using optical metallography pursuant to ASTM F2063. In VIM-VAR alloys at higher Ni to Ti ratios about 50.79 a/o Ni the formation of intermetallic oxides appears to be suppressed in the as-cast material through the presence of carbon and the precipitation of eutectic TiC in place of eutectic Ti4Ni2O x . The structure of VIM-VAR alloy also varies after hot working depending on the TTR of the alloy. Higher TTR binary alloys with lower Ni to Ti ratios tend to have more and larger intermetallic oxides and fewer and smaller carbides after hot working. Microsegregation plays a role in inclusion formation. That is, during solidification, C, O, N diffuse to the interdendritic regions. This increases the potential for the precipitation of nonmetallic species. Carbides and intermetallic oxides behave differently in hot working and cold drawing. The change in maximum carbide size from coil to wire is very near zero for all Ni to Ti ratios. The change in maximum inclusion size from coil to wire is driven mainly by the fracture of intermetallic oxides and the formation of intermetallic oxide stringers.

  7. Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding of Dissimilar Titanium Alloy and Stainless Steel Using Copper Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Chen, Cong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zemin; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2015-02-01

    Laser-arc hybrid welding with Cu3Si filler wire was employed to join dissimilar Ti6Al4V titanium alloy and AISI316 stainless steel (316SS). The effects of welding parameters on bead shape, microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior were investigated in detail. The results show that cross-weld tensile strength of the joints is up to 212 MPa. In the joint, obvious nonuniformity of the microstructure is found in the fusion zone (FZ) and at the interfaces from the top to the bottom, which could be improved by increasing heat input. For the homogeneous joint, the FZ is characterized by Fe67-x Si x Ti33 dendrites spreading on ?-Cu matrix, and the two interfaces of 316SS/FZ and FZ/Ti6Al4V are characterized by a bamboo-like 316SS layer and a CuTi2 layer, respectively. All the tensile samples fractured in the hardest CuTi2 layer at Ti6Al4V side of the joints. The fracture surface is characterized by river pattern revealing brittle cleavage fracture. The bead formation mechanisms were discussed according to the melt flow and the thermodynamic calculation.

  8. Heat generation and transfer behaviors of ti-coated carbon steel rod adaptable for ablation therapy of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Naohara, Takashi; Aono, Hiromichi; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Hirazawa, Hideyuki; Matsutomo, Shinya; Watanabe, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of developing a novel ablation therapy for oral cancer, the heat generation and transfer properties of a Ti-coated carbon steel rod with 20-mm length and 1.8-mm outer diameter were investigated by means of a high-frequency induction technique at 300 kHz. The heat generation measurement performed using water (15 mL) revealed that the difference of the inclination angles (? = 0°, 45° and 90°) relative to the magnetic flux direction only slightly affects the heating behavior, exhibiting the overlapped temperature curves during an induction time of 1200 s. These results suggest that the effect of the shape magnetic anisotropy is almost eliminated, being convenient for the precise control of the ablation temperature in clinical use. In the experiments utilizing a tissue-mimicking phantom, the heat transfer concentrically occurred in the lateral direction for both the planar surface and a 10-mm deep cross-section. However, the former exhibited a considerably lower increase in temperature (?T), probably due to the effect of heat dissipation to the ambient air. No significant heat transfer was found to occur to the lower side of the inserted Ti-coated carbon steel rod, which is situated in the longitudinal direction. PMID:24955829

  9. PARAMETRIC INFLUENCE AND OPTIMIZATION OF WIRE EDM OF HOT DIE STEEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nixon Kuruvila; Ravindra H. V

    2011-01-01

    Wire-cut Electro Discharge Machining (WEDM) is a special form of conventional EDM process in which the electrode is a continuously moving conductive wire. The present study aims at determining parametric influence and optimum process parameters of Wire-EDM using Taguchi's technique and a Genetic algorithm. The variation of the performance parameters with machining parameters was mathematically modeled by Regression analysis method.

  10. Preliminary design and manufacturing feasibility study for a machined Zircaloy triangular pitch fuel rod support system (grids) (AWBA development program)

    SciTech Connect

    Horwood, W A [ed.] [ed.

    1981-07-01

    General design features and manufacturing operations for a high precision machined Zircaloy fuel rod support grid intended for use in advanced light water prebreeder or breeder reactor designs are described. The grid system consists of a Zircaloy main body with fuel rod and guide tube cells machined using wire EDM, a separate AM-350 stainless steel insert spring which fits into a full length T-slot in each fuel rod cell, and a thin (0.025'' or 0.040'' thick) wire EDM machined Zircaloy coverplate laser welded to each side of the grid body to retain the insert springs. The fuel rods are placed in a triangular pitch array with a tight rod-to-rod spacing of 0.063 inch nominal. Two dimples are positioned at the mid-thickness of the grid (single level) with a 90/sup 0/ included angle. Data is provided on the effectiveness of the manufacturing operations chosen for grid machining and assembly.

  11. A hot wire device for cutting tissue culture flasks.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, S W; Singer, P A; Lillie, J H; MacCallum, D K

    1976-12-01

    A small hot wire device for cutting plastic culture was can be constructed of steel rod, brass screws, nichrome wire and acrylic plastic sheeting and tubing. The nichrome wire is heated using a variable power transformer. Four sequential cuts are made in the culture flask bottom and the bottom separated from the remainder of the flask. Cultures can be stained, air-dried and cover slips affixed with PVP or epoxy resin. This method of cutting culture ware avoids the formation of small bits of polystyrene generated by rotating discs or saws. PMID:799614

  12. Selection of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process Parameters on Stainless Steel AISI Grade-304 using Design of Experiments Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingadurai, K.; Nagasivamuni, B.; Muthu Kamatchi, M.; Palavesam, J.

    2012-06-01

    Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a specialized thermal machining process capable of accurately machining parts of hard materials with complex shapes. Parts having sharp edges that pose difficulties to be machined by the main stream machining processes can be easily machined by WEDM process. Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been reported in this work for stainless steel AISI grade-304 which is used in cryogenic vessels, evaporators, hospital surgical equipment, marine equipment, fasteners, nuclear vessels, feed water tubing, valves, refrigeration equipment, etc., is machined by WEDM with brass wire electrode. The DOE method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyze the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics, and to predict the optimal choice for each WEDM parameter such as voltage, pulse ON, pulse OFF and wire feed. It is found that these parameters have a significant influence on machining characteristic such as metal removal rate (MRR), kerf width and surface roughness (SR). The analysis of the DOE reveals that, in general the pulse ON time significantly affects the kerf width and the wire feed rate affects SR, while, the input voltage mainly affects the MRR.

  13. Tensile damage effects in steel plate perforation by a tungsten rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftenberg, Martin N.

    1998-07-01

    The EPIC Lagrangian wavecode was used to study sensitivities of rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) target hole size and the length and speed of a tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) residual rod to RHA spall pressure. The target had a 50.8-mm thickness, and the rod had a 112.0-mm length, a 20.9-mm diameter, and a striking speed of 1.52 km/s. Corresponding to a spall pressure of -0.5 GPa, good agreement with experiment was obtained in terms of target hole size and residual length for two different RHA fits to the Johnson-Cook strength model. Adiabatic shear banding in RHA is proposed to be the mechanism by which spall pressure is locally changed from its measured value of -3.0 GPa.

  14. Inspection of fine wires simplified by capillary tube wire holder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, H. A.

    1965-01-01

    Capillary tube wire holder provides a mount for fine wires for photomicrographs. The holder is mounted in a stainless steel tube and cast in a transparent casting material. It protects and permits easy location of the wire.

  15. Sintered wire annode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R. (Surprise, AZ); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  16. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of a hybrid Trombe wall using steel rods and concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Merewether, D.E.; Jablonski, J.R.

    1980-11-15

    A principal drawback of passive solar systems is the large temperature swing observed over a twenty-four hours period. Several methods have been proposed and used to enhance the immediate transfer of high temperatures on the outer surface of Trombe walls to the interior living areas. These methods include convective circulatory systems and fan forced air circulation. The work reported here examines the addition of metal rods imbedded horizontally in the mortar of an unvented Trombe wall to offer a conducting path between the outer and inner surfaces. It was felt this technique would help decrease the periodic temperature swings as well as enhance the overall thermal performance of the Trombe wall.

  17. 75 FR 37382 - Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ...Wire Strand from China (Investigation Nos. 701-TA-464 and 731-TA-1160 (Final), USITC Publication 4162, June 2010...Interested parties may contact the Department's Central Records Unit, Room 1117 of the main Commerce building, for copies of...

  18. One hundred angstrom niobium wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, H. E.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

    1968-01-01

    Composite of fine niobium wires in copper is used to study the size and proximity effects of a superconductor in a normal matrix. The niobium rod was drawn to a 100 angstrom diameter wire on a copper tubing.

  19. The Corrosion Resistance of Composite Arch Wire Laser-Welded By NiTi Shape Memory Alloy and Stainless Steel Wires with Cu Interlayer in Artificial Saliva with Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Hou, Xu; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Daqian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the corrosion resistance of laser-welded composite arch wire (CoAW) with Cu interlayer between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire in artificial saliva with different concentrations of protein was studied. It was found that protein addition had a significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Low concentration of protein caused the corrosion resistance of CoAW decrease in electrochemical corrosion and immersion corrosion tests. High concentration of protein could reduce this effect. PMID:23801895

  20. 76 FR 66895 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ...Circumvention of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 68 FR 54888 (September 19, 2003); and Hot-Rolled Lead and Bismuth Carbon Steel Products from Germany and the United Kingdom; Negative Final Determinations of Circumvention of Antidumping...

  1. 75 FR 68758 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...Ltd.; KB Steel; Kingly Industry (Canada) Corp.; Korea Laundry Industry Co., Ltd.; Kyung Dong Industrial Co., Ltd...International Financial Statistics of the International Monetary Fund, a printout of which is attached to the Prelim Surrogate...

  2. Influence of filler wire composition on weld microstructures of a 444 ferritic stainless steel grade

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    temperature reaches up to 1000°C for new vehicles with high performance engines. Santacreu et al. (2004, 2006 gas are collected through the manifold then this part is subjected to high temperatures. Exhaust gas'Aumône, France. Abstract Seven compositions of metal cored filler wires for Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW

  3. Failure analysis of silicon nitride rings for hot rolling of highly alloyed steel and superalloy wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Harrer; Roger Morrell; Markus Lengauer; Robert Danzer; Karl Berroth; Walter Zleppnig

    2011-01-01

    Rolls for rolling of metal wires are traditionally made from cemented carbides, but they suffer from roughening of the working surfaces and severe wear which restrict the roll lifetimes. Silicon nitride ceramics are feasible alternative materials for rolls (and other components in rolling mills) due to their good combination of properties, e.g. high strength and hardness, excellent high-temperature properties, oxidation

  4. Effect of Nb on the corrosion behavior of continuous bulk metallic glass-coated steel wire composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-hua; Zhang, Bao-yu; Hui, Xi-dong

    2013-06-01

    (Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5)100- x Nb x (at%, x=0 and 8) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were coated on the surface of Q195 steel wires by a continuous coating process. The potentiodynamic polarization tests of these BMGs were conducted in 3.5wt% NaCl aqueous solution. It is found that the addition of 8at% Nb into Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 alloy results in the improvement of corrosion resistance with the pitting potential of -52 mV, the open circuit potential of -446 mV, and the corrosion current density of 9.86×10-6 mA/cm2. This may be attributed to that Nb is beneficial to passivate and stabilize Zr and Ti.

  5. CNT-TiO2 coating bonded onto stainless steel wire as a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Qiu, Huamin; Fan, Lulu; Li, Xiangjun; Luo, Chuannan

    2013-09-30

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber based on carbon nanotubes-titanium oxide (CNT-TiO2) composite coating bonded onto stainless steel wire was prepared via electroless plating and sol-gel techniques. The SPME coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microscopy. Coupled to gas chromatography (GC), the fiber was investigated with seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in direct-immersion mode. The SPME-GC analytical method was evaluated under optimized extraction conditions. Compared with other reports, higher sensitivity (LODs, 0.002-0.004 ?g L(-1)) and better linear range (0.01-100 and 0.01-200 ?g L(-1)) were obtained by the proposed method. The fiber exhibited high thermal stability to 300 °C and excellent durability in HCl and NaOH solutions. The as-established SPME-GC method was used to analyze the real water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:23953442

  6. Effect of sintering temperature on properties of MgB 2 wire sheathed by low carbon steel tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H. L.; Feng, Y.; Xu, Z.; Li, C. S.; Yan, G.; Mossang, E.; Sulpice, A.

    2005-03-01

    MgB 2 wire was fabricated through the in situ powder-in-tube method in flowing argon by using low carbon steel (LCS) tube as sheath material. Effects of sintering temperature on the phase composition, microstructure features and critical current density ( Jc) are investigated by using X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer and the standard DC four-probe technique. The result indicates that the highest Jc values have been achieved in the sample sintered at 700 °C, while Jc decreases with increasing sintering temperature. It is found that microstructure features in all samples, e.g. the thickness of interface layer, the phase composition and the size of MgB 2 grain are responsible for the difference of Jc values.

  7. 78 FR 14075 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ...Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China...threaded rod'') from the People's Republic of China...remand order in Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. v. United...1\\ See Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. v. United...Threaded Rod from the People's Republic of...

  8. 76 FR 73589 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...10 percent of molybdenum, or --0.10 percent of niobium, or --0.41 percent of titanium, or --0.15 percent of vanadium, or --0.15 percent of zirconium. Specifically excluded from the scope of this investigation is galvanized steel...

  9. 77 FR 17418 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ...10 percent of molybdenum, or --0.10 percent of niobium, or --0.41 percent of titanium, or --0.15 percent of vanadium, or --0.15 percent of zirconium. Specifically excluded from the scope of this investigation is galvanized steel...

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Friction Resistance of Titanium, Stainless Steel, Ceramic and Ceramic with Metal Insert Brackets with Varying Dimensions of Stainless Steel Wire: An In vitro Multi-center Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B Sunil; Miryala, Suresh; Kumar, K Kiran; Shameem, K; Regalla, Ravindra Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The orthodontist seeks an archwire–bracket combination that has both good biocompatibility and low friction. Hence, the aim of this multicenter in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the frictional resistance generated between titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SS), ceramic and ceramic with metal insert (CMI) brackets with SS wires of varying dimensions in a specially designed apparatus. Materials and Methods: The material used in this study were Ti, SS, Ceramic and CMI with 0.018? slot manufactured with zero degree tip and ?7° torque premolar brackets (3M, Unitek) and SS wires of varying dimensions (0.016? round, 0.016 × 0.016? square, 0.016 × 0.022? rectangular and 0.017 × 0.025? rectangular) used. The frictional resistance was measured using Instron Universal testing machine (Model no. 4301). The specimen population in each center composed each of 160 brackets and wires. Differences among the all bracket/wire combinations were tested using (one-way) ANOVA, followed by the student Newman Keuls multiple comparisons of means ranking (at P < 0.05) for the determination of differences among the groups. Results: Ti bracket in combination with 0.017 × 0.025? SS rectangular wire produced significant force levels for an optimum orthodontic movement with least frictional resistance. Conclusion: Ti brackets have least resistance and rectangular wires produced significant force. These can be used to avoid hazards of Nickel. SS brackets revealed higher static frictional force values as the wire dimension increased and showed lower static friction than Ti brackets for all wires except the thicker wire. Our study recommends the preclusion of brackets with rough surface texture (Ti brackets) with SS ligature wire for ligating bracket and archwire are better to reduce friction. PMID:25395796

  11. 76 FR 33218 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ...same conclusion in this regard in the Wax Candles from the PRC Inquiry Prelim, which was upheld in the Wax Candles from the PRC Inquiry. See Later-Developed...Antidumping Duty Order on Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic of...

  12. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate of Cable-Stayed Portion of Runyang Bridge: Part II – Steel Wire Crack Growth Due to Disproportionate Cable Tightening\\/Loosening and Traffic Loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Sih; X. S. Tang

    Having completed an investigation in Part I that deals with the fatigue crack growth in the cables of the Runyang cable-stayed\\u000a bridge based the design data for the cables, Part II of this work is concerned with the fatigue crack growth of the steel\\u000a wires being the constituents of the cables. The objective is not only to check the compatibility

  13. An etched stainless steel wire/ionic liquid-solid phase microextraction technique for the determination of alkylphenols in river water.

    PubMed

    Cui, Meiyu; Qiu, Jinxue; Li, Zhenghua; He, Miao; Jin, Mingshi; Kim, Jiman; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a stainless steel wire/ionic liquid-solid phase microextraction technique was developed for the direct extraction of APs from water samples. Some parameters were optimised, such as selection of the substrate and ILs, extraction time, extraction temperature, stirring rate and sample pH, etc. The experimental data demonstrated that the etched stainless steel wire was a suitable substrate for IL-coated SPME. The coating was prepared by directly depositing the ILs onto the surface of the etched stainless steel wire, which exhibited a porous structure and a high surface area. The [C8MIM][PF6] IL exhibited maximum efficiency with an extraction time of 30 min, and the aqueous sample was maintained at 40 °C and adjusted to pH 2 under stirring conditions. The enrichment factor of the IL coating for the four APs ranged from 1382 to 4779, the detection limits (LOD, S/N=3) of the four APs ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 ng mL(-1) and the RSD values for purified water spiked with APs ranged from 4.0 to 11.8% (n=3). The calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range from 0.5 to 200 ng mL(-1) (R(2)>0.9569). The optimised method was successfully applied for the analysis of real water samples, and the method was suitable for the extraction of APs from water samples. PMID:25476345

  14. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Kararia, Vandana; Jain, Pradeep; Chaudhary, Seema; Kararia, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1–3 M 0.016” NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016” NiTi, group 3–3 M 0.019” *0.025” SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at ×2000, ×4000 and ×6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0). Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics. PMID:25684911

  15. Fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro. Methods Roots of human mandibular central incisors were covered with silicone, mimicking the periodontal ligament, and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate. The specimens (N = 50), with two teeth each, were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/group) according to the retainer materials: (1) Interlig (E-glass), (2) everStick Ortho (E-glass), (3) DentaPreg Splint (S2-glass), (4) Ribbond (polyethylene), and (5) Quad Cat wire (stainless steel). After the recommended adhesive procedures, the retainers were bonded to the teeth by using flowable composite resin (Tetric Flow). The teeth were subjected to 10,00,000 cyclic loads (8 Hz, 3 - 100 N, 45° angle, under 37 ± 3? water) at their incisoproximal contact, and debonding forces were measured with a universal testing machine (1 mm/min crosshead speed). Failure sites were examined under a stereomicroscope (×40 magnification). Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Results All the specimens survived the cyclic loading. Their mean debonding forces were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The DentaPreg Splint group (80%) showed the highest incidence of complete adhesive debonding, followed by the Interlig group (60%). The everStick Ortho group (80%) presented predominantly partial adhesive debonding. The Quad Cat wire group (50%) presented overlying composite detachment. Conclusions Cyclic loading did not cause debonding. The retainers presented similar debonding forces but different failure types. Braided stainless steel wire retainers presented the most repairable failure type. PMID:24015388

  16. Analysis of Radiation from Implosions of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays on Zebra and Comparison with Laser Plasma Experiments on Leopard at UNR*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Osborne, G. C.; Williamson, K. M.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. F.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Esaulov, A. A.; Wiewior, P.; Legalloudec, N.; Paudel, Y.; Coverdale, C. A.; Chuvatin, A. S.

    2011-11-01

    The implosions of Stainless Steel (SS) Wire Arrays are extensively studied at SNL and also have applications in astrophysics. The analysis of radiation from low-number-wire SS Single and Nested Cylindrical, and Planar Wire Array experiments on the 1 MA Zebra is presented. The major focus is on x-ray imaging and spectra, total radiation yields, and fast, filtered x-ray detector data. The results of Leopard laser experiments with a flat 25 ?m Fe target in the nanosecond (ns) and 350 femtosecond (fs) pulse regimes are discussed and compared with Z-pinch data. This comparison focuses mainly on L-shell Fe radiation and provides an excellent benchmark to the Z-pinch results. Good agreement with laser data is demonstrated in the ns regime, but a substantial difference is observed for the fs pulse. * This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Coop. Agreements DE-FC52-06NA27588, 27586, and 27616. SNL is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Co., for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. 75 FR 38977 - Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...affirmative determination of material injury to a U.S. industry...PC strand produced to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A-416 specification...1\\ Petitioners are American Spring Wire Corp.,...

  18. Stiffness Corrections for the Vibration Frequency of a Stretched Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, H. G.; Durie, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the need of introducing corrections due to wire stiffness arising from end constraints and wire axis distribution curvature in the measurement of ac electrical frequency by exciting transverse standing waves in a stretched steel wire. (SL)

  19. Strain measurement in a concrete beam by use of the Brillouin-scattering-based distributed fiber sensor with single-mode fibers embedded in glass fiber reinforced polymer rods and bonded to steel reinforcing bars.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaodong; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chhoa, Chia Yee; Bremner, Theodore W; Brown, Anthony W; DeMerchant, Michael D; Ferrier, Graham; Kalamkarov, Alexander L; Georgiades, Anastasis V

    2002-08-20

    The strain measurement of a 1.65-m reinforced concrete beam by use of a distributed fiber strain sensor with a 50-cm spatial resolution and 5-cm readout resolution is reported. The strain-measurement accuracy is +/-15 microepsilon (microm/m) according to the system calibration in the laboratory environment with non-uniform-distributed strain and +/-5 microepsilon with uniform strain distribution. The strain distribution has been measured for one-point and two-point loading patterns for optical fibers embedded in pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) rods and those bonded to steel reinforcing bars. In the one-point loading case, the strain deviations are +/-7 and +/-15 microepsilon for fibers embedded in the GFRP rods and fibers bonded to steel reinforcing bars, respectively, whereas the strain deviation is +/-20 microepsilon for the two-point loading case. PMID:12206221

  20. The evaluation of corrosion resistant rod end rolling element bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Braza, J.F.; Giuntoli, K.; Imundo, J.R. [Torrington Co., CT (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Recent developments on carburizing grades of stainless steels have provided new materials to produce corrosion resistant airframe control bearings. This paper presents the application of one of these new carburizing grades of stainless steel to rod end ball bearings. The outer ring of the rod end bearing is made out of carburized stainless steel, while the inner ring and balls are made out of through-hardened stainless steel. The stainless steel rod end bearings were evaluated according to various ASTM and Military specifications for performance and corrosion resistance. The stainless steel rod end bearings exceeded the performance requirements of standard rod end bearings (which are comprised of a carburized 8620 steel outer ring and 52100 steel inner ring and balls) in accordance with MIL-B-6039. The rod end bearings were evaluated in the radial fracture load, axial fracture load, and radial dynamic load tests. Also, salt spray and alternate immersion corrosion tests (ASTM B 117-85 and G 44-88, respectively) were conducted on the stainless steel rod end bearings. The stainless steel rod end bearings exhibited superior corrosion resistance to the standard 8620/52100 steel rod end bearings.

  1. Electrodeposition of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on a stainless steel wire for solid phase microextraction and GC determination of some esters with high boiling points.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuyu; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2013-01-30

    In this work, 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) emulsion is prepared by ultrasonication agitation and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating is fabricated on a stainless steel wire by electrochemical method from a 0.10M sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate aqueous solution containing EDOT. The coating is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, and it presents cauliflower-like structure. When the resulted PEDOT/steel fiber is used for the headspace solid phase-microextraction of some esters (i.e. methyl anthranilate, dimethyl phthalate, ethyl-o-aminobenzoate, methyl laurate and diethyl phthalate) and their GC detection, the limits of detection (LOD) are ca. 7.8-31 ng L(-1) (S/N=3) and the linear ranges are 0.25-800 ?g L(-1). The fiber shows high thermal stability (up to 320 °C), good reproducibility and long lifetime (more than 183 times). It also has good chemical stability. After it is immersed in acid, alkali and dichloromethane for 4h its extraction efficiency remains almost unchanged. Besides esters the fiber also exhibits high extraction efficiency for alcohols and aromatic compounds. PMID:23597884

  2. Method for making a hot wire anemometer and product thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milkulla, V. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A hot wire anemometer probe is described that includes a ceramic body supporting two conductive rods parallel to each other. The body has a narrow edge surface from which the rods protrude. A probe wire is welded to the rods and extends along the edge surface. A ceramic adhesive is used to secure the probe wire to the surface so that the probe wire is rigid. A method for fabricating the probe is also described in which the body is molded and precisely shaped by machining techniques before the probe wires are installed.

  3. Joule heating of solid wires in MAG welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Shimizu; Y. Yokota; T. Itoh; T. Kurokawa; M. Ushio

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous studies concerning the melting rate of welding wire and various investigations have been carried out on welding current, welding current waveform, wire extension, polarity, chemical composition, wire diameter, arc length, shielding gas composition and melting rate. Joule heating of bulk wire has been a large contributory factor to the melting rate of solid wire for carbon steel

  4. 77 FR 17427 - Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ...10 percent of molybdenum, or --0.10 percent of niobium, or --0.41 percent of titanium, or --0.15 percent of vanadium, or --0.15 percent of zirconium. Specifically excluded from the scope of this investigation is galvanized steel...

  5. Criticality Experiments with Subcritical Clusters of 2.35 Wt% and 4.31 Wt% {sup 235}U Enriched UO{sub 2} Rods in Water with Steel Reflecting Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, S. R.; Clayton, E. D.

    1981-04-01

    A series of criticality experiments with 2.35 wt% and 4.31 wt% {sup 235}U enriched UO{sub 2} rods in water were performed to provide well defined benchmark type data on the effects of thick steel reflecting walls. For each fuel enrichment. the critical separation between three subcritical fuel clusters was observed to increase as 178.5 mm thick reflecting walls of reactor grade steel was moved towards the fuel. This increase was observed for fuel clusters having an undermoderated water-to-fuel volume ratio of 1.6 and for fuel clusters having near optimum neutron moderation (2.92 for the 2.35 wt% {sup 235}U enriched fuel and 3,88 for the 4.31 wt% {sup 235}U enriched fuel). In all cases the critical separation between fuel clusters increased to a maximum as the steel walls were moved towards the fuel clusters. This maximum effect was observed with about 10 mm of water between the fuel clusters and the steel reflecting walls. As this water gap was decreased, the critical separation between the fuel clusters also decreased slightly. Measurement data were also obtained for each enrichment with neutron absorber plates between the fuel clusters having the l .6 water-to-fuel volume ratio. During these measurements, the steel reflecting walls were at the near optimum distance from the fuel clusters. The fixed neutron absorbers for which data were obtained include 304-L steel, borated 304-L steel, copper, copper containing 1 wt% cadmium, cadmium, and two trade name materials containing boron (Boral and Boroflex), A comparison between these data and data from previous experiments indicates a slight reduction in the effectiveness of the absorber plates when the steel reflecting walls are present.

  6. Control rods

    SciTech Connect

    Aisaka, T.; Hasegawa, S.; Kawai, M.; Nawai, T.

    1983-08-23

    A control rod to be arranged in a nuclear reactor core comprises a body of a control rod, control guide rollers, pins connected to the guide rollers, and fixing members directly welded to the body of the control rod. The pins slidably support the respective guide rollers and the fixing members are engaged with the pins with a small clearance therebetween so as not to transfer welding heat from the fixing member to the pin.

  7. Vanishing Rods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-10-11

    This is a quick activity/demonstration that introduces learners to the concept of index of refraction. Learners place stirring rods in a jar of water and notice they can see them clearly. They will be surprised when they place the stirring rods in a jar of vegetable oil and the rods appear practically invisible! This is a dramatic demonstration that effectively illustrates how light can bend and fool the eye.

  8. Wire Weight

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  9. In Vivo Evaluation of the Effects of Gravitational Force (+Gz) on Over-the-Wire Stainless Steel Greenfield Inferior VenaCava Filter in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, P.M., E-mail: Paul.Sherman@USAFA90.com; Soares, G.M. [WilfordHall Medical Center, 2200 Bergquist Drive, Ste 1, Lackland AFB, TX 78236-5300, Department of Radiology (United States); Dick, E.J.; Harroff, H.H. [ClinicalResearch Squadron, 59CRES/MSRO, 1225 Wilford Hall Loop, LacklandAFB, TX 78236 (United States); Werchan, P.M. [AirForce Research Laboratory, AFRL/HEPM, 2504 Gillingham Drive, Ste25, Brooks AFB, TX 78235-5104 (United States); Davis, M.R.; Ortegon, D.P. [WilfordHall Medical Center, 2200 Bergquist Drive, Ste 1, Lackland AFB, TX 78236-5300, Department of General Surgery (United States)

    2003-08-15

    This study was done to determine the effect of exposure to gravitational force (acceleration stress) on invivo over-the-wire stainless steel Greenfield inferior vena cavafilters. Fifteen pigs underwent venous cut down and placement of a stainless steel Greenfield filter. A 4-week observation period simulated realistic convalescence and allowed sufficient time for epithelialization. Ten pigs were exposed to acceleration stress in a centrifuge (3G run for 15 sec followed by rest until return to baseline heart rate, then a 9G run for 15 sec), with inertial loading in ahead-to-tail direction (+Gz). Fluoroscopy during acceleration stress allowed assessment for filter migration. Five pigs were not exposed to acceleration stress. AP and lateral abdominal radiographs were obtained at post-filter placement, convalescence, and centrifuge exposure to determine the position and integrity of the filter. All 15 IVCs were resected and evaluated for gross or histological injury to the vessel wall. IVC filter placement was technically successful in all 15 pigs.Radiographic measurements were limited secondary to differences in pig positioning. Fluoroscopy showed no filter migration. All filters were securely attached to the vena cava by the hooks without gross evidence of perforation or hemorrhage. There were varying degrees of fibroplasia involving the hooks and tip of the filters in both the control and experimental groups. Histologically, there was evidence of prior hemorrhage at the level of the hooks, which was similar between the control and experimental groups. It is concluded that Greenfield filter position and vena caval integrity at the implantation site is unaffected by high acceleration stress.

  10. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ...from carbon or alloy steel wire that has been welded into a mesh pattern. The wire may be galvanized or plated (e.g., chrome, zinc or nickel coated), coated (e.g., with paint, epoxy, or plastic), or uncoated (``raw''). The wire...

  11. Silicon Ingot Wire Cutting Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Quicktime animation is of a single wire slicing the silicon ingot into thin wafers. By using a thinner wire, and by cutting all wafers at that same time, this minimizes material loss. This animation is the third in a series showing silicon wafer production process after it has been ground to the correct diameter.The previous animation showing silicon ingot rod grinding can be seen here.The next animation in this sequence about silicon wafer lapping can be seen here.

  12. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

  13. Effects of self-ligating brackets on the surfaces of stainless steel wires following clinical use: AFM investigation.

    PubMed

    Choi, S; Joo, H-J; Cheong, Y; Park, Y-G; Park, H-K

    2012-04-01

    In orthodontic treatment, the frictional force between the archwire and bracket reduces the effectiveness of orthodontic treatment. The frictional force is affected not only by the geometry of the self-ligating brackets but also by physical changes between the bracket slots and archwire surfaces during sliding movement. This study examined quantitatively the effect of self-ligating treatments on the surfaces of stainless steel (SS) archwires during tooth movement in vivo by atomic force microscopy. Orthodontic 0.019? × 0.025? SS archwires after clinical use with the first bicuspid-extraction treatment were employed using the Damon 3MX(®) SS self-ligating brackets, Clippy-C(®) ceramic self-ligating brackets, and Kosaka(®) SS brackets. Intact SS archwires were used as the control group. All SS archwires after clinical use showed severe scratches and significantly higher roughness caused by frictional interactions between the brackets and archwires (p < 0.0001 vs. control). The descending order of surface roughness was the SS archwires treated, with ceramic self-ligating brackets, with conventional SS brackets, and with SS self-ligating brackets (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that an orthodontic treatment with SS self-ligating brackets may require smaller orthodontic forces than that with ceramic self-ligating brackets or conventional SS brackets. PMID:22188518

  14. Digital Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Benny; Hubler, Alfred

    2009-03-01

    We study hardware implementations of cellular automata as reliable, adjustable, and secure commication lines. We discuss energy efficient digital wires on a nano-scale, all-optical digital wires, and digital wires as power lines and present performance data of a prototype digital wire, a six cells wide and ten cells long Boolean network. We show that digital wires have the following advantages: (i) Fixed pulse shape (pulses have a rectangular shape with a constant height and a constant width and produce no echos); (ii) Robust against electric smog. Digital wires based on semiconductor technology are effectively inert against electro-magnetic radiation, except for low-frequency radiation (heat) and high frequency radiation (X-rays). Digital wires based on plasma technology have in addition a very high tolerance for heat and X-rays. In digital wire the pulse speed can be rapidly adjusted. Signals on digital wires can be encrypted. Some digital wires can be used as general purpose computers. The data and the code are the input of the wire. Then both travel along the wire and `collide'. The collision is the computation. The result travels to the end of the wire, for further processing, as parallel input by a CPU, an actuator, or another digital wire.

  15. Nano-structured polyaniline-ionic liquid composite film coated steel wire for headspace solid-phase microextraction of organochlorine pesticides in water.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhanqi; Li, Wenchao; Liu, Benzhi; Liang, Feng; He, Huan; Yang, Shaogui; Sun, Cheng

    2011-09-16

    A novel nano-structured polyaniline-ionic liquid (i.e. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, BMIPF(6)) composite (BPAN) film coated steel wire was prepared by electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the obtained porous BPAN coating consisted of nanofibers, whose diameter ranged from 50 to 80 nm. Furthermore, the novel nano-structured composite coating was very stable at relatively high temperatures (up to 350 °C) and it could be used for more 250 times without obvious decrease of the extraction efficiency. The novel BPAN coating was used for the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of organochlorine pesticides (i.e. hexachlorocyolohexane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The BPAN coating showed better analytical capability on the whole compared with common polyaniline (PANI) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coatings. The key parameters influencing extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including desorption time, stirring speed, extraction temperature, extraction time and ionic strength. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for single fiber repeatability ranged from 2.3 to 8.7% (n=6) and the RSDs for fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (n=6) were 4.2-12.1%, respectively. The linear ranges exceeded three magnitudes with correlation coefficients above 0.99. The detection limits were 0.12-0.31 ng L(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in lake water, waste water and sewage treatment plant effluent with good recoveries from 88.9 to 112.9%. PMID:21821255

  16. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  17. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Finnemore, Douglas K. (Ames, IA); Ostenson, Jerome E. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Owen, Charles V. (Ames, IA)

    1985-08-06

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb.sub.3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb.sub.3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  18. Chinese NiTi wire--a new orthodontic alloy.

    PubMed

    Burstone, C J; Qin, B; Morton, J Y

    1985-06-01

    Chinese NiTi wire was studied by means of a bending test to determine wire stiffness, springback, and maximum bending moments. Chinese NiTi wire has an unusual deactivation curve (unlike steel and nitinol wires) in which relatively constant forces are produced over a long range of action. The characteristic flexural stiffness of NiTi wire is determined by the amount of activation. At large activations NiTi wires has a stiffness of only 7% that of a comparable stainless steel wire, and at small activations 28% of steel wire. For the same activation at large deflections, the forces produced are 36% that of a comparable nitinol wire. Chinese NiTi wire demonstrates phenomenal springback. It can be deflected 1.6 times as far as nitinol wire or 4.4 times as far as stainless steel wire without appreciable permanent deformation. NiTi wire is highly useful in clinical situations that require a low-stiffness wire with an extremely large springback. PMID:3890554

  19. Casting of wire-inserted composite aluminum alloy strip using a twin roll caster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Haga; K. Takahashi; H. Watari; S. Kumai

    2007-01-01

    Wire-inserted composite strip could be cast using a twin toll caster. In the present study, the effects of the melt temperature and diameter of the wire on the fabrication of the wire-inserted strip were investigated. A downward melt drag twin roll caster was used. The matrix was 1050 aluminum alloy, and mild steel wire was inserted. The wire was neither

  20. Effect of chemically reactive enamel coating on bonding strength at steel\\/mortar interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongming Yan; Signo Reis; Xing Tao; Genda Chen; Richard K. Brow; Mike Koenigstein

    In this study, 84 mortar cylinders, each with one steel rod embedded at its center, were tested in tension to characterize the bonding strength at the steel\\/mortar interface. The effects of different enamel coatings on the steel rods and the mortar curing time were investigated. The bond strength between a smooth steel rod and mortar can be increased by as

  1. Diamond tools for wire sawing metal components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Tönshoff; H. Hillmann-Apmann

    2002-01-01

    In the last few years, a wire sawing process has been developed for many applications in the field of natural stone and construction materials, especially for very thick materials or components that are difficult to access. Diamond wire cutting was limited to small carbon-steel shapes, such as pipelines for transporting gas or oil under the sea. In particular, the task

  2. Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve

    DOEpatents

    Gorscak, Donald A. (Bethel Park, PA); Maringo, John J. (McKeesport, PA); Nilsen, Roy J. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

    1988-01-01

    A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

  3. [A study of mechanical properties of orthodontic wires in tension].

    PubMed

    Konstantellos, B; Lagoudakis, M; Toutountzakis, N

    1990-12-01

    Orthodontic forces are applied to the teeth basically by means of different types of orthodontic wires. Knowledge of the mechanical properties of such wires are very helpful to the clinician in design and application of optimal force systems during orthodontic treatment. The basic mechanical properties were studied for 17 types of orthodontic wires (all rectangular and of the same size), in tension. Modulus of elasticity (E), yield strength (YS) and maximum elastic strain (Springback) (YS/E) were calculated for each type of wires. Stainless steel wires have demonstrated higher modulus of elasticity (and yield strength) in comparison with wires of nickel-titanium and beta titanium alloys. B-titanium wires showed higher modulus of elasticity than nickel-titanium ones. In addition stainless steel wires were found to have higher values for springback than cobalt-chromium ones and lower values (for the same variable) than nickel-titanium and B-titanium wires. PMID:2129597

  4. Residential Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    The second in a series of three curriculum packages on wiring, these materials for a five-unit course were developed to prepare postsecondary students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The five units are: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) rough-in; (3) service; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; and (5) load…

  5. Wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer (Wheaton, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  6. Quenching studies on a zircaloy rod bundle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Dhir; R. B. Duffey; I. Catton

    1981-01-01

    Quenching data are presented for reflooding by cold water of zircaloy and stainless steel clad rod bundles. In particular a filling material (AlâOâ) with thermophysical properties similar to UOâ is used. The rods which are 1.1 mm in outside diameter and are 1.2 m high are arranged in a square lattice and are inductively heated. The experiments have been performed

  7. Singing Rod

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

    2004-01-01

    How can a solid metal rod be made to emit a high-pitched squeal? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate the resonance and acoustic properties that result from stroking a solid aluminum bar and causing it to resonate. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable K-12 national science education standards. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions, and presentation techniques. The content of the activity is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

  8. Manufacturing and Properties of Yarns Containing Metal Wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayse Bedeloglu; Nilsen Sunter; Yalcin Bozkurt

    2011-01-01

    In this work, conductive yarn manufacturing that is formed by wrapping metal wire around the cotton yarn is described. Roving material at different thicknesses and copper and stainless steel-based wires having different diameters were fed into the ring frame to produce yarns containing metal wires. Performance of the composite yarns was tested by measuring yarn count, hairiness, and tensile properties.

  9. Computer simulations to study the effect of adiabatic heating on rod penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J.E.

    1993-08-01

    We use computer simulations to help us understand the experimental observation that depleted uranium (DU) rods penetrate more steel than equal density tungsten alloy (WA) rods, and that this advantage depends on velocity and fineness ratio. Our simulations used thermal softening. Although the DU rods exhibit shear fracture instead, both phenomena result in a loss of hoop strength, and help to keep the projectile residue from interfering with the incoming rod. Our simulations show that rods of DU (or other alloy with strong thermal softening) penetrate more steel than rods of WA (for alloys with little thermal softening), and show velocity and fineness ratio dependencies that are in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  10. Mechanical properties and clinical applications of orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Kapila, S; Sachdeva, R

    1989-08-01

    This review article describes the mechanical properties and clinical applications of stainless steel, cobalt-chromium, nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and multistranded wires. The consolidation of this literature will provide the clinician with the basic working knowledge on orthodontic wire characteristics and usage. Mechanical properties of these wires are generally assessed by tensile, bending, and torsional tests. Although wire characteristics determined by these tests do not necessarily reflect the behavior of the wires under clinical conditions, they provide a basis for comparison of these wires. The characteristics desirable in an orthodontic wire are a large springback, low stiffness, good formability, high stored energy, biocompatibility and environmental stability, low surface friction, and the capability to be welded or soldered to auxiliaries. Stainless steel wires have remained popular since their introduction to orthodontics because of their formability, biocompatibility and environmental stability, stiffness, resilience, and low cost. Cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) wires can be manipulated in a softened state and then subjected to heat treatment. Heat treatment of Co-Cr wires results in a wire with properties similar to those of stainless steel. Nitinol wires have a good springback and low stiffness. This alloy, however, has poor formability and joinability. Beta-titanium wires provide a combination of adequate springback, average stiffness, good formability, and can be welded to auxiliaries. Multistranded wires have a high springback and low stiffness when compared with solid stainless steel wires. Optimal use of these orthodontic wires can be made by carefully selecting the appropriate wire type and size to meet the demands of a particular clinical situation. PMID:2667330

  11. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  12. UN Wire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    Provided by the UN Foundation, UN Wire is a new "daily news summary covering the United Nations, global affairs and key international issues." Users interested in the UN or global affairs will find UN Wire an excellent resource for quick, concise accounts of the day's major stories. Each day, UN Wire covers issues such as UN Affairs; Health; Women, Children, and Population; Environment; Trade; Humanitarian Aid; Human Rights; and Peacekeeping. Typical entries include a few short paragraphs and direct links to the original news source and/or related resources. Free registration is required and users can subscribe for free daily email summaries of the headlines. UN Wire should be available for email delivery in complete form in the next few months.

  13. Stretching Wires

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-04

    In this activity, learners determine the elastic and plastic properties of different types of metal wires. Learners discover that wires of the same gauge, but made of different metals, typically support different loads (masses) before going through the elastic to plastic transition. Learners also learn the difference between elastic deformation, which is recoverable after the load is removed, and plastic deformation, which is not recoverable. Note: one way to save time on this lab is to have different groups test different metals.

  14. 39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod or poker at right was used to unplug iron notch. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. A large Bradbury Nielsen ion gate with flexible wire spacing based on photo-etched stainless steel grids and its characterization applying symmetric and asymmetric potentials

    E-print Network

    T. Brunner; A. R. Mueller; K. O'Sullivan; M. C. Simon; M. Kossick; S. Ettenauer; A. T. Gallant; E. Mané; D. Bishop; M. Good; G. Gratta; J. Dilling

    2011-09-14

    Bradbury Nielsen gates are well known devices used to switch ion beams and are typically applied in mass or mobility spectrometers for separating beam constituents by their different flight or drift times. A Bradbury Nielsen gate consists of two interleaved sets of electrodes. If two voltages of the same amplitude but opposite polarity are applied the gate is closed, and for identical (zero) potential the gate is open. Whereas former realizations of the device employ actual wires resulting in difficulties with winding, fixing and tensioning them, our approach is to use two grids photo-etched from a metallic foil. This design allows for simplified construction of gates covering large beam sizes up to at least 900\\,mm$^2$ with variable wire spacing down to 250\\,\\textmu m. By changing the grids the wire spacing can be varied easily. A gate of this design was installed and systematically tested at TRIUMF's ion trap facility, TITAN, for use with radioactive beams to separate ions with different mass-to-charge ratios by their time-of-flight.

  16. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  17. University Wire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University Wire is a daily Internet news service for college newspapers. Included are a story of the day, a large list of pointers to Internet resources in topics such as current headlines, politics, medicine and health, and women's resources; a "Kopyedit Korner," with pointers to writing reference materials; a placement center with job openings lists for college journalists; a large selection of pointers to college newspapers; and pointers to general circulation newspapers. Pointers to student and professional journalism organizations, as well as a calendar of journalism related events, are also provided. University Wire is a service of The Main Quad.

  18. Rod examination gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1991-12-31

    The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

  19. Clad polymer buffer rods for polymer process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jen, C K; França, D R; Sun, Z; Ihara, I

    2001-03-01

    Clad polymer buffer rods consisting of a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) core and a cladding made of a heat resistance epoxy aluminum composite are presented. The core has a uniform diameter or a taper shape. Ultrasonic measurement results indicate that the ultrasonic signal strength and signal to noise ratio of these clad rods are better than those of the non-clad PEEK rods for both longitudinal and shear waves because of the improved ultrasonic wave guidance in the core. Comparisons of these rods with those made of polymide and high-density polyethylene are given. Applications of these buffer rods for ultrasonic monitoring of polymer extrusion at temperatures up to 200 degrees C and pressures up to 180 psi are demonstrated. The monitoring results also reveal that within certain operating temperature and pressure range, clad polymer buffer rods show advantages over clad steel buffer rods. PMID:11270633

  20. Metallic hot wire anemometer. [for high speed wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemos, F. R. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A hot wire anemometer is described which has a body formed of heat resistant metal such as an alloy high in nickel content which supports a probe wire disposed in a V groove in the body. The V groove contains a high temperature ceramic adhesive that partially encompasses the downstream side of the probe wire. Mechanical and electrical connection to the probe wire is achieved through conductive support rods that are constructed of the same high temperature metal, insulation between the body and the conductor rods being provided by a coating of an oxide of the same material which coating is formed in situ. The oxide coating insulates the conductor rods from the body, mechanically fixes the conductors within the body, and maintains its integrity at elevated temperatures.

  1. 75 FR 26199 - Stainless Steel Bar from India: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...February 1, 2010). On February 24, 2010, Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd. requested an...Petitioners''), for a review of Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd., Facor Steels...antidumping duty administrative review, covering Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd/Precision...

  2. Effect of fluoride on friction between bracket and wire

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Shiva; Farahi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Friction is usually encountered during sliding technique for orthodontic space closure. This study aims to investigate the effect of fluoride on frictional resistance between stainless steel orthodontic brackets and steel and NiTi arch wires. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 standard 022 stainless steel brackets were used in this experimental study. 0.016 and 0.019 × 0.025 inch steel and NiTi arch wires were tested. The frictional resistance between wires and brackets immersed in the following three solutions were measured: Sultan fluoride gel containing 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride at pH 3.5 for 4 minutes, aquafresh mouth wash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride at pH of 5.1 for 1 minute twice a day for 8 weeks and physiologic serum (pH=7) as the control group. Static and dynamic frictional forces were measured using Testometric machine. Surface topography of wires and brackets was qualitatively assessed using electron microscopy. Three-way and two-way variance analysis and complementary Tuckey analysis were applied to compare the groups for any significant differences (P<0.05). Results: The average static and dynamic frictional forces for all bracket-wire combinations immersed in Sultan fluoride gel were higher than those immersed in NAF and control groups (P<0.001).The forces measured for rectangular wires were higher than round wires (P<0.001). Frictional resistance of 0.016 inch NiTi wire was more than that of the steel one but the difference between steel and NiTi 0.019 × 0.25 arch wires was not significant. Conclusion: Friction between steel brackets and nickel titanium and steel wires is affected by prophylactic agents containing high doses of fluoride and acidity. PMID:23372594

  3. THERMAL FLUX PATTERN IN THE VICINITY OF A MODERATELY STRONG ABSORBING ROD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. R. Rao; L. Seren

    1961-01-01

    The axial and radial flux patterns of thermal neutrons in and near steel ; rods in a graphite moderator were studied. It was found that a good fit with ; experimental data could be found by using the simpie diffusion theory modified ; such that the mathematical diameter of the steel rod is taken to be larger than ; its

  4. Comparative study on corrosion behaviour of Nitinol and stainless steel orthodontic wires in simulated saliva solution in presence of fluoride ions.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, M; Momeni, M; Ebrahimi, N; Moayed, M H

    2013-05-01

    Localized corrosion and effects of pre-passivation treatment of Nitinol and SS304 orthodontic wires in simulated saliva solution in the presence and absence of fluoride ions were investigated by means of potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarisations. Results revealed that Nitinol does not show pitting corrosion in saliva solution however, SS304 shows pitting corrosion. Meanwhile fluoride ion has deteriorative effect on pitting corrosion of Nitinol, while its effect on SS304 was marginally constructive. Additionally, the presence of artificial crevice has no effect on corrosion behaviour in the presence of fluoride. Pre-passivation treatment has positive influence on pitting corrosion of both alloys in the presence of F(-) ions. PMID:23498236

  5. Metallurgical Analysis of Crack Initiation of Wire-Cut Electrical Discharge-Machined Spline Actuators Made of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad-Reza Etemadi; Bahram Fazel; Armin Emami

    Spline actuators made of investment cast 17-4 PH (precipitation hardening) stainless steel were found to contain micro-cracks.\\u000a The cracked actuators were subjected to optical and scanning electron microscopy and hardness testing, which revealed that\\u000a the failure occurred due to fatigue crack initiation and growth after electrical discharge machining (EDM). The rehardened\\u000a layer produced by the EDM remained after machining, and

  6. Semisolid continuous casting–extrusion of AA6201 feed rods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. Zhou; Z. Y. Jiang; J. L. Wen; H. Li; A. K. Tieu

    2008-01-01

    High conductivity AA6201 feed rods with high tensile strength can be produced by a method called the semi-solid continuous casting–extrusion and on-line solution process (CCES). The effects of artificial aging and the combination of the artificial aging and cold drawing on the microstructures and properties of feed rods and finished wires were respectively investigated. Results show that the microstructures of

  7. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires in tension, bending, and torsion.

    PubMed

    Drake, S R; Wayne, D M; Powers, J M; Asgar, K

    1982-09-01

    The mechanical properties of three sizes of stainless steel (SS), nickel-titanium (NT), and titanium-molybdenum (TM) orthodontic wires were studied in tension, bending, and torsion. The wires (0.016 inch, 0.017 by 0.025 inch, and 0.019 by 0.025 inch) were tested in the as-received condition. Tensile testing and stiffness testing machines along with a torsional instrument were used. Mean values and standard deviations of properties were computed. The data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance using a factorial design. Means were ranked by a Tukey interval calculated at the 95 percent level of confidence. In tension, the stainless steel wires had the least maximum elastic strain or springback, whereas the titanium-molybdenum wires had the most. Higher values of springback indicate the capacity for an increased range of activation clinically. In bending and torsion, the stainless steel wires had the least stored energy at a fixed moment, whereas the nickel-titanium wires had the most. Spring rates in bending and torsion, however, were highest for stainless steel wires and lowest for nickel-titanium wires. A titanium-molybdenum teardrop closing loop delivered less than one half the force of a comparable stainless steel loop for similar activations. PMID:6961793

  8. Lightning discharge protection rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Charles F., Jr. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A system for protecting an in-air vehicle from damage due to a lighning strike is disclosed. It is an extremely simple device consisting of a sacrificial graphite composite rod, approximately the diameter of a pencil with a length of about five inches. The sacrificial rod is constructed with the graphite fibers running axially within the rod in a manner that best provides a path of conduction axially from the trailing edge of an aircraft to the trailing end of the rod. The sacrificial rod is inserted into an attachment hole machined into trailing edges of aircraft flight surfaces, such as a vertical fin cap and attached with adhesive in a manner not prohibiting the conduction path between the rod and the aircraft. The trailing end of the rod may be tapered for aerodynamic and esthetic requirements. This rod is sacrificial but has the capability to sustain several lightning strikes and still provide protection.

  9. Control rod drive

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Basil C. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

  10. Total recall: an update on orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Jyothikiran, H; Shantharaj, Ravi; Batra, Panchali; Subbiah, Pradeep; Lakshmi, Bhagya; Kudagi, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic therapy is a force management procedure largely based on use of arch wires for storing and distributing biologically tolerable forces by means of which position of teeth is altered. Advances in material science and technology has resulted in an array of newer arch wire materials, opening new vistas, in orthodontic treatment. Materials with widely diverging properties are in the market today and their usage has profound implications on appliance mechanics, and are very much different from stainless steel which is popular even today. The dentists who practise orthodontics have to therefore clearly outline the phases of treatment and select the arch wire most suited for attaining specific treatment goals. PMID:25745725

  11. Piston rod seal

    SciTech Connect

    Lindskoug, Stefan (Malmo, SE)

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal of the type comprising a gland through which the piston rod is passed the piston is provided with a sleeve surrounding the piston rod and extending axially so as to axially partly overlap the gland when the piston is in its bottom dead center position.

  12. The migration of a broken luque rod: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Kenichi; Deguchi, Masao; Kanamono, Toshihisa

    2007-04-01

    An exceedingly rare complication of Luque segmental spinal instrumentation in spinal fractures is described. A patient was treated for fractures of the eighth and ninth thoracic vertebra associated with traumatic paraplegia using Luque segmental spinal instrumentation. Ten years postoperatively, broken rods and sublaminar wires were found. One of the broken rods migrated caudad penetrating the sacrum and protruding into the pelvic cavity. The rod had projected into the rectum, and was extracted through the wall of the rectum and the anus. This case report emphasizes the importance of careful surgical technique and long-term follow up for patients who had undergone spinal instrumentation surgery. PMID:17414990

  13. Superconducting wires

    SciTech Connect

    Lanagan, M.T.; Poeppel, R.B.; Singh, J.P.; Dos Santos, D.I.; Lumpp, J.K.; Dusek, J.T.; Goretta, K.C.

    1988-06-01

    The requirement of high critical current density has prompted extensive research on ceramic processing of high-T/sub c/ superconductors. An overview of wire fabrication techniques and the limitations they impose on component design will be presented. The effects of processing on microstructure and critical current density will also be discussed. Particle alignment has been observed in extruded samples which is attributed to high shear stresses during plastic forming. Composites of superconductor and silver in several configurations have been made with little deleterious effect on the superconducting properties. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Titanium-niobium, a new finishing wire alloy.

    PubMed

    Dalstra, M; Denes, G; Melsen, B

    2000-02-01

    The mechanical properties of the newly introduced titanium-niobium finishing wires were investigated. Both in bending and torsional loading mode, the stiffness, yield point, post-yield behavior, and springback of titanium-niobium wires were experimentally determined and compared to those of equally sized stainless steel wires. The experimentally obtained values were also validated with theoretical values from engineering formulas of cantilever deformations. The ratios for these parameters for the two materials proved to be different in bending and torsion. The stiffness of titanium-niobium in bending is roughly half of that of stainless steel, whereas in torsion it is roughly one-third. These characteristics enable the clinician to use titanium-niobium for creative bends without the excessive force levels of steel wires. The springback of titanium-niobium in bending is 14% lower than that of steel, whereas in torsion it is about the same or even slightly higher than that of steel, thus making it possible to utilize the wire for even major third-order corrections. Finally, the weldability of titanium-niobium wires was found to be good, so it is possible to weld wires of different dimensions together for the generation of differentiated force systems. PMID:11168279

  15. Multi-composite wire for high performance pulsed magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kris Rossel; Fritz Herlach; Johan Vanacken; J. VanHumbeeck

    2004-01-01

    The multi-composite (MC) wire is a new concept in the pursuit of obtaining the ideal conductor for high performance pulsed magnets. The MC wire consists of a braided, insulating sleeve enclosing a bundle of thin wires: conductor (Cu, CuNb) and reinforcement (e.g., high strength steel), with all free spaces filled by a tight packing of high strength fibers that do

  16. Weld between Low Alloy Steel and 316 Stainless Steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changheui Jang; Jounghoon Lee; Jong Sung Kim; Tae Eun Jin

    In several locations of the pressurized water reactors, dissimilar metal welds using Inconel welding wires are used to join the low alloy steel components to stainless steel pipes. Because of the existence of different materials and chemistry variation within welds, the mechanical properties, such as tensile and fracture properties, are expected to show spatial variation. For design and integrity assessment

  17. RMI Visits Marlin Wire & Lion Brothers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Regional Manufacturing Institute (RMI) of Maryland visited two of Maryland's manufacturing companies. This video presents interviews with employees from Marlin Steel Wire Products and The Lion Brothers Company. In this informative seven minute recording they discuss the present and future for Next Generation Manufacturing.

  18. VIEW WESTBUILDING 23WIRE MILL & PATENTING (c.1853 & c.1900)CENTER BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-BUILDING 23-WIRE MILL & PATENTING (c.1853 & c.1900)-CENTER BUILDING 25- NO 2 WIRE MILL (c.1853) BEHIND 23 TO RIGHT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  19. The Effect of Cutting Parameters on Workpiece Surface Roughness in Wire EDM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Tosun; C. Cogun; A. Inan

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the variation of workpiece surface roughness with varying pulse duration, open circuit voltage, wire speed and dielectric fluid pressure was experimentally investigated in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM). Brass wire with 0.25 mm diameter and SAE 4140 steel with 10 mm thickness were used as tool and workpiece materials in the experiments, respectively. It is found experimentally

  20. Process for producing fine and ultrafine filament superconductor wire

    DOEpatents

    Kanithi, Hem C. (15 Briar Ct., Chesire, CT 06410)

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing a superconductor wire made up of a large number of round monofilament rods is provided for, comprising assembling a multiplicity of round monofilaments inside each of a multiplicity of thin wall hexagonal tubes and then assembling a number of said thin wall hexagonal tubes within an extrusion can and subsequently consolidating, extruding and drawing the entire assembly down to the desired wire size.

  1. Process for producing fine and ultrafine filament superconductor wire

    DOEpatents

    Kanithi, H.C.

    1992-02-18

    A process for producing a superconductor wire made up of a large number of round monofilament rods is provided for, comprising assembling a multiplicity of round monofilaments inside each of a multiplicity of thin wall hexagonal tubes and then assembling a number of said thin wall hexagonal tubes within an extrusion can and subsequently consolidating, extruding and drawing the entire assembly down to the desired wire size. 8 figs.

  2. Performance of a Clad Tungsten Rod Spallation Neutron Source Target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter F. Sommer; Stuart A. Maloy; McIntyre R. Louthan; Gordon J. Willcutt; Phillip D. Ferguson; Michael R. James

    2005-01-01

    Tungsten rods, slip-clad with Type 304L stainless steel, performed successfully as a spallation neutron source target operating to a peak fluence of â4 x 10²¹ p\\/cm². The target was used as a neutron source during the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) materials irradiation program at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Tungsten rods of 2.642-mm diameter were slip-fit in Type

  3. Pull rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Cioletti, Olisse C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

  4. Pull rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Cioletti, O.C.

    1988-04-21

    A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

  5. Spring loaded beaded cable makes efficient wire puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    An efficient wire puller consists of a steel probe with a hole in one end fastened to a steel cable which is strung with metal beads compressed by spring loaded ferrules. This device allows cables to be pulled or forced around bends and elbows in pipes or tubes.

  6. Radiological characterization of spent control rod assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Pratt, S.L.; Haggard, D.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document represents the final report of an ongoing study to provide radiological characterizations, classifications, and assessments in support of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations. This report describes the results of non-destructive and laboratory radionuclide measurements, as well as waste classification assessments, of BWR and PWR spent control rod assemblies. The radionuclide inventories of these spent control rods were determined by three separate methodologies, including (1) direct assay techniques, (2) calculational techniques, and (3) by sampling and laboratory radiochemical analyses. For the BWR control rod blade (CRB) and PWR burnable poison rod assembly (BPRA), {sup 60}Co and {sup 63}Ni, present in the stainless steel cladding, were the most abundant neutron activation products. The most abundant radionuclide in the PWR rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) was {sup 108m}Ag (130 yr halflife) produced in the Ag-In-Cd alloy used as the neutron poison. This radionuclide will be the dominant contributor to the gamma dose rate for many hundreds of years. The results of the direct assay methods agree very well ({+-}10%) with the sampling/radiochemical measurements. The results of the calculational methods agreed fairly well with the empirical measurements for the BPRA, but often varied by a factor of 5 to 10 for the CRB and the RCCA assemblies. If concentration averaging and encapsulation, as allowed by 10CFR61.55, is performed, then each of the entire control assemblies would be classified as Class C low-level radioactive waste.

  7. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

  8. The Future of Wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RON HO; KENNETH W. MAI; MARK A. HOROWITZ

    1999-01-01

    Concern about the performance of wires in scaled technologies has led to research exploring other communication methods. This paper examines wire and gate delays as technologies migrate from 0.18- m to 0.035- m feature sizes to better understand the magni- tude of the wiring problem. Wires that shorten in length as technolo- gies scale have delays that either track gate

  9. The future of wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RON HO; KENNETH W. MAI; MARK A. HOROWITZ

    2001-01-01

    Concern about the performance of wires wires in scaled technologies has led to research exploring other communication methods. This paper examines wire and gate delays as technologies migrate from 0.18-?m to 0.035-?m feature sizes to better understand the magnitude of the the wiring problem. Wires that shorten in length as technologies scale have delays that either track gate delays or

  10. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  11. Transcatheter wiring of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, P.; Simonetti, G.; Passariello, R.; Stipa, S.; Cavallaro, A.

    1983-04-01

    A new technique of transcatheder wiring of unresectable aortic aneurysm is described that provides simultaneous transcatheder occlusion of both common iliac arteries followed by exillofemoral bypass. The spring coil used for aortic aneurysm wiring was of our own making. The outer portion of a movable core stainless steel guidewire was bent in a coil shape and introduced into the aneurysm through a 7 French Teflon catheder via the right femoral artery. The same catheder was also used for coil embolus occlusion of both iliac arteries.

  12. Control rod driveline and grapple

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A control rod driveline and grapple is disclosed for placement between a control rod drive and a nuclear reactor control rod containing poison for parasitic neutron absorption required for reactor shutdown. The control rod is provided with an enlarged cylindrical handle which terminates in an upwardly extending rod to provide a grapple point for the driveline. The grapple mechanism includes a tension rod which receives the upwardly extending handle and is provided with a lower annular flange. A plurality of preferably six grapple segments surround and grip the control rod handle. Each grapple rod segment grips the flange on the tension rod at an interior upper annular indentation, bears against the enlarged cylindrical handle at an intermediate annulus and captures the upwardly flaring frustum shaped handle at a lower and complementary female segment. The tension rods and grapple segments are surrounded by and encased within a cylinder. The cylinder terminates immediately and outward extending annulus at the lower portion of the grapple segments. Excursion of the tension rod relative to the encasing cylinder causes rod release at the handle by permitting the grapple segments to pivot outwardly and about the annulus on the tension rod so as to open the lower defined frustum shaped annulus and drop the rod. Relative movement between the tension rod and cylinder can occur either due to electromagnetic release of the tension rod within defined limits of travel or differential thermal expansion as between the tension rod and cylinder as where the reactor exceeds design thermal limits.

  13. Method of Making Steel Strapping and Strip

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-12-10

    Fact sheet written for the Inventions and Innovation Program about a new method for making steel strapping and strip from rod stock produced from scrap steel. There is a large movement in the American steel industry to utilize more recycled steel. Recycled steel melted in the electric arc furnaces of mini-mills is being used as the source of raw materials for an increasing number of products, largely due to its lower price. However, conventional processes for producing steel strapping and cold-rolled strip steel restrict manufacturers from using more than 50% recycled steel. In addition, steel strapping and cold-rolled strip steel traditionally require many production steps. They are produced from primary steel that has been cast into slab, heated, rolled to achieve the desired thickness, and slit to the desired width. The slitting process produces microcracks along the edge of the strapping or strip, which reduce tensile strength. A new continuous process produces steel strapping and 1/2 inch to 6 inch strip steel from the rod and strip stock made from scrap steel in mini-mills. The new process creates steel strapping and strip with improved strength and quality due to the absence of microcracks caused by the conventional slitting process. The finished product is cheaper because of the lower cost associated with using rod ad lower conversion costs. In addition, the higher tensile strength of the product allows for thinner strapping. The process represents a new approach to producing any steel strapping used for bundling and packaging items for storage or transport. In addition, this innovative new process can be used to produce cold-rolled strip steel, a basic raw material for automobile parts, hardware, office equipment, and many other products.

  14. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  15. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  16. Large Wire Strain Gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryner, B. D.

    1987-01-01

    Wires yield data on average strains over distances ranging from inches to many feet. Long constantan wires used to measure average strains over distances characteristic of vehicles or buildings. Connected in bridge circuit, wires measure strain accurately within 1 percent, and linearly, within 0.1 percent. Wires stretch as much as 0.15 percent and still return to zero residual strain after release.

  17. Broken wires diagnosis method numerical simulation based on smart cable structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng; Zhou, Min; Yang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The smart cable with embedded distributed fiber optical Bragg grating (FBG) sensors was chosen as the object to study a new diagnosis method about broken wires of the bridge cable. The diagnosis strategy based on cable force and stress distribution state of steel wires was put forward. By establishing the bridge-cable and cable-steel wires model, the broken wires sample database was simulated numerically. A method of the characterization cable state pattern which can both represent the degree and location of broken wires inside a cable was put forward. The training and predicting results of the sample database by the back propagation (BP) neural network showed that the proposed broken wires diagnosis method was feasible and expanded the broken wires diagnosis research area by using the smart cable which was used to be only representing cable force.

  18. Slide the wire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    The animation shows a top view of four wires in a conducting loop and a galvanometer. Determine the direction of the magnetic field, Bz(x), passing through the wires at various postions by click-dragging the black wire back and forth and observing the galvanometer reading.

  19. Effects of orientation and symmetry of rods on the complete acoustic band gap in two-dimensional periodic solid/gas systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lanhua; Wu, Fugen; Zhang, Xin; Zhong, Huilin; Zhong, Shao

    2005-05-01

    We study numerically the acoustic band structures of five different shapes of steel rods (regular triangle, square, hexagon, octagon prisms and columns) placed, respectively, in air with a square lattice. The dependences of the complete acoustic band gaps (CABGs) on the orientation of the above noncircular rods and the maximum of CABG on the rods' symmetry are discussed.

  20. Self-monitoring Composite Rods for Sustainable Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonilho-Pereira, Cristiana; Zdraveva, Emilija; Fangueiro, Raul; Lanceros-Mendez, S.; Jalali, Said; de Araújo, Mário

    This paper presents the development and properties assessment of braided reinforced composite rods (BCR) able to both reinforce and monitor the stress state of concrete infrastructures. The research study aims at understanding the tensile behaviour and self-monitoring ability of composite rods reinforced by a textile structure - braided structure with core reinforcement - for civil engineering applications, namely for concrete internal reinforcement, as a steel substitute, in order to improve structures safety and sustainability. Seven types of braided composite rods have been produced using an author patented technique based on a modified conventional braiding machine. The tensile properties of the braided reinforced composite rods were evaluated in order to identify the type(s) of fibre(s) to be used as core reinforcement. BCR have been tested under bending while the variation of the electrical resistance was simultaneously monitored.

  1. Energy harvesting from millimetric ZnO single wire piezo-generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D. J.; Carroll, C.; Bove, P.; Sandana, V. E.; Goubert, L.; Largeteau, A.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Demazeau, G.; McClintock, R.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Razeghi, M.

    2012-02-01

    This work reports on investigations into the possibility of harvesting energy from the piezoelectric response of millimetric ZnO rods to movement. SEM & PL studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO rods revealed sizes ranging from 1 - 3 mm x 100 - 400 microns and suggested that each was a wurtzite monocrystal. Studies of current & voltage responses as a function of time during bending with a probe arm gave responses coherent with those reported elsewhere in the literature for ZnO nanowires or micro-rod single wire generators. The larger scale of these rods provided some advantages over such nano- and microstructures in terms of contacting ease, signal level & robustness.

  2. Joining of Aluminum and Steel in Car Body Manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Liedl; Robert Bielak; Julia Ivanova; Norbert Enzinger; Gunter Figner; Jürgen Bruckner; Haris Pasic; Milan Pudar; Stefan Hampel

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-coated steel sheets have been joined with aluminum samples in an overlapping as well as in a butt-joint configuration. A bimetal- wire composed from aluminum and steel was used for additional welding experiments. An advantage of the laser-assisted bi-metal-wire welding is that the welding process is simplified since the primary joint between aluminium and steel exists already and laser welding

  3. Effects of an upstream inclined rod on the circular cylinder-flat plate junction flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. M.; Bi, W. T.; Wei, Q. D.

    2009-06-01

    An inclined rod is installed upstream of a circular cylinder mounted on a flat plate to mitigate the horseshoe vortices in the junction flow. Smoke-wire visualization, hot-wire velocity measurement and surface pressure measurement are employed to study the effects of the inclined rod on the laminar and turbulent junction flows. The results show a properly placed inclined rod can significantly weaken the horseshoe vortices in front of the cylinder, depress the unsteady oscillation of the vortex system, change the separation position on the flat plate and narrow the wake of the cylinder. The inclined rod method provides a promising way to suppress the horseshoe vortices in the junction flow because of its effectiveness and its easiness to implement and adjust to fit different flow conditions.

  4. Mathematical modeling of steel fiber concrete under dynamic impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. N.; Yugov, N. T.; Kopanitsa, D. G.; Kopanitsa, G. D.; Yugov, A. A.; Shashkov, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a continuum mechanics mathematical model that describes the processes of deformation and destruction of steel-fiber-concrete under a shock wave impact. A computer modeling method was applied to study the processes of shock wave impact of a steel cylindrical rod and concrete and steel fiber concrete plates. The impact speeds were within 100-500 m/s.

  5. Laser Wire Deposition (WireFeed) for Fully Dense Shapes LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.; ENSZ,MARK T.; GREENE,DONALD L.; RECKAWAY,DARYL E.; MORIN,JACOB A.; BUCHHEIT,THOMAS E.; LAVAN,DAVID A.; CRENSHAW,THOMAS B.; TIKARE,VEENA; ROMERO,JOSEPH A.

    1999-11-01

    Direct metal deposition technologies produce complex, near net shape components from Computer Aided Design (CAD) solid models. Most of these techniques fabricate a component by melting powder in a laser weld pool, rastering the weld bead to form a layer, and additively constructing subsequent layers. This report will describe anew direct metal deposition process, known as WireFeed, whereby a small diameter wire is used instead of powder as the feed material to fabricate components. Currently, parts are being fabricated from stainless steel alloys. Microscopy studies show the WireFeed parts to be filly dense with fine microstructural features. Mechanical tests show stainless steel parts to have high strength values with retained ductility. A model was developed to simulate the microstructural evolution and coarsening during the WireFeed process. Simulations demonstrate the importance of knowing the temperature distribution during fabrication of a WireFeed part. The temperature distribution influences microstructural evolution and, therefore, must be controlled to tailor the microstructure for optimal performance.

  6. Wire Cloth as Porous Material for Transpiration-cooled Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Kinsler, Martin R; Cochran, Reeves B

    1951-01-01

    The permeability characteristics and tensile strength of a porous material developed from stainless-steel corduroy wire cloth for use in transpiration-cooled walls where the primary stresses are in one direction were investigated. The results of this investigation are presented and compared with similar results obtained with porous sintered metal compacts. A much wider range of permeabilities is obtainable with the wire cloth than with the porous metal compacts considered and the ultimate tensile strength in the direction of the primary stresses for porous materials produced from three mesh sizes of wire cloth are from two to three times the ultimate tensile strengths of the porous metal compacts.

  7. A tool for measuring the bending length in thin wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzini, M.; Cagnoli, G.; Cesarini, E.; Losurdo, G.; Martelli, F.; Piergiovanni, F.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.

    2013-03-01

    Great effort is currently being put into the development and construction of the second generation, advanced gravitational wave detectors, Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO. The development of new low thermal noise suspensions of mirrors, based on the experience gained in the previous experiments, is part of this task. Quasi-monolithic suspensions with fused silica wires avoid the problem of rubbing friction introduced by steel cradle arrangements by directly welding the wires to silica blocks bonded to the mirror. Moreover, the mechanical loss level introduced by silica (?fs ˜ 10-7 in thin fused silica wires) is by far less than the one associated with steel. The low frequency dynamical behaviour of the suspension can be computed and optimized, provided that the wire bending shape under pendulum motion is known. Due to the production process, fused silica wires are thicker near the two ends (necks), so that analytical bending computations are very complicated. We developed a tool to directly measure the low frequency bending parameters of fused silica wires, and we tested it on the wires produced for the Virgo+ monolithic suspensions. The working principle and a set of test measurements are presented and explained.

  8. Thin wire pointing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

  9. Disappearing Glass Rods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-12-05

    In this optics activity, learners discover how they can make glass objects "disappear." Learners submerge glass objects like stirring rods into a beaker of Wesson™ oil to explore how the principles of reflection and refraction affect what we see. Use this activity as a demonstration or allow learners to experiment on their own.

  10. Novel KE penetrator performance against a steel\\/ceramic\\/steel target at 0° over the velocity range 1800 to 2900 m\\/s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Lynch; S. J. Bless; C. Brissenden; D. Berry; B. Pedersen

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents scale size firings of two novel shape KE penetrators into a steel\\/ceramic\\/steel target at four velocities between 1.8 and 2.9 km\\/s. The two novel shapes were a three piece segmented rod and a telescopic rod\\/tube. Two unitary rod designs were also included in the assessment. All the penetrators had a similar mass of 60 grams. Test data

  11. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Li-jun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rupich, Martin W. [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Xiaoping [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  12. Wire-inhomogeneity detector

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1982-08-31

    A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

  13. 75 FR 32902 - Wire Decking from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ...from carbon or alloy steel wire that has been welded into a mesh pattern. The wire may be galvanized or plated (e.g., chrome, zinc, or nickel coated), coated (e.g., with paint, epoxy, or plastic), or uncoated (``raw''). The...

  14. Modeling of wire EDM process using back propagation (BPN) and General Regression Neural Networks (GRNN)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. B. Reddy; C. H. R. V. Kumar; K. H. Reddy

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model is developed to predict the surface roughness in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) of Cr-Mo-V alloyed special steel, which is used in automobile industry. The neural network Models strained with experimental results conducted using L16 orthogonal array by considering the input parameters such as pulse duration, open voltage, wire speed and

  15. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction arrays. These devices offer potential efficiencies of 34%, as demonstrated through an analytical model and optoelectronic simulations. SiGe and Ge wires were fabricated via chemical-vapor deposition and reactive ion etching. GaAs was then grown on these substrates at the National Renewable Energy Lab and yielded ns lifetime components, as required for achieving high efficiency devices.

  16. Experimental and computational studies of rod-deployment mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalbe, L.A.; Wingate, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stofleth, J.H.; Greene, R.W.

    1996-08-01

    We describe experimental measurements and hydrocode simulations of two tests in which long (L/D=12), steel rods were accelerated laterally with charges of Detasheet-C high explosive (HE). In each test configuration, 84 rods were initially aligned parallel to one another in an array of four concentric rings. The first test had a central core of HE that dispersed the rods isotropically. The second test had a narrow, 180 degree strip of HE on one side of the assembly that focused the rods directionally. Using radiographic data taken at several milliseconds after HE initiation, we measured the dynamic distributions of the rods, and their translational velocities and tumble rates. To compare with the data, we also modeled the experiments with our smooth particle hydrocode SPHINX. Within the context of our numerical model, the hydrocode results agree satisfactorily with the test data. We include in our discussion many of the inferences and insights that our results provide to the phenomenology and performance of multimode, rod-deployment mechanisms.

  17. Wire Weight with Housing

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. In the background there is housing protected with dikes along the Missouri River in Mandan, ND....

  18. Imagination Visualized in Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson achieved with a Very Special Artist (VSA) in residence for sixth- and seventh-grade students in which they created wire sculptures. Discusses how the VSA taught the students. Includes a list of art materials and characteristics of wire. (CMK)

  19. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  20. Spinning Rods: Experiment & Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, Jonathan; McLaughlin, Richard M.; Camassa, Roberto; Leiterman, Terry Jo; Superfine, Richard; Hao, Jing; Vicci, Leandra; Brooks, Adam

    2006-03-01

    Mixing and transport properties of the fluid motion induced by a slender rod attached to a plane sweeping out a cone are examined in a table- top experiment. This experiment is used to validate an exact solution for the motion of a spheroid sweeping out a double cone in free space and an asymptotic solution for a slender body attached to a plane. Validation of the theory is used to examine mixing and transport of the same experiment on the microscale.

  1. The wire mesh: various uses in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Prashantha; Jagannathan, Mukund

    2008-06-01

    A mesh made of steel or aluminum can be used with a hand table to stabilize the fingers and wrist in an optimal position, as a guide to put Kirschner wires, and to splint the hand postoperatively. It is inexpensive, easily available, autoclavable, light, sturdy, and yet moldable. PMID:18528235

  2. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small ``button`` in the latch mechanism had broken off of the ``lock plunger`` and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  3. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small button'' in the latch mechanism had broken off of the lock plunger'' and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  4. Evaluation of spinal instrumentation rod bending characteristics for in-situ contouring.

    PubMed

    Noshchenko, Andriy; Xianfeng, Yao; Armour, Grant Alan; Baldini, Todd; Patel, Vikas V; Ayers, Reed; Burger, Evalina

    2011-07-01

    Bending characteristics were studied in rods used for spinal instrumentation at in-situ contouring conditions. Five groups of five 6 mm diameter rods made from: cobalt alloy (VITALLIUM), titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (SDI™), ?-titanium alloy (TNTZ), cold worked stainless steel (STIFF), and annealed stainless steel (MALLEABLE) were studied. The bending procedure was similar to that typically applied for in-situ contouring in the operating room and included two bending cycles: first--bending to 21-24° under load with further release of loading for 10 min, and second--bending to 34-37° at the previously bent site and release of load for 10 min. Applied load, bending stiffness, and springback effect were studied. Statistical evaluation included ANOVA, correlation and regression analysis. TNTZ and SDI™ rods showed the highest (p < 0.05) springback at both bending cycles. VITALLIUM and STIFF rods showed mild springback (p < 0.05). The least (p < 0.05) springback was observed in the MALLEABLE rods. Springback significantly correlated with the bend angle under load (p < 0.001). To reach the necessary bend angle after unloading, over bending should be 37-40% of the required angle in TNTZ and SDI™ rods, 27-30% in VITALLIUM and STIFF rods, and around 20% in MALLEABLE rods. PMID:21563305

  5. Ultrasonic monitoring of material processing using clad buffer rod sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Franca, Demartonne

    Ultrasonic sensors and techniques are developed for in-line monitoring of polymer extrusion, cleanliness of molten metals and liquid flow speed at elevated temperature. Pulse-echo mode is used for the first two processes, while the through-transmission mode is applied in the third one. The ultrasonic probe consists of high performance clad buffer rods with different dimensions to thermally isolate the commercial ultrasonic transducer from materials at high temperature. The clad buffer rods are made of steel, polymer and ceramic. Steel clad buffer rods are introduced for in-line monitoring of polymer extrusion processes. Owing to its superior performance in pulse-echo mode, for the first time such a probe is installed and performs ultrasonic monitoring in the die of a co-extrusion machine and in the barrel section of a twin-screw extruder. It can reveal a variety of information relevant to process parameters, such as polymer layer thickness, interface location and adhesion quality, stability, or polymer composition change. For the ultrasonic monitoring of polymer processes, probes with acoustic impedance that matches that of the processed polymer may offer certain advantages such as quantitative viscoelastic evaluation; thus high temperature polymer clad buffer rods, in particular PEEK, are developed. It is demonstrated that this new probe exhibits unique advantages for in-line monitoring of the cure of epoxies and polymer extrusion process. Long steel clad buffer rods with a spherical focus lens machined at the probing end are proposed for cleanliness evaluation of molten metals. The potential of this focusing probe is demonstrated by means of high-resolution imaging and particles detection in molten zinc at temperatures higher than 600°C, using a single probe operated at pulse-echo mode. A contrapropagating ultrasonic flowmeter employing steel clad buffer rods is devised to operate at high temperature. It is demonstrated that these rods guide ultrasonic signals whose velocity is dependent on the average temperature of the flow. Thus, a novel technique to significantly reduce the temperature effects of ultrasonic flowmeters is successfully developed and tested in motor oil flow at 130°C.

  6. Wire mesh current collectors for passive direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Naveen K.; Thombre, Shashikant B.; Motghare, Ramani V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of the stainless steel wire mesh as current collector in the passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFCs-W). A novel single cell fixture is designed and fabricated. The cell performance is evaluated and compared with five different wire mesh current collectors. The supporting plates are optimized for every mesh. The performance of DMFCs-W is compared with the conventional passive DMFC which uses perforated metal plate as current collector (DMFC-P). The polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are performed to investigate the different aspects of the cell performance. The results reveal that the DMFCs-W yield better performance than the DMFC-P. Also, more uniform fuel distribution at catalyst layer and higher cell temperature is achieved with wire mesh current collectors. It is found that the wire mesh geometry has significant effect on the cell performance and the mesh made of relatively thick wires gives better cell performance. This study identifies the stainless steel wire mesh as promising material to be used as current collector and potential substitute to the perforated plate current collectors in the passive DMFC.

  7. [The long-term fracture resistance of orthodontic nickel-titanium wires].

    PubMed

    Drescher, D; Bourauel, C; Sonneborn, W; Schmuth, G P

    1994-01-01

    This study reports on the long-term fracture resistance of orthodontic nickel titanium wires, a material property that has not been investigated thoroughly, yet. A computer-controlled apparatus was designed to perform long-term bending tests. The investigated material comprised 9 nickel titanium wires (dimensions 0.016", round and 0.016" x 0.022", rectangular) as well as a stainless steel and a beta-titanium wire that were included as reference. Compared with the steel wire, the nickel titanium wires exhibited 2- to 5-fold higher yield forces in bending. At a specified deflection angle, the generated bending forces of the nickel titanium wires reached one half to one fourth of the values of steel. The fracture resistance under longterm loading was determined using the Wöhler-method. After 10(5) loadings, 0.016" nickel titanium wires were subject to break failure, if forces exceed values greater than 1.2 to 3.1 N. Steel and TMA wires could be loaded with forces of up to 4.4 and 3.7 N, respectively. The 0.016" x 0.022"-rectangular wires allowed forces of approximately twice this magnitude. Elastic fatigue of the superelastic specimens "Memorywire", "Rematitan Lite", and "Sentalloy medium" showed up as hardening of the wire by up to 70%. Material degradation lead to a severe deformation of the hysteresis loop and to plastic deformation. Work-hardened martensitic NiTi wires did not show these effects to this extent. PMID:8023109

  8. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

  9. Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

  10. Safety rod/thimble melt failure characterization experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Hawkes, G.L.

    1992-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) requested that he INEL perform experiments to study the thermal failure characteristics of a simulated Savannah River Site nuclear reactor safety rod and its surrounding thimble assembly. An electrically heated stainless steel rod simulated a reactor safety rod located eccentrically or concentrically within a perforated aluminum guide tube or thimble. A total of 37 experiments were conducted for a range of power levels and safety rod/thimble relative orientations. Video tapes were made of the four failure tests that were conducted to the melting point of the thimble. Although the primary emphasis of the experiments were to characterize the melting of the thimble qualitatively, experimental transient measurements included heater voltage and current, heater surface temperatures, aluminum thimble temperatures, and ambient temperature. Numerical studies were also performed in support of the experiments and data interpretation. Two finite element models were created to model the heat conduction-radiation between the stainless steel heater and thimble. The predicted temperatures were in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. LimeWire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    LimeWire, version 2.1.1, is a software package that enables individuals to search for and share computer files with anyone on the Internet. This software lets you log on to the Gnutella peer-to-peer network and contains a list of MP3's, digital home movies, documents, and other software. Furthermore, it allows you to chat with other LimeWire users. This latest version incorporates several performance improvements, including enhanced tools for handling downloads from slow servers and bad connections. LimeWire is written in Java and will run on Windows, Macintosh, Linux, Sun, and other computing platforms.

  12. Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

    1941-01-01

    About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

  13. Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John V. (Munhall, PA); Carlson, William R. (Scott Township, Allegheny County, PA); Yarbrough, Michael B. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1991-01-01

    Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rods are described, wherein geometric combinations of relatively weak neutron absorber materials such as stainless steel, zirconium or INCONEL, and relatively strong neutron absorber materials, such as hafnium, silver-indium cadmium and boron carbide, are used to obtain the reactivity worths required to reach zero boron change load follow. One embodiment includes a grey rod which has combinations of weak and strong neutron absorber pellets in a stainless steel cladding. The respective pellets can be of differing heights. A second embodiment includes a grey rod with a relatively thick stainless steel cladding receiving relatively strong neutron absorber pellets only. A third embodiment includes annular relatively weak netron absorber pellets with a smaller diameter pellet of relatively strong absorber material contained within the aperture of each relatively weak absorber pellet. The fourth embodiment includes pellets made of a homogeneous alloy of hafnium and a relatively weak absorber material, with the percentage of hafnium chosen to obtain the desired reactivity worth.

  14. A comparison of wire- and Kevlar-reinforced provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Powell, D B; Nicholls, J I; Yuodelis, R A; Strygler, H

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel wire 0.036 inch in diameter was compared with Kevlar 49 polyaramid fiber as a means of reinforcing a four-unit posterior provisional fixed restoration with 2 pontics. Three reinforcement patterns for wire and two for Kevlar 49 were evaluated and compared with the control, which was an unreinforced provisional restoration. A central tensile load was placed on the cemented provisional restoration and the variables were measured: (1) the initial stiffness; (2) the load at initial fracture; and (3) the unit toughness, or the energy stored in the beam at a point where the load had undergone a 1.0-mm deflection. Statistical analysis showed (1) the bent wire configuration had a significantly higher initial stiffness (P < or = .05), (2) there was no difference between designs for load at initial fracture, and (3) the bent wire had a significantly higher unit toughness value (P < or = .05). PMID:8179789

  15. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  16. Wire polarizers for microwave antennas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Josefsson

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with free space polarizers that are essentially planar, consisting of dielectric sheets and grids of parallel conducting wires. Network models are used in the analysis of wire grid structures. An expression for the equivalent wire grid reactance is studied, including the general case of obliquely incident plane waves. The influence of dielectric interfaces close to the wire

  17. Cone rod dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Christian P

    2007-01-01

    Cone rod dystrophies (CRDs) (prevalence 1/40,000) are inherited retinal dystrophies that belong to the group of pigmentary retinopathies. CRDs are characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination, predominantly localized to the macular region. In contrast to typical retinitis pigmentosa (RP), also called the rod cone dystrophies (RCDs) resulting from the primary loss in rod photoreceptors and later followed by the secondary loss in cone photoreceptors, CRDs reflect the opposite sequence of events. CRD is characterized by primary cone involvement, or, sometimes, by concomitant loss of both cones and rods that explains the predominant symptoms of CRDs: decreased visual acuity, color vision defects, photoaversion and decreased sensitivity in the central visual field, later followed by progressive loss in peripheral vision and night blindness. The clinical course of CRDs is generally more severe and rapid than that of RCDs, leading to earlier legal blindness and disability. At end stage, however, CRDs do not differ from RCDs. CRDs are most frequently non syndromic, but they may also be part of several syndromes, such as Bardet Biedl syndrome and Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7 (SCA7). Non syndromic CRDs are genetically heterogeneous (ten cloned genes and three loci have been identified so far). The four major causative genes involved in the pathogenesis of CRDs are ABCA4 (which causes Stargardt disease and also 30 to 60% of autosomal recessive CRDs), CRX and GUCY2D (which are responsible for many reported cases of autosomal dominant CRDs), and RPGR (which causes about 2/3 of X-linked RP and also an undetermined percentage of X-linked CRDs). It is likely that highly deleterious mutations in genes that otherwise cause RP or macular dystrophy may also lead to CRDs. The diagnosis of CRDs is based on clinical history, fundus examination and electroretinogram. Molecular diagnosis can be made for some genes, genetic counseling is always advised. Currently, there is no therapy that stops the evolution of the disease or restores the vision, and the visual prognosis is poor. Management aims at slowing down the degenerative process, treating the complications and helping patients to cope with the social and psychological impact of blindness. PMID:17270046

  18. Engineering task plan and status of 241-S-106 Enraf level gauge wire break

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report discusses the findings of a task team which was formed which identified the need for short-term actions to re-establish tank waste level monitoring and to permanently address wire failure. The failed wire was removed and sent to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. It was determined that the cause of the wire failure was due to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the 316 stainless steel (SS) wire. Radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the source of the chloride ions.

  19. Landing Gear Components Noise Study - PIV and Hot-Wire Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Burley, Casey L.; Stead, Daniel J.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Price, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    PIV and hot-wire measurements of the wake flow from rods and bars are presented. The test models include rods of different diameters and cross sections and a rod juxtaposed to a plate. The latter is representative of the latch door that is attached to an aircraft landing gear when the gear is deployed, while the single and multiple rod configurations tested are representative of some of the various struts and cables configuration present on an aircraft landing gear. The test set up is described and the flow measurements are presented. The effect of model surface treatment and freestream turbulence on the spanwise coherence of the vortex shedding is studied for several rod and bar configurations.

  20. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires...MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal...

  10. Impact Initiation of Rods of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Aluminum Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Willis; Holt, William H.

    2006-07-01

    A gas gun has been used to investigate the shock initiation of rods of a mixture of 74 wt% PTFE and 26 wt% aluminum powders. The rods were sabot-launched into 4340 steel anvils at impact velocities ranging from 104 to 963 m/s. A framing camera was used to observe the time sequence of events. At low velocity, no initiation occurred. Above an initiation threshold, the initiation time dropped abruptly from 56 ?s just above threshold to 4 ?s at the highest impact velocity. Several high velocity experiments were performed for pure PTFE material for comparison with the PTFE/Al rods.

  11. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array/polymer composite films showed that their energy-conversion properties were comparable to those of an array attached to the growth substrate. High quantum efficiencies were observed relative to the packing density of the wires, particularly with illumination at high angles of incidence. The results indicate that an inexpensive, solid-state Si wire array solar cell is possible, and a plan is presented to develop one.

  12. Enamel Insulated Copper Wire in Electric Motors: Sliding Behavior and Possible Damage Mechanisms During Die Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiri, Albion

    This study investigates the sliding friction and the forming behaviour of enamel insulated copper wire during the die-forming process. It also aims to determine potential damage mechanisms to the wire during bending process for electric motor coils. In this investigation a wire-bending machine was designed and built in order to simulate the wire forming process in a laboratory scale. Bending angle of the wire and the bending radii were used to control the strain on the wire surface. The effect of speed on COF was investigated for different speeds of of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20mm/s. A positive correlation was observed between the COF and the testing speed. Additionally, the effect of strain on COF was studied for 2% and 23% to determine its influence on the COF. A general trend was observed of decreased COF with increased strain in wires. Finally, the ability of the enamel coating to resist external damage and wire strain was investigated by tensile testing of pre-scratched magnet wire. The results showed that wire enamel can withstand significant surface damage prior to breach and failure. The insulating polymer coating failed under the scratch tests at 20N load using a Rockwell indenter and at 5N load using a 90° conical steel indenter. Additional tests, such as tensile testing, scratch testing and reciprocating friction testing, were used to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of the enamel insulated copper wire.

  13. Evaluation of torque moment in a novel elastic bendable orthodontic wire.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Shingo; Watanabe, Hiroto; Nakajima, Akira; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the torque moment delivered by a novel elastic bendable wire, Ti-Nb wire, and to compare it with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) and titanium-molybdenum (Ti-Mo) alloy wires. Two sizes of Ti-Nb, Ni-Ti and Ti-Mo alloy wires and 0.022-inch slot stainless steel brackets were ligated with elastic modules or ligature wires. The torque moment delivered by the various wire-bracket combinations was measured using a torque gauge at the temperature and humidity of 37°C and 50%, respectively. As the degree of applied torque and the inserted wire size increased, the torque moment gradually increased. The torque moment of Ti-Nb wires was smaller than those of Ni-Ti wires and Ti-Mo wires, at more than 20 degrees applied torque. The torque moment with wire ligation was significantly larger than those with elastic ligation. PMID:24786348

  14. Coupled Multi-Electrode Investigation of Crevice Corrosion of 316 Stainless Steel and NiCrMo Alloy 625

    SciTech Connect

    F. Bocher; F.J. Presuel-Moreno; J.R. Scully

    2006-06-08

    Crevice corrosion is currently mostly studied using either one of two techniques depending on the information desired. The first method involves two multicrevice formers or washers fastened on both sides of a sample plate. This technique provides exposure information regarding the severity of crevice corrosion (depth, position, frequency of attack) but delivers little or no electrochemical information. The second method involves the potentiodynamic or potentiostatic study of an uncreviced sample in a model crevice solution or under a crevice former in aggressive solution where crevice corrosion may initiate and propagate and global current is recorded. However, crevice corrosion initiation and propagation behavior is highly dependent on exact position in the crevice over time. The distance from the crevice mouth will affect the solution composition, the pH, the ohmic potential drop and the true potential in the crevice. Coupled multi-electrode arrays (MEA) were used to study crevice corrosion in order to take in account spatial and temporal evolution of electrochemistry simultaneously. Scaling laws were used to rescale the crevice geometry while keeping the corrosion electrochemical properties equivalent to that of a natural crevice at a smaller length scale. one of the advantages was to be able to use commercial alloys available as wires electrode and, in the case of MEA, to spread the crevice corrosion over many individual electrodes so each one of them will have a near homogeneous electrochemical behavior. The initial step was to obtain anodic polarization curves for the relevant material in acid chloride solution which simulated the crevice electrolyte. using the software Crevicer{trademark}, the potential distribution inside the crevice as a function of the distance from the crevice mouth was determined for various crevice gaps and applied potentials, assuming constant chemistry throughout the crevice. The crevice corrosion initiation location x{sub crit} is the position where the potential drops to E{sub Flade}. Figure 1 illustrates the resulting x{sub crit} vs. G scaling laws for 316 Stainless Steel in 1 M HCl at 50 C. The coupled multi-wire array is composed of one hundred identical 316 Stainless Steel wires in a five by twenty formation inserted in a groove of a 316 Stainless Steel rod such that the ends of the wires are flush mounted with the rod. The 100 wires are coupled electrically through in-line zero resistance ammeters. The diameter of the wires (250 {micro}m) was chosen so that x{sub crit} (critical initiation distance from the crevice mouth) and the expected zone of crevice corrosion (predicted from the scaling law) would be larger than the radius of a single wire. The array created a flush mounted planar electrode with the surface/volume ratio obtained in planar crevices. The observation of the current evolution as a function of position inside and outside the crevice as function of time was made possible as illustrated in Figure 2 in 0.6 M NaCl at 50 C.

  15. Effects of Manufacturing-Induced Residual Stresses and Strains on Hydrogen Embrittlement of Cold Drawn Steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Toribio; M. Lorenzo; D. Vergara; V. Kharin

    \\u000a Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) plays a relevant role in the performance of prestressing steel wires. In this framework, the knowledge\\u000a of residual stresses and plastic strains in wires due to cold-drawing (manufacturing-induced residual stresses), as well as\\u000a of wires hydrogenation from harsh environments are the keys to successful predictions of wire lives. This paper advances previous\\u000a analyses of HE in cold-drawn

  16. Selecting custom torque prescriptions for the straight-wire appliance.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Earl

    2013-04-01

    Selecting custom torque prescriptions based on the treatment needs of each patient can reduce the amount of routine archwire torque adjustment needed and speed torque correction, thus reducing the total treatment time. Using the appropriate torque prescription prevents iatrogenic torque problems and allows most torque corrections to be done earlier with more resilient nickel-titanium and beta-titanium wires. As a result, fewer time-consuming final torque adjustments are needed with stainless steel finishing wires, resulting in shorter treatment time. PMID:23540633

  17. Wiring up, reaching out.

    PubMed

    Serb, C

    1999-05-01

    Taking another step in our Most Wired project, we conducted cyber-interviews with health plans and asked them to tell us just how wired they are. Find out how well they connect to members and employers, which HR and educational services they offer online, and whether they do business with doctors and hospitals electronically. Plus: profiles of major info tech undertakings at six health plans. They range from a $78,000 intranet to a $4 million data warehouse. But while the six projects differ in cost, they overlap in purpose: putting more information into the hands of doctors, hospitals, employers, and consumers. In doing that, they show what being wired is all about. PMID:10404661

  18. Wire brush fastening device

    SciTech Connect

    Meigs, R.A.

    1993-08-31

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  19. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, Richard A. (East Concord, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  20. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  1. Status of rod consolidation, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that the spent fuel storage pools at some domestic light-water reactors will run out of space before 2003, the year that the US Department of Energy currently predicts it will have a repository available. Of the methods being studied to alleviate the problem, rod consolidation is one of the leading candidates for achieving more efficient use of existing space in spent fuel storage pools. Rod consolidation involves mechanically removing all the fuel rods from the fuel assembly hardware (i.e., the structural components) and placing the fuel rods in a close-packed array in a canister without space grids. A typical goal of rod consolidation systems is to insert the fuel rods from two fuel assemblies into a canister that has the same exterior dimensions as one standard fuel assembly (i.e., to achieve a consolidation or compaction ratio of 2:1) and to compact the nonfuel-bearing structural components from those two fuel assemblies by a factor of 10 to 20. This report provides an overview of the current status of rod consolidation in the United States and a small amount of information on related activities in other countries. 85 refs., 36 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M. [and others

    2000-02-24

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.

  3. Copper\\/Stainless Steel Polyhelix Magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Lecouturier; J. Billette; J. Beard; F. Debray; N. Ferreira; J. M. Tudela; G. Rikken; P. Frings

    2012-01-01

    The LNCMI has been involved since many years in the research and development of copper\\/stainless steel (Cu\\/SS) macrocomposite conductors for wire wound pulsed field magnets, generating magnetic fields up to 80 Tesla. The mechanical and electrical properties are adjusted to the magnet requirements by selecting the area fraction of the stainless steel reinforcement and the work-hardening state at the end

  4. 49 CFR 234.231 - Fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...when the train detection circuit is shunted. Installation of a single duplex wire with single plug acting as fouling wires is prohibited. Existing installations having single duplex wires with a single plug for fouling wires may be continued in...

  5. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  6. Wires by Patchy Particles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Zhang, Zhenli

    2005-01-31

    Simulation Software: Glotzer Group Code Simulation Method: Brownian Dynamics A system of 80 spherical particles with two patches at a concentration of 0.20, was run starting at an effectively infinite temperature then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of 0.5. The final equillibrium structure is wires or chains. Simulation Model: United Atom Rigid Body with Lennard-Jones

  7. A World without Wires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  8. SPACEWAR WIRE MILITARY SPACE

    E-print Network

    TERRORWARS SPACEDAILY TERRADAILY MARSDAILY SPACE TRAVEL SPACEMART SPACE DATABASE Endangered Species WeCHANNELS SPACEWAR WIRE MILITARY SPACE UAV NEWS MILITARY COMMS CYBERWARS MISSILE NEWS RAYGUNS project Nepal jails six soldiers for murder, human rights violations Ex-Peruvian spy chief wants CIA

  9. Basic Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…

  10. Residential Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…

  11. Improved wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  12. NewsWire, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

  13. 1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

  14. Mechanical property variation within Inconel 82\\/182 dissimilar metal weld between low alloy steel and 316 stainless steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changheui Jang; Jounghoon Lee; Jong Sung Kim; Tae Eun Jin

    2008-01-01

    In several locations of pressurized water reactors, dissimilar metal welds using Inconel welding wires are used to join the low alloy steel components to stainless-steel pipes. Because of the existence of different materials and chemistry variation within welds, mechanical properties, such as tensile and fracture properties, are expected to show spatial variation. For design and integrity assessment of the dissimilar

  15. Dynamics of Linear Piezoelectric Rods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. DavÍ

    1997-01-01

    A one-dimensional model of a linear piezoelectric thin rod is deduced from three-dimensional piezoelectricity by introducing suitable internal constraints and appropriate hypotheses on the electric displacement field.

  16. Extending the Reach of a Rod Injected into a Cylinder Through Distributed Vibration

    E-print Network

    Reis, Pedro Miguel

    systems, ranging from DNA and nanorods [2], to vascular catheters [3] and coiled tubing operations rod injected into a cylinder has been studied in the context of coiled tubing operations in horizontal wells [16,17]. Coiled tubing is a continuous length of steel pipe that can be inserted continuously

  17. Wire vibration, bowing, and breakage in wire electrical discharge machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, C.; Aulia, M.; Bozkurt, B.; Eubank, P. T.

    2001-04-01

    This article provides an analysis of the wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. The causes of wire vibration, bowing, and breakage are identified. The cross sectional configuration of an eroded wire is derived from basic physics under the assumption that the erosion rate is constant. This configuration is verified experimentally with further explanation as to why numerous experimental studies have yielded different configurations. A computational model has been developed that can evaluate the systematic effects that lead to wire breakage by determining the stress induced by wire erosion and the stress induced by the sparks during the operation of a wire-cutting EDM machine. This model is also capable of determining the extent of wire bowing and vibrations in these machines but only in the frontal direction. The model is supported by data from experiments performed on an AGIECUT 612 wire machine cutting a 10 mm high copper bar with a 0.15 mm brass wire to acquire wire breakage data. The nearly parabolic shape of the bowed wire agrees with the results of other authors making more restrictive assumptions.

  18. Nuclear design of Helical Cruciform Fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Shirvan, K.; Kazimi, M. S. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Sciences, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue 24-215 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In order to increase the power density of current and new light water reactor designs, the Helical Cruciform Fuel (HCF) rods are proposed. The HCF rods are equivalent to a cylindrical rod, with the fuel in a cruciform shaped, twisted axially. The HCF rods increase the surface area to volume ratio and inter-subchannel mixing behavior due to their cruciform and helical shapes, respectively. In a previous study, the HCF rods have shown the potential to up-rate existing PWRs by 50% and BWRs by 25%. However, HCF rods do display different neutronics modeling and performance. The cruciform cross section of HCF rods creates radially asymmetric heat generation and temperature distribution. The nominal HCF rod's beginning of life reactivity is reduced, compared to a cylindrical rod with the same fuel volume, by 500 pcm, due to increase in absorption in cladding. The rotation of these rods accounts for reactivity changes, which depends on the H/HM ratio of the pin cell. The HCF geometry shows large sensitivities to U{sup 235} or gadolinium enrichments compared to a cylindrical geometry. In addition, the gadolinium-containing HCF rods show a stronger effect on neighboring HCF rods than in case of cylindrical rods, depending on the orientation of the HCF rods. The helical geometry of the rods introduces axial shadowing of about 600 pcm, not seen in typical cylindrical rods. (authors)

  19. A Comparative Study of Bio Degradation of Various Orthodontic Arch Wires: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Gopikrishnan, S; Melath, Anil; Ajith, V V; Mathews, N Binoy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Orthodontic wires are the corner stones of the science and art of orthodontics and they remain in the patient’s mouth for a prolonged period of 18-24 months. It is but natural to expect that they will undergo some biodegradation when in the oral environment during that period. This study aims to compare the biodegradation characteristics of four different orthodontic wires, stainless steel, nickel titanium (NiTi), titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), and copper NiTi and to assess whether these biodegradation products, are within acceptable limits. Materials and Methods: This study involved the incubation of four different wires in artificial saliva and analyzing the amount of metal released from them at the end of a 28 days study period. The metals analyzed for where nickel, chromium, copper, cobalt, manganese, iron, molybdenum, and titanium. The artificial saliva was changed on days 7, 14, and 21 to prevent the saturation of metals in the artificial saliva. At the end of 28 days, these four samples of artificial saliva of each wire were mixed together and analyzed for the eight metals using an inductively coupled plasma spectroscope. Results: The results showed only the release of nickel, chromium, and iron from stainless steel wire, nickel from NiTi wire, nickel, and chromium from copper NiTi and none from TMA wire. Conclusion: The metals released from arch wires are of such minute quantities to be of any biologic hazard. The amount of metals released is well within acceptable biocompatible limits. Though this study has analyzed the biodegradation of various orthodontic wires, orthodontic wires are never used alone in mechanotherapy. Orthodontic wires along with multiband appliance system with which it is always used and in combination with accessories like face bows may release more metals. PMID:25709360

  20. Scattering and absorption by thin metal wires in rectangular waveguide-FDTD simulation and physical experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne Bingle; David Bruce Davidson; J. H. Cloete

    2002-01-01

    The high-frequency internal impedance model of a round ohmic conductor is incorporated into the subcell thin-wire formulation of the finite-difference time-domain method to model the microwave properties of metal wires. For magnetic metals, such as steel, an effective conductivity is introduced to account for the increase in ohmic loss due to the high-frequency permeability. Physical experiments with half-wave resonant copper-

  1. Dental Arch Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  2. Superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL); Banerjee, Indrajit (San Jose, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  3. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-07-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  4. Wire Diffraction Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2004-02-01

    In the summer of 1972, I attended the workshop on recreating classic experiments in physics at Barnard College. This was developed by Samuel Devons, and it was a defining experience that set me toward a research career involving early physics teaching apparatus. During the course of the workshop, I became curious about the original diffraction gratings developed by Fraunhofer and built a wire diffraction. A short note about the gratings was published in the American Journal of Physics the next year.2

  5. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  6. Dual wire welding torch and method

    DOEpatents

    Diez, Fernando Martinez (Peoria, IL); Stump, Kevin S. (Sherman, IL); Ludewig, Howard W. (Groveland, IL); Kilty, Alan L. (Peoria, IL); Robinson, Matthew M. (Peoria, IL); Egland, Keith M. (Peoria, IL)

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  7. Molecular Gels: A Reservoir for Organic Rod?Like Nano?Objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Terech

    2005-01-01

    Self?assembling of low?mass molecules can lead to one?dimensional colloidal objects either in aqueous or organic solutions in dilute conditions (C<1%). A variety of chemical structures form fibers, rods, molecular wires, helices, and nanotubes. Examples illustrate the structural and rheological features of such systems. The range of structures and associated viscoelastic behaviors offers an interesting alternative to provide individual nano?objects and

  8. Take it to the limit: The dynamics of rod load and rod reversal in reciprocating compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Gajjar, H.

    1996-09-01

    A major factor the engineer must consider when designing a reciprocating compressor package is the structural limit of the compressor. This limit is referred to as the rod load or frame load and is the maximum continuous operating force the compressor can safely withstand. Our discussion will include static rod load, inertia rod load, dynamic rod load, and rod reversal, with guidelines for minimizing rod reversal in the field.

  9. Rod guide/paraffin scraper

    SciTech Connect

    Mabry, J.F.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes improvement in a rod guide and paraffin scraper. It comprises: a body including longitudinal ribs spaced radially and extending out from the body; having two identical halves with the body surrounding a bore to accept a sucker rod, and each of the identical halves having a locking and tightening feature using a tongue and groove concept for interfitting the halves together over the sucker rod. This improvement comprises a rod guide and paraffin scraper with two identical halves comprising; a cylindrical central body including, at each end, three longitudinal ribs radially spaced to form a triad leaving three flow channels, at each end of the body, of essentially the same size and spacing as the ribs; and an angular wedge with opposingly ramped sides at the inside end of each of the ribs for scraping and directing material into the flow channels; and a set of triangular shaped tongues that interfit with a set of triangular shaped grooves for tightening the identical halves together and over the sucker rod; and a pair of cone-shaped male locks at one end of the identical half to mate with a pair of cone-shaped female locks at the opposite end of the other identical half.

  10. A state of the science review of the potential health hazards associated with asbestos in shielded metal arc welding rods in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer S. Pierce; George C.-T. Jiang; Brent L. Finley

    2008-01-01

    Due to its unique chemical properties, chrysotile asbestos was historically incorporated into a wide variety of products, including the outer covering, or “flux” of certain classifications of general arc mild steel welding electrodes. The purpose of this analysis is to review the historical engineering, toxicology, regulatory, and epidemiology information relevant to asbestos in mild steel welding rods in order to

  11. Wire detecting apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receiver`s position with respect to the wiring. The receiver`s audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receiver`s coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring`s concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  12. Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

  13. Multiphase Structures in Case Hardening Steels following Continuous Cooling

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    were used on a push­rod B ¨AHR DIL805 high­speed dilatometer with radio frequency induction heating.) and mechanical properties in the hot­rolled wire or bar are not as required, a heat­treatment is needed welder and jig supplied by the dilatometer manufacturer. The heating and austenitisation treatments were

  14. Assembly Using X-Wire™ Insulated Bonding Wire Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Lyn

    2007-01-01

    As the semiconductor industry continues to move towards higher pin count, finer pitch, multi-row and multi- stack devices, wire bonding becomes an increasing challenge for today's advanced packaging processes. Insulated bonding wire technology, known as X-Wire™, has been identified on the 2006 ITRS Roadmap for Semiconductors (1), as a viable, cost-effective solution to enable complex package designs, enhance package performance,

  15. Measurement of the airflow velocity upstream and downstream a wire mesh using constant temperature anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizal, Frantisek; Tuhovcak, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2014-03-01

    Measurement of velocity upstream and downstream a special wire mesh was performed to ascertain the effect of the mesh on the flow. The mesh consisted of two components, a basic rectangular mesh with mesh width 1.22 mm and wire diameter 0.2 mm, and a top steel wool with random position of wires and wire diameter 0.05 mm. The velocity was measured by Constant Temperature Anemometry using single wire probe in a Plexiglas channel of rectangular cross-section. As a first step, measurement of one horizontal and one vertical measuring line was performed 10 mm upstream and 6 mm downstream the wire mesh. A spatial velocity profile upstream of the wire mesh was smooth, while the downstream velocity profile was highly disturbed. However, velocity fluctuations expressed in terms of turbulence intensity downstream of the wire mesh were attenuated down to 1%. Further measurements of the area downstream the wire mesh will be performed to describe the development of the flow.

  16. Reduction in wire tension caused by wire clamping and wire tensioner removal: an experimental Ilizarov frame study.

    PubMed

    La Russa, Valentina; Skallerud, Bjørn; Klaksvik, Jomar; Foss, Olav A

    2011-03-01

    The stability of an external ring fixator mainly depends on wire tension. Wire fixators should maintain the tension during both wire clamping to the ring and removal of the tensioner device. In the present study the loss in wire tension related to fixator clamping and wire tensioner removal using three different wire fixator designs was studied. The fixators were based on two different cannulated bolts and a washer. Effects from two different pretension levels in combination with three different bolt torque levels upon loss in wire tension were described. Emitted wire vibration frequency was used to assess the corresponding wire tension. Wire tension was determined after each wire fixator tightening and after the removal of the wire tensioner. Increased bolt torque led to a small decrease in tension for both pretension levels. A considerable higher tension loss was measured when removing the wire tensioner. In all cases, the combination of a new cannulated bolt and a washer maintained the highest tension. PMID:21485324

  17. Rail-Roading Technique Using 18 Gauge Intravenous Catheter and Silicon Rod for Frontalis Suspension in Blepharophimosis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ruchi; A.G, Apoorva; Jain, Sparshi; K.P.S, Malik; Nagpal, Smriti; Kishore, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Silicon rods are widely employed for frontalis sling suspension. However, on passing through the tissues, at times, the silicon rod gets detached from the stainless steel needle. This occurs more commonly in patients of blepharophimosis syndrome, in which hypoplasia of superior orbital rim with deficiency of skin between lid and brow, causes difficulty in passage of the needle when it is manipulated upwards from lid towards the brow. To overcome these problems we describe the use of an 18 G intravenous catheter to railroad the needle with the silicon rod, obviating the blind upward maneuvers with the needle and protecting against the damage to the silicon rod –needle assembly. The technique is easily reproducible, safe and can be used in all silicon rod suspensions. PMID:25674190

  18. Rail-roading technique using 18 gauge intravenous catheter and silicon rod for frontalis suspension in blepharophimosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ruchi; A G, Apoorva; Jain, Sparshi; K P S, Malik; Nagpal, Smriti; Kishore, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Silicon rods are widely employed for frontalis sling suspension. However, on passing through the tissues, at times, the silicon rod gets detached from the stainless steel needle. This occurs more commonly in patients of blepharophimosis syndrome, in which hypoplasia of superior orbital rim with deficiency of skin between lid and brow, causes difficulty in passage of the needle when it is manipulated upwards from lid towards the brow. To overcome these problems we describe the use of an 18 G intravenous catheter to railroad the needle with the silicon rod, obviating the blind upward maneuvers with the needle and protecting against the damage to the silicon rod -needle assembly. The technique is easily reproducible, safe and can be used in all silicon rod suspensions. PMID:25674190

  19. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  20. Review of wire chamber aging

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Phase Transition of High Carbon Steel Demonstration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this demonstration on the phase transition of high carbon steel. The crystalline structure of iron is different at different temperatures, and high-carbon steel alloys undergo a transformation from BCC to FCC in a very small temperature range. An interesting application of this theory is in determining the maximum temperature to which a piece of steel has been heated before it changes phases. In this module, a piece of piano wire is heated and phase changes are observed through the changes in length and magnetic properties of the wire.The lesson includes a step by step explanation of the laboratory procedure. Discussion questions are also included.

  2. Cadmium safety rod thermal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.K.; Iyer, N.C.; Peacock, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal testing of cadmium safety rods was conducted as part of a program to define the response of Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor core components to a hypothetical LOCA leading to a drained reactor tank. The safety rods are present in the reactor core only during shutdown and are not used as a control mechanism during operation; thus, their response to the conditions predicted for the LOCA is only of interest to the extent that it could impact the progression of the accident. This document provides a description of this testing.

  3. Cadmium safety rod thermal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.K.; Iyer, N.C.; Peacock, H.B.

    1992-07-01

    Thermal testing of cadmium safety rods was conducted as part of a program to define the response of Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor core components to a hypothetical LOCA leading to a drained reactor tank. The safety rods are present in the reactor core only during shutdown and are not used as a control mechanism during operation; thus, their response to the conditions predicted for the LOCA is only of interest to the extent that it could impact the progression of the accident. This document provides a description of this testing.

  4. Tuning Rod-Rod Interactions in Poly(3-alkylthiophene) Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudouris, Bryan; Ho, Victor; Segalman, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    Poly(3-alkylthiophene) (P3AT) derivatives are used commonly in polymer semiconducting applications. However, during the coating of P3AT thin films strong intermolecular interactions generally lead to the formation of semiconducting fibers. This prevents the formation of long-range ordered domains and complicates analysis of structure-property relationships in P3AT-containing devices (e.g., organic photovoltaic cells). Here, we show rod-rod interactions can be controlled by rational polythiophene side chain design. The effects of side chain passivation are evidenced by a depressed melting temperature and the presence of a liquid crystalline region. We show also that while the rod-rod interactions are lowered significantly in a polythiophene derivative with a branched side chain relative to straight chain P3ATs, the optoelectronic properties remain approximately constant. Importantly, this reduced melting temperature allows for the real-time evolution of a P3AT crystal structure at room temperature to be monitored on an experimentally convenient time scale. These structural data correlate well with field-effect charge carrier mobility measurements and provide a path for studying the mechanism of ordering in plastic electronics.

  5. Development of new Nb-Ti wires with a Cu-Si alloy matrix for AC use

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Tanaka, Y. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Tochigi (Japan)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Nb-Ti ultrafine multifilamentary wires with Cu-Si alloy matrix have been fabricated for AC use. An AC coil of 100 kVA-class capacity was wound by the stranded wire, and the coil has been operated in AC mode successfully. The stranded wire is composed of six elemental wires of 0.203 mm in diameter and a central stainless steel wire for reinforcement. Each superconducting wire contains 164730 filaments of 0.14{mu}m in diameter. The authors investigated the effects of Si concentration in the matrix and Nb barriers around filaments on the fabricability of wire. Also, critical current density, AC loss and the proximity effect of these wires were compared with those of conventional AC superconducting wires with Cu-Ni alloy matrix. Present new wires show almost no degradation in AC quenching current at low magnetic fields below 0.5T. As a consequence, these results demonstrate that the new wires can be applied to AC devices.

  6. Diamond Wire Saw for Precision Machining of Laser Target Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M J; Bennett, D W

    2005-08-08

    The fabrication of precision laser targets requires a wide variety of specialized mesoscale manufacturing techniques. The diamond wire saw developed in this study provides the capability to precisely section meso-scale workpieces mounted on the assembly stations used by the Target Fabrication Group. This new capability greatly simplifies the fabrication of many types of targets and reduces the time and cost required to build the targets. A variety of materials are used to fabricate targets, including metals, plastics with custom designed chemical formulas, and aerogels of various densities. The materials are usually provided in the form of small pieces or cast rods that must be machined to the required shape. Many of these materials, such as metals and some plastics, can be trimmed using a parting tool on a diamond turning machine. However, other materials, such as aerogels and brittle materials, cannot be adequately cut with a parting tool. In addition, the geometry of the parts often requires that the workpieces be held in a special assembly station, which excludes the use of a parting tool. In the past, these materials were sectioned using a small, handheld coping saw that used a diamond-impregnated wire as a blade. This miniature coping saw was effective, but it required several hours to cut through certain materials. Furthermore, the saw was guided by hand and often caused significant damage to fragile aerogels. To solve these problems, the diamond wire saw shown in Figure 1 was developed. The diamond wire saw is designed to machine through materials that are mounted in the Target Fabrication Group's benchtop assembly stations. These assembly stations are the primary means of aligning and assembling target components, and there is often a need to machine materials while they are mounted in the assembly stations. Unfortunately, commercially available saws are designed for very different applications and are far too large to be used with the assembly stations. Therefore, a custom diamond wire saw was designed and constructed. The diamond wire saw cuts through workpieces using a continuous loop of diamond-impregnated wire of length 840 mm. The wire loop runs around several idler pulleys and is driven by a simple geared DC motor that rotates at 17 rpm. The linear speed of the wire is 107 inches/minute. The saw is oriented at an angle of 20{sup o} from horizontal, so the operator can view the wire through the cutout at the front end of the saw. When looking through a microscope or camera with a horizontal line of sight, the operator can clearly see the wire as it cuts through the workpiece, as shown in the right side of Figure 1. The saw is mounted on a two-axis stage that allows the operator to align the wire with the workpiece. To cut through the workpiece, the operator drives the wire through the workpiece by turning the feed micrometer. An image of the interior of the diamond wire saw appears in Figure 2. This picture was taken after removing the protective cover plate from the saw.

  7. Synthesis of Magnesium Diboride Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Paul; Bud'Ko, Sergei; Finnemore Anderson, Douglas, Jr.

    2002-03-01

    Magnesium diboride, MgB2, has been of great interest recently due to its high superconducting transition temperature for a material which exhibits properties similar to classical (BCS) superconductors. It has been found that wire segments of MgB2 can be prepared by exposing commercial boron coated filaments to magnesium vapor. This research has shown that the critical current of such wires is highly dependent on the preparation procedures and wire properties. These cm long wire segments have a grain size ranging from 2-20 µm and will carry current densities of 20,000 A/cm2 at 20 K and 1 Tesla.

  8. System Identification of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Mohri; H. Yamada; K. Furutani; T. Narikiyo; T. Magara

    1998-01-01

    In wire electrical discharge machining (wire-EDM), it is very important to restrain the vibration of the tool wire electrode for the improvement of machining accuracy. In this paper, investigation is carried out toward the dynamic wire vibration mechanism and a mathematical model is derived. This model is compared with experimental results. The measured displacement of a wire electrode in machining

  9. The wire material and cross-section effect on double delta closing loops regarding load and spring rate magnitude: An in vitro study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo do Amaral Ferreira

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of orthodontics closing loops, with three different wire materials (stainless steel, cobalt-chromium and titanium-molybdenum) and with different cross-sections and a double delta design, was studied in tension tests. The springs were stress-relieved, except the titanium-molybdenum wires. There were 72 sample springs, divided into 33 stainless steel, 26 cobalt-chromium and 13 titanium-molybdenum, activated at 0.5 mm intervals, from

  10. Composite Wires with High Tensile Core for Wire EDM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-P. Kruth; B. Lauwers; B. Schacht; J. van Humbeeck

    2004-01-01

    In recent years wire EDM cutting speeds and final surface roughness have been continuously improving. Much higher cutting speeds during roughing and surface roughness values lower than 0.1 ?m Ra during finishing can be obtained. These enhancements are mostly attributed to the use of more advanced generator technology, but also to the type of wire. This paper discusses the use

  11. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  12. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  15. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Intranuclear rod myopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of individuals. Its exact prevalence is unknown. What genes are related to intranuclear rod myopathy? Intranuclear rod ... is caused by a mutation in the ACTA1 gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein ...

  17. Transient current pulses in rocket-extended wires used to trigger lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, C. J.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Rakov, V. A.; Jordan, D. M.

    2012-04-01

    We analyze current, electric field, and optical signatures of the sudden electrical breakdown processes (precursors) that occur at the top of the upward extending, grounded, Kevlar-covered copper wires used to artificially trigger lightning. For one launch, before the sustained upward positive leader initiated, we estimate that up to 10,000 precursors occurred (one every few hundred microseconds) with peak currents from 1 to more than 100 A. Luminosity at the wire tip was observed for 339 of 410 precursors examined in detail and, in seven cases, discharge channels developed to lengths of 3 to 8 m over times of several hundred microseconds. The measured propagation speeds of current pulses on the triggering wires were less than the speed of light, and decreased from about 2.8 × 108 m s-1 to about 2.3 × 108 m s-1with increasing wire-top heights from about 80 m to about 340 m. The triggering wire and its grounding system are modeled as uniform transmission lines with model predictions that are consistent with the measured wire-base precursor current signatures. The modeling shows that (1) the characteristic impedance of the triggering wire, the ratio of the propagating precursor voltage pulse to its associated current pulse, is between 600 and 800 ?; (2) the 25 m ground rod grounding impedance for the peak precursor current is about 100 ?, while the DC grounding resistance is 20 ?; and (3) the current reflection coefficient at ground for peak precursor current is ˜0.9.

  18. Cool Hot Rod (Thermal Expansion)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is thermal expansion of copper. This demonstration allows an observer to see the effect of heating (and cooling) a copper tube. When heated, the copper tube lengthens and thickens. When cooled, the tube shrinks. The lengthening of the rod rotates a toothpick with an attached flag to make the expansion visible and measurable.

  19. Soft magnetic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M.

    2001-06-01

    An overview of the present state of the art on the preparation techniques, outstanding magnetic properties and applications of soft magnetic micro and nanowires is presented. Rapid solidification techniques (in-rotating-water quenching and drawing methods) to fabricate amorphous microwires with diameter in the range from 100 down to 1 ?m are first described. Electrodeposition is also employed to prepare composite microtubes (magnetic coatings) and to fill porous membranes (diameter of the order of 0.1 ?m). Magnetic behaviours of interest are related to the different hysteresis loops of samples: square-shaped loops typical of bistable behaviour, and nearly non-hysteretic loop with well-defined transverse anisotropy field. The role played by magnetic dipolar interactions in the magnetic behaviour of arrays of micro and nanowires is described. A particular analysis is done on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in the radio and microwave frequency ranges exhibited by ultrasoft microwires. Finally, a few examples of applications are introduced for magnetostrictive and non-magnetostrictive wires, they are: “magnetoelastic pens”, micromotors; DC current-sensors based on GMI, and sharpened amorphous wire tips in spin polarised scanning tunneling microscopy.

  20. Asteroseismology "on a WIRE"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuypers, J.; Aerts, C.; Buzasi, D.; Catanzarite, J.; Conrow, T.; Laher, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Wide-field Infra Red Explorer (WIRE) was launched in March 1999. Its main mission failed due to loss of coolant, but the 52 mm aperture star camera was used for asteroseismology. A few results are already published, but other bright variable stars were observed as well. Here we present an overview of the preliminary results and detailed period analyses on WIRE data of massive main-sequence pulsators. The period of the ? Scuti star ? Cas could be easily recovered. In an almost uninterrupted observing run of 17 days on the 16 Msolar star ? Crucis (Mimosa) multiperiodicity could be found in the light variations of this ? Cephei variable. Ground-based photometry so far revealed only one period for this star. Although the amplitudes are small (3, 2.7 and 0.6 millimag for the dominant modes), the periods are in perfect agreement with the results of a recent line profile study of this star. Indications of more periods, including a previously suggested one, are present. The results obtained during this unintentional and unadapted asteroseismology project are extremely promising. They show only a tiny fraction of the outcome of a fully adapted asteroseismological mission like Eddington.

  1. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  2. Solid-state-laser-rod holder

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, D.J.; Barnes, N.P.; Griggs, J.E.

    1981-08-11

    The disclosure relates to a solid state laser rod holder comprising Invar, copper tubing, and epoxy joints. Materials and coefficients of expansion of the components of the holder combine with the rod to produce a joint which will give before the rod itself will. The rod may be lased at about 70 to 80/sup 0/K and returned from such a temperature to room temperature repeatedly without its or the holder's destruction.

  3. Investigation of Minimum Film boiling Phenomena on Fuel Rods Under Blowdown Cooling Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen M. Bajorek; Michael Gawron; Timothy Etzel; Lucas Peterson

    2003-06-30

    Blowdon cooling heat transfer is an important process that occurs early in a hypothetical large break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor. During blowdown, the flow through the hot assembly is a post-critical heat flux dispersed droplet flow. The heat transfer mechanisms that occur in blowdown cooling are complex and depend on droplet and heated surface interaction. In a safety analysis, it is of considerable importance to determine the thermal-hydraulic conditions leading to the minimum film boiling temperature, Tmin. A flow boiling rig for measurement of blowdown cooling heat transfer and quench phenomena on a nuclear fuel rod simulator was designed and constructed for operation at up to 12.4 MPa. The test section consisted of a concentric annulus, with a 9.5 mm OD nuclear fuel rod simulator at the center. The rod was contained within a 0.85 mm thick, 19 mm OD 316 stainless steel tube, forming the flow channel. Two types of rods were tested; one type was sheathed with Inconel 600 while the other was clad with Zircaloy-2. Water was injected into the test section at the top of the heated length through an injection header. This header was an annular sign that fit around the fuel rod simulator and within the stainless steel tube. Small spacers aligned the injection header and prevented contract with either the heater rod or the tube. A series of small diameter holes at the bottom of the header caused the formation of droplets that became entrained with the steam flow. The test section design was such that quench would take place on the rod, and not along the channel outer annulus.

  4. Longitudinal wave propagation in piezoelectric coupled rods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Wang; V. K. Varadan

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of longitudinal wave propagation in piezoelectric coupled rod structures. The deduction of non-dispersive or dispersive characteristics of the structures is based on a classical rod model and the Mindlin-Herrmann rod model. In the classical model, correction factors for piezoelectric effects are introduced to provide remedy for the discontinuity of the normal stress at the interface

  5. Hydraulic Actuator for Ganged Control Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. C.; Robey, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Hydraulic actuator moves several nuclear-reactor control rods in unison. Electromagnetic pump pushes liquid lithium against ends of control rods, forcing them out of or into nuclear reactor. Color arrows show lithium flow for reactor startup and operation. Flow reversed for shutdown. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, actuator principle applied to terrestrial hydraulic machinery involving motion of ganged rods.

  6. CONTROL-ROD DRIVE FOR HTGR's

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Kroeber; J. M. Welch

    1959-01-01

    A design is given ior a control-rod drive for high temperature gas-; cooled reactors. Each control rod is individually driven by means oi a rack and ; pinion at its lower end. The energy of the falling rod is absorbed through the ; use of a ball-nut-hydraulic cylinder arrangement. (C.J.G.);

  7. 49 CFR 236.793 - Rod, lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.793 Rod, lock. A rod, attached to the front rod or lug of a switch, movable-point frog or derail, through which a locking plunger may extend when the switch points or derail are in the normal or reverse...

  8. 49 CFR 236.793 - Rod, lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.793 Rod, lock. A rod, attached to the front rod or lug of a switch, movable-point frog or derail, through which a locking plunger may extend when the switch points or derail are in the normal or reverse...

  9. 49 CFR 236.793 - Rod, lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.793 Rod, lock. A rod, attached to the front rod or lug of a switch, movable-point frog or derail, through which a locking plunger may extend when the switch points or derail are in the normal or reverse...

  10. 49 CFR 236.793 - Rod, lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.793 Rod, lock. A rod, attached to the front rod or lug of a switch, movable-point frog or derail, through which a locking plunger may extend when the switch points or derail are in the normal or reverse...

  11. Northern Pacific Railroad Bridge and Wire Weight

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  12. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-11-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  13. Most Wired 2006: measuring value.

    PubMed

    Solovy, Alden

    2006-07-01

    As the Most Wired hospitals incorporate information technology into their strategic plans, they combine a"balanced scorecard"approach with classic business analytics to measure how well IT delivers on their goals. To find out which organizations made this year's 100 Most Wired list, as well as those named in other survey categories, go to the foldout section. PMID:16915970

  14. Straddle packer wire line tester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1967-01-01

    This invention proposes to overcome the shortcomings of previous fluid recovering wire-line testers, by setting forth a novel construction for a wire-line testing tool. The tool is suspended from the wellhead by a multistrand insulated electrical cable similar to that used to run electrical logs, and utilizes a straddle packer arrangement to isolate a portion of well bore. The packers

  15. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  16. The abrasion-wear resistance of arc sprayed stainless steel and composite stainless steel coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Dallaire, S.; Legoux, J.G.; Levert, H. [National Research Council Canada, Boucherville, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Stainless steels are often used to palliate wear problems in various industries. Though they are not wear resistant, they have been used to a limited extent in applications involving both corrosive and abrasive/erosive environments. The protection of industrial components by arc sprayed stainless steel composite coatings could be considered very attractive provided these coatings offer a better wear protection than bulk stainless steel. The wear resistance of stainless steel and composite stainless steel-titanium boride coatings arc sprayed with air and argon was evaluated following the ASTM G-65 Abrasion Wear Test procedures. Wear volume loss measurements show that stainless steel coatings arc sprayed with air were slightly more resistant than bulk stainless steel while those sprayed with argon were slightly less resistant. The abrasion wear resistance of composite stainless steel-titanium diboride coatings is by two or four times beyond the wear resistance of bulk stainless steel depending upon the core wire constitution and the type of gas used for spraying. Microstructural analysis of coatings, microhardness measurements of sprayed lamellae and optical profilometry were used to characterize coatings and wear damages. Spraying with air instead of argon produced much more small particles. These particles, being removed from the metal sheath surface, are individually sprayed without diluting the concentration hard phases within cores. It results in coatings that contain large lamellae with hardnesses sufficient to withstand abrasion. By considering both the wire constitution and the spraying conditions, it was found possible to fabricate composite stainless steel coatings that show a 400% increase in wear resistance over bulk stainless steel.

  17. Electrode carrying wire for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a hollow tungsten electrode including a ceramic liner and forms the filler metal wire guide. The wire is fed through the tungsten electrode thereby reducing the size of the torch to eliminate clearance problems which exist with external wire guides. Since the wire is preheated from the tungsten more wire may be fed into the weld puddle, and the wire will not oxidize because it is always within the shielding gas.

  18. Internal wire guide for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a filler metal wire guide positioned within the torch, and within the shielding gas nozzle. The wire guide is adjacent to the tungsten electrode and has a ceramic liner through which the wire is fed. This reduces the size of the torch and eliminates the outside clearance problems that exit with external wire guides. Additionally, since the wire is always within the shielding gas, oxidizing of the wire is eliminated.

  19. Apollo experience report: Electrical wiring subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    The general requirements of the electrical wiring subsystems and the problem areas and solutions that occurred during the major part of the Apollo Program are detailed in this report. The concepts and definitions of specific requirements for electrical wiring; wire-connecting devices; and wire-harness fabrication, checkout, and installation techniques are discussed. The design and development of electrical wiring and wire-connecting devices are described. Mission performance is discussed, and conclusions and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  20. Friction between different wire bracket combinations in artificial saliva – an in vitro evaluation

    PubMed Central

    FIDALGO, Tatiana Kelly da Silva; PITHON, Matheus Melo; MACIEL, José Vinicius Bolognesi; BOLOGNESE, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective this work was to assess the friction coefficient between brackets and wires of different materials under conditions simulating the oral environment. Material and Methods Stainless steel (SS) and titanium-molybdenum alloy (TMA) wires of 0.019x0.025-in diameter (American Orthodontics) and polycarbonate bracket (American Orthodontics), ceramic bracket (American Orthodontics), and metal bracket (3M Unitek) with slots of 0.022x0.030-in were used. The friction coefficient was assessed by means of mechanical traction with the system immersed in artificial saliva. The mean roughness of both wire surface and bracket slots was evaluated by using a surface profilometer. Results The system using TMA wire and polycarbonate bracket had the highest roughness (p<0.05). SS wire with ceramic bracket had the highest friction coefficient, whereas the use of metallic bracket yielded the lowest (p<0.05). However, it was observed a statistically significant difference in the system using TMA wire and ceramic bracket compared to that using TMA wire and polycarbonate bracket (p=0.038). Conclusion Ceramic brackets in association with SS wire should be judiciously used, since this system showed a high friction coefficient. PMID:21437471

  1. Levonorgestrel concentrations during use of levonorgestrel rod (LNG ROD) implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irving Sivin; Pekka Lähteenmäki; Sirpa Ranta; Philip Darney; Cindy Klaisle; Livia Wan; Daniel R. Mishell; Maria Lacarra; Osborn A. C. Viegas; Prapas Bilhareus; Suporn Koetsawang; Manee Piya-Anant; Soledad Diaz; Margarita Pavez; Francisco Alvarez; Vivian Brache; Katherine LaGuardia; Harold Nash; Janet Stern

    1997-01-01

    In a three-year randomized trial that included 398 women, blood samples were collected for the purpose of assaying levonorgestrel concentrations in women using a new two-rod contraceptive implant system or an earlier implant formulation, Norplant®-2 implants. Sample collection was at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after placement and semiannually thereafter through three years. Resulting assays and analyses showed

  2. Modelling of the mechanical interaction between anchored wire meshes and granular soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Giulio di Prisco; Fulvio Besseghini; Federico Pisanò

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a theoretical and numerical analysis of the mechanical interaction between an anchored deformable facing structure and the underlying granular soil is presented. The reinforcement system is mainly composed of wire meshes, geosynthetics, bars\\/ties, and spike steel plates. This is usually employed for stabilising potentially unstable slopes. The punching process that can occur locally is described by considering

  3. Nano-storage wires.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-08-27

    We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals. PMID:23859333

  4. Stiffness and Confinement Ratios of SMA Wire Jackets for Confining Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dong Joo; Youn, Heejung

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses the effects of the stiffness and confinement ratios of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets on the behavior of confined concrete. SMA wire jackets are an effective confining material to improve concrete behavior; for example, by increasing peak strength and failure strain. The stiffness and confinement ratios of fiber-reinforced polymer jackets have been extensively discussed and their effects are well known. However, assessment of the stiffness and confinement ratios of SMA wire jackets has not previously been conducted. In this study, we investigate the effects of the stiffness and confinement ratios of steel jackets, and then compare the results with those of SMA wire jackets. In general, the stiffness ratios of SMA wire jackets are relatively smaller than those of steel jackets, and most of them have lower stiffness ratios because the Young's moduli of the SMAs are relatively small. The active confining pressure of the SMA wires does not improve the lower stiffness-ratio effect since the amount of active confining pressure is not sufficiently large.

  5. Fuel rod assembly to manifold attachment

    DOEpatents

    Donck, Harry A. (San Diego, CA); Veca, Anthony R. (San Diego, CA); Snyder, Jr., Harold J. (San Diego, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A fuel element is formed with a plurality of fuel rod assemblies detachably connected to an overhead support with each of the fuel rod assemblies having a gas tight seal with the support to allow internal fission gaseous products to flow without leakage from the fuel rod assemblies into a vent manifold passageway system on the support. The upper ends of the fuel rod assemblies are located at vertically extending openings in the support and upper threaded members are threaded to the fuel rod assemblies to connect the latter to the support. The preferred threaded members are cap nuts having a dome wall encircling an upper threaded end on the fuel rod assembly and having an upper sealing surface for sealing contact with the support. Another and lower seal is achieved by abutting a sealing surface on each fuel rod assembly with the support. A deformable portion on the cap nut locks the latter against inadvertent turning off the fuel rod assembly. Orienting means on the fuel rod and support primarily locates the fuel rods azimuthally for reception of a deforming tool for the cap nut. A cross port in the fuel rod end plug discharges into a sealed annulus within the support, which serves as a circumferential chamber, connecting the manifold gas passageways in the support.

  6. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  7. Taguchi Method Implementation in Taper Motion Wire EDM Process Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martowibowo, S. Y.; Wahyudi, A.

    2012-10-01

    Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire EDM) is a non-conventional metal removal process as well as one of the best manufacturing processes suitable for producing jigs, fixtures, and dies. Among others, the machine is able to cut a workpiece having oblique and taper form. The objective of this paper is to optimize the input parameters of Wire EDM machine, such as no load voltage, capacitor, on-time, off-time, and servo voltage, for machining medium carbon steel ASSAB 760. The Taguchi design of experiments, the signal-to-noise ratio, and analysis of variance are employed to analyze the effects of the input parameters by adopting L18 Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) to conduct experiments using brass wire electrode of 0.2 mm in diameter. In order to achieve the maximum material removal rate (MRR) or the minimum surface roughness (SR), six controllable factors, i.e., the parameters of each at three levels are applied for determining the optimal combination of factors and levels. The results reveal that the MRR and the SR are greatly influenced by the on-time and the taper angle, respectively. Experimental results affirm the effectiveness of the method, and also prove that the Taguchi method is suitable to solving the stated problem within minimum number of experiments as compared to that of a full factorial design.

  8. Rolling contact fatigue of surface modified 440C using a 'Ge-Polymet' type disc rod test rig

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, R.L.

    1989-03-01

    Through hardened 440 C martensitic stainless steel test specimens were surface modified and tested for changes in rolling contact fatigue using a disc on rod test rig. The surface modifications consisted of nitrogen, boron, titanium, chromium, tantalum, carbon, or molybdenum ion implantation at various ion fluences and energies. Tests were also performed on specimens reactively sputtered with titanium nitride.

  9. Rolling contact fatigue of surface modified 440C using a 'Ge-Polymet' type disc rod test rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Through hardened 440 C martensitic stainless steel test specimens were surface modified and tested for changes in rolling contact fatigue using a disc on rod test rig. The surface modifications consisted of nitrogen, boron, titanium, chromium, tantalum, carbon, or molybdenum ion implantation at various ion fluences and energies. Tests were also performed on specimens reactively sputtered with titanium nitride.

  10. Monte Carlo estimation of the dose and heating of cobalt adjuster rods irradiated in the CANDU 6 reactor core.

    PubMed

    Gugiu, Daniela; Dumitrache, Ion

    2005-01-01

    The present work is a part of a more complex project related to the replacement of the original stainless steel adjuster rods with cobalt assemblies in the CANDU 6 reactor core. The 60Co produced by 59Co irradiation could be used extensively in medicine and industry. The paper will mainly describe some of the reactor physics and safety requirements that must be carried into practice for the Co adjuster rods. The computations related to the neutronic equivalence of the stainless steel adjusters with the Co adjuster assemblies, as well as the estimations of the activity and heating of the irradiated cobalt rods, are performed using the Monte Carlo codes MCNP5 and MONTEBURNS 2.1. The activity values are used to evaluate the dose at the surface of the device designed to transport the cobalt adjusters. PMID:16604599

  11. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires made of super engineering plastic.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Minami; Kanno, Zuisei; Wada, Takahiro; Hongo, Toshio; Doi, Hisashi; Hanawa, Takao; Ono, Takashi; Uo, Motohiro

    2015-02-01

    Most orthodontic equipment is fabricated from alloys such as stainless steel, Co-Cr and Ni-Ti because of their excellent elastic properties. In recent years, increasing esthetic demands, metal allergy and interference of metals with magnetic resonance imaging have driven the development of non-metallic orthodontic materials. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using three super engineering plastics (PEEK, PES and PVDF) as orthodontic wires. PES and PVDF demonstrated excellent esthetics, although PEEK showed the highest bending strength and creep resistance. PEEK and PVDF showed quite low water absorption. Because of recent developments in coloration of PEEK, we conclude that PEEK has many advantageous properties that make it a suitable candidate for use as an esthetic metal-free orthodontic wire. PMID:25748467

  12. Effect of Aluminum Particle Size on the Impact Initiation of Pressed Ptfe/al Composite Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Willis; Drotar, Jason T.

    2007-12-01

    A gas gun has been used to investigate the impact initiation of rods of a mixture of 72 wt% PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) and 28 wt% aluminum powders. The rods were sabot-launched in vacuum into steel anvils at impact velocities ranging from 468 to 969 m/s. A framing camera was used to observe the time sequence of events following impact. At the lowest impact stress of 25 kbar no light was observed. Above the initiation threshold, the initiation time dropped from 74 ?s just above threshold to 14 ?s at 64 kbar. These results are compared with earlier rod impact experiments for a similar material in which the only major difference is a smaller aluminum particle size.

  13. On the influence of cutting speed limitation on the accuracy of wire-EDM corner-cutting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Sanchez; J. L. Rodil; A. Herrero; L. N. Lopez de Lacalle; A. Lamikiz

    2007-01-01

    The wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) process is widely used in the manufacturing of high-hardness steel precision tooling. Even though the process is characterised by its high accuracy level (sufficient even for micromachining applications), the development of enhanced generators that produce more energetic discharges yielding cutting speeds as high as 500mm2\\/min has resulted in stronger forces acting on the wire. These

  14. [Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of orthodontic wires by electrochemical measures and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)].

    PubMed

    Zoghbi, André El; Klein, Lorena; Frateur, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the corrosion resistance of orthodontic wires made of different alloys (stainless steel, chrome-cobalt, nickel-titanium and ?-titanium) and for the same alloy from different vendors (GAC(®), RMO(®), 3M(®) and ORMCO(®)). Different electrochemical techniques (corrosion potential monitoring as a function of immersion time, current-potential curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) were used. The wires' resistance to corrosion was measured and compared with the surface condition, assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using the recorded data, a rating system based on the corrosion resistance of orthodontic wires was developed. The comparison of these data with the results of SEM shows that the surface chemical composition plays a primary role in the electrochemical behavior of the orthodontic wires and, unlike surface defects, is a key parameter for the corrosion resistance of the alloy. PMID:24280552

  15. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  16. Synthesis of Magnesium Diboride Wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Canfield; Sergei Bud'Ko; Douglas Finnemore Anderson Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Magnesium diboride, MgB2, has been of great interest recently due to its high superconducting transition temperature for a material which exhibits properties similar to classical (BCS) superconductors. It has been found that wire segments of MgB2 can be prepared by exposing commercial boron coated filaments to magnesium vapor. This research has shown that the critical current of such wires is

  17. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    ScienceCinema

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-04-09

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  18. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  19. Superconducting film on metallic wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbar, Sheikh A.

    1990-01-01

    For technological applications of high T(sub c) superconductors, it will be necessary to overcome the inherent problem of brittleness, to develop materials with high current carrying capacity, and to devise ways of joining superconductors with other materials. These issues will be addressed in the context of superconducting films on metallic wires. These composite systems are expected to produce flexible wires with desirable properties.

  20. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    DOEpatents

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  1. Fuel rod retention device for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hylton, Charles L. (Madison Heights, VA)

    1984-01-01

    A device is described for supporting a nuclear fuel rod in a fuel rod assembly which allows the rod to be removed without disturbing other rods in the assembly. A fuel rod cap connects the rod to a bolt which is supported in the assembly end fitting by means of a locking assembly. The device is designed so that the bolt is held securely during normal reactor operation yet may be easily disengaged and the fuel rod removed when desired.

  2. Numerical and experimental analysis of inhomogeneities in SMA wires induced by thermal boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furst, Stephen J.; Crews, John H.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    Published data on NiTi wire tensile tests display a surprising variety of results even though the same material has been studied. Hysteresis shapes can be observed that range from box- to cigar-like. In some cases, the variation may be the result of different post-fabrication treatment, such as annealing or cold working procedures. However, oftentimes local data are generated from average stress/strain concepts on the basis of global force and end displacement measurements. It is well known among experimentalists that this has a smoothening effect on data, but there is an additional, less well-known mechanism at work as well. This effect is due to thermomechanical coupling and the thermal boundary condition at the ends of the wires, and it manifests itself in a strong data dependence on the length of the employed specimen. This paper illustrates the effects of a thermal boundary layer in a 1D wire by means of an experimental study combined with a simulation based on the fully coupled momentum and energy balance equations. The system is modeled using COMSOL FEA software to simulate the distribution of strain, temperature, resistivity, and phase fractions. The local behavior is then integrated over the length of the wire to predict the expected behavior of the bulk wire as observed at its endpoints. Then, simulations are compared with results from a tensile test of a 100 mum diameter Dynalloy Flexinol wire between two large, steel clamps. Each step of the tensile test experiment is carefully controlled and then simulated via the boundary and initial conditions of the model. The simulated and experimental results show how the thermal boundary layer affects different length SMA wires and how the inhomogeneity prevents transition to austenite at the wire endpoints. Accordingly, shorter wires tend to be softer (more martensitic) than longer wires and exhibit a large reduction in recoverable strain because a larger percentage of their total length is impacted by the thermal boundary.

  3. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  4. Vibrating wires for beam diagnostics

    E-print Network

    Arutunian, S G; Wittenburg, Kay

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to the technique of scanning by wires is developed. Novelty of the method is that the wire heating quantity is used as a source of information about the number of interacting particles. To increase the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements the wire heating measurement is regenerated as a change of wire natural oscillations frequency. By the rigid fixing of the wire ends on the base an unprecedented sensitivity of the frequency to the temperature and to the corresponding flux of colliding particles. The range of used frequencies (tens of kHz) and speed of processes of heat transfer limit the speed characteristics of proposed scanning method, however, the high sensitivity make it a perspective one for investigation of beam halo and weak beam scanning. Traditional beam profile monitors generally focus on the beam core and loose sensitivity in the halo region where a large dynamic range of detection is necessary. The scanning by a vibrating wire can be also successfully used in profiling and det...

  5. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  6. Corrosion of steel tendons used in prestressed concrete pressure vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Griess; D. J. Naus

    1980-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of a high-strength steel (Specifications for Uncoated Seven-Wire-Stress-Relieved Strand for Prestressed Concrete (ASTM A 416-74, Grade 270)), typical of those used as tensioning tendons in prestressed concrete pressure vessels was measured in several corrosive environments. The protection obtained by coating the steel with two commercial petroleum-base greases or with Portland cement grout was evaluated. The few reported

  7. The model of rough wetting for hydrophobic steel meshes that mimic Asparagus setaceus leaf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zai X. Jiang; Lin Geng; Yu D. Huang; Shi A. Guan; W. Dong; Zi Y. Ma

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical model is proposed to provide a relationship between the macroscopic roughness and contact angle, which is used to develop macroscopic rough surface and to create biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces. Using chemical surface modification of steel wires, an artificial hydrophobic surface was prepared. A steel mesh mimicking the Asparagus setaceus leaf was created by lowing the surface energy and

  8. Rapid prototyping by consolidation of stainless steel powder using an electrical arc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rangesh; William ONeill

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of using a pulsed Tungsten inert gas arc to fully melt and consolidate stainless steel powder onto a stainless steel substrate. The technology aims to bridge the gap between selective laser sintering or laser melting and wire fed weld deposition by providing good quality and better resolution at

  9. Preparation and transport Jc( B) properties of Fe-clad MgB 2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, G.; Fu, B. Q.; Feng, Y.; Liu, C. F.; Ji, P.; Wu, X. Z.; Zhou, L.; Cao, L. Z.; Ruan, K. Q.; Li, X. G.

    2003-04-01

    Long dense MgB 2 wires were successfully fabricated through the in situ powder-in-tube method by using steel sheath with low carbon content. Short samples of MgB 2/Fe wires were sintered at 650-850 °C for 2-5 h in argon. Critical current density ( Jc) of the wires was measured in the temperature range of 4.2-30 K in the magnetic field up to 3 T by standard four probe method. High Jc values of 1.3×10 5 A/cm 2 in self-field and 7.5×10 4 A/cm 2 in 1 T at 15 K were obtained for MgB 2/Fe wires. The microstructure observation for MgB 2 wires shows that no reaction between Fe and MgB 2 was found and MgB 2/Fe wires have better grain connectivity and higher density than MgB 2 bulk samples. The grain connectivity in wires is better than MgB 2 bulk samples. The results indicate that the Jc can be further improved to meet the requirement for applications by optimizing the process conditions.

  10. Drug-eluting Ti wires with titania nanotube arrays for bone fixation and reduced bone infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2011-10-01

    Current bone fixation technology which uses stainless steel wires known as Kirschner wires for fracture fixing often causes infection and reduced skeletal load resulting in implant failure. Creating new wires with drug-eluting properties to locally deliver drugs is an appealing approach to address some of these problems. This study presents the use of titanium [Ti] wires with titania nanotube [TNT] arrays formed with a drug delivery capability to design alternative bone fixation tools for orthopaedic applications. A titania layer with an array of nanotube structures was synthesised on the surface of a Ti wire by electrochemical anodisation and loaded with antibiotic (gentamicin) used as a model of bone anti-bacterial drug. Successful fabrication of TNT structures with pore diameters of approximately 170 nm and length of 70 ?m is demonstrated for the first time in the form of wires. The drug release characteristics of TNT-Ti wires were evaluated, showing a two-phase release, with a burst release (37%) and a slow release with zero-order kinetics over 11 days. These results confirmed our system's ability to be applied as a drug-eluting tool for orthopaedic applications. The established biocompatibility of TNT structures, closer modulus of elasticity to natural bones and possible inclusion of desired drugs, proteins or growth factors make this system a promising alternative to replace conventional bone implants to prevent bone infection and to be used for targeted treatment of bone cancer, osteomyelitis and other orthopaedic diseases.

  11. Reactor control rod timing system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Wu, P.T.K.

    1980-03-18

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system is described for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  12. High temperature control rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vollman, Russell E. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  13. Investigating Fraction Relationships with Relationship Rods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tracy Y. Hargrove

    2012-01-01

    In this lesson plan from Illuminations, students use relationship rods to explore fraction relationships. Relationship rods range in length from one to ten centimeters, and each rod is a different color. An activity sheet with solutions, questions for students, assessment options, and suggested extension activities are included. The lesson plan is part of a five lesson plan unit, Fun with Fractions, which is cataloged separately.

  14. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  15. Tethered Rod Smectic C phase

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Zhang, Zhenli

    2005-01-31

    Simulation Software: Glotzer Group Code Simulation Method: Brownian Dynamics A system of 800 building blocks of composition rod5b-tether6b at a concentration of 0.20, was run starting at a temperature of effecitvely infinite then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of 1.0. The system was then run for 3,000,000 time steps forming a Smetic C phase.The solve was selective for the neutral Simulation Model: United Atom Bead Spring with Lennard-Jones and FENE

  16. K.CC Number Rods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-10-01

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * Unifix cubes or snap cubes, composed into rods with 1-10 cubes (or any counting sequence the class is currently working on within 20) If th...

  17. High-speed photography and stress-gauge studies of the impact and penetration of plates by rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Neil K.; Forde, Lucy C.; Field, John E.

    1997-05-01

    There has been much study of the penetration of semi- infinite and finite thickness targets by long rods at normal incidence. The effects of oblique impact have received relatively little attention and techniques of modeling are thus less developed. It was decided to conduct an experimental investigation of the effects of rod penetration at various angles of impact at zero yaw. The rods were mounted in a reverse ballistic configuration so that their response could be quantified through the impact. Scale copper, mild steel and tungsten alloy rods with hemispherical ends were suspended at the end of the barrel of a 50 mm gas gun at the University of Cambridge. The rods were instrumented with embedded manganin piezoresistive stress gauges. Annealed aluminum, duraluminum and rolled homogeneous armor plates of varying thickness and obliquity were fired at the rods at one of two velocities. The impacts were backlit and photographed with an Ultranac FS501 programmable high-speed camera operated in framing mode. The gauges were monitored using a 2 GH s-1 storage oscilloscope. Rods and plates were recovered after the impact for microstructural examination. Additionally, penetration of borosilicate glass targets was investigated using high-speed photography and a localized Xe flash source and schlieren optics. Additional data was obtained by the use of flash X-ray. Waves and damage were visualized in the glass. High-speed sequences and gauge records are presented showing the mechanisms of penetration and exit seen during impact.

  18. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.; Pardini, J.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1984-03-13

    A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

  19. Diesel exhaust filter uses steel wool

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Researchers are experimenting with a diesel exhaust filter which can use either steel wool or wire mesh as the filter medium. By using alumina coated metal wool as the filter matrix, submicron-sized particulate emissions may be recovered. The particulate trapping efficiency of this kind of filter depends on the amount of alumina applied to it, and its physical dimensions. Surface area, which is a function of all of these, correlates well with trapping efficiency.

  20. The Effect of Annealing on the Elastic Modulus of Orthodontic Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbottom, Kyle

    Introduction: Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires are currently used in orthodontic treatment due to their heat activated properties and their delivery of constant force. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of annealing on the elastic modulus of Nickel Titanium, Stainless Steel and Beta-titanium (TMA) wires. Different points along the wire were tested in order to determine how far from the annealed ends the elastic modulus of the wires was affected. Methods: Eighty (80) orthodontic wires consisting of 4 equal groups (SS/TMA/Classic NitinolRTM/Super Elastic NitinolRTM) were used as the specimens for this study. All wires were measured and marked at 5mm measurements, and cut into 33.00mm sections. The wires were heated with a butane torch until the first 13.00mm of the wires were red hot. Load deflection tests using an InstronRTM universal testing machine were run at 5mm distances from the end of the wire that had been annealed. The change in elastic modulus was then determined. Results: There was a significant difference (F = 533.001, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four distances. There was also a significant difference (F = 57.571, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four wire types. There was a significant interaction (F = 19.601, p = 0.005) between wire type and distance, however this interaction negated the differences between the wires. Conclusion: 1) There are significant differences in the changes in elastic modulus between the areas of the wires within the annealed section and those areas 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section. The change in elastic modulus within the annealed section was significantly greater at 8 mm than it was at 13mm, and this was significantly greater than 18mm and 23mm (5mm and 10mm beyond the annealed section). However, there was no statistical difference in the change in elastic modulus between 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section (18mm and 23mm respectively). 2) Regardless of the wire type, no clinically important effects were seen 5mm and 10mm beyond the annealed portion.

  1. A Generalized Piezoelectric Bernoulli–Navier Anisotropic Rod Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel M. Narra Figueiredo; Carlos M. Franco Leal

    2006-01-01

    We apply the asymptotic analysis procedure to the three-dimensional static equations of piezoelectricity, for a linear nonhomogeneous anisotropic thin rod. We prove the weak convergence of the rod mechanical displacement vectors and the rod electric potentials, when the diameter of the rod cross-section tends to zero. This weak limit is the solution of a new piezoelectric anisotropic nonhomogeneous rod model,

  2. Optimization of Single-Photon Response Transmission at the Rod-to-Rod Bipolar Synapse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-08-01

    Our ability to see in dim light is limited by the statistics of light absorption in rod photoreceptors and the faithful transmission of the light-evoked signals through the retina. This article reviews the physiological mechanisms at the synapse between rods and rod bipolar cells, the first relay in a pathway that mediates vision near absolute threshold.

  3. Impact Initiation of Rods of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Aluminum Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Willis, Jr.

    2005-07-01

    A gas gun has been used to investigate the shock initiation of rods consisting of a mixture of 74 wt % PTFE (28 ?m particle size) and 26 wt % aluminum (5 ?m particle size) powders. The 7.6 mm diameter by 51 mm long rods were fabricated from material that had been pressed and sintered to a full density of 2.27 gm/cm^ 3. The rods were sabot-launched into 4340 steel anvils at impact velocities ranging from 104 to 777 m/s. This corresponds to calculated impact stresses of 3.3 to 48 kbar. The experiments were carried out in a 50-100 mtorr vacuum. A framing camera was used to observe the time sequence of events. These include changes in rod shape, fracture, and the initiation and evolution of the reaction phenomena. Observation of first visible light after impact was taken as the initiation time. Initiation of the reaction occurred at discrete locations in the rod material. At low velocity, no initiation occurred. Above an initiation threshold, the initiation time dropped abruptly from 56 ?s just above threshold to 4 ?s at the highest impact velocity. Two experiments were performed for pure PTFE material for comparison with the PTFE/Al rods. The pure PTFE showed more extensive radial flow without obvious brittle fracture. For the 784 m/s impact experiment, small points of light were observed on the edge of the mushroomed portion of the rod about 20 ?s after impact, suggesting the onset of chemical reaction.

  4. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOEpatents

    Hooper, Frederick M (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  5. Processing of High-Performance Nb3Sn Wires Through a New Diffusion Reaction Using sn Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, K.; Sasaki, H.; Yamaguchi, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Nakata, K.; Takeuchi, T.

    2010-04-01

    Tightly consolidated Sn-Ta and Sn-B based alloys have been prepared by the reaction among constituent metal powders at 750-775° C. Sn-Ta and Sn-B based alloys exhibit quite similar microstructures. A small amount of Ti addition seems to improve the bonding between Ta or B particles and Sn matrix. Nb3Sn wires have been fabricated by the Jelly Roll (JR) and Multi-rod (MR) process using Sn based alloy sheet and rod, respectively. Thick Nb3Sn layers with nearly stoichiometric A15 composition are synthesized through a new diffusion mechanism between Nb and Sn based alloy. Bc2 (4.2 K)'s of 26.9 T (mid) and 26.5 T (mid) have been obtained in the JR and MR processed wires, respectively, using Sn-Ta based alloy. These wires exhibit enough non-Cu Jc to be used above 20 T and 4.2 K. Tc of JR wires using Sn-B based sheet is 18.14 K (offset) which is slightly higher than that of wires using Sn-Ta based sheet.

  6. Application of genetic algorithm-based fuzzy logic control in wire transport system of wire-EDM machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mu-Tian Yan; Chi-Cheng Fang

    2008-01-01

    Wire tension as well as wire feed should be controlled tightly for the geometry and corner accuracy of wire-EDM. In this paper, a closed-loop wire tension control system for Micro-Wire-EDM is presented to guarantee a smooth wire transport and a constant tension value. In order to keep smooth wire transportation and avoid wire breakage during wire feeding, the reel roller

  7. Shunting arc generation by parallel rod configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, T.; Murakami, T.; Mukaigawa, S.; Fujiwara, T.; Yukimura, K.

    2011-02-01

    Multi-shunting arc discharges were generated using carbon rods to deposit a carbon film on a silicon substrate. Two carbon rods of 2 mm diameter and 40 mm length were set between electrodes in parallel to generate multiple carbon plasmas. The pulse current was supplied from a 20 µF capacitor bank to evaporate the surface of the rods through a Joule heating process. Repetitive pulse voltages of -1 kV were applied to the disk electrode to extract the carbon ion from the plasmas and to deposit a carbon film. The rod current for both rods shows almost the same value before shunting arc ignition. The shunting arc was generated at 5-10 µs after the release of energy stored in the capacitor bank. The shunting arc current was controlled successfully by inserting an inductor in series to the rod. The ion current was changed by the position of the disk electrode owing to the difference in the arc current for each rod. The deposition rate of the carbon film on the silicon substrate also showed a difference with the position of the substrate. The spatial profile of the deposition rate was controlled by the inductance of each rod branch.

  8. Vertical close pack rod arraying system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Attix; M. J. Kelly; F. L. Mason; C. E. Stinnett

    1989-01-01

    A rod arraying system is described comprising: (a) a rigid support structure; (b) a canister positioned in and supported by the support structure; (c) a mounting base slidably attached to the support structure on an incline; (d) a guide assembly attached to the mounting base for positioning rods inside the canister. The system consists of: (i) an upper guide plate

  9. Rod seal device for Stirling engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kobayashi; T. Itaba; Y. Momose

    1987-01-01

    A rod seal device for a Stirling engine is described which consists of: a piston rod having a first end connected to an operating piston for the engine and a second end connected to a guide piston disposed in a crank case; a compression chamber defined by the operating piston and a cylinder of the engine and including a working

  10. Joule heating of a titanium rod

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Powell, Adam C., IV

    2002-10-04

    Use the steady-state heat conduction solution for constant heat generation in a rod to determine the maximum temperature difference between the center and surface of a titanium rod heated by electric current; also sketch temperature history from the time when current is turned on.

  11. Dimensional reduction of a piezoelectric composite rod

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sitikantha Roy; Wenbin Yu

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, a new generalized Timoshenko model is constructed for a composite rod with embedded or attached piezoelectric materials. This model is applicable to composite rods without prescribed electric potential along the lateral surfaces. The Variational-Asymptotic Method (VAM) is applied as a mathematical tool to carry out the dimensional reduction process. The present reduced model captured the effects

  12. Tipping Time of a Quantum Rod

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrikar, Onkar

    2010-01-01

    The behaviour of a quantum rod, pivoted at its lower end on an impenetrable floor and restricted to moving in the vertical plane under the gravitational potential, is studied analytically under the approximation that the rod is initially localized to a "small-enough" neighbourhood around the point of classical unstable equilibrium. It is shown…

  13. CONTROL ROD DRIVE MECHANISM ON THE EBWR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bullinger; C. F. f Kann

    1958-01-01

    The control rod drive mechanlsms installed on the Argonne Experimental ; Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) are of an externally operated lead screw and nut ; type in which the control rod extension shafts are driven through pressure ; breakdown, collected leakage seals. The mechanisms which are located below the ; reactor are fabricated from conventional industrial materials, such as carbon

  14. Topological optimisation of rod-stirring devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew D. Finn; Jean-Luc Thiffeault

    2010-01-01

    There are many industrial situations where rods are used to stir a fluid, or where rods repeatedly stretch a material such as bread dough or taffy. The goal in these applications is to stretch either material lines (in a fluid) or the material itself (for dough or taffy) as rapidly as possible. The growth rate of material lines is conveniently

  15. Hands On Math Using Colored Rods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana Malloy

    Students enjoy learning by doing and by manipulating objects. This paper describes classroom activities using rods with various lengths and different colors. The activities included are: (1) preparation of rods; (2) elementary addition and subtraction; (3) fractions; (4) concept of greater than, less than, and equals; (5) simple division and…

  16. Fuzzy Ultrasonic Testing System with Columnar Rod

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yasui; S. Kobashi; K. Kondo; Y. Hata

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an ultrasonic testing system with a columnar rod. The general ultrasonic probe is affected by transmission pulse for measurement using the direct contact method. However, if we use a columnar rod between an ultrasonic probe and a target object, we can measure without the transmission pulse. This paper describes the measurement system of the object thickness by

  17. Wires for Shape Memory Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, R.; Vedani, M.; Gialanella, S.; Tuissi, A.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of non-conventional electrical pulse treatment on microstructure and shape memory response of Ni49Ti51 wires was studied. High-power rapid current square pulses were applied to cold-drawn wires of 25 µm diameter. The TEM microstructures showed equiaxial recrystallization, with average grain size in the 100 nm range, after a double current pulse lasting 10 ms. Rapid current pulse treatment in Ti-rich NiTi induces shape memory effect with reduced thermal hysteresis and high recovery strain values. This novel treatment might replace conventional pre-device shape setting/training of the wire with a post-device shape setting with promising industrial advantages.

  18. Artificial magnetism and left-handed media from dielectric rings and rods.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, L; Marqués, R

    2010-01-20

    It is shown that artificial magnetism with relatively large frequency bandwidth can be obtained from periodic arrangements of dielectric rings. Combined with dielectric rods, dielectric rings can provide 3D isotropic left-handed metamaterials which are an advantageous alternative to metallic split ring resonators (SRRs) and/or metallic wires when undetectability by low frequency external magnetic fields is desired. Furthermore it is shown that, unlike conventional SRRs, dielectric rings can also be combined with natural plasma-like media to obtain a left-handed metamaterial. PMID:21386264

  19. Artificial magnetism and left handed media from dielectric rings and rods

    E-print Network

    Jelinek, L

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that artificial magnetism with relatively large frequency bandwidth can be obtained from periodic arrangements of dielectric rings. Combined with dielectric rods, dielectric rings can provide 3D isotropic left-handed metamaterials being an advantageous alternative to metallic split ring resonators and/or metallic wires when un-detectability by low frequency external magnetic fields is desired. Furthermore it is shown that dielectric rings can be also combined with natural plasma-like media to obtain a left-handed metamaterial.

  20. Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia I.

    2002-01-01

    In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. Since they are very thin, their detection early enough so that the pilot has enough time to take evasive action is difficult, as their images can be less than one or two pixels wide. Two approaches were explored for this purpose. The first approach involved a technique for sub-pixel edge detection and subsequent post processing, in order to reduce the false alarms. After reviewing the line detection literature, an algorithm for sub-pixel edge detection proposed by Steger was identified as having good potential to solve the considered task. The algorithm was tested using a set of images synthetically generated by combining real outdoor images with computer generated wire images. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated both, at the pixel and the wire levels. It was observed that the algorithm performs well, provided that the wires are not too thin (or distant) and that some post processing is performed to remove false alarms due to clutter. The second approach involved the use of an example-based learning scheme namely, Support Vector Machines. The purpose of this approach was to explore the feasibility of an example-based learning based approach for the task of detecting wires from their images. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have emerged as a promising pattern classification tool and have been used in various applications. It was found that this approach is not suitable for very thin wires and of course, not suitable at all for sub-pixel thick wires. High dimensionality of the data as such does not present a major problem for SVMs. However it is desirable to have a large number of training examples especially for high dimensional data. The main difficulty in using SVMs (or any other example-based learning method) is the need for a very good set of positive and negative examples since the performance depends on the quality of the training set.

  1. Designing potentials by sculpturing wires

    SciTech Connect

    Della Pietra, Leonardo; Aigner, Simon; Groth, Soenke [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hagen, Christoph von; Schmiedmayer, Joerg [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, TU-Wien, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Bar-Joseph, Israel [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7600 (Israel); Lezec, Henri J. [ISIS, Universite Louis Pasteur, 8 Allee Gaspard Monge, 67083 Strasbourg (France)

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic trapping potentials for atoms on atom chips are determined by the current flow in the chip wires. By modifying the shape of the conductor we can realize specialized current flow patterns and therefore microdesign the trapping potentials. We have demonstrated this by nano-machining an atom chip using the focused ion beam technique. We built a trap, a barrier, and using a Bose-Einstein Condensate as a probe we showed that by polishing the conductor edge the potential roughness on the selected wire can be reduced. Furthermore, we give different other designs and discuss the creation of a one-dimensional magnetic lattice on an atom chip.

  2. Quantitative assessment of tension in wires of fine-wire external fixators.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yin; Saleh, Micheal; Yang, Lang

    2005-01-01

    Fine-wire fixators are widely used in fracture management. Stable fixation requires the wires maintaining tension throughout the treatment. Clinical experience indicates that wire site complications relate to wire tension. However, there lacks a method to assess wire tension quantitatively in the clinic. The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative assessment method for in situ wire tension and to investigate the factors that influence the assessment. An apparatus was developed based on a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) displacement transducer that measured the deflection of the testing wire with respect to a parallel reference wire when a constant transverse force of 30N was applied to the testing wire. The wire deflection measured was correlated with the wire tension measured by the force transducer. The experiment was performed under different conditions to assess the effect of bone-clamp distance, reference wire tension, number of wires, and fracture stiffness. The results showed that there was a significant and negative correlation between wire tension and deflection and the bone-clamp distance was the most important factor that affected the wire tension-deflection relationship. The assessment method makes it possible to investigate the relationship between wire tension and wire site complications in the clinic. PMID:15604006

  3. Conventional Hot-Wire Anemometer Micro Hot Wire

    E-print Network

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    ;- Heat is introduced into the sensing element by Joule heating and is lost by convection, conduction of sensor Tf: temperature of fluid environment The radiation loss is much less than the convection losses wire anemometry use the convective heat transfer from from heated sensor to the surrounding fluid

  4. Effect of Wire Purity on Copper Wire Bonding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narasimalu Srikanth; J. Premkumar; M. Sivakumar; Y. M. Wong; C. J. Vath

    2007-01-01

    Cu bonding has been making a wave in the IC packaging industry due to the combined efforts of wire, capillary and wirebonder manufacturers. The present challenge in copper bonding resides in minimizing the aluminium squeeze of the aluminium metallization of bond pads. This demands the copper ball to possess a lower yield stress for reduced energy to deform. In this

  5. RIGBY SPECIALITY WIRES LIMITED NEW WIRE PRODUCT IS ALL

    E-print Network

    Berzins, M.

    resistant properties for the installed cable, yet make it less prone to abrasion, thereby www resistant and insulated electrical wiring products are used in a wide range of applications, from public industries, but traditional insulation materials can prove susceptible to abrasion when installed

  6. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other...

  7. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the requirements for grounding or insulator protection of the National Electrical Safety Code, part 2, entitled “Safety Rules for the Installation and...

  8. New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1994-01-01

    Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

  9. Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Bich, George J. (Penn Hills, PA); Gupta, Tapan K. (Monroeville, PA)

    1984-01-01

    An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

  10. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the requirements for grounding or insulator protection of the National Electrical Safety Code, part 2, entitled “Safety Rules for the Installation and...

  11. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

  12. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

  13. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

  15. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

  16. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

  17. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage...

  19. NEMA wire and cable standards development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

  20. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  1. Shape-Memory Wires Switch Rotary Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brudnicki, Myron J.

    1992-01-01

    Thermomechanical rotary actuator based on shape-memory property of alloy composed of equal parts of titanium and nickel. If alloy stretched while below transition temperature, it reverts to original length when heated above transition temperature. Two capstans on same shaft wrapped with shape-memory wires. As one wire heated, it contracts and stretches opposite wire. Wires heated in alternation so they switch shaft between two extreme angular positions; "on" and "off" positions of rotary valve.

  2. Force on a Current Carrying Wire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

    Students use a simple set up consisting of a current carrying wire and a magnet to explore the forces which enable biomedical imaging. In doing so, students run a current through a wire and then hold magnets in various positions to establish and explore the magnetic force acting on the wire. They move the magnets and change the current in the wire to explore how the force changes.

  3. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  4. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S E Forde; B Dehning

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it

  5. Telesynergy V3 Wiring Diagram

    Cancer.gov

    Extron 8 port Video/Audio Switch WAVE Camera Telesynergy v3 Wiring Diagram ISDN T1/PRI Module CTRLR 0 Legend: S-Video Audio VGA DVI USB RS-232 Serial Microphone Ethernet Planar C5i AMD Exam Cam Canon Document Camera Olympus BX51 Sony DVD Recorder JVC

  6. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  7. Rupture failure and mechanical strength of the electrode wire used in wire EDM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. F. Luo

    1999-01-01

    In the application of wire EDM, wire rupture is very troublesome and impedes further increase of cutting speed. Instead of the spark characteristics or the temperature distribution, the rupture mechanism and the mechanical strength of the wire are the focus of this investigation. Wire rupture is a mechanical failure in essence, although the process heat has significant influence on the

  8. The song of the singing rod.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian E; Peterson, Wayne D

    2012-03-01

    This paper discusses basic and advanced aspects of the sound radiated by the singing rod demonstration commonly used in physics courses to depict an example of longitudinal waves. Various methods of exciting these rods are discussed along with the issues associated with each method. Analysis of the sound radiated by various rods with small-signal and large-signal excitations is presented for four different rods. The small-signal sound radiation consists of a fundamental frequency and odd harmonics (each corresponding to a longitudinal mode) when the rod is held at its midpoint. Large-signal sound radiation is highly dependent on the rod's geometry. The large-signal sound can possess strong even harmonics and/or beating tones resulting from modal coupling of transverse bending modes and either subharmonic longitudinal modes or torsional modes. A detailed analysis of the sound radiation from a singing rod can provide excellent laboratory exercises or classroom demonstrations for advanced undergraduate or graduate level acoustics courses whose scope includes resonances of a bar. PMID:22423791

  9. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  10. Industrial electromagnetic checkout of armored wiring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferre, J.

    1983-03-01

    A method for testing whether armored wiring can withstand EMP's caused by nuclear explosions is described. The wires are checked in their production cases, using a strip line antenna as pulse source. Only one measurement per connector is made, with the connector conductors in parallel. The method is quick, repeatable, and does not damage the wiring.

  11. Rod seal device for Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, D.; Itaba, T.; Momose, Y.

    1987-09-22

    A rod seal device for a Stirling engine is described which consists of: a piston rod having a first end connected to an operating piston for the engine and a second end connected to a guide piston disposed in a crank case; a compression chamber defined by the operating piston and a cylinder of the engine and including a working gas for the engine; a first intermediate chamber surrounding an outer periphery of the piston rod and being connected to the compression chamber and kept to maintain a minimum level of pressure of the working gas; a high pressure oil chamber disposed next to the first intermediate chamber and surrounding the outer periphery of the piston rod. A first low pressure oil chamber disposed next to the high pressure oil chamber via an oil seal member and surrounding the outer periphery of the piston rod. A first scraper seal disposed next to the first low pressure oil chamber and surrounding the outer periphery of the piston rod; a second intermediate chamber disposed next to the first low pressure oil chamber via the first scraper seal and surrounding the outer periphery of the piston rod; a second scraper seal disposed next to the second intermediate chamber and surrounding the outer periphery of the piston rod; a second low pressure oil chamber disposed next to the second intermediate chamber via the second scraper seal and surrounding the outer periphery of the piston rod, a second oil pump disposed between the second low pressure oil chamber and the second low pressure oil reservoir to positively discharge any gas introduced into the second low pressure oil chamber to the atmosphere; and a further oil seal disposed between the second low pressure oil chamber and a working gas chamber in the crank use for a power take-off device.

  12. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Fabrication of high-performance MgB2 wires by an internal Mg diffusion process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Hur; K. Togano; A. Matsumoto; H. Kumakura; H. Wada; K. Kimura

    2008-01-01

    We succeeded in the fabrication of high-Jc (critical current density) MgB2 \\/Fe wires applying the internal Mg diffusion (IMD) process with a pure Mg core and SiC addition. A pure Mg rod with a diameter of 2 mm was placed at the center of a Fe tube with an outer diameter of 6 mm and an inner diameter of 4

  13. Nanopipes in gallium nitride nanowires and rods.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Benjamin W; Crimp, Martin A; McElroy, Kaylee; Ayres, Virginia M

    2008-12-01

    Gallium nitride nanowires and rods synthesized by a catalyst-free vapor-solid growth method were analyzed with cross section high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The cross section studies revealed hollow core screw dislocations, or nanopipes, in the nanowires and rods. The hollow cores were located at or near the center of the nanowires and rods, along the axis of a screw dislocation. The formation of the hollow cores is consistent with effect of screw dislocations with giant Burgers vector predicted by Frank. PMID:19367802

  14. Dissolution behavior of alumina in mold fluxes for steel continuous casting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anh-Hoa Bui; Hyun-Mo Ha; Youn-Bae Kang; In-Sang Chung; Hae-Geon Lee

    2005-01-01

    Dissolution of alumina in various mold fluxes for steel continuous casting has been investigated by employing the rotating\\u000a cylinder method. The weight loss of the rod, the dipping area and the immersed time were measured to determine dissolution\\u000a rate of Al2O3. The dissolution rate increased with temperature of molten fluxes, the rotating speed of the rod and the addition of

  15. Arc tracking properties of the aging wires in aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Yongxing; Dong Enyuan; Cong Jiyuan; Zou Jiyan; Dieter Koenig

    2008-01-01

    A modern commercial aircraft contains hundreds of miles of wiring. This vastly increased use of wiring, in conjunction with decreased insulation thickness, has increased the incidence of wire-related aircraft safety problems. Due to thermal, electrical, mechanical and chemical overstress, the aircraft wiring will be aged and the wire insulation will be decreased. Microscopic cracking occurs in wire insulation as the

  16. Accuracy improvement of wire-EDM by real-time wire tension control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mu-Tian Yan; Pin-Hsum Huang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a closed-loop wire tension control system for a wire-EDM machine is presented to improve the machining accuracy. Dynamic models of the wire feed control apparatus and wire tension control apparatus are derived to analyze and design the control system. PI controller and one-step-ahead adaptive controller are employed to investigate the dynamic performance of the closed-loop wire tension

  17. Electromagnetic methods for measuring materials properties of cylindrical rods and array probes for rapid flaw inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Haiyan

    2005-05-01

    The case-hardening process modifies the near-surface permeability and conductivity of steel, as can be observed through changes in alternating current potential drop (ACPD) along a rod. In order to evaluate case depth of case hardened steel rods, analytical expressions are derived for the alternating current potential drop on the surface of a homogeneous rod, a two-layered and a three-layered rod. The case-hardened rod is first modeled by a two-layer rod that has a homogeneous substrate with a single, uniformly thick, homogeneous surface layer, in which the conductivity and permeability values differ from those in the substrate. By fitting model results to multi-frequency ACPD experimental data, estimates of conductivity, permeability and case depth are found. Although the estimated case depth by the two-layer model is in reasonable agreement with the effective case depth from the hardness profile, it is consistently higher than the effective case depth. This led to the development of the three-layer model. It is anticipated that the new three-layered model will improve the results and thus makes the ACPD method a novel technique in nondestructive measurement of case depth. Another way to evaluate case depth of a case hardened steel rod is to use induction coils. Integral form solutions for an infinite rod encircled by a coaxial coil are well known, but for a finite length conductor, additional boundary conditions must be satisfied at the ends. In this work, calculations of eddy currents are performed for a two-layer conducting rod of finite length excited by a coaxial circular coil carrying an alternating current. The solution is found using the truncated region eigenfunction expansion (TREE) method. By truncating the solution region to a finite length in the axial direction, the magnetic vector potential can be expressed as a series expansion of orthogonal eigenfunctions instead of as a Fourier integral. Closed-form expressions are derived for the electromagnetic field in the presence of a finite a two-layer rod and a conductive tube. The results are in very good agreement with those obtained by using a 2D finite element code. In the third part, a new probe technology with enhanced flaw detection capability is described. The new probe can reduce inspection time through the use of multiple Hall sensors. A prototype Hall array probe has been built and tested with eight individual Hall sensor ICs and a racetrack coil. Electronic hardware was developed to interface the probes to an oscilloscope or an eddy current instrument. To achieve high spatial resolution and to limit the overall probe size, high-sensitivity Hall sensor arrays were fabricated directly on a wafer using photolithographic techniques and then mounted in their unencapsulated form. The electronic hardware was then updated to interface the new probes to a laptop computer.

  18. Frequency response in short thermocouple wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, L. J.; Meeks, E. L.; Ma, J.; Fralick, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical expressions are derived for the steady state frequency response of a thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for a nonuniform wire with unequal material properties and wire diameters across the junction. The amplitude ratio at low frequency omega approaches 0 agrees with the results of Scadron and Warshawsky (1952) for a steady state temperature distribution. Moreover, the frequency response for a nonuniform wire in the limit of infinite length l approaches infinity is shown to reduce to a simple expression that is analogous to the classic first order solution for a thermocouple wire with uniform properties. Theoretical expressions are also derived for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire and a two material wire with unequal material properties across the junction. For the case of a one material supported wire, an exact solution is derived which compares favorably with an approximate expression that only matches temperatures at the support junction. Moreover, for the case of a two material supported wire, an analytical expression is derived that closely correlates numerical results. Experimental measurements are made for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire (type K) and a two material wire (type T) with unequal material properties across the junction. The data for the amplitude ratio and phase angle are correlated to within 10 pct. with the theoretical predictions of Forney and Fralick (1991). This is accomplished by choosing a natural frequency omega sub n for the wire data to correlate the first order response at large gas temperature frequencies. It is found that a large bead size, however, will increase the amplitude ratio at low frequencies but decrease the natural frequency of the wire. The phase angle data are also distorted for imperfect junctions.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of gold nano-wires templated on virus-like arrays of tobacco mosaic virus coat proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wn?k, M.; Górzny, M. ?.; Ward, M. B.; Wälti, C.; Davies, A. G.; Brydson, R.; Evans, S. D.; Stockley, P. G.

    2013-01-01

    The rod-shaped plant virus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is widely used as a nano-fabrication template, and chimeric peptide expression on its major coat protein has extended its potential applications. Here we describe a simple bacterial expression system for production and rapid purification of recombinant chimeric TMV coat protein carrying C-terminal peptide tags. These proteins do not bind TMV RNA or form disks at pH 7. However, they retain the ability to self-assemble into virus-like arrays at acidic pH. C-terminal peptide tags in such arrays are exposed on the protein surface, allowing interaction with target species. We have utilized a C-terminal His-tag to create virus coat protein-templated nano-rods able to bind gold nanoparticles uniformly. These can be transformed into gold nano-wires by deposition of additional gold atoms from solution, followed by thermal annealing. The resistivity of a typical annealed wire created by this approach is significantly less than values reported for other nano-wires made using different bio-templates. This expression construct is therefore a useful additional tool for the creation of chimeric TMV-like nano-rods for bio-templating.

  20. Measurement and Modeling of Dispersive Pulse Propagation in Drawn Wire Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Kohl, Thomas W.; Rogers, Wayne P.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical model of dispersive pulse propagation in semi-infinite cylinders due to transient axially symmetric end conditions has been experimentally investigated. Specifically, the dispersive propagation of the first axially symmetric longitudinal mode in thin wire waveguides, which have ends in butt contact with longitudinal piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers, is examined. The method allows for prediction of a propagated waveform given a measured source waveform, together with the material properties of the cylinder. Alternatively, the source waveform can be extracted from measurement of the propagated waveform. The material properties required for implementation of the pulse propagation model are determined using guided wave phase velocity measurements. Hard tempered aluminum 1100 and 304 stainless steel wires, with 127, 305, and 406 micron diam., were examined. In general, the drawn wires were found to behave as transversely isotropic media.

  1. Measurement and modeling of dispersive pulse propagation in draw wire waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Kohl, Thomas W.; Rogers, Wayne P.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical model of dispersive pulse propagation in semi-infinite cylinders due to transient axially symmetric end conditions has been experimentally investigated. Specifically, the dispersive propagation of the first axially symmetric longitudinal mode in thin wire waveguides, which have ends in butt contact with longitudinal piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers, is examined. The method allows for prediction of a propagated waveform given a measured source waveform, together with the material properties of the cylinder. Alternatively, the source waveform can be extracted from measurement of the propagated waveform. The material properties required for implementation of the pulse propagation model are determined using guided wave phase velocity measurements. Hard tempered aluminum 1100 and 304 stainless steel wires, with 127, 305, and 406 micron diam., were examined. In general, the drawn wires were found to behave as transversely isotropic media.

  2. Control rod drive hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Ose, Richard A. (San Jose, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A hydraulic system for a control rod drive (CRD) includes a variable output-pressure CR pump operable in a charging mode for providing pressurized fluid at a charging pressure, and in a normal mode for providing the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure, less than the charging pressure. Charging and purge lines are disposed in parallel flow between the CRD pump and the CRD. A hydraulic control unit is disposed in flow communication in the charging line and includes a scram accumulator. An isolation valve is provided in the charging line between the CRD pump and the scram accumulator. A controller is operatively connected to the CRD pump and the isolation valve and is effective for opening the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a charging mode for charging the scram accumulator, and closing the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a normal mode for providing to the CRD through the purge line the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure lower than the charging pressure.

  3. Hard-facing of parts of rotary check valves with powder wire in protective cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. I. Lopukhov; V. V. Eremeev; V. G. Polnov

    1988-01-01

    With the object of extending the life of rotary check valves mounted on pipelines for the transport of petroleum, petroleum products, and natural gas, the authors propose a method for the hard facing of the valves with the wear-resistant chromium-nickel steel 10Kh17N8S5 with a powder wire electrically discharged in a controlled carbon dioxide atmosphere. A stress analysis of the facing

  4. K-shell emission trends from 60 to 130cm/s stainless steel implosions D. J. Ampleford, C. A. Jennings, B. Jones, S. B. Hansen, M. E. Cuneo, C. A. Coverdale, M. C. Jones, T. M.

    E-print Network

    K-shell emission trends from 60 to 130cm/s stainless steel implosions D. J. Ampleford, C. A/ls stainless steel implosions D. J. Ampleford,1,a) C. A. Jennings,1 B. Jones,1 S. B. Hansen,1 M. E. Cuneo,1 C, implosion velocities up to 110­130 cm/ls in imploding stainless steel wire arrays. These velocities

  5. Dimensional Reduction of a Piezoelectric Composite Rod

    E-print Network

    Yu, Wenbin

    is asymptotically approximated by VAM using the slenderness of the rod as the small parameter and subsequently. As an alter- native, researchers try to exploit the slender nature of beam like structures and simplify

  6. Coiling of elastic rods on rigid substrates

    E-print Network

    Khalid Jawed, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the deployment of a thin elastic rod onto a rigid substrate and study the resulting coiling patterns. In our approach, we combine precision model experiments, scaling analyses, and computer simulations towards ...

  7. Coiling of elastic rods on rigid substrates

    E-print Network

    Khalid Jawed, Mohammad

    We investigate the deployment of a thin elastic rod onto a rigid substrate and study the resulting coiling patterns. In our approach, we combine precision model experiments, scaling analyses, and computer simulations toward ...

  8. Mechanical behavior of elastic rods under constraint

    E-print Network

    Miller, James Thomas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the mechanics of thin elastic rods under a variety of loading conditions. Four scenarios are explored, with increasing complexity: i) the shape of a naturally ...

  9. SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S.; Parkes, S. M.; O'Gribin, N.

    2007-08-01

    The SpaceWire standard was published in 2003 with the aim of providing a standard for onboard communications, defining the physical and data link layers of an interconnection, in order to improve reusability, reliability and to reduce the cost of mission development. The many benefits which it provides mean that it has already been used in a number of missions, both in Europe and throughout the world. Recent work by the SpaceWire community has included the development of higher level protocols for SpaceWire, such as the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) which can be used for many purposes, including the configuration of SpaceWire devices. Although SpaceWire has become very popular, the various ways in which it can be used are still being discovered, as are the most efficient ways to use it. At the same time, some in the space industry are not even aware of SpaceWire's existence. This paper describes the SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System that has been developed by the University of Dundee. This system simulates an onboard data handling network based on SpaceWire. It uses RMAP for all communication, and so demonstrates how SpaceWire and standardised higher level protocols can be used onboard a spacecraft. The system is not only a good advert for those who are unfamiliar with the benefits of SpaceWire, it is also a useful tool for those using SpaceWire to test ideas.

  10. Impact Initiation of Rods of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Aluminum Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Willis, Jr.; Drotar, Jason T.

    2007-06-01

    A gas gun has been used to investigate the impact initiation of rods consisting of a mixture of 72 wt% PTFE (28 ?m particle size) and 28 wt% aluminum (95 micron particle size) powders. The rods were 7.6 mm in diameter by 51 mm long, and were fabricated from material that had been pressed and sintered to a full density of 2.27 gm/cm^ 3. They were sabot-launched into steel anvils at impact velocities ranging from 468 to 970 m/sec. This corresponds to calculated initial impact stresses of 25 to 64 kbar, respectively. A framing camera was used to observe the time sequence of events. These include change in rod shape, fracture, and the initiation and evolution of the reaction phenomena. The time of observation of first light after impact was taken as the initiation time. Initiation occurred at discrete locations in the impacted material. At the lowest impact stress of 25 kbar no light was observed; this value was taken as the initiation threshold stress for this material. Above the initiation threshold, the initiation time dropped abruptly from 74 ?s just above threshold to 14 ?s at the highest impact velocity of 970 m/s. These results are compared with rod impact experiments for a similar material [1] in which the only major difference is a smaller aluminum particle size (9 micron). [1] W. Mock, Jr. and W. H. Holt, in Proc. APS Shock Compression of Condensed Matter--2005, p.1097.

  11. Numerical Analysis on the Head-Shape Effect for Long-Rod Normally Penetrating Concrete Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Zhong-Cheng; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Zong-Sheng

    2009-06-01

    The deep penetration of long rods into thick target has been the focus for many decades in the terminal ballistic. Especially the study on long rods penetrating concrete targets arouses more and more attention. But the investigations of the head-shape effect to the high velocity penetration of long rod are few. In this paper, the penetration process of long rod with different head-shapes is analyzed through a series of numerical simulations. The impact velocity from subsonic velocity on the order of 10^2 m/s to hypervelocity on the order of 10^3 m/s is used. The penetration target is high strength concrete. Numerical model of concrete target adopts typical dynamic concrete damage model-RHT. The model has shown promising results for prediction of penetration depth. The projectile material is 4340 steel, Johnson-Cook model is chosen. In all the simulations presented here the material properties of projectiles and targets doesn't change. The flat-head and the ogive-head projectile are chosen. The effect of the CRH of ogive-head projectile on penetration depth is analyzed. Difference and similarity are described by the time history of penetrating velocity, acceleration and the head deformation.

  12. Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

  13. Measurements of control rod efficiency in RBMK critical assembly upon dropping of the rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitarev, V. E.; Kachanov, V. M.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.; Lebedev, G. V.

    2014-12-01

    The efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly was measured in the case where one manual-control rod (MCR) is dropped from a steady critical state, and several other MCRs were additionally dropped after 44 s. The measured number of neutrons in the assembly during and after dropping of the rods was used to calculate the efficiency values of the rods by solution of the system of point kinetics equations. A series of methods of the initial data treatment for determination of the desired values of reactivity without the calculated corrections were used.

  14. Measurements of control rod efficiency in RBMK critical assembly upon dropping of the rods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhitarev, V. E., E-mail: vejitarev@nnrd.kiae.su; Kachanov, V. M.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.; Lebedev, G. V., E-mail: lgv2004@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    The efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly was measured in the case where one manual-control rod (MCR) is dropped from a steady critical state, and several other MCRs were additionally dropped after 44 s. The measured number of neutrons in the assembly during and after dropping of the rods was used to calculate the efficiency values of the rods by solution of the system of point kinetics equations. A series of methods of the initial data treatment for determination of the desired values of reactivity without the calculated corrections were used.

  15. Colloidal Interactions in Suspensions of Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Keng-hui; Crocker, John C.; Zeri, Ana C.; Yodh, A. G.

    2001-08-20

    We report direct measurements of entropic interactions of colloidal spheres in suspensions of rodlike fd bacteriophage. We investigate the influence of sphere size, rod concentration, and ionic strength on these interactions. Although the results compare favorably with a recent calculation, small discrepancies reveal entropic effects due to rod flexibility. At high salt concentrations, the potential turns repulsive as a result of viral adsorption on the spheres and viral bridging between the spheres.

  16. Double-clad nuclear fuel safety rod

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, William H. (Los Altos, CA); Atcheson, Donald B. (Cupertino, CA); Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan (San Jose, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A device for shutting down a nuclear reactor during an undercooling or overpower event, whether or not the reactor's scram system operates properly. This is accomplished by double-clad fuel safety rods positioned at various locations throughout the reactor core, wherein melting of a secondary internal cladding of the rod allows the fuel column therein to shift from the reactor core to place the reactor in a subcritical condition.

  17. Making Crystal Filaments From Extruded Ceramic Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westfall, Leonard J.

    1992-01-01

    New process produces single-crystal fibers of ceramic or metal at lower cost. Single-crystal filament drawn from tip of extruded polycrystalline rod. Extrusion produces longer rods from which longer fibers drawn. Potentially feeds single fiber drawing process directly. Continuous filaments made, and material not subjected to contamination from storage and transfer to drawing machine. Filaments used as reinforcing fibers in composite materials.

  18. Scalable diode array pumped Nd rod laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zenzie, H. H.; Knights, M. G.; Mosto, J. R.; Chicklis, E. P.; Perkins, P. E.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on a five-array pump head which utilizes gold-coated reflective cones to couple the pump energy to Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF rod lasers, demonstrating high efficiency and uniform energy deposition. Because the cones function as optical diodes to light outside their acceptance angle (typically 10-15 deg), much of the diode energy not absorbed on the first pass can be returned to the rod.

  19. International symposium on fuel rod simulators: development and application

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, R.W. (comp.)

    1981-05-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning fuel rod simulator operation and performance; simulator design and evaluation; clad heated fuel rod simulators and fuel rod simulators for cladding investigations; fuel rod simulator components and inspection; and simulator analytical modeling. Ten papers have previously been input to the Energy Data Base.

  20. Long-Rod Moving-Plate Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partom, Y.

    2002-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of interaction of a long rod projectile with a forward moving plate at an angle is essential to understanding long rod interaction with an explosive reactive armor cassette. To investigate the mechanics of such an interaction we use AUTODIN2D/EULER in plane geometry, although the problem is 3D. We assume that this is a satisfactory approximation, as we're only interested in the main features, and are not comparing fine details to experimental results. From the simulations we learn that the interaction never reaches steady state. Initially each material splits into two streams, and the interaction plane is perpendicular to the rod. But with time the interaction plane rotates slowly, until it becomes parallel to the rod, which is then able to continue moving forward without interruption. During this process interacting rod material of length DeltaL is diverted at an angle and becomes ineffective for penetrating the main target. We made many such runs to determine the dependence of DeltaL on the parameters of the problem. This dependence makes it possible to predict DeltaL for a variety of rod-plate situations.

  1. Topological optimisation of rod-stirring devices

    E-print Network

    Finn, Matthew D

    2011-01-01

    There are many industrial situations where rods are used to stir a fluid, or where rods repeatedly stretch a material such as bread dough or taffy. The goal in these applications is to stretch either material lines (in a fluid) or the material itself (for dough or taffy) as rapidly as possible. The growth rate of material lines is conveniently given by the topological entropy of the rod motion. We discuss the problem of optimising such rod devices from a topological viewpoint. We express rod motions in terms of generators of the braid group, and assign a cost based on the minimum number of generators needed to write the braid. We show that for one cost function -- the topological entropy per generator -- the optimal growth rate is the logarithm of the golden ratio. For a more realistic cost function,involving the topological entropy per operation where rods are allowed to move together, the optimal growth rate is the logarithm of the silver ratio, $1+\\sqrt{2}$. We show how to construct devices that realise th...

  2. Topological optimisation of rod-stirring devices

    E-print Network

    Matthew D. Finn; Jean-Luc Thiffeault

    2010-04-05

    There are many industrial situations where rods are used to stir a fluid, or where rods repeatedly stretch a material such as bread dough or taffy. The goal in these applications is to stretch either material lines (in a fluid) or the material itself (for dough or taffy) as rapidly as possible. The growth rate of material lines is conveniently given by the topological entropy of the rod motion. We discuss the problem of optimising such rod devices from a topological viewpoint. We express rod motions in terms of generators of the braid group, and assign a cost based on the minimum number of generators needed to write the braid. We show that for one cost function -- the topological entropy per generator -- the optimal growth rate is the logarithm of the golden ratio. For a more realistic cost function,involving the topological entropy per operation where rods are allowed to move together, the optimal growth rate is the logarithm of the silver ratio, $1+\\sqrt{2}$. We show how to construct devices that realise this optimal growth, which we call silver mixers.

  3. Improvement of four anode rods ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel Salam, F. W.; El-Khabeary, H.; Abdel Reheem, A. M. [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P. No. 13759 (Egypt); Ahmed, M. M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-03-15

    In this work, an improved form of a saddle field ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of four anode rods made from copper and two copper cathode discs. The two cathode discs are placed symmetrically on both sides of the four anode rods. The electrical discharge and output ion beam characteristics were measured at different pressures using argon gas. The optimum distance between each two anode rods was determined. Also the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc was obtained. It was found that the optimum distance between each two anode rods equal to 6 mm, while the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc equal to 16 mm, where a stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current can be obtained. The effect of negative extraction voltage applied to both the extractor electrode and Faraday cup on the output ion beam current was studied. The sputter yield of copper and aluminum targets using argon ions of different energies was determined.

  4. Parallel wire cable static load testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Gil, Isabella C.

    This report is the result of two evaluations for the analysis of parallel wire cables. The purpose of the first assessment was to evaluate the stiffness and strength of parallel wire cables. For the methodology, three test setups were executed utilizing single wires, seven wire parallel cables, and 100 wire parallel cables as specimens. The parallel wire cables were connected with molted zinc to their sockets. The cables were manufactured by Wilolamb Construction. The results indicate that the single, seven, and 100 wire specimens had similar performance in yield stress, yield strain, modulus, and ultimate strain. However, the amount of strain decreased as the number of wires increased. Because the mechanical properties of the multi wires specimens had not significant difference, it is suggested that the zinc sockets had insignificant impact on their performance. Comparing these results to a previous test executed for parallel wire cables, there were significant differences on the ultimate capacity. It is assumed that the fabrication method of the cables were different. The second evaluation had two purposes. First, it was intended to compare the results of the single wire test from OSU to the single wire test results from Sherry Laboratories. From the analysis, it was found that the ultimate and yield loads were similar between both laboratories procedures, but their strength capacity and ultimate strain were different. It was observed that the Sherry Lab used a different method to compute the mechanical properties of the wire and that the measurement of the elongation was different to the procedures from OSU. Second, the secondary analysis was to evaluate if there is any significant difference between wires sanded at the mid-length of the specimen and wires that were not sanded. From this analysis it was observed that there was no difference between the sanded and non-sanded wires, which indicated that cross-section reduction should not be necessary for the evaluation of multi wire cables. The results from this work were expected and agree with basic engineering principles, and that parallel wire cables are capable of performing as a group of wires with no significant losses.

  5. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  6. Design of the Testing Set-up for a Nuclear Fuel Rod by Neutron Radiography at CARR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guohai; Han, Songbai; Wang, Hongli; Hao, Lijie; Wu, Meimei; He, Linfeng; Wang, Yu; Liu, Yuntao; Sun, Kai; Chen, Dongfeng

    In this paper, an experimental set-up dedicated to non-destructively test a 15cm-long Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear fuel rod by neutron radiography (NR) is described. It consists of three parts: transport container, imaging block and steel support. The design of the transport container was optimized with Monte-Carlo Simulation by the MCNP code. The material for the shell of the transport container was chosen to be lead with the thickness of 13 cm. Also, the mechanical devices were designed to control fuel rod movement inside the container. The imaging block was designed as the exposure platform, with three openings for the neutron beam, neutron converter foil, and specimen. Development and application of this experimental set-up will help gain much experience for investigating the actual irradiated fuel rod by neutron radiography at CARR in the future.

  7. Numerical Study on Anti-Penetration Process of Alumina Ceramic (AD95) to Tungsten Long Rod Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianfeng; Zhang, Niansong; Li, Yongchi

    Numerical studies were conducted on the ballistic performance of alumina ceramic (AD95) tiles based on depth of penetration method, when subjected to normal impact of tungsten long rod projectiles at velocities ranging from 1100 to 2000 ms-1. The residual depth on after-effect target was derived in each case, and the ballistic efficiency factor was determined using the corresponding penetration depth on medium carbon steel. Anti-penetration experiment study of the AD95 ceramic tiles to tungsten long rod projectiles has been carried out to verify the accuracy of numerical simulation model. The result shows that numerical simulation results agree well with the corresponding experiment results and AD95 ceramic has excellent ballistic performance than medium carbon steel. The ballistic efficiency factor increases with velocity increasing when impact velocity lower than 1300 ms-1, and when it was higher than 1300 ms-1 the ballistic efficiency factor has almost no difference.

  8. Reduced-Wiring Tactile Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohm, Timothy R.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed tactile sensor on robot finger puts out multiplexed analog signals transmitted to control computer on fewer wires than needed to transmit equivalent digital signals. Analog output represents data on contact area of object being gripped, on position of object, and on direction and rate of slippage if any. Consists of chains of normally open switches and resistors on surface of finger. Each resistance double preceding resistance in each chain. Constant-current sources supply power to chains.

  9. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spellman, G P

    2004-03-18

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there.

  10. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Casuccio (RJ Lee Group); Michael Potter (RJ Lee Group); Fred Schwerer (RJ Lee Group); Dr. Richard J. Fruehan (Carnegie Mellon University); Dr. Scott Story (US Steel)

    2005-12-30

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel cleanliness; slab, billet or bloom disposition; and alloy development. Additional benefits of ASCAT include the identification of inclusions that tend to clog nozzles or interact with refractory materials. Several papers outlining the benefits of the ASCAT have been presented and published in the literature. The paper entitled ''Inclusion Analysis to Predict Casting Behavior'' was awarded the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Medal in 2004 for special merit and importance to the steel industry. The ASCAT represents a quantum leap in inclusion analysis and will allow steel producers to evaluate the quality of steel and implement appropriate process improvements. In terms of performance, the ASCAT (1) allows for accurate classification of inclusions by chemistry and morphological parameters, (2) can characterize hundreds of inclusions within minutes, (3) is easy to use (does not require experts), (4) is robust, and (5) has excellent image quality for conventional SEM investigations (e.g., the ASCAT can be utilized as a dual use instrument). In summary, the ASCAT will significantly advance the tools of the industry and addresses an urgent and broadly recognized need of the steel industry. Commercialization of the ASCAT will focus on (1) a sales strategy that leverages our Industry Partners; (2) use of ''technical selling'' through papers and seminars; (3) leveraging RJ Lee Group's consulting services, and packaging of the product with a extensive consulting and training program; (4) partnering with established SEM distributors; (5) establishing relationships with professional organizations associated with the steel industry; and (6) an individualized plant by plant direct sales program.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Lingual Retainer Wires Bonded with Three Different Lingual Retainer Composites: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Anna; Patil, Pravinkumar G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate microleakage when two types of retainer wires were bonded with two light cured and a self cured lingual retainer composites. Materials and Methods: Total 120 freshly extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were collected and separated into six subgroups of 20 teeth each. Two different wires, a 0.036 inch hard round stainless steel (HRSS) wire sandblasted at the ends and 0.0175 inch multistranded wire bonded onto the lingual surfaces of the incisors with three different types of composite resins of 3M company; Concise Orthodontic (self-cure), Transbond XT (light-cure) and Transbond LR (light-cure). Specimens were further sealed with a nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 hours, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope, and scored for microleakage for the enamel-composite and wire-composite interfaces. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Results: For HRSS wire, at the enamel-composite interface, the microleakage was least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and greatest for Transbond XT (p<0.05). At the wire composite interface too, the microleakage was in order of Transbond LRwire, at the enamel-composite interface, the microleakage was least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and Transbond XT (p<0.05). At the wire composite interface too, it was seen that microleakage was the least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and Transbond XT. Conclusion: Transbond LR in combination with 0.0175 inch multistranded wire showed least microleakage amongst the groups studied. PMID:25584325

  12. A multistep photothermic-driven drug release system using wire-framed au nanobundles.

    PubMed

    Bang, Doyeon; Lee, Taeksu; Choi, Jihye; Park, Yeonji; Kim, Eunkyoung; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo

    2015-01-01

    Here, wire-framed Au nanobundles (WNBs), which consist of randomly oriented and mutually connected Au wires to form a bundle shape, are synthesized. In contrast to conventional nanoparticles (spheres, rods, cubes, and stars), which exhibit nanostructure only on the surface, cross-sectional view image shows that WNBs have nanostructures in a whole volume. By using this specific property of WNBs, an externally controllable multistep photothermic-driven drug release (PDR) system is demonstrated for in vivo cancer treatment. In contrast to conventional nanoparticles that encapsulate a drug on their surface, WNBs preserve the drug payload in the overall inner volume, providing a drug loading capacity sufficient for cancer therapy. An improved in vivo therapeutic efficacy of PDR therapy is also demonstrated by delivering sufficient amount of drugs to the target tumor region. PMID:25044601

  13. Apparatus and method for pulsed laser deposition of materials on wires and pipes

    DOEpatents

    Fernandez, Felix E. (Mayaguez, PR)

    2003-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed which allow uniform coatings to be applied by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on inner and outer surfaces of cylindrical objects, such as rods, pipes, tubes, and wires. The use of PLD makes this technique particularly suitable for complex multicomponent materials, such as superconducting ceramics. Rigid objects of any length, i.e., pipes up to a few meters, and with diameters from less than 1 centimeter to over 10 centimeters can be coated using this technique. Further, deposition is effected simultaneously onto an annular region of the pipe wall. This particular arrangement simplifies the apparatus, reduces film uniformity control difficulties, and can result in faster operation cycles. In addition, flexible wires of any length can be continuously coated using the disclosed invention.

  14. Texture in state-of-the-art Nb3Sn multifilamentary superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuerlein, C.; Arnau, G.; Alknes, P.; Jimenez, N.; Bordini, B.; Ballarino, A.; Di Michiel, M.; Thilly, L.; Besara, T.; Siegrist, T.

    2014-02-01

    The texture of Nb3Sn in recent multifilamentary composite wires has been studied by neutron diffraction, synchrotron x-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. In powder-in-tube (PIT) type superconductors the Nb precursor filaments exhibit a strong <110> fiber texture as a consequence of the severe cold drawing process, and a <110> texture is also observed in the Nb3Sn. In the Nb-Ta precursor of the restacked rod process (RRP) strand there is an additional texture component, and in both Ta-alloyed and Ti-alloyed RRP type conductors the Nb3Sn grains grow with a preferential <100> orientation.

  15. A coolant flow simulation in fast reactor wire-wrapped assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, V. Yu.; Belova, O. V.; Krutikov, A. A.; Skibin, A. P.

    2013-06-01

    A CFD model of a 19-rod wire-wrapped fuel assembly is developed. The effect the size of computation mesh in the calculated region and the type of turbulence models have on the pressure drop between the inlet to and outlet from the calculated region is investigated. The possibility of shifting from low-Reynolds to high-Reynolds turbulence models is substantiated. Such a shift allows the mesh size in the calculated region to be reduced by approximately a factor of 18. The obtained results are in good agreement with the empirical dependences and international calculations.

  16. Thermal energy scavenger (rotating wire modules)

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, P.A.; Milton, H.W.; Pringle, W.L.

    1980-11-04

    A thermal energy scavenger assembly is is described including a plurality of temperature-sensitive wires made of material which exhibits shape memory due to a thermoelastic, martensitic phase transformation. The wires are placed in tension between fixed and movable plates which are, in turn, supported by a pair of wheels which are rotatably supported by a housing for rotation about a central axis. A pair of upper and lower cams are fixed to the housing and cam followers react with the respective cams. Each cam transmits forces through a pair of hydraulic pistons. One of the pistons is connected to a movable plate to which one end of the wires are connected whereby a stress is applied to the wires to strain the wires during a first phase and whereby the cam responds to the unstraining of the wires during a second phase. A housing defines fluid compartments through which hot and cold fluid passes and flows radially through the wires whereby the wires become unstrained and shorten in length when subjected to the hot fluid for causing a reaction between the cam followers and the cams to effect rotation of the wheels about the central axis of the assembly, which rotation of the wheels is extracted through beveled gearing. The wires are grouped into a plurality of independent modules with each module having a movable plate, a fixed plate and the associated hydraulic pistons and cam follower. The hydraulic pistons and cam follower of a module are disposed at ends of the wires opposite from the ends of the wires at which the same components of the next adjacent modules are disposed so that the cam followers of alternate modules react with one of the cams and the remaining cam followers of the remaining modules react with the other cam. There is also included stress limiting means in the form of coil springs associated with alternate ends of the wires for limiting the stress or strain in the wires.

  17. Characterization and cytotoxicity of ions released from stainless steel and nickel-titanium orthodontic alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore Eliades; Harris Pratsinis; Dimitris Kletsas; George Eliades; Margarita Makou

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the substances released from orthodontic brackets and nickel-titanium wires and to comparatively assess the cytotoxicity of the ions released from these orthodontic alloys. Two full sets of stainless steel brackets of 20 brackets each (weight 2.1 g) and 2 groups of 0.018 × 0.025 Ni-Ti archwires of 10 wires

  18. Nano-Structured Mesoporous Silica Wires with Intra-Wire Lamellae via Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly in Space-Confined Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Shi, Donglu [University of Cincinnati; Blom, Douglas Allen [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of silica sol-gel ethanol-water solution mixtures with block-copolymer were studied inside uniform micro/nano channels. Nano-structured mesoporous silica wires, with various intra-wire self-assembly structures including lamellae, were prepared via EISA process but in space-confined channels with the diameter ranging from 50 nm to 200 nm. Membranes made of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) and track-etched polycarbonate (EPC) were utilized as the arrays of space-confined channels (i.e., 50, 100, and 200-nm EPC and 200-nm AAO) for infiltration and drying of mixture solutions; these substrate membranes were submerged in mixture solutions consisting of a silica precursor, a structure-directing agent, ethanol, and water. After the substrate channels were filled with the solution under vacuum impregnation, the membrane was removed from the solution and dried in air. The silica precursor used was tetra-ethyl othosilicate (TEOS), and the structure-directing agent employed was triblock copolymer Pluronic-123 (P123). It was found that the formation of the mesoporous nanostructures in silica wires within uniform channels were significantly affected by the synthesis conditions including (1) pre-assemble TEOS aging time, (2) the evaporation rate during the vacuum impregnation, and (3) the air-dry temperature. The obtained intra-wire structures, including 2D-hexagonal rods and lamellae, were studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). A steric hindrance effect seems to explain well the observed polymer-silica mesophase formation tailored by TEOS aging time. The evaporation effect, air-drying effect, and AAO-vs-EPC substrate effect on the mesoporous structure of the formed silica wires were also presented and discussed.

  19. Dissipative particle dynamics simulations on self-assembly of rod-coil-rod triblock copolymers in a rod-selective solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian-Hua; Fan, Zhong-Xiang; Ma, Ze-Xin

    2013-08-01

    Self-assembly of rod-coil-rod ABA triblock copolymers in a rod-selective solvent is investigated by using dissipative particle dynamics simulations. The morphologies of the self-assembled aggregates are dependent on the number of copolymers in the aggregate and the rod length of the copolymer. We observe vesicles at short rod block and bowl-like aggregates at slightly longer rod block. In the vesicle region near the phase boundary, metastable bowl-like aggregates can be observed and be transformed into vesicles by annealing process. A transition from the bowl-like structure to the vesicle is observed by increasing the solvophobicity of the mid-coil block. In this study, the difference between the self-assembly of fully flexible ABA triblock copolymer and that of rod-coil-rod triblock copolymer is also discussed.

  20. Intraoperative pulmonary embolism of Harrington rod during spinal surgery: the potential dangers of rod cutting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caspar E. W. Aylott; Kamran Hassan; Donal McNally; John K. Webb

    2006-01-01

    This is a case report and laboratory-based biomechanics study. The objective is to report the first case of Titanium rod embolisation during scoliosis surgery into the Pulmonary artery. To investigate the potential of an unconstrained cut Titanium rod fragment to cause wounding with reference to recognised weapons. Embolisation of a foreign body to the heart is rare. Bullet embolisation to