Science.gov

Sample records for steel wire rods

  1. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 38686) and determined on October 4, 2011, that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 64105, October 17, 2011). The Commission transmitted its... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  2. 77 FR 3231 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... certain stainless steel wire rods (``wire rods'') from India,\\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five- Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 38613 (July... the Antidumping Duty Order on Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India, 76 FR 38686 (July 1, 2011)....

  3. 76 FR 38686 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... on imports of stainless steel wire rod from India (58 FR 63335). Following first five-year reviews by... duty order on imports of stainless steel wire rod from India (65 FR 47403). Following second five-year... antidumping duty order on imports of stainless steel wire rod from India (71 FR 45023). The Commission is...

  4. 78 FR 63450 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 78 FR 33063 (June 3, 2013) (``Notice of... International Trade Administration, Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico... on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (``wire rod'') from Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico,...

  5. High strength, low carbon, dual phase steel rods and wires and process for making same

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Nakagawa, Alvin H.

    1986-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility, low carbon, dual phase steel wire, bar or rod and process for making the same is provided. The steel wire, bar or rod is produced by cold drawing to the desired diameter in a single multipass operation a low carbon steel composition characterized by a duplex microstructure consisting essentially of a strong second phase dispersed in a soft ferrite matrix with a microstructure and morphology having sufficient cold formability to allow reductions in cross-sectional area of up to about 99.9%. Tensile strengths of at least 120 ksi to over 400 ksi may be obtained.

  6. 75 FR 21658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... amended, 67 FR 68036 (Nov. 8, 2002). In accordance with sections 201.16(c) and 207.3 of the Commission's... COMMISSION Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago AGENCY: United States... in the antidumping duty Investigation No. 731-TA-961 concerning carbon and certain alloy steel...

  7. 78 FR 60850 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Brazil, 67 FR 55805 (August 30, 2002). \\2\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 78 FR 33063 (June 3, 2013). On June 18, 2013, the Department received a notice of... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of...

  8. 76 FR 78882 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... FR 65945 (October 29, 2002) (Wire Rod Order). DATES: Effective Date: December 20, 2011. FOR FURTHER... Order, 76 FR 33218 (June 8, 2011) (Initiation). On July 22, 2011, Deacero submitted its response to the... Steel Plate From Canada, 66 FR 7617, 7618 (January 24, 2001)) (Canadian Plate), and accompanying...

  9. Mechanical behavior of ultrahigh strength ultrahigh carbon steel wire and rod

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sberby, O.D.; Whittenherger, W.D.

    1997-07-22

    Ultrahigh-carbon steels (UHCSS) can achieve very high strengths in wire or rod form. These high strengths result from the mechanical work introduced during wire and rod processing. These strengths have been observed to increase with carbon content. In wire form, tensile strengths approaching 6000 MPa are predicted for UHCS containing 1. 8%C. In this paper, we will discuss the influence of processing (including rapid transformation during wire patenting) and micros ct- ure on the mechanical behavior of UHCS wire. The tensile properties of as- extruded rods are described as a function of extrusion temperature and composition. For spheroidized steels, yield and ultimate tensile strength are a function of grain size, interparticle spacing and particle size. For pearlitic steels, yield and ultimate strength were found to be functions of colony size, carbide size and plate spacing and orientation. Alloying additions (such as C, Cr, Si, Al and Co) can influence the effect of processing on these microstructural features. For spheroidized steels, fracture was found to be a function of the size of coarse carbides and of composition.

  10. 76 FR 67407 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico, (76 FR 45509 (July 29, 2011)). We preliminarily determine that, during..., Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine, 67 FR 65945 (October 29, 2002) (Wire Rod... FR 60733 (October 1, 2010). On October 29, 2010, in accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b), the...

  11. 77 FR 66954 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 67 FR 55800..., Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine, 67 FR 65945 (October 29, 2002), remains dispositive. On October 1, 2012... Rod from Mexico: Affirmative Final Determination of Circumvention of the Antidumping Duty Order, 77...

  12. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.; Kim, N.J.

    1986-10-28

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar[sub 3] temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics. 3 figs.

  13. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Ahn, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nack-Joon

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  14. 77 FR 13545 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review 76 FR 67407 (November 1, 2011) (Preliminary Results). \\2\\ We determined... Changed Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico, 76 FR 45509 (July 29... Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment...

  15. 78 FR 76653 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... reviews were such that full reviews pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act should proceed (78 FR 60316... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine... from Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine. AGENCY: United...

  16. 75 FR 34424 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Initiation of Five- year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009). As a result of its reviews, the... Expedited Sunset Reviews of the Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 56179 (Oct. 30, 2009). On May 14, 2010, the... foreseeable future. See Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan, 75 FR...

  17. 78 FR 28190 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 67 FR 55800 (August 30, 2002). Notification to Importers This... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010- 2011, 77 FR 66954 (November 8, 2012) (Preliminary Results... Ukraine, 67 FR 65945 (October 29, 2002), remains dispositive. On October 1, 2012, the Department...

  18. 76 FR 34044 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 73036 (November 29, 2010) (``Initiation Notice''). The..., 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). The final results continue to be due 120 days after the publication of... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Extension of Time...

  19. Notch toughness in hot-rolled low carbon steel wire rod

    SciTech Connect

    Baarman, M.H.

    1999-12-01

    Charpy V-notch toughness has been investigated in four hot-rolled, low carbon steels with different grain sizes and carbon contents between 0.019 and 0.057%. The raw material was wire rod designed for drawing and possible subsequent cold heading operations and manufactured from continuous cast billets. In this study, the influence of microstructure, mechanical properties, and alloying elements on the ductile-brittle transition behavior has been assessed. A particular emphasis has been given to the influence of boron with contents up to 0.0097%. As a result, transition temperatures between {minus}29 and +50 C explicated by the material properties have been obtained. The examination also shows that the transition temperature raises with circa 0.5 C for each added ppm boron most likely as a consequence of an enlargement of the ferrite grain size and the reduction of yield and tensile strength. The highest upper shelf energy and lowest transition temperature can be observed in a steel without boron additions and with maximum contents of carbon, silicon, and manganese.

  20. 76 FR 67672 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...On July 1, 2011, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel wire rods from India, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 38613 (July 1, 2011) (Notice of Initiation). The Department has conducted an expedited......

  1. Vision-based inspection for periodic defects in steel wire rod production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changhyun; Choi, Seho; Won, Sangchul

    2010-01-01

    Defective rollers in rolling plants often create spatially periodic defects on the product surface. It is essential for operators to receive early warnings of such periodic defects and take appropriate action to avoid a large quantity of defective products. We present a robust and efficient real-time method for inspecting periodic defects in continuous steel wire rods. The proposed inspection method consists of two parts: (1) an algorithm for detecting all defect candidates and (2) an algorithm to detect periodicities in the detected defect candidates and to determine their periods. The first algorithm exploits the translation-invariant property of the Haar undecimated discrete wavelet transform to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the surface image. The second algorithm is based on analysis of the frequency spectrum of defect candidate positions. It identifies periodicities of the defect candidates by finding repeating impulse-like spectra. The inspection system using the proposed method is applied to a real production line and detects periodic defects in real time and identifies their periodicities with high accuracy.

  2. 76 FR 33218 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... and Tobago, and Ukraine, 67 FR 65945 (October 29, 2002) (Wire Rod Order). Alternatively, petitioners... Determination of Circumvention of the Antidumping Duty Order, 71 FR 32033, 32037 (June 2, 2006) (Wax Candles... Determination of Circumvention of the Anti- Dumping Duty Order, 71 FR 59076-59076 (October 6, 2006) (Wax...

  3. 78 FR 33103 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... (``Commerce'') issued a countervailing duty order on imports of wire rod from Brazil (67 FR 64871). On October..., Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine (67 FR 65944-65947). Following the five-year reviews by..., Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine (73 FR 44218). The Commission is now conducting...

  4. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... retarded, by reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30... galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the meaning of 733(b) of the Act (19...

  5. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading... subsidized imports of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011,...

  6. Fracture toughness evaluation of high-strength cold-drawn eutectoid steel wires used in wire ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourladian, Bamdad

    High carbon (eutectoid) steel wires are used in many modern engineering applications which require high strength and durability. The most demanding applications are those for wire ropes, tire reinforcements, engine valve springs, and structural strands used for long span cable stayed bridges. In this study, a test method based on Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) was used to evaluate fracture toughness, KC, for various grades of wire which were of 0.072″ nominal diameter. An extensive review of literature on mechanical behavior of wire ropes is presented. Also a very thorough review of technical literature on the applications of LEFM in high strength rods and wires is provided. Various stress intensity factor solutions (K-solutions) are evaluated and compared. The most applicable K-solutions for application in KC determination in circular rods and wires with semi-elliptical surface cracks are recommended. Plane-stress K-solutions for straight-edge surface cracks in 0.072″ diameter steel wire were also developed by a 3D FEA model. An experimental fracture toughness test procedure based on principles of LEFM is described in detail. Experimental tensile fracture data is presented for 285 pre-cracked fracture samples. SEM fractographs documenting fracture surface topography of various fracture modes are described and characterized. For each wire grade and condition an average value of KC was determined. Statistical treatment of data and 90% confidence intervals are also provided. Average KC values ranged from 52Ksiin to 60Ksiin for wires ranging in tensile strength from 289 Ksi to 336 Ksi. Delamination toughening phenomenon was observed in some wire fracture samples and documented. As high as 60% increase in KC value was observed for some delaminated wires. The effect of crack aspect ratio in semi-elliptical cracks was considered and found to be very significant.

  7. The technology of testing the safety of steel wire ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Hu, Caiwen

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the security of steel wire rope, the broken wire condition, the capability of the rope to bear weight and the state of stress balance of each wire in the steel wire rope were investigated. The wavelet translation method was applied to analyze the signals of magnetic field leakage from the steel wire rope. The result of the time-frequency analysis of the signals can be used to make certain of he position and the amount of the broken wire. Using the static surveillance method as a basis, a dynamic surveillance method was designed to detect the stress balance of the steel wire rope. This technology makes it possible to check the stress condition of each wire on line. It can be concluded that a wavelet translation analysis and the dynamic surveillance technique are effective methods to detect on line and real-time the broken wire and the stress balance of multistrand wire ropes.

  8. 7. DETAIL VIEW UNDER BRIDGE OF CORRUGATED STEEL, BEAMS, RODS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW UNDER BRIDGE OF CORRUGATED STEEL, BEAMS, RODS, AND ABUTMENT - Price River Bridge, Spanning Price River, 760 North Street in Carbonville, 1 mile northwest of Price, Carbonville, Carbon County, UT

  9. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from...

  10. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of...

  11. 76 FR 19382 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30 and 7217.20.45 of the Harmonized....8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where...

  12. 76 FR 13665 - Arcelor Mittal, Formerly Known as Mittal Steel Walker Wire, a Subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... workers are engaged in activities related to the warehousing and distribution of processed steel coil, bars, rods and wire. The notice was published in the Federal Register on May 28, 2010 (75 FR 30070). At... on January 26, 2009 (74 FR 4463). In order to avoid an overlap in worker group coverage,...

  13. Copper Refinement from Anode to Cathode and then to Wire Rod: Effects of Impurities on Recrystallization Kinetics and Wire Ductility.

    PubMed

    Helbert, Anne-Laure; Moya, Alice; Jil, Tomas; Andrieux, Michel; Ignat, Michel; Brisset, François; Baudin, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the traceability of copper from the anode to the cathode and then the wire rod has been studied in terms of impurity content, microstructure, texture, recrystallization kinetics, and ductility. These characterizations were obtained based on secondary ion mass spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, HV hardness, and electron backscattered diffraction. It is shown that the recrystallization was delayed by the total amount of impurities. From tensile tests performed on cold drawn and subsequently annealed wires for a given time, a simplified model has been developed to link tensile elongation to the chemical composition. This model allowed quantification of the contribution of some additional elements, present in small quantity, on the recrystallization kinetics. The proposed model adjusted for the cold-drawn wires was also validated on both the cathode and wire rod used for the study of traceability. PMID:26702460

  14. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  15. 1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central Furnace Works -- Sketch of Plant Showing Tracks & Buildings, 1913, Revised 3/10/31.' Drawing courtesy United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. Credit Berni Rich, Score Photographs, August 1979, for photos 1 through 4 and 7 through 11. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. 2. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Company, Central ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Company, Central Furnaces & Docks, General Plan of Works Showing Trestle, 1-3-39.' Drawing courtesy of United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. Locked-wrap fuel rod

    DOEpatents

    Kaplan, Samuel; Chertock, Alan J.; Punches, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A method for spacing fast reactor fuel rods using a wire wrapper improved by orienting the wire-wrapped fuel rods in a unique manner which introduces desirable performance characteristics not attainable by previous wire-wrapped designs. Use of this method in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor results in: (a) improved mechanical performance, (b) improved rod-to-rod contact, (c) reduced steel volume, and (d) improved thermal-hydraulic performance. The method produces a "locked wrap" design which tends to lock the rods together at each of the wire cluster locations.

  18. VIEW OF EAST GUN EMPLACEMENT. NOTE THE STEEL REINFORCING RODS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST GUN EMPLACEMENT. NOTE THE STEEL REINFORCING RODS PROTRUDING FROM THE BROKEN TOP OF THE RETAINING WALL. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, East Gun Emplacement, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel that... Duty Investigation of Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire from the People's Republic of...

  20. Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Kim, D.K.

    1996-06-25

    Hypereutectoid steels have the potential for dramatically increasing the strength of wire used in tire cord and in other high strength wire applications. The basis for this possible breakthrough is the elimination of a brittle proeutectoid network that can form along grain boundaries if appropriate processing procedures and alloy additions are used. A review is made of work done by Japanese and other researchers on eutectoid and mildly hypereutectoid wires. A linear extrapolation of the tensile strength of fine wires predicts higher strengths at higher carbon contents. The influence of processing, alloy additions and carbon content in optimizing the strength, ductility and fracture behavior of hypereutectoid steels is presented. It is proposed that the tensile strength of pearlitic wires is dictated by the fracture strength of the carbide lamella at grain boundary locations in the carbide. Methods to improve the strength of carbide grain boundaries and to decrease the carbide plate thickness will contribute to enhancing the ultrahigh strength obtainable in hypereutectoid steel wires. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. 10. View of Riverside Bridge with Steel Reinforcing Rods in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of Riverside Bridge with Steel Reinforcing Rods in Place and with 'Tower for Concrete' in the Background. The function of the 'tower for concrete' is uncertain, but may have to do with the transport of concrete from the point of mixing to the point of use (suggestion by NDOT Bridge Section personnel, February 1990). Original snapshot taken July, 1920. - Riverside Bridge, Spanning Truckee River at Booth Street, Reno, Washoe County, NV

  2. 78 FR 12718 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ...: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of Circumvention of the Antidumping Duty Order, 77 FR 71776 (December 4... Duty Order, 74 FR 17154 (April 14, 2009). Scope of the Order The merchandise covered by the order is steel threaded rod. Steel threaded rod is certain threaded rod, bar, or studs, of carbon quality...

  3. 76 FR 73589 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Determination: Galvanized Steel Wire from the People's Republic of China, 76 FR 68407 (November 4, 2011... International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Amended... than fair value in the antidumping investigation of galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic...

  4. Tunable two-dimensional left-handed material consisting of ferrite rods and metallic wires.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongjie; Zhou, Ji; Kang, Lei; Zhao, Qian

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate a magnetically tunable and two-dimensional (2D) left-handed material (LHM) consisting of an array of ferrite rods and metallic wires by experiments and simulations. It shows that the ferrite rod has a 2D isotropic negative permeability. By combining the ferrite rods with metallic wires, we observe experimentally a 2D LH passband that can be tuned dynamically, continuously and reversibly by an external magnetic field within in a wide frequency range with a response of 3.5 GHz/kOe. Retrieved effective parameters based on simulated scattering parameters show that operating frequency and value of negative refraction index can be conveniently tuned by changing the external magnetic field. PMID:19654742

  5. 75 FR 8113 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... subject investigations (75 FR 4104, January 26, 2010). On January 28, 2010, the Commission was notified by... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International...

  6. 75 FR 4104 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (``HTSUS'').'' 74 FR 30536, December 23, 2009. For further... FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a document is permitted, certain... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International...

  7. 76 FR 21914 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... schedule for the conduct of these investigations (75 FR 877, April 7, 2011). Due to scheduling...

  8. Low temperature annealing of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Bech, J. I.; Hansen, N.

    2015-08-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires are nanostructured and the flow stress at room temperature can reach values above 6 GPa. A typical characteristic of the nanostructured metals, is the low ductility and thermal stability. In order to optimize both the processing and application of the wires, the thermal behaviour is of interest. This has been studied by annealing the wires for 1h at temperatures from ambient temperature to 300 °C (573 K). It is expected that a raising temperature may lead to structural changes and a reduction in strength. The change in strength is however not expected to be large. For this reason we have applied a very precise technique to measure the tensile properties of the wires from a strain of 10-4 to the maximum strain of about 1-2%. The structural changes have also been followed to estimate and relate strength changes to changes in structural parameters and morphology.

  9. Recrystallization behavior of a low carbon steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larouk, Z.; Bouhalais, H.

    2009-11-01

    The primary recrystallization of a steel containing 0.05 (wt%) carbon is examined. The present material is produced by Trifisoud- Setif-Algeria and received as wires of 4, 3.18, 2.45 mm diameters. The samples are subjected to annealing treatments at 480-520 ∘C. The recrystallization temperature is determined and found to be lower for the wire with higher wiredrawing area reduction (τw) . The two parameters (k and n) in Avrami law are calculated. A relationship between τw and recrystallized grain size (drec) is established. The recrystallization activation energy is estimated. The obtained results are compared with other material results.

  10. Perforation of HY-100 steel plates with long rod projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchak, S.J.; Altman, B.S.; Forrestal, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The authors conducted perforation experiments with 4340 steel, rod projectiles and HY-100 steel, target plates at striking velocities between 80 and 370 m/s. Projectiles were machined to nominally 30-mm-diameter and 281-mm-length so they could be launched from a 30-mm-powder gun without sabots. The target plates were rigidly clamped at 305-mm diameter and had a nominal thickness of 10.2 mm. In addition to measuring striking and residual projectile velocities, they obtained back surface framing camera data that showed clearly the plate deformation and plug ejection process. An Imacon 792 camera provided up to 20 frames per experiment with an interframe time duration of 10 {mu}s. The modeling work is in progress, but they present a beam model that exhibits the features observed in the experiments.

  11. Unsupervised Classification of Surface Defects in Wire Rod Production Obtained by Eddy Current Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Saludes-Rodil, Sergio; Baeyens, Enrique; Rodríguez-Juan, Carlos P.

    2015-01-01

    An unsupervised approach to classify surface defects in wire rod manufacturing is developed in this paper. The defects are extracted from an eddy current signal and classified using a clustering technique that uses the dynamic time warping distance as the dissimilarity measure. The new approach has been successfully tested using industrial data. It is shown that it outperforms other classification alternatives, such as the modified Fourier descriptors. PMID:25938201

  12. Wire-Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Protects Steel Against Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank R.; Poorman, Richard; Sanders, Heather L.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Bonds, James W., Jr.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Aluminum coatings wire-arc sprayed onto steel substrates found effective in protecting substrates against corrosion. Coatings also satisfy stringent requirements for adhesion and flexibility, both at room temperature and at temperatures as low as liquid hydrogen. Developed as alternatives to corrosion-inhibiting primers and paints required by law to be phased out because they contain and emit such toxic substances as chromium and volatile organic compounds.

  13. 78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary.... SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  14. 78 FR 8105 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Determination of Critical Circumstances, 77 FR 75980 (December 26, 2012) (``Vietnam Hangers Final Determination''). \\2\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers from Vietnam, Investigation Nos. 701-TA-487 and 731-TA-1198, USITC...; (c) steel wire garment hangers with clips permanently affixed; and (d) chrome plated steel...

  15. 78 FR 66382 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 40170). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on July 18, 2013, and all persons who... COMMISSION Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from India and Thailand of certain steel threaded rod, provided for...

  16. 78 FR 40170 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    .... See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's Handbook on E-Filing, available on... COMMISSION Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing... from India and Thailand of certain steel threaded rod, provided for primarily in subheading...

  17. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu; Liu Wei; Liu Qing

    2010-01-15

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm ({epsilon} = 0) to 2 nm ({epsilon} = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {l_brace}110{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} or {l_brace}112{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} slip plane traces in the ferrite.

  18. 78 FR 29325 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic...'') petitions concerning imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from Mexico, the... Antidumping Duty Petitions on Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire from the PRC, Mexico, and...

  19. Fatal bleeding due to sternal steel wire fracture following open-heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wenhui; Ye, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhe; Li, Sen

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, stainless steel wires suturing is the most common and safety way for the median sternotomy closure. And it is also accepted by our center. Albeit, in July 2014, a patient who underwent left ventricular outflow tract plus mitral valvuloplasty in extracorporeal circulation suffered a fatal bleeding due to fractured steel wire. The fractured steel wire punctured the free wall of right ventricle and left a 3 mm diameter wound, thus caused the 1,000 mL drainage within half an hour. In our opinion, it was the instant increase in yield strength after strong cough that makes the steel wire fractured. PMID:26623134

  20. 78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel that... Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire from Thailand, from Christian Marsh, Deputy Assistant Secretary...

  1. 77 FR 806 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing... from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for in subheading 7326.20 of...

  2. 77 FR 73424 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Hangers from Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less than Fair Value, 77 FR 46055 (August 2... Than Fair Value, 77 FR 62492 (October 15, 2012) (``Final Determination''). \\2\\ See Steel Wire Garment... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY:...

  3. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2012 (77 FR... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for...

  4. 75 FR 36678 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of February 23, 2010 (75 FR 8113). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... of prestressed concrete steel wire strand (PC strand), provided for in subheading 7312.10.30 of...

  5. 77 FR 66952 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ..., 75 FR 68758, 68761 (November 9, 2010), unchanged in First Administrative Review of Steel Wire Garment... Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 27994, 27996 (May 13, 2011). DATES: Effective November 8, 2012. FOR... Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October...

  6. 77 FR 2958 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC Strand...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 83 (January 3, 2012). Subsequent to this publication,...

  7. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the... antidumping duty investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico,...

  8. Arc characteristics of submerged arc welding with stainless steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Wu, Zhi-sheng; Liu, Cui-rong; Chen, Feng-hua

    2014-08-01

    The arc characteristics of submerged arc welding (SAW) with stainless steel wire were studied by using Analysator Hannover (AH). The tests were carried out under the same preset arc voltage combined with different welding currents. By comparing the probability density distribution (PDD) curves of arc voltage and welding current, the changes were analyzed, the metal transfer mode in SAW was deduced, and the characteristics of a stable arc were summarized. The analysis results show that, with an increase of welding parameters, the short-circuiting peak in the PDD curves of arc voltage decreases gradually until it disappears, and the dominant metal transfer mode changes from flux-wall guided transfer to projected transfer and then to streaming transfer. Moreover, when the PDD curves of arc voltage are both unimodal and generally symmetrical, the greater the peak probability and the smaller the peak span, the more stable the arc becomes.

  9. DESIGN OF WIRE-WRAPPED ROD BUNDLE MATCHED INDEX-OF-REFRACTION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh McIlroy; Hongbin Zhang; Kurt Hamman

    2008-05-01

    Experiments will be conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility [1] to characterize the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a wire-wrapped rod bundle typically employed in liquid-metal cooled fast reactors and to provide benchmark data for computer code validation. Sodium cooled fast reactors are under consideration for use in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. The experiment model will be constructed of quartz components and the working fluid will be mineral oil. Accurate temperature control (to within 0.05 oC) matches the index-of-refraction of mineral oil with that of quartz and renders the model transparent to the wavelength of laser light employed for optical measurements. The model will be a scaled 7-pin rod bundle enclosed in a hexagonal canister. Flow field measurements will be obtained with a LaVision 3-D particle image velocimeter (PIV) and complimented by near-wall velocity measurements obtained from a 2-D laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). These measurements will be used as benchmark data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation. The rod bundle model dimensions will be scaled up from the typical dimensions of a fast reactor fuel assembly to provide the maximum Reynolds number achievable in the MIR flow loop. A range of flows from laminar to fully-turbulent will be available with a maximum Reynolds number, based on bundle hydraulic diameter, of approximately 22,000. The fuel pins will be simulated by 85 mm diameter quartz tubes (closed on the inlet ends) and the wire-wrap will be simulated by 25 mm diameter quartz rods. The canister walls will be constructed from quartz plates. The model will be approximately 2.13 m in length. Bundle pressure losses will also be measured and the data recorded for code comparisons. The experiment design and preliminary CFD calculations, which will be used to provide qualitative hydrodynamic information, are presented in this paper.

  10. Optimizing the sensing performance of a single-rod fluxgate magnetometer using thin magnetic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, Hava; Svec, Peter, Jr.; Tanrıseven, Sercan; Bydzovsky, Jan; Birlikseven, Cengiz; Sözeri, Hüseyin; Svec, Peter, Sr.; Topal, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the optimal conditions for the design of a single-rod fluxgate magnetometer using Co-based amorphous magnetic wires with reduced geometrical dimensions of 100 μm in diameter. In order to enhance the performance of the current sensor (i.e. the noise level, the sensitivity, the dynamical range, the scaling factor, etc), the core materials were subjected to annealing at different annealing temperatures in a longitudinal magnetic field ranging from 0 to 0.5 T. The B-H measurements have shown that the heat treatments significantly change the magnetic parameters of the cores (the saturation field, the initial and apparent permeabilities). For instance, the initial permeability μ i attains values of between 3500 and 4700 depending on the treatment conditions. These magnetic parameters were subsequently correlated with the sensor performance by using the principles of the fluxgate physics. Consequently, the enhanced fluxgate effect with improved sensing characteristics has been obtained by annealing the wire core at 250 °C (B  =  0 T). It is shown that this magnetic wire with a sensing area of 0.00785 mm2 is suitable as a sensor core for the nondestructive testing of metallic objects and the surfaces of magnetic cards. The sensor signal shows perfect linear dependence to dc or low frequency fields up to ~1 Oe. The fitting parameters R 2 of 0.9998 could be achieved in a dc field interval of  -1.0 Oe and 1.0 Oe (when R 2  =1.0, all points lie exactly on the curve with no scatter). Such linearity has not been seen in such a large dynamical range until now in the rod-type single-core fluxgates. It is also shown that there is no hysteresis on the V 2f -H dc graphs (the V 2f is the sensor signal) even after applying fields as high as 100 Oe. Besides, the cross-field effect is almost zero due to the geometry of the long-thin wire.

  11. An original internal fixation technique by tension band wiring with steel wire in fractures of the coronoid process.

    PubMed

    Mallard, F; Hubert, L; Steiger, V; Cronier, P

    2015-06-01

    Fractures of the coronoid process, which is a key element in anterior elbow joint stability, represent 14% of proximal ulnar fractures. Optimal treatment should stabilize all fractures associated with elbow instability. Different techniques have been described: suture repair, screws, plates… We propose a series of 5 patients who were treated with an original, easy, tension band wiring fixation technique using steel wire with easy hardware removal. PMID:25890813

  12. 77 FR 473 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Republic of China: Notice of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 17154 (April 14, 2009) (``Steel Threaded Rod... the Steel Threaded Rod Order.\\3\\ \\3\\ See Notice of Scope Rulings, 76 FR 10558, 10559 (February 25... studs, of carbon quality steel, having a solid, circular cross section, of any diameter, in any...

  13. Effect of microalloying on pearlite transformation of high carbon wire steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie L.

    Microalloying has been shown to improve strength in eutectoid steels for wire applications, and previous work on vanadium-microalloyed eutectoid steels showed delayed pearlite transformation with additions of niobium and accelerated pearlite transformation with additional nitrogen. This study investigates the origin of the CCT shifts with microalloying additions and whether trends in hardness and microstructural feature sizes observed in continuous cooling tests persist through industrial hot rolling simulations. An industrially hot rolled 1080 wire rod with vanadium additions and three laboratory-prepared alloys were studied. The base alloy, denoted the V steel, had a composition of 0.80C-0.50Mn-0.24Si-0.20Cr-0.079V-0.0059N (wt pct). The V+N steel contained 0.0088 wt pct N, and the V+Nb steel contained an additional 0.010 wt pct Nb. All alloys were subjected to a GleebleRTM 3500 torsion hot rolling simulation based on industrial wire rod hot rolling parameters. Microstructural constituents, Vickers hardness, pearlite colony size, and pearlite interlamellar spacing (ILS) were characterized for each alloy. All alloys exhibited pearlitic microstructures with some proeutectoid ferrite at prior austenite grain boundaries, with no evidence of shear transformation products. The V steel has the lowest overall hardness, while both nitrogen and niobium additions increase hardness by approximately 15 HV, correlating to a 43 MPa increase in yield strength. Niobium additions refined ILS, with an average ILS of 92 +/- 3 nm for the V+Nb steel compared to 113 +/- 5 nm for the V steel and 113 +/- 3 nm for the V+N alloy. Vanadium additions produced precipitation strengthening for all alloys and heat treatments, and additional precipitation strengthening with nitrogen and niobium additions was not apparent based on a Taleff regression analysis. Atom probe tomography of an industrially processed wire rod with vanadium additions revealed vanadium enrichment of cementite, and vanadium supersaturation in ferrite. Enhanced nucleation of V(C,N) on prior austenite grain boundaries was hypothesized to accelerate pearlite transformation in the presence of additional nitrogen. Based on the CCT thermal profile, samples were heat treated by quenching from 1093 °C and 880 °C for assessment of the state of vanadium. Solubility predictions indicated full dissolution at 1093 °C, and precipitation at 880 °C. Electrochemical dissolution results showed almost no V(C,N) precipitation for either hold temperature. Atom probe tomography showed homogeneous vanadium distribution in austenite for all samples quenched from 880 °C. Therefore the theory of accelerated pearlite transformation by enhanced nucleation of V(C,N) was not confirmed. Results indicate that accelerated transformation effects with nitrogen additions are not due to austenite grain size effects, differences in volume fraction of precipitates in austenite, or inhomogeneity of vanadium distribution in austenite. Solute drag of niobium in austenite was identified as a possible mechanism for delay of pearlite transformation with niobium additions. Samples of the V and V+Nb alloys were heat treated by quenching from 1093 °C for assessment of the state of Nb. Solubility modeling for mixed Nbx, V1-xCyN1-y precipitates predicted full precipitation at 1093 °C, with no niobium dissolved in austenite. Austenite grain size (AGS) was determined to be refined by ~50 microm for the V+Nb steel compared to the V steel, but AGS refinement would produce the opposite transformation shift than experimentally observed. Electrochemical dissolution showed less than 0.0020 wt pct Nb dissolved in austenite. Atom probe tomography of a pearlite transformation interface indicated no niobium present in austenite adjacent to the boundary. Modeling predictions, dissolution results, and APT compositional analysis presented in the current study have not confirmed a solute drag mechanism, though it remains plausible given the resolution and sampling volume limitations of the experimental methods employed.

  14. Corrosion resistance of premodeled wires made of stainless steel used for heart electrotherapy leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; Młynarski, R.; Szatka, W.

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wire made of X10CrNi18-8 stainless steel designed for use in cardiology treatment. The influence of strain formed in the premodeling process and methods of wire surface preparation to corrosive resistance in artificial plasma solution were analysed. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in the solution of artificial plasma. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of recorded curves of anodic polarization by means of potentiodynamic method. Potentiodynamic tests carried out enabled to determine how the resistance to pitting corrosion of wire changes, depending on strain formed in the premodeling process as well as on the method of wire surface preparation. For evaluation of phenomena occurring on the surface of tested steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied. Deterioration of corrosive properties of wire along with the increase in the formed strain hardening was observed.

  15. Feasibility demonstration of using wire electrical-discharge machining, abrasive flow honing, and laser spot welding to manufacture high-precision triangular-pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel-rod-support grids

    SciTech Connect

    Horwood, W.A.

    1982-05-01

    Results are reported supporting the feasibility of manufacturing high precision machined triangular pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel rod support grids for application in water cooled nuclear power reactors. The manufacturing processes investigated included wire electrical discharge machining of the fuel rod and guide tube cells in Zircaloy plate stock to provide the grid body, multistep pickling of the machined grid to provide smooth and corrosion resistant surfaces, and laser welding of thin Zircaloy cover plates to both sides of the grid body to capture separate AM-350 stainless steel insert springs in the grid body. Results indicated that dimensional accuracy better than +- 0.001 and +- 0.002 inch could be obtained on cell shape and position respectively after wire EDM and surface pickling. Results on strength, corrosion resistance, and internal quality of laser spot welds are provided.

  16. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with single rod electrode.

    PubMed

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2014-11-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this method, the tips of rods are machined individually to form a specific surface, and then a number of the machined rods are arranged to construct an electrode for EDM. The repetition of the EDM process using the electrode enables a number of lens elements to be produced on the mold surface. The effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated by shaping a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, in which the EDM process with a single rod electrode is repeatedly conducted. PMID:25607880

  17. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for steel wire monitoring in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Jan; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Steel wires are widely applied in industrial applications - in most cases as critical components fulfilling high safety requirements in harsh environments (e.g. dockside cranes). In this paper a technique for real-time monitoring of steel ropes applying optical strain sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings is presented. The optical sensors are integrated within the wire strand and replace the core. The strain transmission from the outer wires to the sensors is assured by the mechanical coupling between the optical fiber and the strand. The actual strain load and rope vibrations in the kilohertz range can be determined in real-time.

  18. Perforation of HY-100 steel plates with 4340 R{sub c} 38 and T-250 maraging steel rod projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, M.J.; Hanchak, S.J.

    1998-05-25

    The authors conducted perforation experiments with 4340 Rc 38 and T-250 maraging steel, long rod projectiles and HY-100 steel target plates at striking velocities between 80 and 370 m/s. Flat-end rod projectiles with lengths of 89 and 282 mm were machined to nominally 30-mm-diameter so they could be launched from a 30-mm-powder gun without sabots. The target plates were rigidly clamped at a 305-mm-diameter and had nominal thicknesses of 5.3 and 10.5 mm. Four sets of experiments were conducted to show the effects of rod length and plate thickness on the measured ballistic limit and residual velocities. In addition to measuring striking and residual projectile velocities, they obtained framing camera data on the back surfaces of several plates that showed clearly the plate deformation and plug ejection process. They also present a beam model that exhibits qualitatively the experimentally observed mechanisms.

  19. 76 FR 66895 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ..., 68 FR 54888 (September 19, 2003); and Hot-Rolled Lead and Bismuth Carbon Steel Products from Germany... Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6... Antidumping Duty Order and Extension of Final Determination, 76 FR 27007 (May 10, 2011)...

  20. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51 on January 19, 1990). Copies of ASTM A475-78 are available for inspection... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for...

  1. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51 on January 19, 1990). Copies of ASTM A475-78 are available for inspection... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for...

  2. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51 on January 19, 1990). Copies of ASTM A475-78 are available for inspection... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for...

  3. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51 on January 19, 1990). Copies of ASTM A475-78 are available for inspection... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for...

  4. 78 FR 70271 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR... Administrative Review, 75 FR 68758, 68761 (November 9, 2010), unchanged in First Administrative Review of Steel... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 27994, 27996 (May 13, 2011) (``Hangers 1st AR''). \\3\\ See...

  5. 78 FR 66330 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China; Final Results of Third...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ...., Ltd Panther T&H Industry Co. Ltd PSGT Trading Jingjiang Ltd Qingdao Free Trade Zone Health Intl... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China; Final Results... FR 4389 (January 22, 2013). \\13\\ See Certain Steel Threaded Rod from the People's Republic of...

  6. Dilution control in single-wire stainless steel submerged arc cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Kotecki, D.J.

    1996-02-01

    An experimental study of the effects of bead-to-bead stepover, wire size, wire feed speed, voltage, flux chromium content, and polarity on dilution and ferrite in single-wire submerged arc cladding of ER309L on mild steel plate is described. Low dilution was found to be promoted by reduced stepover, reduced wire feed speed, and DC electrode negative polarity. Use of a high-chromium flux can broaden the tolerance for dilution, providing an austenitic deposit free of martensite, and containing at least 4 FN for assurance of freedom from hot cracking over a broader range of dilutions.

  7. 78 FR 56217 - Steel Threaded Rod from India: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...\\ See Steel Threaded Rod From India: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 78 FR 44532 (July... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... November 24, 2013 falls on a weekend, the preliminary determination is due the next business day,...

  8. 78 FR 71565 - Steel Threaded Rod from India: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 44526 (July 24, 2013). \\2\\ See the memorandum for the record... Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended. 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2008). This notice... International Trade Administration Steel Threaded Rod from India: Postponement of Preliminary Determination...

  9. Radiative Properties of Implosions of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays with Application to Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S.; Ouart, N. D.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, U. I.; Williamson, K. M.; Shrestha, I.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    Experiments with different stainless steel (SS) wire loads were performed on the 1 MA Zebra Z-pinch generator at University of Nevada, Reno. The wire array loads consisted of 7.6 {mu}m SS wires and had 10 wires for the planar wire array with an interwire gap of 1 mm and 8 wires for the cylindrical wire array of a 16 mm diameter. In addition, a single-wire experiment with a 25 {mu}m SS wire was carried out. The different wire loads were used to provide a broader spectrum of plasma conditions. Time-integrated and time-gated x-ray images, as well as time-integrated, spatially-resolved and spatially-integrated x-ray spectra, were collected and analyzed. Both K-shell and L-shell radiation were recorded using LiF and KAP crystal spectrometers, respectively. Non-LTE kinetic models of Fe and Ni are employed to derive plasma parameters. For axially resolved L-shell spectra, the resulting electron temperatures are between 230 and 300 eV (higher near the cathode) and electron densities vary from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} dependent on the load. The advantage of using Z-pinch plasmas for astrophysical applications is highlighted.

  10. Prospects of increasing the strength of aluminum by reinforcing it with stainless steel wire (a review)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botvina, L. R.; Ivanova, V. S.; Kopev, I. M.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental strength of aluminum reinforced with stainless steel wire is analyzed. Various methods of producing the composite material and it's static and cyclical strengths are considered. The reinforcement of aluminum with stainless steel wire was accomplished from the perspective of increasing the specific strength of aluminum and it's alloys, increasing the strength of the material with respect to high and low temperatures, as well as increasing the cyclical strength. The production of the composite aluminum-stainless steel wire material with approximated or calculated strengthening is possible by any of the considered methods. The selection of the proper production technology depends on precise details and conditions of application of the material.

  11. 77 FR 50160 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of... garment hangers and less- than-fair-value imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment...

  12. 77 FR 12553 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6, 2008). \\2\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's... Administrative Review, 76 FR 66903 (October 28, 2011) (``Preliminary Results''). DATES: Effective Date: March 1..., 75 FR 68758, 68761 (November 9, 2010), unchanged in First Administrative Review of Steel Wire...

  13. 75 FR 42685 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ...In response to requests from the M&B Metal Products Co., Inc. (``Petitioner''), the Department of Commerce (``Department'') is initiating an anti-circumvention inquiry to determine whether certain imports of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') are circumventing the antidumping duty order on steel wire garment hangers (``hangers'') from the People's......

  14. 76 FR 72721 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... rules, as amended, 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty... Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule...

  15. 76 FR 45509 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico, 75 FR 67685 (November 3, 2010... of the Antidumping Duty and Countervailing Duty Orders, and Intent To Revoke Orders in Part, 68 FR...: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 71 FR 27989 (May 15, 2006). Notification This...

  16. 76 FR 27007 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Circumvention Prelim, 68 FR at 46575 (unchanged in Pasta Circumvention Final, 68 FR 54888); and Lead and Bismuth...; and Lead and Bismuth from Germany and the UK, 64 FR at 40348. \\67\\ See, e.g., Angang's Questionnaire... of Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73...

  17. 76 FR 66903 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting the second administrative review of steel wire garment hangers from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. The Department has preliminarily determined that sales have been made below normal value (``NV'') by the respondent. If these preliminary results are adopted in our......

  18. 75 FR 68758 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6... to Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 50772 (October 1, 2009). On October 30, 2009, certain PRC... and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 74 FR 61658 (November 25, 2009) (``Initiation...

  19. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigations, the United States International Trade Commission (Commission) determines, pursuant...

  20. 77 FR 17418 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Determination, 76 FR 68407 (November 4, 2011); see also Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 76 FR 68422 (November 4... Determination and Alignment of Final Determination With Final Antidumping Determination, 76 FR 55031...

  1. 77 FR 46044 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... and Taiwan: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 77 FR 3731 (January 25, 2012) (``Initiation Notice''). \\3\\ See id., 77 FR at 3735-36. On February 13, 2012, the United States International Trade... and 731-TA-1197-1198 (Preliminary), Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam, 77 FR...

  2. Development of welding wire for high-purity austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Han, H.Y.; Sun, Z.

    1999-02-01

    High-purity austenitic stainless steels have been developed for nuclear fuel reprocessing applications. To produce nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, i.e., process vessels and pipeworks, welded joints are necessary, thus stimulating a need for filler metals. This paper discusses the development of a high-purity welding wire. As filler metal, such welding wire should provide not only good weldability, but should also be able to produce weldments having mechanical and corrosion properties equivalent to those of the base metal. According to these criteria, potential filler metals were evaluated. Based on this investigation, a high-purity austenitic stainless steel welding wire was developed that can be used to produce satisfactory weldments in terms of weldability, mechanical properties and, most importantly, corrosion properties.

  3. 78 FR 4389 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011, 77 FR 67332 (November 9, 2012) (``Final Results''). Before the... People's Republic of China: Notice of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 17154 (April 14, 2009). \\5\\ See... threaded rod is certain threaded rod, bar, or studs, of carbon quality steel, having a solid,...

  4. Role of corrosion in Harrington and Luque rods failure.

    PubMed

    Prikryl, M; Srivastava, S C; Viviani, G R; Ives, M B; Purdy, G R

    1989-03-01

    Ten in-vivo failed spinal instrumentation systems, i.e. six Harrington distraction rods with sublaminar hooks, one Harrington distraction rod with segmental wiring and three Luque rods with sublaminar wires, were fractographically analysed. In both Harrington and Luque rods corrosion fatigue was the predominant mechanism resulting in the failure. Five Harrington rods fractured at the first ratchet junction; fractures of the Luque rods were initiated by fretting of sublaminar wire with the rod surface in the presence of spinal non-union. Fretting and crevice corrosion were found to play an important role in compromising the segmental spinal instrumentation. The susceptibility of the 316 L CW austenitic stainless steel to pitting and relative resistance to crevice corrosion were measured by cyclic anodic polarization tests. The oxide inclusions have been found to play a significant role in the pitting of the alloy. PMID:2706297

  5. Ablation dominated implosion dynamics of aluminum and stainless steel nested cylindrical wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, K. M.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Ouart, N. D.; Yilmaz, F. M.; Shrestha, I. K.; Shlyaptseva, V.; McBride, R. D.; Chalenski, D. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.

    2009-01-15

    The results of experiments with combined aluminum (Al) and stainless steel (SS) alloy 304, nested wire arrays from the 1 MA COBRA generator at Cornell University are presented. The loads studied consisted of a 6 mm diameter inner array and a 13 mm diameter outer array with a different material in each array: SS or aluminum. Al implodes before SS in all loads studied, even when Al was on the inner array. The new wire ablation dynamic model and spectroscopic modeling are used to interpret these data. The observed implosion dynamics are likely a result of the higher ablation rate of Al. These initial results suggest that combining wire materials with different ablation rates in wire array loads could be developed into a useful technique for x-ray pulse shaping and radiation yield optimization.

  6. Radiation Hydrodynamics of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays on the Z Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J.; Clark, R. W.; Whitney, K.; Coverdale, C. A.; Lepell, D.; Jones, B.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    Experiments on the Z accelerator with nested stainless steel wire arrays produced K-shell x-ray yields exceeding 50 kJ in the energy range 5.5 to 8 keV. Stainless steel (Z = 24-28) can barely be ionized to the K-shell on Z, and the spectra are therefore sensitive to the details of the implosion. We have simulated the implosion dynamics of stainless steel wire arrays with diameters ranging from 4.5 to 8.0 centimeters using a detailed configuration non-LTE radiation hydrodynamics model. Reasonable agreement with total and K-shell experimental yields was obtained for the various array configurations. A comparison is made between the 1-D and 2-D simulations for shot Z-578.

  7. 77 FR 17430 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Determination, 76 FR 68407 (November 4, 2011) (``Preliminary Determination''). \\2\\ See Galvanized Steel Wire...: Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 31970, 31971-31972...-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from the Russian Federation, 65 FR 5510, 5518 (February 4,...

  8. Formation quality optimization of laser hot wire cladding for repairing martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Peng; Feng, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Laser cladding is an advantaged repairing technology due to its low heat input and high flexibility. With preheating wire by resistance heat, laser hot wire cladding shows better process stability and higher deposition efficiency compared to laser cold wire/powder cladding. Multi-pass layer were cladded on the surface of martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel FV520B by fiber laser with ER410NiMo wire. Wire feed rate and preheat current were optimized to obtain stable wire transfer, which guaranteed good formation quality of single pass cladding. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters and predict formation quality of multi-pass cladding. Laser power P, scanning speed Vs, wire feed rate Vf and overlap ratio η were selected as the input variables, while flatness ratio, dilution and incomplete fusion value as the responses. Optimal clad layer with flat surface, low dilution and no incomplete fusion was obtained by appropriately reducing Vf, and increasing P, Vs and η. No defect like pore or crack was found. The tensile strength and impact toughness of the clad layer is respectively 96% and 86% of those of the substrate. The clad layer showed nonuniform microstructure and was divided into quenched areas with coarse lath martensite and tempered areas with tempered martensite due to different thermal cycles in adjacent areas. The tempered areas showed similar hardness to the substrate.

  9. Structural changes of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films deposited on steel rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Junho; Hatta, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    In this study, hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were deposited on steel rods of various radii by using bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation and deposition, and the film structure and mechanical properties have been investigated. Furthermore, the behavior of plasma surrounding the steel rods (i.e., flux and energy of incident ions and electrons) was investigated using the particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC-MCC) method to examine the mechanism behind the structural changes of the a-C:H films. Three kinds of amorphous carbon films with different microstructures were prepared by changing the negative pulse voltages from -1 kV to -5 kV: one polymer-like carbon film and two diamond-like carbon films that possess the maximum FWHM(G) (full width at half maximum of Raman G-peak) and maximum hardness. The structure of the a-C:H films was evaluated through Raman spectroscopy, and the hardness of the films was measured using nanoindentation. It was found that the structures of a-C:H films deposited on the steel-rod surfaces are quite different from those on flat surfaces, and the film structures are directly affected by the curvature of the rod. It was also determined from the plasma simulation that the incident electron flux and ion flux become more intense as the curvature increases, resulting in the structural changes of the a-C:H films due to hydrogen evolution and thermal relaxation in the films.

  10. Comparison and analysis of the efficiency of heat exchange of copper rod and copper wires current lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Yu, T.; Li, Z. M.; Wei, B.; Qiu, M.; Zhang, H. J.

    2013-11-01

    Current leads are the key components that connect the low-temperature and high temperature parts of the cryogenic system. Owing to the wide range of temperatures, current leads are the main sources of heat leakage. Since the HTS tapes have no resistance and the generated Joule heat is almost zero, HTS binary current leads can reduce heat leakage compared to the conventional leads. However, heat will still be generated and conducted to the cryogenic system through the copper parts of the HTS current leads. In order to reduce heat leakage by the copper parts of the HTS current leads, this paper presents an optimized design of the copper parts of HTS binary current leads. Inside the leads, the copper wires were applied as an alternative to the copper rod without changing the overall dimensions. Firstly, the differential function of heat transfer was derived. By solving the function, the optimum number of the copper wires and the temperature distribution of two different current leads were gotten. Then the experiment of the temperature distribution was done, and the experimental results were basically the same with the calculative results. The simulation and related experiments proved that the copper wire can increase security margins and reduce maximum temperatures under the same shunt current.

  11. Formation Mechanism of SiO2-Type Inclusions in Si-Mn-Killed Steel Wires Containing Limited Aluminum Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Min; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Haoqian; Cao, Zhanmin

    2015-10-01

    The origin, formation mechanism, and evolution of SiO2-type inclusions in Si-Mn-killed steel wires were studied by pilot trials with systematical samplings at the refining ladle, casting tundish, as-cast bloom, reheated bloom, and hot-rolled rods. It was found that the inclusions in tundish were well controlled in the low melting point region. By contrast, MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions in the as-cast bloom were with compositions located in the primary region of SiO2, and most CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO inclusions lied in primary phase region of anorthite. Therefore, precipitation of SiO2 particles in MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions can be easier than in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO inclusions to form dual-phase inclusions in the as-cast bloom. Thermodynamic calculation by the software FactSage 6.4 (CRCT-ThermFact Inc., Montréal, Canada) showed that mass transfer between liquid steel and inclusions resulted in the rise of SiO2 content in inclusions from tundish to as-cast bloom and accelerated the precipitation of pure SiO2 phase in the formed MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions. As a result, the inclusions characterized by dual-phase structure of pure SiO2 in MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 matrix were observed in both as-cast and reheated blooms. Moreover, the ratio of such dual-phase SiO2-type inclusions witnessed an obvious increase from 0 to 25.4 pct before and after casting, whereas it changed little during the reheating and rolling. Therefore, it can be reasonably concluded that they were mainly formed during casting. Comparing the evolution of the inclusions composition and morphology in as-cast bloom and rolled products, a formation mechanism of the SiO2-type inclusions in wire rods was proposed, which included (1) precipitation of SiO2 in the formed MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusion during casting and (2) solid-phase separation of the undeformed SiO2 precipitation from its softer MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 matrix during multipass rolling.

  12. Structure and mechanical properties of as-received and heat-treated stainless steel orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Khier, S E; Brantley, W A; Fournelle, R A

    1988-03-01

    A combination of x-ray diffraction analysis with mechanical testing in tension and bending has been used to investigate the metallurgical structures and mechanical properties for as-received and heat-treated stainless steel orthodontic wires. Two different proprietary wire types were selected, having a wide range in cross-sectional dimensions: 0.016-, 0.030-, and 0.050- or 0.051-inch diameters, and 0.017 X 0.025-inch rectangular specimens. Heat treatments were performed for 10 minutes in air at temperatures of 700 degrees, 900 degrees, and 1100 degrees F. The x-ray diffraction patterns showed that the as-received 0.016-inch diameter and 0.017 X 0.025-inch wires of both proprietary types consisted of a two-phase structure containing a martensitic phase along with the austenitic phase. This duplex structure was converted entirely to austenite with heat treatment for one wire type, but persisted after heat treatment for the other wire type. The largest diameter, 0.050- or 0.051-inch, wires of both types were single-phase austenitic structure for both the as-received and heat-treated conditions. Evidence of substantial preferred crystallographic orientation or texturing in these orthodontic wires was also found by x-ray diffraction. As in our previous studies, the modulus of elasticity in bending was significantly less than the value obtained in tension for only the smaller cross-sectional wires. The 0.05 radian flexural yield strength correlated more closely with the 0.2% offset yield strength in tension than with the yield strength for 0.05% and 0.1% permanent offsets. PMID:3422776

  13. Spatially Resolved Synthetic Spectra from 2D Simulations of Stainless Steel Wire Array Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Chong, Y. K.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J.

    2009-01-21

    A 2D radiation MHD model has been developed to investigate stainless steel wire array implosion experiments on the Z and refurbished Z machines. This model incorporates within the Mach2 MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE kinetics and ray trace based radiation transport. Such a method is necessary in order to account for opacity effects in conjunction with ionization kinetics of K-shell emitting plasmas. Here the model is used to investigate multi-dimensional effects of stainless steel wire implosions. In particular, we are developing techniques to produce non-LTE, axially and/or radially resolved synthetic spectra based upon snapshots of our 2D simulations. Comparisons between experimental spectra and these synthetic spectra will allow us to better determine the state of the experimental pinches.

  14. Covalent immobilization of graphene onto stainless steel wire for jacket-free stir bar sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Zixin; Zhang, Juan; Meng, Jiawei; Bao, Tao; Chen, Zilin

    2014-05-23

    Stainless steel wire is a good substrate for jacket-free stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). In this work, we present the first example of chemical modification of graphene on stainless steel wire (SSW) for SBSE. Bio-inspired polydopamine was firstly modified on the SSW covalently; then graphene oxide was introduced and reacted with amino groups of polydopamine layer. The modification of polydopamine and graphene can be repeated by a layer-by-layer strategy, resulting in control of the thickness of graphene layer and increase of extraction capability. The prepared covalently immobilized graphene-stainless steel wire (G-SSW) exhibited good stability under stirring, ultrasonication and treatment with commonly used organic solvents, basic and acidic solutions. Application as stir bar for SBSE, G-SSW was found to possess good extraction efficiency towards pollutant polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with enrichment factors from 10086 to 16896. After optimization of conditions, G-SSW based SBSE was coupled HPLC for determination of PAHs in environmental and food samples. The quantitative method has low limits of detection of 0.2-50pg/mL, which is better than some reported SBSE-HPLC methods. The method shows wide linear range (200-5000, 10-1000 and 1-1000pg/mL), good linearity (r≥0.9950) and good reproducibility (RSD≤4.97%). The method has been applied to soil and food samples, with good selectivity and good recoveries ranging from 88.5-113.6%. PMID:24933622

  15. Growth inhibition of cultured smooth muscle cells by corrosion products of 316 L stainless steel wire.

    PubMed

    Shih, C C; Shih, C M; Chen, Y L; Su, Y Y; Shih, J S; Kwok, C F; Lin, S J

    2001-11-01

    The potential cytotoxicity on vascular smooth muscle cells of corrosion products from 316 L stainless steel, one of most popular biomaterials of intravascular stents, has not been highlighted. In this investigation, 316 L stainless steel wires were corroded in Dulbecco's modified eagle's medium with applied constant electrochemical breakdown voltage, and the supernatant and precipitates of corrosion products were prepared as culture media. The effects of different concentrations of corrosion products on the growth of rat aortic smooth muscle cells were conducted with the [3H]-thymidine uptake test and cell cycle sorter. Both the supernatant and precipitates of corrosion products were toxic to the primary culture of smooth muscle cells. The growth inhibition was correlated well with the increased nickel ions in the corrosion products when nickel concentration was above 11.7 ppm. The corrosion products also changed cell morphology and induced cell necrosis. The cell growth inhibition occurred at the G0/G1 to S transition phase. Similar to our recent study of nitinol stent wire, the present investigation also demonstrated the cytotoxicity of corrosion products of 316 L stainless steel stent wire on smooth muscle cells, which might affect the poststenting vascular response. PMID:11484182

  16. Surface Preparation of Powder Metallurgical Tool Steels by Means of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatami, Sepehr; Shahabi-Navid, Mehrdad; Nyborg, Lars

    2012-09-01

    The surface of two types of powder metallurgical (PM) tool steels ( i.e., with and without nitrogen) was prepared using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). From each grade of tool steel, seven surfaces corresponding to one to seven passes of WEDM were prepared. The WEDM process was carried out using a brass wire as electrode and deionized water as dielectric. After each WEDM pass the surface of the tool steels was thoroughly examined. Surface residual stresses were measured by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The measured stresses were found to be of tensile nature. The surface roughness of the WEDM specimens was measured using interference microscopy. The surface roughness as well as the residual stress measurements indicated an insignificant improvement of these parameters after four passes of WEDM. In addition, the formed recast layer was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The characterization investigation clearly shows diffusion of copper and zinc from the wire electrode into the work material, even after the final WEDM step. Finally, the importance of eliminating excessive WEDM steps is thoroughly discussed.

  17. Effect of microalloying on the strength of high carbon wire steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie L.

    Microalloying additions of V, Nb, and N were investigated as means of increasing strength of eutectoid steels for wire applications. In order to examine the effects of microalloying additions during several stages of wire processing, continuous cooling experiments with and without deformation as well as patenting simulations were conducted using a Gleeble® 3500 thermomechanical simulator. Continuous cooling was performed from industrial austenitizing (1093 °C) and laying head (950 °C and 880 °C) temperatures, at rates ranging from 1 50 °C/s. Deformation was induced via hot torsion testing, which was followed by continuous cooling from 950 °C at rates of 5, 10, and 25 °C/s. Industrial wire patenting was simulated by austenitizing at 1093 °C or 950 °C for 30 sec, then rapid cooling to isothermal transformation temperatures of 575, 600, 625, and 650 °C for 15 sec before cooling to room temperature. Metallography, Vickers hardness, pearlite colony size and pearlite interlamellar spacing (ILS) measurements were used to examine the effects of these treatments. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves were constructed for four steels: 1080, V, V+N, and V+Nb. In the V-microalloyed steel, additional N accelerated pearlite transformation and Nb delayed pearlite transformation. Observed N effects are in agreement with the theory of VN nucleating grain boundary ferrite and accelerating pearlite transformation, proposed by Han et al. [1995], and also consistent with observations by Brownrigg and Prior [2002]. Delay of transformation temperatures has been observed due to Nb effects [De Ardo, 2009]. A larger delay observed with higher austenitizing temperatures suggests that Nb precipitates may not be as effective at delaying transformation. V strengthening effects were observed in all microalloyed steels using a model that predicted hardness of eutectoid steels by incorporating colony size and ILS measurements, with maximum strengthening observed for the V+N steel. The V+Nb steel was found to have the greatest refinement of colony size and ILS, and subsequently higher hardness among the test alloys in both the undeformed and deformed conditions, consistent with the delay of pearlite transformation. In general, undeformed samples had much higher hardness values. Patenting simulations performed on microalloyed steels showed the potential for increased strength with V addition with a sufficiently high austenitizing temperature. All microalloyed steels showed higher hardness than 1080 when austenitized at 1093 °C, with V and V+Nb having the greatest strength increase. The effect was not observed with a 950 °C reheat potentially related to insufficient dissolution of precipitates.

  18. Improving Cleanliness of 95CrMo Drill Rod Steel by Slag Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Wu, Tuo; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Jiaze

    2016-02-01

    Industrial experiments were performed to improve the cleanliness of 95CrMo drill rod steel by slag refining. Higher steel cleanliness, lower corrosion, and small inclusions were obtained using the optimal slag composition (pctCaO/pctSiO2 = 3.7 to 4, pctCaO/pctAl2O3 = 6 to 8). Layered composite inclusions formed during vacuum decarburizing refining. CaS first precipitated around the spinel and subsequently formed inclusions in which solid CaS-CaO wrapped around the Al2O3-MgO-SiO2-CaO system as the modification and diffusion progressed. The thermodynamic equilibrium between slag and liquid 95CrMo steel at 1873 K (1600 °C) was also studied to understand the effect of slag composition on the oxygen content and absorption capacity for Al2O3. A mathematical model based on an investigation of slag viscosity and the interfacial tension between slag and inclusions was used to predict the size of critical inclusions for different slags. The evolution of typical inclusions is discussed in terms of the study of reactions between slag and steel.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF POLARIZATION UPON THE STEEL WIRE-NITRIC ACID MODEL OF NERVE ACTIVITY.

    PubMed

    Bishop, G H

    1927-11-20

    The active process in a short length of steel wire passivated by 65 per cent nitric acid has been observed under the influence of a polarizing current, and the form of the potential recorded by the cathode ray oscillograph. In the passive wire, 80 per cent of the total potential drop takes place at the anode, 20 per cent at the cathode. The change from active to passive states, as measured by the potential change, is very abrupt compared to the duration of activity and the potential curve at a point on the wire is probably almost rectangular. The duration of the refractory state is decreased at the anode and increased at the cathode, as in nerve. This fact is against the idea that reactivity after passivation results from a partial reduction of an oxide layer. Soft iron wire passivated by anodal polarization repassivates after activation in acid of a dilution that fails to passivate it initially. It soon becomes rhythmic with a very short refractory phase, and then reacts continuously. Such a wire exhibits a very sharp alternation between a dark brown oxide coat during activity, and a bright clean surface during passivation. A passive steel wire in nitric acid shows many of the characteristics of an inert electrode such as platinum, and it may be inferred that, superposed upon the primary passivation potential, there exists an electrode or oxidation-reduction potential equilibrium between the effects of the various constituents of the solution. It is suggested that the phenomena of nerve-like reactivity in this system may involve an alternation between two protective coatings of the steel wire. During activity, the surface becomes mechanically coated with a brown oxide. If this coating does not adhere, due to gas convection or to rapid solution of the oxide, passivation does not result. Under sufficiently intense oxidizing conditions, a second oxide coat may form in the interstices of the first, and cover the surface as the first coating dissolves off. This furnishes the electrochemical protection of passivation, which is followed by the gradual attainment of electrode equilibrium with the solution. PMID:19872388

  20. Effect of heat treatment on stainless steel orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido; Kasbergen, Geraldo Francisco; Santos, Paulo Henrique dos; Mendonça, Marcos Rogério de; Tondelli, Pedro Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on CrNi stainless steel orthodontic archwires. Half of forty archwires of each thickness - 0.014" (0.35 mm), 0.016" (0.40 mm), 0.018" (0.45 mm) and 0.020" (0.50 mm) (totalling 160 archwires) - were subjected to heat treatment while the remainder were not. All of the archwires had their individual thickness measured in the anterior and posterior regions using AutoCad 2000 software before and after compressive and tensile strength testing. The data was statistically analysed utilising multivariance ANOVA at a 5% significance level. All archwires without heat treatment that were subjected to tensile strength testing presented with anterior opening, which was more accentuated in the 0.020" archwires. In the posterior region, the opening produced by the tensile force was more accentuated in the archwires without heat treatment. There was greater stability in the thermally treated archwires, especially those subjected to tensile strength testing, which indicates that the heat treatment of orthodontic archwires establishes a favourable and indispensable condition to preserve the intercanine width. PMID:21359492

  1. A novel TMR-based MFL sensor for steel wire rope inspection using the orthogonal test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Wang, Y. J.; Liu, X. C.; He, C. F.

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) sensors, with their compact configuration and high sensitivity to small defects, have attracted much attention in recent years for the non-destructive testing of ferromagnetic structures. Tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) devices have superior performances in sensitivity and linear operation range over conventional magneto-resistive devices. In this paper, a commercial TMR device is employed for developing an electromagnet-based MFL sensor. The electromagnet magnetizer includes Helmholtz-like coils together with a custom-made magnetic shield. The orthogonal test method is applied to aid the structural parameter optimization to the magnetizer based on the finite element analysis results of magnetic field distribution. In this study a prototype of a TMR-based MFL sensor is developed, and its performances on detecting various types of defects are tested on a scanning apparatus. The experimental results show that the MFL signal induced by a blind hole with dimensions of 0.3 mm in both depth and diameter is detectable. In addition, two adjacent notches located more than 2.0 mm from each other can be clearly distinguished from the received MFL signal. The detectable angular detection range for a single TMR device is estimated as 52° in the tested linear shaft rod. The consistency between the simulated and received MFL signal induced by a row of notches inspires confidence in the proposed sensor design method, which in the future can be transplanted for TMR-based sensor array design. Finally, the TMR-based MFL sensor is used for detecting a flaw of a single broken wire with a diameter of 0.5 mm, and the induced MFL signal can be clearly recognized from the oscillation signal that is generated by the twisted rope surface. Therefore, the presented TMR-based MFL sensor has great potential for steel wire rope inspection with enhanced sensitivity to small defects, and it is capable of being integrated into production lines due to its compact configuration.

  2. 76 FR 68422 - Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... notified the Department of its finding. See Galvanized Steel Wire from China and Mexico, 76 FR 29266 (May... Less Than Fair Value: Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from South Africa, 62 FR 61731, 61732-33... Investigations, 76 FR 23548 (April 27, 2011) (Initiation Notice). The Petitioners in this investigation are...

  3. Cold Drawn Steel Wires-Processing, Residual Stresses and Ductility Part II: Synchrotron and Neutron Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Phelippeau,A.; Pommier, S.; Zakharchenko, I.; Levy-Tubiana, R.; Tsakalakos, T.; Clavel, M.; Croft, M.; Zhong, Z.; Prioul, C.

    2006-01-01

    Cold drawing of steel wires leads to an increase of their mechanical strength and to a drop in their ductility. The increase of their mechanical strength has long been related to the reduction of the various material scales by an intense plastic deformation. Besides, it was discussed in the companion paper that large plastic deformation leads to the loss of the material hardening capabilities and that, in such a case, residual stresses preserve the elongation to failure of wires. Experimental measurements of residual stresses inside the wire have therefore been undertaken. In this paper, lattice parameters as measured using synchrotron diffraction are compared with those calculated using the residual stress fields as determined by the finite-element method. There is a major disagreement between experimental and numerical results that is too large to be attributed to the errors of the finite-element analyses. Therefore, neutron diffraction experiments have also been performed. These measurements show that there is a significant variation of the lattice parameter with the drawing level, which is not inherited from residual stresses, and that variation is very sensitive to the cooling rate after processing. It is therefore proposed that cold drawing would induce a phase transformation of the steel, possibly a martensitic transformation.

  4. Dilution control in single-wire stainless steel submerged arc cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Kotecki, D.J., Ogborn, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    Work by Jackson and others has shown that dilution of single weld beads can be controlled to a limited extent by choice of welding parameters in single wire submerged arc overlay. Inquiries from fabricators about limiting dilution in single-wire submerged arc cladding continue to be received. Accordingly, a procedure development program was undertaken to provide technical support to fabricators. A table, with a lead screw for accurately and reproducibly indexing the stepover from bead to bead, was constructed. Overlays, at least eight beads wide, were deposited on 1-in. thick mild steel using ER309L wire, in sizes 1/8, 3/32, and 5/64- in. More than 50 different cladding conditions have been examined. A number of overlays were made with 1/8 in. wire at 80 ipm wire feed speed (about 16.5 lb/h deposition rate), DCEP, with a chromium-compensating flux. Voltage, tilt of the electrode back towards the previous bead, and stepover were principle variables. In single-wire submerged arc cladding with ER309L, stepover is a very important variable in determining dilution and ferrite. However, if too little stepover is used, lack of fusion of the overlay with the base metal results. Use of DCEN can be helpful in limiting dilution and obtaining ferrite, but many fluxes do not perform well on DCEN. A chromium-adding flux designed for DCEN can be of assistance in limiting dilution and obtaining ferrite over a broader range of stepovers. Quantitative dilution data are presented for a variety of single-layer overlay conditions.

  5. Corrosion damage estimation in multi-wire steel strands using guided ultrasonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhidzadeh, Alireza; Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a nondestructive evaluation method based on guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) to estimate corrosion in steel strands. Steel strands are one of the main components in constructing prestressed structures. Hidden corrosion in these structures has become a concern for designers, owners and regulators as it can eventuate in disastrous failure. In this study, a reference-free algorithm is proposed to quantify the extent of corrosion through estimating the cross section loss using dispersion curves and the velocity of certain frequency components in the waveform. Experimental test setups were designed to accelerate corrosion on two similarly loaded steel strands. One strand was embedded in concrete (to simulate a prestressed concrete beam) and the other was free (to resemble a prestressed cable). Visual inspection, halfcell potential, and mass loss measurements were employed as supporting evidences for the state of corrosion. An uncertainty analysis was also carried out to investigate how close this method can estimate the diameter of wires in a strand. The method could reasonably estimate the diameter of the wires without a reference baseline.

  6. 76 FR 27304 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Court of International Trade (``CIT'') sustained the Department's results of redetermination. Pursuant... Fair Value, 74 FR 8907 (February 27, 2009) (``Final Determination'') and Certain Steel Threaded Rod from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 17154 (April 14,...

  7. Reconstruction of radial thermal conductivity depth profile in case hardened steel rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celorrio, Ricardo; Mendioroz, Arantza; Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Salazar, Agustín; Wang, Chinhua; Mandelis, Andreas

    2009-04-01

    In this work the surface thermal-wave field (ac temperature) of a solid cylinder illuminated by a modulated light beam is calculated first in two cases: a multilayered cylinder and a cylinder the radial thermal conductivity of which varies continuously. It is demonstrated numerically that, using a few layers of different thicknesses, the surface thermal-wave field of a cylindrical sample with continuously varying radial thermal conductivity can be calculated with high accuracy. Next, an inverse procedure based on the multilayered model is used to reconstruct the radial thermal conductivity profile of hardened C1018 steel rods, the surface temperature of which was measured by photothermal radiometry. The reconstructed thermal conductivity depth profile has a similar shape to those found for flat samples of this material and shows a qualitative anticorrelation with the hardness depth profile.

  8. Arc spraying of nano-structured wire on carbon steel: examination of coating microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Al Askandarani, A.; Hashmi, M. S. J.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2011-01-17

    Arc spraying of nano-structured wire (TAFA 95MX) onto carbon steel is carried out. The workpieces coated were heat treated at temperature similar to the operating temperature of the hot-path components of power gas turbines. The morphological and microstructural changes in the coating are examined using optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The surface roughness and microhardness of the resulting coatings are measured. It is found that the formation of dimples like structure at surface increased the surface roughness of the coating. The microhardness of the resulting coating is significantly higher than the base material hardness. Heat treatment does not alter the microstructure and microhardness of the coating.

  9. Dissimilar material joining using laser (aluminum to steel using zinc-based filler wire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Alexandre; Shabadi, Rajashekar; Deschamps, Alexis; Suery, Michel; Matteï, Simone; Grevey, Dominique; Cicala, Eugen

    2007-04-01

    Joining steel with aluminum involving the fusion of one or both materials is possible by laser beam welding technique. This paper describes a method, called laser braze welding, which is a suitable process to realize this structure. The main problem with thermal joining of steel/aluminum assembly with processes such as TIG or MIG is the formation of fragile intermetallic phases, which are detrimental to the mechanical performances of such joints. Braze welding permits a localized fusion of the materials resulting in a limitation on the growth of fragile phases. This article presents the results of a statistical approach for an overlap assembly configuration using a filler wire composed of 85% Zn and 15% Al. Tensile tests carried on these assemblies demonstrate a good performance of the joints. The fracture mechanisms of the joints are analyzed by a detailed characterization of the seams.

  10. Mechanisms of electrostimulated plasticity during wire-drawing of stainless steel Kh18N10T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsellermaer, V. Ya.; Gromov, V. E.; Kornienko, L. A.; Chubenko, T. Yu.; Aponasenkova, O. V.

    1991-11-01

    To clarify the mechanisms by-which current pulses affect plastic deformation, an electron-microscope study has been made of the evolution of the fine structure of steel Kh18N10T subjected to electrostimulated (current density 1200 MA/m2, frequency 200 Hz) and conventional wire-drawing at a speed of 1.88 m/sec with total reduction up to 58%. The evolution of the microstructure of steel during conventional plastic deformation of drawing is similar to that produced by conventional drawing and simultaneous current pulses. Quantitative characteristics of microstructure such as scalar dislocation density, azimuthal disorientation, and distance between subboundaries have been measured and statistically evaluated. The effect of the current is connected with the reduction of the scalar dislocation density and partial recovery of the substructure. Proposed models are supported by the data on microplastic deformation.

  11. An explanation for the anomalous wave profiles obtained in Composition B-3 impacted by flat nosed steel rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Hugh; Gustavsen, Richard; Dattelbaum, Dana

    2015-06-01

    When firing flat nosed steel rods into the 60/40 RDX/TNT explosive Composition B-3, Gustavsen et al. (``Initiation of Composition B-3 by impact of flat nosed rods,'' in 15th Int. Det. Symp.) found an apparently anomalous ``hump'' in particle velocity wave profiles. The hump occurred on the center-line established by the rod, and at relatively late times, > 1 μs, after detonation onset. Several explanations, including that of a late time reaction, were postulated. This report will present evidence that the anomalous late time ``hump'' is due to the arrival of rarefaction waves from the rod periphery. Simple analytic calculations and reactive-burn hydro-code calculations will be presented supporting this hypothesis.

  12. Research of x-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Miao, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Lu, Xiaocui

    2008-03-01

    An X-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. The principle of X-ray nondestructive testing (NDT) is analyzed, the general scheme of the X-ray nondestructive testing system is proposed, and the nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is developed. The hardware of system is designed with Xilinx's VIRTEX-4 FPGA that embeds PowerPC and MAC IP core, and its network communication software based on TCP/IP protocol is programmed by loading LwIP to PowerPC. The nondestructive testing of high-speed conveyor belt with steel wire ropes and network transfer function are implemented. It is a strong real-time system with rapid scanning speed, high reliability and remotely nondestructive testing function. The nondestructive detector can be applied to the detection of product line in industry.

  13. Facile fabrication of micro-nano-rod structures for inducing a superamphiphobic property on steel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Yu, Sirong

    2016-01-01

    The development of the lyophobic surface has potentially practical value in many fields. In this study, a superamphiphobic ZnO film was fabricated on X90 pipeline steel surface via a combined approach using electrodeposition, hydrothermal treatment and chemical modification. The ZnO with micro-nano-rod structures was in situ grown on the deposited Zn coating, and the chemical modification achieved superomniphobic property of the ZnO film. The contact angles of water and glycerol on this film were about 157.59° and 153.76°, respectively, and the sliding angles of them were <10°. In addition, the superamphiphobic ZnO film was excellent repellent to other liquids, including salted water, ethanol-water, crude oil and wax. Both the morphology and the low-surface-energy material play key roles in fabricating the superamphiphobic ZnO film on the steel surface. Importantly, the deposited Zn coating and the superamphiphobic ZnO film ensure the surface with corrosion resistance and excellent lyophobic property, respectively.

  14. Influence of Ti and Ta doping on the irreversible strain limit of ternary Nb3Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process

    SciTech Connect

    Cheggour, N.; Ghosh, A.; Goodrich, L.F., Stauffer, T.C., Splett, J.D., Lu, X.F., Ambrosio, G.

    2010-06-22

    Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process (RRP{reg_sign}) were found to have a dramatically improved resilience to axial tensile strain when alloyed with Ti as compared to Ta. Whereas Ta-alloyed Nb{sub 3}Sn in RRP wires showed permanent damage to its current-carrying capacity (I{sub c}) when tensioned beyond an intrinsic strain as small as 0.04%, Ti-doped Nb{sub 3}Sn in RRP strands exhibits a remarkable reversibility up to a tensile strain of about 0.25%, conceivably making Ti-doped RRP wires more suitable for the high field magnets used in particle accelerators and nuclear magnetic resonance applications where mechanical forces are intense. A strain cycling experiment at room temperature caused a significant drop of I{sub c} in Ta-alloyed wires, but induced an increase of I{sub c} in the case of Ti-doped strands. Whereas either Ti or Ta doping yield a similar enhancement of the upper critical field of Nb{sub 3}Sn, the much improved mechanical behavior of Ti-alloyed wires possibly makes Ti a better choice over Ta, at least for the RRP wire processing technique.

  15. Development of Process Maps in Two-Wire Tandem Submerged Arc Welding Process of HSLA Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, D. V.; Alam, S. A.; De, A.

    2013-04-01

    Appropriate selection of welding conditions to guarantee requisite weld joint mechanical properties is ever difficult because of their complex interactions. An approach is presented here to identify suitable welding conditions in typical two-wire tandem submerged arc welding (SAW-T) that involves many welding variables. First, an objective function is defined, which depicts the squared error between the mechanical properties of weld joint and of base material. A set of artificial neural network (ANN)-based models are developed next to estimate the weld joint properties as function of welding conditions using experimentally measured results. The neural network model-based predictions are used next to create a set of process map contours that depict the minimum achievable values of the objective function and the corresponding welding conditions. In typical SAW-T of HSLA steel, welding speed from 9.0 to 11.5 mm/s, leading wire current from 530 to 580 A, and trailing wire negative current from 680 to 910 A are found to be the most optimal.

  16. GMDH-type neural network modeling and genetic algorithm-based multi-objective optimization of thermal and friction characteristics in heat exchanger tubes with wire-rod bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Beigzadeh, Reza; Parvizi, Mehdi; Eiamsa-ard, Smith

    2015-09-01

    The group method of data handling (GMDH) technique was used to predict heat transfer and friction characteristics in heat exchanger tubes equipped with wire-rod bundles. Nusselt number and friction factor were determined as functions of wire-rod bundle geometric parameters and Reynolds number. The performance of the developed GMDH-type neural networks was found to be superior in comparison with the proposed empirical correlations. For optimization, the genetic algorithm-based multi-objective optimization was applied.

  17. Crystallographic Texture Difference Between Center and Sub-Surface of Thin Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Song, Hong-Wu; Cheng, Ming; Zhang, Shi-Hong

    2014-09-01

    The texture difference between the center and sub-surface of pearlitic steel wires, which were manufactured by continuous cold drawing, was investigated by orientation distribution function based on electron back-scattered diffraction at different drawing passes. A perfect <110> fiber texture parallel to drawing direction develops gradually with drawing strain increasing at the wire center, while at the sub-surface, a quasi <110> fiber texture with the <111> orientation nearly parallel to the circumferential direction is found. This texture at the sub-surface is softer than the perfect <110> fiber texture in tension. The reasons for this texture difference and influences on the wire's mechanical properties are discussed.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of the compositional control of inclusions in cutting-wire steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fu-ming; Li, Chang-rong

    2014-07-01

    Data from a thermodynamic database and the calculation software FactSage were used to investigate the phase diagrams of the MnO-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system in cutting-wire steel and the effects of oxide components on the low-melting-point (LMP) zone in the corresponding phase diagrams. Furthermore, the activities of oxide components in the quaternary system at an Al2O3 content of 25wt% were calculated. The contents of dissolved [Al] and [O] in liquid steel in equilibrium with LMP inclusions in the MnO-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system were optimized. The results show that the MnO-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system possesses the largest LMP zone (below 1400°C) at an Al2O3 content of 25wt% and that the CaO content should be simultaneously controlled in the range of 40wt% to 45wt%. The activities of the oxide components CaO, MnO, and SiO2 should be restricted in the ranges of 0 to 0.05, 0.01 to 0.6, and 0.001 to 0.8, respectively. To obtain LMP inclusions, the [Al] and [O] contents in cutting-wire steel must be controlled within the ranges of 0.5 × 10-6 to 1.0 × 10-5 and 3.0 × 10-6 to 5.0 × 10-5, respectively.

  19. Nanostructural States and Properties of the Surfacing Formed on Steel by a Cored Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapralov, E. V.; Budovskikh, E. A.; Gromov, V. E.; Ivanov, Yu. F.

    2015-08-01

    Structural-phase states and mechanical properties of electric arc surfacing by an EnDOtec DO*33 cored wire on a Hardox 400 steel are investigated. Formation of the multiphase state of the surfacing represented by grains of α-iron and inclusions of carbide phases based on iron, chromium, and niobium is revealed by the methods of electron diffraction microscopy and x-ray phase analysis. The additional treatment of the surfacing by a high-intensity electron beam is performed. Mutual arrangement of the grains of α-iron and particles of carbide phases is investigated. It is found that the surfacing layer is in the elastic-stressed state formed as a result of super-high heating and cooling rates initiated by the pulsed electron beam treatment. It is shown that the microhardness of the surfaced layer remains constant with the depth down to 4 mm and exceeds by a factor of 2.4 the microhardness of the substrate; the wear resistance of the surfacing is 3 times higher than that of the steel, and the friction coefficient of the surfacing is half that of the steel.

  20. 77 FR 28356 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan: Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 77 FR 3731 (January 25, 2012). Postponement of Preliminary... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan... INFORMATION CONTACT: Irene Gorelik (Vietnam) or Paul Walker (Taiwan), Office 9, AD/CVD Operations,...

  1. 77 FR 62492 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Hangers from Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less than Fair Value, 77 FR 46055 (August 2... from Taiwan; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 64 FR 55234, 55234 (October... Administrative Review, 65 FR 7491 (February 15, 2000). \\3\\ See Memorandum to the File, ``Steel Wire Hangers...

  2. 76 FR 27994 - First Administrative Review of Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...On November 9, 2010, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') published in the Federal Register the preliminary results of the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on steel wire garment hangers from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an opportunity to comment on the Preliminary Results. Based upon our analysis of the comments and......

  3. 75 FR 38977 - Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Duty Determination, 75 FR 28557 (May 21, 2010) (Final Determination). On June 22, 2010, the ITC... Determination, 74 FR 56576 (November 2, 2009) (Preliminary Determination). In accordance with section 703(d) of... Concrete Steel Wire Strand from China: Determinations, 75 FR 36678 (June 28, 2010) (ITC Final...

  4. 78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Operations, Office 8, Import Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Room C-100, 14th Street and... Countervailing Duty Determination and Final Affirmative Critical Circumstances Determination, 77 FR 75973, (December 26, 2012). \\2\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers from Vietnam (Investigation Nos. 701-TA-487 and...

  5. 76 FR 68407 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of Sales at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 76 FR 23548 (April 27, 2011) (``Initiation Notice''). \\3\\ See id., at 76 FR 23553. On May 16, 2011, the United States International Trade Commission (``ITC...), Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico, 76 FR 29266 (May 20, 2011). Period of Investigation The...

  6. 75 FR 1755 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final Determination AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. DATES:...

  7. Cold Drawn Steel Wires-Processing, Residual Stresses and Ductility-Part I: Metallography and Finite Element Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Phelippeau,A.; Pommier, S.; Tsakalakos, T.; Clavel, M.; Prioul, C.

    2006-01-01

    Cold drawing steel wires lead to an increase of their mechanical strength and to a drop of their ductility. The increase of their mechanical strength has long been related to the reduction of the various material scales by plastic deformation, but the mechanisms controlling their elongation to failure have received relatively little attention. It is usually found that heavily deformed materials show a tendency to plastic strain localization and necking. However, in this paper it is shown that, though the steel wires are plastically deformed up to strain levels as high as 3.5, a significant capability of plastic deformation is preserved in as-drawn wires. This apparent contradiction is resolved by the existence of residual stresses inside the wire. Finite element analyses have been conducted in order to show that residual stresses, inherited from the drawing process, are sufficient to produce a significant hardening effect during a post-drawing tensile test, without introducing any hardening in the local material behavior. The main conclusion of this paper is that once the material has lost its hardening capabilities, residual stresses, inherited from the process, control the elongation of cold drawn wires. The finite element method allowed also the determination of the residual stress field that would lead to the best agreement between the simulated and the experimental stress strain curve of as-drawn wires.

  8. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Korea and Spain. Background The Commission instituted these reviews effective July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31765, July 2, 2009) and determined on October 5, 2009, that it would conduct full reviews (74 FR 54068... 30, 2009 (74 FR 62588). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on April 8, 2010, and all persons...

  9. 78 FR 2658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 59894 (October 1, 2012). \\2\\ See Letter from Nucor... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 71575 (December 3, 2012). \\4... accordance with 19 CPR 351.305(a)(3). Timely written notification of the return/destruction of APO...

  10. 77 FR 59892 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Determination of Circumvention of the Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR 78882 (December 20, 2011) (Preliminary...-Circumvention Inquiry of Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR 33218 (June 8, 2011) (Initiation). The Department is... by this circumvention inquiry. \\3\\ See Preliminary Determination. \\4\\ See Id., 76 FR at 78884....

  11. Effect of confining pressure due to external jacket of steel plate or shape memory alloy wire on bond behavior between concrete and steel reinforcing bars.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2014-12-01

    For external jackets of reinforced concrete columns, shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are easy to install, and they provide active and passive confining pressure; steel plates, on the other hand, only provide passive confining pressure, and their installation on concrete is not convenient because of the requirement of a special device. To investigate how SMA wires distinctly impact bond behavior compared with steel plates, this study conducted push-out bond tests of steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete confined by SMA wires or steel plates. For this purpose, concrete cylinders were prepared with dimensions of 100 mm x 200 mm, and D-22 reinforcing bars were embedded at the center of the concrete cylinders. External jackets of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thickness steel plates were used to wrap the concrete cylinders. Additionally, NiTiNb SMA wire with a diameter of 1.0 mm was wound around the concrete cylinders. Slip of the reinforcing bars due to pushing force was measured by using a displacement transducer, while the circumferential deformation of specimens was obtained by using an extensometer. The circumferential deformation was used to calculate the circumferential strains of the specimens. This study assessed the radial confining pressure due to the external jackets on the reinforcing bars at bond strength from bond stress-slip curves and bond stress-circumferential strain curves. Then, the effects of the radial confining pressure on the bond behavior of concrete are investigated, and an equation is suggested to estimate bond strength using the radial confining pressure. Finally, this study focused on how active confining pressure due to recovery stress of the SMA wires influences bond behavior. PMID:25971115

  12. 1D Scaling with Ablation for K-Shell Radiation from Stainless Steel Wire Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J.; Clark, R. W.; Jones, B.; Cuneo, M.; Coverdale, C. A.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    A 1D Lagrangian magnetohydrodynamic z-pinch simulation code is extended to include wire ablation. The plasma transport coefficients are calibrated to reproduce the K-shell yields measured on the Z generator for three stainless steel arrays of diameter 55 mm and masses ranging from 1.8 to 2.7 mg. The resulting 1D scaling model is applied to a larger SS array (65 mm and 2.5 mg) on the refurbished Z machine. Simulation results predict a maximum K-shell yield of 77 kJ for an 82 kV charging voltage. This maximum drops to 42 kJ at 75 kV charging. Neglecting the ablation precursor leads to a {approx}10% change in the calculated yield.

  13. High-frequency induction heating of Ti-coated mild steel rod for minimally invasive ablation therapy of human cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naohara, Takashi; Aono, Hiromichi; Shirai, Kentaro; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Hirazawa, Hideyuki; Matsutomo, Shinya; Watanabe, Yuji

    2013-04-01

    For application as a novel ablation therapy of human cancer, the heating property of a Ti-coated mild steel rod was studied in an AC magnetic field at 300 kHz. When the Ti-tube thickness was as low as 0.1 mm, the specimen, when placed parallel to the magnetic flux direction (θ=0°), exhibited a significant increase in temperature; however, its value gradually decreased with the increasing Ti thickness. In computer simulation images, the high magnetic flux concentration and concurrent large current density were observed around the interface between the mild steel rod and the Ti-tube. The heating property was drastically different at the three inclination angles (θ=0°, 45°, and 90°) to the magnetic flux direction. However, the effect of the inclination angle was markedly reduced in the mild steel rod surrounded by a 0.3 mm thick Ti-tube, suggesting that the non-oriented heating property will be achieved for the prototype ablation needle coated with a Ti layer having the optimum thickness.

  14. In situ method of inspecting anchor rods for section loss using the cylindrically guided wave technique

    SciTech Connect

    Niles, G.B.

    1996-07-01

    A nondestructive evaluation technique has been developed to measure and analyze section loss due to corrosion for anchor rods used in guying steel transmission poles. The anchor guy system tested consists of a steel plate embedded in concrete connected to a steel rod buried in earth and attached to the guy wire from the pole. The method used was ultrasonics and specifically, the cylindrically guided wave technique (CGWT). Field correlation of the method was verified by digging up and inspecting several rods. This approach has optimized the ultimate replacement and maintenance expense.

  15. Graphene coating bonded onto stainless steel wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-03-01

    A graphene coating bonded onto stainless steel wire was fabricated and investigated as a solid-phase microextraction fiber. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The coating with rough and crinkled structure was about 1 μm. These characteristics were helpful for promoting extraction. Using five n-alkanes (n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane) as analytes, the fiber was evaluated in direct-immersion mode by coupling with gas chromatography (GC). Through optimizing extraction and desorption conditions, a sensitive SPME-GC analytical method was established. SPME-GC method provided wide linearity range (0.2-150 μg L(-1)) and low limits of determination (0.05-0.5 μg L(-1)). It was applied to analyze rain water and a soil sample, and analytes were quantified in the range of 0.85-1.96 μg L(-1) and 0.09-3.34 μg g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of samples spiked at 10 μg L(-1) were in the range of 90.1-120% and 80.6-94.2%, respectively. The fiber also exhibited high thermal and chemical stability, due to the covalent bonds between graphene coating and wire, and the natural resistance of graphene for thermal, acid and basic conditions. PMID:25618658

  16. Analysis of the performance of a sintered stainless steel wire mesh filter for cryogenic liquid purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Shi, Y. M.; Wang, R. S.; Li, X. D.; Xie, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    As a traditional and mature solid-liquid separating technique, filtration has been adopted in cryogenic liquid purification system owing to its low energy cost, simplified system, long lifetime and high purifying efficiency. Whereas, few data or result of filtration performance at low temperature is put forward in literatures, most of which are related to room and high temperatures applications. Furthermore, as an excellent cryogenic material, stainless steel medium is suitable for cryogenic liquid filtration, which is also seldom reported. In this paper, we propose a filtration system for purifying CO 2 particles from liquid nitrogen using a sintered stainless steel wire mesh filter with a nominal filtration degree of 0.5 μm, and characterize the separation behavior of this kind of filter medium at cryogenic temperature. Experimental results show that the whole filtration process can be divided into three stages with sufficient particle concentration in the feed slurry according to the evolution of pressure drop. Differences between surface filtration and depth filtration are demonstrated, and the influence of growth of filter cake is characterized. Pressure drop increases with increasing feed slurry flow and CO 2 concentration, and evolution tendency of filtration efficiency is affected by its calculation method. By comparison with the filtration at room and high temperatures, the effects of temperature on the fluid and media are emphasized.

  17. 77 FR 71776 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Republic of China: Notice of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 17154 (April 14, 2009) (``Order''). DATES... rod products with 1.25 percent or more chromium, by weight, produced by Gem-Year Industrial Co., Ltd... threaded rod from the PRC produced by Gem-Year containing greater than 1.25 percent chromium, by...

  18. Growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire using chemical vapour deposition and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

    2014-01-01

    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small I(uv)/I(vis) ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics. PMID:24587716

  19. Growth of ZnO Nanorods on Stainless Steel Wire Using Chemical Vapour Deposition and Their Photocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

    2014-01-01

    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small Iuv/Ivis ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics. PMID:24587716

  20. Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding of Dissimilar Titanium Alloy and Stainless Steel Using Copper Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Chen, Cong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zemin; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2015-05-01

    Laser-arc hybrid welding with Cu3Si filler wire was employed to join dissimilar Ti6Al4V titanium alloy and AISI316 stainless steel (316SS). The effects of welding parameters on bead shape, microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior were investigated in detail. The results show that cross-weld tensile strength of the joints is up to 212 MPa. In the joint, obvious nonuniformity of the microstructure is found in the fusion zone (FZ) and at the interfaces from the top to the bottom, which could be improved by increasing heat input. For the homogeneous joint, the FZ is characterized by Fe67- x Si x Ti33 dendrites spreading on α-Cu matrix, and the two interfaces of 316SS/FZ and FZ/Ti6Al4V are characterized by a bamboo-like 316SS layer and a CuTi2 layer, respectively. All the tensile samples fractured in the hardest CuTi2 layer at Ti6Al4V side of the joints. The fracture surface is characterized by river pattern revealing brittle cleavage fracture. The bead formation mechanisms were discussed according to the melt flow and the thermodynamic calculation.

  1. A direct assessment of human prion adhered to steel wire using real-time quaking-induced conversion.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tsuyoshi; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Furukawa, Kana; Takatsuki, Hanae; Satoh, Katsuya; Sano, Kazunori; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accidental transmission of prions during neurosurgery has been reported as a consequence of re-using contaminated surgical instruments. Several decontamination methods have been studied using the 263K-hamster prion; however, no studies have directly evaluated human prions. A newly developed in vitro amplification system, designated real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), has allowed the activity of abnormal prion proteins to be assessed within a few days. RT-QuIC using human recombinant prion protein (PrP) showed high sensitivity for prions as the detection limit of our assay was estimated as 0.12 fg of active prions. We applied this method to detect human prion activity on stainless steel wire. When we put wires contaminated with human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease brain tissue directly into the test tube, typical PrP-amyloid formation was observed within 48 hours, and we could detect the activity of prions at 50% seeding dose on the wire from 10(2.8) to 10(5.8) SD50. Using this method, we also confirmed that the seeding activities on the wire were removed following treatment with NaOH. As seeding activity closely correlated with the infectivity of prions using the bioassay, this wire-QuIC assay will be useful for the direct evaluation of decontamination methods for human prions. PMID:27112110

  2. A direct assessment of human prion adhered to steel wire using real-time quaking-induced conversion

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Tsuyoshi; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Furukawa, Kana; Takatsuki, Hanae; Satoh, Katsuya; Sano, Kazunori; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accidental transmission of prions during neurosurgery has been reported as a consequence of re-using contaminated surgical instruments. Several decontamination methods have been studied using the 263K-hamster prion; however, no studies have directly evaluated human prions. A newly developed in vitro amplification system, designated real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), has allowed the activity of abnormal prion proteins to be assessed within a few days. RT-QuIC using human recombinant prion protein (PrP) showed high sensitivity for prions as the detection limit of our assay was estimated as 0.12 fg of active prions. We applied this method to detect human prion activity on stainless steel wire. When we put wires contaminated with human Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease brain tissue directly into the test tube, typical PrP-amyloid formation was observed within 48 hours, and we could detect the activity of prions at 50% seeding dose on the wire from 102.8 to 105.8 SD50. Using this method, we also confirmed that the seeding activities on the wire were removed following treatment with NaOH. As seeding activity closely correlated with the infectivity of prions using the bioassay, this wire-QuIC assay will be useful for the direct evaluation of decontamination methods for human prions. PMID:27112110

  3. 75 FR 33262 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... and Tube From Turkey, 74 FR 6368 (February 9, 2009), unchanged in Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and... Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Canada, 71 FR 3822 (January 24, 2006), and accompanying Issues and Decision...., Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Final Results of Administrative Review, 73 FR 75398,...

  4. Heat generation and transfer behaviors of ti-coated carbon steel rod adaptable for ablation therapy of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Naohara, Takashi; Aono, Hiromichi; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Hirazawa, Hideyuki; Matsutomo, Shinya; Watanabe, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of developing a novel ablation therapy for oral cancer, the heat generation and transfer properties of a Ti-coated carbon steel rod with 20-mm length and 1.8-mm outer diameter were investigated by means of a high-frequency induction technique at 300 kHz. The heat generation measurement performed using water (15 mL) revealed that the difference of the inclination angles (θ = 0°, 45° and 90°) relative to the magnetic flux direction only slightly affects the heating behavior, exhibiting the overlapped temperature curves during an induction time of 1200 s. These results suggest that the effect of the shape magnetic anisotropy is almost eliminated, being convenient for the precise control of the ablation temperature in clinical use. In the experiments utilizing a tissue-mimicking phantom, the heat transfer concentrically occurred in the lateral direction for both the planar surface and a 10-mm deep cross-section. However, the former exhibited a considerably lower increase in temperature (ΔT), probably due to the effect of heat dissipation to the ambient air. No significant heat transfer was found to occur to the lower side of the inserted Ti-coated carbon steel rod, which is situated in the longitudinal direction. PMID:24955829

  5. The use of three types of suture and stainless steel wire tension banding for the fixation of simulated olecranon fractures: a comparison study in cadaver elbows.

    PubMed

    Lalliss, S J; Branstetter, J G

    2010-02-01

    Using an osteotomy of the olecranon as a model of a transverse fracture in 22 cadaver elbows we determined the ability of three different types of suture and stainless steel wire to maintain reduction when using a tension-band technique to stabilise the bone. Physiological cyclical loading simulating passive elbow movement (15 N) and using the arms to push up from a chair (450 N) were applied using an Instron materials testing machine whilst monitoring the osteotomy site with a video extensometer. Each osteotomy was repaired by one of four materials, namely, Stainless Steel Wire (7), No 2 Ethibond (3), No 5 Ethibond (5), or No 2 FiberWire (7). There were no failures (movement of > 2 mm) with stainless steel wire or FiberWire and no significant difference in the movements measured across the site of the osteotomy (p = 0.99). The No. 2 Ethibond failed at 450 N and two of the five of No. 5 Ethibond sutures had a separation of > 2 mm at 450 N. FiberWire as the tension band in this model held the reduction as effectively as stainless steel wire and may reduce the incidence of discomfort from the hardware. On the basis of our findings we suggest that a clinical trial should be undertaken. PMID:20130331

  6. Evaluation of load-deflection properties of fiber-reinforced composites and its comparison with stainless steel wires

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Shiva; Mamavi, Tayebe

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of common sized fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) to different deflections due to bending forces and comparing it with stainless steel (SS) wires. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two FRC groups with 0.75 mm and 1.2 mm diameters (Everstick Ortho, Stick Tech, Finland) and three SS groups with 0.016 × 0.022 inch, 0.0215 × 0.028 inch and 0.7 mm diameters (3M Uniteck, Monrovia, California, USA) were tested. Each group contained 10 samples that were tested according to a three point bending test. Each group was tested at deflections of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm and the data was analyzed using the repeated measure ANOVA by SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, IBM SPSS, Inc. in Chicago, Illinois, USA). P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The highest recorded load belonged to the 1.2 mm FRC and after that 0.7 mm SS wire, 0.75 mm FRC, 0.0215 × 0.028 inch SS wire and finally 0.016 × 0.022 inch SS wire. The 0.7 mm SS wire and 0.75 mm FRC were compared as retainers and the results showed the 0.7 mm SS wire showed significantly higher load compared with 0.75 mm FRC (P < 0.05). The 1.2 mm FRC had significantly higher load compared to 0.0215 × 0.028 inch and 0.016 × 0.022 inch SS wires (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that the 1.2 mm FRC group had significantly higher load compared to SS wires and other FRC groups under the 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm deflections. Therefore, it can be suggested that FRC can be used as an esthetic replacement for SS wires for active and passive purposes in orthodontics. PMID:24932195

  7. Selection of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process Parameters on Stainless Steel AISI Grade-304 using Design of Experiments Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingadurai, K.; Nagasivamuni, B.; Muthu Kamatchi, M.; Palavesam, J.

    2012-06-01

    Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a specialized thermal machining process capable of accurately machining parts of hard materials with complex shapes. Parts having sharp edges that pose difficulties to be machined by the main stream machining processes can be easily machined by WEDM process. Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been reported in this work for stainless steel AISI grade-304 which is used in cryogenic vessels, evaporators, hospital surgical equipment, marine equipment, fasteners, nuclear vessels, feed water tubing, valves, refrigeration equipment, etc., is machined by WEDM with brass wire electrode. The DOE method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyze the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics, and to predict the optimal choice for each WEDM parameter such as voltage, pulse ON, pulse OFF and wire feed. It is found that these parameters have a significant influence on machining characteristic such as metal removal rate (MRR), kerf width and surface roughness (SR). The analysis of the DOE reveals that, in general the pulse ON time significantly affects the kerf width and the wire feed rate affects SR, while, the input voltage mainly affects the MRR.

  8. Standard specification for steel strand, uncoated seven-wire for prestressed concrete. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.05 on Steel Reinforcement. Current edition approved May 10, 1998. Published December 1998. Originally published as A 416-57T. Last previous edition A 416-97.

  9. Electrochemical characterization of the steel wire used as reinforcement in the conductors transmission networks electricity nitride by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Maldonado, J. J.; Dulcé Moreno, H. J.; Aperador, W.

    2016-02-01

    The power company feature infrastructure, which are generally shaped so the transmission and distribution lines, here is why it is necessary to characterize the process of electrochemical corrosion of these components. In this case the steel wire coated with zinc or aluminium, as it is undergoes the rigor of corrosive environments. Given the geographical diversity and different climatic environments, atmospheric corrosion carried affecting service life of structures. For example in very humid environments such as coasts and high altitudes, wetting time (TOW), parameter that meets the conditions of temperature and relative humidity, it affects large proportion, accelerating the corrosion of ferrous materials. Given the importance of establishing mechanisms that lessen the impact on degradation in transmission and distribution lines of both the reliability and the availability of the same. This paper presents the implementation in nitride steels as an alternative or complement to zinc coating.

  10. Tensile damage effects in steel plate perforation by a tungsten rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftenberg, Martin N.

    1998-07-01

    The EPIC Lagrangian wavecode was used to study sensitivities of rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) target hole size and the length and speed of a tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) residual rod to RHA spall pressure. The target had a 50.8-mm thickness, and the rod had a 112.0-mm length, a 20.9-mm diameter, and a striking speed of 1.52 km/s. Corresponding to a spall pressure of -0.5 GPa, good agreement with experiment was obtained in terms of target hole size and residual length for two different RHA fits to the Johnson-Cook strength model. Adiabatic shear banding in RHA is proposed to be the mechanism by which spall pressure is locally changed from its measured value of -3.0 GPa.

  11. Preliminary design and manufacturing feasibility study for a machined Zircaloy triangular pitch fuel rod support system (grids) (AWBA development program)

    SciTech Connect

    Horwood, W A

    1981-07-01

    General design features and manufacturing operations for a high precision machined Zircaloy fuel rod support grid intended for use in advanced light water prebreeder or breeder reactor designs are described. The grid system consists of a Zircaloy main body with fuel rod and guide tube cells machined using wire EDM, a separate AM-350 stainless steel insert spring which fits into a full length T-slot in each fuel rod cell, and a thin (0.025'' or 0.040'' thick) wire EDM machined Zircaloy coverplate laser welded to each side of the grid body to retain the insert springs. The fuel rods are placed in a triangular pitch array with a tight rod-to-rod spacing of 0.063 inch nominal. Two dimples are positioned at the mid-thickness of the grid (single level) with a 90/sup 0/ included angle. Data is provided on the effectiveness of the manufacturing operations chosen for grid machining and assembly.

  12. VIEW SOUTHEASTBUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST-BUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING MACHINE - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  13. Impact of heat treatment on microstructure of steel 30X padded with wire G18 8Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łomozik, Mirosław; Adamiec, Janusz

    2012-05-01

    The practical purpose of padding is to increase mechanical properties, hardness and abrasion resistance of surface layers of structural elements while maintaining good plastic properties of the core, apply corrosion-resistant layers, regenerate and/or repair the surface etc. The article describes the results of macroscopic and microscopic metallographic examination of components made of 30X steel, which is an equivalent of 32HA steel produced in Poland, and surfaced with G18 8Mn filler wire using MAG method. One of components was not heat treated after surfacing while the other after surfacing was subjected to quenching and tempering. The examination was aimed at determining the effect of heat treatment on changes in the structure of surfaced components. The metallographic examination has been conducted using optical microscopy in the area of parent metal of 30X steel as well as in heat affected zone (HAZ) in steel under and in the surfacing weld. HAZ width under the surfacing weld has also been measured. On the basis of the results showed that heat treatment after padding is responsible for the presence of the structure of tempered martensite in the heat affected zone and is responsible for a greater width of the HAZ, if compared with the condition without heat treatment.

  14. Sintered wire annode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  15. Ordered mesoporous polymers in situ coated on a stainless steel wire for a highly sensitive solid phase microextraction fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Juan; Liang, Yeru; Liu, Shuqin; Ding, Yajuan; Shen, Yong; Luan, Tiangang; Zhu, Fang; Jiang, Ruifen; Wu, Dingcai; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-07-01

    Development of facile and effective methods for fabrication of high-performance solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres remains a great challenge. Herein, a new class of ordered mesoporous polymers (OMPs) in situ coated on a stainless steel wire were successfully developed and utilized as a highly sensitive and stable SPME fibre for the first time. Because of the highly ordered mesoporous structure of its OMP coating, the π-π interactions and the dispersion forces, the OMP-coated SPME fibre exhibited much better extraction properties as compared to the commercial PDMS fibre. The findings could provide a new benchmark for preparing well-defined porous materials for the SPME application.Development of facile and effective methods for fabrication of high-performance solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres remains a great challenge. Herein, a new class of ordered mesoporous polymers (OMPs) in situ coated on a stainless steel wire were successfully developed and utilized as a highly sensitive and stable SPME fibre for the first time. Because of the highly ordered mesoporous structure of its OMP coating, the π-π interactions and the dispersion forces, the OMP-coated SPME fibre exhibited much better extraction properties as compared to the commercial PDMS fibre. The findings could provide a new benchmark for preparing well-defined porous materials for the SPME application. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, Fig. S1-S3 and Tables S1-S3. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02674a

  16. Swivel bar apparatus for use with steel and other types of sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.W.

    1986-07-01

    A sinker bar is described for use in a well bore with a plurality of sucker rods, the sinker bar comprising; an elongated body member of suitable diameter for introduction into the well bore or into tubular members lining the well bore, at least half of the body member having a substantially square cross section and each end of the body member having a substantially square cross section, and the ends of the body member having connection means for connecting the sinker bar to adjacent members in the well bore.

  17. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of a hybrid Trombe wall using steel rods and concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Merewether, D.E.; Jablonski, J.R.

    1980-11-15

    A principal drawback of passive solar systems is the large temperature swing observed over a twenty-four hours period. Several methods have been proposed and used to enhance the immediate transfer of high temperatures on the outer surface of Trombe walls to the interior living areas. These methods include convective circulatory systems and fan forced air circulation. The work reported here examines the addition of metal rods imbedded horizontally in the mortar of an unvented Trombe wall to offer a conducting path between the outer and inner surfaces. It was felt this technique would help decrease the periodic temperature swings as well as enhance the overall thermal performance of the Trombe wall.

  18. Internal Attachment Of Laser Beam Welded Stainless Steel Sheathed Thermocouples Into Stainless Steel Upper End Caps In Nuclear Fuel Rods For The Loss-Of-Fluid-Test (LOFT) Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, Richard K.; Reid, Raymond D.

    1980-10-01

    The Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc., acting as a subcontractor to EG&G Idaho Inc., Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, conducted a laser beam welding study to attach internal stainless steel thermocouples into stainless steel upper end caps in nuclear fuel rods. The fuel rods and thermocouples are used to test simulated loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCAL) conditions in a pressurized water reactor (LOFT reactor, Idaho National Laboratory). The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of laser welding a single 0.063 inch diameter stainless steel (304) sheathed thermocouple into a stainless steel (316) upper end cap for nuclear fuel rods. A laser beam was selected because of the extremely high energy input in unit volume that can be achieved allowing local fusion of a small area irrespective of the difference in material thickness to be joined. A special weld fixture was designed and fabricated to hold the end cap and the thermo-couple with angular and rotational adjustment under the laser beam. A commercial pulsed laser and energy control system was used to make the welds. Process tests were performed and evaluated. Results indicated that successful welds could be made using the laser system. A process qualification was written specifying laser energy, spot size and weld overlay. This program was successfully concluded by welding seventeen (17) centerline fuel rods for the LOFT reactor.

  19. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  20. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  1. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  2. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  3. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  4. Tensile Damage Effects in Steel Plate Perforation by a Tungsten Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftenberg, Martin N.

    1997-07-01

    The EPIC wavecode was used to simulate an experiment in which a tungsten rod impacted at 1.57 km/s and perforated a rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) plate. The rod's residual length, L_r, and the hole's final diameter, \\overlineD, were experimentally determined. The Johnson-Cook strength model was used for RHA with two sets of constants, J83 and G94. When the Johnson-Cook phfracture model was applied to RHA with damage constants recommended by Johnson and Cook, \\overlineD was 13% (J83) and 26% (G94) smaller than the experimental result. An alternative damage model introduces a material constant, p_fail. When the computed pressure within a given finite element of RHA attained a value more negative than p_fail, that element was no longer allowed to support hydrostatic tension or deviatoric stresses. Throughout the p_fail range of -4.0 to -1.0 GPa, \\overlineD remained consistently smaller than the experimental result. As p_fail was increased from -1.0 to -0.1 GPa, \\overlineD increased dramatically. Corresponding to some p_fail in the range of -0.5 to -0.1 GPa, the G94 value for each of \\overlineD and Lr achieved reasonable agreement with experiment. This applies to the J83 value as well in the case of \\overlineD. Microscopy suggests that such large spall pressures may occur locally because of adiabatic shear banding.

  5. The Corrosion Resistance of Composite Arch Wire Laser-Welded By NiTi Shape Memory Alloy and Stainless Steel Wires with Cu Interlayer in Artificial Saliva with Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Hou, Xu; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Daqian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the corrosion resistance of laser-welded composite arch wire (CoAW) with Cu interlayer between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire in artificial saliva with different concentrations of protein was studied. It was found that protein addition had a significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Low concentration of protein caused the corrosion resistance of CoAW decrease in electrochemical corrosion and immersion corrosion tests. High concentration of protein could reduce this effect. PMID:23801895

  6. Effect of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviors of NiTi and Stainless Steel Laser-Welded Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirshekari, G. R.; Saatchi, A.; Kermanpur, A.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    Effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of NiTi shape memory wire, laser welded to the 304 stainless steel wire were investigated. The results showed that PWHT at 200 °C increased corrosion resistance and tensile strength of the joint up to ~1.8 times that of the as-weld joint, with no heat treatment. On the contrary, precipitation of neoteric intermetallic compounds like Fe2Ti, Cr2Ti, FeNi, Ni3Ti, and Ti2Ni in the welded region deteriorated these properties, when PWHT was conducted at 400 °C. Due to the vital effects of the PWHT performed after the laser welding, careful control of the PWHT temperature was found to be a prerequisite for achievement of desirable properties in the dissimilar NiTi-304 stainless steel laser-welded wires.

  7. Effect of sintering temperature on properties of MgB 2 wire sheathed by low carbon steel tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H. L.; Feng, Y.; Xu, Z.; Li, C. S.; Yan, G.; Mossang, E.; Sulpice, A.

    2005-03-01

    MgB 2 wire was fabricated through the in situ powder-in-tube method in flowing argon by using low carbon steel (LCS) tube as sheath material. Effects of sintering temperature on the phase composition, microstructure features and critical current density ( Jc) are investigated by using X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer and the standard DC four-probe technique. The result indicates that the highest Jc values have been achieved in the sample sintered at 700 °C, while Jc decreases with increasing sintering temperature. It is found that microstructure features in all samples, e.g. the thickness of interface layer, the phase composition and the size of MgB 2 grain are responsible for the difference of Jc values.

  8. Atomic scale investigation of redistribution of alloying elements in pearlitic steel wires upon cold-drawing and annealing.

    PubMed

    Li, Y J; Choi, P; Goto, S; Borchers, C; Raabe, D; Kirchheim, R

    2013-09-01

    A local electrode atom probe has been employed to analyze the redistribution of alloying elements including Si, Mn, and Cr in pearlitic steel wires upon cold-drawing and subsequent annealing. It has been found that the three elements undergo mechanical mixing upon cold-drawing at large strains, where Mn and Cr exhibit a nearly homogeneous distribution throughout both ferrite and cementite, whereas Si only dissolves slightly in cementite. Annealing at elevated temperatures leads to a reversion of the mechanical alloying. Si atoms mainly segregate at well-defined ferrite (sub)grain boundaries formed during annealing. Cr and Mn are strongly concentrated in cementite adjacent to the ferrite/cementite interface due to their lower diffusivities in cementite than in ferrite. PMID:23237772

  9. Low Cost Transition Metals Doping over Tio2 for Denox Catalyst Deposited onto Woven Stainless Steel Wire Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Kamariah Noor; Hamid, Ku Halim Ku

    The objective of the present study was to develop a high porosity NOx reduction catalyst using cobalt and multi-component metal from low cost transition element which was deposited onto woven stainless steel wire-mesh monolith honeycomb by sol-gel method. These metals were mixed with titanium (iv) isopropoxide as a metal oxide precursor in sol-gelphase whereby metal titanium also acts as catalyst. The reduction activity of the prepared catalyst was investigated by using Temperature Program Reduction (TPR) instrument. It was found that the synthesized catalyst has shown high porosity in which it was reflected to an amount of single point BET surface area (100.065 m2 g-1) obtained from TPR data. The morphology of the synthesized catalyst particles was analyzed by using scanning electron, microscope (SEM).

  10. Effect of Nb on the corrosion behavior of continuous bulk metallic glass-coated steel wire composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-hua; Zhang, Bao-yu; Hui, Xi-dong

    2013-06-01

    (Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5)100- x Nb x (at%, x=0 and 8) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were coated on the surface of Q195 steel wires by a continuous coating process. The potentiodynamic polarization tests of these BMGs were conducted in 3.5wt% NaCl aqueous solution. It is found that the addition of 8at% Nb into Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 alloy results in the improvement of corrosion resistance with the pitting potential of -52 mV, the open circuit potential of -446 mV, and the corrosion current density of 9.86×10-6 mA/cm2. This may be attributed to that Nb is beneficial to passivate and stabilize Zr and Ti.

  11. Plasma-Based Steel Rod or Rebar Production From In Situ Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, H.; Prisbrey, Keith

    1998-01-01

    The probability of lunar ice has redefined the importance of earlier research reporting Fe as a byproduct of O production from lunar regolith. That emphasis is now on Fe and other materials for in situ resources for construction. In pursuit of O from lunar ilmenite, we have tried (1) a resonating cavity microwave plasma reactor, (2) a nontransferred arc plasma torch feeding a cylindrical reactor, and (3) an inductively coupled plasma reactor feeding a quench chamber with relative success. Instead of using these or other O-focused strategies, and instead of using commercial submerged electric arc smelting of ilmenite to produce Fe, a compact, portable, light, plasma-based cyclone reactor could be adapted as another choice. Cyclone reactors have been under development for several decades, and P. R. Taylor and coworkers have extended their evolution and used them effectively on iron taconites as well as other materials. The advantages of the plasma reactor over other current steel making processes include continuous operation, higher through puts in small reactors, enhanced heat and mass transfer rates, higher temperatures, easy separation of liquids and gases, capture and recycle of plasma gases, and no feed agglomeration. The procedure for producing steel was to feed taconite and CO/CO2 mixtures into the cyclone reactor (Fig. 1), The results were excellent. The procedure and results for lunar ilmenite would be similar. Electrostatically concentrated ilmenite and magnetically concentrated Fe and associated agglutinates would be fed into the reactor along with reductant. Plasma reactors can be modified to produce Al, Ti, glass, ceramics, and advanced materials, and an already automated reactor system can be further automated for remote operation.

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot wire laser clad layers for repairing precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Peng; Cai, Zhipeng; Feng, Zhenhua; Wang, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel (PH-MSS) is widely used as load-bearing parts because of its excellent overall properties. It is economical and flexible to repair the failure parts instead of changing new ones. However, it is difficult to keep properties of repaired part as good as those of the substrate. With preheating wire by resistance heat, hot wire laser cladding owns both merits of low heat input and high deposition efficiency, thus is regarded as an advantaged repairing technology for damaged parts of high value. Multi-pass layers were cladded on the surface of FV520B by hot wire laser cladding. The microstructure and mechanical properties were compared and analyzed for the substrate and the clad layer. For the as-cladded layer, microstructure was found non-uniform and divided into quenched and tempered regions. Tensile strength was almost equivalent to that of the substrate, while ductility and impact toughness deteriorated much. With using laser scanning layer by layer during laser cladding, microstructure of the clad layers was tempered to fine martensite uniformly. The ductility and toughness of the clad layer were improved to be equivalent to those of the substrate, while the tensile strength was a little lower than that of the substrate. By adding TiC nanoparticles as well as laser scanning, the precipitation strengthening effect was improved and the structure was refined in the clad layer. The strength, ductility and toughness were all improved further. Finally, high quality clad layers were obtained with equivalent or even superior mechanical properties to the substrate, offering a valuable technique to repair PH-MSS.

  13. Stainless steel wire mesh-supported ZnO for the catalytic photodegradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tan T; del Río, Laura; Valdés-Solís, Teresa; Marbán, Gregorio

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of catalysts formed by nanostructured zinc oxide supported on stainless steel wire mesh for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. Catalysts prepared by means of different low temperature synthesis methods, as described in a previous work (Vu et al., Mater. Res. Bull. 47 (2012) 1577-1586) were tested. A new activity parameter was introduced in order to compare the catalytic activity of the different catalysts. The best catalyst showed a catalytic activity higher than that of the reference material TiO(2) P25 (Degussa-Evonik). This high activity is attributed to a higher quantum yield derived from the small particle length of the ZnO deposited on the wire mesh. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of methylene blue fitted a potential model with n orders ranging from 0.5 to 6.9. Reaction orders over 1 were attributed to catalyst deactivation during the reaction resulting from the photocorrosion of ZnO. PMID:23291337

  14. 2D Radiation MHD K-shell Modeling of Single Wire Array Stainless Steel Experiments on the Z Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Chong, Y. K.; Davis, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Whitney, K. G.; Clark, R. W.; Jones, B.; Coverdale, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    Many physical effects can produce unstable plasma behavior that affect K-shell emission from arrays. Such effects include: asymmetry in the initial density profile, asymmetry in power flow, thermal conduction at the boundaries, and non-uniform wire ablation. Here we consider how asymmetry in the radiation field also contributes to the generation of multidimensional plasma behavior that affects K-shell power and yield. To model this radiation asymmetry, we have incorporated into the MACH2 r-z MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE population kinetics based on radiation transport using multi-dimensional ray tracing. Such methodology is necessary for modeling the enhanced radiative cooling that occurs at the anode and cathode ends of the pinch during the run-in phase of the implosion. This enhanced radiative cooling is due to reduced optical depth at these locations producing an asymmetric flow of radiative energy that leads to substantial disruption of large initial diameter (>5 cm) pinches and drives 1D into 2D fluid (i.e., Rayleigh-Taylor like) flows. The impact of this 2D behavior on K-shell power and yield is investigated by comparing 1D and 2D model results with data obtained from a series of single wire array stainless steel experiments performed on the Z generator.

  15. Rodding Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Rodding Not everyone with OI needs intramedullary (IM) rods. Children who do not fracture often and ... without replacement may be appropriate. Some Terms Explained IM rod Telescopic rods Non-telescopic rods Sliding rods ...

  16. [Non-union of the clavicle after intramedullary nailing with a steel Kirschner wire].

    PubMed

    Faymonville, C; Jubel, A; Schiffer, G

    2010-04-01

    Elastically stable intramedullary nailing is a safe surgical procedure used to treat mid-shaft clavicular fractures of types A and B according to the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) classification. In the case reported intramedullary fixation with a Kirschner wire and an incorrectly performed surgical technique led to pseudoarthrosis (non-union). After revision surgery with an elastically stable titanium nail and a correct surgical technique, fracture healing was achieved. PMID:20221578

  17. Detecting steel rods and micro-piles: A case history in a civil engineering application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Luciana

    2012-06-01

    Investigating engineered structures with GPR is challenging because quite often the scale of important features is similar or smaller that the natural scale of heterogeneity in the material. In this paper I summarize the key factors and use numerical simulations and real data examples to illustrate the tradeoff between detection and resolution. The targets were micro-piles and steel bars with diameters 0.13 m and 0.02 m, respectively, and embedded in an ancient wall that consists of an aggregate of stones ranging in size from 1 cm to half meter, mortar and air. The data were collected with center frequency antennas of 200, 600, 2000 MHz which provide increasing resolution. The model and measurement results indicate that lower resolution may result in a better understanding of the structure imaged with GPR. In fact, high resolution profiles show enhanced anomalies caused by heterogeneities in the host material, making data interpretation more difficult. This study shows that GPR survey design must be clear about the particular engineering objective and requires selecting the optimal frequency and bandwidth depending on the target dimension.

  18. 78 FR 54272 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ...) The Domestic Like Product is the domestically produced product or products which are like, or in the... determination, the Commission defined a single Domestic Like Product comprised of all the various types of steel.... producers as a whole of the Domestic Like Product, or those producers whose collective output of...

  19. 77 FR 51514 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 77 FR 46044 (August 2, 2012... Hanger Limited, and TJ Co., Ltd. See, e.g., Preliminary Determination, 77 FR at 46047-48, 46053 n. 109... China, 73 FR 31970, 31972-73 (June 5, 2008) (``Carbon Steel Pipe''); Final Determination of Sales...

  20. In vitro comparative study on the friction of stainless steel wires with and without Orthospeed® (JAL 90458) on an inclined plane

    PubMed Central

    Claros-Stucchi, Miguel; Albaladejo, Alberto; Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Alvarado-Lorenzo, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background During the treatment of orthodontics, in the mechanics of slide, there takes place friction, which they reduce the slide of the arch across bracket. Therefore, clinical there takes place an increase of the time of treatment. There are different the technologies that try to reduce this friction, as the self-ligating braces. The purpose of this study was to research the in vitro behavior of JAL 90458 as a buffering agent which reduces friction between brackets and stainless steel arch wires of different cross sections and sizes. Material and Methods Three types of stainless steel wires with different cross sections and three types of ligatures were used with and without JAL 90458 to measure the friction according to the time and distance traveled by the brackets on an inclined plane with two angulations. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks was applied to determine the degree of friction between the group using and the group not using the product (P ≤ .05). Results Separate analysis of the arch wires, ligatures and angulation with and without the compound revealed statistically significant differences between the groups, showing that friction was reduced significantly when JAL 90458 was used (P ≤ .01). The 0.021x0.025” arch wires and the arch wires attached using elastic ligatures produce the least resistance to sliding among all of those analyzed when the product was not used (P ≤ .05). Conclusions The results show that JAL 90458 reduces friction independently of arch wire cross section, type of ligature and angulation of the measuring instrument. Key words:Friction, JAL 90458, arch wires, ligatures, in vitro. PMID:27034753

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Friction Resistance of Titanium, Stainless Steel, Ceramic and Ceramic with Metal Insert Brackets with Varying Dimensions of Stainless Steel Wire: An In vitro Multi-center Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B Sunil; Miryala, Suresh; Kumar, K Kiran; Shameem, K; Regalla, Ravindra Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The orthodontist seeks an archwire–bracket combination that has both good biocompatibility and low friction. Hence, the aim of this multicenter in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the frictional resistance generated between titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SS), ceramic and ceramic with metal insert (CMI) brackets with SS wires of varying dimensions in a specially designed apparatus. Materials and Methods: The material used in this study were Ti, SS, Ceramic and CMI with 0.018″ slot manufactured with zero degree tip and −7° torque premolar brackets (3M, Unitek) and SS wires of varying dimensions (0.016″ round, 0.016 × 0.016″ square, 0.016 × 0.022″ rectangular and 0.017 × 0.025″ rectangular) used. The frictional resistance was measured using Instron Universal testing machine (Model no. 4301). The specimen population in each center composed each of 160 brackets and wires. Differences among the all bracket/wire combinations were tested using (one-way) ANOVA, followed by the student Newman Keuls multiple comparisons of means ranking (at P < 0.05) for the determination of differences among the groups. Results: Ti bracket in combination with 0.017 × 0.025″ SS rectangular wire produced significant force levels for an optimum orthodontic movement with least frictional resistance. Conclusion: Ti brackets have least resistance and rectangular wires produced significant force. These can be used to avoid hazards of Nickel. SS brackets revealed higher static frictional force values as the wire dimension increased and showed lower static friction than Ti brackets for all wires except the thicker wire. Our study recommends the preclusion of brackets with rough surface texture (Ti brackets) with SS ligature wire for ligating bracket and archwire are better to reduce friction. PMID:25395796

  2. 75 FR 8650 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Trinidad and Tobago; Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 57648 (November 9, 2009) (Preliminary Results). We gave... Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment of Antidumping Duties). This clarification will apply to... from Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine, 67 FR 65945, 65947...

  3. 76 FR 16607 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... FR 60733 (October 1, 2010). On October 29, 2010, in accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b), the Department... Reviews, 75 FR 73036 (November 29, 2010) (Initiation Notice). In the Initiation Notice, the Department... following elements: 0.03 percent or more of lead, 0.05 percent or more of bismuth, 0.08 percent or more...

  4. 76 FR 64105 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... of institution (76 FR 38686, July 1, 2011) of the subject five-year review was adequate and that the..., and 207.7 of the Commission's rules. Please consult the Commission's rules, as amended, 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR 62092 (Oct. 6, 2011)...

  5. 78 FR 60316 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... both that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (78 FR 33103, June...: Effective September 6, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Joanna Lo (202-205-1888), Office...

  6. The effect of strain hardening on resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wires for orthopaedics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; Hadasik, E.; Szymszal, J.

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate electrochemical corrosion resistance of wire with modified surface, made of stainless steel of Cr-Ni-Mo type, widely used in implants for orthopaedics, depending on hardening created in the process of drawing. Tests have been carried out in the environment imitating human osseous tissue. Pitting corrosion was determined on the ground of registered anodic polarisation curves by means of potentiodynamic method with application of electrochemical testing system VoltaLab® PGP 201. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in Tyrode solution on samples that were electrochemically polished as well as electrochemically polished and finally chemically passivated. Initial material for tests was wire rod made of X2CrNiMo17-12-2 steel with diameter of 5.5 mm in supersaturated condition. Wire rod was drawn up to diameter of 1.35 mm. This work shows the course of flow curve of wire made of this grade of steel and mathematical form of yield stress function. The study also presents exemplary curves showing the dependence of polarisation resistance in strain function in the drawing process of electrochemically passivated and electrochemically polished and then chemically passivated wire.

  7. Irradiation effects on strength and toughness of three-wire series- arc stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Haggag, F.M.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1990-02-01

    The potential for stainless steel cladding to improve the fracture behavior of an operating nuclear reactor pressure vessel, particularly during certain overcooling transients, may depend greatly on the properties of the irradiated cladding. Therefore, three-wire stainless steel cladding irradiated at temperatures and to fluences relevant to power reactor operation was examined. Postirradiation tensile testing results show that, in the test temperature range from {minus}125 to 288{degree}C, the yield strength increased by 8 to 30%, ductility increased insignificantly, with almost no change in ultimate tensile strength. All cladding exhibited ductile-to-brittle transition behavior during Charpy impact testing, because of the dominance of delta ferrite failures at low temperatures. On the upper shelf, energy was reduced 15 and 20%, while the lateral expansion was reduced 43 and 41%, owing to irradiation exposure of 2 and 5{times}10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV), respectively. In addition, radiation damage resulted in 13 and 28{degree}C shifts of the Charpy impact transition temperature at the 41-J level for the low and high fluences, respectively. Furthermore, irradiation exposure of 12.5-mm-thick compact specimens (0.5TCS), to an average fluence of 2.41 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV), resulted in decreases in the initiation fracture toughness, J{sub Ic}, and the tearing modulus in the test temperature range. This is in agreement with the reduction in both the Charpy V-notch upper-shelf energy and the lateral expansion. 14 refs., 26 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Numerical [corrected] analysis of the load capacity of the human spine fitted with L-rod instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Weiler, P J; Medley, J B; McNeice, G M

    1990-12-01

    L-rod procedures with sublaminar wiring have become widespread in orthopaedic practice, and serious mechanical problems involving fatigue failure, creep, and fixation have been reported. To address these problems, numerical [corrected] analysis was developed to provide estimates for the maximum bending stresses, approximately equal to maximum tensile stresses, in L-rods subject to various axial loads and postoperative Cobb angles. The superior load capacity of L-rods made from MP35N multiphase alloy compared with 316L stainless steel was demonstrated. Bending stresses in excess of the fatigue limit were predicted for eight patients with broken rods, suggesting that such failures might be prevented by prior analysis. This analytic approach provides a foundation for future studies of custom-designed L-rods and perhaps the successful use of L-rods without arthrodesis. PMID:2281372

  9. Influence of Nb Additions on Microstructural Evolution of a V-Microalloyed High-Carbon Wire Steel During Patenting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie L.; de Moor, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of microalloying strategies for improving the strength of high-carbon wire products subjected to industrial patenting heat treatments for two eutectoid steels: a 0.8C-0.5Mn-0.2Cr-0.08 V alloy (wt.%) and the same composition with an additional 100 ppm Nb. A Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator (Dynamic Systems Inc., Poestenkill, NY, USA) was used to perform heat treatments consisting of a 30 s austenitization at 1093 °C, 950 °C, or 880 °C followed by a 15 s isothermal transformation step at 650 °C, 625 °C, 600 °C, or 575 °C. Vickers hardness, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and pearlite interlamellar spacing measurements were conducted to assess the effects of the heat treatments. Niobium microalloying additions were found to provide no hardness increase, but they extended the pearlitic regime to lower isothermal transformation temperatures.

  10. Internal impedance of twisted steel-aluminum wires at an industrial frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkushev, A. G.; Elagin, I. A.

    2015-06-01

    A simplified mathematical model is suggested that describes the harmonic electromagnetic field distribution in high-voltage steel-core twisted cables with a single-layer winding at an industrial frequency. As a physical idealization, the twisted strands are represented in the form of an anisotropically conducting layer. When twisting is taken into consideration, an axial magnetic field arises, which substantially influences losses in the cables. Using the model, the dependences of the internal impedance on the core's magnetic permeability are derived for AS-70 cable at three winding angles of the external strands. These dependences are compared with results obtained in terms of a hollow cylinder model and with calculation data carried out in the complete statement of the problem with the finite element method.

  11. Defect Recovery in Severely Deformed Ferrite Lamellae During Annealing and Its Impact on the Softening of Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Z.; Csiszár, G.; Cizek, J.; Shi, X. H.; Borchers, C.; Li, Y. J.; Liu, F.; Kirchheim, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires with a drawing true strain of 3 were annealed at temperatures ( T ann) ranging from 423 K to 723 K (150 °C to 450 °C) with an interval of 50 K. Recovery of the lattice defects in the severely deformed ferrite lamellae were characterized by means of high-energy X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation techniques (including positron annihilation spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy). Accordingly, the impact of defect recovery on the softening of the annealed wires was investigated. It is found that at low temperatures [ T ann ≤ 523 K (250 °C)], the recovery of the lattice defects in ferrite lamellae is dominated by the agglomeration and annihilation of vacancy clusters, while at T ann > 523 K (250 °C), the recovery process is controlled by the annihilation of dislocations. Further analyses on the softening of the annealed wires indicate that the evolutions of dislocation density and concentration of vacancy clusters, and the strain age hardening in ferrite lamellae play important roles in changing the strength of the wires. The strain aging hardening leads to a maximum strength at 473 K (150 °C). Above 523 K (250 °C), the annihilations of vacancy clusters and dislocations in ferrite lamellae cause a continuous softening of the wires, where the decrease in dislocation density plays a major role.

  12. Crossed-Wire Laser Microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 Low-Carbon Vacuum Melted Stainless Steel: Part I. Mechanism of Joint Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, G. S.; Huang, Y. D.; Pequegnat, A.; Li, X. G.; Khan, M. I.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The excellent biocompatibility and corrosion properties of Pt alloys and 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) make them attractive for biomedical applications. With the increasing complexity of medical devices and in order to lower costs, the challenge of joining dissimilar materials arises. In this study, laser microwelding (LMW) of crossed Pt-10 pct Ir to 316 LVM SS wires was performed and the weldability of these materials was determined. The joint geometry, joining mechanism, joint breaking force (JBF), and fracture modes were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and microtensile testing. It was shown that the mechanisms of joint formation transitioned from (1) brazing, (2) a combination of brazing and fusion welding, and (3) fusion welding with increasing pulsed laser energy. The joints demonstrated various tensile failure modes including (1) interfacial failure below a peak power of 0.24 kW, (2) partial interfacial failure that propagated into the Pt-Ir wire, (3) failure in the Pt-Ir wire, and (4) failure in the SS wire due to porosity and severe undercutting caused by overwelding. During this study, the optimal laser peak power range was identified to produce joints with good joint geometry and 90 pct of the tensile strength of the Pt-10 pct Ir wire.

  13. Class D sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Woodings, R. T.

    1984-10-23

    It has been found that API Class D sucker rods can be made inexpensively from low-alloy, low-cost steel by following a suitable induction-normalizing process and using a suitable steel to which there has been added 0.07 to 0.15 percent of vanadium.

  14. Fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro. Methods Roots of human mandibular central incisors were covered with silicone, mimicking the periodontal ligament, and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate. The specimens (N = 50), with two teeth each, were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/group) according to the retainer materials: (1) Interlig (E-glass), (2) everStick Ortho (E-glass), (3) DentaPreg Splint (S2-glass), (4) Ribbond (polyethylene), and (5) Quad Cat wire (stainless steel). After the recommended adhesive procedures, the retainers were bonded to the teeth by using flowable composite resin (Tetric Flow). The teeth were subjected to 10,00,000 cyclic loads (8 Hz, 3 - 100 N, 45° angle, under 37 ± 3℃ water) at their incisoproximal contact, and debonding forces were measured with a universal testing machine (1 mm/min crosshead speed). Failure sites were examined under a stereomicroscope (×40 magnification). Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Results All the specimens survived the cyclic loading. Their mean debonding forces were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The DentaPreg Splint group (80%) showed the highest incidence of complete adhesive debonding, followed by the Interlig group (60%). The everStick Ortho group (80%) presented predominantly partial adhesive debonding. The Quad Cat wire group (50%) presented overlying composite detachment. Conclusions Cyclic loading did not cause debonding. The retainers presented similar debonding forces but different failure types. Braided stainless steel wire retainers presented the most repairable failure type. PMID:24015388

  15. Experimental Evaluation of a New Single Wire Stainless Steel Fishscale Coronary Stent (Freedomª).

    PubMed

    Wang; Verbeken; Mukherjee; Zhou; De Scheerder IK

    1996-10-01

    Recent randomized clinical trials revealed a significant reduction in angiographic restenosis rates when adjunctive stenting was performed after conventional coronary balloon angioplasty. Current approved coronary stents are however hampered by their rigidity, limiting their trackability in tortuous vessels and furthermore, needing high pressure deployment for optimal vessel apposition. New coronary stents are currently under development, using more biocompatible metal alloys and/or designs which better align to the vessel wall at moderate deployment pressures. We evaluated the safety, efficacy, angiographic and histological effect of a new stainless steel fishscale designed stent (Freedomª, Global Therapeutics, Co., USA) in a porcine coronary and peripheral artery model. Implantation in the right coronary artery was successful in all 20 pigs. Control angiograms at 6 weeks follow-up demonstrated patent vessels and morphologic evaluation showed only a mild fibromuscular neointimal response resulting in an area stenosis of 28.7 +/- 0.18% and a mean neointimal hyperplasia of 0.18 +/- 0.25 mm. Comparison with the Palmaz-Schatzª coronary stent in a porcine peripheral artery model demonstrated similar quantitative angiographic and morphologic vessel analysis results. Also the morphometric data were comparable. Area stenosis: Palmaz-Schatz: 37 +/- 0.24%, Freedom: 21 +/- 0.14%, p = 0.07. Mean neointimal hyperplasia: Palmaz-Schatz: 0.33 +/- 0.24 mm, Freedom: 0.18 +/- 0.08 mm, p = 0.08. CONCLUSION: Freedom coronary stent implantation in a porcine model resulted in a high procedural success without subacute thrombotic occlusions, despite no further anticoagulation nor antiplatelet therapy. Six weeks histopathological and morphometric evaluation demonstrated only a mild fibromuscular neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:10785732

  16. Effects of thermal aging and neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of three-wire stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Haggag, F.M.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1997-05-01

    Thermal aging of three-wire series-arc stainless steel weld overlay cladding at 288{degrees}C for 1605 h resulted in an appreciable decrease (16%) in the Charpy V-notch (CVN) upper-shelf energy (USE), but the effect on the 41-J transition temperature shift was very small (3{degrees}C). The combined effect of aging and neutron irradiation at 288{degrees}C to a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) was a 22% reduction in the USE and a 29{degrees}C shift in the 41-J transition temperature. The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties was very small. However, the combined effect of irradiation and aging was an increase in the yield strength (6 to 34% at test temperatures from 288 to {minus}125{degrees}C) but no apparent change in ultimate tensile strength or total elongation. Neutron irradiation reduced the initiation fracture toughness (J{sub Ic}) much more than did thermal aging alone. Irradiation slightly decreased the tearing modulus, but no reduction was caused by thermal aging alone. Other results from tensile, CVN, and fracture toughness specimens showed that the effects of thermal aging at 288 or 343{degrees}C for 20,000 h each were very small and similar to those at 288{degrees}C for 1605 h. The effects of long-term thermal exposure time (50,000 h and greater) at 288{degrees}C will be investigated as the specimens become available in 1996 and beyond.

  17. Control Methods for Wire Arrangement Unit of New Multi-Wire Saw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Qian, Juying; Cai, Ji-Fei; Wang, Yan

    To solve such problems as unstable wire transmission caused by overly dense or overlaid local wire arrangement, an electronic cam wire arrangement method is put forward in this paper, adopting servo motor to drive the cam, making the wire arrangement motor follow the speed change of taking-up motor, outputing the wire arrangement motor speed with the deduced functional operation relation, and controlling the wire arrangement pulley to evenly distribute the steel wire on the taking-up roller.

  18. Analysis of Radiation from Implosions of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays on Zebra and Comparison with Laser Plasma Experiments on Leopard at UNR*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Osborne, G. C.; Williamson, K. M.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. F.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Esaulov, A. A.; Wiewior, P.; Legalloudec, N.; Paudel, Y.; Coverdale, C. A.; Chuvatin, A. S.

    2011-10-01

    The implosions of Stainless Steel (SS) Wire Arrays are extensively studied at SNL and also have applications in astrophysics. The analysis of radiation from low-number-wire SS Single and Nested Cylindrical, and Planar Wire Array experiments on the 1 MA Zebra is presented. The major focus is on x-ray imaging and spectra, total radiation yields, and fast, filtered x-ray detector data. The results of Leopard laser experiments with a flat 25 μm Fe target in the nanosecond (ns) and 350 femtosecond (fs) pulse regimes are discussed and compared with Z-pinch data. This comparison focuses mainly on L-shell Fe radiation and provides an excellent benchmark to the Z-pinch results. Good agreement with laser data is demonstrated in the ns regime, but a substantial difference is observed for the fs pulse. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Coop. Agreements DE-FC52-06NA27588, 27586, and 27616. SNL is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Co., for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sable, D.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a rod guide assembly for a sucker rod longitudinally reciprocably movable in a well flow conductor comprising: a pair of longitudinally spaced upper and lower stops rigidly secured to a sucker rod; and a guide body movably mounted on the rod between the stops. The stops being spaced from each other a distance slightly greater than the length of the guide body, the upper stop engaging the guide body to move the guide body downwardly with the rod after an initial short downward movement of the rod after initiation of each downward movement of the rod and the lower stop engaging the guide body to move the second guide body upwardly with the rod after initial short upward movement of the rod after initiation of each upward movement of the rod during the longitudinal reciprocatory movement of the rod in a well flow conductor.

  20. Stiffness Corrections for the Vibration Frequency of a Stretched Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, H. G.; Durie, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the need of introducing corrections due to wire stiffness arising from end constraints and wire axis distribution curvature in the measurement of ac electrical frequency by exciting transverse standing waves in a stretched steel wire. (SL)

  1. 78 FR 28803 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Review, 2010-2011, 77 FR 66952 (November 8, 2012) (``Preliminary Results''), and accompanying Decision... Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6, 2008). Analysis of... Rescission, in Part, of the First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 68758, 68761 (November...

  2. In situ hydrothermal growth of ytterbium-based metal-organic framework on stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu-Lin; Wang, Xia; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we report the use of a porous ytterbium-based metal-organic framework (Yb-MOF) coating material with good thermal stability for the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental samples. The Yb-MOF thin films, grown in situ on stainless steel wire in solution, exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity toward PAHs. Under the optimal conditions, the novel fibers achieved large enrichment factors (130-2288), low limits of detection (0.07-1.67ngL(-1)), and wide range of linearity (10-1000ngL(-1)) for 16 PAHs in the tested samples. The novel fiber was successfully used in the analysis of PAHs in real environmental samples. These results demonstrated that Yb-MOF is a promising coating material for the SPME of PAHs at trace levels from environmental samples. PMID:26346186

  3. Growth of cedar-like Au nanoparticles coating on an etched stainless steel wire and its application for selective solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yida; Yang, Yaoxia; Li, Yi; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2015-05-30

    A novel cedar-like Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) coating was fabricated on an etched stainless steel (SS) wire by direct chemical deposition and used as an efficient and unbreakable solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The etched SS wire offers a rough surface structure for subsequent growth of AuNPs in chloroauric acid solution. As a result, the uniform cedar-like AuNPs coating with larger surface area was tightly attached to the etched SS wire substrate. The AuNPs coated etched SS fiber (AuNPs/SS) was examined for SPME of ultraviolet (UV) filters, phthalate esters and aromatic hydrocarbons coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The fabricated fiber exclusively exhibited excellent extraction efficiency and selectivity for some aromatic hydrocarbons. Influential parameters of extraction and desorption time, temperature, stirring rate and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. The limits of detection ranged from 0.008 μg L(-1) to 0.037 μg L(-1). The single fiber repeatability varied from 3.90% to 4.50% and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility ranged from 5.15% to 6.87%. The recovery of aromatic hydrocarbons in real water samples spiked at 2.0 μg L(-1) and 20 μg L(-1) ranged from 94.38% to 106.2% with the relative standard deviations below 6.44%. Furthermore the growth of the cedar-like AuNPs coating can be performed in a highly reproducible manner. This fabricated fiber exhibits good stability and withstands at least 200 extraction and desorption replicates. PMID:25998458

  4. Crossed-Wire Laser Microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 LVM Stainless Steel: Part II. Effect of Orientation on Joining Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. D.; Pequegnat, A.; Zou, G. S.; Feng, J. C.; Khan, M. I.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-04-01

    With the increasing complexity of medical devices and with efforts to reduce manufacturing costs, challenges arise in joining dissimilar materials. In this study, the laser weldability of dissimilar joints between Pt-10 pct Ir and 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) crossed wires was investigated by characterizing the weld geometry, joint strength, morphology of weld cross sections, and differences in joining behavior, depending on which material is subject to the incident laser beam. With the Pt-Ir alloy on top, a significant amount of porosity was observed on the surface of the welds as well as throughout the weld cross sections. This unique form of porosity is believed to be a result of preferential vaporization of 316 LVM SS alloying elements that become mixed with the molten Pt-10 pct Ir during welding. The joining mechanism documented in micrographs of cross-sectioned welds was found to transition from laser brazing to fusion welding. It is inferred that the orientation of the two dissimilar metals ( i.e., which material is subject to the incident laser beam) plays an important role in weld quality of crossed-wire laser welds.

  5. Investigation of the Influence Factors on Distortion in Induction-Hardened Steel Shafts Manufactured from Cold-Drawn Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Juan; Epp, Jeremy; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva; Nunes, Rafael Menezes; Zoch, Hans Werner

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the distortion of steel shafts was investigated before and after induction hardening. Several essential influencing factors in the manufacturing process chain regarding cold drawing, cutting method, notches on the shafts, and induction hardening were analyzed by design of experiment (DoE). Further necessary examinations of microstructures, hardness profile, segregation of chemical composition, and residual stress state were conducted for understanding the distortion behavior. The results of the statistical analysis of the DoE showed that the drawing process is the most important factor influencing distortion. The surface hardening depth of induction hardening is the second main factor. The relationship between inhomogeneities in the work pieces and the distortion was finally discussed.

  6. Strain measurement in concrete structure using distributed fiber optic sensing based on Brillouin scattering with single-mode fibers embedded in glass fiber reinforcing vinyl ester rod and bonded to steel reinforcing bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhoa, Cia Y.; Bao, Xiaoyi; Bremner, Theodore W.; Brown, Anthony W.; DeMerchant, Michael D.; Kalamkarov, Alexander L.; Georgiades, Anastasis V.

    2001-08-01

    The strain distribution in a 1.65m long reinforced concrete beam was measured using the distributed fiber optic sensing system developed by Dr. Bao's Fiber Optic Group at the University of New Brunswick (UNB) with center point and two point loading pattern. A spatial resolution of 0.5m was used. Past experience has shown that the bare optical fiber is too fragile to act as a sensor in a reinforced concrete structure. Therefore, in this experiment, two methods of protecting the fibers were incorporated into the concrete beam to increase the fibers' resistance to mechanical damages and prevent chemical reaction from occurring between the fibers and the concrete. The fibers were either embedded in pultruded glass fiber reinforced vinyl ester (GFRP) rods or bonded to the steel reinforcing bars with an epoxy adhesive. The strain at midspan of the beam as measured by the distributed sensing system was compared with the readings of electrical resistance strain (ERS) and mechanical strain (MS) gauges. The experimental results showed that the pultruded GFRP rods effectively protected the fibers, but the strain readings from the GFRP rods did not agree with the strain measurement of the ERS on the steel reinforcing bars due to the possible slippage of the rods in the concrete. However, the fiber bonded to steel reinforcing bars produced more accurate results and confirmed the potential of this technology to accurately measure strain in a reinforced concrete structure. As expected, the fiber with direct contact to the concrete and steel reinforcing bar, can effectively measured the strain under center point or two point loading.

  7. Electrodeposition of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on a stainless steel wire for solid phase microextraction and GC determination of some esters with high boiling points.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuyu; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2013-01-30

    In this work, 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) emulsion is prepared by ultrasonication agitation and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating is fabricated on a stainless steel wire by electrochemical method from a 0.10M sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate aqueous solution containing EDOT. The coating is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, and it presents cauliflower-like structure. When the resulted PEDOT/steel fiber is used for the headspace solid phase-microextraction of some esters (i.e. methyl anthranilate, dimethyl phthalate, ethyl-o-aminobenzoate, methyl laurate and diethyl phthalate) and their GC detection, the limits of detection (LOD) are ca. 7.8-31 ng L(-1) (S/N=3) and the linear ranges are 0.25-800 μg L(-1). The fiber shows high thermal stability (up to 320 °C), good reproducibility and long lifetime (more than 183 times). It also has good chemical stability. After it is immersed in acid, alkali and dichloromethane for 4h its extraction efficiency remains almost unchanged. Besides esters the fiber also exhibits high extraction efficiency for alcohols and aromatic compounds. PMID:23597884

  8. Method for making a hot wire anemometer and product thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milkulla, V. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A hot wire anemometer probe is described that includes a ceramic body supporting two conductive rods parallel to each other. The body has a narrow edge surface from which the rods protrude. A probe wire is welded to the rods and extends along the edge surface. A ceramic adhesive is used to secure the probe wire to the surface so that the probe wire is rigid. A method for fabricating the probe is also described in which the body is molded and precisely shaped by machining techniques before the probe wires are installed.

  9. The evaluation of corrosion resistant rod end rolling element bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Braza, J.F.; Giuntoli, K.; Imundo, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    Recent developments on carburizing grades of stainless steels have provided new materials to produce corrosion resistant airframe control bearings. This paper presents the application of one of these new carburizing grades of stainless steel to rod end ball bearings. The outer ring of the rod end bearing is made out of carburized stainless steel, while the inner ring and balls are made out of through-hardened stainless steel. The stainless steel rod end bearings were evaluated according to various ASTM and Military specifications for performance and corrosion resistance. The stainless steel rod end bearings exceeded the performance requirements of standard rod end bearings (which are comprised of a carburized 8620 steel outer ring and 52100 steel inner ring and balls) in accordance with MIL-B-6039. The rod end bearings were evaluated in the radial fracture load, axial fracture load, and radial dynamic load tests. Also, salt spray and alternate immersion corrosion tests (ASTM B 117-85 and G 44-88, respectively) were conducted on the stainless steel rod end bearings. The stainless steel rod end bearings exhibited superior corrosion resistance to the standard 8620/52100 steel rod end bearings.

  10. Wire Weight

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  11. Influence of different brazing and welding methods on tensile strength and microhardness of orthodontic stainless steel wire.

    PubMed

    Bock, Jens Johannes; Fraenzel, Wolfgang; Bailly, Jacqueline; Gernhardt, Christian Ralf; Fuhrmann, Robert Andreas Werner

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength and microhardness of joints made by conventional brazing and tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding. A standardized end-to-end joint configuration of the orthodontic wire material in spring hard quality was used. The joints were made using five different methods: brazing (soldering > 450 degrees C) with universal silver solder, two TIG, and two laser welders. Laser parameters and welding conditions were used according to the manufacturers' guidance. The tensile strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). The microhardness measurements were carried out with a hardness tester (Zwick 3202). Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's post hoc correction (P < 0.05). In all cases, brazing joints ruptured at low levels of tensile strength (198 +/- 146 MPa). Significant differences (P < 0.001) between brazing and TIG or laser welding were found. The highest means were observed for TIG welding (699-754 MPa). Laser welding showed a significantly lower mean tensile strength (369-520 MPa) compared with TIG welding. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were found between the original orthodontic wire and the mean microhardness at the centre of the welded area. The mean microhardness differed significantly between brazing (1.99 GPa), TIG (2.22-2.39 GPa) and laser welding (2.21-2.68 GPa). For orthodontic purposes, laser and TIG welding are solder-free alternatives to joining metal. TIG welding with a lower investment cost is comparable with laser welding. However, while expensive, the laser technique is a sophisticated and simple method. PMID:18617503

  12. Reliable Wiring Harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspar, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    New harness for electrical wiring includes plugs that do not loosen from vibration. Ground braids prevented from detaching from connectors and constrained so braids do not open into swollen "birdcage" sections. Spring of stainless steel encircles ground braid. Self-locking connector contains ratchet not only preventing connector from opening, but tightens when vibrated.

  13. In Vivo Evaluation of the Effects of Gravitational Force (+Gz) on Over-the-Wire Stainless Steel Greenfield Inferior VenaCava Filter in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, P.M. Soares, G.M.; Dick, E.J.; Harroff, H.H.

    2003-08-15

    This study was done to determine the effect of exposure to gravitational force (acceleration stress) on invivo over-the-wire stainless steel Greenfield inferior vena cavafilters. Fifteen pigs underwent venous cut down and placement of a stainless steel Greenfield filter. A 4-week observation period simulated realistic convalescence and allowed sufficient time for epithelialization. Ten pigs were exposed to acceleration stress in a centrifuge (3G run for 15 sec followed by rest until return to baseline heart rate, then a 9G run for 15 sec), with inertial loading in ahead-to-tail direction (+Gz). Fluoroscopy during acceleration stress allowed assessment for filter migration. Five pigs were not exposed to acceleration stress. AP and lateral abdominal radiographs were obtained at post-filter placement, convalescence, and centrifuge exposure to determine the position and integrity of the filter. All 15 IVCs were resected and evaluated for gross or histological injury to the vessel wall. IVC filter placement was technically successful in all 15 pigs.Radiographic measurements were limited secondary to differences in pig positioning. Fluoroscopy showed no filter migration. All filters were securely attached to the vena cava by the hooks without gross evidence of perforation or hemorrhage. There were varying degrees of fibroplasia involving the hooks and tip of the filters in both the control and experimental groups. Histologically, there was evidence of prior hemorrhage at the level of the hooks, which was similar between the control and experimental groups. It is concluded that Greenfield filter position and vena caval integrity at the implantation site is unaffected by high acceleration stress.

  14. Method of fabricating composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Strauss, Bruce P.; Reardon, Paul J.; Remsbottom, Robert H.

    1977-01-01

    An improvement in the method for preparing composite rods of superconducting alloy and normal metal from which multifilament composite superconducting wire is fabricated by bending longitudinally a strip of normal metal around a rod of superconductor alloy and welding the edges to form the composite rod. After the rods have preferably been provided with a hexagonal cross-sectional shape, a plurality of the rods are stacked into a normal metal extrusion can, sealed and worked to reduce the cross-sectional size and form multifilament wire. Diffusion barriers and high-electrical resistance barriers can easily be introduced into the wire by plating or otherwise coating the faces of the normal metal strip with appropriate materials.

  15. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

  16. Influence of Filler Wire Feed Rate in Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding of T-butt Joint in Shipbuilding Steel with Different Optical Setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unt, Anna; Poutiainen, Ilkka; Salminen, Antti

    In this paper, a study of laser-arc hybrid welding featuring three different process fibres was conducted to build knowledge about process behaviour and discuss potential benefits for improving the weld properties. The welding parameters affect the weld geometry considerably, as an example the increase in welding speed usually decreases the penetration and a larger beam diameter usually widens the weld. The laser hybrid welding system equipped with process fibres with 200, 300 and 600 μm core diameter were used to produce fillet welds. Shipbuilding steel AH36 plates with 8 mm thickness were welded with Hybrid-Laser-Arc-Welding (HLAW) in inversed T configuration, the effects of the filler wire feed rate and the beam positioning distance from the joint plane were investigated. Based on the metallographic cross-sections, the effect of process parameters on the joint geometry was studied. Joints with optimized properties (full penetration, soundness, smooth transition from bead to base material) were produced with 200 μm and 600 μm process fibres, while fiber with 300 μm core diameter produced welds with unacceptable levels of porosity.

  17. Cooling method prolongs life of hot-wire transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, L. V.; Sandborn, V. A.

    1964-01-01

    To cool a hot-wire transducer, the two ends of the wire are supported on thermally and electrically conductive rods, surrounded by a fluid cooling medium. By keeping the supporting rods at a substantially constant temperature, the probe is prevented from overheating.

  18. High current pulse testing for ground rod integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walko, Lawrence C.

    1991-01-01

    A test technique was developed to assess various grounding system concepts used for mobile facilities. The test technique involves applying a high current pulse to the grounding system with the proper waveshape and magnitude to simulate a lightning return stroke. Of concern were the step voltages present along the ground near the point of lightning strike. Step voltage is equated to how fast the current pulse is dissipated by the grounding system. The applied current pulse was produced by a high current capacitor bank with a total energy content of 80 kilojoules. A series of pulse tests were performed on two types of mobile facility grounding systems. One system consisted of an array of four 10 foot copper clad steel ground rods connected by 1/0 gauge wire. The other system was an array of 10 inch long tapered ground rods, strung on stainless steel cable. The focus here is on the pulse test technique used and its relevance to actual lightning strike conditions.

  19. Ferrite insertion at Recycler Flying Wire System

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2004-02-27

    Ferrite rods are installed inside the flying-wire cavity of the Recycler Ring and at entrance and exit beam pipes in order to absorb high-frequency electromagnetic waves excited by the beam. However, these rods may also deteriorate the vacuum pressure of the ring. An investigation is made to analyze the necessity of the ferrite rods at the entrance and exit beam pipes.

  20. Sucker rod makers offer a selection

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, D.

    1983-11-01

    In their ongoing effort to produce better, more cost-effective sucker rods, manufacturers have selected one of three materials - fiberglass, aluminum, and steel - that they feel best suits the production system function of the rods, which is to connect the downhole pump to the pumpjack on the surface. Characteristics of each are described.

  1. Fabrication and application of zinc-zinc oxide nanosheets coating on an etched stainless steel wire as a selective solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenlan; Guo, Mei; Zhang, Yida; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2015-03-01

    A novel zinc-zinc oxide (Zn-ZnO) nanosheets coating was directly fabricated on an etched stainless steel wire substrate as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber via previous electrodeposition of robust Zn coating. The scanning electron micrograph of the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coated fiber exhibits a flower-like nanostructure with high surface area. The SPME performance of as-fabricated fiber was investigated for the concentration and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and ultraviolet (UV) filters coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). It was found that the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coating exhibited high extraction capability, good selectivity and rapid mass transfer for some UV filters. The main parameters affecting extraction performance were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graphs were linear over the range of 0.1-200μgL(-1). The limits of detection of the proposed method were 0.052-0.084μgL(-1) (S/N=3). The single fiber repeatability varied from 5.18% to 7.56% and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility ranged from 6.74% to 8.83% for the extraction of spiked water with 50μgL(-1) UV filters (n=5). The established SPME-HPLC-UV method was successfully applied to the selective concentration and sensitive determination of target UV filters from real environmental water samples with recoveries from 85.8% to 105% at the spiking level of 10μgL(-1) and 30μgL(-1). The relative standard deviations were below 9.7%. PMID:25662065

  2. Jacket-free stir bar sorptive extraction with bio-inspired polydopamine-functionalized immobilization of cross-linked polymer on stainless steel wire.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zixin; Zhang, Wenpeng; Bao, Tao; Chen, Zilin

    2015-08-14

    Stainless steel wire (SSW) is a good substrate for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). However, it is still a challenge to immobilize commonly used cross-linked polymers onto SSW. In this work, we present a new approach for immobilization of the cross-linked organic polymer onto SSW for jacket-free SBSE. A dopamine derivative was firstly synthesized; by introducing a mussel-inspired polydopamine process, a stable coating layer was finally generated on the surface of SSW. Secondly, the cross-linked polymer was synthesized on the polydopamine-modified SSW by using acetonitrile as the porogen, acrylamide (AA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker and 2,2'-azobis (2-methylpropionitrile) as the initiator. A diluted pre-polymerization solution was carefully prepared to generate a thin layer of the polymer. The prepared poly(EGDMA-AA)-modified stir bar showed high stability and good tolerance toward stirring, ultrasonication, organic solvents, and strong acidic and basic conditions. Morphology and structure characterization of coatings were performed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. The prepared poly(EGDMA-AA)-modified stir bar showed great extraction efficiency toward protoberberines, with enrichment factors of 19-42. An SBSE-HPLC method was also developed for quantitative analysis of protoberberines. The method showed low limits of detection (0.06-0.15 ng mL(-1)), wide linear range (0.5-400 ng mL(-1)), good linearity (R≥0.9980) and good reproducibility (RSD≤3.60% for intra-day, RSD≤4.73% for inter-day). The developed method has been successfully applied to determine protoberberines in herb and rat plasma samples, with recoveries of 88.53-114.61%. PMID:26141275

  3. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    PubMed

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords. PMID:17812747

  4. Strain measurement in a concrete beam by use of the Brillouin-scattering-based distributed fiber sensor with single-mode fibers embedded in glass fiber reinforced polymer rods and bonded to steel reinforcing bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaodong; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chhoa, Chia Yee; Bremner, Theodore W.; Brown, Anthony W.; DeMerchant, Michael D.; Ferrier, Graham; Kalamkarov, Alexander L.; Georgiades, Anastasis V.

    2002-08-01

    The strain measurement of a 1.65-m reinforced concrete beam by use of a distributed fiber strain sensor with a 50-cm spatial resolution and 5-cm readout resolution is reported. The strain-measurement accuracy is plus-or-minus15 mu][epsilon (mum/m) according to the system calibration in the laboratory environment with non-uniform-distributed strain and plus-or-minus5 mu][epsilon with uniform strain distribution. The strain distribution has been measured for one-point and two-point loading patterns for optical fibers embedded in pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) rods and those bonded to steel reinforcing bars. In the one-point loading case, the strain deviations are plus-or-minus7 and plus-or-minus15 mu][epsilon for fibers embedded in the GFRP rods and fibers bonded to steel reinforcing bars, respectively, whereas the strain deviation is plus-or-minus20 mu][epsilon for the two-point loading case.

  5. Wire stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economu, M. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An insulation stripper is described which is especially useful for shielded wire, the stripper including a first pair of jaws with blades extending substantially perpendicular to the axis of the wire, and a second pair of jaws with blades extending substantially parallel to the axis of the wire. The first pair of jaws is pressed against the wire so the blades cut into the insulation, and the device is turned to form circumferential cuts in the insulation. Then the second pair of jaws is pressed against the wire so the blades cut into the insulation, and the wire is moved through the device to form longitudinal cuts that permit easy removal of the insulation. Each of the blades is located within the concave face of a V-block, to center the blades on the wire and to limit the depth of blade penetration.

  6. Rod Has High Tensile Strength And Low Thermal Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Everton, R. L.; Howe, E.; O'Malley, M.

    1996-01-01

    Thoriated tungsten extension rod fabricated to replace stainless-steel extension rod attached to linear variable-differential transformer in gap-measuring gauge. Threads formed on end of rod by machining with special fixtures and carefully chosen combination of speeds and feeds.

  7. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.; Finnemore, Douglas K.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Schmidt, Frederick A.; Owen, Charles V.

    1985-08-06

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb.sub.3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb.sub.3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  8. Improved method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Finnemore, D.K.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schmidt, F.A.; Owen, C.V.

    1979-10-17

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb/sub 3/Sn in a copper matrix eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb/sub 3/Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  9. Method of making class D sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Woodings, R. T.

    1984-12-04

    It has been found that API Class D sucker rods can be made inexpensively from low-alloy, low-cost steel by following a suitable induction-normalizing process and using a suitable steel to which there has been added 0.07 to 0.15 percent of vanadium.

  10. Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, Vitaly; Wessel, F. J.; Van Drie, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (?=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of 1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 ?m. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90 with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 ?m. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 ?m) and steel wire d=25 ?m were exploded in vacuum (10-5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire.

  11. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  12. CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.; Ross, H.V.

    1958-11-18

    A control rod is described for a nuclear reactor. In certaln reactor designs it becomes desirable to use a control rod having great width but relatively llttle thickness. This patent is addressed to such a need. The neutron absorbing material is inserted in a triangular tube, leaving volds between the circular insert and the corners of the triangular tube. The material is positioned within the tube by the use of dummy spacers to achleve the desired absorption pattern, then the ends of the tubes are sealed with suitable plugs. The tubes may be welded or soldered together to form two flat surfaces of any desired width, and covered with sheetmetal to protect the tubes from damage. This design provides a control member that will not distort under the action of outside forces or be ruptured by gases generated within the jacketed control member.

  13. Electrically isolated, high melting point, metal wire arrays and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T.; Cunningham, Joseph P.; D'Urso, Brian R.; Hendricks, Troy R.; Schaeffer, Daniel A.

    2016-01-26

    A method of making a wire array includes the step of providing a tube of a sealing material and having an interior surface, and positioning a wire in the tube, the wire having an exterior surface. The tube is heated to soften the tube, and the softened tube is drawn and collapsed by a mild vacuum to bring the interior surface of the tube into contact with the wire to create a coated wire. The coated wires are bundled. The bundled coated wires are heated under vacuum to fuse the tube material coating the wires and create a fused rod with a wire array embedded therein. The fused rod is cut to form a wire array. A wire array is also disclosed.

  14. Wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  15. Residential Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    The second in a series of three curriculum packages on wiring, these materials for a five-unit course were developed to prepare postsecondary students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The five units are: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) rough-in; (3) service; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; and (5) load…

  16. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November..., 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). Additional written submissions to the Commission, including... steel wire that has been welded into a mesh pattern. The wire may be galvanized or plated (e.g.,...

  17. Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve

    DOEpatents

    Gorscak, Donald A.; Maringo, John J.; Nilsen, Roy J.

    1988-01-01

    A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

  18. Differences between bouncing balls, springs, and rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2008-10-01

    When one hard steel ball collides with another, kinetic energy is conserved, even if the balls have different diameters. Why is kinetic energy conserved in such a collision, given that kinetic energy is not conserved when two unequal length steel springs or rods collide? Experimental results with bouncing balls, springs, and rods are presented, which reveal the answer. For colliding springs and rods a significant fraction of the initial kinetic energy is retained after the collision as vibrational energy in the longer spring and rod. When two hard balls collide, a negligible fraction of the initial energy is converted to vibrational energy because the collision time is much longer than the transit time of an acoustic wave across each ball due to the fact that the contact region of a hard spherical ball is much softer than the rest of the ball.

  19. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  20. VIEW SOUTHEAST LEFTBUILDING 25NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST LEFT-BUILDING 25-NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) CENTER BUILDING 27 PATTERN SHOP (c.1853) NEXT BUILDING 28 BLACKSMITH SHOP (1885) NEXT BUILDING 32 MACHINE SHOP (1890) EXTREME RIGHT-DOBBINS BUILDING (NOT AM STEEL & WIRE) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  1. Sorting Titanium Welding Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, W. D., Jr.; Brown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Three types of titanium welding wires identified by their resistance to current flow. Welding-wire tester quickly identifies unknown titaniumalloy wire by touching wire with test probe, and comparing meter response with standard response. Before touching wire, tip of test probe dipped into an electrolyte.

  2. Gold-functionalized stainless-steel wire and tube for fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bu, Yanan; Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Zhou, Changli; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-03-01

    A fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction device based on a gold-functionalized stainless-steel wire and tube was developed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In combination with high-performance liquid chromatography, it was evaluated using six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as model analytes. Important parameters including sampling rate, sample volume, organic solvent content and desorption time were investigated. Under optimized conditions, an online analysis method was established. The linearity was in the range of 0.15-50 μg/L with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9989 to 0.9999, and limits of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.1 μg/L. The method was applied to determine model analytes in mosquito-repellent incense ash and river water samples, with recoveries in the range of 85-120%. PMID:26681645

  3. Computer simulations to study the effect of adiabatic heating on rod penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J.E.

    1993-08-01

    We use computer simulations to help us understand the experimental observation that depleted uranium (DU) rods penetrate more steel than equal density tungsten alloy (WA) rods, and that this advantage depends on velocity and fineness ratio. Our simulations used thermal softening. Although the DU rods exhibit shear fracture instead, both phenomena result in a loss of hoop strength, and help to keep the projectile residue from interfering with the incoming rod. Our simulations show that rods of DU (or other alloy with strong thermal softening) penetrate more steel than rods of WA (for alloys with little thermal softening), and show velocity and fineness ratio dependencies that are in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  4. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  5. 39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod or poker at right was used to unplug iron notch. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Novel unbreakable solid-phase microextraction fibers on stainless steel wire and application for the determination of oxadiargyl in environmental and agricultural samples in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Es-Haghi, Ali; Baghernejad, Masoud; Bagheri, Habib

    2014-10-01

    Sol-gel based solid-phase microextraction fibers supported by a stainless steel wire were fabricated and employed for GC-MS determination of oxadiargyl in real samples. The fibers were based on four compounds with different polarity: polar and non-polar (end-capped) poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and poly(ethylene-propyleneglycol)-monobutyl ether (UCON). For this purpose, the surface of the stainless steel was initially modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane. The results of the modification procedure were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. After the modification, four different sol-gel based SPME fibers with different values of polarity, polar and non-polar PDMS, PEG, and UCON have been prepared and investigated. They are supposed to be employed to determinate oxadiargyl in agricultural and environmental samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Most important parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were also optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was found to be linear for the concentrations ranging from 100 ng L(-1) to 2 mg L(-1) with R(2)=0.997. Limit of detection (LOD) of 40 ng L(-1) and relative standard deviation of less than 10% were obtained. Relative recovery in environmental and agricultural samples was in the range of 73-96%. PMID:25059153

  7. No Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)

  8. Rod examination gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1991-12-31

    The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

  9. Metallic hot wire anemometer. [for high speed wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemos, F. R. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A hot wire anemometer is described which has a body formed of heat resistant metal such as an alloy high in nickel content which supports a probe wire disposed in a V groove in the body. The V groove contains a high temperature ceramic adhesive that partially encompasses the downstream side of the probe wire. Mechanical and electrical connection to the probe wire is achieved through conductive support rods that are constructed of the same high temperature metal, insulation between the body and the conductor rods being provided by a coating of an oxide of the same material which coating is formed in situ. The oxide coating insulates the conductor rods from the body, mechanically fixes the conductors within the body, and maintains its integrity at elevated temperatures.

  10. Effect of fluoride on friction between bracket and wire

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Shiva; Farahi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Friction is usually encountered during sliding technique for orthodontic space closure. This study aims to investigate the effect of fluoride on frictional resistance between stainless steel orthodontic brackets and steel and NiTi arch wires. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 standard 022 stainless steel brackets were used in this experimental study. 0.016 and 0.019 × 0.025 inch steel and NiTi arch wires were tested. The frictional resistance between wires and brackets immersed in the following three solutions were measured: Sultan fluoride gel containing 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride at pH 3.5 for 4 minutes, aquafresh mouth wash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride at pH of 5.1 for 1 minute twice a day for 8 weeks and physiologic serum (pH=7) as the control group. Static and dynamic frictional forces were measured using Testometric machine. Surface topography of wires and brackets was qualitatively assessed using electron microscopy. Three-way and two-way variance analysis and complementary Tuckey analysis were applied to compare the groups for any significant differences (P<0.05). Results: The average static and dynamic frictional forces for all bracket-wire combinations immersed in Sultan fluoride gel were higher than those immersed in NAF and control groups (P<0.001).The forces measured for rectangular wires were higher than round wires (P<0.001). Frictional resistance of 0.016 inch NiTi wire was more than that of the steel one but the difference between steel and NiTi 0.019 × 0.25 arch wires was not significant. Conclusion: Friction between steel brackets and nickel titanium and steel wires is affected by prophylactic agents containing high doses of fluoride and acidity. PMID:23372594

  11. FUEL ROD ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1959-09-01

    A cluster of nuclear fuel rods aod a tubular casing through which a coolant flows in heat-change contact with the ruel rods are described. The casting is of trefoil section and carries the fuel rods, each of which has two fin engaging the serrated fins of the other two fuel rods, whereby the fuel rods are held in the casing and are interlocked against relative longitudinal movement.

  12. Effect of electrical spot welding on load deflection rate of orthodontic wires

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Shiva; Abrishami, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the methods used for joining metals together is welding, which can be carried out using different techniques such as electric spot welding. This study evaluated the effect of electric spot welding on the load deflection rate of stainless steel and chromium-cobalt orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: In this experimental-laboratory study, load deflection rate of 0.016 × 0.022 inch stainless steel and chromium cobalt wires were evaluated in five groups (n =18): group one: Stainless steel wires, group two: chromium-cobalt wires, group three: stainless steel wires welded to stainless steel wires, group four: Stainless steel wires welded to chromium-cobalt wires, group five: chromium-cobalt wire welded to chromium-cobalt wires. Afterward, the forces induced by the samples in 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 1.5 mm deflection were measured using a universal testing machine. Then mean force measured for each group was compared with other groups. The data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA, and paired t-test by the SPSS software. The significance level was set as 0.05. Results: The Tukey test showed that there were significant differences between the load deflection rates of welded groups compared to control ones (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Considering the limitation of this study, the electric spot welding process performed on stainless steel and chromium-cobalt wires increased their load deflection rates. PMID:26604957

  13. Membrane separation cuts disposal costs for wire-products maker

    SciTech Connect

    Nichele, V.B.

    1996-03-01

    To reduce disposal and maintenance costs associated with alkaline washing stations, a manufacturer of wire-welded products installed a membrane-separation wastewater treatment system. The Missouri-based company produces welded-wire products, such as shelves, closet conversions, wire baskets, display racks and coat hangers. The steel parts undergo an extensive cleaning process that consists of five spray-washing stages. An alkaline solution first washes oil and solids from the steel parts, then is washed off the parts. A phosphatizing solution etches the steel parts. Finally, the parts are rinsed thoroughly with potable water before they are powder coated.

  14. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  15. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  16. The use of modified scaling factors in the design of high-power, non-linear, transmitting rod-core antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Jared Williams; Dvorak, Steven L.; Sternberg, Ben K.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we develop a technique for designing high-power, non-linear, transmitting rod-core antennas by using simple modified scale factors rather than running labor-intensive numerical models. By using modified scale factors, a designer can predict changes in magnetic moment, inductance, core series loss resistance, etc. We define modified scale factors as the case when all physical dimensions of the rod antenna are scaled by p, except for the cross-sectional area of the individual wires or strips that are used to construct the core. This allows one to make measurements on a scaled-down version of the rod antenna using the same core material that will be used in the final antenna design. The modified scale factors were derived from prolate spheroidal analytical expressions for a finite-length rod antenna and were verified with experimental results. The modified scaling factors can only be used if the magnetic flux densities within the two scaled cores are the same. With the magnetic flux density constant, the two scaled cores will operate with the same complex permeability, thus changing the non-linear problem to a quasi-linear problem. We also demonstrate that by holding the number of turns times the drive current constant, while changing the number of turns, the inductance and core series loss resistance change by the number of turns squared. Experimental measurements were made on rod cores made from varying diameters of black oxide, low carbon steel wires and different widths of Metglas foil. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the modified scale factors work even in the presence of eddy currents within the core material.

  17. Total recall: an update on orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Jyothikiran, H; Shantharaj, Ravi; Batra, Panchali; Subbiah, Pradeep; Lakshmi, Bhagya; Kudagi, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic therapy is a force management procedure largely based on use of arch wires for storing and distributing biologically tolerable forces by means of which position of teeth is altered. Advances in material science and technology has resulted in an array of newer arch wire materials, opening new vistas, in orthodontic treatment. Materials with widely diverging properties are in the market today and their usage has profound implications on appliance mechanics, and are very much different from stainless steel which is popular even today. The dentists who practise orthodontics have to therefore clearly outline the phases of treatment and select the arch wire most suited for attaining specific treatment goals. PMID:25745725

  18. Fabrication of ciprofloxacin molecular imprinted polymer coating on a stainless steel wire as a selective solid-phase microextraction fiber for sensitive determination of fluoroquinolones in biological fluids and tablet formulation using HPLC-UV detection.

    PubMed

    Mirzajani, Roya; Kardani, Fatemeh

    2016-04-15

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) fiber on stainless steel wire using ciprofloxacin template with a mild template removal condition was synthetized and evaluated for fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) of fluoroquinolones (FQs) from biological fluids and pharmaceutical samples, followed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The developed MIP fiber exhibited high selectivity for the analytes in complex matrices. The coating of the fibers were inspected using fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, thermogaravimetric analysis, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fiber shows high thermal stability (up to 300°C), good reproducibility and long lifetime. The composite coating did not swell in organic solvents nor did it strip off from the substrate. It was also highly stable and extremely adherent to the surface of the stainless steel fiber. The fabricated fiber exclusively exhibited excellent extraction efficiency and selectivity for some FQs. The effective parameters influencing the microextraction efficiency such as pH, extraction time, desorption condition, and stirring rate were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection of the four FQs ranged from 0.023-0.033μgL(-1) (S/N=5) and the calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range from 0.1-40μgL(-1), the inter-day and intraday relative standard deviations (RSD) for various FQs at three different concentration level (n=5) using a single fiber were 1.1-4.4% and the fiber to fiber RSD% (n=5) was 4.3-6.7% at 5μgL(-1) of each anlyetes. The method was successfully applied for quantification of FQs in real samples including serum, plasma and tablet formulation with the recoveries between 97 to 102%. PMID:26852159

  19. Applications of surface analysis in the wire industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, David A.

    The quality of wire is judged not only by its physical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue resistance, but also by its surface finish. The surface roughness, oxide formation, cleanliness, and plating homogeneity and porosity are just a few of the surface properties than can influence the performance of a wire product. Coupled to this is the large amount of surface area generated in drawing wire. For example, a ten pound spool holds nine miles of 0.006″ diameter stainless steel wire. For these reasons surface analysis has become important both to the manufacturer and consumer of wire products. When surface analysis equipment such as AES, ESCA, and SIMS was first becoming commercially available in the late sixties and early seventies, the wire industry was beginning to enter a phase of technological development for many of its products. Wire manufacturers and users began using surface analysis to investigate such topics as adhesion of brass plated automobile tire cord to rubber and diffusion of layered deposits. Examples of surface analysis used for process control, problem solving, and project development include discoloration problems on stainless steel wire, welding problems with composite wires, diffusion formed brass coatings, and diffusion problems with solder coated and Cu plated steel wire.

  20. Control rod drive

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Basil C.

    1986-01-01

    A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

  1. 1987 Sucker rod tables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This reference identifies manufacturers qualified to produce API sucker rods and related equipment, lists chemical and mechanical properties of the various types of rods and provides dimensional characteristics. In addition, similar information is given for non-API products such as fiberglass and hollow rods.

  2. Piston rod seal

    DOEpatents

    Lindskoug, Stefan

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal of the type comprising a gland through which the piston rod is passed the piston is provided with a sleeve surrounding the piston rod and extending axially so as to axially partly overlap the gland when the piston is in its bottom dead center position.

  3. Development of a solid-phase microextraction fiber by the chemical binding of graphene oxide on a silver-coated stainless-steel wire with an ionic liquid as the crosslinking agent.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Duan, Huimin; Wang, Xiaojiao; Luo, Chuannan

    2014-12-01

    Graphene oxide was bonded onto a silver-coated stainless-steel wire using an ionic liquid as the crosslinking agent by a layer-by-layer strategy. The novel solid-phase microextraction fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman microscopy. A multilayer graphene oxide layer was closely coated onto the supporting substrate. The thickness of the coating was about 4 μm. Coupled with gas chromatography, the fiber was evaluated using five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene, 1,2-benzophenanthrene, and benzo(a)pyrene) as model analytes in direct-immersion mode. The main conditions (extraction time, extraction temperature, ionic strength, and desorption time) were optimized by a factor-by-factor optimization. The as-established method exhibited a wide linearity range (0.5-200 μg/L) and low limits of determination (0.05-0.10 μg/L). It was applied to analyze environmental water samples of rain and river water. Three kinds of the model analytes were quantified and the recoveries of samples spiked at 10 μg/L were in the range of 92.3-120 and 93.8-115%, respectively. The obtained results indicated the fiber was efficient for solid-phase microextraction analysis. PMID:25283136

  4. METHOD OF MAKING WIRE FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Zambrow, J.L.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for making a nuclear reactor fuel element in the form of a uranium-bearing wire clad with zirconium. A uranium bar is enclosed in a zirconium sheath which is coated with an oxide of magnesium, beryllium, or zirconium. The sheathed bar is then placed in a steel tube and reduced to the desired diameter by swaging at 800 to 900 deg C, after which the steel and oxide are removed.

  5. Development of a precision wire feeder for small-diameter wire

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, E.D.

    1995-03-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, the author designed and fabricated a precision wire feeder to be used with high energy density (electron beam and laser beam) welding for weld joints where filler wire might be needed to fill a gap or to adjust the chemical composition so that a crack-free weld could be made. The wire feeder incorporates a 25,000 step-per-revolution motor to power a urethane-coated drive roll. A microprocessor-based controller provides precise control of the motor and allows both continuous and pulsed feeding of the wire. A unidirectional 0.75-in.-dia ball bearing is used to press the wire against the drive roll. A slight constant backward tension is maintained on the wire spool by a Bodine torque motor. A Teflon tube is used to guide the wire from the drive roll to the vicinity of the weld, where a hypodermic needle is used to aim the wire into the weld pool. The operation of the wire feeder was demonstrated by feeding a 10-mil-dia, Type 304 stainless steel wire into a variety of CO{sub 2} laser beam welds. The resulting welds are smooth and continuous, and the welds are considered to be completely satisfactory for a variety of applications.

  6. Dynamic buckling and fragmentation in brittle rods.

    PubMed

    Gladden, J R; Handzy, N Z; Belmonte, A; Villermaux, E

    2005-01-28

    We present experiments on the dynamic buckling and fragmentation of slender rods axially impacted by a projectile. By combining the results of Saint-Venant and elastic beam theory, we derive a preferred wavelength lambda for the buckling instability, and experimentally verify the resulting scaling law for a range of materials including teflon, dry pasta, glass, and steel. For brittle materials, buckling leads to the fragmentation of the rod. Measured fragment length distributions show two peaks near lambda/2 and lambda/4. The nonmonotonic nature of the distributions reflect the influence of the deterministic buckling process on the more random fragmentation processes. PMID:15698281

  7. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I.

    1961-06-27

    Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation.

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1413 - Wire rope-inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distortion of the wire rope structure such as kinking, crushing, unstranding, birdcaging, signs of core failure or steel core protrusion between the outer strands. (B) Significant corrosion. (C) Electric arc... following: (A) In rotation resistant wire rope, core protrusion or other distortion indicating core...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1413 - Wire rope-inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distortion of the wire rope structure such as kinking, crushing, unstranding, birdcaging, signs of core failure or steel core protrusion between the outer strands. (B) Significant corrosion. (C) Electric arc... following: (A) In rotation resistant wire rope, core protrusion or other distortion indicating core...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1413 - Wire rope-inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... distortion of the wire rope structure such as kinking, crushing, unstranding, birdcaging, signs of core failure or steel core protrusion between the outer strands. (B) Significant corrosion. (C) Electric arc... following: (A) In rotation resistant wire rope, core protrusion or other distortion indicating core...

  11. Sucker rod construction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.; Goodman, J.L.; Tickle, J.D.; Liskey, A.K.

    1987-03-31

    A sucker rod construction is described comprising: a connector member being formed to define a rod receptacle having a closed axially inner end and an open axially outer end, the rod receptacle having axially spaced, tapered annular surfaces, a cylindrical fiberglass rod having an end having an outer surface being received within the rod receptacle through the outer end and cooperating therewith to define an annular chamber between the outer surface of the end of the rod and the tapered annular surfaces, and a bonding means positioned in the annular chamber for bonding to the outer surface of the end of the rod to confront the tapered annular surfaces, each annular surface having an angle of taper with respect to the outer surface of the fiberglass rod, and each angle of taper being progressively and uniformly less toward the open end by an amount between one and one-half degrees and two degrees, inclusive, and a collet connected to the connector member adjacent the open axially outer end of the rod receptacle and having an axial bore therethrough retaining the end of the rod in coaxial position within the rod receptacle.

  12. Brightness induction from rods.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Pokorny, J; Smith, V C

    2001-01-01

    Rod modulation of an annular surround can produce brightness contrast in a test field centered at 100 from the fovea. In our research, stimuli originated from a colorimeter that provided 4 primaries in both the circular test and the annular surround fields, and allowed independent modulation of the rods and each of the short (S)-, middle (M)-, and long (L)-wavelength-sensitive cone types. The chromaticity was set so fields had the same appearance as the equal energy spectrum. At 1 photopic troland (td), rod-induced modulation in the test field could be cancelled by either a rod- or a cone-nulling modulation added to the test field. The best cone nulling of rod induction showed residual flicker. Nulling was more effective, though still imperfect, with a cone-nulling stimulus of higher S-cone modulation contrast. Rod induction with square-wave, on-pulse, and off-pulse temporal profiles was closely similar. At higher light levels, 10 and 100 td, rod contrast could not be nulled by rod or cone modulation. The failure to achieve nulls may have been caused by either or both of the following hypotheses: (1) there is a mismatch between the rod and cone temporal waveforms; (2) there is strong rod input to the magnocellular pathway, but negligible rod input to the parvocellular pathway, as shown by single-unit electrophysiological data. PMID:12678612

  13. Low turbulence rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, E.L.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes an improved sucker rod guide for fixedly engaging around a sucker rod at a selected location along the length of the rod. It comprises a substantially cylindrical polymeric body having a longitudinal axis, a terminal end substantially continually tapered to the rod, a radially-inward surface and a radially outward surface, the radially inward surface of the body adjacent to and in tripping engagement with the rod when the rod guide is fixedly engaged around the rod; and a plurality of substantially continuous, longitudinal vanes carried by the body, a vane having a selected length and width, and longitudinally disposed along the radially outward surface of the guide body, extending radially away from the guide body and having a radially outside wear surface.

  14. Sucker rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.J.; Starks, J.A.

    1989-08-22

    This patent describes a sucker rod guide for mounting on a sucker rod and spacing the sucker rod from the tubing in an oil well. The guide comprising a generally cylindrically-shaped, extruded, ultra-high density polyethylene body having a substantially smooth outside surface; a longitudinal bore provided centrally of the body. The bore having a smaller diameter than the diameter of the sucker rod; a plurality of grooves provided in circumferential relationship in the bore; and a tapered slot extending longitudinally through the body from the outside surface to the bore. The tapered slot further comprising a slot mouth located at the outside surface and a slot throat spaced from the slot mouth. The slot throat lying adjacent to the sucker rod bore and wherein the slot throat is wider than the slot mouth for mounting the sucker rod guide on the sucker rod.

  15. Wear resistant rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, K.W.

    1991-12-03

    This paper describes a sucker rod guide. It comprises: a series of sucker rods connected end to end forming a sucker rod string, the sucker rod string extending down into a tubing string of a producing oil well from a pump jack located on the surface of the ground above the tubing string to a pump located at a bottom end of the tubing string, the pump forces produced fluid collected at the bottom end of the tubing string up to the ground's surface, the produced fluid occupies a space between the rod string and the tubing string through which the fluid is channeled from the bottom end of the tubing string to the ground's surface, the pump jack raises and lowers the rod string in the fluid being pumped up the tubing string while the fluid bathes the rod string within the tubing string, wherein the improvement comprises the following structure in combination with the above.

  16. CRUCIFORM CONTROL ROD JOINT

    DOEpatents

    Thorp, A.G. II

    1962-08-01

    An invention is described which relates to nuclear reactor control rod components and more particularly to a joint between cruciform control rod members and cruciform control rod follower members. In one embodiment this invention provides interfitting crossed arms at adjacent ends of a control rod and its follower in abutting relation. This holds the members against relative opposite longitudinal movement while a compression member keys the arms against relative opposite rotation around a common axis. Means are also provided for centering the control rod and its follower on a common axis and for selectively releasing the control rod from its follower for the insertion of a replacement of the control rod and reuse of the follower. (AEC)

  17. Fiberglass sucker rods - a futuristic solution to today's problem wells

    SciTech Connect

    Treadway, R.B.; Focazio, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    A new fiberglass sucker rod design was developed, which incorporated many new and major modifications to correct the problems that had plagued the previous rod. This paper documents the success of these rods in depths ranging from 5,000'-10,000', and production ranges of 150 - 700 barrels of fluid per day. In addition, Amoco had also installed over fifty strings of fiberglass rods in their other four West Texas and Eastern New Mexico districts, and several are being evaluated in East Texas and on the Gulf Coast. At the present time, all of these additional installations show the same success as those reported in this paper. The changes in the manufacturing process, the use of a computer program for performance prediction, and the development of a new load range diagram are also discussed. Final data indicate that, when designed and installed properly, fiberglass sucker rods are a viable, economic, and often preferable alternative to steel sucker rods.

  18. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than .04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station which includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 fig.

  19. VIEW WESTBUILDING 23WIRE MILL & PATENTING (c.1853 & c.1900)CENTER BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-BUILDING 23-WIRE MILL & PATENTING (c.1853 & c.1900)-CENTER BUILDING 25- NO 2 WIRE MILL (c.1853) BEHIND 23 TO RIGHT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  20. Process for producing fine and ultrafine filament superconductor wire

    DOEpatents

    Kanithi, Hem C.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing a superconductor wire made up of a large number of round monofilament rods is provided for, comprising assembling a multiplicity of round monofilaments inside each of a multiplicity of thin wall hexagonal tubes and then assembling a number of said thin wall hexagonal tubes within an extrusion can and subsequently consolidating, extruding and drawing the entire assembly down to the desired wire size.

  1. Process for producing fine and ultrafine filament superconductor wire

    DOEpatents

    Kanithi, H.C.

    1992-02-18

    A process for producing a superconductor wire made up of a large number of round monofilament rods is provided for, comprising assembling a multiplicity of round monofilaments inside each of a multiplicity of thin wall hexagonal tubes and then assembling a number of said thin wall hexagonal tubes within an extrusion can and subsequently consolidating, extruding and drawing the entire assembly down to the desired wire size. 8 figs.

  2. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be...

  4. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

  5. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.

  6. Pull rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Cioletti, Olisse C.

    1990-01-01

    A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

  7. Pull rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Cioletti, O.C.

    1988-04-21

    A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

  8. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.

    1960-05-24

    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  9. Dynamic Rod Worth Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Y.A.; Chapman, D.M.; Hill, D.J.; Grobmyer, L.R.

    2000-12-15

    The dynamic rod worth measurement (DRWM) technique is a method of quickly validating the predicted bank worth of control rods and shutdown rods. The DRWM analytic method is based on three-dimensional, space-time kinetic simulations of the rapid rod movements. Its measurement data is processed with an advanced digital reactivity computer. DRWM has been used as the method of bank worth validation at numerous plant startups with excellent results. The process and methodology of DRWM are described, and the measurement results of using DRWM are presented.

  10. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  11. Radiological characterization of spent control rod assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Pratt, S.L.; Haggard, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    This document represents the final report of an ongoing study to provide radiological characterizations, classifications, and assessments in support of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations. This report describes the results of non-destructive and laboratory radionuclide measurements, as well as waste classification assessments, of BWR and PWR spent control rod assemblies. The radionuclide inventories of these spent control rods were determined by three separate methodologies, including (1) direct assay techniques, (2) calculational techniques, and (3) by sampling and laboratory radiochemical analyses. For the BWR control rod blade (CRB) and PWR burnable poison rod assembly (BPRA), {sup 60}Co and {sup 63}Ni, present in the stainless steel cladding, were the most abundant neutron activation products. The most abundant radionuclide in the PWR rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) was {sup 108m}Ag (130 yr halflife) produced in the Ag-In-Cd alloy used as the neutron poison. This radionuclide will be the dominant contributor to the gamma dose rate for many hundreds of years. The results of the direct assay methods agree very well ({+-}10%) with the sampling/radiochemical measurements. The results of the calculational methods agreed fairly well with the empirical measurements for the BPRA, but often varied by a factor of 5 to 10 for the CRB and the RCCA assemblies. If concentration averaging and encapsulation, as allowed by 10CFR61.55, is performed, then each of the entire control assemblies would be classified as Class C low-level radioactive waste.

  12. FUEL ROD CLUSTERS

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, A.B.

    1959-08-01

    A cluster of nuclear fuel rods and a tubular casing therefor through which a coolant flows in heat-exchange contact with the fuel rods is described. The fuel rcds are held in the casing by virtue of the compressive force exerted between longitudinal ribs of the fuel rcds and internal ribs of the casing or the internal surfaces thereof.

  13. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  14. Micro Wire-Drawing: Experiments And Modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Berti, G. A.; Monti, M.; Bietresato, M.; D'Angelo, L.

    2007-05-17

    In the paper, the authors propose to adopt the micro wire-drawing as a key for investigating models of micro forming processes. The reasons of this choice arose in the fact that this process can be considered a quasi-stationary process where tribological conditions at the interface between the material and the die can be assumed to be constant during the whole deformation. Two different materials have been investigated: i) a low-carbon steel and, ii) a nonferrous metal (copper). The micro hardness and tensile tests performed on each drawn wire show a thin hardened layer (more evident then in macro wires) on the external surface of the wire and hardening decreases rapidly from the surface layer to the center. For the copper wire this effect is reduced and traditional material constitutive model seems to be adequate to predict experimentation. For the low-carbon steel a modified constitutive material model has been proposed and implemented in a FE code giving a better agreement with the experiments.

  15. A study of the regional load deflection rate of multiloop edgewise arch wire.

    PubMed

    Yang, W S; Kim, B H; Kim, Y H

    2001-04-01

    To quantify the unique mechanical properties of multiloop edgewise arch wire (MEAW), its load deflection rate (LDR) and the LDR of various arch wires in the individual interbracket span were measured and compared. The MEAW arch wires were made out of .016 x .022-inch Permachrome stainless steel wire with L-loops of 4 different sizes. Five samples of each size were prepared for the comparison against wires of plain stainless steel, TMA, and nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires, all of the same dimensions. Five specimens for each of the various wires were used to eliminate the possibility of change in the physical properties of wires caused by the stress from repeated measurement. The LDR was measured by using the Instron model 4466 at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min and maximum deflection of 1.0 mm. The regional wire stiffness of MEAW was calculated from the LDR in the interbracket spans that were measured by the Instron. The findings were as follows: (1) The LDR of the L-loop of MEAW at an individual interbracket span rate was 1:7.54 of the plain stainless steel wire, 1:1.76 of the NiTi, and 1:2.72 of TMA. (2) The L-loop at an individual interbracket span showed much lower wire stiffness than the entire arch wire, and the value of the stiffness differed according to the region. PMID:11302585

  16. Failure analysis of explanted sternal wires.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ming; Su, Yea-Yang; Lin, Shing-Jong; Shih, Chun-Che

    2005-05-01

    To classify and understand the mechanisms of surface damages and fracture mechanisms of sternal wires, explanted stainless steel sternal wires were collected from patients with sternal dehiscence following open-heart surgery. Surface alterations and fractured ends of sternal wires were examined and analyzed. Eighty fractured wires extracted from 25 patients from January 1999 to December 2003, with mean implantation interval of 55+/-149 days (range 5-729 days) after cardiac surgery, were studied by various techniques. The extracted wires were cleaned and the fibrotic tissues were removed. Irregularities and fractured ends were assayed by a scanning electron microscopy. After stereomicroscopy and documentation, the explants were cleaned with 1% sodium hypochlorite to remove the blood and tissues and was followed by cleaned with deionized water and alcohol. The explants were examined by stereomicroscopy, and irregularities on surface and fracture surfaces of sternal wires were assayed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and X-ray mapping. The explants with surrounding fibrotic tissue were stained and examined with stereomicroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Corrosion pits were found on the surface of explanted sternal wires. EDAX and X-ray mapping examinations revealed diminution of nickel concentration in the severely corroded pits on sternal wires. A feature of transgranular cracking was observed for stress corrosion cracking and striation character for typical corrosion fatigue was also identified. TEM examination of tissue showed the metallic particles in phagolysosomes of macrophages inside the surrounding sternal tissue. The synergic effect of hostile environment and the stress could be the precursors of failures for sternal wires. PMID:15576179

  17. Transcatheter wiring of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, P.; Simonetti, G.; Passariello, R.; Stipa, S.; Cavallaro, A.

    1983-04-01

    A new technique of transcatheder wiring of unresectable aortic aneurysm is described that provides simultaneous transcatheder occlusion of both common iliac arteries followed by exillofemoral bypass. The spring coil used for aortic aneurysm wiring was of our own making. The outer portion of a movable core stainless steel guidewire was bent in a coil shape and introduced into the aneurysm through a 7 French Teflon catheder via the right femoral artery. The same catheder was also used for coil embolus occlusion of both iliac arteries.

  18. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  19. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  20. Nanoparticle Ag-enhanced textured-powder Bi-2212/Ag wire technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellams, J. N.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N.; Vandergrifft, J.

    2015-12-01

    A new approach to the preparation of cores for Bi-2212/Ag wire is being developed. Nanoparticle Ag is homogeneously dispersed in Bi-2212 fine powder, and the mixture is uniaxially compressed to form highly textured, cold-sintered core rods. The rods can be assembled in a silver matrix, drawn to form multifilament wire, and restacked and drawn to form multifilament wire. Preliminary studies using tablet geometry demonstrate that a nonmelt heat treatment produces densification, grain growth, intergrowth among grains, and macroscopic current transport. The status of the development is reported.

  1. Wire harness twisting aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  2. Control rod driveline and grapple

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A control rod driveline and grapple is disclosed for placement between a control rod drive and a nuclear reactor control rod containing poison for parasitic neutron absorption required for reactor shutdown. The control rod is provided with an enlarged cylindrical handle which terminates in an upwardly extending rod to provide a grapple point for the driveline. The grapple mechanism includes a tension rod which receives the upwardly extending handle and is provided with a lower annular flange. A plurality of preferably six grapple segments surround and grip the control rod handle. Each grapple rod segment grips the flange on the tension rod at an interior upper annular indentation, bears against the enlarged cylindrical handle at an intermediate annulus and captures the upwardly flaring frustum shaped handle at a lower and complementary female segment. The tension rods and grapple segments are surrounded by and encased within a cylinder. The cylinder terminates immediately and outward extending annulus at the lower portion of the grapple segments. Excursion of the tension rod relative to the encasing cylinder causes rod release at the handle by permitting the grapple segments to pivot outwardly and about the annulus on the tension rod so as to open the lower defined frustum shaped annulus and drop the rod. Relative movement between the tension rod and cylinder can occur either due to electromagnetic release of the tension rod within defined limits of travel or differential thermal expansion as between the tension rod and cylinder as where the reactor exceeds design thermal limits.

  3. Laser Wire Stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  4. Flexible sucker rod unit

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, L.F.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes a deep well having: a. an education tube with an inside diameter extending from the surface of the earth to far below the surface, b. a reciprocating pump housing attached to the bottom of the education tube, c. pump jack means at the surface for reciprocating the pump, d. a light sucker rod connected to the pump jack means and extending into the education tube, and e. a series of heavy sinker bars having a large cross sectional area in the education tube connecting the light sucker rod to the pump; f. an improved integral metal flexible rod unit interconnecting the sinker bars comprising in combination with the above: g. a coupling on each end of the integral metal flexible rod unit connecting the flexible rod unit to the contiguous sinker bar, h. a segment which is flexible as compared to the sinker bars connecting one of the couplings to i. an integral metal bearing adjacent to the other of the couplings, the bearing having j. a cylindrical surface with k. a diameter i. only slightly smaller than the inside diameter of the education tube thereby forming a sliding fit therewith, and ii. greater than the diameter of any other portion of the flexible rod unit and the sinker bar, and l. grooves in the cylindrical surface for the passage of fluid between in the education tube around the bearing.

  5. Wear simulation of sucker rod couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, W.J. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that sucker rod strings are devices used to actuate pumps located at the bottom of oil wells. The individual rods are connected together by threaded couplings. Since the couplings have a larger diameter than the rods, they sometimes contact the inside diameter of the tubing during the up and down pumping cycle. Usually, this is not problem unless buckling occurs in the downstroke; however, this can lead to accelerated wear of the coupling and tubing. In nonvertical wells (offset, deviated, or slanted), the contact is more severe and rapid wear takes place. Couplings are more easily replaced during shutdowns; it is very important to minimize wear to tubing since it is virtually impossible to replace. TRIBONIC 20, an iron-based alloy containing approximately 13% Mn, 5% Si, 5.5% Cr, and 5% Ni, was laboratory evaluated to determine whether or not it could solve the sucker rod coupling-production tubing wear problem. The alloy demonstrated outstanding wear resistance both to itself and in protecting type 1019 steel.

  6. Analysis of sucker rod and sinkerbar failures

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.R.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents results of a study of performance and failures of the sucker rod/sinkerbar string used in beam-pumping operations through metallography, finite element analysis, and failure data collection. Metallography showed that the microstructure of the steel bar stock needs to be considered to improve the fatigue resistance of the sucker rod strings. The current specification based on tensile strength, or yield strength, may not be appropriate since failure occurs because of fatigue and not yielding, and tensile strength is not always a good measure of fatigue resistance. Finite element analysis of the threaded connection quantitatively assesses the coupling designs under various loading conditions. Subcritical fractures in metallography are also suggested by calculated stress distribution in threaded coupling. Failure data illustrates both magnitude and frequency of failures, as well as categorizing the suspected cause of failure. Application of the results in each of these project areas is expected to yield improved choice of metal bar stock, thread design, and make-up practices which can significantly reduce the frequency of sucker rod failures. Sucker rod failures today are not inherent in the process, but can be minimized through the application of new technology and observation of common-sense practices.

  7. Formation Mechanisms of Cracks Formed During Hot Rolling of Free-Machining Steel Billets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongjin; Kim, Hyunmin; Shin, Sang Yong; Rhee, Kiho; Ahn, Sang Bog; Lee, Duk Lak; Kim, Nack J.; Lee, Sunghak

    2012-03-01

    In this study, cracks formed in the edge side of Bi-S-based free-machining steel billets during hot rolling were analyzed in detail, and their formation mechanisms were clarified in relation with microstructure. Particular emphasis was placed on roles of bands of pearlites or C- and Mn-rich regions and complex iron oxides present in the edge side. Pearlite bands in the cracked region were considerably bent to the surface, while those in the noncracked region were parallel to the surface. This was because the alignment direction of pearlite bands was irregularly deviated up to 45 deg from the normal direction parallel to the surface, while the billet was rolled and rotated at 90 deg in the same direction between rolling passes. On the edge side, where pearlite bands were bent, iron oxides intruded deeply into the interior along pearlite bands, which worked as stress concentration sites during hot rolling and, consequently, main causes of the crack initiation in the rolled billet. On the surface of the wire rod rolled from the cracked billet, a few scabs were found when some protrusions were folded during hot rolling. In order to prevent the cracking in billets and scab formation in wire rods, (1) the increase of rolling passes and the decrease of reduction ratio for homogeneous rolling of billets and (2) the reduction in sulfur content for minimizing the formation and intrusion of complex iron oxides were suggested.

  8. Control rod housing alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1990-09-04

    This patent describes a process for measuring the vertical alignment between a hole in a core plate and the top of a corresponding control rod drive housing within a boiling water reactor. It comprises: providing an alignment apparatus. The alignment apparatus including a lower end for fitting to the top of the control rod drive housing; an upper end for fitting to the aperture in the core plate, and a leveling means attached to the alignment apparatus to read out the difference in angularity with respect to gravity, and alignment pin registering means for registering to the alignment pin on the core plate; lowering the alignment device on a depending support through a lattice position in the top guide through the hole in the core plate down into registered contact with the top of the control rod drive housing; registering the upper end to the sides of the hole in the core plate; registering the alignment pin registering means to an alignment pin on the core plate to impart to the alignment device the required angularity; and reading out the angle of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate through the leveling devices whereby the angularity of the top of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate can be determined.

  9. Ribbon rod for use in oil well apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, C.J.; Bender, R.E.; Simson, A.K.; McCutchen, H. Jr.

    1986-01-07

    This patent describes a ribbon rod for use in oil well tubing as a replacement for a conventional steel sucker rod. The ribbon rod consists of: an elongated ribbon having a core of relatively stiff material that still has a degree of flexibility such that the ribbon is capable of being wound onto and dispensed from a rotatable reel and can support the weight of oil pumping apparatus attached to a downhole portion of the ribbon, the ribbon core having opposed side surfaces and relatively narrow end surfaces joining the side surfaces; a ply of fabric overlying the side surfaces to provide transverse strength to the ribbon rod; and corner tows extending over the end surfaces to provide damage resistance to the ribbon as it is raised and lowered in the oil well tubing.

  10. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare..., and bare signal wires shall be adequately guarded: (a) At all points where men are required to work...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare..., and bare signal wires shall be adequately guarded: (a) At all points where men are required to work...

  12. Thin wire pointing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

  13. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

  14. Shape memory alloy wire-based smart natural rubber bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, F.; Shahria Alam, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, two types of smart elastomeric bearings are presented using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. Due to the unique characteristics of SMAs, such as the superelastic effect and the recentering capability, the residual deformation in SMA-based natural rubber bearings (SMA-NRBs) is significantly reduced whereas the energy dissipation capacity is increased. Two different configurations of SMA wires incorporated in elastomeric bearings are considered. The effect of several parameters, including the shear strain amplitude, the type of SMA, the aspect ratio of the base isolator, the thickness of SMA wire, and the amount of pre-strain in the wires on the performance of SMA-NRBs is investigated. Rubber bearings are composed of natural rubber layers bonded to steel shims as reinforcement. Results show that ferrous SMA wire, FeNiCuAlTaB, with 13.5% superelastic strain and a very low austenite finish temperature (-62 °C), is the best candidate to be used in SMA-NRBs subjected to high shear strain amplitudes. In terms of the lateral flexibility and wire strain level, the smart rubber bearing with a cross configuration of SMA wires is more efficient. Moreover, the cross configuration can be implemented in high-aspect-ratio elastomeric bearings since the strain induced in the wire does not exceed the superelastic range. When cross SMA wires with 2% pre-strain are used in a smart NRB, the dissipated energy is increased by 74% and the residual deformation is decreased by 15%.

  15. Towards slide enhancement with the titanium-molybdenum wire?

    PubMed

    Thiry, Pol; Barthélémi, Stéphane

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to improve the tribological properties of titanium-molybdenum wire. Following an analysis of the wire/bracket/ligation friction parameters and an overview of the technological research into means of reducing such friction,we set up several types of surface treatment in the laboratory by physical deposition in the vapor phase and using cold plasma technology. The specimens obtained underwent two types of tribological tests and were then subjected to traction and bending tests in order to determine the variations in their mechanical properties induced by the different types of treatment. For purposes of comparison, all the tests were conducted on untreated wire, TMA® Low-friction® wire and stainless steel wire and with two types of elastomeric ties. We were able to demonstrate some remarkable slide performances obtained using cold plasma nitriding while preserving the mechanical properties. A significant difference was observed relative to the other surface treatments. PMID:21094102

  16. Lingual straight wire method.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kyoto; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, L U C A; Takemoto, Y U I

    2009-12-01

    The mushroom arch-wire is mainly used in lingual orthodontic treatment but the complicated wire bending it requires affects both the treatment results and the time spent at the chair. The author proposes a new lingual straight wire method (LSW) in order to facilitate arch coordination and simplify the mechanics. The attention paid to the set-up model and bracket positioning and bonding plus the use of the new LSW method will also improve patient comfort. PMID:20303920

  17. Resistance of streamline wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defoe, George L

    1928-01-01

    This note contains the results of tests to determine the resistance of four sizes of streamline wire. The investigation was conducted in the six-inch wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The tests were made at various velocities and it was found that the resistance of streamline wires was considerably less than that of round wires of equivalent strength. Scale effect was also found since, with an increase of Reynolds Number, a decrease in the resistance coefficient was obtained.

  18. Wire-inhomogeneity detector

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1982-08-31

    A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

  19. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  20. Weld Wire Investigation Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.A.

    1999-03-22

    After GTA welding reservoir A production/process prove-in assemblies, X-ray examination detected a lack of sidewall fusion. After examining several possible causes, it was determined that the weld wire filler metal was responsible, particularly the wire cleaning process. The final conclusion was that the filler wire must be abrasively cleaned in a particular manner to perform as required. The abrasive process was incorporated into the wire material specification, ensuring consistency for all reservoir GTA welding at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T).

  1. Magnetic uniaxial wire medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Tiago A.; Costa, João T.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that a racemic array of helical-shaped metallic wires may have a dual electromagnetic response, such that for arbitrarily large wavelengths it concurrently supports two modes with hyperbolic- and elliptical-type dispersions. Importantly, one of the eigenwaves is nearly dispersionless and sees the metamaterial as a medium with extreme magnetic anisotropy. The metamaterial may thus behave as the magnetic analog of the conventional wire medium formed by a set of parallel straight metallic wires. It is demonstrated that the magnetic wire medium enables channeling the subwavelength details of transverse electric (TE) polarized waves.

  2. A tool for measuring the bending length in thin wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzini, M.; Cagnoli, G.; Cesarini, E.; Losurdo, G.; Martelli, F.; Piergiovanni, F.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.

    2013-03-01

    Great effort is currently being put into the development and construction of the second generation, advanced gravitational wave detectors, Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO. The development of new low thermal noise suspensions of mirrors, based on the experience gained in the previous experiments, is part of this task. Quasi-monolithic suspensions with fused silica wires avoid the problem of rubbing friction introduced by steel cradle arrangements by directly welding the wires to silica blocks bonded to the mirror. Moreover, the mechanical loss level introduced by silica (ϕfs ˜ 10-7 in thin fused silica wires) is by far less than the one associated with steel. The low frequency dynamical behaviour of the suspension can be computed and optimized, provided that the wire bending shape under pendulum motion is known. Due to the production process, fused silica wires are thicker near the two ends (necks), so that analytical bending computations are very complicated. We developed a tool to directly measure the low frequency bending parameters of fused silica wires, and we tested it on the wires produced for the Virgo+ monolithic suspensions. The working principle and a set of test measurements are presented and explained.

  3. A tool for measuring the bending length in thin wires.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, M; Cagnoli, G; Cesarini, E; Losurdo, G; Martelli, F; Piergiovanni, F; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A

    2013-03-01

    Great effort is currently being put into the development and construction of the second generation, advanced gravitational wave detectors, Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO. The development of new low thermal noise suspensions of mirrors, based on the experience gained in the previous experiments, is part of this task. Quasi-monolithic suspensions with fused silica wires avoid the problem of rubbing friction introduced by steel cradle arrangements by directly welding the wires to silica blocks bonded to the mirror. Moreover, the mechanical loss level introduced by silica (φfs ∼ 10(-7) in thin fused silica wires) is by far less than the one associated with steel. The low frequency dynamical behaviour of the suspension can be computed and optimized, provided that the wire bending shape under pendulum motion is known. Due to the production process, fused silica wires are thicker near the two ends (necks), so that analytical bending computations are very complicated. We developed a tool to directly measure the low frequency bending parameters of fused silica wires, and we tested it on the wires produced for the Virgo+ monolithic suspensions. The working principle and a set of test measurements are presented and explained. PMID:23556827

  4. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  5. Noise Radiation from Single and Multiple Rod Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic measurements were performed on single and multiple rod configurations to study the effect of Reynolds number, surface roughness, freestream turbulence, proximity and wake interference on the radiated noise. The Reynolds number ranged from 3.8 x 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 5). Directivity measurements were performed to determine how well the dipole assumption for the radiation of vortex shedding noise holds for the different model configurations tested. The dependence of the peak Sound Pressure Level on velocity was also examined. Several concepts for the reduction of the noise radiating from cylindrical rods were tested. It was shown that wire wraps and collar distributions could be used to significantly reduce the noise radiating from rods in tandem configurations.

  6. Welded oil well pump rod

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.F.

    1986-06-10

    A friction welded multiple component oil well sucker rod is described which consists of an elongated cylindrical rod section and apposed coupling end portions welded to opposite ends of the rod section, the coupling end portions being of a nominal maximum diameter at least 1.5 times greater than the rod section and including means for connecting the sucker rod to an adjacent rod in end to end relationship. The couplings end portions each include an axial tapered portion between the connecting means and an end face adapted to be butted to the rod section, the coupling end portions being butted against the opposed end portions of the rod section during a friction welding operation to form a radially outward projecting bulge of displaced material on the rod section and the coupling end portions, respectively. A greater cross-sectional area is formed at the transition of the rod section to the coupling end portion to reduce the unit tensile stress on the sucker rod in the vicinity of the weld, wherein the displaced material is machined to form a tapered surface between the rod section and the axial tapered portion of the coupling end portion, the tapered surface having an angle of taper with respect to the longitudinal axis of the sucker rod less than the angle of taper of the coupling end portion.

  7. Control rod flow diverters

    SciTech Connect

    Cearley, J.E.; Holland, D.F.; Hurt, D.T.; Moody, F.J.

    1991-11-12

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor system including a core containing fissionable fuel elements and a fluid circulation system for circulating heat transfer fluid through the core, the heat transfer fluid being a more effective neutron moderator in a liquid phase than in a vapor phase, the core having control rod passages therethrough into which control rods can be inserted and through which the heat transfer fluid flows. It comprises a hollow tube having a wall defining a circumference and a longitudinally extending interior space; transverse flow means for allowing the fluid to enter and exit the interior space through the wall, the transverse flow means including a longitudinally extending series of pairs of openings, each of the pairs including an inlet and an outlet, each of the outlets generally transversely opposing a respective one of the inlets; and diverter means for diverting fluid through the outlets from the interior space, the diverter means including a barrier for each of the pairs of openings, each of the barriers at least partially occluding longitudinal fluid flow along the interior space and at least partially occluding transverse fluid flow between each pair of the openings; whereby heat transfer fluid flowing longitudinally through the interior space is exchanged with fluid flowing through the control rod passage and external to the interior space, whereby the presence of the vapor phase of the fluid in the interior space is diminished and the neutron absorption effectiveness of the control rod is enhanced.

  8. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction arrays. These devices offer potential efficiencies of 34%, as demonstrated through an analytical model and optoelectronic simulations. SiGe and Ge wires were fabricated via chemical-vapor deposition and reactive ion etching. GaAs was then grown on these substrates at the National Renewable Energy Lab and yielded ns lifetime components, as required for achieving high efficiency devices.

  9. Wire Weight with Housing

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. In the background there is housing protected with dikes along the Missouri River in Mandan, ND....

  10. The exploding wire phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspden, H.

    1985-02-01

    Graneau's recent interpretation of the exploding wire phenomenon as an electrodynamic effect verifying Ampère's classical formulation is questioned. Instead, it is shown that the rupturing force arising from the imbalance of the self-induced electromotive force and the ohmic potential during an explosive current surge will account for the wire breaking into several segments, as is observed.

  11. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  12. Tap into the Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dick

    1986-01-01

    A story on the wire services puts an institution's name before editors and news directors at media outlets all over the state and region and maybe even across the nation. To get potential stories onto the wires, the development officer needs to have sound news judgment, the ability to write clearly, and tact. (MLW)

  13. Wire Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.; Cole, A.G.

    1983-03-01

    The Wire Transport Code was developed to study the dynamics of relativistic-electron-beam propagation in the transport tube in which a wire-conditioning zone is present. In order for the beam to propagate successfully in the transport section it must be matched onto the wire by focusing elements. The beam must then be controlled by strong lenses as it exits the wire zone. The wire transport code was developed to model this process in substantial detail. It is able to treat axially symmetric problems as well as those in which the beam is transversely displaced from the axis of the transport tube. The focusing effects of foils and various beamline lenses are included in the calculations.

  14. REACTOR CONTROL ROD OPERATING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Miller, G.

    1961-12-12

    A nuclear reactor control rod mechanism is designed which mechanically moves the control rods into and out of the core under normal conditions but rapidly forces the control rods into the core by catapultic action in the event of an emergency. (AEC)

  15. SAFETY SYSTEM FOR CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Paget, J.A.

    1963-05-14

    A structure for monitoring the structural continuity of a control rod foi a neutron reactor is presented. A electric conductor readily breakable under mechanical stress is fastened along the length of the control rod at a plurality of positions and forms a closed circuit with remote electrical components responsive to an open circuit. A portion of the conductor between the control rod and said components is helically wound to allow free and normally unrestricted movement of the segment of conductor secured to the control rod relative to the remote components. Any break in the circuit is indicative of control rod breakage. (AEC)

  16. Sucker rod centralizer

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas, O.; Newski, A.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes a device for centralizing at least one sucker rod within a production pipe downhole in a well and for reducing frictional forces between the pipe and at least one sucker rod. It comprises an elongate, substantially cylindrical body member having a longitudinal axis, a plurality of slots within the member and a rotatable member mounted within each slot, each of the plurality of slots has its major dimension along a first axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body member and is oriented with respect to the other seats so as to form a helicoidal array for maximizing the total surface contact area between the rotatable members and the pipe and for decreasing the forces acting on each rotatable member.

  17. Sucker rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.C.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes an improved guide for use in a string of sucker rods for reciprocation in a tubing string in a borehole, the sucker rods having threaded male ends, the guide comprising: an elongated upright cylindrical member of external diameter less than the internal diameter of tubing in which it is to be used, the member having sucker rod receiving female threaded openings at the upper and lower ends, the threaded openings being coaxial of the member cylindrical axis whereby the member may be positioned in a string of sucker rods, and including a plurality of spaced-apart parallel sided slots within the member, each slot being of semi-circular configuration and of depth greater than the radius and less than the diameter of the cylindrical member, the sidewalls of each slot being parallel to and equally spaced from a plane of the member cylindrical axis; the member having an axle bore therein for each of the slots, the axle bores being parallel and spaced apart from each other, a plane of the axis of each bore being perpendicular the member cylindrical axis and the axis of each bore being displaced away from the member cylindrical axis; an axle received in each axle bore; and a wheel received on each axle the diameter of each wheel being approximately the diameter of the cylindrical member, the periphery of each wheel extending beyond the member cylindrical wall whereby the wheels are positioned to engage and roll on the internal cylindrical surface of tubing, the planes of adjacent slots in the member being rotationally displaced from each other, a portion of each wheel extending beyond the cylindrical surface of the member, the opposed portion of each wheel being within the confines of the member cylindrical surface whereby each wheel can contact a tubing wall at only one point on its cylindrical surface.

  18. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

  19. Sucker rod coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Klyne, A.A.

    1986-11-11

    An anti-friction sucker rod coupling is described for connecting a pair of sucker rods and centralizing them in a tubing string, comprising: an elongate, rigid, substantially cylindrical body member, each end of the body member forming means for threadably connecting the body member with a sucker rod. The body member further forms a transversely extending, substantially diametric, generally vertical slot extending therethrough. The body member further forms a pin bore, such pin bore extending transversely through the body member so as to intersect the slot substantially perpendicularly; a wheel member positioned within the slot to rotate in a generally vertical plane. The wheel member has a portion thereof extending beyond the periphery of the body member to engage the inner surface of the tubing string and centralize the coupling; and a pin mounted in the pin bore and supporting member thereon, whereby the wheel member is rotatable within the slot; the wheel member having sufficient clearance between its side surfaces and the wall surfaces of the slot, when the wheel member is centered in the slot on the pin, whereby the wheel member may shift along the pin to assist in ejecting sand and oil from the slot.

  20. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small button'' in the latch mechanism had broken off of the lock plunger'' and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  1. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small ``button`` in the latch mechanism had broken off of the ``lock plunger`` and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  2. Annular burnable absorber rod

    SciTech Connect

    Chubb, W.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a neutron irradiation environment of a water cooled and moderated reactor core a fuel assembly having a discrete annular burnable absorber rod, the rod being free of nuclear fuel material the rod comprising a first elongated hollow tube having opposed ends, a second elongated hollow tube having opposed ends. The first and second tubes are constructed of a zirconium material, the first and second tubes concentrically arranged about a common axis to provide a coextensive annular space therebetween and a path for the water through the first tube along the common axis. A sealing means seals the annular space at common opposed ends of the first and second tube and a hollow niobium tubular support is arranged within the annular space. The tubular support has an inner and outer surface, a layer of burnable neutron absorber material provided on at least a portion of one of the surfaces of the support the layer of the burnable neutron absorber material selected from the group of boron compounds consisting of boron carbide, boron nitride and zirconium diboride; and the layer of the burnable neutron absorber material having a thickness between 0.002 to 0.010 inches.

  3. Shell runs 14,500-ft sucker rod completion

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.

    1982-12-01

    Discusses a well in Wyoming's Reno field which features a modified downhole pump, a custom-made polished rod, and a special electric motor. String design was augmented by Shell's RodCal computer program that calculates load, stress, torque, horsepower requirements, stroke length, strokes per minute, and rod length and number. The pump is a 1 1/4-in. RHBM (API Spec. 11AX-B12) with an 11/16-in. valve rod. The polished rod is 30-ft long with a 1 1/2 diam, with a shoulder at the bottom and a conventional end at the top. The steel tapered rod string is a binary construction, run in 25-ft sections. The length of the string presented problems on the surface. To avoid midstring shock loading, Shell used an ultrahigh slip motor which slows from 1,170 to approximately 800 rpm on the downstroke to allow the string time to synchronize before starting the upstroke. The 70 b/d rate is expected to increase as the Reno field is under waterflood.

  4. Experimental and computational studies of rod-deployment mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalbe, L.A.; Wingate, C.A.; Stofleth, J.H.; Greene, R.W.

    1996-08-01

    We describe experimental measurements and hydrocode simulations of two tests in which long (L/D=12), steel rods were accelerated laterally with charges of Detasheet-C high explosive (HE). In each test configuration, 84 rods were initially aligned parallel to one another in an array of four concentric rings. The first test had a central core of HE that dispersed the rods isotropically. The second test had a narrow, 180 degree strip of HE on one side of the assembly that focused the rods directionally. Using radiographic data taken at several milliseconds after HE initiation, we measured the dynamic distributions of the rods, and their translational velocities and tumble rates. To compare with the data, we also modeled the experiments with our smooth particle hydrocode SPHINX. Within the context of our numerical model, the hydrocode results agree satisfactorily with the test data. We include in our discussion many of the inferences and insights that our results provide to the phenomenology and performance of multimode, rod-deployment mechanisms.

  5. Towards plant wires.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. PMID:24928068

  6. Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

  7. Comparison of frictional forces between aesthetic orthodontic coated wires and self-ligation brackets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yunmi; Cha, Jung-Yul; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Tahk, Seon Gun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of polymer- and rhodium-coated wires compared to uncoated wires by measuring the frictional forces using self-ligation brackets. Methods 0.016-inch nickel titanium (NiTi) wires and 0.017 × 0.025-inch stainless steel (SS) wires were used, and the angulations between the brackets and wires were set to 0°, 5°, and 10°. Upper maxillary premolar brackets (Clippy-C®) with a 0.022-inch slot were selected for the study and a tensile test was performed with a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The maximum static frictional forces and kinetic frictional forces were recorded and compared. Results The maximum static frictional forces and the kinetic frictional forces of coated wires were equal to or higher than those of the uncoated wires (p < 0.05). The maximum static frictional forces of rhodium-coated wires were significantly higher than those of polymer-coated wires when the angulations between the brackets and wires were set to (i) 5° in the 0.016-inch NiTi wires and (ii) all angulations in the 0.017 × 0.025-inch SS wires (p < 0.05). The kinetic frictional forces of rhodium-coated wires were higher than those of polymer-coated wires, except when the angulations were set to 0° in the 0.016-inch NiTi wires (p < 0.05). Conclusions Although the frictional forces of the coated wires with regards to aesthetics were equal to or greater than those of the uncoated wires, a study under similar conditions regarding the oral cavity is needed in order to establish the clinical implications. PMID:25133130

  8. A Swinging Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    1993-01-01

    Outlines a safer alternative to the traditional physics demonstration known as the "kicking wire" experiment. The new method eliminates the use of an open dish of mercury but is less dramatic in the visible effects it produces. (DDR)

  9. Dual wire weld feed proportioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

  10. A comparison of wire- and Kevlar-reinforced provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Powell, D B; Nicholls, J I; Yuodelis, R A; Strygler, H

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel wire 0.036 inch in diameter was compared with Kevlar 49 polyaramid fiber as a means of reinforcing a four-unit posterior provisional fixed restoration with 2 pontics. Three reinforcement patterns for wire and two for Kevlar 49 were evaluated and compared with the control, which was an unreinforced provisional restoration. A central tensile load was placed on the cemented provisional restoration and the variables were measured: (1) the initial stiffness; (2) the load at initial fracture; and (3) the unit toughness, or the energy stored in the beam at a point where the load had undergone a 1.0-mm deflection. Statistical analysis showed (1) the bent wire configuration had a significantly higher initial stiffness (P < or = .05), (2) there was no difference between designs for load at initial fracture, and (3) the bent wire had a significantly higher unit toughness value (P < or = .05). PMID:8179789

  11. Ultrasonic monitoring of material processing using clad buffer rod sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Franca, Demartonne

    Ultrasonic sensors and techniques are developed for in-line monitoring of polymer extrusion, cleanliness of molten metals and liquid flow speed at elevated temperature. Pulse-echo mode is used for the first two processes, while the through-transmission mode is applied in the third one. The ultrasonic probe consists of high performance clad buffer rods with different dimensions to thermally isolate the commercial ultrasonic transducer from materials at high temperature. The clad buffer rods are made of steel, polymer and ceramic. Steel clad buffer rods are introduced for in-line monitoring of polymer extrusion processes. Owing to its superior performance in pulse-echo mode, for the first time such a probe is installed and performs ultrasonic monitoring in the die of a co-extrusion machine and in the barrel section of a twin-screw extruder. It can reveal a variety of information relevant to process parameters, such as polymer layer thickness, interface location and adhesion quality, stability, or polymer composition change. For the ultrasonic monitoring of polymer processes, probes with acoustic impedance that matches that of the processed polymer may offer certain advantages such as quantitative viscoelastic evaluation; thus high temperature polymer clad buffer rods, in particular PEEK, are developed. It is demonstrated that this new probe exhibits unique advantages for in-line monitoring of the cure of epoxies and polymer extrusion process. Long steel clad buffer rods with a spherical focus lens machined at the probing end are proposed for cleanliness evaluation of molten metals. The potential of this focusing probe is demonstrated by means of high-resolution imaging and particles detection in molten zinc at temperatures higher than 600°C, using a single probe operated at pulse-echo mode. A contrapropagating ultrasonic flowmeter employing steel clad buffer rods is devised to operate at high temperature. It is demonstrated that these rods guide ultrasonic signals whose velocity is dependent on the average temperature of the flow. Thus, a novel technique to significantly reduce the temperature effects of ultrasonic flowmeters is successfully developed and tested in motor oil flow at 130°C.

  12. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  13. Fiber optic laser rod

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, G.F.

    1988-04-13

    A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

  14. Reactor control rod timing system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Peter T. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  15. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  16. Making Highly Pure Glass Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed quasi-containerless method for making glass rods or fibers minimizes contact between processing equipment and product. Method allows greater range of product sizes and shapes than achieved in experiments on containerless processing. Molten zone established in polycrystalline rod. Furnace sections separated, and glass rod solidifies between them. Clamp supports solid glass as it grows in length. Pulling clamp rapidly away from melt draws glass fiber. Fiber diameter controlled by adjustment of pulling rate.

  17. Investigation of mechanical properties of cryogenically treated music wire.

    PubMed

    Heptonstall, A; Waller, M; Robertson, N A

    2015-08-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article, we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For the samples we studied, we conclude that there is no significant difference in the properties of interest for application in gravitational wave detectors. PMID:26329213

  18. Investigation of mechanical properties of cryogenically treated music wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heptonstall, A.; Waller, M.; Robertson, N. A.

    2015-08-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article, we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For the samples we studied, we conclude that there is no significant difference in the properties of interest for application in gravitational wave detectors.

  19. Studies of duplex (copper-coated) wires for use in intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Sikov, M R; Divine, J R; Hackett, P L

    1976-01-01

    An investigation to develop and study duplex wire for use in IUDs was initiated by the observation that copper wires wound on IUDs occasionally fragmented after prolonged in vivo use. The duplex wires consist of an exposed active copper surface plated onto an inert inner core to maintain structural continuity. Data demonstrated that the dissolution rates as well as surface changes and biological effects are independent of whether stainless steel, Inconnel or Tophet-M was used as the core. Small IUDs can be wound with a duplex wire in a manner identical to that presently used with pure copper to resist fragmentation and to provide contraceptive effects. PMID:1245117

  20. Piston and connecting rod assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor); Chatten, John K. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A piston and connecting rod assembly includes a piston crown, a piston skirt, a connecting rod, and a bearing insert. The piston skirt is a component separate from the piston crown and is connected to the piston crown to provide a piston body. The bearing insert is a component separate from the piston crown and the piston skirt and is fixedly disposed within the piston body. A bearing surface of a connecting rod contacts the bearing insert to thereby movably associate the connecting rod and the piston body.

  1. Sucker rod assembly and method

    SciTech Connect

    Pagan, A.J.

    1986-07-01

    An improved sucker rod assembly is described comprising, in combination: a. a sucker rod; and b. a pair of fittings secured to opposite ends of the rod, each fitting including: i. a rigid elongated casing having interior surfaces defining an open front end and cavity extending rearwardly from the open front end in which cavity one end of the sucker rod is disposed, the side portions of the interior surfaces being contoured to define, with the side portions of the sucker rod end a single, annular elongated tapered wedge-shaped space; and ii. anchoring means filling the space and bonding to the side portions of the rod end to lock the rod end in place, the anchoring means having a narrower diameter at the front end thereof than at about the rear end thereof and being generally frusto-conical, the anchoring means comprising a plurality of separate rigid inserts, the interior surfaces of which collectively define a central elongated passageway in which the rod end is received, the interior surfaces of the inserts being tightly bonded to the side portions of the rod, and the inserts being bonded to each other along the contact lines therebetween to form a unitary structure.

  2. Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John V.; Carlson, William R.; Yarbrough, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rods are described, wherein geometric combinations of relatively weak neutron absorber materials such as stainless steel, zirconium or INCONEL, and relatively strong neutron absorber materials, such as hafnium, silver-indium cadmium and boron carbide, are used to obtain the reactivity worths required to reach zero boron change load follow. One embodiment includes a grey rod which has combinations of weak and strong neutron absorber pellets in a stainless steel cladding. The respective pellets can be of differing heights. A second embodiment includes a grey rod with a relatively thick stainless steel cladding receiving relatively strong neutron absorber pellets only. A third embodiment includes annular relatively weak netron absorber pellets with a smaller diameter pellet of relatively strong absorber material contained within the aperture of each relatively weak absorber pellet. The fourth embodiment includes pellets made of a homogeneous alloy of hafnium and a relatively weak absorber material, with the percentage of hafnium chosen to obtain the desired reactivity worth.

  3. Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

    1941-01-01

    About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

  4. Control of Rod-Rod Interactions in Poly(3-alkylthiophenes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Victor; Boudouris, Bryan W.; Segalman, Rachel A.

    2010-03-01

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene) is a commonly used semiconducting polymer because of its relatively high charge transport ability, low band gap, and solution processiblity. Strong intermolecular interactions lead to the formation of nanofibers during crystallization, which prevents long-range microstructural ordering. We show rod-rod interactions, parameterized by the Maier-Saupe parameter, can be controlled by rational polythiophene side chain design. Effects of side chain passivation are evidenced by a depressed melting temperature and the presence of a liquid crystalline region. Additionally, the Maier-Saupe parameters are estimated for poly(3-dodecylthiophene) and poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene); the relative magnitudes of each are related to the interchain spacings obtained by x-ray diffraction experiments. The systematic tuning of the rod-rod interactions in polythiophenes allows for manipulation of the ratio of Maier-Saupe to the Flory-Huggins parameter, a crucial value in obtaining long-range order in rod-coil block copolymer morphologies.

  5. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array/polymer composite films showed that their energy-conversion properties were comparable to those of an array attached to the growth substrate. High quantum efficiencies were observed relative to the packing density of the wires, particularly with illumination at high angles of incidence. The results indicate that an inexpensive, solid-state Si wire array solar cell is possible, and a plan is presented to develop one.

  6. Landing Gear Components Noise Study - PIV and Hot-Wire Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Burley, Casey L.; Stead, Daniel J.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Price, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    PIV and hot-wire measurements of the wake flow from rods and bars are presented. The test models include rods of different diameters and cross sections and a rod juxtaposed to a plate. The latter is representative of the latch door that is attached to an aircraft landing gear when the gear is deployed, while the single and multiple rod configurations tested are representative of some of the various struts and cables configuration present on an aircraft landing gear. The test set up is described and the flow measurements are presented. The effect of model surface treatment and freestream turbulence on the spanwise coherence of the vortex shedding is studied for several rod and bar configurations.

  7. Enamel Insulated Copper Wire in Electric Motors: Sliding Behavior and Possible Damage Mechanisms During Die Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiri, Albion

    This study investigates the sliding friction and the forming behaviour of enamel insulated copper wire during the die-forming process. It also aims to determine potential damage mechanisms to the wire during bending process for electric motor coils. In this investigation a wire-bending machine was designed and built in order to simulate the wire forming process in a laboratory scale. Bending angle of the wire and the bending radii were used to control the strain on the wire surface. The effect of speed on COF was investigated for different speeds of of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20mm/s. A positive correlation was observed between the COF and the testing speed. Additionally, the effect of strain on COF was studied for 2% and 23% to determine its influence on the COF. A general trend was observed of decreased COF with increased strain in wires. Finally, the ability of the enamel coating to resist external damage and wire strain was investigated by tensile testing of pre-scratched magnet wire. The results showed that wire enamel can withstand significant surface damage prior to breach and failure. The insulating polymer coating failed under the scratch tests at 20N load using a Rockwell indenter and at 5N load using a 90° conical steel indenter. Additional tests, such as tensile testing, scratch testing and reciprocating friction testing, were used to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of the enamel insulated copper wire.

  8. Wiring up, reaching out.

    PubMed

    Serb, C

    1999-05-01

    Taking another step in our Most Wired project, we conducted cyber-interviews with health plans and asked them to tell us just how wired they are. Find out how well they connect to members and employers, which HR and educational services they offer online, and whether they do business with doctors and hospitals electronically. Plus: profiles of major info tech undertakings at six health plans. They range from a $78,000 intranet to a $4 million data warehouse. But while the six projects differ in cost, they overlap in purpose: putting more information into the hands of doctors, hospitals, employers, and consumers. In doing that, they show what being wired is all about. PMID:10404661

  9. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  10. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  11. Sucker rod pump

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, J.R.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a subsurface well pump, it comprises: a working barrel; a plunger which reciprocates along the vertical axis within the working barrel between an upper and lower position; a rod connected to the plunger and extending to a means for providing reciprocating force; a well string extending from the top of the working barrel to the surface; an outlet check valve which permits flow to exit the working barrel into the well string and does not permit flow to exit the well string into the working barrel; and an inlet check valve which permits flow into the working barrel from outside of the subsurface pump, the inlet check valve being above the top position of the plunger, the inlet check valve having a cross sectional flow area about equal to or greater than the horizontal cross sectional area of the working barrel, and the inlet check valve being a hinged flapper valve.

  12. Rod Climbing of Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Youjing; Wang, Xiaorong

    We wish to report an unexpected effect observed for particle suspensions sucked to pass through a vertical pipe. Above a critical concentration, the suspension on the outside of the pipe may climb along the outside wall of the pipe and then display a surprising rod-climbing effect. Our study shows that the phenomenon is influenced mainly by the suspension composition, the pipe dimension and the suction speed. The effects of the pipe materials of different kinds are negligible. Increasing the suction force and the concentration increases the climbing height. Increasing the pipe diameter and wall thickness reduces the climbing effect. This behavior may be relevant to that the suspensions of the type described are all displaying markedly shear-thickening.

  13. Composite Lightning Rods for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Charles F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Composite, lightweight sacrificial tip with graphite designed reduces lightning-strike damage to composite parts of aircraft and dissipates harmful electrical energy. Device consists of slender composite rod fabricated from highly-conductive unidirectional reinforcing fibers in matrix material. Rods strategically installed in trailing edges of aircraft wings, tails, winglets, control surfaces, and rearward-most portion of aft fuselage.

  14. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  15. A biomechanical study of 3 different types of sublaminar wire used for constructs in the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hideki; Yamazaki, Ken; Attallah-Wasif, Emad S; Tsai, Kai-Jow; Shimamura, Tadashi; Hutton, William C

    2006-08-01

    A biomechanical study was carried out on 3 different types of sublaminar wire used in constructs to secure the thoracic spine: stainless steel monofilament wire (steel wire), titanium cable (cable), and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene tape (tape). Two experiments were carried out. Experiment 1: Thirty-one fresh human thoracic vertebrae classified as osteoporotic (bone mineral density of <0.8 g/cm2) were used. The steel wire, cable, or tape was placed sublaminarly and a tensile force was applied until the steel wire, cable, or tape cut 5 mm through the lamina, and the force at this point was noted. Experiment 2: Seven fresh human thoracic spines (T7-T10) were biomechanically tested as follows: axial compression (250 N), flexion (7.5 Nm), extension (7.5 Nm), left lateral bending (7.5 Nm), right lateral bending (7.5 Nm), left axial torsion (10 Nm), and right axial torsion (10 Nm). This sequence was applied to the intact spine. The spine was then de-stabilized and then restabilized using one or other of the 3 different types of sublaminar wires. The biomechanical testing was then repeated on the restabilized spine and stiffness curves were generated. In the laminar cut-through test, the cut-through force for tape was higher than that for either steel wire or cable. In the biomechanical stiffness testing, there was no significant difference between the 3 different sublaminar wiring constructs in any of the loading modes tested. The results of both experiments suggest that tape is as good, if not better, than steel wire or cable as a sublaminar wiring construct material. PMID:16891981

  16. Experiments with a falling rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Vitor

    2016-02-01

    We study the motion of a uniform thin rod released from rest, with the bottom end initially in contact with a horizontal surface. Our focus here is the motion of the bottom end as the rod falls. For small angles of release with respect to the horizontal, the rod falls without the bottom end slipping. For larger angles, the slipping direction depends on the static friction coefficient between the rod and the horizontal surface. Small friction coefficients cause the end to slip initially in one direction and then in the other, while for high coefficients, the end slips in one direction only. For intermediate values, depending on the angle of release, both situations can occur. We find the initial slipping direction to depend on a relation between the angle at which the rod slips, and a critical angle at which the frictional force vanishes. Comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations shows good agreement.

  17. Analysis of sucker rod and sinkerbar failures

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.R.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents results from a study to analyze the performance and failures of the sucker rod/sinkerbar string used in beam-pumping operations through metallography, structural finite element analysis, and detailed failure data collection. Metallography demonstrated that microstructure of steel bar stock needs to be considered. Current specification based on tensile strength, or yield strength, may not be appropriate since failure occurs because of fatigue and not yielding. Finite element analysis of the threaded connection identifies stress and fatigue concentrations and quantitatively assesses the performance and failure of coupling designs under a variety of loading conditions. Subcritical fractures observed in the metallography are also suggested by the calculated stress distribution in the threaded coupling. Failure data illustrates both magnitude and frequency of the failures, as well as categorizing the suspected cause of failure. This failure information alone can reduce failures by indicating specific problem areas. These results are expected to yield improved choice of metal bar stock, thread design, and make-up practices which can reduce sucker rod failures.

  18. Analysis of sucker rod and sinkerbar failures

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.R.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study to analyze the performance and failures of the sucker rod/sinkerbar string used in beam-pumping operations through metallography, structural finite element analysis, and detailed failure data collection. Metallography demonstrated that microstructure of steel bar stock needs to be considered. Current specification based on tensile strength, or yield strength, may not be appropriate since failure occurs because of fatigue and not yielding. Finite element analysis of the threaded connection identifies stress and fatigue concentrations and quantitatively assesses the performance and failure of coupling designs under a variety of loading conditions. Subcritical fractures observed in the metallography are also suggested by the calculated stress distribution in the threaded coupling. Failure data illustrates both magnitude and frequency of the failures, as well as categorizing the suspected cause of failure. This failure information alone can reduce failures by indicating specific problem areas. These results are expected to yield improved choice of metal bar stock, thread design, and make-up practices which can reduce sucker rod failures.

  19. The confining effectiveness of NiTiNb and NiTi SMA wire jackets for concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chung, Young-Soo; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Hong-Taek; Lee, Hacksoo

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the confining effectiveness of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets for concrete. The performance of SMA wire jackets was compared to that of steel jackets. A prestrained martensitic SMA wire was wrapped around a concrete cylinder and then heated by a heating jacket. In the process, a confining stress around the cylinder was developed in the SMA wire due to the shape memory effect; this jacketing method can increase the strength and ductility of the cylinder under an axial compressive load. In this study, NiTi and NiTiNb SMA wires of 1.0 mm in diameter were used for the confinement. Recovery tests were conducted on the wires to assess their recovery and residual stress. The confinement by SMA wire jackets increased the strength slightly and greatly increased the ductility compared to the strength and ductility of plain concrete cylinders. The NiTiNb SMA wire jacket showed better performance than that of the NiTi SMA wire jacket. The confining effectiveness of the SMA wire jackets of this study was estimated to be similar to that of the steel jackets. This study showed the potential of the SMA wire jacketing method to retrofit reinforced concrete columns and protect them from seismic risks.

  20. The Expected but Well-Hidden EMF in the Jumping Wire Experiment and Its Unexpected Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    As presented in physics textbooks, as well as in a few papers, the typical example of an induced motional electromotive force e[subscript mot] = "Blv" consists of a conductive rod of length "l" frictionlessly sliding with speed v along parallel wires within an orthogonal and constant uniform magnetic field of magnitude

  1. The Expected but Well-Hidden EMF in the Jumping Wire Experiment and Its Unexpected Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    As presented in physics textbooks, as well as in a few papers, the typical example of an induced motional electromotive force e[subscript mot] = "Blv" consists of a conductive rod of length "l" frictionlessly sliding with speed v along parallel wires within an orthogonal and constant uniform magnetic field of magnitude…

  2. Fabrication of Wire Mesh Heat Exchangers for Waste Heat Recovery Using Wire-Arc Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaey, R.; Salavati, S.; Pershin, L.; Coyle, T.; Chandra, S.; Mostaghimi, J.

    2014-04-01

    Waste heat can be recovered from hot combustion gases using water-cooled heat exchangers. Adding fins to the external surfaces of the water pipes inserted into the hot gases increases their surface area and enhances heat transfer, increasing the efficiency of heat recovery. A method of increasing the heat transfer surface area has been developed using a twin wire-arc thermal spray system to generate a dense, high-strength coating that bonds wire mesh to the outside surfaces of stainless steel pipes through which water passes. At the optimum spray distance of 150 mm, the oxide content, coating porosity, and the adhesion strength of the coating were measured to be 7%, 2%, and 24 MPa, respectively. Experiments were done in which heat exchangers were placed inside a high-temperature oven with temperature varying from 300 to 900 °C. Several different heat exchanger designs were tested to estimate the total heat transfer in each case. The efficiency of heat transfer was found to depend strongly on the quality of the bond between the wire meshes and pipes and the size of openings in the wire mesh.

  3. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M.

    2000-02-24

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.

  4. Caroviologens: Towards molecular wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard-Desce, M.; Arrhenius, T. S.; Dvolaïtzky, M.; Kugimiya, S.-I.; Lazrak, T.; Lehn, J.-M.

    1992-07-01

    Bispyridinium conjugated polyenes of different lengths and charges have been synthesized. Since they combine the features of carotenoids and of viologens, they have been termed caroviologens. Such molecules, possessing an extended conjugated chain fitted with polar electroactive endgroups, and having a length sufficient to span a lipid membrane could function as transmembrane electron channels, i.e., as molecular wires.

  5. Debate: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

    2000-01-01

    Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

  6. Improved wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  7. A World without Wires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  8. Residential Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…

  9. NewsWire, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

  10. Basic Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…

  11. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  12. Status of rod consolidation, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that the spent fuel storage pools at some domestic light-water reactors will run out of space before 2003, the year that the US Department of Energy currently predicts it will have a repository available. Of the methods being studied to alleviate the problem, rod consolidation is one of the leading candidates for achieving more efficient use of existing space in spent fuel storage pools. Rod consolidation involves mechanically removing all the fuel rods from the fuel assembly hardware (i.e., the structural components) and placing the fuel rods in a close-packed array in a canister without space grids. A typical goal of rod consolidation systems is to insert the fuel rods from two fuel assemblies into a canister that has the same exterior dimensions as one standard fuel assembly (i.e., to achieve a consolidation or compaction ratio of 2:1) and to compact the nonfuel-bearing structural components from those two fuel assemblies by a factor of 10 to 20. This report provides an overview of the current status of rod consolidation in the United States and a small amount of information on related activities in other countries. 85 refs., 36 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Heat-dissipating aluminum wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, J. D.; Stringer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Surface area, and consequently heat dissipation, is increased by using star-shaped, rather than round cross section, for aluminum wire. When used with modern high-temperature insulating materials, pointed-star wire is suitable for applications where low-cost light-weight wire is required.

  14. 1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

  15. Approximations to wire grid inductance.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Merewether, Kimball O.

    2004-06-01

    By using a multipole-conformal mapping expansion for the wire currents we examine the accuracy of approximations for the transfer inductance of a one dimensional array of wires (wire grid). A simple uniform fit is constructed by introduction of the decay factor from bipolar coordinates into existing formulas for this inductance.

  16. Coupled Multi-Electrode Investigation of Crevice Corrosion of 316 Stainless Steel and NiCrMo Alloy 625

    SciTech Connect

    F. Bocher; F.J. Presuel-Moreno; J.R. Scully

    2006-06-08

    Crevice corrosion is currently mostly studied using either one of two techniques depending on the information desired. The first method involves two multicrevice formers or washers fastened on both sides of a sample plate. This technique provides exposure information regarding the severity of crevice corrosion (depth, position, frequency of attack) but delivers little or no electrochemical information. The second method involves the potentiodynamic or potentiostatic study of an uncreviced sample in a model crevice solution or under a crevice former in aggressive solution where crevice corrosion may initiate and propagate and global current is recorded. However, crevice corrosion initiation and propagation behavior is highly dependent on exact position in the crevice over time. The distance from the crevice mouth will affect the solution composition, the pH, the ohmic potential drop and the true potential in the crevice. Coupled multi-electrode arrays (MEA) were used to study crevice corrosion in order to take in account spatial and temporal evolution of electrochemistry simultaneously. Scaling laws were used to rescale the crevice geometry while keeping the corrosion electrochemical properties equivalent to that of a natural crevice at a smaller length scale. one of the advantages was to be able to use commercial alloys available as wires electrode and, in the case of MEA, to spread the crevice corrosion over many individual electrodes so each one of them will have a near homogeneous electrochemical behavior. The initial step was to obtain anodic polarization curves for the relevant material in acid chloride solution which simulated the crevice electrolyte. using the software Crevicer{trademark}, the potential distribution inside the crevice as a function of the distance from the crevice mouth was determined for various crevice gaps and applied potentials, assuming constant chemistry throughout the crevice. The crevice corrosion initiation location x{sub crit} is the position where the potential drops to E{sub Flade}. Figure 1 illustrates the resulting x{sub crit} vs. G scaling laws for 316 Stainless Steel in 1 M HCl at 50 C. The coupled multi-wire array is composed of one hundred identical 316 Stainless Steel wires in a five by twenty formation inserted in a groove of a 316 Stainless Steel rod such that the ends of the wires are flush mounted with the rod. The 100 wires are coupled electrically through in-line zero resistance ammeters. The diameter of the wires (250 {micro}m) was chosen so that x{sub crit} (critical initiation distance from the crevice mouth) and the expected zone of crevice corrosion (predicted from the scaling law) would be larger than the radius of a single wire. The array created a flush mounted planar electrode with the surface/volume ratio obtained in planar crevices. The observation of the current evolution as a function of position inside and outside the crevice as function of time was made possible as illustrated in Figure 2 in 0.6 M NaCl at 50 C.

  17. Rod coupling for oil well sucker rods and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, R.

    1986-07-29

    A coupling is described for joining solid reciprocating sucker rods to form a rod string in a well pump or the like comprising a unitary metal sleeve having an axial threaded bore and an irregular outer surface, and a homogeneous and non-fibrous coating on the sleeve over the outer surface providing an externally substantially cylindrical coupling, the coating comprising a flexible and abrasive resistant thermoplastic hydrourethane polymer formed on the irregular outer surface of the sleeve while in the molten state.

  18. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, R.; Wittel, F. K.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2015-11-01

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists and biologists alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, though. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross-section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, hierarchic structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition. Our findings demonstrate the dramatic impact of friction and confinement elasticity on filamentous packing and might drive future research on such systems in physics, biology and even medical technology toward including these mutually interacting effects.

  19. Analysis of interfacial debonding in shape memory alloy wire-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramini, A.; Kadkhodaei, M.; Alipour, A.; Mashayekhi, M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the common types of failure in shape memory alloy (SMA) wire-reinforced composites is interfacial debonding between the fiber and the matrix. In this paper, a three dimensional finite element model for an SMA wire-reinforced composite is developed based on cohesive zone modeling to predict interfacial debonding between the SMA wire and the surrounding matrix. The interfacial debonding is also experimentally investigated by conducting a number of pull-out tests on steel as well as Nitinol wires embedded in an epoxy matrix. To evaluate the presented method, the developed finite element analysis is employed to simulate a single wire pull-out test for ordinary (e.g. steel) wires. In order to simulate SMA wire pull-out, a 3D SMA constitutive model is implemented into the commercial finite element software ABAQUS using a user material subroutine (UMAT). An acceptable agreement is shown to exist between the theoretical results and the experimental data, indicating the efficiency of the proposed approach to model interfacial debonding in SMA wire-reinforced composites.

  20. Rod coupling with mounted guide

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, M.L.

    1987-05-26

    This patent describes a well sucker rod string, in a well bore, the combination comprising: an axially elongated coupling section having threads at axially opposite ends thereof for coupling to and between successive sucker rods in the rod string, to transmit string loading. The section has first and second exposed surfaces adjacent an end of the section, and a third surface located between the first and second exposed surfaces; a rod guide consisting of molded plastic material extending about and bonded to the section third surface to project outwardly therefrom for engagement with the well bore during up and down stroking of the string; and one annular groove sunk in the section between the first and third surfaces, and another annular groove sunk in the section between the second and third surfaces. The depth of the one groove is less than about 15% of the radius of the section at the first surface.

  1. Dental Arch Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  2. Lithium niobate photonic wires.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Ricken, R; Sohler, W

    2009-12-21

    LN photonic wires of cross-section dimensions down to 1 x 0.73 microm2 were fabricated by Ar milling of a single-crystalline LiNbO3 (LN) film bonded to a SiO2/LiNbO3 substrate. Mode intensity distributions, propagation losses, and group indices of refraction were measured at 1.55 microm wavelength and compared with simulation results. Moreover, effective mode indices and end face reflectivities were numerically evaluated. The waveguide of 1 microm top width is the smallest LN photonic wire reported to date; it has a mode size of approximately 0.4 microm2 (0.5 microm2) only and propagation losses of 9.9 dB/cm (12.9 dB/cm) for qTM (qTE) polarization. PMID:20052137

  3. From wires to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Baumann, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.

  4. Wire insulation defect detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greulich, Owen R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Wiring defects are located by detecting a reflected signal that is developed when an arc occurs through the defect to a nearby ground. The time between the generation of the signal and the return of the reflected signal provides an indication of the distance of the arc (and therefore the defect) from the signal source. To ensure arcing, a signal is repeated at gradually increasing voltages while the wire being tested and a nearby ground are immersed in a conductive medium. In order to ensure that the arcing occurs at an identifiable time, the signal whose reflection is to be detected is always made to reach the highest potential yet seen by the system.

  5. Superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  6. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  7. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

    1972-01-01

    The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

  8. Impact Wire Dislodges Obstructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.; Anders, Jeffrey E.

    1990-01-01

    Snakelike tool loosens trapped debris obstructing narrow passages in normally inaccessible locations. Flexible tool threaded into obstructed channel, much like common plumbing snake. Wire fed along inner tube of tool until tip reaches obstruction. Delivers impact from impact tool to obstruction. Designed for use in narrow, intricate coolant channels of rocket engine. Lends itself readily to modification for use in engine blocks, heat exchangers, general plumbing, and like.

  9. Nuclear design of Helical Cruciform Fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Shirvan, K.; Kazimi, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    In order to increase the power density of current and new light water reactor designs, the Helical Cruciform Fuel (HCF) rods are proposed. The HCF rods are equivalent to a cylindrical rod, with the fuel in a cruciform shaped, twisted axially. The HCF rods increase the surface area to volume ratio and inter-subchannel mixing behavior due to their cruciform and helical shapes, respectively. In a previous study, the HCF rods have shown the potential to up-rate existing PWRs by 50% and BWRs by 25%. However, HCF rods do display different neutronics modeling and performance. The cruciform cross section of HCF rods creates radially asymmetric heat generation and temperature distribution. The nominal HCF rod's beginning of life reactivity is reduced, compared to a cylindrical rod with the same fuel volume, by 500 pcm, due to increase in absorption in cladding. The rotation of these rods accounts for reactivity changes, which depends on the H/HM ratio of the pin cell. The HCF geometry shows large sensitivities to U{sup 235} or gadolinium enrichments compared to a cylindrical geometry. In addition, the gadolinium-containing HCF rods show a stronger effect on neighboring HCF rods than in case of cylindrical rods, depending on the orientation of the HCF rods. The helical geometry of the rods introduces axial shadowing of about 600 pcm, not seen in typical cylindrical rods. (authors)

  10. A Comparative Study of Bio Degradation of Various Orthodontic Arch Wires: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Gopikrishnan, S; Melath, Anil; Ajith, V V; Mathews, N Binoy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Orthodontic wires are the corner stones of the science and art of orthodontics and they remain in the patient’s mouth for a prolonged period of 18-24 months. It is but natural to expect that they will undergo some biodegradation when in the oral environment during that period. This study aims to compare the biodegradation characteristics of four different orthodontic wires, stainless steel, nickel titanium (NiTi), titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), and copper NiTi and to assess whether these biodegradation products, are within acceptable limits. Materials and Methods: This study involved the incubation of four different wires in artificial saliva and analyzing the amount of metal released from them at the end of a 28 days study period. The metals analyzed for where nickel, chromium, copper, cobalt, manganese, iron, molybdenum, and titanium. The artificial saliva was changed on days 7, 14, and 21 to prevent the saturation of metals in the artificial saliva. At the end of 28 days, these four samples of artificial saliva of each wire were mixed together and analyzed for the eight metals using an inductively coupled plasma spectroscope. Results: The results showed only the release of nickel, chromium, and iron from stainless steel wire, nickel from NiTi wire, nickel, and chromium from copper NiTi and none from TMA wire. Conclusion: The metals released from arch wires are of such minute quantities to be of any biologic hazard. The amount of metals released is well within acceptable biocompatible limits. Though this study has analyzed the biodegradation of various orthodontic wires, orthodontic wires are never used alone in mechanotherapy. Orthodontic wires along with multiband appliance system with which it is always used and in combination with accessories like face bows may release more metals. PMID:25709360

  11. Stochastic dynamics of a rod bouncing upon a vibrating surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, H. S.; Swift, Michael R.; King, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    We describe the behavior of a rod bouncing upon a horizontal surface which is undergoing sinusoidal vertical vibration. The predictions of computer simulations are compared with experiments in which a stainless-steel rod bounces upon a metal-coated glass surface. We find that, as the dimensionless acceleration parameter Γ is increased appreciably above unity, the motion of a long rod passes from periodic or near-periodic motion into stochastic dynamics. Within this stochastic regime the statistics of the times between impacts follow distributions with tails of approximately Gaussian form while the probability distributions of the angles at impact have tails that are close to exponential. We determine the dependence of each distribution upon the length of the rod, upon frequency, and on Γ . The statistics of the total energy and of the translational and rotational components each approximately follow a Boltzmann distribution in their tails, the translational and rotational energy components being strongly correlated. The time-averaged mean vertical translational energy is significantly larger than the mean rotational energy, and both are considerably larger than the energy associated with horizontal motion.

  12. RP cone-rod degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Heckenlively, J R

    1987-01-01

    A group of patients with progressive retinal degeneration and visual field loss, who meet the basic definition of RP were investigated to better define the relationship of the findings on the ERG with clinical characteristics such as visual field size, presence or absence of scotomata or pseudo-altitudinal defects on visual field, amount of night blindness; and presence or absence of macular or optic nerve changes. These studies suggest that cone-rod degeneration patients of the RP type go through the following stages; early, the ERG has a definite cone-rod pattern where the rod ERG is larger than the cone ERG while both are abnormal. As the disease advances, there is more of a reduction in the scotopic ERG such that both the rod and cone ERGs become nearly equal. As the disease further progresses the ERG becomes non-recordable on single-flash technique, but there is good residual rod function and the final rod threshold remains good until the visual field is reduced, typically less than 10 degrees with the IV-4 isopter. Finally with advanced disease the patient becomes night blind and generally becomes very difficult to distinguished from patients who have advanced rod-cone degeneration. While it may seem logical to find that visual field size correlates with various ERG parameters; this has not been as consistent a finding in patients with rod-cone degeneration in the author's experience. The analysis shows several new pieces of information about visual field changes in cone-rod degeneration; enlarged blind spots are seen earlier in cases which have recordable cone-rod patterns (group I), and pseudo-altitudinal changes are more likely to occur in autosomal recessive patients. Patients with macular lesions and central scotomata had larger amplitudes than patients with normal appearing maculae and no central scotomata. Patients with temporal optic atrophy had an earlier onset of symptoms and significant correlation with both photopic a- and b-waves and bright flash dark-adapted b-wave implicit times. Macular edema was present in patients with smaller amplitudes and longer implicit times which suggest that these patients have greater panretinal dysfunction which correlates with the macular alterations. Pigment changes within the classes of none, mild, and moderate deposition correlated with ERG parameters; there was more pigment in cases where ERG parameters were worse. However, cases with heavy pigmentation did not correlate with the ERG degree of severity, suggesting that independent factors influence the amount of pigmentation that occurs in these cases. PMID:3447340

  13. 77 FR 64468 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...; Countervailing Duties, 62 FR 27296, 27323 (May 19, 1997), and Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From... Countervailing Duty Determination: Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From Argentina, 66 FR 37007... Concrete Steel Wire Strand From India, 68 FR 68356 (December 8, 2003). We determine the...

  14. Dual wire welding torch and method

    DOEpatents

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  15. Wire detecting apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receiver`s position with respect to the wiring. The receiver`s audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receiver`s coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring`s concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  16. Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

  17. Corrosion of the Harrington's instrumentation and biological behaviour of the rod-human spine system.

    PubMed

    Aulisa, L; di Benedetto, A; Vinciguerra, A; Lorini, G; Tranquilli-Leali, P

    1982-10-01

    Corrosion and histopathological modifications in tissues surrounding the rod in a stainless steel Harrington's system, are reported. These phenomena occur soon after implantation and are very evident. Therefore in contrast to Harrington's thesis, the authors are convinced that it is necessary to remove the system after the consolidation of bone grafts. PMID:7171686

  18. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ROD DRIVE APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Oakes, L.C.; Walker, C.S.

    1959-12-15

    ABS>A suspension mechanism between a vertically movable nuclear reactor control rod and a rod extension, which also provides information for the operator or an automatic control signal, is described. A spring connects the rod extension to a drive shift. The extension of the spring indicates whether (1) the rod is at rest on the reactor, (2) the rod and extension are suspended, or (3) the extension alone is suspended, the spring controlling a 3-position electrical switch.

  19. Rewetting of hot vertical rod during jet impingement surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Chitranjan; Kumar, Ravi; Gupta, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, Barun

    2016-06-01

    A stainless steel (SS-316) vertical rod of 12 mm diameter at 800 ± 10 °C initial temperature was cooled by normal impinging round water jet. The surface rewetting phenomenon was investigated for a range of jet diameter 2.5-4.8 mm and jet Reynolds number 5000-24,000 using a straight tube type nozzle. The investigation were made from the stagnation point to maximum 40 mm downstream locations, simultaneously for both upside and downside directions. The cooling performance of the vertical rod was evaluated on the basis of rewetting parameters i.e. rewetting temperature, wetting delay, rewetting velocity and the maximum surface heat flux. Two separate Correlations have been proposed for the dimensionless rewetting velocity in terms of rewetting number and the maximum surface heat flux that predicts the experimental data within an error band of ±20 and ±15 % respectively.

  20. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  1. Influence of Rod Contouring on Rod Strength and Stiffness in Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Demura, Satoru; Murakami, Hideki; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Katsuhito; Yokogawa, Noriaki; Ishii, Takayoshi; Igarashi, Takashi; Fang, Xiang; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    For spinal fusion or the correction of spine deformity at multiple levels, intraoperative rod contouring is required to realign the spine. A French bender is the most common contouring tool used. There are several reports on the mechanical properties of various rods with manufactured straight rod; however, few reports describe the changes in a rod's mechanical properties after rod contouring. The authors investigated the influences of rod contouring on rod strength and stiffness. A 3-point bending test was conducted. Each 18-cm rod was loaded at a rate of 10 mm/min with a load applicator. Three different rod diameters (5.5, 6.0, and 6.35 mm) and 2 types of materials (titanium [Ti] alloy and cobalt-chromium [CoCr] alloy) were assessed. Different rod curvatures were evaluated: (1) a no-preparation rod of 0 (control); (2) a 0 rod bent at one point to make tangential angles of 10 and then bent back from the opposite side; (3) a bent rod with tangential angles of 20; and (4) a 40 bent rod. The yield strength in all types of rod materials and diameter decreased after rod contouring using a French bender. The extent of decrease depended on the degree of bend. The bending stiffness of each rod also decreased. The CoCr rod showed higher bending stiffness than the Ti rod of the same diameter. Rod contouring using a French bender reduced the yield strength and stiffness in all types of rods. Decrease of yield strength correlated to the degree of bend. In the comparison of 20 and 40 contoured rods, the 6.0-mm CoCr rod showed the highest reduction force. This study found that rod contouring procedures reduced rod yield strength and stiffness. PMID:26091226

  2. Inelastic scattering in atomic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrait, Nicolas; Untiedt, Carlos; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Vieira, Sebastian

    2001-03-01

    Using a low-temperature STM, we fabricate stable freely suspended atomic wires up to 7 atoms in length[1], and show that the voltage dependence of their conductance reveals inelastic backscattering of electrons with phonons within the atomic wire. In the longer wires, backscattering takes place mostly with one phonon as expected for one-dimensional wires. Applying stress to the atomic wire we observe phonon softening and a strong increase in the backscattering rate, showing an enhancement of the electron-phonon interaction in the wire. [1] A.I. Yanson, G. Rubio Bollinger, H.E. van den Brom, N. Agrait and J.M. van Ruitenbeek, Nature 395, 783(1998).

  3. Review of wire chamber aging

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Rod guide/paraffin scraper

    SciTech Connect

    Mabry, J.F.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes improvement in a rod guide and paraffin scraper. It comprises: a body including longitudinal ribs spaced radially and extending out from the body; having two identical halves with the body surrounding a bore to accept a sucker rod, and each of the identical halves having a locking and tightening feature using a tongue and groove concept for interfitting the halves together over the sucker rod. This improvement comprises a rod guide and paraffin scraper with two identical halves comprising; a cylindrical central body including, at each end, three longitudinal ribs radially spaced to form a triad leaving three flow channels, at each end of the body, of essentially the same size and spacing as the ribs; and an angular wedge with opposingly ramped sides at the inside end of each of the ribs for scraping and directing material into the flow channels; and a set of triangular shaped tongues that interfit with a set of triangular shaped grooves for tightening the identical halves together and over the sucker rod; and a pair of cone-shaped male locks at one end of the identical half to mate with a pair of cone-shaped female locks at the opposite end of the other identical half.

  5. The development of coated and non-coated wire explosions observed by X-ray backlighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xinlei; Zhao, Shen; Zou, Xiaobing; Shi, Huantong; Luo, Haiyun; Wang, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    Based on an X-pinch X-ray point source, the electrical explosion of coated and non-coated wires with 25 μm diameter was backlit. The experiments were performed on the pulsed power device PPG-1 (500 kV/400 kA/100 ns) which was designed and constructed by the Department of Electrical Engineering of Tsinghua University. The source X-pinch was installed between the main output electrodes, while the object coated and non-coated wires were placed at the positions of the left and right current return rods, respectively. The backlighting images were recorded by X-ray films with high resolution and sensitivity. By a large number of backlighting experiments, the exploding physical images and expansion ratio curves of the coated and non-coated wires were obtained, and the results showed that coating can make the wire expand to be larger and more uniform.

  6. Epitaxial semiconductor quantum wires.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Chen, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2008-07-01

    The investigation on the direct epitaxial quantum wires (QWR) using MBE or MOCVD has been persuited for more than two decades, more lengthy in history as compared with its quantum dot counterpart. Up to now, QWRs with various structural configurations have been produced with different growth methods. This is a reviewing article consisting mainly of two parts. The first part discusses QWRs of various configurations, together with laser devices based on them, in terms of the two growth mechanisms, self-ordering and self-assembling. The second part gives a brief review of the electrical and optical properties of QWRs. PMID:19051875

  7. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  8. Subminiature Hot-Wire Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Lemos, F. R.; Ligrani, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Class of improved subminiature hot-wire flow-measuring probes developed. Smaller sizes yield improved resolution in measurements of practical aerodynamic flows. Probe made in one-wire, two-perpendicular-wire, and three-perpendicular-wire version for measurement of one, two, or all three components of flow. Oriented and positioned on micromanipulator stage and viewed under microscope during fabrication. Tested by taking measurements in constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. New probes give improved measurements of turbulence quantities near surfaces and anisotropies of flows strongly influence relative errors caused by phenomena related to spatial resolution.

  9. Hot-wire Laser Welding of Deep and Wide Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näsström, J.; Frostevarg, J.; Silver, T.

    Heavy section Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) usually requires special edge preparation and several passes. One alternative for increased performance is Laser Arc Hybrid Welding (LAHW). For very thick sheets however, imperfections like root drops or solidification cracks can occur. In this study, other techniques are also studied, including multi-pass filling of deep gaps with wire deposition. A laser is then used to melt the filler and base material. The hot- and cold wire laser welding processes are highly sensitive to wire-laser positioning, where controlled melting of the wire is essential. Apart from a comprehensive literature survey, preliminary experiments were also performed in order to find a novel method variant that can successfully fill deep and wide gaps. The method applied uses a defocused laser that generates the melt pool. A resistance heated wire is fed into the melt pool front in a leading position. This is similar to additive manufacturing techniques such as laser direct metal deposition with wire. A layer height of several millimeters can be achieved and rather low laser power can be chosen. The preliminary experiments were observed using high speed imaging and briefly evaluated by visual examination of the resulting beads. Using a defocused laser beam turned out to have two major advantages; 1. It adds heat to the melt pool in a manner that properly fuses the bottom and walls of the base material. 2. It counteracts difficulties due to an irregularly oscillating filler wire. These early results show that this can be a promising technique for joining thick steels with wide gaps.

  10. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  11. Diamond Wire Saw for Precision Machining of Laser Target Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M J; Bennett, D W

    2005-08-08

    The fabrication of precision laser targets requires a wide variety of specialized mesoscale manufacturing techniques. The diamond wire saw developed in this study provides the capability to precisely section meso-scale workpieces mounted on the assembly stations used by the Target Fabrication Group. This new capability greatly simplifies the fabrication of many types of targets and reduces the time and cost required to build the targets. A variety of materials are used to fabricate targets, including metals, plastics with custom designed chemical formulas, and aerogels of various densities. The materials are usually provided in the form of small pieces or cast rods that must be machined to the required shape. Many of these materials, such as metals and some plastics, can be trimmed using a parting tool on a diamond turning machine. However, other materials, such as aerogels and brittle materials, cannot be adequately cut with a parting tool. In addition, the geometry of the parts often requires that the workpieces be held in a special assembly station, which excludes the use of a parting tool. In the past, these materials were sectioned using a small, handheld coping saw that used a diamond-impregnated wire as a blade. This miniature coping saw was effective, but it required several hours to cut through certain materials. Furthermore, the saw was guided by hand and often caused significant damage to fragile aerogels. To solve these problems, the diamond wire saw shown in Figure 1 was developed. The diamond wire saw is designed to machine through materials that are mounted in the Target Fabrication Group's benchtop assembly stations. These assembly stations are the primary means of aligning and assembling target components, and there is often a need to machine materials while they are mounted in the assembly stations. Unfortunately, commercially available saws are designed for very different applications and are far too large to be used with the assembly stations. Therefore, a custom diamond wire saw was designed and constructed. The diamond wire saw cuts through workpieces using a continuous loop of diamond-impregnated wire of length 840 mm. The wire loop runs around several idler pulleys and is driven by a simple geared DC motor that rotates at 17 rpm. The linear speed of the wire is 107 inches/minute. The saw is oriented at an angle of 20{sup o} from horizontal, so the operator can view the wire through the cutout at the front end of the saw. When looking through a microscope or camera with a horizontal line of sight, the operator can clearly see the wire as it cuts through the workpiece, as shown in the right side of Figure 1. The saw is mounted on a two-axis stage that allows the operator to align the wire with the workpiece. To cut through the workpiece, the operator drives the wire through the workpiece by turning the feed micrometer. An image of the interior of the diamond wire saw appears in Figure 2. This picture was taken after removing the protective cover plate from the saw.

  12. Two-Wire to Four-Wire Audio Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, G. L., Jr; Seale, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    Simple circuit provides interface between normally incompatible voicecommunication lines. Circuit maintains 40 dB of isolation between input and output halves of four-wire line permitting two-wire line to be connected. Balancing potentiometer, Rg, adjusts gain of IC2 to null feed through from input to output. Adjustment is done on workbench just after assembly.

  13. Submerged arc fillet welds between mild steel and stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kotecki, D.J.; Rajan, V.B.

    1997-02-01

    Submerged arc fillet welds between mild steel and Type 304 stainless steel, made with ER309L wire, may contain no ferrite and be at risk of hot cracking, or they may be sufficiently diluted that they transform to martensite with both hot cracking risk and low ductility. This situation is most prevalent when direct current electrode positive (DCEP) polarity is used and when the flange is the mild steel part of the T-joint. A flux that adds chromium to the weld can somewhat alleviate this tendency. Direct current electrode negative (DCEN) polarity greatly reduces this tendency by limiting dilution. Fillet weld compositions and dilutions are obtained for a number of welding conditions and fluxes.

  14. Control rod housing alignment apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses an alignment device for precisely locating the position of the top of a control rod drive housing from an overlying and corresponding hole and alignment pin in a core plate within a boiling water nuclear reactor. It includes a shaft, the shaft having a length sufficient to extend from the vicinity of the top of the control rod drive housing up to and through the hole in the core plate; means for registering the top of the shaft to the hole in the core plate, the registering means including means for registering with an alignment pin in the core plate adjacent the hole.

  15. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  16. The Expected but Well-Hidden EMF in the Jumping Wire Experiment and its Unexpected Role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    As presented in physics textbooks, as well as in a few papers, the typical example of an induced motional electromotive force ɛmot = Blv consists of a conductive rod of length l frictionlessly sliding with speed v along parallel wires within an orthogonal and constant uniform magnetic field of magnitude B. End-of-chapter problems, variants of that sliding rod, are additionally posed in those textbooks. The horizontal jumping wire of length l carrying a current i that is tossed upward by a magnetic force, in a transverse horizontal magnetic field B, is an important variant, as evidenced by its popularity as a demonstration experiment (with numerous videos and blogs posted on the web). A simplistic account of the wire-jump experiment is often given exclusively in terms of the well-known magnetic force F = i l × B that propels the wire upward. The jumping wire is an eye-catching demonstration for both students and the public, and it indeed deserves to be analyzed in greater detail, since as shown below it hides fundamental and interesting physics, certainly much more than what the eye catches.

  17. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  18. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving

  19. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  20. Northern Pacific Railroad Bridge and Wire Weight

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  1. Numerical optimization of monofilamentary MgB2 wires with different metal sheath materials for liquid hydrogen level sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Takuro; Watanabe, Kazuki; Yamada, Yutaka; Aoki, Itsuo

    2014-01-01

    Thin wires required for a new type of superconducting level sensors are investigated in some virtual situations. The sensors are composed of an MgB2 wire with metal sheath and a non-superconducting wire, which are located in parallel and connected in series, to determine a level of liquid hydrogen in a container with higher reliability. The operations of the level sensors during refill and discharge of liquid hydrogen are simulated numerically by solving a one-dimensional heat balance equation. The wires have a metal material with almost constant dependence of resistivity on temperature such as cupronickel or stainless steel. The wire lengths are assumed to be 1 meter. By using the obtained numerical results, the optimum compositions of the MgB2 and non-superconducting wires are discussed for several parameters such as materials and volume fractions of metal sheaths, temperatures of pressurized liquid hydrogen, and conditions of evaporated gas.

  2. Aerosol behavior during SIC control rod failure in QUENCH-13 test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Terttaliisa; Csordás, Anna Pintér; Nagy, Imre; Stuckert, Juri

    2010-02-01

    In a nuclear reactor severe accident, radioactive fission products as well as structural materials are released from the core by evaporation, and the released gases form particles by nucleation and condensation. In addition, aerosol particles may be generated by droplet formation and fragmentation of the core. In pressurized water reactors (PWR), a commonly used control rod material is silver-indium-cadmium (SIC) covered with stainless steel cladding. The control rod elements, Cd, In and Ag, have relatively low melting temperatures, and especially Cd has also a very low boiling point. Control rods are likely to fail early on in the accident due to melting of the stainless steel cladding which can be accelerated by eutectic interaction between stainless steel and the surrounding Zircaloy guide tube. The release of the control rod materials would follow the cladding failure thus affecting aerosol source term as well as fuel rod degradation. The QUENCH experimental program at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe investigates phenomena associated with reflood of a degrading core under postulated severe accident conditions. QUENCH-13 test was the first in this program to include a silver-indium-cadmium control rod of prototypic PWR design. To characterize the extent of aerosol release during the control rod failure, aerosol particle size distribution and concentration measurements in the off-gas pipe of the QUENCH facility were carried out. For the first time, it was possible to determine on-line the aerosol concentration and size distribution released from the core. These results are of prime importance for model development for the proper calculation of the source term resulting from control rod failure. The on-line measurement showed that the main aerosol release started at the bundle temperature maximum of T ˜ 1570 K at hottest bundle elevation. A very large burst of aerosols was detected 660 s later at the bundle temperature maximum of T ˜ 1650 K, followed by a relatively steady aerosol release until core cooling by quench when the on-line measurements were stopped. Cd was released first from the control rod, followed by In, and finally, by Ag. The particle size distributions were bimodal indicating two aerosol formation mechanisms, evaporation followed by nucleation and condensation, as well as droplet and fragment generation. Generally, release is modelled as evaporation from molten regions of control rod materials. Clearly, results of this investigation give evidence of contribution by entrainment of droplets and fragmented material.

  3. Application of fiberglass sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, S.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Fiberglass sucker rods are assuming a place in artificial-lift technology. This paper briefly describes the manufacturing process and gives some design and operational hints for practical applications. It also describes some mathematical modeling modifications needed for fiberglass wave-equation design programs.

  4. FIRAS wire grid characterization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Richard D.; Magner, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization techniques used to verify the quality and spectral performance of the large freestanding wire grid polarizing beamsplitters and input/output polarizers used in the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) are presented. The clear aperture of these grids is lined with 20.8 micron diameter gold coated tungsten wire, spaced 33 microns apart. The grid characteristics measured throughout fabrication and space flight qualification are the center to center wire spacing and wire plane flatness. Ideally, the wire grids should produce coherent wavefronts with equal reflectance and transmittance properties. When the spacing is inconsistent, these wavefront intensities are unequal, thus decreasing the efficiency of the grids and reducing the output signal of the FIRAS. The magnitude of the output interferogram is also reduced by incoherence in the interfering wave fronts caused by uneven flatness.

  5. Calculation of the current distribution on three-dimensional wire-antenna structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruens, H.-D.

    1984-08-01

    This paper discusses the calculation of the current distribution on wire-antennas which are arbitrarily oriented in space. Especially a technique is outlined which enables the user to treat the junction geometry of different cylindrical and thin rods by means of the method of moments. The method can be applied on problems involving both simple junctions and complicated interconnected wires and therefore is characterized by a high flexibility. Furthermore, it is very convenient for programming purposes. Sub-domain expansion functions are used, the arrangement of which in the direct vicinity of the junction on the basis of the continuity equation is shown.

  6. Apollo experience report: Electrical wiring subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    The general requirements of the electrical wiring subsystems and the problem areas and solutions that occurred during the major part of the Apollo Program are detailed in this report. The concepts and definitions of specific requirements for electrical wiring; wire-connecting devices; and wire-harness fabrication, checkout, and installation techniques are discussed. The design and development of electrical wiring and wire-connecting devices are described. Mission performance is discussed, and conclusions and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  7. Internal wire guide for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a filler metal wire guide positioned within the torch, and within the shielding gas nozzle. The wire guide is adjacent to the tungsten electrode and has a ceramic liner through which the wire is fed. This reduces the size of the torch and eliminates the outside clearance problems that exit with external wire guides. Additionally, since the wire is always within the shielding gas, oxidizing of the wire is eliminated.

  8. Electrode carrying wire for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a hollow tungsten electrode including a ceramic liner and forms the filler metal wire guide. The wire is fed through the tungsten electrode thereby reducing the size of the torch to eliminate clearance problems which exist with external wire guides. Since the wire is preheated from the tungsten more wire may be fed into the weld puddle, and the wire will not oxidize because it is always within the shielding gas.

  9. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  10. What operators say about fiberglass sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1984-11-01

    This article presents the results of an informal survey of oil producing companies and one design engineering firm in the Permian Basin about the use and performance of fiberglass sucker rods in sucker rod pumps.

  11. Control rods in LMFBRs: a physics assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, H.F.; Collins, P.J.

    1982-08-01

    This physics assessment is based on roughly 300 control rod worth measurements in ZPPR from 1972 to 1981. All ZPPR assemblies simulated mixed-oxide LMFBRs, representing sizes of 350, 700, and 900 MWe. Control rod worth measurements included single rods, various combinations of rods, and Ta and Eu rods. Additional measurements studied variations in B/sub 4/C enrichment, rod interaction effects, variations in rod geometry, neutron streaming in sodium-filled channels, and axial worth profiles. Analyses were done with design-equivalent methods, using ENDF/B Version IV data. Some computations for the sensitivities to approximations in the methods have been included. Comparisons of these analyses with the experiments have allowed the status of control rod physics in the US to be clearly defined.

  12. Melt behavior of aluminum clad rods

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, G.T.; Long, T.A.; DeWald, A.B. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Since the Li-Al alloy cores in control rods used to control production reactors are susceptible to corrosion by heavy water, they were clad with Al. This paper reports results of an experimental and numerical study of the behavior of control rods heated to the point of clad and rod-core failure. Results show that the core of the rod melts first; the clad fails only after significant additional heating. Once the rod breaks and drops to the bottom of the quartz tube in the furnace, the lower section of the rod fails by ``poker-chipping`` downward as the topmost portion fails before the portion below it. Part of the core in the remaining top of the rod relocates immediately after rod separation, leaving a hollow tube of Al which also melts upon further heating.

  13. Sintered wire cathode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2009-06-09

    A porous cathode structure is fabricated from a plurality of wires which are placed in proximity to each other in elevated temperature and pressure for a sintering time. The sintering process produces the porous cathode structure which may be divided into a plurality of individual porous cathodes, one of which may be placed into a dispenser cathode support which includes a cavity for containing a work function reduction material such as BaO, CaO, and Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The work function reduction material migrates through the pores of the porous cathode from a work replenishment surface adjacent to the cavity of the dispenser cathode support to an emitting cathode surface, thereby providing a dispenser cathode which has a uniform work function and therefore a uniform electron emission.

  14. Solid-state-laser-rod holder

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, D.J.; Barnes, N.P.; Griggs, J.E.

    1981-08-11

    The disclosure relates to a solid state laser rod holder comprising Invar, copper tubing, and epoxy joints. Materials and coefficients of expansion of the components of the holder combine with the rod to produce a joint which will give before the rod itself will. The rod may be lased at about 70 to 80/sup 0/K and returned from such a temperature to room temperature repeatedly without its or the holder's destruction.

  15. Nickel content of as-received and retrieved NiTi and stainless steel archwires: assessing the nickel release hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Eliades, Theodore; Zinelis, Spiros; Papadopoulos, Moschos A; Eliades, George; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2004-04-01

    This study assesses the nickel content of as-received and retrieved stainless steel and NiTi archwires alloys. New and used brand-matched, composition-matched, and cross section-matched archwires were subjected to scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive electron probe microanalysis. Elemental analysis was performed on three randomly selected areas, and the nickel content, expressed as ratios of Ni/Ti (in NiTi wires) or Ni/Fe (in stainless steel), was statistically analyzed with a t-test (alpha = .05). No changes were detected with respect to Ni content ratios between as-received and retrieved NiTi or stainless steel wires, suggesting an absence of nickel release. Wear and delamination phenomena on the wire surface and the formation of galvanic couple between the stainless steel wires and bracket brazing materials intraorally may modify the corrosion susceptibility of the wire alloys in clinical conditions. PMID:15132439

  16. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, VF; Wu, LJ; Rupich, MW; Sathyamurthy, S; Li, XP; Li, Q

    2014-12-15

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2 nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 mu m long nano-rods with an average diameter of approximate to 20 nm. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 μm long nano-rods with an average diameter of ≈20 nm.

  18. Investigation of elastic modes propagating in multi-wire helical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treyssède, Fabien; Laguerre, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Elastic guided waves have some potential for non-destructive inspection of civil engineering multi-wire steel cables. However, wave propagation inside such structures is not yet fully understood. This paper investigates multi-wire helical waveguides with special attention to the common seven-wire strand configuration (one straight core surrounded by one layer of six helical wires). A helical coordinate system is first proposed. Though non-orthogonal, this system preserves translational invariance along the helix centreline to explicitly perform a spatial Fourier transform. Then, it is shown that for the analysis of multi-wire helical strands a twisting system—which is a special case of helical systems—is translationally invariant. A semi-analytical finite element method is developed reducing the problem on the cross-section only. A straightforward computation of energy velocity is proposed. Dispersion curves for a single straight wire and a helical wire are first computed to verify the adequacy of the twisting system. Finally the seven-wire strand is analysed using simplified contact conditions. Theoretical dispersion curves are compared to low-frequency magnetostrictive measurements. Good agreement is found for the first compressional-like mode and its associated veering central frequency ('notch frequency').

  19. Study of transparent and nontransparent regimes of implosion in star wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V. V.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Papp, D.; Altemara, S. D.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Jones, B.

    2010-10-15

    Star wire arrays were used to control the imploding plasma flows and study plasma interpenetration. These arrays consisted of linear 'rays' aligned azimuthally and extending from the vertical axis. Star arrays with two close located wires ('gates') instead of a single wire on the inner cylinder were studied for transparent and nontransparent regimes of propagation of imploding plasma through the gates. Nontransparent mode of collision is typical for regular star wire arrays and it was also observed in Al stars with gate wires of regular length and with the gate width of 0.3-2 mm. The cascade process of implosion in stars and trapping of imploding plasma in 1-2 mm gates were modeled with the three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics code. The intermediate semitransparent mode of collision was observed in Al stars with long Al 'gate' wires. A transparent mode was observed in Al stars with long stainless steel or W gate wires. Applications of wire arrays with controlled plasma flows are discussed.

  20. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colostomy rod. 876.4270 Section 876.4270 Food and... GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device used during the loop colostomy procedure. A loop of colon is surgically brought out...

  1. Who makes API sucker rods and couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    This guide identifies manufacturers qualified to produce API sucker rods and related equipment, lists chemical and mechanical properties of the various types of rods and provides dimensional characteristics. In addition, similar information is given for non-API rods such as fiberglass and aluminum.

  2. Inverted Control Rod Lock-In Device

    DOEpatents

    Brussalis, W. G.; Bost, G. E.

    1962-12-01

    A mechanism which prevents control rods from dropping out of the reactor core in the event the vessel in which the reactor is mounted should capsize is described. The mechanism includes a pivoted toothed armature which engages the threaded control rod lead screw and prevents removal of the rod whenever the armature is not attracted by the provided electromagnetic means. (AEC)

  3. Advanced signal processing methods applied to guided waves for wire rope defect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Peter W.; Rostami, Javad

    2016-02-01

    Steel wire ropes, which are usually composed of a polymer core and enclosed by twisted wires, are used to hoist heavy loads. These loads are different structures that can be clamshells, draglines, elevators, etc. Since the loading of these structures is dynamic, the ropes are working under fluctuating forces in a corrosive environment. This consequently leads to progressive loss of the metallic cross-section due to abrasion and corrosion. These defects can be seen in the forms of roughened and pitted surface of the ropes, reduction in diameter, and broken wires. Therefore, their deterioration must be monitored so that any unexpected damage or corrosion can be detected before it causes fatal accident. This is of vital importance in the case of passenger transportation, particularly in elevators in which any failure may cause a catastrophic disaster. At present, the widely used methods for thorough inspection of wire ropes include visual inspection and magnetic flux leakage (MFL). Reliability of the first method is questionable since it only depends on the operators' eyes that fails to determine the integrity of internal wires. The later method has the drawback of being a point by point and time-consuming inspection method. Ultrasonic guided wave (UGW) based inspection, which has proved its capability in inspecting plate like structures such as tubes and pipes, can monitor the cross-section of wire ropes in their entire length from a single point. However, UGW have drawn less attention for defect detection in wire ropes. This paper reports the condition monitoring of a steel wire rope from a hoisting elevator with broken wires as a result of corrosive environment and fatigue. Experiments were conducted to investigate the efficiency of using magnetostrictive based UGW for rope defect detection. The obtained signals were analyzed by two time-frequency representation (TFR) methods, namely the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and the Wavelet analysis. The location of the defect and its severity were successfully identified and characterized.

  4. Mechanical properties and fracture strength of cathodically polarized prestressing wire

    SciTech Connect

    Kiszowski, S.; Hartt, W.H.

    1996-11-01

    Constant extension rate testing experiments were performed upon prestressing steel wire specimens prepared from three lots of Grade 270 and one lot of Grade 250 material for the purpose of characterizing susceptibility to environmental cracking under conditions associated with cathodic protection of prestressed concrete components and structures. Smooth, notched (six different geometries) and pitted (four different geometries) specimens were tested in air and deaerated saturated Ca(OH){sub 2}-distilled water at potentials of {minus}0.90 and {minus}1.30 v (SCE) and strength and ductility properties characterized. Relatively low strength was recorded for steel specimens at {minus}09.90 v from material for which the weight percent chromium was relatively high (0.24 w/o compared to 0.02 w/o). Under conditions that are likely to be most relevant to service, fracture load correlated with the amount by which the local wire cross section area was reduced, either from a notch or pit, and was independent of depth of the irregularity and of root radius to the extent to which these were addressed. It was concluded that it may be unsafe to apply cathodically protection to prestressing wire, even in situations where potential is maintained in the regime where hydrogen embrittlement should not occur.

  5. Surface topography, hardness, and frictional properties of GFRP for esthetic orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Inami, Toshihiro; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Shibata, Yo; Nishiyama, Norihiro; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, glass-fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) made from polycarbonate and glass fiber for esthetic orthodontic wires were prepared by using pultrusion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the surface topography, hardness, and frictional properties of GFRPs. To investigate how fiber diameter affects surface properties, GFRP round wires with a diameter of 0.45 mm (0.018 in.) were prepared incorporating either 13 μm (GFRP-13) or 7 μm (GFRP-7) glass fibers. As controls, stainless steel (SS), cobalt-chromium-nickel alloy, β-titanium (β-Ti) alloy, and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) alloy were also evaluated. Under scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy, the β-Ti samples exhibited greater surface roughness than the other metallic wires and the GFRP wires. The dynamic hardness and elastic modulus of GFRP wires obtained by the dynamic micro-indentation method were much lower than those of metallic wires (p < 0.05). Frictional forces against the polymeric composite brackets of GFRP-13 and GFRP-7 were 3.45 ± 0.49 and 3.60 ± 0.38 N, respectively; frictional forces against the ceramic brackets of GFRP-13 and GFRP-7 were 3.39 ± 0.58 and 3.87 ± 0.48 N, respectively. For both bracket types, frictional forces of GFRP wires and Ni-Ti wire were nearly half as low as those of SS, Co-Cr, and β-Ti wires. In conclusion, there was no significant difference in surface properties between GFRP-13 and GFRP-7; presumably because both share the same polycarbonate matrix. We expect that GFRP wires will deliver superior sliding mechanics with low frictional resistance between the wire and bracket during orthodontic treatment. PMID:25631358

  6. Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.K.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T < 600{degrees}C) with slow thermal ramp rates (slow cladding strain rates) resulted from localized dissolution of the stainless steel cladding by the cadmium/aluminum solution and subsequent ductility exhaustion and rupture. The slow thermal ramp rate is believed to be the root cause for the failures; specifically, the slow ramp rate led to localized cladding shear deformation which ruptured the protective oxide film on the cladding inner surface and allowed dissolution to initiate. The test results and proposed failure mechanism support the conclusion that the rods would not fail below 500{degrees}C even at slow ramp rates. The safety rod thermal test specimen failures which occurred at high temperature (T > 800{degrees}C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B{sub 4}C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B{sub 4}C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs.

  7. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  8. Synaptic transmission from rods to rod-dominated bipolar cells in the tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Yang, X L; Wu, S M

    1993-06-11

    Synaptic transmission between photoreceptors and bipolar cells was studied in dark-adapted tiger salamander retinas. Based on the relative light sensitivity, bipolar cells, either depolarizing (DBC) or hyperpolarizing (HBC), fell into two groups: one receives inputs primarily from rods (rod-dominated bipolar cells, DBCR and HBCR) and the other receives inputs primarily from cones (cone-dominated bipolar cells, DBCC and HBCC). The input-output relations of the rod-DBCR and rod-HBCR synapses were determined by plotting the voltage responses of the rod and DBCR (or HBCR) to dim 500-nm light steps, which polarizes only the rods but not the cones. The slope gains of both synapses were the highest near the dark rod voltage (-2.5 for the rod-DBCR synapse and 4.0 for the rod-HBCR synapse), and they (the absolute values) became progressively smaller at more hyperpolarized rod voltages. PMID:8186975

  9. Use of Faraday probing to estimate current distribution in wire array z pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Bland, S. N.; Ampleford, D. J.; Bott, S. C.; Guite, A.; Hall, G. N.; Hardy, S. M.; Lebedev, S. V.; Shardlow, P.; Harvey-Thompson, A.; Suzuki, F.; Kwek, K. H.

    2006-10-15

    In order to understand the formation and dynamics of plasma in wire array z-pinch experiments, measurements of the distribution of current throughout the array are required. We present details of two Faraday probing diagnostics aimed at exploring the magnetic fields and hence distribution of current in an array. An imaging Faraday system utilizes a short laser pulse to make estimates of the current distribution in the precursor column formed on axis before implosion. In a second system, a rod of high Verdet constant glass is placed close to the wires of an array and the polarization of a cw laser passing through the rod is monitored to examine the variance of current with time.

  10. Crimping: A wire fastening technique in wire chamber construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, B.; Koltick, D.; Kobayashi, M.

    1990-04-01

    The successful crimping technique for fasteninng wires individually in place, developed during the construction of the TOPAZ high-resolution vertex chamber, is described. A model of how crimping works which yeilds the parameters for successful crimping, the tools needed and their properties, results of a study of the relaxation rate for wires that have been crimped under various conditions and finally the results of applying this technique to the TOPAZ vertex chamber are presented. Wire size range from 20 to 400 μm in diameter, typically tensioned to half their breaking strength and crimped in thin-walled tubing. Applying this technique to 400 μm wires spaced only 2.0 mm apart in tubing with 160 μm walls yield upper limit tension loss rates of between 0.2% and 0.4% per year.

  11. Determination of the initial exothermic reaction of shredded tyres with wire content.

    PubMed

    Sellasie, Kassahun G; Moo-Young, Horace K; Lloyd, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents the cause of exothermic reactions in shredded tyre with exposed wire content in shredded tyre piles. Data indicate that the oxidation of exposed steel wires is the exothermic reaction in shredded tyre embankments. This would lead to spontaneous combustion. Reaction of the steel with the sulphur or the carbon black appears not to be the source of the exothermic. Laboratory tests have been conducted to determine the heat transfer properties of the materials that compose tyres (i.e., tyre rubber and wires) by using a hot-plate apparatus. In addition, one-dimensional heat conduction experiments were conducted to compare the flow of heat through the materials while varying the physical and environmental conditions. The physical conditions were the size of tyre shred, water content, and wire contents. An exothermic reaction occurred when exposed wire was present but not when it was absent. A one-dimensional heat transfer equation was developed, and parametric studies were conducted to verify the laboratory model. Exothermic reaction was found to increase linearly with temperature, size and shape of the shredded tyres, density, amount of wire in shredded tyres, and water content. PMID:15560440

  12. Requirements for printed wiring boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In order to maintain the high standards of the NASA printed wiring programs, this publication: prescribes NASA's requirements for assuring reliable rigid printed wiring boards; describes and incorporates basic considerations necessary to assure reliable rigid printed wiring boards; establishes the supplier's responsibility to train and certify personnel; provides for supplier documentation of the fabrication and inspection procedures to be used for NASA work, including supplier innovations and changes in technology; and provides visual workmanship standards to aid those responsible for determining quality conformance to the established requirements.

  13. HTS Wire: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malozemoff, A. P.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Fleshler, S.; Aized, D.; Yu, D.

    2003-04-01

    Practical, robust high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire is a composite of high temperature superconductor and metal. The composite provides many advantages, including improved mechanical properties and stability. Multi-filamentary composite fabricated with the BSCCO HTS material has achieved performance for commercial applications, and commercial price/performance is on the near horizon. This wire enables HTS applications such as power cables, marine propulsion motors, utility generators and magnets for materials processing. Coated conductor is also a composite, combining the YBCO HTS material with a metal or metal-alloy substrate; this technology is in the stage of research and development. The status and commercial prospects of these wire technologies are reviewed.

  14. Investigation of Minimum Film boiling Phenomena on Fuel Rods Under Blowdown Cooling Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen M. Bajorek; Michael Gawron; Timothy Etzel; Lucas Peterson

    2003-06-30

    Blowdon cooling heat transfer is an important process that occurs early in a hypothetical large break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor. During blowdown, the flow through the hot assembly is a post-critical heat flux dispersed droplet flow. The heat transfer mechanisms that occur in blowdown cooling are complex and depend on droplet and heated surface interaction. In a safety analysis, it is of considerable importance to determine the thermal-hydraulic conditions leading to the minimum film boiling temperature, Tmin. A flow boiling rig for measurement of blowdown cooling heat transfer and quench phenomena on a nuclear fuel rod simulator was designed and constructed for operation at up to 12.4 MPa. The test section consisted of a concentric annulus, with a 9.5 mm OD nuclear fuel rod simulator at the center. The rod was contained within a 0.85 mm thick, 19 mm OD 316 stainless steel tube, forming the flow channel. Two types of rods were tested; one type was sheathed with Inconel 600 while the other was clad with Zircaloy-2. Water was injected into the test section at the top of the heated length through an injection header. This header was an annular sign that fit around the fuel rod simulator and within the stainless steel tube. Small spacers aligned the injection header and prevented contract with either the heater rod or the tube. A series of small diameter holes at the bottom of the header caused the formation of droplets that became entrained with the steam flow. The test section design was such that quench would take place on the rod, and not along the channel outer annulus.

  15. Rod cluster having improved vane configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Shockling, L.A.; Francis, T.A.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes a pressurized water reactor vessel, the vessel defining a predetermined axial direction of the flow of coolant therewithin and having plural spider assemblies supporting, for vertical movement within the vessel, respective clusters of rods in spaced, parallel axial relationship, parallel to the predetermined axial direction of coolant flow, and a rod guide for each spider assembly and respective cluster of rods. The rod guide having horizontally oriented support plates therewithin, each plate having an interior opening for accommodating axial movement therethrough of the spider assembly and respective cluster of rods. The opening defining plural radially extending channels and corresponding parallel interior wall surfaces of the support plate.

  16. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.N.

    1958-04-22

    An electromagnetic apparatus for moving a rod-like member in small steps in either direction is described. The invention has particular application in the reactor field where the reactor control rods must be moved only a small distance and where the use of mechanical couplings is impractical due to the high- pressure seals required. A neutron-absorbing rod is mounted in a housing with gripping uaits that engage the rod, and coils for magnetizing the gripping units to make them grip, shift, and release the rod are located outside the housing.

  17. Exploiting rod technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-01

    ROD development was proceeding apace until recent budgetary decisions caused funding support for ROD development to be drastically reduced. The funding which was originally provided by DARPA and the Balanced Technology Initiative (BTI) Office has been cut back to zero from $800K. To determine the aeroballistic coefficients of a candidate dart, ARDEC is currently supporting development out of its own 6.2 funds at about $100K. ARDEC has made slow progress toward achieving this end because of failures in the original dart during testing. It appears that the next dart design to be tested will diverge from the original concept visualized by DARPA and Science and Technology Associates (STA). STA, the design engineer, takes exception to these changes on the basis of inappropriate test conditions and insufficient testing. At this time, the full resolution of this issue will be difficult because of the current management structure, which separates the developer (ARDEC) from the designer (STA).

  18. Guide for rotating sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrel, R.D.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes an improved guide for use in a string of sucker rods rotated in a tubing string in a borehole, the sucker rods having threaded male ends, the guide comprising: an elongated upright solid cylindrical coupling body of external diameter less than the internal diameter of tubing in which it is to be used; a pair of spaced apart axle holders positioned in three recess; an axle received in each recess in the coupling body, the axis of each axle being parallel and spaced from the body longitudinal axis; a roller rotatably received on each axle, the periphery of each roller extending exteriorly of the external cylindrical surface of the coupling body; and means to retain each of the holders in the coupling body recess.

  19. The abrasion-wear resistance of arc sprayed stainless steel and composite stainless steel coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Dallaire, S.; Legoux, J.G.; Levert, H.

    1994-12-31

    Stainless steels are often used to palliate wear problems in various industries. Though they are not wear resistant, they have been used to a limited extent in applications involving both corrosive and abrasive/erosive environments. The protection of industrial components by arc sprayed stainless steel composite coatings could be considered very attractive provided these coatings offer a better wear protection than bulk stainless steel. The wear resistance of stainless steel and composite stainless steel-titanium boride coatings arc sprayed with air and argon was evaluated following the ASTM G-65 Abrasion Wear Test procedures. Wear volume loss measurements show that stainless steel coatings arc sprayed with air were slightly more resistant than bulk stainless steel while those sprayed with argon were slightly less resistant. The abrasion wear resistance of composite stainless steel-titanium diboride coatings is by two or four times beyond the wear resistance of bulk stainless steel depending upon the core wire constitution and the type of gas used for spraying. Microstructural analysis of coatings, microhardness measurements of sprayed lamellae and optical profilometry were used to characterize coatings and wear damages. Spraying with air instead of argon produced much more small particles. These particles, being removed from the metal sheath surface, are individually sprayed without diluting the concentration hard phases within cores. It results in coatings that contain large lamellae with hardnesses sufficient to withstand abrasion. By considering both the wire constitution and the spraying conditions, it was found possible to fabricate composite stainless steel coatings that show a 400% increase in wear resistance over bulk stainless steel.

  20. Tribe kills fuel rod proposal

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-13

    This article is a review of nuclear utilities` efforts to find a repository of spent fuel rods. The rejection by the Mescalero Apaches of plans to build a waste repository on tribal lands has left a number of utilities scrambling to find interim solutions. Prairie Island will have to close before the end of the year unless a solution is found, and the Hope Creek/Salem units, exhausting there storage capacity within ten years, are considering dry-cask storage.