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1

High strength, low carbon, dual phase steel rods and wires and process for making same  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high strength, high ductility, low carbon, dual phase steel wire, bar or rod and process for making the same is provided. The steel wire, bar or rod is produced by cold drawing to the desired diameter in a single multipass operation a low carbon steel composition characterized by a duplex microstructure consisting essentially of a strong second phase dispersed

Gareth Thomas; Alvin H. Nakagawa

1986-01-01

2

78 FR 60850 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Second...alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Brazil would be likely to lead to continuation...of the CVD order \\1\\ on wire rod from Brazil pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

2013-10-02

3

Mechanical behavior of ultrahigh strength ultrahigh carbon steel wire and rod  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrahigh-carbon steels (UHCSS) can achieve very high strengths in wire or rod form. These high strengths result from the mechanical work introduced during wire and rod processing. These strengths have been observed to increase with carbon content. In wire form, tensile strengths approaching 6000 MPa are predicted for UHCS containing 1. 8%C. In this paper, we will discuss the influence

D. R. Lesuer; C. K. Syn; O. D. Sberby; W. D. Whittenherger

1997-01-01

4

Metallurgical investigation into the causes of premature failure of high-carbon steel wire rods during hot rolling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire rods of high-carbon steel, in sizes ranging between 5.5 and 14 mm, are normally produced from continuously cast billets\\u000a by hot rolling in a wire rod mill. These wire rods are usually supplied to wire drawing plants in either the hot rolled or\\u000a the controlled-cooled condition. The microstructure of the hot rolled wire rods is a coarse lamellar pearlite

S. K. Dhua; C. D. Singh; Amitava Ray

2005-01-01

5

High strength, low carbon, dual phase steel rods and wires and process for making same  

DOEpatents

A high strength, high ductility, low carbon, dual phase steel wire, bar or rod and process for making the same is provided. The steel wire, bar or rod is produced by cold drawing to the desired diameter in a single multipass operation a low carbon steel composition characterized by a duplex microstructure consisting essentially of a strong second phase dispersed in a soft ferrite matrix with a microstructure and morphology having sufficient cold formability to allow reductions in cross-sectional area of up to about 99.9%. Tensile strengths of at least 120 ksi to over 400 ksi may be obtained.

Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA); Nakagawa, Alvin H. (Campbell, CA)

1986-01-01

6

Effect of rolling with shear on the properties of steel 08G2S rods and wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hereditary effect of the structure of a wire rod on the structure and physicomechanical properties of the steel 08G2S wire produced by rolling with shear is studied in comparison with the wire produced according to the standard technology in OAO Metal Steel Krivoi Rog.

Pashinskaya, E. G.; Tolpa, A. A.; Myshlyaev, M. M.; Grishaev, V. V.; Zavdoveev, A. V.

2011-11-01

7

Mechanical behavior of ultrahigh strength ultrahigh carbon steel wire and rod  

SciTech Connect

Ultrahigh-carbon steels (UHCSS) can achieve very high strengths in wire or rod form. These high strengths result from the mechanical work introduced during wire and rod processing. These strengths have been observed to increase with carbon content. In wire form, tensile strengths approaching 6000 MPa are predicted for UHCS containing 1. 8%C. In this paper, we will discuss the influence of processing (including rapid transformation during wire patenting) and micros ct- ure on the mechanical behavior of UHCS wire. The tensile properties of as- extruded rods are described as a function of extrusion temperature and composition. For spheroidized steels, yield and ultimate tensile strength are a function of grain size, interparticle spacing and particle size. For pearlitic steels, yield and ultimate strength were found to be functions of colony size, carbide size and plate spacing and orientation. Alloying additions (such as C, Cr, Si, Al and Co) can influence the effect of processing on these microstructural features. For spheroidized steels, fracture was found to be a function of the size of coarse carbides and of composition.

Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sberby, O.D.; Whittenherger, W.D.

1997-07-22

8

Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Egypt, South Africa, and Venezuela. Investigation Nos. 731-TA-955, 960 and 963 (Preliminary) (Second Remand).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By decision dated June 7, 2005, the Court of International Trade (the 'Court') remanded the Commission's preliminary determinations that subject imports of carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod ('wire rod') from South Africa individually, and Egypt, Sou...

2005-01-01

9

Cracking Phenomenon Occurring in BiS–Based Free-Machining Steel Wire Rods During Hot Rolling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, cracks or scabs formed during hot rolling of Bi-S–based free-machining steel wire rods were analyzed, and their\\u000a formation mechanisms were clarified in relation with microstructure. Detailed microstructural analyses of large-diameter rods\\u000a showed that the rod having low carbon content was cracked, whereas the rod having higher carbon content was not, because oxides\\u000a formed during hot rolling were

Yongjin Kim; Hyunmin Kim; Sang Yong Shin; Kiho Rhee; Sang Bog Ahn; Duk Lak Lee; Nack J. Kim; Sunghak Lee

2011-01-01

10

Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes  

DOEpatents

An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA); Ahn, Jae-Hwan (Albany, CA); Kim, Nack-Joon (Laramie, WY)

1986-01-01

11

Cracking Phenomenon Occurring in Bi-S-Based Free-Machining Steel Wire Rods During Hot Rolling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, cracks or scabs formed during hot rolling of Bi-S-based free-machining steel wire rods were analyzed, and their formation mechanisms were clarified in relation with microstructure. Detailed microstructural analyses of large-diameter rods showed that the rod having low carbon content was cracked, whereas the rod having higher carbon content was not, because oxides formed during hot rolling were penetrated into the relatively soft surface, thereby leading to the surface cracking. While the crack-free, large-diameter rod containing high carbon content was subsequently rolled to make a small-diameter rod, a few scabs of 1 to 2 mm in size were formed on the surface as some protrusions were folded during hot rolling. Thus, in order to prevent the cracking or scab formation in wire rods, (1) the increase in hot-rolling temperature for homogeneous rolling of rods, (2) the minimization of temperature drop of rolled rods upon descaling treatment, and (3) the increase of rolling passes and the decrease of reduction ratio of each pass were suggested. Using these methods, crack- or scab-free wire rods could be successfully fabricated.

Kim, Yongjin; Kim, Hyunmin; Shin, Sang Yong; Rhee, Kiho; Ahn, Sang Bog; Lee, Duk Lak; Kim, Nack J.; Lee, Sunghak

2011-10-01

12

Real-time defect detection of steel wire rods using wavelet filters optimized by univariate dynamic encoding algorithm for searches.  

PubMed

We propose a new defect detection algorithm for scale-covered steel wire rods. The algorithm incorporates an adaptive wavelet filter that is designed on the basis of lattice parameterization of orthogonal wavelet bases. This approach offers the opportunity to design orthogonal wavelet filters via optimization methods. To improve the performance and the flexibility of wavelet design, we propose the use of the undecimated discrete wavelet transform, and separate design of column and row wavelet filters but with a common cost function. The coefficients of the wavelet filters are optimized by the so-called univariate dynamic encoding algorithm for searches (uDEAS), which searches the minimum value of a cost function designed to maximize the energy difference between defects and background noise. Moreover, for improved detection accuracy, we propose an enhanced double-threshold method. Experimental results for steel wire rod surface images obtained from actual steel production lines show that the proposed algorithm is effective. PMID:22561939

Yun, Jong Pil; Jeon, Yong-Ju; Choi, Doo-chul; Kim, Sang Woo

2012-05-01

13

75 FR 8650 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Trinidad and Tobago; Final Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...or more of bismuth, 0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent of phosphorus, more than 0.05 percent of selenium, or more than 0.01 percent of tellurium). Also excluded from the scope are 1080 grade tire cord quality wire rod and...

2010-02-25

14

Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Canada. Investigation No. 731-TA-954 (Final) (Remand).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In May 1999, the Commission determined, by a four-to-two vote, that an industry producing certain cold-rolled stainless steel plate in coils in the United States was not materially injured or threatened with material injury by reason of imports of cold-ro...

2004-01-01

15

Low carbon dual phase steels for high strength wire  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows that dual phase steels can be designed and processed as new, economical low carbon steels for cold drawing into high tensile strength steel wires. Current work indicates wires of tensile strengths up to 400,000 psi can be obtained. Potential applications for dual phase steel wire include bead wire, tire cord, wire rope and prestressed concrete. It should be possible to produce wire rods in existing rod mills by adapting the controlled rolling and quenching procedures outlined in this paper.

Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.

1985-08-01

16

Ensuring high quality indices for the wire rod used to make metal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mastering the production of high-carbon wire rod — especially cord-grade wire rod — on a mini-complex originally built at\\u000a the Moldavian Metallurgical Plant to make ordinary wire rod was a daunting problem that has been solved by a collaboration\\u000a with the Ukrainian Academy of Science’s Institute of Metallurgy. Researchers developed an integrated technology for making\\u000a the steel, continuous-cast semifinished products,

V. V. Parusov; I. V. Derevyanchenko; A. B. Sychkov; A. M. Nesterenko; É. V. Parusov; M. A. Zhigarev

2005-01-01

17

Hafnium stainless steel absorber rod for control rod  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a control rod having a stainless steel body for enclosing a neutron absorbing poison, the control rod having movement along an axial direction for insertion into and out of a nuclear reactor for controlling a nuclear reaction. The improvement comprising: a piece of hafnium; a piece of stainless steel joined to the hafnium by a thin diffusion interface created by friction welding. The hafnium and the stainless steel oriented serially in the axial direction with the thin diffusion interface disposed normal to the axial direction of the control rod movement; means for confining the hafnium to movement along the axial direction with the control rod; and means for attaching the piece of stainless steel to the remaining portion of the control rod to load the weld therebetween under compression or tension during the control rod movement. Whereby the thin diffusion interface is loaded in tension or compression only upon dynamic movement of the control rod.

Charnley, J.E.; Cearley, J.E.; Dixon, R.C.; Izzo, K.R.; Aiello, L.L.

1989-08-01

18

Microstructure-Mechanical Property Relationships of Dual-Phase Steel Wire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of a dual-phase steel suitable for drawing into high strength wire necessitated a study of the relation between the microstructure and properties of undrawn rod and rod drawn into wire, and of the deformation of dual-phase steel at large strains....

A. H. Nakagawa

1983-01-01

19

75 FR 4104 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...prestressed concrete steel wire strand, provided...nonstainless, non-galvanized steel, which is suitable...PC strand made from galvanized wire is only excluded...and/or zinc oxide coating meets or exceeds...

2010-01-26

20

Fracture toughness evaluation of high-strength cold-drawn eutectoid steel wires used in wire ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High carbon (eutectoid) steel wires are used in many modern engineering applications which require high strength and durability. The most demanding applications are those for wire ropes, tire reinforcements, engine valve springs, and structural strands used for long span cable stayed bridges. In this study, a test method based on Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) was used to evaluate fracture toughness, KC, for various grades of wire which were of 0.072? nominal diameter. An extensive review of literature on mechanical behavior of wire ropes is presented. Also a very thorough review of technical literature on the applications of LEFM in high strength rods and wires is provided. Various stress intensity factor solutions (K-solutions) are evaluated and compared. The most applicable K-solutions for application in KC determination in circular rods and wires with semi-elliptical surface cracks are recommended. Plane-stress K-solutions for straight-edge surface cracks in 0.072? diameter steel wire were also developed by a 3D FEA model. An experimental fracture toughness test procedure based on principles of LEFM is described in detail. Experimental tensile fracture data is presented for 285 pre-cracked fracture samples. SEM fractographs documenting fracture surface topography of various fracture modes are described and characterized. For each wire grade and condition an average value of KC was determined. Statistical treatment of data and 90% confidence intervals are also provided. Average KC values ranged from 52Ksiin to 60Ksiin for wires ranging in tensile strength from 289 Ksi to 336 Ksi. Delamination toughening phenomenon was observed in some wire fracture samples and documented. As high as 60% increase in KC value was observed for some delaminated wires. The effect of crack aspect ratio in semi-elliptical cracks was considered and found to be very significant.

Pourladian, Bamdad

21

Stabilization of thoracic and thoracolumbar fracture-dislocations with Harrington rods and sublaminar wires.  

PubMed

Seventeen unstable thoracic and thoracolumbar fracture-dislocations have been treated by Harrington double-distraction rod technique supplemented by doubled 18-gauge stainless-steel wires applied to two intact laminae above and below the injury. Fourteen of the 17 cases were grossly comminuted and translated beyond 50% of the width of the spinal column. No external bracing was used in the 13 patients with neurologic deficits. At the time of follow-up examinations (greater than 22 months in all patients) there was no loss of reduction or fixation in any patient. Solid fusion was achieved in all patients. PMID:6478697

Gaines, R W; Breedlove, R F; Munson, G

1984-10-01

22

The technology of testing the safety of steel wire ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To estimate the security of steel wire rope, the broken wire condition, the capability of the rope to bear weight and the state of stress balance of each wire in the steel wire rope were investigated. The wavelet translation method was applied to analyze the signals of magnetic field leakage from the steel wire rope. The result of the time-frequency analysis of the signals can be used to make certain of he position and the amount of the broken wire. Using the static surveillance method as a basis, a dynamic surveillance method was designed to detect the stress balance of the steel wire rope. This technology makes it possible to check the stress condition of each wire on line. It can be concluded that a wavelet translation analysis and the dynamic surveillance technique are effective methods to detect on line and real-time the broken wire and the stress balance of multistrand wire ropes.

Zhang, Xiaochun; Hu, Caiwen

2005-12-01

23

Copper Plating of Iron and Steel Wires by Cementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article discusses the copper plating of iron and steel wires by concentration. Beside an introduction in the treatment procedure as used in the wire industry, some theoretical considerations of the mechanism of copper deposition are presented. Experim...

H. Y. Oei

1971-01-01

24

Efficiency of a Wire-Rod Type Electrohydrodynamic Gas Pump Under Negative Corona Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire-rod type electrohydrodynamic (EHD) gas pump was driven by a negative applied voltage with pipes of different inner diameters. An EHD gas flow was generated from a wire electrode to a rod electrode under a negative corona discharge. The flow velocity was proportional to the applied voltage and the square root of the discharge current. Before spark onset, the

Nozomi Takeuchi; Koichi Yasuoka

2009-01-01

25

75 FR 36678 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1160 (Final)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations...of imports from China of prestressed concrete steel wire strand (PC strand), provided...June 2010), entitled Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from China:...

2010-06-28

26

Nondestructive quantitative stress characterization of wire rope and steel cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new approach to nondestructive and quantitative characterization of residual and applied stress (absolute stress) on wire rope and steel cable. Examples are given from both field work as well as laboratory tests, including stress characterization of post-tensioning cables, bridge suspension cables, wire rope and thin strand steel wire. The approach is based on x-ray diffraction techniques. A detailed description of the results and the methodologies used to obtain them are provided.

Brauss, Michael E.; Pineault, James A.; Belassel, M.; Teodoropol, S. I.

1998-03-01

27

Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis

Xiaodan Zhang; Andrew Godfrey; Niels Hansen; Xiaoxu Huang; Wei Liu; Qing Liu

2010-01-01

28

Sublaminar wiring of Harrington distraction rods for unstable thoracolumbar spine fractures.  

PubMed

Sublaminar wiring of Harrington distraction rods enhances stability and resistance to pullout and is an effective means of managing unstable thoracolumbar spine fractures. The incidence of distraction rod-related failure and the duration of postoperative immobilization are reduced. Early return to full activity and successful rehabilitation are facilitated by efficient stabilization of the spinal column. PMID:6478695

Sullivan, J A

1984-10-01

29

Numerical simulation and infrared-thermographic measurement of the cooling of wire rod  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to achieve a defined cooling of the wire rod, the wire blocks are followed by an intense cooling area and an air cooling area. The model to describe the heat transfer in the air-cooling area as well as the extensive measurements that were carried out are presented in this paper. In order to evaluate the quality of the

A. Lindemann; J. Schmidt; H. Boye

30

Perforation of HY-100 steel plates with long rod projectiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted perforation experiments with 4340 steel, rod projectiles and HY-100 steel, target plates at striking velocities between 80 and 370 m\\/s. Projectiles were machined to nominally 30-mm-diameter and 281-mm-length so they could be launched from a 30-mm-powder gun without sabots. The target plates were rigidly clamped at 305-mm diameter and had a nominal thickness of 10.2 mm. In

S. J. Hanchak; B. S. Altman; M. J. Forrestal

1993-01-01

31

76 FR 19382 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-479 and 731-TA-1183-1184 (Preliminary)] Galvanized Steel Wire...antidumping and countervailing Investigation Nos. 701-TA-479 and 731-TA-1183-1184 (Preliminary)...

2011-04-07

32

75 FR 8113 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-464 and 731-TA-1160 (Final)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the...

2010-02-23

33

Locked-wrap fuel rod  

DOEpatents

A method for spacing fast reactor fuel rods using a wire wrapper improved by orienting the wire-wrapped fuel rods in a unique manner which introduces desirable performance characteristics not attainable by previous wire-wrapped designs. Use of this method in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor results in: (a) improved mechanical performance, (b) improved rod-to-rod contact, (c) reduced steel volume, and (d) improved thermal-hydraulic performance. The method produces a "locked wrap" design which tends to lock the rods together at each of the wire cluster locations.

Kaplan, Samuel (Los Gatos, CA); Chertock, Alan J. (San Francisco, CA); Punches, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1977-01-01

34

Rodding Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... requires incisions around the joints. 3 The Fassier-Duval rod system approved by the US Food and ... can lengthen during growth Dubow-Bailey rod Fassier-Duval rod Non-telescopic rods Kirschner wires (K-wires) ...

35

10. View of Riverside Bridge with Steel Reinforcing Rods in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. View of Riverside Bridge with Steel Reinforcing Rods in Place and with 'Tower for Concrete' in the Background. The function of the 'tower for concrete' is uncertain, but may have to do with the transport of concrete from the point of mixing to the point of use (suggestion by NDOT Bridge Section personnel, February 1990). Original snapshot taken July, 1920. - Riverside Bridge, Spanning Truckee River at Booth Street, Reno, Washoe County, NV

36

A comparison of Harrington rod fixation with and without segmental wires for unstable thoracolumbar injuries.  

PubMed

Between January 1, 1975 and November 1, 1986, 77 patients with acute unstable thoracic or lumbar spine fractures underwent reduction, posterior stabilization with dual Harrington distraction rods, and fusion with autogenous iliac crest bone graft at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Beginning March 1985, in 25 patients, segmental interspinous wires were employed, in addition to the Harrington rods, to augment the surgical construct. Clinical and radiographic analysis was performed to determine if differences existed between the two groups. Average time to surgery, hospital stay, and time to brace discontinuance were lower in the segmental wire group. Pain and work status at final follow-up were similar in the two groups. There was a higher incidence of superior and inferior hook migration and reoperation for this complication in patients treated with Harrington rods alone. There was no significant difference in postoperative correction of deformity, although at follow-up, there was greater recurrence of deformity in the Harrington rod group. In summary, the use of segmental wires to supplement Harrington rod fixation appears to offer advantages over Harrington rods alone, with minimal or no increased risk. PMID:2980072

Phillips, D L; Brick, G W; Spengler, D M

1988-01-01

37

Experimental evaluation of Harrington rod fixation supplemented with sublaminar wires in stabilizing thoracolumbar fracture-dislocations.  

PubMed

Segments of the spinal column of calves were instrumented with Harrington rods with and without sublaminar wires. Grossly unstable lesions were created by resecting a 2-cm segment from the central spinal segment. Testing on an Instron tester documented the improvement in stability provided by the sublaminar wires in this grossly unstable experimental fracture. Improved stability was seen in resisting axial loading, lateral bending, and forward flexion loading. Rotational stability was particularly improved. PMID:6478708

Munson, G; Satterlee, C; Hammond, S; Betten, R; Gaines, R W

1984-10-01

38

Deactivation force-deflection behavior of multistranded stainless steel wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation measured the deactivation (unloading) force-deflection behavior of selected multistranded stainless steel orthodontic wires. The guidelines from the revised American National Standards Institute\\/American Dental Association Specification No. 32 for orthodontic wires (type 2, nonlinear elasticity) were used to perform a 3-point bending test to obtain data for the deactivation force levels at 3, 2, 1, and 0.5 mm, and

Parul Taneja; Manville G Duncanson Jr; Sharukh S Khajotia; Ram S Nanda

2003-01-01

39

Fusion of scoliosis by Harrington distraction rod. Interspinous process and sublaminar wiring compared in 42 cases.  

PubMed

Forty-two consecutive patients with scoliosis who between 1981 and 1988 underwent posterior Harrington distraction rod and interspinous process or sublaminar wiring were retrospectively reviewed. No difference was found between the techniques with respect to age, sex, curve pattern, curve magnitude, levels fused, operative time, blood loss, correction, and loss of correction at the 1-year and 2-year follow-up. The interspinous process wiring was superior to the sublaminar wiring as regards ease of technique, early ambulation, few complications, and a more effective means for maintaining the correction without postoperative immobilization. PMID:1767638

Liu, S L; Russo, S S; Borowiecki, T; Schroeder, F W

1991-12-01

40

77 FR 2958 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration [A-549-820] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC Strand'') from Thailand....

2012-01-20

41

75 FR 32747 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION [A-201-831] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC Strand'') from Mexico for...

2010-06-09

42

78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nos. 731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution...materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico, and Thailand,...

2013-04-30

43

7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specification for Zinc-Coated Steel Wire Strand, issued May 1978. All seven wire galvanized steel strand purchased...having Class B or C coatings shall be marked with...identify the class of galvanized coating of the...

2009-01-01

44

7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Specification for Zinc-Coated Steel Wire Strand, issued May 1978. All seven wire galvanized steel strand purchased...having Class B or C coatings shall be marked with...identify the class of galvanized coating of the...

2013-01-01

45

7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specification for Zinc-Coated Steel Wire Strand, issued May 1978. All seven wire galvanized steel strand purchased...having Class B or C coatings shall be marked with...identify the class of galvanized coating of the...

2010-01-01

46

Tunable two-dimensional left-handed material consisting of ferrite rods and metallic wires.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a magnetically tunable and two-dimensional (2D) left-handed material (LHM) consisting of an array of ferrite rods and metallic wires by experiments and simulations. It shows that the ferrite rod has a 2D isotropic negative permeability. By combining the ferrite rods with metallic wires, we observe experimentally a 2D LH passband that can be tuned dynamically, continuously and reversibly by an external magnetic field within in a wide frequency range with a response of 3.5 GHz/kOe. Retrieved effective parameters based on simulated scattering parameters show that operating frequency and value of negative refraction index can be conveniently tuned by changing the external magnetic field. PMID:19654742

Zhao, Hongjie; Zhou, Ji; Kang, Lei; Zhao, Qian

2009-08-01

47

Measurement of surface defects on thin steel wires by atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterisation of surface defects on thin metallic wires is very important for the industrial applications of these wires. The physical dimensions of the surface defects presented by several thin steel wires of different diameters have been measured using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The measurements made show two main defects in thin steel wires: holes and scratches, but other defects

L. M. Sanchez-Brea; J. A. Gomez-Pedrero; E. Bernabeu ´ ´

1999-01-01

48

78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico...Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire, provided for in...reason of LTFV imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China,...

2013-06-20

49

78 FR 44526 - Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...addition, the steel threaded rod...of finishes or coatings, such as plain...protectant, zinc coating (i.e., galvanized, whether by electroplating...similar finishes and coatings, may be applied...investigations are steel threaded...

2013-07-24

50

78 FR 44532 - Steel Threaded Rod From India: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...addition, the steel threaded rod...of finishes or coatings, such as plain...protectant, zinc coating (i.e., galvanized, whether by electroplating...similar finishes and coatings, may be applied...investigation are steel threaded...

2013-07-24

51

Resistance of steel strength wires used in small fiber-optic cables to seawater corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion rates of single strands of strength wire and the same wires assembled in small, fiber-optic cables with jacket damage that exposes the wire have been measured and used to predict the loss in wire and cable strength with time. The wires consisted of galvanized and ungalvanized extra improved plow steel. The results of laboratory measurements and of tensile

Colin J. Sandwith; Robert L. Ruedisueli; Allan L. James; Gerald A. Gotthardt

1996-01-01

52

Perforation of HY-100 steel plates with long rod projectiles  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted perforation experiments with 4340 steel, rod projectiles and HY-100 steel, target plates at striking velocities between 80 and 370 m/s. Projectiles were machined to nominally 30-mm-diameter and 281-mm-length so they could be launched from a 30-mm-powder gun without sabots. The target plates were rigidly clamped at 305-mm diameter and had a nominal thickness of 10.2 mm. In addition to measuring striking and residual projectile velocities, they obtained back surface framing camera data that showed clearly the plate deformation and plug ejection process. An Imacon 792 camera provided up to 20 frames per experiment with an interframe time duration of 10 {mu}s. The modeling work is in progress, but they present a beam model that exhibits the features observed in the experiments.

Hanchak, S.J. [Univ. of Dayton Research Inst., OH (US). Impact Physics Lab.; Altman, B.S.; Forrestal, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-07-01

53

Influence of preliminary heat treatment or thermomechanical working on the properties of 51KhFA steel wire after high-temperature thermomechanical working  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Preliminary heat treatment of the wire rod provides an improvement in the combination of mechanical properties of the wire which it acquires after high-temperature thermomechanical working and in the service properties of the springs.2.In preparation of the structure of the steel for high-temperature thermomechanical working it is necessary to create a uniform ferritic-pearlitic structure with lamellar or rodshaped carbide particles

V. L. Aleksandrov; V. N. Konyshev; Yu. M. Palei; V. Yu. Zibert; L. M. Red'kin

1988-01-01

54

PATHFINDER ATOMIC POWER PLANT. BORON STAINLESS STEEL CONTROL RODS FOR PATHFINDER REACTOR. Final Summary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive development, fabrication, and design analysis program was ; completed on 2 wt% boron stainiess steel for Pathfinder boiler and superheater ; control rods. Results indicated that the control rods will operate ; satisfactorily in the reactor under all foreseeable conditions. It was concluded ; that the maximum local burnup on the boiler rods is limited to 1.0 core

D. A. Patterson; D. A. Nehrig; R. H. Klumb; T. E. Peterson

1963-01-01

55

Management of thoracic and lumbar spine fractures with Harrington distraction rods supplemented with segmental wiring.  

PubMed

Fifteen patients with acute, unstable fractures of the thoracolumbar spine were treated with Harrington distraction rods supplemented with segmental sublaminar wires. This proved to be an effective means of managing these fractures, enhancing stability and decreasing the complication rate. No patients developed hook cut-out, pseudarthrosis or gibbus. The amount and duration of external immobilization is decreased enhancing rehabilitation in spinal cord injuries. PMID:6648702

Bryant, C E; Sullivan, J A

56

DESIGN OF WIRE-WRAPPED ROD BUNDLE MATCHED INDEX-OF-REFRACTION EXPERIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments will be conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility [1] to characterize the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a wire-wrapped rod bundle typically employed in liquid-metal cooled fast reactors and to provide benchmark data for computer code validation. Sodium cooled fast reactors are under consideration for use in the U.S. Department of Energy

Hugh McIlroy; Hongbin Zhang; Kurt D. Hamman

2008-01-01

57

77 FR 17418 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hualing; (2) whether the wire rod and zinc input producers at issue are government authorities that provide wire rod and zinc for less than adequate remuneration (LTAR...inch) or more, plated or coated with zinc (whether by hot-dipping or...

2012-03-26

58

On the fabrication of steel-wire-reinforced white cast irons  

Microsoft Academic Search

White cast irons reinforced by steel wires exhibit much higher toughness than do unreinforced white cast irons. However, one of the problems encountered during the fabrication process is the melting of steel wires. On the basis of the observed microstructures of different kinds of steel-iron interface and the assumption of diffusion-controlled melting, a model was developed in this work to

Ma Qian; Shoji Harada; Li Yanxiang; Mao Dongjun

1996-01-01

59

Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm ({epsilon} = 0) to 2 nm ({epsilon} = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {l_brace}110{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} or {l_brace}112{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} slip plane traces in the ferrite.

Zhang Xiaodan [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Godfrey, Andrew, E-mail: awgodfrey@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu [Center for Fundamental Research: Metal Structures in Four Dimensions, Materials Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Liu Wei [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Liu Qing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030 (China)

2010-01-15

60

Relative kinetic frictional forces between sintered stainless steel brackets and orthodontic wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of kinetic frictional forces generated during in vitro translation at the bracket-wire interface were measured for two sintered stainless steel brackets as a function of two slot sizes, four wire alloys, and five to eight wire sizes. The two types of sintered stainless steel brackets were tested in both 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slots. Wires of four different alloy

Janet L. Vaughan; Manville G. Duncanson; Ram S. Nanda; G. Fräns Currier

1995-01-01

61

The Microstructure and Hardness of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel During Wire Drawing  

SciTech Connect

The steel wire samples are hot-dip-galvanized. The zinc coating is preformed using the standard method. To recognize the behavior of the zinc coated steel wire during the submission to deformation, the wire samples are drawn on a machine designed for this aim and then investigated. In this research is represented the phase structure of the zinc coated samples. Afterwards the thickness of the layer and the hardness of the hot-dip galvanized steel depending on the drawing is represented.

Klmaku, Snukn; Syla, Nairn [University of Prishtina, Sheshi Neena Terezee, 10000, Prishtinee, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Dilo, Teuta [University of Tirana, Sheshi Nenee Tereza, Tirana (Albania)

2010-01-21

62

The Microstructure and Hardness of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel During Wire Drawing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steel wire samples are hot-dip-galvanized. The zinc coating is preformed using the standard method. To recognize the behavior of the zinc coated steel wire during the submission to deformation, the wire samples are drawn on a machine designed for this aim and then investigated. In this research is represented the phase structure of the zinc coated samples. Afterwards the thickness of the layer and the hardness of the hot-dip galvanized steel depending on the drawing is represented.

Klmaku, Snukn; Dilo, Teuta; Syla, Nairn

2010-01-01

63

Perforation experiments on HY-100 steel plates with 4340 R c 38 and maraging T-250 steel rod projectiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted perforation experiments with 4340 Rc 38 and maraging T-250 steel, long rod projectiles and HY-100 steel target plates at striking velocities between 80 and 370m\\/s. Flat-end rod projectiles with lengths of 89 and 282mm were machined to nominally 30-mm-diameter so they could be launched from a 30-mm-powder gun without sabots. The target plates were rigidly clamped at a

Michael J. Forrestal; Stephen J. Hanchak

1999-01-01

64

Perforation of HY-100 steel plates with 4340 R{sub c} 38 and T-250 maraging steel rod projectiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted perforation experiments with 4340 Rc 38 and T-250 maraging steel, long rod projectiles and HY-100 steel target plates at striking velocities between 80 and 370 m\\/s. Flat-end rod projectiles with lengths of 89 and 282 mm were machined to nominally 30-mm-diameter so they could be launched from a 30-mm-powder gun without sabots. The target plates were rigidly

M. J. Forrestal; S. J. Hanchak

1998-01-01

65

Electroretinographic findings in the Standard Wire Haired Dachshund with inherited early onset cone–rod dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To describe electroretinographic (ERG) findings in a strain of Standard Wire Haired Dachshund (SWHD)-derived dogs at the ages\\u000a of approximately 5, 8 and 52 weeks selected for inherited early onset cone–rod dystrophy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Nineteen affected and 13 age-matched control SWHDs were included in the study. All dogs were subjected to standardized bilateral\\u000a Ganzfeld ERGs and ophthalmoscopic examinations at regular intervals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Photopic cone-derived

Ernst O. Ropstad; Ellen Bjerkås; Kristina Narfström

2007-01-01

66

78 FR 12718 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...variety of finishes or coatings, such as plain oil...rust protectant, zinc coating (i.e., galvanized, whether by electroplating...similar finishes and coatings, may be applied to...scope of the order are steel threaded rod,...

2013-02-25

67

A GA based optimized designation of detection sensor for broken steel stranded wire faults in ACSR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel stranded wire plays a supportive role for aluminum conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR), so that detection for broken strand of steel core is an important mean to insure safety operation of transmission lines. A detection sensor based on leakage magnetic flux (LMF) theory for broken strand of steel core in ACSR is developed by this paper, and the size of the

Jiang Xingliang; Xia Yunfeng

2010-01-01

68

Alternating current potential-drop measurement of the depth of case hardening in steel rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case depth of induction-hardened steel rods has been determined using multi-frequency alternating current potential-drop measurements. Experimental results are analyzed using a model which approximates the variation in the material properties of a hardened rod by assuming that a homogeneous core is surrounded by a homogeneous case-hardened layer of uniform thickness. Experimental measurements on an untreated rod are used to

John R. Bowler; Yongqiang Huang; Haiyan Sun; Jonathan Brown; Nicola Bowler

2008-01-01

69

Penetration of a Rigid Rod into a Thick Steel Plate at Elevated Velocities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of studies on the effect of impact velocities and shapes of the head face of a rigid rod on its behavior upon penetration into a thick plate from mild low-carbon steel at velocities of up to 600 m\\/s are presented. Experimental relations between penetration depths and impact velocities were obtained for rods with conical and hemispherical head faces. A

V. K. Golubev; V. A. Medvedkin

2001-01-01

70

Surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using Harrington distraction rod combined with segmental sublaminar wiring.  

PubMed

One hundred and twenty cases of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were treated surgically using Harrington distraction rod combined with sublaminar wires as an adjunction to spinal fusion. There were 94 female and 26 male patients. Ages ranged from 13-19 years old. There were 90 thoracic curves, 24 thoracolumbar curves and 6 double major curves. Curve severity ranged from 35-90 degrees. The most common one was between 51-75 degrees. Average follow-up period was 5 years ranging from 4-9 years. Average surgical time was two and half hours (range from 2-3 1/2 hrs.) Blood loss was about 600 ml (range from 400-1600 ml) since the operation was performed under hypotensive anaesthesia. Result of the surgical correction ranged from 53-76 per cent depending on the curve severity and the age of the patients, usually with less curve severity in younger patients with thoracic curve a higher percentage of correction would be obtained. We obtained good thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis in all cases. There were no serious complications in our series. It is due to the contoured square and rod combined with sublaminar wiring that could correct and control both sagital plane and rotational deformities. This type of surgical approach is appropriate in patients with low economic status and required a period of external support. PMID:7759971

Chotigavanich, C; Songcharoen, P; Thanapipatsiri, S

1994-12-01

71

Electrochemical behaviour of high strength steel wires in the presence of chlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work summarises results of the electrochemical behaviour of high strength steel wires in a high alkaline medium simulating the solution present in concrete. The aim is to expose the possible factors affecting the initiation period of stress corrosion cracking, the most frequent form of failure of pre-stressed concrete structures.Cold drawn steel wires were subjected to constant stress at

B. Díaz; L. Freire; X. R. Nóvoa; M. C. Pérez

2009-01-01

72

Simulation of manufacturing operations: optimization of operations in a steel wire manufacturing company  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project was conducted in a high quality steel wire manufacturing company with the production capacity of over 120,000 tones\\/annum. The wire drawn from the high speed wire drawing (KOCH) machine is fed as the raw material for BEKEART (zinc coating galvanization) furnace. The problem faced by the company is the variability in the amount of input to the furnace,

Jai Thomas; Jayesh Todi; Asif Paranjpe

2002-01-01

73

Fretting wear of thin steel wires. Part 2: Influence of crossing angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wear behaviour of thin steel wires has been analyzed under oscillating sliding conditions in crossed cylinders contact geometry. The focus of this analysis was the influence of the crossing angle between the wires on the wear. The wires used had 0.45mm in diameter and the material was cold-drawn eutectoid carbon steel (0.8% C) with a tensile strength higher than

A. Cruzado; M. Hartelt; R. Wäsche; M. A. Urchegui; X. Gómez

2011-01-01

74

The influence of drawing speed on properties of TRIP steel wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of drawing speed of TRIP steel wires on their properties. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: The heat treatment of steel containing 0.09 % carbon, 1.57 % manganese and 0.9 % silicon allows to obtain TRIP type structure. The wires were drawn with different drawing speed. After drawing mechanical properties of wires were determined

M. Suliga; Z. Muskalski; S. Wiewiórowska

75

Evaluation of Aluminum-Coated Wires as Reinforcement for Articulated Concrete Mattresses; Supplementary Comparative Tests of Stainless and Copper-Clad Steel Wires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were conducted to determine galvanic effect between stainless steel and copperweld wires, and effect on tensile strength of copperweld wire of pinholes and the corrosion in pinholes. In the galvanic-effect tests, stainless-steel and copperweld-wire ...

L. Pepper

1964-01-01

76

Ultrasonic detection of simulated corrosion in 1 inch diameter steel tieback rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented investigates the use of pulse-echo ultrasonic techniques to identify simulated corrosion in steel rods. The primary objective was to quantify loss of cross section due to corrosion of steel tieback rods in earth retention systems. Current techniques require excavation of rods for inspection; however this proposed nondestructive method utilizes the end of the rod protruding from the embankment in conjunction with an ultrasonic pulse-echo system to estimate the reduction in load capacity of the rod. An ultrasonic wave was initiated with a piezoelectric transducer coupled to the end of the rod. The same transducer converted the returning wave into an ultrasonic signal which was used to determine the physical geometry of simulated corrosion. The ultrasonic signal could identify the location of simulated corrosion on the rod using the time between the main bang and the first flaw echo. The diameter of simulated corrosion could be determined from the time between the back echo and the first trailing echo. The length of the corroded region was correlated with the ratio of the first trailing echo and the back echo. Flaw echoes from simulated corrosion could be detected for all transition angles down to 5°. A decrease in the transition angle resulted in a time delay in the arrival of the flaw echo up to 23.8 mus for the 5° transition, which corresponds to 5.5 in. in steel rods. Williams all-thread commercial tieback rods were tested. Ultrasonic signals generated in Williams rods embedded in various soils showed negligible attenuation of signal amplitude. Simulated corrosion geometry, including location, diameter, and length were inspectable in 1.0 in. diameter Williams tieback rods. Testing showed that ultrasonic testing could be used detected in rod lengths up to 40 feet.

Olsen, Karl R.

77

Penetration of tungsten alloy rods into shallow-cavity steel targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a combined numerical and experimental study on penetration of tungsten heavy alloy long rods (length-to-diameter ratio of 10) into thick RHA (rolled homogeneous armor) steel plates. The main objective of this study was to establish the effects of a shallow cavity at the front of the steel plate on the penetration process. Three experiments were performed at

A. M. Rajendran

1998-01-01

78

78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-549-829, A-570-990] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand...investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand...People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico,...

2013-09-19

79

75 FR 28557 - Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...investigation, PC strand is steel wire strand, other than of stainless steel, which is suitable for...PC strand made from galvanized wire is excluded from...zinc and/or zinc oxide coating meets or exceeds the...Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from...

2010-05-21

80

77 FR 50713 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the...by reason of subsidized imports from Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers and less- than-fair-value imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers,...

2012-08-22

81

Corrosion behavior of wire-arc-sprayed stainless steel coating on mild steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion characteristics of a wire-are-sprayed stainless steel coating on mild steel have been investigated in regards to atomizing gases and sealing treatment. Salt spray test was performed. The corrosion behavior of the coating was observed under a microscope succesively through a cycling test of wetting and drying in a salt solution. The sealing-treated coating was found to rust faster compared with the non-sealing-treated coating; it protected the mild steel substrate against corrosion, but even it deteriorated the coating itself due to the interruption of the substrate as an anode. The air-atomized coating ruste more heavily than the nitrogen-atomized one. Four different phases were observed in the coating in regards to corrosion behavior; namely, chromium-based oxide, iron-based oxide, chromium-depleted metallic phase, and stainless steel matrix phase. It was found that the chromium-depleted metallic phase and the iron-based oxide are non-corrosion-resistant, whereas the chromium-based oxide and the stainless steel matrix phase are corrosion-resistant.

Zeng, Z.; Sakoda, N.; Tajiri, T.

2006-09-01

82

77 FR 806 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-487 and 731-TA-1197-1198 (Preliminary)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers...antidumping and countervailing duty investigations Nos. 701-TA-487 and 731-TA-1197-1198 (Preliminary)...

2012-01-06

83

Perforation of HY-100 steel plates with 4340 R{sub c} 38 and T-250 maraging steel rod projectiles  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted perforation experiments with 4340 Rc 38 and T-250 maraging steel, long rod projectiles and HY-100 steel target plates at striking velocities between 80 and 370 m/s. Flat-end rod projectiles with lengths of 89 and 282 mm were machined to nominally 30-mm-diameter so they could be launched from a 30-mm-powder gun without sabots. The target plates were rigidly clamped at a 305-mm-diameter and had nominal thicknesses of 5.3 and 10.5 mm. Four sets of experiments were conducted to show the effects of rod length and plate thickness on the measured ballistic limit and residual velocities. In addition to measuring striking and residual projectile velocities, they obtained framing camera data on the back surfaces of several plates that showed clearly the plate deformation and plug ejection process. They also present a beam model that exhibits qualitatively the experimentally observed mechanisms.

Forrestal, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanchak, S.J. [Univ. of Dayton Research Inst., OH (United States)

1998-05-25

84

Corrosion resistance of premodeled wires made of stainless steel used for heart electrotherapy leaders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study is to evaluate resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wire made of X10CrNi18-8 stainless steel designed for use in cardiology treatment. The influence of strain formed in the premodeling process and methods of wire surface preparation to corrosive resistance in artificial plasma solution were analysed. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in the solution of artificial plasma. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of recorded curves of anodic polarization by means of potentiodynamic method. Potentiodynamic tests carried out enabled to determine how the resistance to pitting corrosion of wire changes, depending on strain formed in the premodeling process as well as on the method of wire surface preparation. For evaluation of phenomena occurring on the surface of tested steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied. Deterioration of corrosive properties of wire along with the increase in the formed strain hardening was observed.

Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; M?ynarski, R.; Szatka, W.

2012-05-01

85

Feasibility demonstration of using wire electrical-discharge machining, abrasive flow honing, and laser spot welding to manufacture high-precision triangular-pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel-rod-support grids  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported supporting the feasibility of manufacturing high precision machined triangular pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel rod support grids for application in water cooled nuclear power reactors. The manufacturing processes investigated included wire electrical discharge machining of the fuel rod and guide tube cells in Zircaloy plate stock to provide the grid body, multistep pickling of the machined grid to provide smooth and corrosion resistant surfaces, and laser welding of thin Zircaloy cover plates to both sides of the grid body to capture separate AM-350 stainless steel insert springs in the grid body. Results indicated that dimensional accuracy better than +- 0.001 and +- 0.002 inch could be obtained on cell shape and position respectively after wire EDM and surface pickling. Results on strength, corrosion resistance, and internal quality of laser spot welds are provided.

Horwood, W.A.

1982-05-01

86

Tensile Tests of Type 305 Stainless Steel Mine Sweeping Wire Rope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Coastal Systems Center submitted to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) approximately 360 feet of each of two different AISI 305 stainless steel wire ropes for testing. Both wire ropes were nominally 5/8 inch in diameter. O...

T. R. Shives S. R. Low

1989-01-01

87

Experimental study of wire electrical discharge machining of AISI D5 tool steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental investigation of the machining characteristics of AISI D5 tool steel in wire electrical discharge machining process. During experiments, parameters such as open circuit voltage, pulse duration, wire speed and dielectric fluid pressure were changed to explore their effect on the surface roughness and metallurgical structure. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness and microhardness tests

Ahmet Hasçalýk; Ula? Çayda?

2004-01-01

88

Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from deformable steel plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from oblique steel plates with a finite thickness was investigated numerically using a full three-dimensional explicit finite element method. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated for various impact velocities and

Woong Lee; Heon-Joo Lee; Hyunho Shin

2002-01-01

89

3D Localization of a Thin Steel Rod Using Magnetic Field Sensors: Feasibility and Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design, setup and preliminary results for a navigation system based on magnetic field sensors. Our system localizes the tip of a magnetized steel rod with diameter 0.5 mm in a cubic workspace with 30 mm edge length. We plan to localize electrodes and probes during surgeries, e.g. for small animal research like neurosurgery in rats. Only the

Maximilian Heinig; Ralf Bruder; Alexander Schlaefer; Achim Schweikard

2010-01-01

90

Holonic control of a water cooling system for a steel rod mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the intelligent manufacturing systems feasibility study on holonic manufacturing systems, a benchmark study whose objective was to develop an architecture of a holonic cooling control system for a steel rod rolling mill is described. The resulting architecture was simulated to illustrate benefits that could be obtained with the holonic system compared with a conventional system. A generic

J. R. Agre; G. Elsley; D. McFarlane; J. Cheng; B. Gunn

1994-01-01

91

Hydrofluoric acid etched stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction.  

PubMed

Stainless steel wire has been widely used as the substrate of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers to overcome the shortcomings of conventional silica fibers such as fragility, by many researchers. However, in previous reports various sorbent coatings are always required in conjunction with the stainless steel wire for SPME. In this work, we report the bare stainless steel wire for SPME without the need for any additional coatings taking advantage of its high mechanical and thermal stability. To evaluate the performance of stainless steel wire for SPME, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, n-propylbenzene, aniline, phenol, n-hexane, n-octane, n-decane, n-undecane, n-dodecane, chloroform, trichloroethylene, n-octanol, and butanol were tested as analytes. Although the stainless steel wire had almost no extraction capability toward the tested analytes before etching, it did exhibit high affinity to the tested PAHs after etching with hydrofluoric acid. The etched stainless steel wire gave a much bigger enhancement factor (2541-3981) for the PAHs than the other analytes studied (< or = 515). Etching with hydrofluoric acid produced a porous and flower-like structure with Fe(2)O(3), FeF(3), Cr(2)O(3), and CrF(2) on the surface of the stainless steel wire, giving high affinity to the PAHs due to cation-pi interaction. On the basis of the high selectivity of the etched stainless steel wire for PAHs, a new SPME method was developed for gas chromatography with flame ionization detection to determine PAHs with the detection limits of 0.24-0.63 microg L(-1). The precision for six replicate extractions using one SPME fiber ranged from 2.9% to 5.3%. The fiber-to-fiber reproducibility for three parallel prepared fibers was 4.3-8.8%. One etched stainless steel wire can stand over 250 cycles of SPME without significant loss of extraction efficiency. The developed etched stainless steel wire is very stable, highly selective, and reproducible for the SPME of PAHs. PMID:19445486

Xu, Hua-Ling; Li, Yan; Jiang, Dong-Qing; Yan, Xiu-Ping

2009-06-15

92

Failure analysis of cold drawn eutectoid steel wires for prestressed concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a failure analysis of cold drawn eutectoid steel wires for prestressed concrete is presented. Results demonstrated that progressive cold drawing affects clearly the fracture performance of the materials, so that the most heavily drawn steels exhibit anisotropic fracture behaviour with crack deflection, i.e., a change in crack propagation direction which deviates from the original mode I propagation

J. Toribio; A. Valiente

2006-01-01

93

The surface alloying behavior of martensitic stainless steel cut with wire electrical discharge machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface alloying behavior of tempered martensitic stainless steel multi-cut with wire electrical discharge machine (WEDM) is studied in this paper. Before machined with WEDM, the steel specimens were quenched at 1050 °C and then tempered at 200 °C, 400 °C, and 600 °C, respectively. The microstructure and surface morphology of the multi-cut surfaces were examined with scanning and transmission

Ching An Huang; Chwen Lin Shih; Kung Cheng Li; Yau-Zen Chang

2006-01-01

94

Functional and Structural Changes in the Retina of Wire-Haired Dachshunds with Early-Onset Cone-Rod Dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To describe and classify the morphologic changes in a naturally occurring dog model of early-onset cone-rod dys- trophy (CRD) and to correlate these with earlier described clinical characteristics of the disease in dogs. METHODS. Purpose-bred Standard Wire-Haired Dachshunds (SWHDs) derived from a large pedigree of dogs with early- onset CRD were euthanatized at defined ages to characterize morphologic changes

Ernst O. Ropstad; Kristina Narfstrom; Frode Lingaas; Caroline Wiik; Anitha Bruun; Ellen Bjerkås

2008-01-01

95

Gasification and char combustion reactivities of Daw Mill coal in wire-mesh and ‘hot-rod’ reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis and CO2-gasification behaviour of Daw Mill (UK) coal was investigated using wire-mesh (WMR) and fixed-bed ‘hot-rod’ (HRR) reactors. Experiments were performed at pressures between 0.1 and 3 MPa at 850 and 1000°C. These reaction conditions reflect those of novel power plant technologies (e.g. ABGC) in which coal gasification and char combustion reactivities are relevant to design and operation.

Jin-Yee Lim; Ioannis N. Chatzakis; Athanasios Megaritis; Hai-Yong Cai; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

1997-01-01

96

75 FR 1755 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-945] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final Determination AGENCY: Import...

2010-01-13

97

Study Of The Wet Multipass Drawing Process Applied On High Strength Thin Steel Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many kinds of high strength thin steel wires are involved in so many applications. Most of the time, these wires are made of a pearlitic steel grade. The current developments mainly concern the wire last drawing operation: after a patenting treatment several reduction passes are performed on a slip-type multipass drawing machine. This paper focuses on modeling this multipass drawing process: a constitutive law based on the wire microstructure evolutions is created, a mechanical study is performed, a set of experiments which enables determining the process friction coefficients is suggested and finally the related analytical model is introduced. This model provides several general results about the process and can be used in order to set the drawing machines.

Thimont, J.; Felder, E.; Bobadilla, C.; Buessler, P.; Persem, N.; Vaubourg, Jp.

2011-05-01

98

Fatigue failure of a stainless steel wires used in a hydraulic pressure line  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Boeing B767-300 experienced a right engine fire during taking off. The inspection of the right engine’s fuel system revealed a failure in the turbine case cooling (TCC) air valve actuator hydraulic pressure line, a flexible component made of AISI 304 stainless steel wire braid. The failure occurred in an area of broken wires in the braid that was located

F. Bagnoli; L. Allegrucci; M. Colavita; M. Bernabei

2009-01-01

99

78 FR 56655 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China; 2012-2013; Partial Rescission of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-570-932] Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China; 2012-2013; Partial Rescission of the Fourth Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of...

2013-09-13

100

77 FR 473 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...variety of finishes or coatings, such as plain oil...rust protectant, zinc coating (i.e., galvanized, whether by electroplating...similar finishes and coatings, may be applied to...scope of the order are steel threaded rod,...

2012-01-05

101

Results of titanium locking plate and stainless steel cerclage wire combination in femoral fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: Some in vitro studies warn combining different metals in orthopedic surgery. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of combining titanium and stainless steel on bone healing and the clinical course of patients undergoing internal fixation of femoral fractures. Materials and Methods: 69 patients with femoral fractures had polyaxial locking plate osteosynthesis. The locking plate was made of a titanium alloy. Two different cohorts were defined: (a) sole plating and (b) additional stainless steel cerclage wiring. Postoperative radiographs and clinical followup were performed at 6 weeks, 3 months and 12 months. Results: Cohorts A and B had 36 and 33 patients, respectively. Patient demographics and comorbidities were similar in both groups. In two cases in cohort A, surgical revision was necessary. No complication could be attributed to the combination of titanium and stainless steel. Conclusion: The combination of stainless steel cerclage wires and titanium plates does not compromise fracture healing or the postoperative clinical course.

El-Zayat, Bilal Farouk; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Efe, Turgay; Paletta, Jurgen; Kreslo, Dimitri; Zettl, Ralph

2013-01-01

102

Mechanisms of electrostimulated plasticity during wire-drawing of stainless steel Kh18N10T  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the mechanisms by-which current pulses affect plastic deformation, an electron-microscope study has been made of the evolution of the fine structure of steel Kh18N10T subjected to electrostimulated (current density 1200 MA\\/m2, frequency 200 Hz) and conventional wire-drawing at a speed of 1.88 m\\/sec with total reduction up to 58%. The evolution of the microstructure of steel during conventional

V. Ya. Tsellermaer; V. E. Gromov; L. A. Kornienko; T. Yu. Chubenko; O. V. Aponasenkova

1991-01-01

103

The surface alloying behavior of martensitic stainless steel cut with wire electrical discharge machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface alloying behavior of tempered martensitic stainless steel multi-cut with wire electrical discharge machine (WEDM) is studied in this paper. Before machined with WEDM, the steel specimens were quenched at 1050°C and then tempered at 200°C, 400°C, and 600°C, respectively. The microstructure and surface morphology of the multi-cut surfaces were examined with scanning and transmission electron microscopes integrated with

Ching An Huang; Chwen Lin Shih; Kung Cheng Li; Yau-Zen Chang

2006-01-01

104

Role of corrosion in Harrington and Luque rods failure.  

PubMed

Ten in-vivo failed spinal instrumentation systems, i.e. six Harrington distraction rods with sublaminar hooks, one Harrington distraction rod with segmental wiring and three Luque rods with sublaminar wires, were fractographically analysed. In both Harrington and Luque rods corrosion fatigue was the predominant mechanism resulting in the failure. Five Harrington rods fractured at the first ratchet junction; fractures of the Luque rods were initiated by fretting of sublaminar wire with the rod surface in the presence of spinal non-union. Fretting and crevice corrosion were found to play an important role in compromising the segmental spinal instrumentation. The susceptibility of the 316 L CW austenitic stainless steel to pitting and relative resistance to crevice corrosion were measured by cyclic anodic polarization tests. The oxide inclusions have been found to play a significant role in the pitting of the alloy. PMID:2706297

Prikryl, M; Srivastava, S C; Viviani, G R; Ives, M B; Purdy, G R

1989-03-01

105

Detection of SCC on prestressing steel wire by the simultaneous use of electrochemical noise and acoustic emission measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical voltage and current noise were measured simultaneously with acoustic emission (AE) measurements during the stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of prestressing steel wire. Elongation of the specimens was also measured. Constant load tests were performed on specimens made from prestressing steel with a diameter of 3.2mm: the central wire of a seven-wire strand was used. The specimens were exposed to diluted

J. Kova?; M. Leban; A. Legat

2007-01-01

106

Effect of abrasive wear on the tensile strength of steel wire rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known amounts of external abrasive wear were introduced into a new 6-strand steel wire rope and the effects of this wear on the tensile strength of the rope examined against the rope discard criteria for wear stated in ISO 4309: 1990 and other selected international standards. The variations of strength with degree of wear in the test rope were compared

A. R. T. de Silva; Long Woon Fong

2002-01-01

107

Mechanical and microstructural integrity of nickel–titanium and stainless steel laser joined wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biomedical industry shows increasing interest in the joining of dissimilar metals, especially with the aim of developing devices that combine different mechanical and corrosive properties. As an example, nickel–titanium shape memory alloys joined to stainless steel are very promising for new invasive surgery devices, such as guidewires. A fracture mechanics study of such joined wires was carried out using

J. Vannod; M. Bornert; J.-E. Bidaux; L. Bataillard; A. Karimi; J.-M. Drezet; M. Rappaz; A. Hessler-Wyser

2011-01-01

108

Electron beam freeforming of stainless steel using solid wire feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of electron beam technology for freeforming build-ups on 321 stainless steel substrates was investigated in this work by using 347 stainless steel as a filler metal. The electron beam freeforming studies indicated that line build-ups could be deposited on the substrate material for optimized processing conditions and a slight linear thickening of the re-build occurred as a function

P. Wanjara; M. Brochu; M. Jahazi

2007-01-01

109

The simultaneous application of an interspinous compressive wire and Harrington distraction rods in the treatment of fracture-dislocation of the thoracic and lumbar spine.  

PubMed

During open reduction of thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation, the normal constraints to distraction and lengthening may be ruptured and allow instrumentation to exert deleterious traction of the spinal cord. An interspinous wire across the unstable segment together with a Harrington rod may be used to prevent potential overdistribution of the spinal cord. Thirty-six patients with fracture-dislocation of the thoracolumbar spine were treated by open reduction with Harrington rods and interspinous wiring. Of 15 patients with a partial cord lesion, four made complete recovery, and nine of the remaining 11 became ambulators. Six patients with a complete paraplegia did not improve; 15 patients remained neurologically intact following the procedure. The compressive wire and Harrington rods act in concert and enable correction of kyphosis and restoration of vertebral and discal height while protecting the cord against traction. The technique is safe and does not add to operative time. PMID:3698379

Floman, Y; Fast, A; Pollack, D; Yosipovitch, Z; Robin, G C

1986-04-01

110

Radiation Hydrodynamics of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays on the Z Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Experiments on the Z accelerator with nested stainless steel wire arrays produced K-shell x-ray yields exceeding 50 kJ in the energy range 5.5 to 8 keV. Stainless steel (Z = 24-28) can barely be ionized to the K-shell on Z, and the spectra are therefore sensitive to the details of the implosion. We have simulated the implosion dynamics of stainless steel wire arrays with diameters ranging from 4.5 to 8.0 centimeters using a detailed configuration non-LTE radiation hydrodynamics model. Reasonable agreement with total and K-shell experimental yields was obtained for the various array configurations. A comparison is made between the 1-D and 2-D simulations for shot Z-578.

Davis, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Clark, R. W.; Whitney, K. [Berkeley Research Associates (United States); Coverdale, C. A.; Lepell, D.; Jones, B. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Deeney, C. [DOE/NNSA (United States)

2009-01-21

111

Research of selected properties of two types of high manganese steel wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents results of tests that aimed at establishing the impact of deformation on properties of wires made of two types of high manganese steels. The deformation process was carried out with the use of a draw bench machine at a speed of 0.5 m min-1. Mechanical properties and structure of strengthened and annealed wires for both steels at different levels of relative reduction in cross-section were determined. Strength of the tested materials was determined in the tensile test, while its hardness was measured with the Vickers hardness test method. Fractographic tests were performed using a scanning electron microscope. It was shown that at the beginning of tensile test, the investigated high manganese steels were characterized by very high plasticity and become stronger as the degree of deformation grows. Surfaces of fractures that were created in the areas where the sample was torn were analyzed. These fractures indicate the presence of transcrystalline ductile fractures.

Tomaszewska, A.; Jab?o?ska, M.; Hadasik, E.; Niewielski, G.; Kawalla, R.

2011-05-01

112

Some problems of multi-stage fine wire drawing of high-alloy steels and special alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of investigations of mechanical properties variation in drawn wires of high-alloy steels and special alloys. The optimum ranges of deformation were determined, basing on the strength reserve coefficient. The values of the critical back tension were experimentally obtained. For one steel grade (stainless steel) the measurements of residual stresses were performed. The influence of the

A. Skolyszewski; J. ?uksza; M. Pa?ko

1996-01-01

113

Comparison and analysis of the efficiency of heat exchange of copper rod and copper wires current lead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current leads are the key components that connect the low-temperature and high temperature parts of the cryogenic system. Owing to the wide range of temperatures, current leads are the main sources of heat leakage. Since the HTS tapes have no resistance and the generated Joule heat is almost zero, HTS binary current leads can reduce heat leakage compared to the conventional leads. However, heat will still be generated and conducted to the cryogenic system through the copper parts of the HTS current leads. In order to reduce heat leakage by the copper parts of the HTS current leads, this paper presents an optimized design of the copper parts of HTS binary current leads. Inside the leads, the copper wires were applied as an alternative to the copper rod without changing the overall dimensions. Firstly, the differential function of heat transfer was derived. By solving the function, the optimum number of the copper wires and the temperature distribution of two different current leads were gotten. Then the experiment of the temperature distribution was done, and the experimental results were basically the same with the calculative results. The simulation and related experiments proved that the copper wire can increase security margins and reduce maximum temperatures under the same shunt current.

Fang, J.; Yu, T.; Li, Z. M.; Wei, B.; Qiu, M.; Zhang, H. J.

2013-11-01

114

The surface alloying behavior of martensitic stainless steel cut with wire electrical discharge machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface alloying behavior of tempered martensitic stainless steel multi-cut with wire electrical discharge machine (WEDM) is studied in this paper. Before machined with WEDM, the steel specimens were quenched at 1050 °C and then tempered at 200 °C, 400 °C, and 600 °C, respectively. The microstructure and surface morphology of the multi-cut surfaces were examined with scanning and transmission electron microscopes integrated with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer for chemical composition analysis. Experimental results show that the cut surfaces of the steel specimens were alloyed with wire-electrode material in various extent. Especially the cut surface was much more alloyed when the steel was cut with the first rough cutting pass by using negatively biased potential and final fine cutting using positively biased potential. Alloying degree of cut surfaces can be distinguished with their anodic polarization curves in 0.5 M HClO4 + 0.2 wt% NaCl at 27 °C. Higher passive current density induces deeper alloyed surface. On the severely alloyed surface, a secondary anodic peak in the potential of 120 mV (versus Ag/AgClsat.) of its anodic polarization curve was observed. The presence of the secondary anodic peak was attributed to dissolution of copper, which was the major element of wire-electrode material from the alloyed surface.

Huang, Ching An; Shih, Chwen Lin; Li, Kung Cheng; Chang, Yau-Zen

2006-02-01

115

Frictional resistances in stainless steel bracket-wire combinations with effects of vertical defections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research evaluated the effects of different bracket-wire combinations and second-order deflections on kinetic friction. Thirteen different brackets, six with 0.018 × 0.025 inch slots and seven with 0.022 × 0.028-inch slots were evaluated with six different sizes and shapes of stainless steel orthodontic wire, i.e., 0.016, 0.016 × 0.022, 0.017 × 0.025, 0.018, 0.018 × 0.025 and 0.019 ×

Randall H. Ogata; Ram S. Nanda; Manville G. Duncanson; Pramod K. Sinha; G. Fräns Currier

1996-01-01

116

Comparing Mersilene* tape and stainless steel wire as sublaminar spinal fixation in the Chagma baboon (Papio ursinus).  

PubMed

The development of segmental instrumentation has been a major advancement in the treatment of spinal problems, but the use of sublaminar stainless steel wire (SSW) has not been without untoward effects. This study reports a comparison of Mersilene* tape (MT) and stainless steel wire (SSW) used for sublaminar fixation in the Chagma baboon (Papio Ursinus). A similar comparative study has not been reported, although the local effects of sublaminar SSW in the spinal canal have previously been described. The adult Chagma baboon was selected as the experimental animal due to its partial upright posture and spinal anatomy, similar to that of the human. Six levels of the thoracolumbar spine were instrumented with custom designed Harrington hooks and regular one-quarter inch threaded rods used as a distraction system. The four intervening laminae were fixed to the rods using doubled-over, eighteen gauge sublaminar SSW in six cases and five millimeter MT in six cases. Computed axial tomography used to measure the AP diameter of the bony spinal canal revealed the AP space occupied by the SSW and MT to be 32 percent and 14.8 percent respectively. In the MT group, the overlying dura mater was found to be totally intact and revealed no signs of abnormal tissue response. A well-formed connective tissue membrane consisting of dense connective tissue surrounded the MT and was found to consist of more mature fibers than that found in the SSW group. The dura-implant interface was examined histologically and a distinct membrane was identified between the dura and the superficial aspect of the MT's, as well as intervening between the two MT's. Following removal of the MT, in contrast to the SSW, it was apparent that the underlying dura was not injured, most probably due to the soft consistency of the Mersilene* tape and the well-formed overlying membrane. On clinical grounds the fixation in both groups was adequate but the MT group formed a well-circumscribed membrane that made removal of the MT easier and potentially safer. The AP space occupied by the spinal implant was also found to be less with MT as opposed to SSW. PMID:9234971

Grobler, L J; Gaines, R W; Kempff, P G

1997-01-01

117

A population study of a mutation allele associated with cone-rod dystrophy in the standard wire-haired dachshund.  

PubMed

Cone-rod dystrophy in the standard wire-haired dachshund (SWHD) is inherited as a simple autosomal recessive trait and the recently discovered mutation is widespread within the SWHD population in Norway and other Scandinavian countries. The gene frequency was estimated to be 4.8%. On the basis of the assumption that the size of the ancestral haplotype around a mutation is inversely correlated with the number of generations since the mutation arose, we have found that the mutation is of a relatively recent origin. The conserved haplotype was found to be 8 Mb in size and therefore we estimate that the mutation arose roughly eight generations (approximately 37 years) ago. This indicates that the mutation arose after breed separation. PMID:19392817

Wiik, A C; Thoresen, S I; Wade, C; Lindblad-Toh, K; Lingaas, F

2009-03-20

118

77 FR 50160 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-487 (Final) and 731-TA-1197-1198 (Final)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers...phase of countervailing duty investigation No. 701-TA-487 (Final) under section 705(b) of the...

2012-08-20

119

76 FR 72721 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-479 (Final) and 731-TA-1183-1184 (Final)] Galvanized Steel Wire From...phase of countervailing duty investigation No. 701-TA-479 (Final) under section 705(b) of the...

2011-11-25

120

77 FR 3731 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan: Initiation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...steel wire garment hangers among other potential surrogate countries, such as Bangladesh, the Philippines, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan.\\19\\ Based on the information provided by Petitioners, we believe that it is appropriate to use...

2012-01-25

121

Spatially Resolved Synthetic Spectra from 2D Simulations of Stainless Steel Wire Array Implosions  

SciTech Connect

A 2D radiation MHD model has been developed to investigate stainless steel wire array implosion experiments on the Z and refurbished Z machines. This model incorporates within the Mach2 MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE kinetics and ray trace based radiation transport. Such a method is necessary in order to account for opacity effects in conjunction with ionization kinetics of K-shell emitting plasmas. Here the model is used to investigate multi-dimensional effects of stainless steel wire implosions. In particular, we are developing techniques to produce non-LTE, axially and/or radially resolved synthetic spectra based upon snapshots of our 2D simulations. Comparisons between experimental spectra and these synthetic spectra will allow us to better determine the state of the experimental pinches.

Clark, R. W. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States); Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Chong, Y. K.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2009-01-21

122

Radiation Cooling and Spectra from Imploding Stainless Steel Wire Arrays on Z  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate and model the radiative behavior of stainless steel wire arrays imploded on the Z facility using several different methodologies that have been employed in modeling radiation production and radiation transport in Z-pinch plasmas. The SS-304 wires have a composition (by mass) of Fe 72%, Cr 18.6%, Ni 8.2%, Mn 0.7%, and Si 0.5%. The consequences which stem from the compromises and trade-offs that result from different approximations used for the ionization dynamics and the solution of the transport equation are discussed. The models investigated include detailed configuration non-equilibrium, CRE and LTE probability-of-escape radiation transport and LTE radiation diffusion. We explore the role radiation plays in the dynamic evolution of the wire plasma and evaluate the impact that radiation cooling has on the pinch dynamics.

Davis, J.; Giuliani, R. W.; Clark, Jr.; Coverdale, C. A.; Deeney, C.

2000-10-01

123

A preliminary study of laser cladding of AISI 316 stainless steel using preplaced NiTi wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

NiTi wire of diameter 1mm was preplaced on AISI 316 stainless steel samples by using a binder. Melting of the NiTi wire to form a clad track on the steel substrate was achieved by means of a high-power CW Nd:YAG laser using different processing parameters. The geometry and microstructure of the clad deposit were studied by optical microscopy and scanning

F. T Cheng; K. H Lo; H. C Man

2004-01-01

124

Twin-wire submerged arc welding process of a high-strength low-alloy steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of thermal cycle curves of a high-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA) subjected twin-wire submerged arc welding\\u000a (SAW) was introduced. The thermal simulation test was performed by using the obtained curves. The impact toughness at ?50\\u000a °C temperature of the simulated samples was also tested. OM, SEM and TEM of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of some simulation\\u000a specimens were investigated.

Xiuzhi Yang; Qinghua Xu; Niandong Yin; Xinhua Xiao

2011-01-01

125

A fretting fatigue tester for steel wires and its measuring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-made fretting fatigue tester for steel wire based on the computer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo fatigue testing machine is introduced in the paper. The working principle and experimental method are described. The signals of contact load, fretting tangential force and fretting amplitude are collected using force and displacement sensors. Synchronous acquisition and dynamic display of the signals of various parameters are

Dagang Wang; Xiaofan Jia; Dekun Zhang; Songquan Wang

2010-01-01

126

Design of dual energy x-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dual energy X-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. Conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is one of primary transfer equipments in modern production. The traditional test methods like electromagnetic induction principle could not display inner image of steel wire ropes directly. So X-ray detection technology has used to detect the conveyor belt. However the image was not so clear by the interference of the rubber belt. Therefore, the dualenergy X-ray detection technology with subtraction method is developed to numerically remove the rubber belt from radiograph, thus improving the definition of the ropes image. The purpose of this research is to design a dual energy Xray detector that could make the operator easier to found the faulty of the belt. This detection system is composed of Xray source, detector controlled by FPGA chip, PC for running image processing system and so on. With the result of the simulating, this design really improved the capability of the staff to test the conveyor belt.

Dai, Yue; Miao, Changyun; Rong, Feng

2009-07-01

127

Surface Preparation of Powder Metallurgical Tool Steels by Means of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface of two types of powder metallurgical (PM) tool steels ( i.e., with and without nitrogen) was prepared using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). From each grade of tool steel, seven surfaces corresponding to one to seven passes of WEDM were prepared. The WEDM process was carried out using a brass wire as electrode and deionized water as dielectric. After each WEDM pass the surface of the tool steels was thoroughly examined. Surface residual stresses were measured by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The measured stresses were found to be of tensile nature. The surface roughness of the WEDM specimens was measured using interference microscopy. The surface roughness as well as the residual stress measurements indicated an insignificant improvement of these parameters after four passes of WEDM. In addition, the formed recast layer was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The characterization investigation clearly shows diffusion of copper and zinc from the wire electrode into the work material, even after the final WEDM step. Finally, the importance of eliminating excessive WEDM steps is thoroughly discussed.

Hatami, Sepehr; Shahabi-Navid, Mehrdad; Nyborg, Lars

2012-09-01

128

Effect of microalloying on the strength of high carbon wire steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microalloying additions of V, Nb, and N were investigated as means of increasing strength of eutectoid steels for wire applications. In order to examine the effects of microalloying additions during several stages of wire processing, continuous cooling experiments with and without deformation as well as patenting simulations were conducted using a Gleeble® 3500 thermomechanical simulator. Continuous cooling was performed from industrial austenitizing (1093 °C) and laying head (950 °C and 880 °C) temperatures, at rates ranging from 1 50 °C/s. Deformation was induced via hot torsion testing, which was followed by continuous cooling from 950 °C at rates of 5, 10, and 25 °C/s. Industrial wire patenting was simulated by austenitizing at 1093 °C or 950 °C for 30 sec, then rapid cooling to isothermal transformation temperatures of 575, 600, 625, and 650 °C for 15 sec before cooling to room temperature. Metallography, Vickers hardness, pearlite colony size and pearlite interlamellar spacing (ILS) measurements were used to examine the effects of these treatments. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves were constructed for four steels: 1080, V, V+N, and V+Nb. In the V-microalloyed steel, additional N accelerated pearlite transformation and Nb delayed pearlite transformation. Observed N effects are in agreement with the theory of VN nucleating grain boundary ferrite and accelerating pearlite transformation, proposed by Han et al. [1995], and also consistent with observations by Brownrigg and Prior [2002]. Delay of transformation temperatures has been observed due to Nb effects [De Ardo, 2009]. A larger delay observed with higher austenitizing temperatures suggests that Nb precipitates may not be as effective at delaying transformation. V strengthening effects were observed in all microalloyed steels using a model that predicted hardness of eutectoid steels by incorporating colony size and ILS measurements, with maximum strengthening observed for the V+N steel. The V+Nb steel was found to have the greatest refinement of colony size and ILS, and subsequently higher hardness among the test alloys in both the undeformed and deformed conditions, consistent with the delay of pearlite transformation. In general, undeformed samples had much higher hardness values. Patenting simulations performed on microalloyed steels showed the potential for increased strength with V addition with a sufficiently high austenitizing temperature. All microalloyed steels showed higher hardness than 1080 when austenitized at 1093 °C, with V and V+Nb having the greatest strength increase. The effect was not observed with a 950 °C reheat potentially related to insufficient dissolution of precipitates.

Miller, Stephanie L.

129

Effects of carbon percentage, Stelmor cooling rate and laying head temperature on tensile strength gain in low carbon steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low carbon steel wire rods are used to produce finished products such as fine wire, coat hangers, staples, and roofing nails. These products are subjected to excessively high work hardening rates during wire drawing process resulting in a variation in wire tensile strength. This research analyzes the effects of carbon percentage, StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature on the

Surya Prakash Gade

2004-01-01

130

Study of the deoxidation of steel with aluminum wire injection in a gas-stirred ladle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the deoxidation of liquid steel with aluminum wire injection in a gas-stirred ladle was studied by mathematical modeling using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. This was complemented by an industrial trial study conducted at Uddeholm Tooling AB (Hagfors, Sweden). The results of the industrial trials were found to be in accordance with the results of the model calculation. In order to study the aspect of nucleation of alumina, emphasis was given to the initial period of deoxidation, when aluminum wire was injected into the bath. The concentration distributions of aluminum and oxygen were calculated both by considering and not considering the chemical reaction. Both calculations revealed that the driving force for the nucleation fo Al2O3 was very high in the region near the upper surface of the bath and close to the wire injection. The estimated nucleation rate in the vicinity of the aluminum wire injection point was much higher than the recommended value for spontaneously homogeneous nucleation, 103 nuclei/(cm3/s). The results of the model calculation also showed that the alumina nuclei generated at the vicinity of the wire injection point are transported to other regions by the flow.

Beskow, K.; Jonsson, L.; Sichen, Du; Viswanathan, N. N.

2001-04-01

131

Welded Wire Fabric for Bridges. II: Fatigue Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present paper is to provide experimental data and analytical results for the fatigue strength of welded wire fabric (WWF), so that engineers can confidently use WWF as structural reinforcement. The material for the tested specimens was provided by manufacturers in the United States, Germany, and Canada. The specimens included steel from rods (steel before the cold-drawing

Bilal M. Ayyub; Peter C. Chang; Naji A. AI-Mutairi

1994-01-01

132

Welded Wire Fabric for Bridges. I: Ultimate Strength and Ductility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present paper is to provide experimental data and analytical results for the tensile strength and ductility of welded wire fabric (WWF) so that engineers can confidently use WWF as structural reinforcement. The ma- terial for the tested specimens was provided by manufacturers in the United States, Germany, and Canada. The specimens included steel from rods (steel

Bilal M. Ayyub; Peter C. Chang; Naji A. AI-Mutairi

1994-01-01

133

Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from deformable steel plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from oblique steel plates with a finite thickness was investigated numerically using a full three-dimensional explicit finite element method. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated for various impact velocities and strengths of the target plates. It was predicted that critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocities and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. Numerical predictions were compared with existing two-dimensional analytical models. Experiments were also carried out and the results supported the predictions of the numerical analysis.

Lee, Woong; Lee, Heon-Joo; Shin, Hyunho

2002-10-01

134

Microstructure analysis of the martensitic stainless steel surface fine-cut by the wire electrode discharge machining (WEDM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steels, AISI 440A, were subjected to multi-cutting passes by wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). The WEDM is widely applied to final surface shaping of harden steel. The steel was roughly machined at first cutting pass, semi-finished by two cutting passes, and then finished by one cutting passes, all machined by WEDM. The

C. A Huang; F. Y Hsu; S. J Yao

2004-01-01

135

Degradation of 316L stainless steel sternal wire by steam sterilization.  

PubMed

Sterilization is an important step prior to the implantation of medical devices inside the human body. In this work we studied the influence of steam sterilization cycles on the oxide film properties of stainless steel sternal wire. Characterization techniques such as open- circuit potential, potentiodynamic measurement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cathodic stripping, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to investigate the cycles of steam sterilization on the corrosion behavior of sternal wire. The results showed that the oxide properties are a function of the number of steam sterilization cycles and deteriorate as the number of cycles increases. Steam sterilization might damage the implant integrity and heavy metals could be released to the surrounding tissues due to deterioration of the oxide film. PMID:20025998

Shih, Chun-Che; Su, Yea-Yang; Chen, Lung-Ching; Shih, Chun-Ming; Lin, Shing-Jong

2009-12-16

136

Arc spraying of nano-structured wire on carbon steel: examination of coating microstructures  

SciTech Connect

Arc spraying of nano-structured wire (TAFA 95MX) onto carbon steel is carried out. The workpieces coated were heat treated at temperature similar to the operating temperature of the hot-path components of power gas turbines. The morphological and microstructural changes in the coating are examined using optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The surface roughness and microhardness of the resulting coatings are measured. It is found that the formation of dimples like structure at surface increased the surface roughness of the coating. The microhardness of the resulting coating is significantly higher than the base material hardness. Heat treatment does not alter the microstructure and microhardness of the coating.

Al Askandarani, A.; Hashmi, M. S. J. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Eng., DCU, Dublin (Ireland); Yilbas, B. S. [Mechanical Eng. Dept., King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2011-01-17

137

Dissimilar material joining using laser (aluminum to steel using zinc-based filler wire)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joining steel with aluminum involving the fusion of one or both materials is possible by laser beam welding technique. This paper describes a method, called laser braze welding, which is a suitable process to realize this structure. The main problem with thermal joining of steel/aluminum assembly with processes such as TIG or MIG is the formation of fragile intermetallic phases, which are detrimental to the mechanical performances of such joints. Braze welding permits a localized fusion of the materials resulting in a limitation on the growth of fragile phases. This article presents the results of a statistical approach for an overlap assembly configuration using a filler wire composed of 85% Zn and 15% Al. Tensile tests carried on these assemblies demonstrate a good performance of the joints. The fracture mechanisms of the joints are analyzed by a detailed characterization of the seams.

Mathieu, Alexandre; Shabadi, Rajashekar; Deschamps, Alexis; Suery, Michel; Matteï, Simone; Grevey, Dominique; Cicala, Eugen

2007-04-01

138

Feasibility Demonstration of Using Wire Electrical-Discharge Machining, Abrasive Flow Honing, and Laser Spot Welding to Manufacture High-Precision Triangular-Pitch Zircaloy-4 Fuel-Rod-Support Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are reported supporting the feasibility of manufacturing high precision machined triangular pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel rod support grids for application in water cooled nuclear power reactors. The manufacturing processes investigated included wire elec...

W. A. Horwood

1982-01-01

139

Research of x-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An X-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. The principle of X-ray nondestructive testing (NDT) is analyzed, the general scheme of the X-ray nondestructive testing system is proposed, and the nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is developed. The hardware of system is designed with Xilinx's VIRTEX-4 FPGA that embeds PowerPC and MAC IP core, and its network communication software based on TCP/IP protocol is programmed by loading LwIP to PowerPC. The nondestructive testing of high-speed conveyor belt with steel wire ropes and network transfer function are implemented. It is a strong real-time system with rapid scanning speed, high reliability and remotely nondestructive testing function. The nondestructive detector can be applied to the detection of product line in industry.

Wang, Junfeng; Miao, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Lu, Xiaocui

2008-03-01

140

Influence of Ti and Ta doping on the irreversible strain limit of ternary Nb3Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process  

SciTech Connect

Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting wires made by the restacked-rod process (RRP{reg_sign}) were found to have a dramatically improved resilience to axial tensile strain when alloyed with Ti as compared to Ta. Whereas Ta-alloyed Nb{sub 3}Sn in RRP wires showed permanent damage to its current-carrying capacity (I{sub c}) when tensioned beyond an intrinsic strain as small as 0.04%, Ti-doped Nb{sub 3}Sn in RRP strands exhibits a remarkable reversibility up to a tensile strain of about 0.25%, conceivably making Ti-doped RRP wires more suitable for the high field magnets used in particle accelerators and nuclear magnetic resonance applications where mechanical forces are intense. A strain cycling experiment at room temperature caused a significant drop of I{sub c} in Ta-alloyed wires, but induced an increase of I{sub c} in the case of Ti-doped strands. Whereas either Ti or Ta doping yield a similar enhancement of the upper critical field of Nb{sub 3}Sn, the much improved mechanical behavior of Ti-alloyed wires possibly makes Ti a better choice over Ta, at least for the RRP wire processing technique.

Cheggour, N.; Ghosh, A.; Goodrich, L.F., Stauffer, T.C., Splett, J.D., Lu, X.F., Ambrosio, G.

2010-06-22

141

Feasibility demonstration of using wire electrical-discharge machining, abrasive flow honing, and laser spot welding to manufacture high-precision triangular-pitch Zircaloy4 fuel-rod-support grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported supporting the feasibility of manufacturing high precision machined triangular pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel rod support grids for application in water cooled nuclear power reactors. The manufacturing processes investigated included wire electrical discharge machining of the fuel rod and guide tube cells in Zircaloy plate stock to provide the grid body, multistep pickling of the machined grid to provide

Horwood

1982-01-01

142

Effect of Calcium on the Quality of Tube Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The company Tagmet makes steel in 290-ton open-hearth furnaces by the pig-and-scrap process, tapping the metal into two ladles. The steel is then treated on a two-position “ladle-furnace” unit equipped with a pinch-roller system to introduce cored wire and aluminum wire rod. After the steel has been brought to the desired temperature and chemical composition on the unit and treated

D. A. Dyudkin; S. E. Grinberg; A. V. Grabov; S. N. Nazarov; S. A. Motrenko; I. G. Pogorelova

2002-01-01

143

Preliminary design and manufacturing feasibility study for a machined Zircaloy triangular pitch fuel rod support system (grids) (AWBA development program)  

Microsoft Academic Search

General design features and manufacturing operations for a high precision machined Zircaloy fuel rod support grid intended for use in advanced light water prebreeder or breeder reactor designs are described. The grid system consists of a Zircaloy main body with fuel rod and guide tube cells machined using wire EDM, a separate AM-350 stainless steel insert spring which fits into

Horwood

1981-01-01

144

Cold drawn steel wires-processing, residual stresses and ductility-part I: metallography and finite element analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold drawing steel wires lead to an increase of their mechanical strength and to a drop of their ductility. The increase of their mechanical strength has long been related to the reduction of the various material scales by plastic deformation, but the mechanisms controlling their elongation to failure have received relatively little attention. It is usually found that heavily deformed

A. PHELIPPEAU; S. POMMIER; T. TSAKALAKOS; M. CLAVEL; C. PRIOUL

2006-01-01

145

Cold Drawn Steel Wires-Processing, Residual Stresses and Ductility-Part I: Metallography and Finite Element Analyses  

SciTech Connect

Cold drawing steel wires lead to an increase of their mechanical strength and to a drop of their ductility. The increase of their mechanical strength has long been related to the reduction of the various material scales by plastic deformation, but the mechanisms controlling their elongation to failure have received relatively little attention. It is usually found that heavily deformed materials show a tendency to plastic strain localization and necking. However, in this paper it is shown that, though the steel wires are plastically deformed up to strain levels as high as 3.5, a significant capability of plastic deformation is preserved in as-drawn wires. This apparent contradiction is resolved by the existence of residual stresses inside the wire. Finite element analyses have been conducted in order to show that residual stresses, inherited from the drawing process, are sufficient to produce a significant hardening effect during a post-drawing tensile test, without introducing any hardening in the local material behavior. The main conclusion of this paper is that once the material has lost its hardening capabilities, residual stresses, inherited from the process, control the elongation of cold drawn wires. The finite element method allowed also the determination of the residual stress field that would lead to the best agreement between the simulated and the experimental stress strain curve of as-drawn wires.

Phelippeau,A.; Pommier, S.; Tsakalakos, T.; Clavel, M.; Prioul, C.

2006-01-01

146

1D Scaling with Ablation for K-Shell Radiation from Stainless Steel Wire Arrays  

SciTech Connect

A 1D Lagrangian magnetohydrodynamic z-pinch simulation code is extended to include wire ablation. The plasma transport coefficients are calibrated to reproduce the K-shell yields measured on the Z generator for three stainless steel arrays of diameter 55 mm and masses ranging from 1.8 to 2.7 mg. The resulting 1D scaling model is applied to a larger SS array (65 mm and 2.5 mg) on the refurbished Z machine. Simulation results predict a maximum K-shell yield of 77 kJ for an 82 kV charging voltage. This maximum drops to 42 kJ at 75 kV charging. Neglecting the ablation precursor leads to a {approx}10% change in the calculated yield.

Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Clark, R. W. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville Maryland 20705 (United States); Jones, B.; Cuneo, M.; Coverdale, C. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87545 (United States); Deeney, C. [National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington DC 20585 (United States)

2009-01-21

147

Distributed image processing system for the monitoring of hot steel wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a prototype for monitoring hot steel wire different technologies are integrated to achieve a robust, flexibly configurable and scalable imaging system. It is designed as a distributed system with private network and Tuplespace communication implementable on a LINUX Server. Intelligent cameras grab and process the image data. For real time communication between the cameras and standard industrial I/O-modules (IEC-61131) MODBUS/TCP messaging is applied. A switch with integrated firewall makes services available to the supervisory control system. Results are available as XML-logfiles. The image processing defines the upper and lower edges of the material by minimum/maximum filtering of the y-gradient. Dual Grassmanian coordinates are used to fit two parallel lines to the edge points by singular value decomposition. This gives the distance between the lines and the confidence interval of each measurement simultaneously, whereas latter is used to reject poor data. Changes of the distance are analysed computing local central moments. Presently, 12 images per second are acquired. The application is able to detect spontaneous rotation of the wire around the axis of rolling directly at the rolling stands and treats also poor images (due to steam of cooling water). It indicates resulting defects, which may go undetected otherwise.

O'Leary, Paul; Weiss, Michael; Schiller, Arnulf

2003-05-01

148

Method of rod coil forming and set of equipment for its realization  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to rolling and in particular to the process of rod coil forming, for instance, of steel and nonferrous metals, and to a set of equipment for its realization. The method of rod coil forming includes continuous rod feeding through a wire-rod guide, forming of waps with a variable diameter by means of speed variation of wire-rod guide rotation and stacking of waps by horizontal layers throughout the height of a coil. The difference of the applied method is in the fact that the rod is fed at a speed of 35-300 m/s. Forming of waps with a variable diameter is realized under the influence of dynamic forces by means of rod declination at the wire-rod guide outlet at an angle of 15-80.degree. with the axis of rotation and its following feeding in a curved concave path with rotation at an angle of 80-90.degree. with the axis of wire-rod guide rotation, in this case speed of wire-rod guide rotation is varied with respect to the following ratio: ##EQU1## where: .omega.--angular speed of wire-rod guide rotation, .sigma..sub.T --yield point of rod material, A conveyer feeds the formed waps in the form of a flat spiral of a variable diameter for stacking in a stack. After stacking the coil should be bound. A set of equipment is proposed to realize the applied method. This invention enables to obtain a compact coil of high-quality rod with a high efficiency of the process.

Nekipelov; Vladimir Stanislavovich (Moscow, RU)

2005-07-12

149

A deletion in nephronophthisis 4 (NPHP4) is associated with recessive cone-rod dystrophy in standard wire-haired dachshund  

PubMed Central

Cone-rod dystrophy is a retinal degenerative disorder occurring naturally in man and dog. Here we identify a novel gene for early-onset cone-rod dystrophy in the wire-haired dachshund. For the first time, we use genome-wide association-based Sibling Transmission Disequilibrium Test (sibTDT) analysis of only 13 discordant sib-pairs to identify a single significantly associated 6.5-Mb region (PrawTDT = 4.8 × 10?5, PgenomeTDT = 6 × 10?4) on canine chromosome 5, containing more than 70 genes. Segregation studies using microsatellites in the candidate region including additional meiosis supported the sibTDT analysis but could not further reduce the area. Candidate gene resequencing identified a 180-bp deletion in exon/intron 5 of NPHP4 (nephronophthisis 4, also known as nephroretinin). RT-PCR analysis of NPHP4 in cases and controls showed exon skipping of exon 5, resulting in a truncated protein that retains the binding domain interacting with nephronophthisis 1 (also known as nephrocystin-1) in the kidney but lacks the domain interacting with RPGRIP1 in retina. We suggest that this deletion in the canine NPHP4 gene is the cause of cone-rod dystrophy in the standard wire-haired dachshund. In humans, mutations in NPHP4 have been associated with simultaneous eye and kidney disease. Here we describe the first naturally occurring mutation in NPHP4 without additional kidney disease. Further studies will permit elucidation of the complex molecular mechanism of this retinopathy and the development of potential therapies.

Wiik, Anne Caroline; Wade, Claire; Biagi, Tara; Ropstad, Ernst-Otto; Bjerkas, Ellen; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Lingaas, Frode

2008-01-01

150

Calculated and measured normal state resistivity of 19-filament MgB2/Ti/Cu/stainless steel wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the resistivity evolution of filamentary MgB2/Ti/Cu/stainless steel wire under the influence of solid state interaction between individual elements of the composite. The experimental samples were heat treated at temperatures of 650-850?°C and the properties of the interface layers have been estimated on the basis of solid state growth of intermetallic compounds formed by diffusion. The corresponding composite resistivity along the longitudinal direction was calculated using a model represented by an equivalent parallel circuit of n resistors. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity was measured for the experimental sample, a specially prepared Cu/Ti couple, and all individual metallic components used in the sample, using a cryogen-free characterization system. Very good agreement between the calculated ?(T) dependences and the experimentally measured resistivity of 19-filament MgB2/Ti/Cu/stainless steel wire has been obtained.

Kopera, L.; Ková?, P.; Hušek, I.

2012-02-01

151

The surface characteristics of P\\/M high-speed steel (ASP 23) multi-cut with wire electrical discharge machine (WEDM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-speed steel (ASP 23), which was made by powder-metallurgy (P\\/M) process and widely used as the material for IC-packaging mold was subjected to multi-cutting with wire electrical discharge machine (WEDM) by using a brass wire electrode. Before WEDM, the steel was quenched at 1180°C and then three-times tempered at 560°C to acquire suitable mechanical properties. The cut surface was examined

C. A. Huang; C. C. Hsu; H. H. Kuo

2003-01-01

152

Characteristics of the rough-cut surface of quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steel using wire electrical discharge machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the surface characteristics of quench- and temper-treated AISI 440A martensitic stainless steels, which were rough cut using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). The microstructure of the recast layer on the cut surface was investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopes, and the phase compositions were analyzed with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer. Experimental results showed that the

C. A. Huang; G. C. Tu; H. T. Yao; H. H. Kuo

2004-01-01

153

Characteristics of the rough-cut surface of quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steel using wire electrical discharge machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the surface characteristics of quench- and temper-treated AISI 440A martensitic stainless steels, which\\u000a were rough cut using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). The microstructure of the recast layer on the cut surface\\u000a was investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopes, and the phase compositions were analyzed with an energy-dispersive\\u000a X-ray (EDX) spectrometer. Experimental results showed that the

C. A. Huang; G. C. Tu; H. T. Yao; H. H. Kuo

2004-01-01

154

77 FR 73430 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative Determination of Critical...wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam) with the exception of imports from the Hamico...

2012-12-10

155

Control rod cluster arrangement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a nuclear reactor including nuclear core which is cooled and moderated by light water, the nuclear core comprising a plurality of parallel arranged openings therethrough and interspersed among the fuel assemblies. A control rod cluster arrangement comprises load follow control rod cluster assemblies with each load follow control rod cluster assembly being adapted to slidingly fit within each of some of the fuel assemblies in the parallel arranged openings, the load follow control rod cluster assemblies each comprising a plurality of elongated parallel arranged rods attached to a single spider, and including a first group of rods and a second group of rods, the first group of rods and the second each consisting of a plurality of absorber rods. The first group of rods consist of absorber rods taken from the group consisting of B/sub 4/C, hafnium, or silver-indium-cadmium and the second group of rods consist of absorber rods each consisting of stainless steel, the first group of rods and the second group of rods each being integrally attached at all times to the single spider, the absorber rods of the second group of rods being dispersed throughout the control rod cluster assembly. The first group of rods have a first neutron capture cross section and the second group of rods have a second neutron capture cross section different from the first cross section.

Orr, W.L.; Doshi, P.K.; Mildrum, C.M.; Freeman, T.R.

1987-02-10

156

PARAMETRIC INFLUENCE AND OPTIMIZATION OF WIRE EDM OF HOT DIE STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire-cut Electro Discharge Machining (WEDM) is a special form of conventional EDM process in which the electrode is a continuously moving conductive wire. The present study aims at determining parametric influence and optimum process parameters of Wire-EDM using Taguchi's technique and a Genetic algorithm. The variation of the performance parameters with machining parameters was mathematically modeled by Regression analysis method.

Nixon Kuruvila; Ravindra H. V

2011-01-01

157

Lubrication Basics for Wire Ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire rope forms an important part of many machines and structures. It is comprised of continuous wire strands wound around a central core. There are many kinds of wire rope designed for different applications. Most of them are steel wires made into strands wound with each other. The core can be made of steel, rope or even plastics. Wire ropes

Jeffrey E. Turner; Christopher Barnes

158

78 FR 40170 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-498 and 731-TA-1213-1214 (Preliminary)] Certain Steel Threaded...antidumping and countervailing duty investigations Nos. 701-TA-498 and 731-TA-1213-1214 (Preliminary)...

2013-07-03

159

Preliminary design and manufacturing feasibility study for a machined Zircaloy triangular pitch fuel rod support system (grids) (AWBA development program)  

SciTech Connect

General design features and manufacturing operations for a high precision machined Zircaloy fuel rod support grid intended for use in advanced light water prebreeder or breeder reactor designs are described. The grid system consists of a Zircaloy main body with fuel rod and guide tube cells machined using wire EDM, a separate AM-350 stainless steel insert spring which fits into a full length T-slot in each fuel rod cell, and a thin (0.025'' or 0.040'' thick) wire EDM machined Zircaloy coverplate laser welded to each side of the grid body to retain the insert springs. The fuel rods are placed in a triangular pitch array with a tight rod-to-rod spacing of 0.063 inch nominal. Two dimples are positioned at the mid-thickness of the grid (single level) with a 90/sup 0/ included angle. Data is provided on the effectiveness of the manufacturing operations chosen for grid machining and assembly.

Horwood, W.A. (ed.)

1981-07-01

160

Fuzzy logic modeling and control of steel rod quenching after hot rolling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinforced concrete rod produced by European Community countries must comply with standards that establish minimum strength\\u000a and tensile properties along with other technological and geometrical characteristics; however, possible variability within\\u000a the assigned limits is not specified. Consequently, a number of manufacturing methods are now used, with the result that over\\u000a time the mechanical properties of these products vary widely. Increased

G. Giorleo; F. Memola Capece Minutolo; V. Sergi

1997-01-01

161

Dynamic analysis for clarifying occlusal force transmission during orthodontic archwire application: difference between ISW and stainless steel wire.  

PubMed

The purpose of our study was to utilize the dynamic finite element analysis to clarify the difference between Improved Super-elastic Ti-Ni alloy Wire (ISW) and Stainless Steel Wire (SSW) on occlusal force transmission during orthodontic treatment. ABAQUS/Standard was used to analyze three finite models over a 30-ms period: ISW, SSW, and wireless models; which consisting of premolar, molar, periodontal ligament (PDL), and alveolar bone. Wire model was established by beam element. A Joint C, which exhibits viscoelasticity to buffer occlusal force, was applied between the wire and bracket. The load was applied on the occlusal surface. At load withdrawal point, the average amounts of von Mises stress on PDL in three models were of the same value. However as time progressed, the stress in wireless model became higher than ISW and SSW models. In contrast, as time progressed further, the stress in SSW model became higher than the other two models and maintained its higher level until the end of analysis. Results showed that high damping capacity of ISW had an ability to buffer the transmission of occlusal force to the PDL. Besides, the dynamic analysis demonstrated an advantage to investigate the stress alterative response between models versus time period. PMID:15137466

Iramaneerat, K; Hisano, M; Soma, K

2004-03-01

162

Residual stress profiling in the ferrite and cementite phases of cold-drawn steel rods by synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction  

SciTech Connect

Residual stress profiles have been measured in the ferrite and cementite phases of a cold-drawn eutectoid steel rod by neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction in three orientations (axial, radial and hoop). Neutron diffraction was employed to measure the ferrite stresses, whereas synchrotron radiation was used for ferrite and cementite stresses. Experimental results in the ferrite phase showed excellent agreement between both experimental techniques when gauge volume effects were accounted for. Axial cementite stresses were always tensile, with a maximum value close to 1700 MPa at the rod surface. Radial and hoop cementite stresses were compressive along the diameter of the rod, with a minimum of -1900 MPa at the rod center. A 3D-finite element simulation of the macro residual stresses resulting from cold-drawing showed remarkable agreement with those determined from the experimental measurements in the ferrite and cementite phases.

Martinez-Perez, M.L. [ICMM, CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Mompean, F.J. [ICMM, CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Hervias, J. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, UPM, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, c/ Profesor Aranguren s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: jr@mater.upm.es; Borlado, C.R. [ICMM, CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Atienza, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, UPM, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, c/ Profesor Aranguren s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Hernandez, M. [ICMM, CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Elices, M. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, UPM, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, c/ Profesor Aranguren s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Gil-Sevillano, J. [CEIT, Paseo de Manuel Lardizabal 15, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Peng Rulin [NFL Studsvik, Uppsala University, S-61182 Nykoeping (Sweden); Buslaps, T. [ESRF, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

2004-10-18

163

Impact of heat treatment on microstructure of steel 30X padded with wire G18 8Mn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The practical purpose of padding is to increase mechanical properties, hardness and abrasion resistance of surface layers of structural elements while maintaining good plastic properties of the core, apply corrosion-resistant layers, regenerate and/or repair the surface etc. The article describes the results of macroscopic and microscopic metallographic examination of components made of 30X steel, which is an equivalent of 32HA steel produced in Poland, and surfaced with G18 8Mn filler wire using MAG method. One of components was not heat treated after surfacing while the other after surfacing was subjected to quenching and tempering. The examination was aimed at determining the effect of heat treatment on changes in the structure of surfaced components. The metallographic examination has been conducted using optical microscopy in the area of parent metal of 30X steel as well as in heat affected zone (HAZ) in steel under and in the surfacing weld. HAZ width under the surfacing weld has also been measured. On the basis of the results showed that heat treatment after padding is responsible for the presence of the structure of tempered martensite in the heat affected zone and is responsible for a greater width of the HAZ, if compared with the condition without heat treatment.

?omozik, Miros?aw; Adamiec, Janusz

2012-05-01

164

Dissimilar metal joining of aluminum alloy to galvanized steel with Al–Si, Al–Cu, Al–Si–Cu and Zn–Al filler wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum alloy sheets were lap joined to galvanized steel sheets by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) with Al–5% Si, Al–12% Si, Al–6% Cu, Al–10% Si–4% Cu and Zn–15% Al filler wires. Different amounts of Si, Cu and Zn were introduced into the weld through different filler wires. The effects of alloying elements on the microstructure in the weld and tensile

Honggang Dong; Wenjin Hu; Yuping Duan; Xudong Wang; Chuang Dong

165

7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire. (a) Conductors. (1) Each conductor shall comply with the requirements...508) 394-4424. (2) Factory joints in conductors shall comply with the requirement specified...

2013-01-01

166

Corrosion evaluated type 304L and 308L stainless steel for Savannah River Plant. Specification No. 4498: Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This specification covers wrought mill products and castings of Type 304L stainless steel, bare welding rod or wire, or covered welding electrodes of Type 308L stainless steel. The material covered by this specification is intended for service in nitric a...

1964-01-01

167

A computational study of segmented tungsten rod penetration into a thick steel target plate at high velocities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results from numerical simulations of a configuration in which a tungsten heavy alloy SRP penetrates a thick RHA 4340 steel at 2.6 km/s using the 2006 version of the Lagrangian finite element code EPIC. Penetration experimental data show improved penetration efficiency by the segmented projectiles when compared to monolithic (single solid rod) projectiles. For SRP with an aspect ratio (L/D) = 1/8, a loss in penetration efficiency was seen upon successive segment impacts. The projectile configuration considered in this study was collinear impacts of eight successive discs which measured 2mm in thickness and 16mm in diameter. The EPIC simulations considered a range of parameters that influenced the Depth of Penetration (DOP) including element-particle conversion, spacing and number of segments, failure criteria, impact velocity, and mesh resolution. The EPIC results are also compared with open-literature DOP data from simulations using an Eulerian finite element code, AUTODYN for a similar configuration. In addition, the effects of back-flowing ejecta generated by the impact of first segment on the penetration processes of subsequent segments were studied in details. An alternate SRP design is proposed in this paper to alleviate the ejecta problem.

Presnell, Michael B.; Rajendran, A. M.

2012-03-01

168

A Computational Study of Segmented Tungsten Rod Penetration into a Thick Steel Target Plate at High Velocities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results from computational simulations of tungsten alloy segmented rod projectiles (SRP) penetrating an RHA semi-infinite target plate at high velocities. For SRP with an aspect ratio (L/D) = 1/8, a loss in penetration efficiency was seen upon successive segment impacts. Numerical simulations of a configuration in which a tungsten heavy alloy SRP penetrated a thick RHA 4340 steel at 2.6 km/s were performed using the 2006 version of the EPIC - a Lagrangian code. The configuration consisted of eight collinear impacts of discs which measured 2mm thick and 16mm in diameter. The numerical simulations considered a range of parameters including element-particle conversion, spacing and number of fragments, failure criterion, and mesh resolution that influenced the Depth of Penetration (DOP). The EPIC results using the element-to-particle conversion capability in the EPIC code are also compared with open-literature DOP data from simulations using an Eulerian finite element code, AUTODYN for a similar configuration. The present results showed a unique phenomenon of back-flowing ejecta from the crater and fragmented segments penetrating the in-coming subsequent segment. The penetration efficiency seems to be influenced by the back-flowing ejecta. Further computational investigation considered additional simulations with an impact configuration designed to minimize the ejecta effects by using washer-shaped segments; however, the results showed insignificant improvement.

Presnell, M.; Rajendran, A.

2011-06-01

169

Circumferential Hot Wire TIG Cladding of Carbon-Manganese Steel with Inconel 625 and Gun-Metal with a Tin Bronze.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is demonstrated that the hot wire TIG process can dramatically increase the deposition rate of weld metal for cladding (and also for thick section joints) of carbon-manganese steel with Inconel 625 to a high quality. The Union Carbide manufactured faci...

F. J. Plumb K. M. Chipperfield

1985-01-01

170

76 FR 66895 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Circumvention of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 68 FR 54888 (September 19, 2003); and Hot-Rolled Lead and Bismuth Carbon Steel Products from Germany and the United Kingdom; Negative Final Determinations of Circumvention of Antidumping...

2011-10-28

171

The Corrosion Resistance of Composite Arch Wire Laser-Welded By NiTi Shape Memory Alloy and Stainless Steel Wires with Cu Interlayer in Artificial Saliva with Protein  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the corrosion resistance of laser-welded composite arch wire (CoAW) with Cu interlayer between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire in artificial saliva with different concentrations of protein was studied. It was found that protein addition had a significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Low concentration of protein caused the corrosion resistance of CoAW decrease in electrochemical corrosion and immersion corrosion tests. High concentration of protein could reduce this effect.

Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Hou, Xu; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Daqian

2013-01-01

172

Detecting steel rods and micro-piles: A case history in a civil engineering application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigating engineered structures with GPR is challenging because quite often the scale of important features is similar or smaller that the natural scale of heterogeneity in the material.In this paper I summarize the key factors and use numerical simulations and real data examples to illustrate the tradeoff between detection and resolution. The targets were micro-piles and steel bars with diameters 0.13 m and 0.02 m, respectively, and embedded in an ancient wall that consists of an aggregate of stones ranging in size from 1 cm to half meter, mortar and air. The data were collected with center frequency antennas of 200, 600, 2000 MHz which provide increasing resolution. The model and measurement results indicate that lower resolution may result in a better understanding of the structure imaged with GPR. In fact, high resolution profiles show enhanced anomalies caused by heterogeneities in the host material, making data interpretation more difficult.This study shows that GPR survey design must be clear about the particular engineering objective and requires selecting the optimal frequency and bandwidth depending on the target dimension.

Orlando, Luciana

2012-06-01

173

CNT-TiO2 coating bonded onto stainless steel wire as a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber.  

PubMed

A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber based on carbon nanotubes-titanium oxide (CNT-TiO2) composite coating bonded onto stainless steel wire was prepared via electroless plating and sol-gel techniques. The SPME coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microscopy. Coupled to gas chromatography (GC), the fiber was investigated with seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in direct-immersion mode. The SPME-GC analytical method was evaluated under optimized extraction conditions. Compared with other reports, higher sensitivity (LODs, 0.002-0.004 ?g L(-1)) and better linear range (0.01-100 and 0.01-200 ?g L(-1)) were obtained by the proposed method. The fiber exhibited high thermal stability to 300 °C and excellent durability in HCl and NaOH solutions. The as-established SPME-GC method was used to analyze the real water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:23953442

Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Qiu, Huamin; Fan, Lulu; Li, Xiangjun; Luo, Chuannan

2013-04-12

174

Failure of crane wire rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A failure analysis of a broken multi strand wire rope from a crane was performed. The fracture of the steel wires in the wire rope showed characteristics of fatigue. On the wire surface were observed decarburised cracks which act as initiation sites for fatigue crack propagation during the application of the wire rope. The main reasons for the failure of

M. Torkar; B. Arzenšek

2002-01-01

175

2D Radiation MHD K-shell Modeling of Single Wire Array Stainless Steel Experiments on the Z Machine  

SciTech Connect

Many physical effects can produce unstable plasma behavior that affect K-shell emission from arrays. Such effects include: asymmetry in the initial density profile, asymmetry in power flow, thermal conduction at the boundaries, and non-uniform wire ablation. Here we consider how asymmetry in the radiation field also contributes to the generation of multidimensional plasma behavior that affects K-shell power and yield. To model this radiation asymmetry, we have incorporated into the MACH2 r-z MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE population kinetics based on radiation transport using multi-dimensional ray tracing. Such methodology is necessary for modeling the enhanced radiative cooling that occurs at the anode and cathode ends of the pinch during the run-in phase of the implosion. This enhanced radiative cooling is due to reduced optical depth at these locations producing an asymmetric flow of radiative energy that leads to substantial disruption of large initial diameter (>5 cm) pinches and drives 1D into 2D fluid (i.e., Rayleigh-Taylor like) flows. The impact of this 2D behavior on K-shell power and yield is investigated by comparing 1D and 2D model results with data obtained from a series of single wire array stainless steel experiments performed on the Z generator.

Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Chong, Y. K.; Davis, J.; Dasgupta, A. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Whitney, K. G.; Clark, R. W. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville Maryland 20705 (United States); Jones, B.; Coverdale, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87545 (United States); Deeney, C. [National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington DC 20585 (United States)

2009-01-21

176

Stainless steel wire mesh-supported ZnO for the catalytic photodegradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet irradiation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the activity of catalysts formed by nanostructured zinc oxide supported on stainless steel wire mesh for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. Catalysts prepared by means of different low temperature synthesis methods, as described in a previous work (Vu et al., Mater. Res. Bull. 47 (2012) 1577-1586) were tested. A new activity parameter was introduced in order to compare the catalytic activity of the different catalysts. The best catalyst showed a catalytic activity higher than that of the reference material TiO(2) P25 (Degussa-Evonik). This high activity is attributed to a higher quantum yield derived from the small particle length of the ZnO deposited on the wire mesh. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of methylene blue fitted a potential model with n orders ranging from 0.5 to 6.9. Reaction orders over 1 were attributed to catalyst deactivation during the reaction resulting from the photocorrosion of ZnO. PMID:23291337

Vu, Tan T; del Río, Laura; Valdés-Solís, Teresa; Marbán, Gregorio

2012-12-13

177

Design of modified electromagnetic main-flux for steel wire rope inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and construction of modified main-flux equipment for wire rope inspection which has advantages over the in-service inspection and indirect axial-flux measurement used by ordinary main-flux and return-flux methods. The equipment can be adjusted high electromagnetic field strength to produce leakage filed from flaws of various large-diameter ropes. Unique coil sensors connected in series were employed

C. Jomdecha; A. Prateepasen

2009-01-01

178

Endurance Test on Flexible Steel Wire Rope for Aircraft Controls at Various Pulley Rope Diameter Ratios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program of tests was carried out to investigate the effects of test pulley size on the endurance of 1/8 in diameter carbon and corrosion resistant steel ropes for aircraft controls. A range of test pulley/rope diameter ratios between 7 and 30 was invest...

H. A. Senior A. New

1974-01-01

179

78 FR 33103 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine Institution of five-year reviews. AGENCY...Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation...Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine (67 FR 65944-65947). Following...

2013-06-03

180

78 FR 60316 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine: Notice of Commission Determination To...Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation...Indonesia, Moldova, Trinidad & Tobago, and Ukraine were inadequate. However, the...

2013-10-01

181

77 FR 13545 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...products that contain by weight one or more of the following elements: 0.03 percent or more of lead, 0.05 percent or more of bismuth, 0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent of phosphorus, more than 0.05 percent of selenium, or...

2012-03-07

182

76 FR 16607 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...products that contain by weight one or more of the following elements: 0.03 percent or more of lead, 0.05 percent or more of bismuth, 0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent of phosphorus, more than 0.05 percent of selenium, or...

2011-03-24

183

75 FR 34424 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and the International Trade Commission (ITC) that revocation of the antidumping duty...of dumping and, therefore, notified the ITC of the magnitude of the margins likely to...Oct. 30, 2009). On May 14, 2010, the ITC published its determination, pursuant...

2010-06-17

184

Solid-state flow, mechanical alloying, and melt-related phenomena for [001] single-crystal tungsten ballistic rod penetrators interacting with steel targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research program consists of a detailed microstructural investigation of in-target, single-crystal [001], clad (with Inconel 718) and unclad, W long-rod, ballistic penetrators. The rods were shot into rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) steel targets approximately 76 mm in thickness at impact velocities ranging from 1100 m/s to 1350 m/s. A comprehensive microstructural overview of the penetration process was obtained from this investigation. Solid-state flow/erosion, solid-state target/rod mixing as well as influencing factors such as strain rate, penetration performance, cladding interference and the interaction between target and projectile were emphasized. Some of the microstructural features observed, including deformation twins, cleaving, adiabatic shear bands and DRX support an overall solid-state penetration process. Furthermore they provide for a unifying perspective for the applicability of the hydrodynamic paradigm (DOP ? l?rp/rt ) and earlier mechanistic erosion approaches. DRX and grain growth within adiabatic shear bands observed at specific high strain/strain-rate zones within the rods suggest that the projectile erodes by means of these microstructures in a solid-state form. This erosion process contributes to the performance of the rod by either allowing optimum flow of rod material which would increase penetration depth, or by maximizing rod material consumption which would reduce it. Since flow and/or erosion are also necessary in the target for perforation to occur, it is not surprising that the erosion process in the target was observed to mirror the one in the projectile. That is both target and projectile developed erosion zones with DRX facilitating the extreme deformation via dense overlapping shear band formation. Mechanical alloying and/or mixing of the target (steel) and rod (W, or W-Inconel 718) was also observed and investigated. Selective etching techniques as well as energy-dispersive x-ray mapping revealed unambiguous evidence of the latter. Considerable mixture (target/rod) material was observed to intercalate into vehicles of erosion including shear bands. These mixtures, which included some isolated melt regimes, differ in composition for clad and unclad samples. The Inconel 718 alloy clad material which is used in order to prevent fragmentation of the projectile during launch, also contributed to the penetration deformation and to the projectile/target interaction. The cladding material appears to influence the solid-state flow by functioning as the principal flow interaction regime between the target and penetrator at the penetrating interface. Since material flow efficiency at the target/rod interface and erosion initiation zones was found to be a necessary condition for increasing penetration depth, a penetrator design strategy can include the careful selection of cladding material. That is the cladding can function first as a solid-state lubricant at the penetrating target/rod interface and secondly as an intercalated mixture in vehicles of erosion allowing for optimum flow.

Pizana, Carlos

185

Characteristics of the rough-cut surface of quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steel using wire electrical discharge machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article studies the surface characteristics of quench- and temper-treated AISI 440A martensitic stainless steels, which were rough cut using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). The microstructure of the recast layer on the cut surface was investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopes, and the phase compositions were analyzed with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer. Experimental results showed that the thickness of the recast layer varied with the heat-treatment condition of the workpiece, the largest thickness was obtained with a quenched specimen, and the thickness decreased with increasing tempering temperature. Intergranular surface cracks were observed only from the as-quenched specimen, whereas surface cracks were not found in the rough-cut specimens after tempering above 200 °C. It is reckoned that reliefing of the thermal residual stress in the quenched workpiece induced the surface intergranular cracks. Microstructures of the recast layer on the rough-cut surfaces of the 600 °C tempered specimen were examined using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens. An amorphous layer exists at some parts of the outermost cut surface. A high density of wire electrode droplets of spherical shape, approximately 10 to 60 nm in size, was found throughout the porous recast layer. Besides, many high-chromium containing sigma spheres with sizes of approximately 120 to 200 nm were precipitated at the bottom part of the recast layer, and its formation mechanism was proposed. Adjacent to the recast layer was a heat-affected zone (HAZ) with a thickness of about 4 µm, in which temper-induced carbides were fully dissolved. The HAZ comprised basically two distinct regions: the first region adjacent to the recast layer was composed of a lath martensite structure, while the other region was an annealed ferrite structure.

Huang, C. A.; Tu, G. C.; Yao, H. T.; Kuo, H. H.

2004-04-01

186

The effect of strain hardening on resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wires for orthopaedics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to evaluate electrochemical corrosion resistance of wire with modified surface, made of stainless steel of Cr-Ni-Mo type, widely used in implants for orthopaedics, depending on hardening created in the process of drawing. Tests have been carried out in the environment imitating human osseous tissue. Pitting corrosion was determined on the ground of registered anodic polarisation curves by means of potentiodynamic method with application of electrochemical testing system VoltaLab® PGP 201. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in Tyrode solution on samples that were electrochemically polished as well as electrochemically polished and finally chemically passivated. Initial material for tests was wire rod made of X2CrNiMo17-12-2 steel with diameter of 5.5 mm in supersaturated condition. Wire rod was drawn up to diameter of 1.35 mm. This work shows the course of flow curve of wire made of this grade of steel and mathematical form of yield stress function. The study also presents exemplary curves showing the dependence of polarisation resistance in strain function in the drawing process of electrochemically passivated and electrochemically polished and then chemically passivated wire.

Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; Hadasik, E.; Szymszal, J.

2012-05-01

187

The role of stainless steel wire mesh and cement in bone allograft incorporation in impaction grafting technique: an experimental study in rabbits.  

PubMed

Cages of flexible stainless steel wire mesh were filled with impacted morcellized cancellous allograft. Bone defects were created in both tibial metaphyseal regions of 10 adult white New Zealand rabbits. The base of both defects was plugged with a small amount of bone cement. The cages were implanted in the right tibia while the left tibia was filled with impacted bone allograft. Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of the retrieved specimens at 3 months showed a statistically significant difference in active bone formation parameters between the 2 groups. Active bone formation was more prominent away from the bone cement. The biological process of bone graft incorporation in the "impaction grafting" technique seems to be adversely affected by stainless steel wire mesh and in areas adjacent to bone cement. PMID:12820093

Roidis, Nikolaos; Karachalios, Theofilos; Khaldi, Lubna; Stamos, Konstantinos; Lyritis, George P

2003-06-01

188

Developments in the Manufacture of Copper Wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers interesting developments in the manufacture of copper wire and contains a description of a copper rod and wire mill designed to meet the new requirements. It also includes a brief survey of the copper rolling and wire drawing art at the time the investigation was started; a summary of tests made in varying the practise in rod

John R. Shea; Samuel McMullan

1927-01-01

189

Two-Dimensional Radiation MHD K-Shell Modeling of Stainless-Steel Double-Wire-Array Experiments on the Refurbished Z Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional (r, z) magnetohydrodynamic simulations with nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium ionization and radiation transport are used to investigate the K-shell radiation output from doubly nested large-diameter (> 60 mm) stainless-steel arrays fielded on the refurbished Z pulsed-power generator. The effects of the initial density perturbations, wire ablation rate, and current loss near the load on the total power, K-shell power, and

J. Ward Thornhill; John L. Giuliani; Arati Dasgupta; John P. Apruzese; Jack Davis; Young K. Chong; Christopher A. Jennings; Dave A. Ampleford; Brent Jones; Christine A. Coverdale; M. C. Jones; Michael E. Cuneo; W. A. Stygar

2010-01-01

190

Apply grey forecasting method for fitting and predicting the surface roughness of SK3-YK30 tool steel in the wire electric discharge machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grey forecasting method is suitably applied to establish the predicting formula and acts as an auxiliary to calculate the unfinished experimental data. In this paper, a residual modified grey dynamic model RGM(1,3), using a technique that combine residual modification with the rolling modeling, is proposed for fitting and predicting the surface roughness of SK3-YK30 tool steel in the wire

Nun-Ming Liu

191

Sonocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A and 17?-ethinyl estradiol in the presence of stainless steel wire mesh catalyst in aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the sonochemical reactivity and the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) and 17?-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in a newly designed sonochemical reactor in the presence of a stainless steel wire mesh (SSWM), which acted as a catalyst, at a low frequency of 28kHz with a contact time of 60min. The sonochemical efficiency based on H2O2 production and the degradation

Jong-Sung Park; Namguk Her; Jeill Oh; Yeomin Yoon

2011-01-01

192

Effects of carbon percentage, Stelmor cooling rate and laying head temperature on tensile strength gain in low carbon steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low carbon steel wire rods are used to produce finished products such as fine wire, coat hangers, staples, and roofing nails. These products are subjected to excessively high work hardening rates during wire drawing process resulting in a variation in wire tensile strength. This research analyzes the effects of carbon percentage, StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature on the tensile strength gain in wire drawn low carbon steels using design of experiments. The probable reasons for variations in tensile strength gain are analyzed by observing the microstructural changes during experiments. Microstructural analysis was done extensively using optical microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and it was found that the tensile strength gain variation is mainly caused by the increase in the dislocation density in wire rod and wire due to high cooling rate and high laying head temperature, within the range considered. This research concludes that a low carbon wire rod can be produced with minimum tensile strength gain, lower dislocation density and finer ferrite grain size by maintaining a low cooling rate in the StelmorRTM cooling zone and low laying head temperature, which is the temperature at which the wire rod coils are laid on the Stelmor RTM deck. It is also concluded from the results of the present study that: (1) The lowest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 (0.07 wt.% Carbon) with low cooling rate of 14°F/s and low laying head temperature of 1500°F. (2) The highest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 with high cooling rate of 26°F/s and high laying head temperature of 1650°F. (3) The effect of StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature and their interaction are found to be the significant factors causing the variation in wire tensile strength gain. The StelmorRTM cooling rate has the most significant effect on tensile strength gain among the three factors. (4) The effect of carbon percentage on wire tensile strength gain is very minimal. (5) With an increase in the StelmorRTM cooling rate from 14°F/s to 26°F/s, there is a substantial increase in the dislocation densities in the wire rods and wires, which is the primary cause of the increase in the tensile strength gain. (6) The effect of carbon percentage on wire tensile strength gain is very minimal. North Star Steel Texas would benefit substantially from this research by being able to produce better quality wire rods, through better understanding of the factors affecting the tensile strength gain variation. This is expected to lead to a reduction in customer complaints on failure of wire products.

Gade, Surya Prakash

193

Fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro. Methods Roots of human mandibular central incisors were covered with silicone, mimicking the periodontal ligament, and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate. The specimens (N = 50), with two teeth each, were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/group) according to the retainer materials: (1) Interlig (E-glass), (2) everStick Ortho (E-glass), (3) DentaPreg Splint (S2-glass), (4) Ribbond (polyethylene), and (5) Quad Cat wire (stainless steel). After the recommended adhesive procedures, the retainers were bonded to the teeth by using flowable composite resin (Tetric Flow). The teeth were subjected to 10,00,000 cyclic loads (8 Hz, 3 - 100 N, 45° angle, under 37 ± 3? water) at their incisoproximal contact, and debonding forces were measured with a universal testing machine (1 mm/min crosshead speed). Failure sites were examined under a stereomicroscope (×40 magnification). Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Results All the specimens survived the cyclic loading. Their mean debonding forces were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The DentaPreg Splint group (80%) showed the highest incidence of complete adhesive debonding, followed by the Interlig group (60%). The everStick Ortho group (80%) presented predominantly partial adhesive debonding. The Quad Cat wire group (50%) presented overlying composite detachment. Conclusions Cyclic loading did not cause debonding. The retainers presented similar debonding forces but different failure types. Braided stainless steel wire retainers presented the most repairable failure type.

Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Ozcan, Mutlu

2013-01-01

194

Self-organized and self-catalyst growth of semiconductor and metal wires by vapour phase epitaxy: GaN rods versus Cu whiskers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wires represent a new class of nanostructures that offer unprecedented freedom in materials design and new physical properties. Amongst the very different growth mechanisms reported in literature, the vapour-phase growth of self-catalyzed wires has the advantages of simplicity and rapidity with a low level of contaminants. The elaborations of semiconducting and metallic wires are usually considered as very distinct fields and no significant analogies have been noticed yet. This paper illustrates significant similarities of the mechanisms involved in the GaN and Cu wire growths that highlight firstly the role of the substrate surface preparation (with the deposition of an intermediate layer on the substrate surface impacting the nucleation seeds) and secondly the role of the different diffusion paths contributing to the one-dimensional growth in particular the influence of the surrounding gas phase and respective diffusion lengths on the substrate surface and wire sidewall. Experimental data describing the evolution of the wire diameter and length as a function of the growth time are quantitatively analyzed to evidence different growth regimes.

Eymery, Joël; Chen, Xiaojun; Durand, Christophe; Kolb, Matthias; Richter, Gunther

2013-02-01

195

Nickel Contaminated Titanium Weld Wire Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attachment of thermocouples to fuel rod welding problems at Exxon Nuclear Company and INEL prompted an investigation study of the titanium filler wire material. It was found that the titanium filler wire was contaminated with nickel which was jacketed on ...

G. R. Coffin R. L. Sumstine

1979-01-01

196

77 FR 27022 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rod'') from the People's Republic of China...determine that sales have been made below normal...to this proceeding have contested such treatment...Sheet Paper from the People's Republic of China...energy costs which have necessarily been...Citrate Salts from the People's Republic...

2012-05-08

197

Implosion dynamics and K-shell x-ray generation in large diameter stainless steel wire array Z pinches with various nesting configurations  

SciTech Connect

Nested stainless steel wire array variations were investigated on the 20 MA Z machine [R. B. Spielman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)]. In order to reach experimentally observed electron temperatures near 3.8 keV and excite the K shell, these {approx}6.7 keV photon energy x-ray sources must be of large initial diameter (45-80 mm) which poses a concern for magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth. We discuss the implosion dynamics in these large diameter wire arrays, including an analysis of the ablation phase indicating that the prefill material is snowplowed at large radius. Nested array configurations with various mass and radius ratios are compared for instability mitigation and K-shell scaling. Degradation of the K-shell x-ray power and yield was observed for shots that did not have simultaneous implosion of the outer and inner wire arrays. Shots that were designed per this constraint exhibited K-shell yield scaling consistent with the model of J. W. Thornhill et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2377 (2006)] which had been benchmarked to single array results. This lends confidence to K-shell yield predictions using this model for future shots on the refurbished Z machine. Initial results employing a triple nested wire array to stabilize the large diameter implosion are also reported.

Jones, Brent; Coverdale, Christine A.; Deeney, Christopher; Sinars, Daniel B.; Waisman, Eduardo M.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Ampleford, David J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); LePell, P. David; Cochrane, Kyle R. [Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Thornhill, J. Ward; Apruzese, J. P.; Dasgupta, Arati [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Whitney, Kenneth G.; Clark, Robert W. [Berkeley Scholars, Springfield, Virginia 22150 (United States); Chittenden, Jeremy P. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

2008-12-15

198

Implosion dynamics and K-shell x-ray generation in large diameter stainless steel wire array Z pinches with various nesting configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nested stainless steel wire array variations were investigated on the 20 MA Z machine [R. B. Spielman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)]. In order to reach experimentally observed electron temperatures near 3.8 keV and excite the K shell, these ~6.7 keV photon energy x-ray sources must be of large initial diameter (45-80 mm) which poses a concern for magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth. We discuss the implosion dynamics in these large diameter wire arrays, including an analysis of the ablation phase indicating that the prefill material is snowplowed at large radius. Nested array configurations with various mass and radius ratios are compared for instability mitigation and K-shell scaling. Degradation of the K-shell x-ray power and yield was observed for shots that did not have simultaneous implosion of the outer and inner wire arrays. Shots that were designed per this constraint exhibited K-shell yield scaling consistent with the model of J. W. Thornhill et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2377 (2006)] which had been benchmarked to single array results. This lends confidence to K-shell yield predictions using this model for future shots on the refurbished Z machine. Initial results employing a triple nested wire array to stabilize the large diameter implosion are also reported.

Jones, Brent; Coverdale, Christine A.; Deeney, Christopher; Sinars, Daniel B.; Waisman, Eduardo M.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Ampleford, David J.; Lepell, P. David; Cochrane, Kyle R.; Thornhill, J. Ward; Apruzese, J. P.; Dasgupta, Arati; Whitney, Kenneth G.; Clark, Robert W.; Chittenden, Jeremy P.

2008-12-01

199

Detection of birdcaging in steel wire rope of a hoisting winch system by analysis of load torque and stator current  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyze theoretically and experimentally the stator current of a three phase induction machine and load torque signals in a hoisting winch system, in order to show how they are influenced by the wire rope faulty condition. When the wire rope is subjected to axial and torsional loads, the outer strands can separate from

H. Henao; S. M. J. Rastegar Fatemi; S. Sieg-Zieba; G. A. Capolino

2009-01-01

200

Thermomechanical processing and mechanical properties of hypereutectoid steels and cast irons  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in metallurgy of hypereutectoid steels and cast irons show that unique properties, such ultrahigh hardness and strength, and superplasticity, are achievable. This book focuses on the mechanical properties of hypereutectoid steels and cast irons as influenced by thermomechanical processing and microstructure. Some topics covered are: (1) Hot workability of hypereutectoid tool steels; (2) Thermomechanical processing of austempered ductile iron: An overview; (3) Mechanical behavior of ultrahigh strength, ultrahigh carbon steel wire and rod; and (4) Tensile elongation behavior of fine-grained Fe-C alloys at elevated temperatures.

Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D. (eds.)

1998-01-01

201

Enhancing wire-composite bond strength of bonded retainers with wire surface treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bonded orthodontic retainers with wires embedded in composite resin are commonly used for orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to test, in vitro, various wire surface treatments to determine the optimal method of enhancing the wire-composite bond strength. Coaxial wires and stainless steel wires with different surface treatments were bonded to bovine enamel and then pulled along their

Larry J. Oesterle; W. Craig Shellhart; Stacy Henderson

2001-01-01

202

Analysis of Radiation from Implosions of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays on Zebra and Comparison with Laser Plasma Experiments on Leopard at UNR*.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implosions of Stainless Steel (SS) Wire Arrays are extensively studied at SNL and also have applications in astrophysics. The analysis of radiation from low-number-wire SS Single and Nested Cylindrical, and Planar Wire Array experiments on the 1 MA Zebra is presented. The major focus is on x-ray imaging and spectra, total radiation yields, and fast, filtered x-ray detector data. The results of Leopard laser experiments with a flat 25 ?m Fe target in the nanosecond (ns) and 350 femtosecond (fs) pulse regimes are discussed and compared with Z-pinch data. This comparison focuses mainly on L-shell Fe radiation and provides an excellent benchmark to the Z-pinch results. Good agreement with laser data is demonstrated in the ns regime, but a substantial difference is observed for the fs pulse. * This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Coop. Agreements DE-FC52-06NA27588, 27586, and 27616. SNL is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Co., for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Osborne, G. C.; Williamson, K. M.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. F.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Esaulov, A. A.; Wiewior, P.; Legalloudec, N.; Paudel, Y.; Coverdale, C. A.; Chuvatin, A. S.

2011-11-01

203

Developments in HSLA steel products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of microalloyed steels is expanding beyond its original emphasis on low-carbon, severely control-rolled strip and plate products. A variety of economical, high-strength, tough, as-rolled or as-forged microalloyed products are replacing more expensive heat-treated steels. Recrystallization-controlled rolling is being utilized to produce very fine ferrite grain sizes and good toughness in strip, plate and bar products processed with relatively high rolling temperatures. High-strength microalloyed long products such as railroad joint bars, truck frame rails and flat bars for truck trailer construction are replacing heat-treated parts. Microalloyed, medium-carbon forging steels are used extensively for automobile engine and suspension components. Fully pearlitic high-carbon rods are being microalloyed to enhance the properties of wire and springs.

Paules, John R.

1991-01-01

204

Method for Making a Hot Wire Anemometer and Product Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hot wire anemometer probe is reported that includes a ceramic body supporting two conductive rods therein in parallel spaced apart relation. The body has a narrow edge surface from which the rods protrude. A probe wire is welded to the rods and extends ...

V. Mikulla

1975-01-01

205

Bi2223 precursor billets for PIT wire production  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature superconductor precursor billets (feed rods) have been developed for loading into silver tubes. The billets are loaded prior to rolling or drawing operations in PIT wire manufacture. Investigations have shown that wires and tapes prepared from feed rod loaded tubes show enhanced uniformity of electrical transport properties when compared with conventional powder packing, especially in wires drawn to

Toru Yamashita; Jose A. Alarco; Alexander J. Ilyushechkin; Kelly Tomlins; Peter Talbot

1999-01-01

206

Strain measurement in a concrete beam by use of the Brillouin-scattering-based distributed fiber sensor with single-mode fibers embedded in glass fiber reinforced polymer rods and bonded to steel reinforcing bars.  

PubMed

The strain measurement of a 1.65-m reinforced concrete beam by use of a distributed fiber strain sensor with a 50-cm spatial resolution and 5-cm readout resolution is reported. The strain-measurement accuracy is +/-15 microepsilon (microm/m) according to the system calibration in the laboratory environment with non-uniform-distributed strain and +/-5 microepsilon with uniform strain distribution. The strain distribution has been measured for one-point and two-point loading patterns for optical fibers embedded in pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) rods and those bonded to steel reinforcing bars. In the one-point loading case, the strain deviations are +/-7 and +/-15 microepsilon for fibers embedded in the GFRP rods and fibers bonded to steel reinforcing bars, respectively, whereas the strain deviation is +/-20 microepsilon for the two-point loading case. PMID:12206221

Zeng, Xiaodong; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chhoa, Chia Yee; Bremner, Theodore W; Brown, Anthony W; DeMerchant, Michael D; Ferrier, Graham; Kalamkarov, Alexander L; Georgiades, Anastasis V

2002-08-20

207

An investigation on wire wear in WEDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of cutting parameters on wire electrode wear was investigated experimentally in wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). The experiments were conducted under different settings of pulse duration, open circuit voltage, wire speed and dielectric fluid pressure. Brass wire of 0.25mm diameter and AISI 4140 steel of 10mm thickness were used as tool and workpiece material. It

Nihat Tosun; Can Cogun

2003-01-01

208

Experimental investigation on ductile stable crack growth emanating from wire-cut notch in AISI 4340 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation on the stable crack growth (SCG) behaviour in AISI 4340 using CT type specimen with a sharp slit (0.05mm) under mode I and mixed modes (I and II) loading is presented. The slit was made in the specimen through wire cutting technique. Different combinations of loading angle ? and ratio of original crack length to specimen width

A. H. I. Mourad; M. J. Alghafri; O. A. Abu Zeid; S. K. Maiti

2005-01-01

209

Interior and Terminal Ballistics of 25g Long Rod Penetrators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Techniques were developed to launch 25g (L/D = 10) rods from a 50mm propellant gun. The rods were S-7 tool steel, W-Ni-Fe alloy, and Co-bonded WC. The velocities were in the range 1.8 to 2.58 km/s. The rods were launched against 25.4mm 4340 steel plates a...

S. J. Bless

1979-01-01

211

2D Radiation MHD K-shell Modeling of Single Wire Array Stainless Steel Experiments on the Z Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many physical effects can produce unstable plasma behavior that affect K-shell emission from arrays. Such effects include: asymmetry in the initial density profile, asymmetry in power flow, thermal conduction at the boundaries, and non-uniform wire ablation. Here we consider how asymmetry in the radiation field also contributes to the generation of multidimensional plasma behavior that affects K-shell power and yield.

J. W. Thornhill; J. L. Giuliani; J. P. Apruzese; Y. K. Chong; J. Davis; A. Dasgupta; K. G. Whitney; R. W. Clark; B. Jones; C. A. Coverdale; D. J. Ampleford; M. E. Cuneo; C. Deeney

2009-01-01

212

Two-dimensional radiation MHD modeling of stainless steel and Cu wire array Z-pinch implosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. A two-dimensional radiation MHD model was recently developed and employed to investigate large diameter wire array Z-pinch experiments performed on the refurbished Z generator. This model incorporates into the Mach2 MHD code a self-consistent calculation for non-local thermodynamic equilibrium kinetics and ray trace based radiation transport. This level of detail is necessary in order to model

J. W. Thornhill; J. L. Giuliani; J. P. Apruzese; Y. K. Chong; J. Davis; A. Dasgupta; B. Jones; D. J. Ampleford; C. A. Coverdale; M. E. Cuneo

2009-01-01

213

77 FR 17430 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0.50 percent of aluminum, or --1.25 percent...18\\ See, e.g., Aluminum Extrusions from the People's...Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from the People's Republic...46\\ See, e.g., Drill Pipe From the People's...

2012-03-26

214

Experimental Study on One-Way Slab of Ceramsite Concrete with Cold Rolling Spiral Ribbed Steel Wires Welding Mesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramsite concrete is a lightweight aggregate concrete, not only light weight, but also provides the strength and mechanical properties such as crack resistance as same as ordinary concrete, So as green building materials, it has wider application prospect. This paper introduces comparative test results of the static structure performance between the cold-rolled spiral ribbed steel welding mesh ceramsite concrete one-way

Yingbo Jiang; Wei Chen

2010-01-01

215

Vanishing Rods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a quick activity/demonstration that introduces learners to the concept of index of refraction. Learners place stirring rods in a jar of water and notice they can see them clearly. They will be surprised when they place the stirring rods in a jar of vegetable oil and the rods appear practically invisible! This is a dramatic demonstration that effectively illustrates how light can bend and fool the eye.

University, Colorado S.

2009-01-01

216

Analytical procedure for modelling recursively and wire by wire stranded ropes subjected to traction and torsion loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to introduce a new theoretical procedure for modelling wire ropes subjected simultaneously to tensile and torsional loads. The procedure is based upon the beam assumption and takes account wire by wire of the double helical wires on the basis of general thin rod theory developed by [Love, A., 1944. Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. Dover

H. Usabiaga; J. M. Pagalday

2008-01-01

217

Effect of cold work and heat-treatment on the mechanical properties of a wire drawn metastable stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensile strengths in excess of 600×103 psi were obtained in a Type 18-8 stainless steel using relatively simple thermomechanical treatments involving cold working after solution annealing and intermittent heat-treatments. The strength developed strongly depended on the hardness and amount of martensite formed as well as the maintenance of high work-hardening rates at large deformation strains. For a given level of

John Nunes; Albert Martin

1975-01-01

218

Influence of different brazing and welding methods on tensile strength and microhardness of orthodontic stainless steel wire.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength and microhardness of joints made by conventional brazing and tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding. A standardized end-to-end joint configuration of the orthodontic wire material in spring hard quality was used. The joints were made using five different methods: brazing (soldering > 450 degrees C) with universal silver solder, two TIG, and two laser welders. Laser parameters and welding conditions were used according to the manufacturers' guidance. The tensile strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). The microhardness measurements were carried out with a hardness tester (Zwick 3202). Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's post hoc correction (P < 0.05). In all cases, brazing joints ruptured at low levels of tensile strength (198 +/- 146 MPa). Significant differences (P < 0.001) between brazing and TIG or laser welding were found. The highest means were observed for TIG welding (699-754 MPa). Laser welding showed a significantly lower mean tensile strength (369-520 MPa) compared with TIG welding. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were found between the original orthodontic wire and the mean microhardness at the centre of the welded area. The mean microhardness differed significantly between brazing (1.99 GPa), TIG (2.22-2.39 GPa) and laser welding (2.21-2.68 GPa). For orthodontic purposes, laser and TIG welding are solder-free alternatives to joining metal. TIG welding with a lower investment cost is comparable with laser welding. However, while expensive, the laser technique is a sophisticated and simple method. PMID:18617503

Bock, Jens Johannes; Fraenzel, Wolfgang; Bailly, Jacqueline; Gernhardt, Christian Ralf; Fuhrmann, Robert Andreas Werner

2008-07-09

219

Wire Maze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students gain a basic understanding of electrical circuits. They build wire circuits and pass paperclips through the mazes, trying not to touch the wires. Touching a wire with a paperclip causes the circuit to close, which activates an indicator.

K-12 Outreach Office,

220

In Vivo Evaluation of the Effects of Gravitational Force (+Gz) on Over-the-Wire Stainless Steel Greenfield Inferior VenaCava Filter in Swine  

SciTech Connect

This study was done to determine the effect of exposure to gravitational force (acceleration stress) on invivo over-the-wire stainless steel Greenfield inferior vena cavafilters. Fifteen pigs underwent venous cut down and placement of a stainless steel Greenfield filter. A 4-week observation period simulated realistic convalescence and allowed sufficient time for epithelialization. Ten pigs were exposed to acceleration stress in a centrifuge (3G run for 15 sec followed by rest until return to baseline heart rate, then a 9G run for 15 sec), with inertial loading in ahead-to-tail direction (+Gz). Fluoroscopy during acceleration stress allowed assessment for filter migration. Five pigs were not exposed to acceleration stress. AP and lateral abdominal radiographs were obtained at post-filter placement, convalescence, and centrifuge exposure to determine the position and integrity of the filter. All 15 IVCs were resected and evaluated for gross or histological injury to the vessel wall. IVC filter placement was technically successful in all 15 pigs.Radiographic measurements were limited secondary to differences in pig positioning. Fluoroscopy showed no filter migration. All filters were securely attached to the vena cava by the hooks without gross evidence of perforation or hemorrhage. There were varying degrees of fibroplasia involving the hooks and tip of the filters in both the control and experimental groups. Histologically, there was evidence of prior hemorrhage at the level of the hooks, which was similar between the control and experimental groups. It is concluded that Greenfield filter position and vena caval integrity at the implantation site is unaffected by high acceleration stress.

Sherman, P.M., E-mail: Paul.Sherman@USAFA90.com; Soares, G.M. [WilfordHall Medical Center, 2200 Bergquist Drive, Ste 1, Lackland AFB, TX 78236-5300, Department of Radiology (United States); Dick, E.J.; Harroff, H.H. [ClinicalResearch Squadron, 59CRES/MSRO, 1225 Wilford Hall Loop, LacklandAFB, TX 78236 (United States); Werchan, P.M. [AirForce Research Laboratory, AFRL/HEPM, 2504 Gillingham Drive, Ste25, Brooks AFB, TX 78235-5104 (United States); Davis, M.R.; Ortegon, D.P. [WilfordHall Medical Center, 2200 Bergquist Drive, Ste 1, Lackland AFB, TX 78236-5300, Department of General Surgery (United States)

2003-08-15

221

Method of fabricating composite superconducting wire  

DOEpatents

An improvement in the method for preparing composite rods of superconducting alloy and normal metal from which multifilament composite superconducting wire is fabricated by bending longitudinally a strip of normal metal around a rod of superconductor alloy and welding the edges to form the composite rod. After the rods have preferably been provided with a hexagonal cross-sectional shape, a plurality of the rods are stacked into a normal metal extrusion can, sealed and worked to reduce the cross-sectional size and form multifilament wire. Diffusion barriers and high-electrical resistance barriers can easily be introduced into the wire by plating or otherwise coating the faces of the normal metal strip with appropriate materials.

Strauss, Bruce P. (Downers Grove, IL); Reardon, Paul J. (Princeton, NJ); Remsbottom, Robert H. (Middleton, WI)

1977-01-01

222

Silicon Ingot Wire Cutting Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Quicktime animation is of a single wire slicing the silicon ingot into thin wafers. By using a thinner wire, and by cutting all wafers at that same time, this minimizes material loss. This animation is the third in a series showing silicon wafer production process after it has been ground to the correct diameter.The previous animation showing silicon ingot rod grinding can be seen here.The next animation in this sequence about silicon wafer lapping can be seen here.

2009-07-30

223

Development of fracture splitting connecting rod  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fracture splitting method used with connecting rod (C\\/rod) is attracting attention as a mechanical method that can reduce production cost by decreasing the manufacturing process. In this method, powder metals and forged steel (C70S6) are generally used. These materials are superior in fracture splitting properties, but inferior in fatigue strength and machinability. Therefore, the authors developed microalloyed steel for

Shinsaku Fukuda; Hirohito Eto

2002-01-01

224

Basic Wiring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

225

Ferrite insertion at Recycler Flying Wire System  

SciTech Connect

Ferrite rods are installed inside the flying-wire cavity of the Recycler Ring and at entrance and exit beam pipes in order to absorb high-frequency electromagnetic waves excited by the beam. However, these rods may also deteriorate the vacuum pressure of the ring. An investigation is made to analyze the necessity of the ferrite rods at the entrance and exit beam pipes.

K.Y. Ng

2004-02-27

226

Safety rod\\/thimble melt failure characterization experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy (DOE) requested that he INEL perform experiments to study the thermal failure characteristics of a simulated Savannah River Site nuclear reactor safety rod and its surrounding thimble assembly. An electrically heated stainless steel rod simulated a reactor safety rod located eccentrically or concentrically within a perforated aluminum guide tube or thimble. A total of 37 experiments

C. M. Stoots; G. L. Hawkes

1992-01-01

227

Digital Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study hardware implementations of cellular automata as reliable, adjustable, and secure commication lines. We discuss energy efficient digital wires on a nano-scale, all-optical digital wires, and digital wires as power lines and present performance data of a prototype digital wire, a six cells wide and ten cells long Boolean network. We show that digital wires have the following advantages: (i) Fixed pulse shape (pulses have a rectangular shape with a constant height and a constant width and produce no echos); (ii) Robust against electric smog. Digital wires based on semiconductor technology are effectively inert against electro-magnetic radiation, except for low-frequency radiation (heat) and high frequency radiation (X-rays). Digital wires based on plasma technology have in addition a very high tolerance for heat and X-rays. In digital wire the pulse speed can be rapidly adjusted. Signals on digital wires can be encrypted. Some digital wires can be used as general purpose computers. The data and the code are the input of the wire. Then both travel along the wire and `collide'. The collision is the computation. The result travels to the end of the wire, for further processing, as parallel input by a CPU, an actuator, or another digital wire.

Brown, Benny; Hubler, Alfred

2009-03-01

228

VIEW NORTHEAST, LEFT BUILDING 40 WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) RIGHT BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW NORTHEAST, LEFT BUILDING 40 WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) RIGHT BUILDING 42 ROPE SHOP (1910) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

229

Superconducting wire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention consists of a method of producing superconducting wire by drawing a glass fiber with a melted powder of a superconducting wire inside the glass tube. After drawing, the glass fiber is heated to crystallize the superconducting compound. The ...

D. E. Day J. J. Petrovic F. D. Gac C. S. Ray

1991-01-01

230

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01

231

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, R. E.; Chin, B. A.; Straalsund, J. L.

1985-03-26

232

Superconducting wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention consists of a method of producing superconducting wire by drawing a glass fiber with a melted powder of a superconducting wire inside the glass tube. After drawing, the glass fiber is heated to crystallize the superconducting compound. The diameter of the superconducting wires is controlled by the rate at which the glass fiber s are drawn from the

D. E. Day; J. J. Petrovic; F. D. Gac; C. S. Ray

1991-01-01

233

Wire Maze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners create an electrical-circuit maze out of wire, then try to pass a paperclip through the maze without touching the wire. If the paper clip touches the wire, it closes the circuit, causing a light to come on or a buzzer to sound. This activity requires a basic understanding of how to build an electrical circuit.

Institute, Worcester P.

2005-01-01

234

Superconducting wire  

DOEpatents

This invention consists of a method of producing superconducting wire by drawing a glass fiber with a melted powder of a superconducting wire inside the glass tube. After drawing, the glass fiber is heated to crystallize the superconducting compound. The diameter of the superconducting wires is controlled by the rate at which the glass fiber s are drawn from the glass tube.

Day, D.E.; Petrovic, J.J.; Gac, F.D.; Ray, C.S.

1991-03-05

235

Method of producing high temperature superconductor wires  

SciTech Connect

This patent application discloses a process for producing a superconductor wire by: (a) coating the inner surface of a steel tube with a thin layer of silver metal; (b) packing the tube with high temperature superconductor ceramic (HTSC) powder; (c) sealing the tube; (d) cold working the tube to reduce its diameter; and (e) etching or dissolving away the steel tube to leave a superconductor wire comprising the silver metal coating that was on the inner surface of the steel tube as a thin silver metal sheath which encapsulates the HTSC powder. The superconductor wire can be further treated by sintering or oxygenating the HTSC powder.

Ferrando, W.A.; Divecha, A.P.; Kerr, J.

1992-01-01

236

Improved method of preparing composite superconducting wire  

DOEpatents

An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb/sub 3/Sn in a copper matrix eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb/sub 3/Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Finnemore, D.K.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schmidt, F.A.; Owen, C.V.

1979-10-17

237

Improved method of preparing composite superconducting wire  

DOEpatents

An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb/sub 3/Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin is described. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb/sub 3/Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Finnemore, D.K.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schmidt, F.A.; Owen, C.V.

1981-04-24

238

SPECIFICATIONS AND DRAWINGS FOR THE CONTROL RODS FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL GAS COOLED REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specifications are given for EGCR control rods, which are of articulated ; construction and are composed of four sections. The lower three sections consist ; of boron carbide brushings clad with stainless steel and the upper section is ; stainless steel. The four sections are connected by a stainless steel rod ; through the center. They are cooled by a

J. H. Coobs; N. A. Brown; R. M. Evans; G. M. Tolson

1963-01-01

239

Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve  

DOEpatents

A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

Gorscak, Donald A. (Bethel Park, PA); Maringo, John J. (McKeesport, PA); Nilsen, Roy J. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

1988-01-01

240

Modeling of L- and K-shell x-ray radiation from stainless steel wire arrays and X-pinch implosions on the 1MA pulsed power generator at UNR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of x-ray spectra from the implosion of stainless steel wire loads is challenging because of the overlapping contributions of L-shell spectra from the Fe and Ni ions. Nevertheless, it is a useful diagnostic because of the broad region of electron temperatures (0.2-2keV) corresponding to L- and K-shell radiation. L- and K-shell x-ray spectra have been collected from stainless steel single-wire, X-pinch, conical, and planar array experiments on the 1MA Zebra generator and have been analyzed in detail and compared. Non-LTE Fe, Ni, and Cr kinetic models have been developed to account for the K- and L-shell radiation from these ions. Two atomic data sets were employed and will be compared for the Fe model. The resulting plasma parameters from the axially-resolved L-shell and spatially-integrated K-shell spectra and their dependence on the load type will be discussed. Work supported by the DOE/NNSA under UNR grant DE-FC52-01NV14050, by Sandia National Laboratories under DOE contract DE-AC04-94AL85000, and in part by fellowship support from the National Physical Science Consortium with Sandia National Laboratories.

Ouart, N. D.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, U. I.; Williamson, K.; Osborne, G.; Shrestha, I.; Yilmaz, M. F.; Fedin, D. A.; Cowan, T. E.; Coverdale, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Jones, B.; Deeney, C.; Lepell, P. D.

2006-10-01

241

Electrochemical preparation of poly(p-phenylenediamine-co-aniline) composite coating on a stainless steel wire for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic determination of some derivatives of benzene.  

PubMed

A poly(p-phenylenediamine-co-aniline) composite coating was prepared on a stainless steel wire through electrochemical method. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and thermogravimetry. It showed thin slice shape and netlike microstructure, and thus it had large surface area and large extraction capacity. When the resulting fiber was used for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of some derivatives of benzene (i.e. chlorobenzene, 1,3-dimethylbenzene, 1,2-dimethylbenzene, 2-chlorotoluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene), followed by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis, it presented better performance than the polyaniline coated stainless steel wire. Under the optimized conditions, the GC peak areas were linear to their concentration in the ranges of about 0.5-500 ?g L(-1), with correlation coefficients of 0.9911-0.9989; the detection limits were 0.2-0.88 ?g L(-1)(S/N=3). The run-to-run RSD was smaller than 5.5% (n=5), and the fiber-to-fiber RSD was 3.5%-12.7% (n=3). The fiber was quite stable and durable; after it was used for about 140 times, its extraction efficiency kept almost unchanged. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of the derivatives of benzene in waste water, and the recoveries were 86.9%-107.7%. PMID:22939158

Rong, Xu; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

2012-07-16

242

The aging of wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether: wire and construction materials and freon impurities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a complete summary of our study of the aging of different types of wire chambers, with a variety of construction materials and wires, filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. The resistive Nicotin and Stablohm wires were corroded by DME, producing fast aging. The moderately resistive stainless steel wires were able to withstand extended irradiation (up to 1 C/cm) in high-purity DME without any apparent damage; and gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires exhibited a comparable behavior. Many construction materials were tested and recommendations are thus reached as to what kinds of materials are safe in building DME-operated wire chambers. Among many different Freon and hydrocarbon impurities detected in DME by means of gas chromatography (GC), Freon-11 was found to be mostly responsible for the aging, even with noncorrosive stainless steel or gold-plated wires. The availability and feasibility of obtaining Freon-free DME is reported as well.

Jibaly, Mohammed; Majewski, Stan; Chrusch, Peter; Wojcik, Randolph; Sauli, Fabio; Gaudaen, Jan

1989-11-01

243

Computer simulations to study the effect of adiabatic heating on rod penetration  

SciTech Connect

We use computer simulations to help us understand the experimental observation that depleted uranium (DU) rods penetrate more steel than equal density tungsten alloy (WA) rods, and that this advantage depends on velocity and fineness ratio. Our simulations used thermal softening. Although the DU rods exhibit shear fracture instead, both phenomena result in a loss of hoop strength, and help to keep the projectile residue from interfering with the incoming rod. Our simulations show that rods of DU (or other alloy with strong thermal softening) penetrate more steel than rods of WA (for alloys with little thermal softening), and show velocity and fineness ratio dependencies that are in qualitative agreement with experiment.

Reaugh, J.E.

1993-08-01

244

Spinal arthrodesis for spinal deformity using posterior instrumentation and sublaminar wiring  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred consecutive patients with spinal deformity due to various diagnoses were treated by posterior spinal arthrodesis with instrumentation and multiple sublaminar wires. Both the Harrington and Luque rodding systems were used. A total of 1128 wire loops were passed. No patient developed paraparesis or paraplegia, but three had transient sensory disturbance. There were no cases of broken rods or

R. B. Winter; M. B. Anderson

1985-01-01

245

UN Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the UN Foundation, UN Wire is a new "daily news summary covering the United Nations, global affairs and key international issues." Users interested in the UN or global affairs will find UN Wire an excellent resource for quick, concise accounts of the day's major stories. Each day, UN Wire covers issues such as UN Affairs; Health; Women, Children, and Population; Environment; Trade; Humanitarian Aid; Human Rights; and Peacekeeping. Typical entries include a few short paragraphs and direct links to the original news source and/or related resources. Free registration is required and users can subscribe for free daily email summaries of the headlines. UN Wire should be available for email delivery in complete form in the next few months.

1999-01-01

246

Stretching Wires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners determine the elastic and plastic properties of different types of metal wires. Learners discover that wires of the same gauge, but made of different metals, typically support different loads (masses) before going through the elastic to plastic transition. Learners also learn the difference between elastic deformation, which is recoverable after the load is removed, and plastic deformation, which is not recoverable. Note: one way to save time on this lab is to have different groups test different metals.

Urbana-Champaign, University O.

2013-01-04

247

Ford nuclear reactor shim-safety rod replacement  

SciTech Connect

The shim-safety rods in the Ford nuclear reactor core are borated stainless steel and were installed in 1962. Rod reactivities have decreased in the 10 to 20% range over the intervening 33 yr. Replacement rods of essentially identical metallurgical composition are not available. A boron-aluminum alloy replacement material was made available to the Ford nuclear reactor by Eagle-Picher, a leading supplier of boron enriched in {sup 10}B.

Burn, R.R. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

248

Some wave-propagation experiments in plasteline-clay rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressional stress pulses have been propagated in plasteline-clay rods by detonating small charges of lead azide at one end. A capacitance gage at the other end was used to measure particle displacement associated with the pulses and the particle velocity was obtained by differentiation. The shapes and amplitudes of the pulses were determined in separate experiments using composite clay-steel rods

H. H. Calvit; D. Rader; J. Melville

1968-01-01

249

Control rod drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement

Hawke; Basil C

1986-01-01

250

Rod examination gauge  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

1991-12-31

251

An electrode array study of electrochemical inhomogeneity of zinc in zinc\\/steel couple during galvanic corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local electrochemical properties of anodic metal within a zinc\\/steel couple immersed in seawater was studied via an electrode array composed of zinc and mild steel wire sensors. It showed that the potential and current density distribution of zinc wires were inhomogeneous, and the main anodic area moved from the zinc wires adjacent to the steel wires and even further

Da-Lei Zhang; Wei Wang; Yan Li

2010-01-01

252

High velocity impact of segmented rods with an aluminum carrier tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we apply the method of ballistic test to investigate the history and mechanism of the tungsten alloy segmented rod with aluminium carrier tube and corresponding continuous rod penetrating into semi-infinite steel target at velocities from 1.8 to 2.0 km \\/ s. The length to diameter ratio of the segmented rod is 1 (LD = 1), the ratios

Xiaoming Wang; Guozhi Zhao; Peihui Shen; Hongzhen Zha

1995-01-01

253

FABRICATION OF THE NUCLEAR MERCHANT SHIP REACTOR CRITICAL EXPERIMENT FUEL RODS BY THE SWAGING PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical experiments supporting the design of the power plant of the ; N. S. Savananah required fuel rods of slightly enriched UO² clad in ; stainless steel tubing. The rotary swaging technique was selected as the ; reference fabrication process for the experimental rods. Processing of the UO\\/; sup 2\\/ powder and fabrication of the rods are described. (W.

L. R. Weissert; W. Jr. Markert; V. J. Jr. Duplin

1959-01-01

254

VIEW SOUTH, LEFT BUILDING 40WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) CENTER BUILDING 42ROPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW SOUTH, LEFT- BUILDING 40-WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) CENTER- BUILDING 42-ROPE SHOP (1910) RIGHT- BUILDING 32; MACHINE SHOP (1890) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

255

VIEW SOUTHLEFTBUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) CENTERBUILDING 27WIRE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW SOUTH-LEFT-BUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) CENTER-BUILDING 27-WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

256

Comparison of the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Wires Manufactured for Overhead Conductors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The corrosion of old overhead steel-reinforced aluminum conductors in service in Great Britain led to the testing of possible replacement materials for corrosion resistance. Samples of aluminum wire, produced by the three main methods prior to wire drawin...

D. T. Hughes

1981-01-01

257

Comparative study on corrosion behaviour of Nitinol and stainless steel orthodontic wires in simulated saliva solution in presence of fluoride ions.  

PubMed

Localized corrosion and effects of pre-passivation treatment of Nitinol and SS304 orthodontic wires in simulated saliva solution in the presence and absence of fluoride ions were investigated by means of potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarisations. Results revealed that Nitinol does not show pitting corrosion in saliva solution however, SS304 shows pitting corrosion. Meanwhile fluoride ion has deteriorative effect on pitting corrosion of Nitinol, while its effect on SS304 was marginally constructive. Additionally, the presence of artificial crevice has no effect on corrosion behaviour in the presence of fluoride. Pre-passivation treatment has positive influence on pitting corrosion of both alloys in the presence of F(-) ions. PMID:23498236

Mirjalili, M; Momeni, M; Ebrahimi, N; Moayed, M H

2013-01-20

258

No Wires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)|

DeLoughry, Thomas J.

1995-01-01

259

Shielded Metal Arc Welding Consumables for Advanced High Strength Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To achieve the goal of developing adequate shielded metal arc (SMA) welding consumables for advanced high strength steels, characterization of the complex relationship between the core rod and the flux coating is required. An adequate core rod/flux coatin...

G. R. Edwards S. Liu

1991-01-01

260

Creel Tension Control System for Steel Radial Tires  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of steel wire as a cord material used in the construction of steel radial tires as a product improvement replacement for previously utilized materials such as fiberglass, polyester, nylon, and rayon, greater tensions are required to be maintained on the wire prior to entry into the calender. This higher tension and the inherent handling characteristics of wire

Richard D. Bob

1973-01-01

261

Pull Rod Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an in...

O. C. Cioletti

1988-01-01

262

Rod Lock Mechanism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application describes a fluid pressure mechanism for locking a movable rod or similar member in selected positions of adjustment. The mechanism includes a fluid housing having at least one annular rod-gripper element encircling a movable rod. I...

E. F'Geppert

1982-01-01

263

Fungal-induced corrosion of wire rope  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was found on the interior so the wooden spools, and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments and an extensive review of the literature demonstrated causal relationships between storage conditions and fungal growth and localized corrosion.

Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P. [Naval Research Lab., Stennis Space Center, MS (United States)

1995-10-01

264

[Different applications of various wire alloys in fixed appliance technic].  

PubMed

Steel, beta-Titanium and NiTi archwires (0.016 inch) as well as twisted steel wires (0.0175 inch) were subjected to a bending test. The results were presented graphically. Steel (Tru-Chrome), beta-Titanium (TMA), the twisted steel wires and only one NiTi wire (Nitinol) showed linear force-deflection-diagrams. The other NiTi alloys showed a curved line with a constant force in the middle part. The superelastic wires delivered the same initial force, whether 2 or 4 mm activated. The larger the deformation the longer became the range with a constant force (superelasticity). With an activation of 1 mm a conventional force deflection diagram was found. The steel wire (Tru-Chrome) showed the steepest curve, followed by TMA, Nitinol, some superelastic wires, Twistflex and Respond as well as Pentacat. The last two wires showed an identical diagram. The NiTi-alloy Sentalloy yellow was comparable to Wild Cat, Sentalloy blue to Respond. Some examples of the application of the different arch wires in patients are presented. PMID:2639865

Bantleon, H P; Droschl, H; Stern, G

1989-01-01

265

CONTROL ROD DRIVE  

DOEpatents

Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation.

Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I.

1961-06-27

266

CRUCIFORM CONTROL ROD JOINT  

DOEpatents

An invention is described which relates to nuclear reactor control rod components and more particularly to a joint between cruciform control rod members and cruciform control rod follower members. In one embodiment this invention provides interfitting crossed arms at adjacent ends of a control rod and its follower in abutting relation. This holds the members against relative opposite longitudinal movement while a compression member keys the arms against relative opposite rotation around a common axis. Means are also provided for centering the control rod and its follower on a common axis and for selectively releasing the control rod from its follower for the insertion of a replacement of the control rod and reuse of the follower. (AEC)

Thorp, A.G. II

1962-08-01

267

Low turbulence rod guide  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved sucker rod guide for fixedly engaging around a sucker rod at a selected location along the length of the rod. It comprises a substantially cylindrical polymeric body having a longitudinal axis, a terminal end substantially continually tapered to the rod, a radially-inward surface and a radially outward surface, the radially inward surface of the body adjacent to and in tripping engagement with the rod when the rod guide is fixedly engaged around the rod; and a plurality of substantially continuous, longitudinal vanes carried by the body, a vane having a selected length and width, and longitudinally disposed along the radially outward surface of the guide body, extending radially away from the guide body and having a radially outside wear surface.

Olinger, E.L.

1992-05-26

268

Fatigue Property of Stainless Steel FES Electrode in Hanks' Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue property of the wire rope with 19 strands used as an FES electrode was investigated. The wire rope was made of high manganese high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. Fatigue life of the wire rope in Hanks' solution at 310 K was evaluated using a dual-driven rotating-bending fatigue machine. Each wire of the rope was worn out and the cross

Y. Iguchi; T. Narushima; K. Suzuki; S. Yoshida; M. Watanabe; T. Kinami; C. Ouchi

269

Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap  

SciTech Connect

Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described.

Epperson, E.M.

1980-06-01

270

Superconducting wires  

SciTech Connect

The requirement of high critical current density has prompted extensive research on ceramic processing of high-T/sub c/ superconductors. An overview of wire fabrication techniques and the limitations they impose on component design will be presented. The effects of processing on microstructure and critical current density will also be discussed. Particle alignment has been observed in extruded samples which is attributed to high shear stresses during plastic forming. Composites of superconductor and silver in several configurations have been made with little deleterious effect on the superconducting properties. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Lanagan, M.T.; Poeppel, R.B.; Singh, J.P.; Dos Santos, D.I.; Lumpp, J.K.; Dusek, J.T.; Goretta, K.C.

1988-06-01

271

29 CFR 1926.1413 - Wire rope-inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...crushing, unstranding, birdcaging, signs of core failure or steel core protrusion between the outer strands. (B) Significant corrosion... (A) In rotation resistant wire rope, core protrusion or other distortion indicating...

2013-07-01

272

General Nonlinear Equilibrium Equation Solution of the Straight Wire Strand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most analyses of wire ropes are based on the well known classical treatise on elasticity by Love in 1944. A general theory of thin rods are included and investigated extensively. General equilibrium equations of a thin rod on arc length are derived and presented. The analytical and numerical solutions of wire ropes are based on the equilibrium equations as the starting point for the solutions in most of the papers. Helical rod model is first introduced by Phillips and Costello based on the equilibrium equations given by Love. General nonlinear equilibrium equation solution of the straight wire strand is given in this study and showed that it is harmonious with the results presented by Costello.

Erdönmez, C.; Imrak, C. E.

2007-09-01

273

Pull rod assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a pull rod assembly. It comprises: a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring. The piston device is mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

Cioletti, O.C.

1990-05-22

274

Pull rod assembly  

DOEpatents

A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

Cioletti, O.C.

1988-04-21

275

VIEW NORTHLEFTBUILDING 27 WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) CENTERBUILDING 102 ELMER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW NORTH-LEFT-BUILDING 27 WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) CENTER-BUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) RIGHT-BUILDING 101 CLARK STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

276

Fabrication and characterization of ceramic superconducting composite wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for fabricating sheathed high-Tc superconducting ceramic wire composites are examined. A thick wall silver tube packed with a variety of cuprate superconducting ceramic powders is used for fabrication by hydrostatic extrusion. For fabrication by wire drawing, a thin wall silver tube containing superconducting ceramic powder is placed in a thick wall tube of stainless steel, nickel, or copper. Several

Michael R. Notis; Min-Seok Oh; Betzalel Avitzur; Qin-Fang Liu; Himanshu Jain

1989-01-01

277

Multi-composite wire for high performance pulsed magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multi-composite (MC) wire is a new concept in the pursuit of obtaining the ideal conductor for high performance pulsed magnets. The MC wire consists of a braided, insulating sleeve enclosing a bundle of thin wires: conductor (Cu, CuNb) and reinforcement (e.g., high strength steel), with all free spaces filled by a tight packing of high strength fibers that do

Kris Rossel; Fritz Herlach; Johan Vanacken; J. VanHumbeeck

2004-01-01

278

The tensile fatigue of wire rope: A new approach  

SciTech Connect

The fatigue behaviour in air and seawater of zinc coated steel wire taken from a 40 mm diameter wire rope has been studied. Seawater had little effect on short term tensile strength but it reduced fatigue life by an amount which increased with increasing mean stress and decreasing test frequency. The application of fretting during fatigue testing resulted in very low endurances, which were similar to those measured in fatigue tests on wire ropes.

Thorpe, T.W.; Rance, A.

1983-05-01

279

Membrane separation cuts disposal costs for wire-products maker  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce disposal and maintenance costs associated with alkaline washing stations, a manufacturer of wire-welded products installed a membrane-separation wastewater treatment system. The Missouri-based company produces welded-wire products, such as shelves, closet conversions, wire baskets, display racks and coat hangers. The steel parts undergo an extensive cleaning process that consists of five spray-washing stages. An alkaline solution first washes oil

Nichele

1996-01-01

280

Status of rod consolidation  

SciTech Connect

Two of the factors that need to be taken into account with rod consolidation are (1) the effects on rods from their removal from the fuel assembly and (2) the effects on rods as a result of the consolidation process. Potential components of both factors are described in the report. Discussed under (1) are scratches on the fuel rod surfaces, rod breakage, crud, extended burnup, and possible cladding embrittlement due to hydrogen injection at BWRs. Discussed under (2) are the increased water temperature (less than 10/sup 0/C) because of closer packing of the rods, formation of crevices between rods in the close-packed mode, contact with dissimilar metals, and the potential for rapid heating of fuel rods following the loss of water from a spent fuel storage pool. Another factor that plays an important role in rod consolidation is the cost of disposal of the nonfuel-bearing components of the fuel assembly. Also, the dose rate from the components - especially Inconel spacer grids - can affect the handling procedures. Several licensing issues that exist are described. A list of recommendations is provided. 98 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Bailey, W.J.

1985-04-01

281

76 FR 23302 - Certain Steel Wheels From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Countervailing Duty Petitions regarding Steel Wheels and Galvanized Steel Wire (April 15, 2011). Determination...and rims when carbon or alloy steel represents more than fifty percent...uncoated, regardless of the type of coating. Imports of the subject...

2011-04-26

282

Hot-wire anemometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief historical survey of hot-wire anemometry is presented and questions of hot-wire response are investigated, taking into account sensor properties, steady-heat-loss laws, the dynamic response of the wires, the sensitivity coefficients of the wires, the characteristics of a wire of finite length, the spatial resolution of hot wires, and the aerodynamic perturbations of the probes. A description of electronic

G. Comte-Bellot

1976-01-01

283

Braided reinforced composite rods for the internal reinforcement of concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development of braided reinforced composite rods as a substitute for the steel reinforcement in\\u000a concrete. The research work aims at understanding the mechanical behaviour of core-reinforced braided fabrics and braided\\u000a reinforced composite rods, namely concerning the influence of the braiding angle, the type of core reinforcement fibre, and\\u000a preloading and postloading conditions. The core-reinforced braided

C. Gonilho Pereira; R. Fangueiro; S. Jalali; M. Araujo; P. Marques

2008-01-01

284

Characterization of metallic micro rod arrays fabricated by ?MIM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, two sets of arrays of 24×24 316L stainless steel micro rods of ?100 and ?80 ?m are replicated on ?15 mm substructures by injection molding, debinding and sintering through micro metal injection molding. The microstructure, shrinkage, porosity and Vickers microhardness of the micro rod and the substructure of the as-sintered micro-component are characterized. Shrinkage in the micro

B. Y. Tay; L. Liu; N. H. Loh; S. B. Tor; Y. Murakoshi; R. Maeda

2006-01-01

285

Weld between Low Alloy Steel and 316 Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several locations of the pressurized water reactors, dissimilar metal welds using Inconel welding wires are used to join the low alloy steel components to stainless steel pipes. Because of the existence of different materials and chemistry variation within welds, the mechanical properties, such as tensile and fracture properties, are expected to show spatial variation. For design and integrity assessment

Changheui Jang; Jounghoon Lee; Jong Sung Kim; Tae Eun Jin

286

Method of Producing High Temperature Superconductor Wires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discloses a process for producing a superconductor wire by: (a) coating the inner surface of a steel tube with a thin layer of silver metal; (b) packing the tube with high temperature superconductor ceramic (HTSC) powder; (c) seali...

W. A. Ferrando A. P. Divecha J. Kerr

1992-01-01

287

Radiological characterization of spent control rod assemblies  

SciTech Connect

This document represents the final report of an ongoing study to provide radiological characterizations, classifications, and assessments in support of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations. This report describes the results of non-destructive and laboratory radionuclide measurements, as well as waste classification assessments, of BWR and PWR spent control rod assemblies. The radionuclide inventories of these spent control rods were determined by three separate methodologies, including (1) direct assay techniques, (2) calculational techniques, and (3) by sampling and laboratory radiochemical analyses. For the BWR control rod blade (CRB) and PWR burnable poison rod assembly (BPRA), {sup 60}Co and {sup 63}Ni, present in the stainless steel cladding, were the most abundant neutron activation products. The most abundant radionuclide in the PWR rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) was {sup 108m}Ag (130 yr halflife) produced in the Ag-In-Cd alloy used as the neutron poison. This radionuclide will be the dominant contributor to the gamma dose rate for many hundreds of years. The results of the direct assay methods agree very well ({+-}10%) with the sampling/radiochemical measurements. The results of the calculational methods agreed fairly well with the empirical measurements for the BPRA, but often varied by a factor of 5 to 10 for the CRB and the RCCA assemblies. If concentration averaging and encapsulation, as allowed by 10CFR61.55, is performed, then each of the entire control assemblies would be classified as Class C low-level radioactive waste.

Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Pratt, S.L.; Haggard, D.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-10-01

288

Foucault Rod Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Foucault Rod model displays the vibration of a circumnavigating rod. One end of the rod is firmly secured to a support. The free end of the rod has a weight attached, like the bob of a pendulum. The support of the rod is circumnavigating a central axis. The plane of swing of the Foucault rod is affected by the rotation in the same way as the Foucault pendulum is. The simulation shows simultaneously the motion with respect to the inertial coordinate system, and the motion as seen from a co-rotating point of view. For the co-rotating view there is a close-up view and an overview. You can examine and modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen EJS Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Foucault Rod model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_nl_teunissen_foucault_rod.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Additional information about this model can be found by visiting the authorâs web site: http://www.cleonis.nl/index.htm.

Teunissen, Cleon

2009-11-03

289

FUEL ROD CLUSTERS  

DOEpatents

A cluster of nuclear fuel rods and a tubular casing therefor through which a coolant flows in heat-exchange contact with the fuel rods is described. The fuel rcds are held in the casing by virtue of the compressive force exerted between longitudinal ribs of the fuel rcds and internal ribs of the casing or the internal surfaces thereof.

Schultz, A.B.

1959-08-01

290

The Effect of Cutting Parameters on Workpiece Surface Roughness in Wire EDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the variation of workpiece surface roughness with varying pulse duration, open circuit voltage, wire speed and dielectric fluid pressure was experimentally investigated in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM). Brass wire with 0.25 mm diameter and SAE 4140 steel with 10 mm thickness were used as tool and workpiece materials in the experiments, respectively. It is found experimentally

N. Tosun; C. Cogun; A. Inan

2003-01-01

291

Windows: Life after Wire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

Razwick, Jerry

2003-01-01

292

Test plan for Enraf Series 854 level gauge wire testing  

SciTech Connect

An Enraf Series 854 level gauge was installed on tank 241-S-106 during the first week of June 1994. On August 11, 1994, the gauge`s stainless steel measuring wire broke. After examination and laboratory analysis, it was determined that the wire broke due to severe chloride ion corrosion. It is suspected that the chloride ion contamination came from the radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liner. It is well documented that the breakdown of PVC due to radiation produces chloride containing compounds. This document provides a qualification test plan to remove and have analyzed the wire in all of the Enraf Series 854 that have been installed to date. These tests will confirm the presence or absence of chloride ions in the PVC liners and/or on the Enraf measuring wires installed in the tanks. This test will involve removing the 316 stainless steel wire drums from all of the existing Enraf Series 854 level gauges that have been installed. New 316 stainless steel wire drums shall be installed into the gauges and the gauges will be placed back into service. The wire that is removed from the gauges shall be sent to the 222-S Lab or the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. Additional wire replacements will occur at intervals as determined necessary by the results of the laboratory analyses.

Barnes, G.A.

1994-09-15

293

Stretched Wire Mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

2005-09-06

294

Application of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Rods as Prestressing Tendons in Concrete Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study is concerned with the possibility of utilizing fiber reinforced plastic rods as prestressing tendons, in place of traditional steel tendons, in elements of prestressed concrete bridges exposed to corrosive environments. A survey was made of avai...

A. H. Mattock K. Babaei

1989-01-01

295

Nonlinearity and noise at the rod - rod bipolar cell synapse  

PubMed Central

In the retina, rod bipolar (RBP) cells synapse with many rods, and suppression of rod outer segment and synaptic noise is necessary for their detection of rod single photon responses (SPRs). Depending on the rods’ signal to noise ratio (SNR), the suppression mechanism will likely eliminate some SPRs as well, resulting in decreased quantum efficiency. We examined this synapse in rabbit, where 100 rods converge onto each RBP. Suction electrode recordings showed that rabbit rod SPRs were difficult to distinguish from noise (independent SNR estimates were 2.3 and 2.8). Nonlinear transmission from rods to RBPs improved response detection (SNR = 8.7), but a large portion of the rod SPRs were discarded. For the dimmest flashes, the loss approached 90%. Despite the high rejection ratio, noise of two distinct types were apparent in the RBP traces: low amplitude rumblings and discrete events that resembled the SPR. The SPR-like event frequency suggests they result from thermal isomerizations of rhodopsin, which occured at the rate 0.033 s?1rod?1. The presence of low amplitude noise is explained by a sigmoidal input-output relationship at the rod - RBP synapse and the input of noisy rods. The rabbit rod SNR and RBP quantum efficiency are the lowest yet reported, suggesting that the quantum efficiency of the rod - RBP synapse may depend on the SNR in rods. These results point to the possibility that fewer photoisomerizations are discarded for species such as primate, which has a higher rod SNR.

Trexler, E. Brady; Casti, Alexander R.R.; Zhang, Yu

2010-01-01

296

The effect of ligation on the load - defl ection characteristics of nickel - titanium orthodontic wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study examined the effect of ligation on the load - defl ection characteristics of nickel - titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wire. A modifi ed three-point bending system was used for bending the NiTi round wire, which was inserted and ligated in the slots of three brackets, one of which was bonded to each of the three bender rods. Three

Shugo Kasuya; Satoshi Nagasaka; Ai Hanyuda; Sadao Ishimura; Ayao Hirashita

297

Recent progress on improvement to mechanical properties of DI-BSCCO wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the mechanical properties of silver-sheathed BSCCO wire, the laminated BSCCO wires with stainless steel were made under some experimental conditions. The dependence of the stainless steel thickness and the dependence of the pre-tension of stainless steel tapes on the laminated BSCCO were investigated by mechanical tests (tensile test at 77 K and RT and double-bending test at RT)

K Yamazaki; T Kagiyama; M Kikuchi; S Yamade; T Nakashima; S Kobayashi; G Osabe; J Fujikami; K Hayashi; K Sato

2012-01-01

298

Ductile Fracture Simulation in the Taylor Rod Impact Test Using Continuum Damage Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taylor rod impact tests are used as experimental and numerical tests for determining the mechanical behavior of materials subjected to high strain rates. At sufficiently high velocities, a significant plastic deformation leading to fracture is observed. In this article, fracture in Taylor rod made of AISI1045 steel is simulated using a continuum damage mechanics model. The simulation is performed in

Sachin S. Gautam; Raman Babu; P. M. Dixit

2011-01-01

299

Computational modeling of phase transformations and mechanical properties during the cooling of hot rolled rod  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, great emphasis has been placed on controlled the cooling of hot rolled steel rods to achieve the desired microstructure and final mechanical properties. The approach is to develop the desired microstructure and temperature in the hot rolled rod and then transform it from the austenite phase to different volume fractions of martensite, bainite, pearlite and ferrite phases. This paper

Sameer Phadke; Praveen Pauskar; Rajiv Shivpuri

2004-01-01

300

Mobil tests new flexible sucker-rod system in Hugoton field  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past 3 y, Mobil Oil Corp. has been testing flexible sucker-rod systems for dewatering gas wells in the Hugoton field. The intent of the system is to provide the strength of conventional rods but to achieve superior corrosion resistance. The ''Flexirod'' system being tested is a joint development of Bethlehem Steel Co. and E. I. duPont de Nemours

1974-01-01

301

Modeling the impact deformation of rods of a pressed PTFE\\/Al composite mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite element simulations have been performed for the impact onto steel anvils of solid rods of a pressed composite mixture of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and aluminum powders. Photographs of the reactive rods prior to significant impact initiation for three previously performed experiments at impact velocities of 104, 222, and 466m\\/s have been digitized for comparison with the simulations. Simulations were performed

M. N. Raftenberg; W MOCKJR; G. C. Kirby

2008-01-01

302

Computer Study of the Effects of Rod Diameter and Target Thickness on the Penetration Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer parametric study of the 7.5 km/s impact of a long, slender, copper rod on a steel target was made to obtain hole growth information. The rod radius was varied (1,3, and 9 mm) and the target thickness was varied (7.5 and 37.5 mm). In addition to...

V. Kucher

1978-01-01

303

New, cold formable Fe/Al/C dual phase steels  

SciTech Connect

Alloy design programs in dual phase low carbon steels have been carried out at Berkeley during the past ten years. In the present work attention has been paid to adapting their physical metallurgy to batch plant processing conditions. The alloys are based on ferritic-martensitic low carbon steels containing aluminum, but without manganese or microalloying elements. The two-phase mixture rule provides a fairly good approximation of the mechanical behavior of these duplex systems, but it has been recognized that the properties of both the ferrite and martensite depend on the volume fraction of martensite produced in the final morphology. Thus ferrite strengthening can be effected by precipitation hardening, and the strength of martensite may increase due to carbon enrichment as its volume fraction is decreased. Utilization of both of these factors results in a composite whose properties do not depend very much upon the martensite volume fraction (up to about 0.4). This allows greater flexibility in heat treatment, and thus suggests that dual phase steel can be produced by batch processing without requiring strict temperature control to achieve consistent properties. In each case a desirable tensile to yield strength ratio is maintained for cold forming characteristics, e.g., for applications in sheet, wire rod, etc. 12 figs.

Thomas, G.

1985-08-01

304

Concealed wire tracing apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

305

Wear simulation of sucker rod couplings  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that sucker rod strings are devices used to actuate pumps located at the bottom of oil wells. The individual rods are connected together by threaded couplings. Since the couplings have a larger diameter than the rods, they sometimes contact the inside diameter of the tubing during the up and down pumping cycle. Usually, this is not problem unless buckling occurs in the downstroke; however, this can lead to accelerated wear of the coupling and tubing. In nonvertical wells (offset, deviated, or slanted), the contact is more severe and rapid wear takes place. Couplings are more easily replaced during shutdowns; it is very important to minimize wear to tubing since it is virtually impossible to replace. TRIBONIC 20, an iron-based alloy containing approximately 13% Mn, 5% Si, 5.5% Cr, and 5% Ni, was laboratory evaluated to determine whether or not it could solve the sucker rod coupling-production tubing wear problem. The alloy demonstrated outstanding wear resistance both to itself and in protecting type 1019 steel.

Schumacher, W.J. (Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States))

1991-09-01

306

Analysis of sucker rod and sinkerbar failures  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of a study of performance and failures of the sucker rod/sinkerbar string used in beam-pumping operations through metallography, finite element analysis, and failure data collection. Metallography showed that the microstructure of the steel bar stock needs to be considered to improve the fatigue resistance of the sucker rod strings. The current specification based on tensile strength, or yield strength, may not be appropriate since failure occurs because of fatigue and not yielding, and tensile strength is not always a good measure of fatigue resistance. Finite element analysis of the threaded connection quantitatively assesses the coupling designs under various loading conditions. Subcritical fractures in metallography are also suggested by calculated stress distribution in threaded coupling. Failure data illustrates both magnitude and frequency of failures, as well as categorizing the suspected cause of failure. Application of the results in each of these project areas is expected to yield improved choice of metal bar stock, thread design, and make-up practices which can significantly reduce the frequency of sucker rod failures. Sucker rod failures today are not inherent in the process, but can be minimized through the application of new technology and observation of common-sense practices.

Waggoner, J.R.; Buchheit, R.G.

1993-03-01

307

Microstructures and Properties of Molybdenum Wires Doped with La.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structures and properties of the La-doped molybdenum (La-Mo) powder, compact, rods and wires annealed at different temperatures were investigated. The experimental results show that the La exists in the powders in the forms of lanthanum nitrate, lanth...

M. L. Zhou J. Li T. Zuo

1995-01-01

308

Mechanics of Wire Rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation on the mechanics of wire rope will be divided into two parts: a theory for the static and dynamic response of wire rope, and practical examples in the form of consulting problems with which I have been associated.

George A. Costello

309

Self-monitoring Composite Rods for Sustainable Construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development and properties assessment of braided reinforced composite rods (BCR) able to both reinforce and monitor the stress state of concrete infrastructures. The research study aims at understanding the tensile behaviour and self-monitoring ability of composite rods reinforced by a textile structure - braided structure with core reinforcement - for civil engineering applications, namely for concrete internal reinforcement, as a steel substitute, in order to improve structures safety and sustainability. Seven types of braided composite rods have been produced using an author patented technique based on a modified conventional braiding machine. The tensile properties of the braided reinforced composite rods were evaluated in order to identify the type(s) of fibre(s) to be used as core reinforcement. BCR have been tested under bending while the variation of the electrical resistance was simultaneously monitored.

Gonilho-Pereira, Cristiana; Zdraveva, Emilija; Fangueiro, Raul; Lanceros-Mendez, S.; Jalali, Said; de Araújo, Mário

310

Welding Study of Electroslag Remelted Steel Armor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the project was to study welding of electroslag remelted (ESR) steel with high strength filler wires. This report gives a detailed description of welding techniques developed, and a metallurgical and ballistic evaluation of the welds obtain...

L. L. Lanier R. E. Musante W. C. Schultz

1974-01-01

311

Corrosion resistant wire for small diameter wire bonding applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire bonding is now a major method of interconnection. Over the years, as electronic packages became more technologically advanced, the wire bonders and the wire had to mature at the same rate. Aluminum wire is one of the main components used in wire bonding these electronic devices. In some applications, this aluminum wire must be able to withstand harsh environments,

M. McKeown

1997-01-01

312

EMF wire code research  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

Jones, T.

1993-11-01

313

Slide the wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The animation shows a top view of four wires in a conducting loop and a galvanometer. Determine the direction of the magnetic field, Bz(x), passing through the wires at various postions by click-dragging the black wire back and forth and observing the galvanometer reading.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-09

314

Wire-inhomogeneity detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in

G. H. Gibson; R. G. Smits; P. H. Eberhard

1982-01-01

315

Plate perforation by eroding rod projectiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration and perforation of stationary, oblique steel plates by hypervelocity tungsten-alloy projectiles is examined here. Simulations have been performed for L\\/D 10 projectiles against one- and two-plate target configurations. The plate thickness-to-rod diameter ratio t\\/D varied slightly, as did the plate spacing-to-plate thickness ratio tgap\\/t. For all simulations, t\\/D?[1.2,1.6] and tgap\\/t?[0.7,1]. Normalized line-of-sight perforation is one measure of performance,

D. J. Gee

2003-01-01

316

Rod contributions to color perception: Linear with rod contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

At mesopic light levels, an incremental change in rod activation causes changes in color appearance. In this study, we investigated how rod mediated changes in color perception varied as a function of the magnitude of the rod contrast. Rod-mediated changes in color appearance were assessed by matching them with cone-mediated color changes. A two-channel four-primary colorimeter allowed independent control of

Dingcai Cao; Joel Pokorny; Vivianne C. Smith; Andrew J. Zele

2008-01-01

317

Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.  

PubMed

The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

1997-07-01

318

Marine corrosion of selected small wire ropes and strands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breakage loads of nine different small mooring lines are experimentally related to time of immersion in a marine environment. Samples of a single steel wire, five different strands ranging from 0.05 inch1 times 7to 7\\/64 inch1 times 19, and three small wire ropes 3\\/32 inch7 times 7were fully immersed in Puget Sound for 38, 115, and 150 days. Tensile

C. J. Sandwith; R. C. Clark

1975-01-01

319

Laser Wire Deposition (WireFeed) for Fully Dense Shapes LDRD  

SciTech Connect

Direct metal deposition technologies produce complex, near net shape components from Computer Aided Design (CAD) solid models. Most of these techniques fabricate a component by melting powder in a laser weld pool, rastering the weld bead to form a layer, and additively constructing subsequent layers. This report will describe anew direct metal deposition process, known as WireFeed, whereby a small diameter wire is used instead of powder as the feed material to fabricate components. Currently, parts are being fabricated from stainless steel alloys. Microscopy studies show the WireFeed parts to be filly dense with fine microstructural features. Mechanical tests show stainless steel parts to have high strength values with retained ductility. A model was developed to simulate the microstructural evolution and coarsening during the WireFeed process. Simulations demonstrate the importance of knowing the temperature distribution during fabrication of a WireFeed part. The temperature distribution influences microstructural evolution and, therefore, must be controlled to tailor the microstructure for optimal performance.

GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.; ENSZ,MARK T.; GREENE,DONALD L.; RECKAWAY,DARYL E.; MORIN,JACOB A.; BUCHHEIT,THOMAS E.; LAVAN,DAVID A.; CRENSHAW,THOMAS B.; TIKARE,VEENA; ROMERO,JOSEPH A.

1999-11-01

320

Torsional Waves in Composite Rods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The propagation of torsional waves in composite, infinitely long, traction-free, circular, cylindrical rods is investigated on the basis of the three-dimensional linear theory of elasticity. The composite rods consist of an internal circular rod made of o...

A. E. Armenakas

1965-01-01

321

Shape memory alloy wire-based smart natural rubber bearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, two types of smart elastomeric bearings are presented using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. Due to the unique characteristics of SMAs, such as the superelastic effect and the recentering capability, the residual deformation in SMA-based natural rubber bearings (SMA-NRBs) is significantly reduced whereas the energy dissipation capacity is increased. Two different configurations of SMA wires incorporated in elastomeric bearings are considered. The effect of several parameters, including the shear strain amplitude, the type of SMA, the aspect ratio of the base isolator, the thickness of SMA wire, and the amount of pre-strain in the wires on the performance of SMA-NRBs is investigated. Rubber bearings are composed of natural rubber layers bonded to steel shims as reinforcement. Results show that ferrous SMA wire, FeNiCuAlTaB, with 13.5% superelastic strain and a very low austenite finish temperature (-62?°C), is the best candidate to be used in SMA-NRBs subjected to high shear strain amplitudes. In terms of the lateral flexibility and wire strain level, the smart rubber bearing with a cross configuration of SMA wires is more efficient. Moreover, the cross configuration can be implemented in high-aspect-ratio elastomeric bearings since the strain induced in the wire does not exceed the superelastic range. When cross SMA wires with 2% pre-strain are used in a smart NRB, the dissipated energy is increased by 74% and the residual deformation is decreased by 15%.

Hedayati Dezfuli, F.; Shahria Alam, M.

2013-04-01

322

SAFETY SYSTEM FOR CONTROL ROD  

DOEpatents

A structure for monitoring the structural continuity of a control rod foi a neutron reactor is presented. A electric conductor readily breakable under mechanical stress is fastened along the length of the control rod at a plurality of positions and forms a closed circuit with remote electrical components responsive to an open circuit. A portion of the conductor between the control rod and said components is helically wound to allow free and normally unrestricted movement of the segment of conductor secured to the control rod relative to the remote components. Any break in the circuit is indicative of control rod breakage. (AEC)

Paget, J.A.

1963-05-14

323

Thin wire pointing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J.

1983-03-01

324

A tool for measuring the bending length in thin wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great effort is currently being put into the development and construction of the second generation, advanced gravitational wave detectors, Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO. The development of new low thermal noise suspensions of mirrors, based on the experience gained in the previous experiments, is part of this task. Quasi-monolithic suspensions with fused silica wires avoid the problem of rubbing friction introduced by steel cradle arrangements by directly welding the wires to silica blocks bonded to the mirror. Moreover, the mechanical loss level introduced by silica (?fs ~ 10-7 in thin fused silica wires) is by far less than the one associated with steel. The low frequency dynamical behaviour of the suspension can be computed and optimized, provided that the wire bending shape under pendulum motion is known. Due to the production process, fused silica wires are thicker near the two ends (necks), so that analytical bending computations are very complicated. We developed a tool to directly measure the low frequency bending parameters of fused silica wires, and we tested it on the wires produced for the Virgo+ monolithic suspensions. The working principle and a set of test measurements are presented and explained.

Lorenzini, M.; Cagnoli, G.; Cesarini, E.; Losurdo, G.; Martelli, F.; Piergiovanni, F.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.

2013-03-01

325

Zinc wired rebar  

SciTech Connect

A novel method for corrosion protection of rebar in concrete is reported wherein it is galvanically protected by attaching a zinc wire along its length. The self-corrosion and galvanic-corrosion loss of the zinc wire is dependent on the water/cement ratio, the size of the cathode, and the concrete cover thickness. The wire acts as a sacrificial anode when the rebar embedded in concrete is exposed to corrosive environments.

Zhang, X.G.; Hwang, J. [COMINCO Product Technology Centre, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1997-02-01

326

Sucker rod coupling  

SciTech Connect

An anti-friction sucker rod coupling is described for connecting a pair of sucker rods and centralizing them in a tubing string, comprising: an elongate, rigid, substantially cylindrical body member, each end of the body member forming means for threadably connecting the body member with a sucker rod. The body member further forms a transversely extending, substantially diametric, generally vertical slot extending therethrough. The body member further forms a pin bore, such pin bore extending transversely through the body member so as to intersect the slot substantially perpendicularly; a wheel member positioned within the slot to rotate in a generally vertical plane. The wheel member has a portion thereof extending beyond the periphery of the body member to engage the inner surface of the tubing string and centralize the coupling; and a pin mounted in the pin bore and supporting member thereon, whereby the wheel member is rotatable within the slot; the wheel member having sufficient clearance between its side surfaces and the wall surfaces of the slot, when the wheel member is centered in the slot on the pin, whereby the wheel member may shift along the pin to assist in ejecting sand and oil from the slot.

Klyne, A.A.

1986-11-11

327

Safety rod latch inspection  

SciTech Connect

During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small ``button`` in the latch mechanism had broken off of the ``lock plunger`` and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

Leader, D.R.

1992-02-01

328

Safety rod latch inspection  

SciTech Connect

During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small button'' in the latch mechanism had broken off of the lock plunger'' and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

Leader, D.R.

1992-02-01

329

1998 wire development workshop proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

NONE

1998-04-01

330

Corrosion resistance of certain strength wires used in small fiber-optic cables exposed to seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical analyses and the results of corrosion tests on fiber-optic cables with different strength wires and designs are used to evaluate the suitability of the cables as candidates for use on the sea bottom. The strength wires in the cables were made of certain Inconel, stainless steel, and steel alloys and had diameters ranging from 0.008 to 0.015 in. The

Colin J. Sandwith; Robert L. Ruedisueli

1997-01-01

331

Irradiation performance of enriched uranium clad in stainless steel: PT-IP-123-A. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early in the development of an extended surface fuel element for use in the NPR, several 7-rod cluster fuel elements were irradiated to determine the dimensional stability of such geometries at high burnups. These elements were fabricated from small diameter uranium rods clad unbonded in stainless steel tubes and assembled in a rod cluster geometry by various support devices. Zircaloy

Claudson

1959-01-01

332

Power enhancement from nested titanium wire arrays with foam targets on the Z accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. In the years since the 20 MA Z accelerator has come online, many experiments have been performed to study the radiation emitted from wire array Z-pinches. Several K-shell sources have been studied in recent years at Z, including aluminum, titanium, stainless steel, nickel, and copper. Observations from these experiments show that low wire number

C. A. Coverdale; C. Deeney; M. R. Douglas; P. D. LePell; K. G. Whitney; J. P. Apruzese; J. W. Thornhill; R. W. Clark; J. Davis; D. E. Bell

2002-01-01

333

Modeling of wire EDM process using back propagation (BPN) and General Regression Neural Networks (GRNN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model is developed to predict the surface roughness in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) of Cr-Mo-V alloyed special steel, which is used in automobile industry. The neural network Models strained with experimental results conducted using L16 orthogonal array by considering the input parameters such as pulse duration, open voltage, wire speed and

P. V. B. Reddy; C. H. R. V. Kumar; K. H. Reddy

2010-01-01

334

Army Wire Rope Inspection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers an investigation into the Army's wire rope nondestructive inspection procedures and needs. Major Army users of wire rope were located and surveyed for information on their wire rope inspection procedures. The Navy has conducted an inves...

K. S. Chapman

1983-01-01

335

National Shipbuilding Research Program. Emission Factors for Flux Core Rod Used in Gas Shielded Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The shipbuilding and repair industry uses a wide variety of welding rods and wires in combination with various welding processes. These processes include, but are not limited to gas metal arc welding (GMAW), flux core arc welding (FCAW), shielded metal ar...

2000-01-01

336

International space station wire program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardware provider wire systems and current wire insulation issues for the International Space Station (ISS) program are discussed in this viewgraph presentation. Wire insulation issues include silicone wire contamination, Tefzel cold temperature flexibility, and Russian polyimide wire insulation. ISS is a complex program with hardware developed and managed by many countries and hundreds of contractors. Most of the obvious wire insulation issues are known by contractors and have been precluded by proper selection.

May, Todd

1995-11-01

337

Reactor control rod timing system  

DOEpatents

A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

Wu, Peter T. K. (Clifton Park, NY)

1982-01-01

338

Constitutive Model Parameter Study For Armor Steel And Tungsten Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computational parametric study was performed to assess the influence of the selection of Johnson-Cook constitutive model parameters on the numerical simulation of tungsten rods penetrating rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) steel targets. The parameter spac...

S. J. Schraml

2012-01-01

339

Safety rod/thimble melt failure characterization experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) requested that he INEL perform experiments to study the thermal failure characteristics of a simulated Savannah River Site nuclear reactor safety rod and its surrounding thimble assembly. An electrically heated stainless steel rod simulated a reactor safety rod located eccentrically or concentrically within a perforated aluminum guide tube or thimble. A total of 37 experiments were conducted for a range of power levels and safety rod/thimble relative orientations. Video tapes were made of the four failure tests that were conducted to the melting point of the thimble. Although the primary emphasis of the experiments were to characterize the melting of the thimble qualitatively, experimental transient measurements included heater voltage and current, heater surface temperatures, aluminum thimble temperatures, and ambient temperature. Numerical studies were also performed in support of the experiments and data interpretation. Two finite element models were created to model the heat conduction-radiation between the stainless steel heater and thimble. The predicted temperatures were in good agreement with the experimental results.

Stoots, C.M.; Hawkes, G.L.

1992-05-01

340

Automatic safety rod for reactors  

DOEpatents

An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

341

Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth  

DOEpatents

Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rods are described, wherein geometric combinations of relatively weak neutron absorber materials such as stainless steel, zirconium or INCONEL, and relatively strong neutron absorber materials, such as hafnium, silver-indium cadmium and boron carbide, are used to obtain the reactivity worths required to reach zero boron change load follow. One embodiment includes a grey rod which has combinations of weak and strong neutron absorber pellets in a stainless steel cladding. The respective pellets can be of differing heights. A second embodiment includes a grey rod with a relatively thick stainless steel cladding receiving relatively strong neutron absorber pellets only. A third embodiment includes annular relatively weak netron absorber pellets with a smaller diameter pellet of relatively strong absorber material contained within the aperture of each relatively weak absorber pellet. The fourth embodiment includes pellets made of a homogeneous alloy of hafnium and a relatively weak absorber material, with the percentage of hafnium chosen to obtain the desired reactivity worth.

Miller, John V. (Munhall, PA); Carlson, William R. (Scott Township, Allegheny County, PA); Yarbrough, Michael B. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1991-01-01

342

30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802...

2009-07-01

343

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003...

2009-07-01

344

30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802...

2010-07-01

345

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003...

2010-07-01

346

Bentonite Rods Assure Ground Rod Installation In Problem Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground rods are an effective means of obtaining and maintaining a low resistance to remote ground. However, present methods of installation fail in rocky or hardpan soils. A technique has been developed that assures installation regardless of the subsoil conditions and offers a reduction in resistance of up to 36% per rod.

Warren Jones

1980-01-01

347

Alumina–mild steel friction welded at lower rotational speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joining of ceramic–metal can be done using different techniques such as brazing, diffusion bonding, and friction welding. However, the mechanism of ceramic–metal joining has still not been fully understood. In this study, an alumina rod was bonded to a mild steel rod via the friction welding technique by using an Al 1100 sheet as an interlayer. The diameters of

Mohamad Zaky Noh; Luay Bakir Hussain; Zainal Arifin Ahmad

2008-01-01

348

Distribution of wire deformation within strands of wire ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ANSYS software, we developed a modeling program for several kinds of wire ropes with metal cores and built a geometric model for the 6×19 IWS wire rope. Through proper grid partitioning, a finite element model for calculating the deformation of wire rope was obtained. Completely constraining one end of the wire rope and applying an axial force to the

Jun MA; Shi-rong GE; De-kun ZHANG

2008-01-01

349

Complete band gaps of phononic crystal plates with square rods.  

PubMed

Much of previous work has been devoted in studying complete band gaps for bulk phononic crystal (PC). In this paper, we theoretically investigate the existence and widths of these gaps for PC plates. We focus our attention on steel rods of square cross sectional area embedded in epoxy matrix. The equations for calculating the dispersion relation for square rods in a square or a triangular lattice have been derived. Our analysis is based on super cell plane wave expansion (SC-PWE) method. The influence of inclusions filling factor and plate thickness on the existence and width of the phononic band gaps has been discussed. Our calculations show that there is a certain filling factor (f=0.55) below which arrangement of square rods in a triangular lattice is superior to the arrangement in a square lattice. A comparison between square and circular cross sectional rods reveals that the former has superior normalized gap width than the latter in case of a square lattice. This situation is switched in case of a triangular lattice. Moreover, a maximum normalized gap width of 0.7 can be achieved for PC plate of square rods embedded in a square lattice and having height 90% of the lattice constant. PMID:22169591

El-Naggar, Sahar A; Mostafa, Samia I; Rafat, Nadia H

2011-11-25

350

Wire Rope Slings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Safe working load tables, in metric units, were prepared for the Divisional Accident Prevention Advisory Committee. At the same time an investigation was made into the possibility of preparing a Divisional Standard for wire rope slings. It is recommended ...

P. J. Bramhill

1972-01-01

351

A comparison of wire- and Kevlar-reinforced provisional restorations.  

PubMed

Stainless steel wire 0.036 inch in diameter was compared with Kevlar 49 polyaramid fiber as a means of reinforcing a four-unit posterior provisional fixed restoration with 2 pontics. Three reinforcement patterns for wire and two for Kevlar 49 were evaluated and compared with the control, which was an unreinforced provisional restoration. A central tensile load was placed on the cemented provisional restoration and the variables were measured: (1) the initial stiffness; (2) the load at initial fracture; and (3) the unit toughness, or the energy stored in the beam at a point where the load had undergone a 1.0-mm deflection. Statistical analysis showed (1) the bent wire configuration had a significantly higher initial stiffness (P < or = .05), (2) there was no difference between designs for load at initial fracture, and (3) the bent wire had a significantly higher unit toughness value (P < or = .05). PMID:8179789

Powell, D B; Nicholls, J I; Yuodelis, R A; Strygler, H

352

Impact Initiation of Rods of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Aluminum Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gas gun has been used to investigate the shock initiation of rods of a mixture of 74 wt% PTFE and 26 wt% aluminum powders. The rods were sabot-launched into 4340 steel anvils at impact velocities ranging from 104 to 963 m/s. A framing camera was used to observe the time sequence of events. At low velocity, no initiation occurred. Above an initiation threshold, the initiation time dropped abruptly from 56 ?s just above threshold to 4 ?s at the highest impact velocity. Several high velocity experiments were performed for pure PTFE material for comparison with the PTFE/Al rods.

Mock, Willis; Holt, William H.

2006-07-01

353

Impact Initiation of Rods of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Aluminum Powders  

SciTech Connect

A gas gun has been used to investigate the shock initiation of rods of a mixture of 74 wt% PTFE and 26 wt% aluminum powders. The rods were sabot-launched into 4340 steel anvils at impact velocities ranging from 104 to 963 m/s. A framing camera was used to observe the time sequence of events. At low velocity, no initiation occurred. Above an initiation threshold, the initiation time dropped abruptly from 56 {mu}s just above threshold to 4 {mu}s at the highest impact velocity. Several high velocity experiments were performed for pure PTFE material for comparison with the PTFE/Al rods.

Mock, Willis Jr.; Holt, William H. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division, Dahlgren, VA 22448-5100 (United States)

2006-07-28

354

Superconducting wire fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were done leading to the fabrication of high-temperature superconducting composite wire. Bulk superconductor was characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x ray spectroscopy. The chemical compatibility of superconducting materials with a number of metal sheathing candidates was tested, with silver offering the best compatibility. Wire was fabricated by drawing 0.250-inch-diameter silver tubing packed with superconducting

W. E. Glad; G. G. Chase

1990-01-01

355

Dry Rod Consolidation Technology Project Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Dry Rod Consolidation Technology (DRCT) Project conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in 1987 demonstrated the technical feasibility of a dry horizontal fuel rod consolidation process. Fuel rods from Westinghouse 15 /times/ 15...

B. L. Griebenow C. K. Mullen E. M Feldman K. Vinjamuri R. J. Lynch

1988-01-01

356

Biomechanical analysis of transpedicular rod systems. A preliminary report.  

PubMed

Two transpedicular spinal instrumentation systems were developed for fixation of the lumbosacral junction: a transpedicular fixator and the transpedicular screw/rod system. Mechanical testing showed that the new systems have a rigidity that is intermediate between conventional wired implants (Galveston and Luque ring) and plate systems (Steffee plate). Neither pedicular implant approached the rigidity of the Steffee plate with S2 fixation, but in compression and anterior bending both were more rigid than the Steffee plate without S2 fixation. Despite the apparent mechanical advantages of the transpedicular fixator, it is currently too bulky for clinical use. The transpedicular screw/rod system is more appealing because the size leaves adequate area for bone grafting, and device placement is technically simple. Furthermore, it may be contoured to any plane, while retaining stability provided by the clamps and screws. PMID:1948384

Puno, R M; Bechtold, J E; Byrd, J A; Winter, R B; Ogilvie, J W; Bradford, D S

1991-08-01

357

Superconducting wires based on a yttrium ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was made of the fabrication of high temperature superconducting ceramic wires based on yttrium in various metallic shells. The shells used in the process were 10-mm-diameter thin-walled tubes of stainless steel (Kh18N10T), Nimonic alloy (Kh20N80), copper, and silver. Measurements of the critical current density is presented for the best specimens of round and rectangular cross sections. It is found that alloying of the yttrium ceramic by silver and gold makes it possible to double its current-carrying capacity.

Mitrokhin, V. A.; Dzhetymov, A. M.; Radchenko, I. P.; Svalov, G. G.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Miuller, P.; Shubert, M.

1991-12-01

358

A method for continuous monitoring of bond formation between rubber and reinforced wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrity of a high performance, steel-belted tire is heavily dependent on the adhesion of steel reinforcement to rubber. A bronze coating, having a nominal composition of 98.5% Cu (the balance being Sn), is plated on tire bead wire to promote adhesion of the steel reinforcement to rubber.Pull-out force is the current standard for evaluating adhesion as recommended by ASTM.

Yea-Yang Su; Robert M. Shemenski

2001-01-01

359

Numerical study on the turbulence structures in closely spaced rod bundle subchannels  

SciTech Connect

Fully developed turbulent flow through simulated rod bundle subchannels formed by a rod-trapezoidal duct was numerically studied. With a simple coordinate system transformation from an orthogonal cylindrical system to a nonorthogonal curvilinear system, the highly irregular flow passage of a rod-trapezoidal duct was converted to that of a regular rectangle. An empirical anisotropic eddy viscosity distribution based on existing experimental data was used in conjunction with the algebraic stress model to address the influence of coherent large-scale cross-gap eddy motion, whose existence in closely spaced rod bundle subchannels has bene substantiated by extensive hot-wire measurements. Results of the calculation are compared with experimental data, with emphasis on secondary flow and turbulence kinetic energy. The credibility of this numerical scheme was establishment through a series of numerical tests on simple geometry flows.

Wu, X. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1994-06-01

360

Status of rod consolidation, 1988  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that the spent fuel storage pools at some domestic light-water reactors will run out of space before 2003, the year that the US Department of Energy currently predicts it will have a repository available. Of the methods being studied to alleviate the problem, rod consolidation is one of the leading candidates for achieving more efficient use of existing space in spent fuel storage pools. Rod consolidation involves mechanically removing all the fuel rods from the fuel assembly hardware (i.e., the structural components) and placing the fuel rods in a close-packed array in a canister without space grids. A typical goal of rod consolidation systems is to insert the fuel rods from two fuel assemblies into a canister that has the same exterior dimensions as one standard fuel assembly (i.e., to achieve a consolidation or compaction ratio of 2:1) and to compact the nonfuel-bearing structural components from those two fuel assemblies by a factor of 10 to 20. This report provides an overview of the current status of rod consolidation in the United States and a small amount of information on related activities in other countries. 85 refs., 36 figs., 5 tabs.

Bailey, W.J.

1989-01-01

361

Steel: Lightweight Steel Containers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using NICE3 funds, Dispensing Containers Corporation has found an exciting new method for manufacturing steel dispensing containers with an average of 40% less raw material than conventional manufacturing processes. Order this new fact sheet now and disco...

Steve Blazek

1999-01-01

362

Maintenance of constant carbon concentration during heat treatment of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously described salt bath apparatus for high temperature heat treatment of steel is made more effective through replacement of Ca pellets by a dense graphite rod as the deoxidation agent and the compartmentalization of the salt bath to avoid contact between the steel specimens and the graphite. Carbon content changes during subsequent, lower temperature heat treatment in a lead

J. R. Bradley; T. Abe; H. I. Aaronson

1982-01-01

363

Wire brush fastening device  

DOEpatents

A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

Meigs, R.A.

1993-08-31

364

Hopf solitons and elastic rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hopf solitons in the Skyrme-Faddeev model are stringlike topological solitons classified by the integer-valued Hopf charge. In this paper we introduce an approximate description of Hopf solitons in terms of elastic rods. The general form of the elastic rod energy is derived from the field theory energy and is found to be an extension of the classical Kirchhoff rod energy. Using a minimal extension of the Kirchhoff energy, it is shown that a simple elastic rod model can reproduce many of the qualitative features of Hopf solitons in the Skyrme-Faddeev model. Features that are captured by the model include the buckling of the charge three solution, the formation of links at charges five and six, and the minimal energy trefoil knot at charge seven.

Harland, Derek; Speight, Martin; Sutcliffe, Paul

2011-03-01

365

Modeling Fractions with Cuisenaire Rods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted for grades 3–5 from Annenberg Learner’s Teaching Math Grades 6–8, use virtual Cuisenaire® Rods to represent fractions and to perform operations with fractions.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-06-29

366

LOFT nuclear fuel rod behavior  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the calculational models used to predict fuel rod response for Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) data from the first LOFT nuclear test is presented and discussed and a comparison of predictions with experimental data is made.

Niebruegge, D.A.; Tolman, E.L.

1979-01-01

367

Selecting custom torque prescriptions for the straight-wire appliance.  

PubMed

Selecting custom torque prescriptions based on the treatment needs of each patient can reduce the amount of routine archwire torque adjustment needed and speed torque correction, thus reducing the total treatment time. Using the appropriate torque prescription prevents iatrogenic torque problems and allows most torque corrections to be done earlier with more resilient nickel-titanium and beta-titanium wires. As a result, fewer time-consuming final torque adjustments are needed with stainless steel finishing wires, resulting in shorter treatment time. PMID:23540633

Johnson, Earl

2013-04-01

368

Coupled Multi-Electrode Investigation of Crevice Corrosion of 316 Stainless Steel and NiCrMo Alloy 625  

SciTech Connect

Crevice corrosion is currently mostly studied using either one of two techniques depending on the information desired. The first method involves two multicrevice formers or washers fastened on both sides of a sample plate. This technique provides exposure information regarding the severity of crevice corrosion (depth, position, frequency of attack) but delivers little or no electrochemical information. The second method involves the potentiodynamic or potentiostatic study of an uncreviced sample in a model crevice solution or under a crevice former in aggressive solution where crevice corrosion may initiate and propagate and global current is recorded. However, crevice corrosion initiation and propagation behavior is highly dependent on exact position in the crevice over time. The distance from the crevice mouth will affect the solution composition, the pH, the ohmic potential drop and the true potential in the crevice. Coupled multi-electrode arrays (MEA) were used to study crevice corrosion in order to take in account spatial and temporal evolution of electrochemistry simultaneously. Scaling laws were used to rescale the crevice geometry while keeping the corrosion electrochemical properties equivalent to that of a natural crevice at a smaller length scale. one of the advantages was to be able to use commercial alloys available as wires electrode and, in the case of MEA, to spread the crevice corrosion over many individual electrodes so each one of them will have a near homogeneous electrochemical behavior. The initial step was to obtain anodic polarization curves for the relevant material in acid chloride solution which simulated the crevice electrolyte. using the software Crevicer{trademark}, the potential distribution inside the crevice as a function of the distance from the crevice mouth was determined for various crevice gaps and applied potentials, assuming constant chemistry throughout the crevice. The crevice corrosion initiation location x{sub crit} is the position where the potential drops to E{sub Flade}. Figure 1 illustrates the resulting x{sub crit} vs. G scaling laws for 316 Stainless Steel in 1 M HCl at 50 C. The coupled multi-wire array is composed of one hundred identical 316 Stainless Steel wires in a five by twenty formation inserted in a groove of a 316 Stainless Steel rod such that the ends of the wires are flush mounted with the rod. The 100 wires are coupled electrically through in-line zero resistance ammeters. The diameter of the wires (250 {micro}m) was chosen so that x{sub crit} (critical initiation distance from the crevice mouth) and the expected zone of crevice corrosion (predicted from the scaling law) would be larger than the radius of a single wire. The array created a flush mounted planar electrode with the surface/volume ratio obtained in planar crevices. The observation of the current evolution as a function of position inside and outside the crevice as function of time was made possible as illustrated in Figure 2 in 0.6 M NaCl at 50 C.

F. Bocher; F.J. Presuel-Moreno; J.R. Scully

2006-06-08

369

A comparative analysis of Ender's-rod and compression screw and side plate fixation of intertrochanteric fractures of the hip.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to compare the results of compression screw fixation and Ender's rods in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures of the hip. A retrospective analysis of 77 cases of both unstable and stable cases of intertrochanteric fractures showed a higher incidence of complications in the Ender's group; these included backing out, distal femur fracture, need for a secondary procedure, external rotation deformity, and knee pain. Indications for the use of Ender's rods may be found among patients with burns, soft-tissue injuries of the proximal thigh, and patients refusing blood transfusions. Wiring of the distal ends of Ender's rods prevents backing out of the rods. Dacron tape has also been successfully used to prevent the distal ends of the rods from backing out in the last six of the 77 cases. The compression hip screw is a preferred treatment of choice in both stable and unstable intertrochanteric fractures. PMID:2364601

Rao, J P; Hambly, M; King, J; Benevenia, J

1990-07-01

370

Flying wires at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

1989-03-01

371

Wiring and Cabling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module introduces students to wiring and cabling principles, including transmission lines, computer network and wireless systems, and troubleshooting. The Knowledge Probes allow students to answer open-ended questions covering the content of the module, and the Learning Resources present activities, laboratories, and games to further solidify the material. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource for vocational electronics educators as a ready-made classroom introduction to wiring and cabling.

2008-12-08

372

Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyapatite (HAP) rods were synthesized from dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (CaHPO4, DCPA) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) by the hydrothermal method from 120 to 180 °C. Both cuttlebone (aragonite polymorph of CaCO3) and CaCO3 chemical (calcite polymorph of CaCO3) were used as CaCO3 sources. The nucleation and growth of HAP rods mainly occurred on DCPA particles, while some HAP rods also grew from aragonite particles. The nucleation and growth of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) particles on the surface of calcite particles were observed at the beginning of the reaction of DCPA and calcite, and some HAP rods were also found to grow out of ?-TCP particles. After the hydrothermal reaction at 140 °C for 24 h, most products are HAP with a small amount of ?-TCP synthesized as a byproduct. The HAP rods synthesized were ˜200 nm in width and several microns in length. The reaction mechanism and growth process of HAP rods are discussed.

Zhang, Xing; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

2007-10-01

373

Fabrication of Wire Saw with Patterned Hard Bumps by Electrical Discharge Machining with Powder Suspended in Working Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a fabrication method of a wire saw by electrical discharge machining (EDM). Hard bumps were discretely patterned on the surface of a thin stainless steel wire by EDM with titanium powder suspended in working oil. With an increase of the machining time, the average of the bump height was increased and no removal was observed. The

Katsushi Furutani; Yasuo Murase

374

Snubber assembly for a control rod drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

A snubber cartridge assembly is mounted to the nozzle of a control rod drive mechanism to insure that the snubber assembly will be located within the liquid filled section of a nuclear reactor vessel whenever the control rod drive is assembled thereto. The snubber assembly includes a piston mounted proximate to the control rod connecting end of the control rod

1978-01-01

375

Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.

Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M. [and others

2000-02-24

376

Evaluation of organic coolants for the transportation of LMFBR spent fuel rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and chemical processes that are likely to occur when sodium coated LMFBR spent fuel rods are submerged in various aromatic organic coolants was defined by means of immersion experiments carried out with sodium coated 304 stainless steel coupons. Upon immersion of sodium coated coupons at 220°C in hydrocarbon type coolants such as Therminol 88, a mixture of terphenyls,

C. Jr

1978-01-01

377

A World without Wires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

Panettieri, Joseph C.

2006-01-01

378

WiredSafety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet has afforded hundreds of millions of people the opportunity to access thousands of sites on almost every topic imaginable, and has created a myriad of new employment opportunities, interest groups, and cybercommunities. Regrettably, not every person merging onto the information superhighway is there for such laudable reasons. Stepping into the fray of n'er-do wells is the WiredSafety website, headed by Perry Aftab, an international cyberspace privacy and security lawyer and children's advocate. Registered as a non-profit organization, WiredSafety offers help for online victims of cybercrime and harassment, educational materials about cybercrime, and assistance for law enforcement worldwide on preventing and investigating cybercrimes. A good place to start on the site is Parry's Internet Safety Guide for Parents, which offers a number of helpful tips for parents about monitoring their children's interactions with others over the Internet. WiredSafety also offers Wired-Ed, which is offered free of charge and allows users to learn more about surfing the net safely. Also featured is a wide range of other online courses.

379

NewsWire, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

2002-01-01

380

Basic Wiring. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in…

Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

381

Debate: Wired versus Wireless.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

2000-01-01

382

Vibrating Wire Viscometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The damping of transverse vibrations of a wire in a viscous fluid is the basis for a viscometer of high precision and versatility. A solution to the hydrodynamic problem is indicated, and shown to be valid for a wide range of physical parameters. The devi...

J. T. Tough W. D. McCormick J. G. Dash

1964-01-01

383

A World without Wires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

Panettieri, Joseph C.

2006-01-01

384

Wires by Patchy Particles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Simulation Software: Glotzer Group Code Simulation Method: Brownian Dynamics A system of 80 spherical particles with two patches at a concentration of 0.20, was run starting at an effectively infinite temperature then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of 0.5. The final equillibrium structure is wires or chains. Simulation Model: United Atom Rigid Body with Lennard-Jones

Zhang, Zhenli

2005-01-31

385

Residential Wiring. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…

Taylor, Mark; And Others

386

Plated Wire Memory Subsystem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along ...

K. H. Carpenter

1974-01-01

387

NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ROD DRIVE APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

ABS>A suspension mechanism between a vertically movable nuclear reactor control rod and a rod extension, which also provides information for the operator or an automatic control signal, is described. A spring connects the rod extension to a drive shift. The extension of the spring indicates whether (1) the rod is at rest on the reactor, (2) the rod and extension are suspended, or (3) the extension alone is suspended, the spring controlling a 3-position electrical switch.

Oakes, L.C.; Walker, C.S.

1959-12-15

388

Local intravascular effects of the nitinol wire blood clot filter.  

PubMed

To determine the biocompatibility and thrombogenicity of nitinol blood clot filters, we inserted 27 nitinol wire devices into the venae cavae of 16 dogs and one sheep and studied the results angiographically and at autopsy after periods of one week to four years. Filter shape, location in the vena cava, wire cleaning procedure and wire surface finish were varied. All 18 cleaned nitinol wire filters remained patent by venogram, although some showed small venographic filling defects caused by adherent organized thrombi. Filters in larger veins tended to have less thrombus. Surface polishing and filter shape had no observable effect on thrombogenicity. Histologic study revealed patchy chronic inflammation at the surface of uncleaned filters but only benign fibrous tissue reaction for the cleaned filters. Neointimal tissue overgrowth was observed where nitinol wire contacted the wall of the vena cava. Two filters implanted for four years had no appreciable weight loss caused by corrosion. Platelet adhesion and plasma coagulation effects of nitinol wire were tested in vitro in human blood and found to be similar to those of stainless steel, which is used in comparable devices. These encouraging results suggest that nitinol may be a promising material for human intravascular prosthetic applications. PMID:3286574

Prince, M R; Salzman, E W; Schoen, F J; Palestrant, A M; Simon, M

1988-04-01

389

Corrosion behavior of nitinol wires in body fluid environments.  

PubMed

In this study, breakdown potentials were measured for unpolished and mechanically polished nitinol wires in simulated body fluids. These wires are similar to those used in the manufacture of stents. Considerable scatter was observed in the results indicating a variable surface state. After appropriate heat treatments, the measured breakdown values were lower but more reproducible for the mechanically polished samples. Significantly higher breakdown potentials were observed for cross-section wire samples. Some wires were tested in human blood and the breakdown values were higher than in Ringer and 0.9% NaCl solutions. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the surface layers indicated that oxide thickening occurred after heat treatments. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy also revealed thickened surface oxides on the wires. The oxide was predominantly made up of TiO(2) with a very thin layer of NiO at the outer surface. Galvanic corrosion tests were performed on nitinol wires coupled with gold, elgiloy/phynox, and stainless steel. Nitinol was found to be anodic in all cases yet the currents measured were small. In tests in which nitinol-gold couples were immersed in 0.9% NaCl for periods up to 12 months, only very small amounts of nickel (in the part per billion range) were released into solution and scanning electron microscopy examination revealed no corrosion. PMID:14624497

Carroll, W M; Kelly, M J

2003-12-15

390

The erosive wear and corrosion behavior of zinc- and aluminum-coated steels in simulated coastal environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The telecommunication systems outside plants are made of a variety of materials; metals, alloys, polymers, concrete and so on. The interaction between the outside plant metal components and the environment leads to various types of corrosion. Metal-coated steel wires are widely used as supports for telecommunication cables. In coastal areas the metal-coated steel wire corrodes and even fractures in a

Y. T Horng; T. C Chang; J. W Hsu; H. C Shih

2003-01-01

391

EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND RESIDUAL STRESS OF CARBON-STEEL COATING OBTAINED BY ELECTRIC-ARC SPRAYING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arc spraying is a key technology applied in maintaining, rebuilding and forming parts. High carbon steel wire, a type of arc spraying feed stock with high melting point, is an ideal material used to spray form tools. In this study, the 0.8% carbon steel wire was used to deposit coating, subsequently the coated samples were heated and held at 550?,

Yong-Xiong Chen; Yan Liu; Xiu-Bing Liang; Shi-Cheng Wei; Bin-Shi Xu

392

Inhibitors for protecting steel against hydrogen embrittlement in acid media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of certain acid corrosion inhibitors on the ductility of steel 45 was studied on wire specimens stressed in torsion in an aqueous sulfuric acid solution. It was shown that the best protection against hydrogen embrittlement of steel is offered by inhibitors AGMIB and APB.

N. N. Tkachenko; I. I. Vasilenko; I. Yu. Liskevich

1968-01-01

393

Extending wire rope service life  

SciTech Connect

Selecting the proper wire rope is not a simple procedure. Wire rope is a precision mining machine with scores of moving parts. It is therefore important for mining equipment users to know wire rope and how it is designed and constructed. Good lubrication and regular inspection is important for a safe and long service life.

Not Available

1982-06-01

394

Approximations to wire grid inductance.  

SciTech Connect

By using a multipole-conformal mapping expansion for the wire currents we examine the accuracy of approximations for the transfer inductance of a one dimensional array of wires (wire grid). A simple uniform fit is constructed by introduction of the decay factor from bipolar coordinates into existing formulas for this inductance.

Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Merewether, Kimball O.

2004-06-01

395

Production of hot-wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several methods for producing hot-wire probes are described. Discussion includes the manufacture of probe bodies, soldering plated wires to the prongs etching Walaston type wires, and finishing the probe. This report is written as an instruction manual for researchers who desire to produce or repair their own sensors.

Dickinson, S. C.

1983-04-01

396

High temperature superconducting composite wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature superconducting composite wires are fast emerging as a new advanced materials technology. Rapid progress has been made towards demonstrating practical levels of superconducting performance across long lengths of high temperature superconducting composite wire fabricated using a manufacturable process. This progress has allowed a first generation of composite wire products that is driving commercialization of high temperature superconductivity. Recent

G. N Riley; Q Li; L. G Fritzemeier

1999-01-01

397

Recent progress on improvement to mechanical properties of DI-BSCCO wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the mechanical properties of silver-sheathed BSCCO wire, the laminated BSCCO wires with stainless steel were made under some experimental conditions. The dependence of the stainless steel thickness and the dependence of the pre-tension of stainless steel tapes on the laminated BSCCO were investigated by mechanical tests (tensile test at 77 K and RT and double-bending test at RT) using short samples. Due to the difference of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and the relaxation to equilibrium after removing the total pre-tension of no laminated BSCCO (insert tape) and stainless steel tapes, the residual axial compressive strain applies to an insert tape after the lamination process. A high compressive strain up to the compressive yield of the silver-alloy is so useful for improvement of the mechanical properties of BSCCO wire. Measurement results were approximately the same as the simple model calculated from the residual strain applied to an insert tape by the difference of CTE and pre-tension. The stainless-steel-laminated BSCCO wire ‘Type HT-SS’ has been able to be achieved over 500 MPa at 77 K by increasing stainless steel thickness and the residual axial compression for an insert tape. The developed tough DI-BSCCO has a higher hoop force to compare with YBCO-coated conductor using Hastelloy substrates under the same circumstances such as magnetic field, winding diameter and transport current.

Yamazaki, K.; Kagiyama, T.; Kikuchi, M.; Yamade, S.; Nakashima, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Osabe, G.; Fujikami, J.; Hayashi, K.; Sato, K.

2012-05-01

398

Wire vibration, bowing, and breakage in wire electrical discharge machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an analysis of the wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. The causes of wire vibration, bowing, and breakage are identified. The cross sectional configuration of an eroded wire is derived from basic physics under the assumption that the erosion rate is constant. This configuration is verified experimentally with further explanation as to why numerous experimental studies have yielded different configurations. A computational model has been developed that can evaluate the systematic effects that lead to wire breakage by determining the stress induced by wire erosion and the stress induced by the sparks during the operation of a wire-cutting EDM machine. This model is also capable of determining the extent of wire bowing and vibrations in these machines but only in the frontal direction. The model is supported by data from experiments performed on an AGIECUT 612 wire machine cutting a 10 mm high copper bar with a 0.15 mm brass wire to acquire wire breakage data. The nearly parabolic shape of the bowed wire agrees with the results of other authors making more restrictive assumptions.

Arunachalam, C.; Aulia, M.; Bozkurt, B.; Eubank, P. T.

2001-04-01

399

Deposition of wear-resistant steel surfaces by the plasma rotating electrode coating process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-deposition rate thermal spray method was investigated for the purpose of coating aluminum cylinder bores with a wear resistant surface. This method, the plasma rotating electrode coating system (PROTEC) utilized transferred-arc melting of a rapidly rotating consumable electrode to create a droplet stream via centrifugal atomization. A cylindrical substrate was placed around the rotating rod, in the flight path of the droplets, to deposit a coating onto the internal surface of the cylinder. Selected coatings of 1045 steel deposited by the PROTEC coating method exhibited lower wear loss in lubricated sliding than wire-arc sprayed carbon steel coatings and gray cast iron. Splat cohesion was shown to be a significant factor in the wear resistance of PROTEC coatings. The relationship between deposition enthalpy and cooling rate of the coating was found to have the greatest effect on coating microstructure, and the coating cohesion. The most rapidly solidified coatings showed inferior splat cohesion in comparison to coatings that cooled more slowly. The increase in splat cohesion with decreased cooling rate was accompanied by the formation of a directionally oriented coating microstructure, likely formed during cellular solidification of the coating. A model describing the thermal state of the deposition process was used to predict the deposition conditions that would result in a cellular structure, and the level of splat cohesion required to produce a wear resistant coating.

Kim, Michael Robert

400

Effect of temperature and composition on thermal properties of carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

To simulate steel continuous process (such as induction heating of steel wire) accurately, the relevant thermal properties of carbon steel (within 0.06 to 1.22 wt. % of carbon) were determined as a function of temperature and carbon contents by multiple regression analysis method in this paper. These properties included the thermal conductivity, specific heat, and coefficient of linear thermal expansion,

Sun Yafei; Tu Yongjun; Sun Jing; Niu Dongjie

2009-01-01

401

Novel quantum wire infrared photodetectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes novel semiconductor quantum wire infrared photodetectors in the long- and very long-wavelength regions. The infrared photodetectors are based on intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wires and have the potential for higher operational temperature, increased signal-to-noise ratio, reduced dark current, wider spectral range and sensitivity to normal incident radiation. The quantum wire IR detectors are implemented using a nonlithographic nanostructure fabrication technique that is capable of producing large arrays of semiconductor quantum wires of a variety of materials and on different substrates. This paper describes the operational principles, the design procedure as well as the implementation of the quantum wire photodetectors.

Das, Biswajit; Singaraju, Pavan

2005-01-01

402

Advanced gray rod control assembly  

DOEpatents

An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

2013-09-17

403

Fracture strength of ceramic brackets during arch wire torsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the fracture strengths of eight new vintage ceramic brackets with application of torsional forces. Palatal root torque was applied at the distal side of right maxillary central incisor brackets with 0.022-inch slots by means of a 0.0215 × 0.027-inch rounded edge stainless steel arch wire. A specially designed apparatus that attached to an Instron machine was used

Philippe C. Aknin; Ram S. Nanda; Manville G. Duncanson; G. Fräns Currier; Pramod K. Sinha

1996-01-01

404

Cadmium safety rod thermal tests  

SciTech Connect

Thermal testing of cadmium safety rods was conducted as part of a program to define the response of Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor core components to a hypothetical LOCA leading to a drained reactor tank. The safety rods are present in the reactor core only during shutdown and are not used as a control mechanism during operation; thus, their response to the conditions predicted for the LOCA is only of interest to the extent that it could impact the progression of the accident. This document provides a description of this testing.

Thomas, J.K.; Iyer, N.C.; Peacock, H.B.

1992-07-01

405

Cadmium safety rod thermal tests  

SciTech Connect

Thermal testing of cadmium safety rods was conducted as part of a program to define the response of Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor core components to a hypothetical LOCA leading to a drained reactor tank. The safety rods are present in the reactor core only during shutdown and are not used as a control mechanism during operation; thus, their response to the conditions predicted for the LOCA is only of interest to the extent that it could impact the progression of the accident. This document provides a description of this testing.

Thomas, J.K.; Iyer, N.C.; Peacock, H.B.

1992-01-01

406

Understanding Guitar Wiring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This zipped file provides a number of documents which will help students understand the particulars of guitar wiring. The documents cover the three-way toggle switch, the 5-way lever-action switch, magnetic pick-ups, mini toggle switches, output jacks, selector switches and other details. Once the zipped file is downloaded, the documents (which are in Microsoft Word doc file format) may be viewed.

2012-08-13

407

Constructing rods with given natural frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a new method for constructing axially vibrating rods having prescribed values of the first N natural frequencies, under a given set of boundary conditions. The analysis is based on the determination of the so-called quasi-isospectral rods, that is rods which have the same spectrum as a given rod, with the exception of a single eigenvalue which is free to move in a prescribed interval. The reconstruction procedure needs the specification of an initial rod whose eigenvalues must be close to the assigned eigenvalues. The rods and their normal modes can be constructed explicitly by means of closed-form expressions.

Morassi, Antonino

2013-10-01

408

Fungal induced corrosion of wire rope exposed in humid atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was observed on the interiors of wooden spools and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments were designed to demonstrate a causal relationship between storage conditions, fungal growth, and localized corrosion.

Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P.

1995-03-01

409

Wavelet transform of signal for enhancement of SNR in wire rope inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In magnetic testing of steel wire rope the MFL signals of broken wires may be corrupted by background noise arising from the probe lift-off, vibration and white noise, resulting in unreliable detection and inaccurate characterization of rope weakness. In this paper, a signal processing technique is presented to reduce this background noise by the use of a wavelet transform. The results of processing signals from testing rope pieces show that proposed technique is effective for extracting defect signals. .

Lunin, V.; Barat, V.

2002-05-01

410

A microstructural study of dislocation substructures formed in metal foil substrates during ultrasonic wire bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been conducted on the deformation mechanisms in metal substrates subject to aluminum ultrasonic wire bonding (UWB).\\u000a Aluminum wires were bonded to copper, nickel, stainless steel, and aluminum bronze foil substrates and then removed in aqueous\\u000a sodium hydroxide to permit thin sections of bonded areas to be examined in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The\\u000a results showed a

Nikhil Murdeshwar; James E. Krzanowski

1997-01-01

411

Fretting wear of a high-strength heavily work-hardened eutectoid steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the second paper in an informal series of three on the fretting behavior of a heavily work-hardened eutectoid steel wire, used in the construction of locked coil steel ropes. The fretting behavior of the wire, both in the service surface condition and after mechanical abrasion, is examined. Residual solid die lubricant, from the wire drawing manufacturing process, present both on the surface of the wire and as a reservoir in the drawing marks is determined to play an important role in the fretting behavior. In particular, it is capable of maintaining the coefficient of friction at a low value, at least during the early stages of fretting.

Waterhouse, R. B.; McColl, I. R.; Harris, S. J.; Tsujikawa, M.

1994-06-01

412

Dual wire welding torch and method  

DOEpatents

A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

Diez, Fernando Martinez (Peoria, IL); Stump, Kevin S. (Sherman, IL); Ludewig, Howard W. (Groveland, IL); Kilty, Alan L. (Peoria, IL); Robinson, Matthew M. (Peoria, IL); Egland, Keith M. (Peoria, IL)

2009-04-28

413

HYDRAULIC CONTROL ROD DRIVE MECHANISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydraulic control rod drive mechanism described is housed in a ; thimble attached to and extending outward from the reactor vessel. The drive ; mechanism uses reactor coolant medium as the hydraulic fluid. Within the housing ; there are two concentrically arranged hollow, cylindrically shaped members to one ; of which the piston is attached. One of the two

Kumpf

1963-01-01

414

Status of rod consolidation, 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that the spent fuel storage pools at some domestic light-water reactors will run out of space before 2003, the year that the US Department of Energy currently predicts it will have a repository available. Of the methods being studied to alleviate the problem, rod consolidation is one of the leading candidates for achieving more efficient use of

Bailey

1989-01-01

415

Cool Hot Rod (Thermal Expansion)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is thermal expansion of copper. This demonstration allows an observer to see the effect of heating (and cooling) a copper tube. When heated, the copper tube lengthens and thickens. When cooled, the tube shrinks. The lengthening of the rod rotates a toothpick with an attached flag to make the expansion visible and measurable.

416

Luque rod instrumentation in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A comparative study with Harrington instrumentation.  

PubMed

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in 152 patients was treated by Luque L-rod instrumentation and early mobilisation without external support. This series was compared with a matched group of 156 patients treated by Harrington instrumentation and immobilised in an underarm jacket for nine months. All the operations in both groups were performed by one surgeon and the patients were followed prospectively for more than two years. Correction of the scoliosis in the frontal plane was similar in both groups. However, the normal sagittal contour was better maintained with Luque rods, especially in the thoracolumbar and lumbar regions, and provided less loss of correction than with Harrington rods. Neither method significantly derotated the scoliosis. All the patients with Luque instrumentation developed a solid fusion despite breakage of the sublaminar wires at one or two levels in 4.9%. There were no major neurological complications with either type of instrumentation. PMID:1955449

McMaster, M J

1991-11-01

417

Lateral compliance and elastic stability of a dual-coated optical fiber of finite length, with application to nano-rods embedded into low-modulus elastic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the lateral compliance and elastic stability of a dual-coated fiber of finite length (such as, e.g., an optical fiber interconnect) and apply the obtained solution to a nano-rod (nano-wire, nano-fiber, carbon nano-tube) embedded into a low-modulus elastic medium. The latter situation is encountered in nano-composites, as well as in some advanced heat-spreaders employing nano-rod-arrays. Both the photonic (dual-coated

E. Suhir

2009-01-01

418

LOFT Advanced Fuel Rod Instrumentation Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced fuel rod instrumentation for the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor is being developed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This effort calls for development of sensors to measure fuel rod axial ...

T. R. Billeter R. L. Brown A. I. Y. Chan C. K. Day S. C. Meyers

1978-01-01

419

Control rods in LMFBRs: a physics assessment  

SciTech Connect

This physics assessment is based on roughly 300 control rod worth measurements in ZPPR from 1972 to 1981. All ZPPR assemblies simulated mixed-oxide LMFBRs, representing sizes of 350, 700, and 900 MWe. Control rod worth measurements included single rods, various combinations of rods, and Ta and Eu rods. Additional measurements studied variations in B/sub 4/C enrichment, rod interaction effects, variations in rod geometry, neutron streaming in sodium-filled channels, and axial worth profiles. Analyses were done with design-equivalent methods, using ENDF/B Version IV data. Some computations for the sensitivities to approximations in the methods have been included. Comparisons of these analyses with the experiments have allowed the status of control rod physics in the US to be clearly defined.

McFarlane, H.F.; Collins, P.J.

1982-08-01

420

Investigation of Lightning Rod Shielding Angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies those parameters affecting the shielding angle of the lightning rod (Franklin Rod) above very tall buildings. It was recommended that the shielding angle of the lightning rod is about 45°?60°. The downward lightning leader is modeled by using discrete line charges to consider the exponential distribution of charges through the downward leader. The voltage condition used by Rizk is used to investigate the inception of the upward lightning leader. Different air conditions (relative air density and air humidity) are considered for more practical simulation. The influences of lightning parameters and lightning rod height on the shielding angle are studied. The results shows that, lightning leader parameters, lightning rod height and ground slope have series effects on the lightning rod shielding angle. Based on the results, a lightning rod shielding angle for shielding design is recommended to decrease the lightning stroke to the lightning rod.

Nayel, Mohamed

421

Mechanical and damage analysis along a flat-rolled wire cold forming schedule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation is used to study patented high-C steel flat-rolled wire cold forming processes. An elasto-plastic power\\u000a law, identified from mechanical tests, is used into Forge2005® finite element (FEM) package in order to describe the material\\u000a behaviour during wire drawing followed by cold rolling. A through-process approach has been favoured, transferring residual\\u000a wire-drawing stresses and strain into the flat-rolling preform.

Thomas Massé; Yvan Chastel; Pierre Montmitonnet; Christian Bobadilla; Nicolas Persem; Sylvain Foissey

422

Detection of wire element breakage in power transmission line using HTS-SQUID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed the application of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) using HTS-SQUID gradiometer to detect wire breakage in compressive conductor joints in overhead transmission line. In this study, we prepare an aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) transmission line with a broken wire. The ends of the ACSR cable were compressed with Al sleeves. An AC current was injected toward into the cable axis by applying AC voltage across the both ends of the sleeves. Then the two-dimensional distribution of magnetic field gradient above the cable was measured by a HTS-SQUID gradiometer. In the case of the compressed ACSR with a wire breakage, the field gradient changed periodically along the spiral of the broken wire. In contrast, such changes did not appear above the ACSR cable without defects. These results suggested the possibility to detect the wire breakage in the compressive conductor joints by this method. We also conducted electromagnetic field simulation to verify the experimental results.

Miyazaki, A.; Hatsukade, Y.; Matsuura, H.; Maeda, T.; Suzuki, A.; Tanaka, S.

2009-10-01

423

Control rod support having planar wear surfaces  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combination. It comprises: a longitudinally extending rod guide; a support for a control rod. The support being positioned within the rod guide and intended to receive and minimize scarring of the control rod; a cylindrical control rod having a convex surface and being held by a spider including vanes. The support being relatively flat and thin, and having a predetermined exterior cross-sectional configuration and including a control rod opening formed in the support and having a predetermined configuration and cross-sectional area, a channel formed in the support to receive one of the vanes and communicate with the control rod opening. The channel forming a respective pair of junctures with the control rod opening. The control rod opening including a pair of planar wear surfaces, each parallel to the axis of the control rod opening and extending laterally from the respective junctures to afford a planar-to-convex interface between the convex surface of the control rod and the planar wear surfaces of the support when the convex surface of the control rod abuts.

Veronesi, L.; Schockling, L.A.

1990-02-20

424

Rod pathways: the importance of seeing nothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomical and physiological studies of the mammalian retina have revealed two primary pathways available for the transmission of rod signals to the ganglion cells: one via ON rod bipolars, amacrine II cells, and ON and OFF cone bipolars, which is exquisitely designed for the transmission of single-photon absorption events; and a second via rod–cone gap junctions, and ON and OFF

Lindsay T. Sharpe; Andrew Stockman

1999-01-01

425

Phase Transition of High Carbon Steel Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this demonstration on the phase transition of high carbon steel. The crystalline structure of iron is different at different temperatures, and high-carbon steel alloys undergo a transformation from BCC to FCC in a very small temperature range. An interesting application of this theory is in determining the maximum temperature to which a piece of steel has been heated before it changes phases. In this module, a piece of piano wire is heated and phase changes are observed through the changes in length and magnetic properties of the wire.The lesson includes a step by step explanation of the laboratory procedure. Discussion questions are also included.

2012-07-09

426

Instability generated by Maxwell's Demon wire array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous experiments have shown that in a low pressure, low temperature plasma, positively biasing an array of thin wires can increase electron temperature by creating an angular momentum trap to absorb cold electrons. In this experiment, such a Maxwell Demon device was reproduced by looping 0.0025mm tungsten filaments around a stainless steel shaft covered with ceramic. Such device used to raise electron temperatures from 1eV to 2eV in a multi-dipole chamber operating in the sub-mTorr regime. Geometry of the device is not found to be essential to its functioning. However, at higher positive voltage, an instability in the kHz range prevents acquisition of meaningful temperature data. This instability is measured by a cylindrical probe, and its frequencies are extracted by means of Fast Fourier Transform. The conditions of this instability are investigated by varying gas composition, neutral pressure, plasma density and applied voltage.

Yip, Chi-Shung; Hershkowitz, Noah

2010-11-01

427

Diamond Wire Saw for Precision Machining of Laser Target Components  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication of precision laser targets requires a wide variety of specialized mesoscale manufacturing techniques. The diamond wire saw developed in this study provides the capability to precisely section meso-scale workpieces mounted on the assembly stations used by the Target Fabrication Group. This new capability greatly simplifies the fabrication of many types of targets and reduces the time and cost required to build the targets. A variety of materials are used to fabricate targets, including metals, plastics with custom designed chemical formulas, and aerogels of various densities. The materials are usually provided in the form of small pieces or cast rods that must be machined to the required shape. Many of these materials, such as metals and some plastics, can be trimmed using a parting tool on a diamond turning machine. However, other materials, such as aerogels and brittle materials, cannot be adequately cut with a parting tool. In addition, the geometry of the parts often requires that the workpieces be held in a special assembly station, which excludes the use of a parting tool. In the past, these materials were sectioned using a small, handheld coping saw that used a diamond-impregnated wire as a blade. This miniature coping saw was effective, but it required several hours to cut through certain materials. Furthermore, the saw was guided by hand and often caused significant damage to fragile aerogels. To solve these problems, the diamond wire saw shown in Figure 1 was developed. The diamond wire saw is designed to machine through materials that are mounted in the Target Fabrication Group's benchtop assembly stations. These assembly stations are the primary means of aligning and assembling target components, and there is often a need to machine materials while they are mounted in the assembly stations. Unfortunately, commercially available saws are designed for very different applications and are far too large to be used with the assembly stations. Therefore, a custom diamond wire saw was designed and constructed. The diamond wire saw cuts through workpieces using a continuous loop of diamond-impregnated wire of length 840 mm. The wire loop runs around several idler pulleys and is driven by a simple geared DC motor that rotates at 17 rpm. The linear speed of the wire is 107 inches/minute. The saw is oriented at an angle of 20{sup o} from horizontal, so the operator can view the wire through the cutout at the front end of the saw. When looking through a microscope or camera with a horizontal line of sight, the operator can clearly see the wire as it cuts through the workpiece, as shown in the right side of Figure 1. The saw is mounted on a two-axis stage that allows the operator to align the wire with the workpiece. To cut through the workpiece, the operator drives the wire through the workpiece by turning the feed micrometer. An image of the interior of the diamond wire saw appears in Figure 2. This picture was taken after removing the protective cover plate from the saw.

Bono, M J; Bennett, D W

2005-08-08

428

Investigation of Minimum Film boiling Phenomena on Fuel Rods Under Blowdown Cooling Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Blowdon cooling heat transfer is an important process that occurs early in a hypothetical large break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor. During blowdown, the flow through the hot assembly is a post-critical heat flux dispersed droplet flow. The heat transfer mechanisms that occur in blowdown cooling are complex and depend on droplet and heated surface interaction. In a safety analysis, it is of considerable importance to determine the thermal-hydraulic conditions leading to the minimum film boiling temperature, Tmin. A flow boiling rig for measurement of blowdown cooling heat transfer and quench phenomena on a nuclear fuel rod simulator was designed and constructed for operation at up to 12.4 MPa. The test section consisted of a concentric annulus, with a 9.5 mm OD nuclear fuel rod simulator at the center. The rod was contained within a 0.85 mm thick, 19 mm OD 316 stainless steel tube, forming the flow channel. Two types of rods were tested; one type was sheathed with Inconel 600 while the other was clad with Zircaloy-2. Water was injected into the test section at the top of the heated length through an injection header. This header was an annular sign that fit around the fuel rod simulator and within the stainless steel tube. Small spacers aligned the injection header and prevented contract with either the heater rod or the tube. A series of small diameter holes at the bottom of the header caused the formation of droplets that became entrained with the steam flow. The test section design was such that quench would take place on the rod, and not along the channel outer annulus.

Stephen M. Bajorek; Michael Gawron; Timothy Etzel; Lucas Peterson

2003-06-30

429

Asteroseismology "on a WIRE"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wide-field Infra Red Explorer (WIRE) was launched in March 1999. Its main mission failed due to loss of coolant, but the 52 mm aperture star camera was used for asteroseismology. A few results are already published, but other bright variable stars were observed as well. Here we present an overview of the preliminary results and detailed period analyses on WIRE data of massive main-sequence pulsators. The period of the ? Scuti star ? Cas could be easily recovered. In an almost uninterrupted observing run of 17 days on the 16 Msolar star ? Crucis (Mimosa) multiperiodicity could be found in the light variations of this ? Cephei variable. Ground-based photometry so far revealed only one period for this star. Although the amplitudes are small (3, 2.7 and 0.6 millimag for the dominant modes), the periods are in perfect agreement with the results of a recent line profile study of this star. Indications of more periods, including a previously suggested one, are present. The results obtained during this unintentional and unadapted asteroseismology project are extremely promising. They show only a tiny fraction of the outcome of a fully adapted asteroseismological mission like Eddington.

Cuypers, J.; Aerts, C.; Buzasi, D.; Catanzarite, J.; Conrow, T.; Laher, R.

2002-01-01

430

Measurement of Fracture Toughness by Short Rod Method: Ultrasmall samples as small as 0.25 in. in diameter by 0.375 in. in length can be tested.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A quality-assurance method has been developed to measure fracture toughness of various hardware steels using short rod samples. Design, development, and evaluation o...

1983-01-01

431

Rod cluster having improved vane configuration  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a pressurized water reactor vessel, the vessel defining a predetermined axial direction of the flow of coolant therewithin and having plural spider assemblies supporting, for vertical movement within the vessel, respective clusters of rods in spaced, parallel axial relationship, parallel to the predetermined axial direction of coolant flow, and a rod guide for each spider assembly and respective cluster of rods. The rod guide having horizontally oriented support plates therewithin, each plate having an interior opening for accommodating axial movement therethrough of the spider assembly and respective cluster of rods. The opening defining plural radially extending channels and corresponding parallel interior wall surfaces of the support plate.

Shockling, L.A.; Francis, T.A.

1989-09-05

432

ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic apparatus for moving a rod-like member in small steps in either direction is described. The invention has particular application in the reactor field where the reactor control rods must be moved only a small distance and where the use of mechanical couplings is impractical due to the high- pressure seals required. A neutron-absorbing rod is mounted in a housing with gripping uaits that engage the rod, and coils for magnetizing the gripping units to make them grip, shift, and release the rod are located outside the housing.

Young, J.N.

1958-04-22

433

Nickel content of as-received and retrieved NiTi and stainless steel archwires: assessing the nickel release hypothesis.  

PubMed

This study assesses the nickel content of as-received and retrieved stainless steel and NiTi archwires alloys. New and used brand-matched, composition-matched, and cross section-matched archwires were subjected to scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive electron probe microanalysis. Elemental analysis was performed on three randomly selected areas, and the nickel content, expressed as ratios of Ni/Ti (in NiTi wires) or Ni/Fe (in stainless steel), was statistically analyzed with a t-test (alpha = .05). No changes were detected with respect to Ni content ratios between as-received and retrieved NiTi or stainless steel wires, suggesting an absence of nickel release. Wear and delamination phenomena on the wire surface and the formation of galvanic couple between the stainless steel wires and bracket brazing materials intraorally may modify the corrosion susceptibility of the wire alloys in clinical conditions. PMID:15132439

Eliades, Theodore; Zinelis, Spiros; Papadopoulos, Moschos A; Eliades, George; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

2004-04-01

434

The Current in a Wire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

Thompson, Keith

2009-01-01

435

Dry reclamation of wire scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for recovering plastic from plastic insulated wire scrap involving separating the plastic from short segments of the wire by agitating the segments in a heated dry powder medium until the metal is released from the plastic insulation, separating the metal from the plastic insulation leaving at least 0.5 percent by weight of the powder intermixed with the plastic

Scalco

1976-01-01

436

Plastic properties of crumpled wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter we study nonlinear irreversible mechanical properties of crumpled wires in a large interval of deformations. Power laws connecting the geometrical and mechanical variables for this kind of disordered system are examined. Critical exponents are obtained from experiments and from scaling arguments. The behaviour of crumpled wires and crumpled surfaces are compared.

M. A. F. Gomes; F. F. Lima; V. M. Oliveira

1991-01-01

437

Aircraft wiring program status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR\\/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

Rex Beach

1995-01-01

438

Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. S...

R. Kasturi O. I. Camps

2002-01-01

439

HTS Wire: status and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical, robust high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire is a composite of high temperature superconductor and metal. The composite provides many advantages, including improved mechanical properties and stability. Multi-filamentary composite fabricated with the BSCCO HTS material has achieved performance for commercial applications, and commercial price\\/performance is on the near horizon. This wire enables HTS applications such as power cables, marine propulsion

A. P. Malozemoff; D. T. Verebelyi; S. Fleshler; D. Aized; D. Yu

2003-01-01

440

Aircraft wiring program status report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

Beach, Rex

1995-11-01

441

Flying hot-wire anemometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flying hot-wire arrangement has been developed for the measurement of the velocity characteristics of the flow around airfoils, and particularly in regions where negative values of instantaneous velocity occur. The mechanism and signal processing system are described and appraised by comparing stationary and flying wire measurements obtained in the trailing edge region of a flap at an angle of

B. E. Thompson; J. H. Whitelaw

1984-01-01

442

Tungsten wire for incandescent lamps  

SciTech Connect

Tungsten wire for incandescent lamp filaments must operate at high temperatures and for long times. To meet these requirements, the grain morphology of the wire must be controlled to reduce the propensity for grain boundary sliding. The morphology is a function of the distribution of very small pockets of potassium in the wire and the mechanical processing from ingot to wire. The behavior of the filament is directly related to the grain morphology. This paper describes the mechanism by which the potassium is incorporated into and distributed in the ingot. The elongation and spheroidization of the bubbles during hot rolling and swaging is also examined and related to the grain morphology of wire. Some indications of the relationship between grain morphology and filament behavior are also given.

Walter, J.L.; Briant, C.L. (General Electric Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (USA))

1990-09-01

443

Remote Gamma Scanning System for Characterization of BWR and PWR Fuel Rod Sections  

SciTech Connect

Sometimes challenges with the design and deployment of automated equipment in remote environments deals more with the constraints imposed by the remote environment than it does with the details of the automation. This paper discusses the development of a scanning system used to provide gamma radiation profiles of irradiated fuel rod segments. The system needed the capability to provide axial scans of cut segments of BWR and PWR fuel rods. The scanning location is A-Cell at the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Hanford site in Washington State. The criteria for the scanning equipment included axial scanning increments of a tenth of an inch or less, ability to scan fuel rods with diameters ranging from 3/8 inch to 5/8 inch in diameter, and fuel rod segments up to seven feet in length. Constraints imposed by the environment included having the gamma detector and operator controls on the outside of the hot cell and the scanning hardware on the inside of the hot cell. This entailed getting a narrow, collimated beam of radiation from the fuel rod to the detector on the outside of the hot cell while minimizing the radiation exposure caused by openings for the wires and cables traversing the hot cell walls. Setup and operation of all of the in-cell hardware needed to accommodate limited access ports and use of hot cell manipulators. The radiation levels inside the cell also imposed constraints on the materials used.

Crowell, Shannon L.; Alzheimer, James M.

2011-08-08

444

Spinal arthrodesis for spinal deformity using posterior instrumentation and sublaminar wiring. A preliminary report of 100 consecutive cases.  

PubMed

One hundred consecutive patients with spinal deformity due to various diagnoses were treated by posterior spinal arthrodesis with instrumentation and multiple sublaminar wires. Both the Harrington and Luque rodding systems were used. A total of 1128 wire loops were passed. No patient developed paraparesis or paraplegia, but three had transient sensory disturbance. There were no cases of broken rods or wires. Forty-five of the patients had no postoperative support. This worked well for neuromuscular scolioses, but for idiopathic scoliosis there was a disturbing loss of correction in many cases. Fusion to the sacrum was best accomplished with the "Galveston" technique, other methods having a high rate of pseudarthrosis. The main benefits appeared to be the ability to stabilize neuromuscular patients without the use of external immbolization, and the correction of thoracic lordosis. PMID:4093225

Winter, R B; Anderson, M B

1985-01-01

445

Electrode carrying wire for GTAW welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a hollow tungsten electrode including a ceramic liner and forms the filler metal wire guide. The wire is fed through the tungsten electrode thereby reducing the size of the torch to eliminate clearance problems which exist with external wire guides. Since the wire is preheated from the tungsten more wire may be fed into the weld puddle, and the wire will not oxidize because it is always within the shielding gas.

Morgan, Gene E.; Dyer, Gerald E.

1990-05-01

446

Measurement of wire electrode temperature in WEDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire temperature is an important parameter in the wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) process because overheating of the\\u000a wire can cause the wire to break. It is difficult, however, to measure the wire temperature directly under the condition that\\u000a the wire is emerged in water and surrounded by the workpiece. Only mathematical analyses by now have been reported to determine\\u000a such

Fuzhu Han; Gang Cheng; Zhijing Feng; Isago Soichiro

2009-01-01

447

Effects of rod worth and drop speed on the BWR off-center rod drop accident  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, several multidimensional coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic calculations of the boiling water reactor (BWR) control rod drop accident (RDA) have been performed. Typically, two-dimensional (r, z) RDA calculations require that the dropped rod be a center rod, as a result of geometric limitations; while in three-dimensional calculations, the dropped rod is generally taken to be the center rod in order to allow a quarter-core representation and limit computer running times. For typical BWR core loadings, however, the center rod is not necessarily the highest worth rod. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of increasing the control rod worth and the rod drop speed on the off-center RDA. An increase in either of these parameters results in an increase in peak core power and fuel enthalpy, and the objective of this study is to determine the margin to the fuel damage threshold.

Cokinos, D.M.; Carew, J.F.

1986-01-01

448

Sintered wire cathode  

DOEpatents

A porous cathode structure is fabricated from a plurality of wires which are placed in proximity to each other in elevated temperature and pressure for a sintering time. The sintering process produces the porous cathode structure which may be divided into a plurality of individual porous cathodes, one of which may be placed into a dispenser cathode support which includes a cavity for containing a work function reduction material such as BaO, CaO, and Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The work function reduction material migrates through the pores of the porous cathode from a work replenishment surface adjacent to the cavity of the dispenser cathode support to an emitting cathode surface, thereby providing a dispenser cathode which has a uniform work function and therefore a uniform electron emission.

Falce, Louis R. (San Jose, CA); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

2009-06-09

449

Nano-storage wires.  

PubMed

We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals. PMID:23859333

Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

2013-07-19

450

Interspinous process segmental instrumentation with bone-button-wire for correction of scoliosis.  

PubMed

From May 1985 to May 1988, 55 patients with scoliosis were given interspinous process segmental spinal instrumentation with bone button-wire. The Harrington distraction rod and Luque's rod were placed separately in the concave and convex sides of the curvature fixed with bone button-wire. The fixations were subjected to biomechanical analysis, and the patients were followed up for an average of 18 months with satisfactory results. The curves were corrected from 69.4 degrees to 33.2 degrees, with a corrective rate of 47.8%. The merits of this procedure lie in (1) no injury to the spinal cord and minimal neurological complications, (2) strong fixation for correcting deformities, and (3) minimal blood loss and short time for operation. PMID:2123772

Zhang, G B; Li, Z R; Wei, X R

1990-09-01

451

Sliding mechanics of coated composite wires and the development of an engineering model for binding.  

PubMed

A tribological (friction and wear) study, which was designed to simulate clinical sliding mechanics, was conducted as part of an effort to determine the suitability of poly(chloro-p-xylylene) coatings for composite orthodontic archwires. Prototype composite wires, having stiffnesses similar to those of current initial and intermediate alignment wires, were tested against stainless steel and ceramic brackets in the passive and active configurations (with and without angulation). Kinetic coefficient of friction values, which were determined to quantify sliding resistances as functions of the normal forces of ligation, had a mean that was 72% greater than uncoated wire couples at 0.43. To improve analysis of the active configuration, a mathematical model was developed that related bracket angulation, bracket width, interbracket distance, wire geometry, and wire elastic modulus to sliding resistance. From this model, kinetic coefficients of binding were determined to quantify sliding resistances as functions of the normal forces of binding. The mean binding coefficient was the same as that of uncoated wire couples at 0.42. Although penetrations through the coating were observed on many specimens, the glass-fiber reinforcement within the composite wires was undamaged for all conditions tested. This finding implies that the risk of glass fiber release during clinical use would be eliminated by the coating. In addition, the frictional and binding coefficients were still within the limits outlined by conventional orthodontic wire-bracket couples. Consequently, the coatings were regarded as an improvement to the clinical acceptability of composite orthodontic archwires. PMID:10730674

Zufall, S W; Kusy, R P

2000-02-01

452

Mapping corrosion kinetics using the wire beam electrode in conjunction with electrochemical noise resistance measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire beam electrode (WBE) has been used, in conjunction with the electrochemical noise resistance method, to determine the kinetics of nonuniform corrosion of mild steel in a carbon dioxide saturated brine. Local electrochemical parameters including corrosion potential, galvanic current, and electrochemical noise resistance were measured from local areas of a WBE surface. These parameters were used to calculate the

Y. J. Tan; S. Bailey; B. Kinsella; A. Lowe

2000-01-01

453

Study of Plasma Arc Welded Reactor Materials. Plasma Arc Welding Using Hot Wire Electrodes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of single-run and double-run plasma arc welding using a hot wire electrode on the structure of the HAZ of the fine-grained structural steels 22 NiMoCr 3 7 and 20 MnMoNi 5 5 were investigated, with particular regard to the behaviour of that reg...

K. O. Trarbach

1980-01-01

454

Polonium decontamination performance of stainless steel mesh filter for lead alloy-cooled reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead–Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has many good characteristics as a coolant for fast reactors. One of the issues remaining to be solved, however, is the polonium issue. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the decontamination performance of a polonium filter by experiment in the penetration condition. Two types of stainless steel wire meshes, fine wire mesh and loose

Toru Obara; Yu Yamazawa; Toshinobu Sasa

2011-01-01

455

Structure and High-Field Performance of New Wires Fabricated From Sn-Based Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sn-Ta based quaternary alloys were prepared by the reaction of constituent metal powders. The alloys were fabricated into sheet or rod forms. In addition, Sn-Ti based ternary alloys prepared by melt and cast procedure were fabricated into sheets. Jelly Roll (JR) composites were prepared using Sn-based alloy sheet and Nb sheet, and then fabricated into wires. A Bc2 (4.2 K)

Kyoji Tachikawa; Yuuki Hayashi; Koei Nakata; Hiroki Sasaki; Masahiro Yamaguchi; Takao Takeuchi

2009-01-01

456

Stainless Steel MicroNeedle Electrodes Made by Electrolytic Pointing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-needle electrodes of any desired taper and sharpness for insertion into living tissue can be made quickly by electrolytic etching. For stainless steel wire the electrolyte is a mixture of sulfuric and ortho-phosphoric acids. The wire to be pointed is made the anode of a circuit initially carrying about 0.03 amp. Gross shaping of the needle is done by repeatedly

Harry Grundfest; Robert W. Sengstaken; Walter H. Oettinger; R. W. Gurry

1950-01-01

457

In vitro surface corrosion of stainless steel and NiTi orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

Simulated fixed orthodontic appliances were constructed, immersed and incubated in artificial saliva for periods up to three months. Two types of stainless steel archwires and two types of NiTi wires were used. The surface corrosion of the archwires was determined macroscopically, with scanning electron microscopy, and with spectrophotometry. The deposits on the wires were identified with X-ray diffraction. Uniform corrosion was observed on stainless steel wires, and a slight colour change was detected on the NiTi wires beneath stainless steel ligatures. The corrosion product on the stainless steel wires increased with immersion time, and the surface oxide films were easily detached from the underlying matrix. Crevice corrosion was observed under deposits of oxide, and at the interface between bracket and band. Such corrosion may weaken a wire or weld leading to fracture. In contrast, the NiTi archwires did not corrode, and there was no significant difference in surface morphology. The stainless steel archwires showed a significant loss of reflectance after heat treatment and immersion in artificial saliva. The NiTi archwires had the same reflectance before and after the immersion test. NiTi archwires are significantly more stable and resistant to corrosion than stainless steel archwires. PMID:12790351

Shin, Ji-Soo; Oh, Keun-Taek; Hwang, Chung-Ju

2003-04-01

458

Investigation of Backscatter X-ray imaging techniques for Uranium Dioxide Fuel Rods  

SciTech Connect

Radiography by Selective Detection (RSD), was investigated for its ability to determine the presence and types of defects in a UO{sub 2} fuel rod surrounded by zirconium cladding. Images created using a Monte Carlo model compared favorably with actual X-ray backscatter images from mock fuel rods. A fuel rod was modeled as a rectangular parallelepiped with zirconium cladding, and pencil beam X-ray sources of 160 kVp (79 keV avg) and 480 kVp (218 keV avg) were generated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code to attempt to image void and palladium (Pd) defects in the interior and on the surface of the fuel pellet. It was found that the 160 kVp spectrum was unable to detect the presence of interior defects, whereas the 480 kVp spectrum detected them with both the standard and the RSD backscatter methods, though the RSD method was very inefficient. It was also found that both energy spectra were able to detect void and Pd defects on the surface using both imaging methods. Additionally, two mock fuel rods were imaged using a backscatter X-ray imaging system, one consisting of hafnium pellets in a Zircaloy-4 cladding and the other consisting of steel pellets in a Zircalloy-4 cladding which was then encased in a steel cladding (a double encapsulation configuration employed in irradiation and experiments). It was found that the system was capable of detecting individual HfO{sub 2} pellets in a Zircaloy-4 cladding and may be capable of detecting individual steel pellets in the double-encapsulated sample. It is expected that the system would also be capable of detecting individual UO{sub 2} pellets in a Zircaloy-4 cladding, though no UO{sub 2} fuel rod was available for imaging.

Jackson, Timothy D [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Hollenbach, Daniel F [ORNL; Shedlock, Daniel [Nucsafe, Inc.

2011-01-01

459

Corrosion Test of US Steels in Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) and Kinetic Modeling of Corrosion in LBE Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the LBE corrosion test results of several US steels, and a preliminary analysis using a kinetic model for corrosion in LBE systems. Tube and rod specimens of austenitic steels 316\\/316L, D9, ferritic\\/martensitic steels HT-9 and T- 410 and Russian martensitic steel EP823 were inserted in an LBE loop CU-1M at IPPE. The oxygen concentration in LBE was between

A. Rusanov; A. P. Demishonkov

460

High temperature control rod assembly  

DOEpatents

A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

Vollman, Russell E. (Solana Beach, CA)

1991-01-01

461

Application of electron backscattered diffraction to cleavage fracture in duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel (DSS) are generally superior to conventional austenite or ferrite grades. DSSs can have yield strengths twice the austenite grades, while retaining good ductility and toughness properties. Commercial wrought duplex stainless steels, either plates or rod, are processed by hot rolling followed by a solution annealing treatment to optimize the austenite-ferrite

S. Kim; T. J. Marrow

1999-01-01

462

Cold Extrusion of Six Low-Alloy Case-Hardening Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extrusion pressure data are presented for both the forward extrusion of rod and the backward extrusion of can in six low-alloy, case-hardening steels, En 351, En 352, En 353, En 354, En 355 and En 361. The extrusion of these steels requires pressures 20-6...

J. C. Hendry

1977-01-01

463

Fuel rod retention device for a nuclear reactor  

DOEpatents

A device is described for supporting a nuclear fuel rod in a fuel rod assembly which allows the rod to be removed without disturbing other rods in the assembly. A fuel rod cap connects the rod to a bolt which is supported in the assembly end fitting by means of a locking assembly. The device is designed so that the bolt is held securely during normal reactor operation yet may be easily disengaged and the fuel rod removed when desired.

Hylton, Charles L. (Madison Heights, VA)

1984-01-01

464

Reactor control rod timing system. [LMFBR  

DOEpatents

A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system is described for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

Wu, P.T.K.

1980-03-18

465

Pneumatic rod loading apparatus and method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rod feeder assembly composed of elongated tubular members arranged in vertical courses and disposed in a box, the tubular members being flush at their downstream end and provided with a loading section at the upstream or the opposite end. The tubular members are of the same length in the same course but are shorter in the upper courses. The method for automatically feeding rods into a matrix includes the steps of randomly disposing the rods on the loading sections of the tubular members, aligning and positioning the rods in the tubular members by vibrating the tubular members in an inclined disposition, and transferring the rods from the rod feeder assembly to the matrix.

Kim, Chulho

1995-06-01

466

HTS Wire: status and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical, robust high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire is a composite of high temperature superconductor and metal. The composite provides many advantages, including improved mechanical properties and stability. Multi-filamentary composite fabricated with the BSCCO HTS material has achieved performance for commercial applications, and commercial price/performance is on the near horizon. This wire enables HTS applications such as power cables, marine propulsion motors, utility generators and magnets for materials processing. Coated conductor is also a composite, combining the YBCO HTS material with a metal or metal-alloy substrate; this technology is in the stage of research and development. The status and commercial prospects of these wire technologies are reviewed.

Malozemoff, A. P.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Fleshler, S.; Aized, D.; Yu, D.

2003-04-01

467

Detection and sizing of defects in control rod drive mechanism penetrations using eddy current and ultrasonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two years, concern has been generated about the capabilities of performing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the closure-head penetrations in nuclear-reactor pressure vessels. These penetrations are primarily for instrumentation and control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) and are usually thick-walled Inconel tubes, which are shrink-fitted into the steel closure head. The penetrations are then welded between the outside surface

G. M. Light; J. L. Fisher; R. F. Tennis; J. S. Stolte; G. J. Hendrix

1996-01-01

468

Taguchi Method Implementation in Taper Motion Wire EDM Process Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire EDM) is a non-conventional metal removal process as well as one of the best manufacturing processes suitable for producing jigs, fixtures, and dies. Among others, the machine is able to cut a workpiece having oblique and taper form. The objective of this paper is to optimize the input parameters of Wire EDM machine, such as no load voltage, capacitor, on-time, off-time, and servo voltage, for machining medium carbon steel ASSAB 760. The Taguchi design of experiments, the signal-to-noise ratio, and analysis of variance are employed to analyze the effects of the input parameters by adopting L18 Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) to conduct experiments using brass wire electrode of 0.2 mm in diameter. In order to achieve the maximum material removal rate (MRR) or the minimum surface roughness (SR), six controllable factors, i.e., the parameters of each at three levels are applied for determining the optimal combination of factors and levels. The results reveal that the MRR and the SR are greatly influenced by the on-time and the taper angle, respectively. Experimental results affirm the effectiveness of the method, and also prove that the Taguchi method is suitable to solving the stated problem within minimum number of experiments as compared to that of a full factorial design.

Martowibowo, S. Y.; Wahyudi, A.

2012-10-01

469

A rod-type creepmeter for measurement of displacement in active fault zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A creepmeter has been developed to monitor gradual displacements of near-surface movement in an active fault zone. This rod-type creepmeter is a robust, low-cost instrument that is simple to construct and install. This creepmeter consists of two 3-m invar rods attached to anchored steel piers at each end, straddling the surface traces of active fault. The invar rods are supported by a pair of U-shaped solid steel girders. A mechanical dial-gauge sensor in the middle of the creepmeter is adopted to record the displacement of fault creep, and has a precision of 0.01 mm. Because the creepmeter is installed on the surface, the temperature effect is important. To calibrate and correct for the temperature effect, we carried out hourly measurements over a period of 30 hours to calculate the thermal expansion coefficients for each creepmeter. Thermal corrections could thus be made when readings were taken. Five of these creepmeters have been installed in the Chihshang active fault zone of eastern Taiwan, in the present collision suture zone between the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian plate. Readings taken over one year have shown that this rod-type creepmeter is effective in providing a near-continuous record of active fault creep with a good precision.

Lee, J.-C.; Jeng, F.-S.; Chu, H.-T.; Angelier, J.; Hu, J.-C.

2000-05-01

470

LOFT advanced fuel rod instrumentation development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced fuel rod instrumentation for the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor is being developed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This effort calls for development of sensors to measure fuel rod axial motion, fuel centerline temperature (to 2200°C), fuel rod plenum gas pressure (to 2500 psig), and plenum gas temperature (to 1500°F). A parallel

T. R. Billeter; R. L. Brown; A. I. Y. Chan; C. K. Day; S. C. Meyers; E. M. Sheen; J. L. Stringer

1978-01-01

471

Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR  

DOEpatents

An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

Germer, J.H.

1982-03-23

472

Acoustic loading effects on oscillating rod bundles  

SciTech Connect

An analytical study of the interaction between an infinite acoustic medium and a cluster of circular rods is described. The acoustic field due to oscillating rods and the acoustic loading on the rods are first solved in a closed form. The acoustic loading is then used as a forcing function for rod responses, and the acousto-elastic couplings are solved simultaneously. Numerical examples are presented for several cases to illustrate the effects of various system parameters on the acoustic reaction force coefficients. The effect of the acoustic loading on the coupled eigenfrequencies are discussed.

Lin, W.H.

1980-01-01

473

Rotation rate of rods in turbulent flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the motion of single small rod-like particles in turbulent flow. The orientation and position of rods are measured experimentally using Lagrangian particle tracking with images from multiple cameras in a flow between two oscillating grids. We also have performed numerical simulations of rod motion in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The probability distribution of the rotation rate of the rods has extended tails indicating rare events with large rotation rate. Rods rotation rate is determined by the velocity gradient of the flow, so measurements of the rotation rate provides indirect access to statistics of the velocity gradient of the flow. However, tracer rods preferentially sample the flow since their orientation becomes correlated with the local axes of the velocity gradient tensor. The result is that the typical rotation rate of rods is much smaller than it would be if they were randomly oriented. The numerical simulations allow us to quantify the preferential alignment, including its dependence on rod aspect ratio. This allows measurements of the second moment of the rod rotation rate to be used to measure the energy dissipation rate in the turbulent flow.

Parsa, Shima; Calzavarini, Enrico; Toschi, Federico; Voth, Greg

2011-11-01

474

Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release  

DOEpatents

A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

Hutter, E.; Pardini, J.A.; Walker, D.E.

1984-03-13

475

Plasma Potential Profiles Near a Thin Cylindrical Wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although there are many experimental and theoretical works measuring plasma potential profiles near planar boundaries, there is little experimental data on the sheath and presheath of surrounding cylindrical wires. This paper presents experimental measurements of plasma potential profiles in the radial direction, perpendicular to a long (50 cm) and thin diameter (0.5 mm) circular stainless steel wire. Measurements were made using the inflection point in the limit of zero emission technique in an argon plasma in a multi-dipole dc hot filament device. Planar Langmuir probes were used to measure the plasma properties far from the sheath boundary. Sheath and presheath characteristics of the cylindrical geometry were examined for different Debye lengths and energy of the electrons emitted from the filaments.

Oksuz, Lutfi; Hershkowitz, Noah; Siddiqui, Umair M.; Gulec, Ali

2011-11-01

476

Novel Gapped Quantum Wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality state of the art quantum wires (QWRs) can be fabricated by the novel cleaved edge overgrowth technique, proposed by (Pfeiffer et al., 1990). Transverse quantization in these QWRs leads to a succession of nested energy bands. With the lowest two successive energy levels occupied, gapped phases are possible including, e.g, an intersubband charge density wave (ICDW) and a Cooper phase with strong superconducting fluctuations (Starykh et al., 2000). Due to the possibility of density reorganization, in which it becomes favorable for the two lowest subbands to match their densities, the ICDW is usually the most likely state. Recently, by exploiting the valley degeneracy in AlAs, a single QWR has been fabricated with two degenerate nonoverlapping bands separated in k space by half an Umklapp vector (Moser et al. 2004). For low densities this structure is able to access a multiple subband regime that is not subject to the density reorganizing ICDW, leaving the Cooper phase to flourish. Using Abelian bosonization, we explore the relevant interaction terms for this system, including Umklapp assisted Cooper scattering, and discuss the phase diagram.

Datta, Trinanjan

2005-03-01

477

Novel Gapped Quantum Wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality state of the art quantum wires (QWRs) can be fabricated by the novel Cleaved Edge Overgrowth (CEO) technique, proposed by (Pfeiffer et al, 1990). Transverse quantization in these QWRs leads to a succession of nested energy bands. With the lowest two successive energy levels occupied, gapped phases are possible including, e.g., an intersubband charge density wave (ICDW) and a Cooper phase with strong superconducting fluctuations (Starykh et al, 2000). Due to the possibility of density reorganization, in which it becomes favorable for the two lowest subbands to match their densities, the ICDW is usually the most likely state. Recently, by exploiting the valley degeneracy in AlAs, a single QWR has been fabricated with two degenerate nonoverlapping bands separated in k space by half an Umklapp vector (Moser et al 2004). For low densities the structure is able to access a multiple subband regime that is not subject to the density reorganizing ICDW, leaving a Cooper phase to flourish. Using Abelian bosonization, we explore the relevant interaction terms for this system, including Umklapp assisted Cooper scattering and discuss the phase diagram.

Datta, Trinanjan

2005-04-01

478

Holographic Interferometry of Exploding Wires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A short pulse (2 nsec) ruby laser has been used to make holographic interferograms of exploding-wire events. At atmospheric pressure the interferograms exhibit both shock waves and ionization. In a vacuum the vaporization and subsequent ionization of the ...

J. L. Seftor

1973-01-01

479

Cad. Of Masks and Wiring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Algorithms are discussed for application in computerized design of monolithic integrated circuit masks and wiring. A simple minimum-distance model is generalized so that the outcome is an abstract model. A short introduction to notions in graph theory is ...

M. C. Vanlier R. H. J. M. Otten

1974-01-01

480

Hoists, Chain and Wire Rope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Engineering Test Procedure describes test methods and techniques for evaluating the technical performance and characteristics of Hoists (Chain and Wire Rope Types), and for determining their suitability for service use by the U. S. Army. (Author)

1970-01-01

481

Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)|

Baker, Blane

2000-01-01

482

Novel Stacked Wire Mesh Compact Heat Exchangers Produced Using Cold Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the feasibility of using the pulsed gas dynamic spraying (PGDS) process to deposit metal powder on the outer surfaces of metal wire mesh wafers for use as high-performance compact heat exchangers. Plain-square weave woven mesh produced from stainless steel wires were stacked and sintered to form wire mesh bricks, which were then cut into wafers. The outer surfaces of the wafers were sealed using the PGDS deposition technique as opposed to the more traditional brazing sheet solution. This approach provides more intimate contact between the mesh wire tips and sealed surface, thereby promoting conduction through the outer walls and improving the heat exchanger efficiency. In addition, PGDS is an attractive alternative to brazing sheets for this application because of its potential for reduced manufacturing costs. Burst and tensile tests of the PGDS coated wafers were carried out.

Assaad, Jamil; Corbeil, Antoine; Richer, Patrick F.; Jodoin, Bertrand

2011-12-01

483

Selection of replacement material for the failed surface level gauge wire in Hanford waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

Surface level gauges fabricated from AISI Type 316 stainless steel (316) wire failed after only a few weeks of operation in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The wire failure was determined to be due to chloride ion assisted corrosion of the 316 wire. Radiation-induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the primary source of the chloride ions. An extensive literature search followed by expert concurrence was undertaken to select a replacement material for the wire. Platinum (Pt){minus}20 % Iridium (Ir) alloy was selected as the replacement material from tile candidate materials, P-20% Ir, Pt-1O% Rhodium (Rh), Pt-20%Rh and Hastelloy C-22. The selection was made on the basis of the alloy`s immunity towards acidic and basic environments as well as its adequate tensile properties in the fully annealed state.

Anantatmula, R.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pitman, S.G.; Lund, A.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-10-01

484

Fly-by-Wire Flight Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with an introduction to fly-by-wire and an outline of state-of-the-art fly-by-wire techniques. An outline of the philosophy of fly-by-wire flight control systems is given, the evolution of fly-by-wire is ...

J. P. Sutherland

1967-01-01

485

New Bonding Wire for Fine Pitch Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years the trend in bonding wire applications has been characterized by the minimisation of assembling components, and has in turn led to thinner wire and finer pad and pitch size. In particular for gold bonding thinner wire means less expense for precious metal. The requirements for such small wire diameters can only partially be met by

E. Milke; T. Mueller; A. Bischoff

2007-01-01

486

Theorems and extensions of single wire replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the theorems and extensions of single alternative wire that attempts to replace one wire by another wire without changing the logic functionality. The wire replacement technique has been successfully applied to achieve logic optimization and routability improve- ment. However, there still exist several fundamental problems that have not been addressed such as whether the algorithm

Shih-chieh Chang; Zhong-zhen Wu

2001-01-01

487

Postlayout logic restructuring using alternative wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a layout-driven synthesis approach for field programmable gate arrays (FPGA's). The approach attempts to identify alternative wires and alternative functions for wires that cannot be routed due to the limited routing resources in FPGA. The alternative wires (in the logic level) that can be routed through less congested areas substitute the unroutable wires without changing

Shih-chieh Chang; Kwang-ting Cheng; Nam-Sung Woo; Malgorzata Marek-sadowska

1997-01-01

488

Molecular-scale metal wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a novel technique employing material deposition into nanometer-scale stencils for the fabrication of continuous wires with precisely controlled widths below 10nm. These molecular-scale metallic structures allow the examination of localization and conductance fluctuations at new length and temperature scales. This study reports measurements of continuous AuPd alloy wires with diameters as small as 3nm and lengths greater than

D. Natelson; R. L. Willett; K. W. West; L. N. Pfeiffer

2000-01-01

489

Purcell effect in wire metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study theoretically the enhancement of spontaneous emission in wire metamaterials. We analyze the dependence of the Purcell factor on the wire dielectric constant for both electric and magnetic dipole sources and find an optimal value of the dielectric constant for maximizing the Purcell factor for the electric dipole. We obtain analytical expressions for the Purcell factor and also provide estimates for the Purcell factor in realistic structures operating in both microwave and optical spectral ranges.

Poddubny, Alexander N.; Belov, Pavel A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

2013-01-01

490

Resistivity of inhomogeneous quantum wires.  

SciTech Connect

We study the effect of electron-electron interactions on the transport in an inhomogeneous quantum wire. We show that contrary to the well-known Luttinger liquid result, nonuniform interactions contribute substantially to the resistance of the wire. In the regime of weakly interacting electrons and moderately low temperatures we find a linear in T resistivity induced by the interactions. We then use the bosonization technique to generalize this result to the case of arbitrarily strong interactions.

Rech, J.; Matveev, K. A.; Materials Science Division

2008-02-15

491

Effects of rod worth and drop speed on the BWR off-center rod drop accident  

SciTech Connect

BWR off-center RDA calculations have been performed for selected rod worths and drop speeds. While in all cases the peak fuel enthalpy was well below the 280 cal/g fuel criterion, a substantial sensitivity to control rod worth and rod drop speed was observed.

Cokinos, D.M.; Carew, J.F.

1985-01-01

492

HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

Not Available

1994-07-01

493

Beyond Borders: Poetry Slicing through Steel Gates and Barbed Wires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exchange of poems at the 2nd Annual San Quentin/Patten College poetry slam with the prisoners is reported to be an event, which was extraordinaire. It was an opportunity to understand the hidden popular culture.

Jocson, Korina M.

2004-01-01

494

Galvanic current induced by heterogeneous structures on stainless steel wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galvanic corrosion could be initialized between the heterogeneous structures of an implant and the resulting corrosion products could act as a trigger for thrombosis and inflammation leading to restenosis after deployment of implant inside the artery. Experimental evidence showed that there were significant differences in the electrochemical behaviors among the different grain sizes of an implant. Galvanic current was detected

Chun-Che Shih; Chun-Ming Shih; Yea-Yang Su; Shing-Jong Lin

2005-01-01

495

Beyond Borders: Poetry Slicing through Steel Gates and Barbed Wires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exchange of poems at the 2nd Annual San Quentin/Patten College poetry slam with the prisoners is reported to be an event, which was extraordinaire. It was an opportunity to understand the hidden popular culture.|

Jocson, Korina M.

2004-01-01

496

Numerical and experimental analysis of inhomogeneities in SMA wires induced by thermal boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published data on NiTi wire tensile tests display a surprising variety of results even though the same material has been studied. Hysteresis shapes can be observed that range from box- to cigar-like. In some cases, the variation may be the result of different post-fabrication treatment, such as annealing or cold working procedures. However, oftentimes local data are generated from average stress/strain concepts on the basis of global force and end displacement measurements. It is well known among experimentalists that this has a smoothening effect on data, but there is an additional, less well-known mechanism at work as well. This effect is due to thermomechanical coupling and the thermal boundary condition at the ends of the wires, and it manifests itself in a strong data dependence on the length of the employed specimen. This paper illustrates the effects of a thermal boundary layer in a 1D wire by means of an experimental study combined with a simulation based on the fully coupled momentum and energy balance equations. The system is modeled using COMSOL FEA software to simulate the distribution of strain, temperature, resistivity, and phase fractions. The local behavior is then integrated over the length of the wire to predict the expected behavior of the bulk wire as observed at its endpoints. Then, simulations are compared with results from a tensile test of a 100 mum diameter Dynalloy Flexinol wire between two large, steel clamps. Each step of the tensile test ex