Science.gov

Sample records for steel wire rods

  1. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 38686) and determined on October 4, 2011, that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 64105, October 17, 2011). The Commission transmitted its... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  2. 77 FR 3231 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 3231-3232] [FR... (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 38613 (July 1, 2011); see also Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Institution..., 76 FR 38686 (July 1, 2011). \\1\\ Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods from...

  3. 76 FR 67672 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...\\ Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods from India, 58 FR 63335 (December 1, 1993). The... International Trade Administration Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results of the Expedited...) initiated the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel wire rods...

  4. 76 FR 38686 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... on imports of stainless steel wire rod from India (58 FR 63335). Following first five-year reviews by... duty order on imports of stainless steel wire rod from India (65 FR 47403). Following second five-year... antidumping duty order on imports of stainless steel wire rod from India (71 FR 45023). The Commission is...

  5. High strength, low carbon, dual phase steel rods and wires and process for making same

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Nakagawa, Alvin H.

    1986-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility, low carbon, dual phase steel wire, bar or rod and process for making the same is provided. The steel wire, bar or rod is produced by cold drawing to the desired diameter in a single multipass operation a low carbon steel composition characterized by a duplex microstructure consisting essentially of a strong second phase dispersed in a soft ferrite matrix with a microstructure and morphology having sufficient cold formability to allow reductions in cross-sectional area of up to about 99.9%. Tensile strengths of at least 120 ksi to over 400 ksi may be obtained.

  6. 75 FR 21658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... amended, 67 FR 68036 (Nov. 8, 2002). In accordance with sections 201.16(c) and 207.3 of the Commission's... COMMISSION Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago AGENCY: United States... in the antidumping duty Investigation No. 731-TA-961 concerning carbon and certain alloy steel...

  7. 78 FR 60850 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Brazil, 67 FR 55805 (August 30, 2002). \\2\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 78 FR 33063 (June 3, 2013). On June 18, 2013, the Department received a notice of... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of...

  8. 76 FR 78882 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... FR 65945 (October 29, 2002) (Wire Rod Order). DATES: Effective Date: December 20, 2011. FOR FURTHER... Order, 76 FR 33218 (June 8, 2011) (Initiation). On July 22, 2011, Deacero submitted its response to the... Steel Plate From Canada, 66 FR 7617, 7618 (January 24, 2001)) (Canadian Plate), and accompanying...

  9. Mechanical behavior of ultrahigh strength ultrahigh carbon steel wire and rod

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sberby, O.D.; Whittenherger, W.D.

    1997-07-22

    Ultrahigh-carbon steels (UHCSS) can achieve very high strengths in wire or rod form. These high strengths result from the mechanical work introduced during wire and rod processing. These strengths have been observed to increase with carbon content. In wire form, tensile strengths approaching 6000 MPa are predicted for UHCS containing 1. 8%C. In this paper, we will discuss the influence of processing (including rapid transformation during wire patenting) and micros ct- ure on the mechanical behavior of UHCS wire. The tensile properties of as- extruded rods are described as a function of extrusion temperature and composition. For spheroidized steels, yield and ultimate tensile strength are a function of grain size, interparticle spacing and particle size. For pearlitic steels, yield and ultimate strength were found to be functions of colony size, carbide size and plate spacing and orientation. Alloying additions (such as C, Cr, Si, Al and Co) can influence the effect of processing on these microstructural features. For spheroidized steels, fracture was found to be a function of the size of coarse carbides and of composition.

  10. 76 FR 67407 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico, (76 FR 45509 (July 29, 2011)). We preliminarily determine that, during..., Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine, 67 FR 65945 (October 29, 2002) (Wire Rod... FR 60733 (October 1, 2010). On October 29, 2010, in accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b), the...

  11. 77 FR 66954 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Rod from Mexico: Affirmative Final Determination of Circumvention of the Antidumping Duty Order, 77 FR... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 67 FR 55800..., Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine, 67 FR 65945 (October 29, 2002), remains dispositive. On October 1,...

  12. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.; Kim, N.J.

    1986-10-28

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar[sub 3] temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics. 3 figs.

  13. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Ahn, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nack-Joon

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  14. 76 FR 34044 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 73036 (November 29, 2010) (``Initiation Notice''). The..., 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). The final results continue to be due 120 days after the publication of... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Extension of Time...

  15. 78 FR 28190 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 67 FR 55800 (August 30, 2002). Notification to Importers This... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010- 2011, 77 FR 66954 (November 8, 2012) (Preliminary Results... Ukraine, 67 FR 65945 (October 29, 2002), remains dispositive. On October 1, 2012, the Department...

  16. 77 FR 13545 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review 76 FR 67407 (November 1, 2011) (Preliminary Results). \\2\\ We determined... Changed Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico, 76 FR 45509 (July 29... Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment...

  17. 76 FR 16607 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce....

  18. 75 FR 34424 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... foreseeable future. See Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan, 75 FR 32503... Initiation of Five- year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009). As a result of its reviews, the... Expedited Sunset Reviews of the Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 56179 (Oct. 30, 2009). On May 14, 2010,...

  19. 78 FR 76653 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... reviews were such that full reviews pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act should proceed (78 FR 60316... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine Scheduling of full five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on carbon and certain...

  20. Real-time defect detection of steel wire rods using wavelet filters optimized by univariate dynamic encoding algorithm for searches.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jong Pil; Jeon, Yong-Ju; Choi, Doo-chul; Kim, Sang Woo

    2012-05-01

    We propose a new defect detection algorithm for scale-covered steel wire rods. The algorithm incorporates an adaptive wavelet filter that is designed on the basis of lattice parameterization of orthogonal wavelet bases. This approach offers the opportunity to design orthogonal wavelet filters via optimization methods. To improve the performance and the flexibility of wavelet design, we propose the use of the undecimated discrete wavelet transform, and separate design of column and row wavelet filters but with a common cost function. The coefficients of the wavelet filters are optimized by the so-called univariate dynamic encoding algorithm for searches (uDEAS), which searches the minimum value of a cost function designed to maximize the energy difference between defects and background noise. Moreover, for improved detection accuracy, we propose an enhanced double-threshold method. Experimental results for steel wire rod surface images obtained from actual steel production lines show that the proposed algorithm is effective. PMID:22561939

  1. Notch toughness in hot-rolled low carbon steel wire rod

    SciTech Connect

    Baarman, M.H.

    1999-12-01

    Charpy V-notch toughness has been investigated in four hot-rolled, low carbon steels with different grain sizes and carbon contents between 0.019 and 0.057%. The raw material was wire rod designed for drawing and possible subsequent cold heading operations and manufactured from continuous cast billets. In this study, the influence of microstructure, mechanical properties, and alloying elements on the ductile-brittle transition behavior has been assessed. A particular emphasis has been given to the influence of boron with contents up to 0.0097%. As a result, transition temperatures between {minus}29 and +50 C explicated by the material properties have been obtained. The examination also shows that the transition temperature raises with circa 0.5 C for each added ppm boron most likely as a consequence of an enlargement of the ferrite grain size and the reduction of yield and tensile strength. The highest upper shelf energy and lowest transition temperature can be observed in a steel without boron additions and with maximum contents of carbon, silicon, and manganese.

  2. 76 FR 33218 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... and Tobago, and Ukraine, 67 FR 65945 (October 29, 2002) (Wire Rod Order). Alternatively, petitioners... Determination of Circumvention of the Antidumping Duty Order, 71 FR 32033, 32037 (June 2, 2006) (Wax Candles... Determination of Circumvention of the Anti- Dumping Duty Order, 71 FR 59076-59076 (October 6, 2006) (Wax...

  3. 78 FR 33103 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... (``Commerce'') issued a countervailing duty order on imports of wire rod from Brazil (67 FR 64871). On October..., Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine (67 FR 65944-65947). Following the five-year reviews by..., Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine (73 FR 44218). The Commission is now conducting...

  4. Hafnium stainless steel absorber rod for control rod

    SciTech Connect

    Charnley, J.E.; Cearley, J.E.; Dixon, R.C.; Izzo, K.R.; Aiello, L.L.

    1989-08-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a control rod having a stainless steel body for enclosing a neutron absorbing poison, the control rod having movement along an axial direction for insertion into and out of a nuclear reactor for controlling a nuclear reaction. The improvement comprising: a piece of hafnium; a piece of stainless steel joined to the hafnium by a thin diffusion interface created by friction welding. The hafnium and the stainless steel oriented serially in the axial direction with the thin diffusion interface disposed normal to the axial direction of the control rod movement; means for confining the hafnium to movement along the axial direction with the control rod; and means for attaching the piece of stainless steel to the remaining portion of the control rod to load the weld therebetween under compression or tension during the control rod movement. Whereby the thin diffusion interface is loaded in tension or compression only upon dynamic movement of the control rod.

  5. 76 FR 27304 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... materials, and produces downstream products from that wire rod input, namely p.c. wire and tyre bead wire... Fair Value, 74 FR 8907 (February 27, 2009) (``Final Determination'') and Certain Steel Threaded Rod from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 17154 (April 14,...

  6. 7. DETAIL VIEW UNDER BRIDGE OF CORRUGATED STEEL, BEAMS, RODS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW UNDER BRIDGE OF CORRUGATED STEEL, BEAMS, RODS, AND ABUTMENT - Price River Bridge, Spanning Price River, 760 North Street in Carbonville, 1 mile northwest of Price, Carbonville, Carbon County, UT

  7. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of...

  8. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from...

  9. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... notice in the Federal Register on November 25, 2011 (76 FR 72721). The hearing was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... retarded, by reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings...

  10. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... notice in the Federal Register of April 7, 2011 (76 FR 19382). The conference was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in...

  11. 77 FR 46055 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Brazil, 67 FR 55792, 55794-96 (August 30, 2002). \\21\\ See SAA at 870; and, e.g..., 77 FR 3731 (January 25, 2012) (``Initiation Notice''). The Department set aside a period of time for... and Taiwan: Postponement of Preliminary Determinations of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 77 FR...

  12. 76 FR 13665 - Arcelor Mittal, Formerly Known as Mittal Steel Walker Wire, a Subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... workers are engaged in activities related to the warehousing and distribution of processed steel coil, bars, rods and wire. The notice was published in the Federal Register on May 28, 2010 (75 FR 30070). At... on January 26, 2009 (74 FR 4463). In order to avoid an overlap in worker group coverage,...

  13. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  14. Locked-wrap fuel rod

    DOEpatents

    Kaplan, Samuel; Chertock, Alan J.; Punches, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A method for spacing fast reactor fuel rods using a wire wrapper improved by orienting the wire-wrapped fuel rods in a unique manner which introduces desirable performance characteristics not attainable by previous wire-wrapped designs. Use of this method in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor results in: (a) improved mechanical performance, (b) improved rod-to-rod contact, (c) reduced steel volume, and (d) improved thermal-hydraulic performance. The method produces a "locked wrap" design which tends to lock the rods together at each of the wire cluster locations.

  15. 2. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Company, Central ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Company, Central Furnaces & Docks, General Plan of Works Showing Trestle, 1-3-39.' Drawing courtesy of United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. 1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central Furnace Works -- Sketch of Plant Showing Tracks & Buildings, 1913, Revised 3/10/31.' Drawing courtesy United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. Credit Berni Rich, Score Photographs, August 1979, for photos 1 through 4 and 7 through 11. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. VIEW OF EAST GUN EMPLACEMENT. NOTE THE STEEL REINFORCING RODS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST GUN EMPLACEMENT. NOTE THE STEEL REINFORCING RODS PROTRUDING FROM THE BROKEN TOP OF THE RETAINING WALL. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, East Gun Emplacement, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Kim, D.K.

    1996-06-25

    Hypereutectoid steels have the potential for dramatically increasing the strength of wire used in tire cord and in other high strength wire applications. The basis for this possible breakthrough is the elimination of a brittle proeutectoid network that can form along grain boundaries if appropriate processing procedures and alloy additions are used. A review is made of work done by Japanese and other researchers on eutectoid and mildly hypereutectoid wires. A linear extrapolation of the tensile strength of fine wires predicts higher strengths at higher carbon contents. The influence of processing, alloy additions and carbon content in optimizing the strength, ductility and fracture behavior of hypereutectoid steels is presented. It is proposed that the tensile strength of pearlitic wires is dictated by the fracture strength of the carbide lamella at grain boundary locations in the carbide. Methods to improve the strength of carbide grain boundaries and to decrease the carbide plate thickness will contribute to enhancing the ultrahigh strength obtainable in hypereutectoid steel wires. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Recrystallization and Grain Growth of 316L Stainless Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiuyun; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yan; Feng, Ping; Tang, Huiping

    2014-07-01

    Recrystallization and grain growth behaviors of 316L stainless steel wires with a diameter of 12 µm were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction techniques. Heavily cold-drawn wires were isothermally held at temperatures from 1073 K to 1223 K (800 °C to 950 °C) for various holding times. Optical microscopy and TEM observations showed that recrystallization grains have irregular shape and that twins exist. The texture formed during drawing and annealing processes of the wires, as measured by X-ray methods, showed a fiber texture approximated by a <111> and a <100> component. The value of the grain growth exponent n was calculated, and the kinetic rates were plotted using the Arrhenius equation. Results show that the activation energy of the grain growth for 316L stainless steel wire was determined to be 407 kJ/mol, which was much higher than that of the bulk 316L stainless steel. The small wire diameter and the existence of texture played important roles in the increase of the activation energy for grain growth of the wire.

  20. 10. View of Riverside Bridge with Steel Reinforcing Rods in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of Riverside Bridge with Steel Reinforcing Rods in Place and with 'Tower for Concrete' in the Background. The function of the 'tower for concrete' is uncertain, but may have to do with the transport of concrete from the point of mixing to the point of use (suggestion by NDOT Bridge Section personnel, February 1990). Original snapshot taken July, 1920. - Riverside Bridge, Spanning Truckee River at Booth Street, Reno, Washoe County, NV

  1. Corrosion and embrittlement of high-strength steel bridge wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermaas, Garry Wayne

    Suspension bridge cable inspections have revealed severely corroded and broken wires in some main cables. Accelerated cyclic corrosion studies were conducted to assess the relative effect of corrosion on high-strength steel bridge wire. Galvanized and ungalvanized wire samples were corroded under various levels of sustained loads in a cabinet that cyclically applied an acidic salt spray, dry conditions, and 100% relative humidity at elevated temperature. Mass loss, hydrogen concentration, ultimate load, and elongation at failure were measured for corroded and uncorroded samples. Elongation measurements indicated a significant embrittlement of the wires that could not be explained only by the presence of absorbed hydrogen (hydrogen embrittlement). The main cause of reduction of wire elongation was found to be the surface irregularities induced by the corrosion process. The corrosion process in a high-strength steel wire was modeled and analyzed using finite element methods. Forty-one separate FEM tests were run and this data was compared to the experimental data. In addition, for the purpose of comparison, a previously developed hydrogen embrittlement model was analyzed and its validity was discussed in detail. SEM photographs of the fracture surfaces were taken and possible causes and mechanisms of fracture were suggested by observations of the fracture morphology. It was shown through this experimental and numerical research work that the geometry of the wire, determined by the amount of corrosion, pitting, and surface irregularities, controls the ultimate elongation of the wire sample, as also confirmed by the SEM analysis of the fracture surfaces. It was also shown that, using a generally accepted hydrogen embrittlement model, there is no evidence that hydrogen embrittlement is occurring, or at least that hydrogen evolution is not the controlling factor in the loss of wire's ductility.

  2. 75 FR 8113 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... subject investigations (75 FR 4104, January 26, 2010). On January 28, 2010, the Commission was notified by... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International...

  3. 75 FR 4104 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (``HTSUS'').'' 74 FR 30536, December 23, 2009. For further... FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a document is permitted, certain... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International...

  4. 76 FR 19382 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ....8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic...(C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  5. 76 FR 21914 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... schedule for the conduct of these investigations (75 FR 877, April 7, 2011). Due to scheduling conflicts... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  6. Low temperature annealing of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Bech, J. I.; Hansen, N.

    2015-08-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires are nanostructured and the flow stress at room temperature can reach values above 6 GPa. A typical characteristic of the nanostructured metals, is the low ductility and thermal stability. In order to optimize both the processing and application of the wires, the thermal behaviour is of interest. This has been studied by annealing the wires for 1h at temperatures from ambient temperature to 300 °C (573 K). It is expected that a raising temperature may lead to structural changes and a reduction in strength. The change in strength is however not expected to be large. For this reason we have applied a very precise technique to measure the tensile properties of the wires from a strain of 10-4 to the maximum strain of about 1-2%. The structural changes have also been followed to estimate and relate strength changes to changes in structural parameters and morphology.

  7. 78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary... concrete steel rail tire wire (``PC tie wire'') from Thailand is not being, or likely to be, sold in the... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  8. Perforation of HY-100 steel plates with long rod projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchak, S.J.; Altman, B.S.; Forrestal, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The authors conducted perforation experiments with 4340 steel, rod projectiles and HY-100 steel, target plates at striking velocities between 80 and 370 m/s. Projectiles were machined to nominally 30-mm-diameter and 281-mm-length so they could be launched from a 30-mm-powder gun without sabots. The target plates were rigidly clamped at 305-mm diameter and had a nominal thickness of 10.2 mm. In addition to measuring striking and residual projectile velocities, they obtained back surface framing camera data that showed clearly the plate deformation and plug ejection process. An Imacon 792 camera provided up to 20 frames per experiment with an interframe time duration of 10 {mu}s. The modeling work is in progress, but they present a beam model that exhibits the features observed in the experiments.

  9. Unsupervised Classification of Surface Defects in Wire Rod Production Obtained by Eddy Current Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Saludes-Rodil, Sergio; Baeyens, Enrique; Rodríguez-Juan, Carlos P.

    2015-01-01

    An unsupervised approach to classify surface defects in wire rod manufacturing is developed in this paper. The defects are extracted from an eddy current signal and classified using a clustering technique that uses the dynamic time warping distance as the dissimilarity measure. The new approach has been successfully tested using industrial data. It is shown that it outperforms other classification alternatives, such as the modified Fourier descriptors. PMID:25938201

  10. Rodding Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rods can be made of stainless steel or titanium. Regular rods do not expand. They have many ... v regular), the rod materials (stainless steel v titanium) and the age for a first rodding surgery. ...

  11. 78 FR 56217 - Steel Threaded Rod from India: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...\\ See Steel Threaded Rod From India: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 78 FR 44532 (July... Administrative Determination Deadlines Pursuant to Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). We... International Trade Administration Steel Threaded Rod from India: Postponement of Preliminary Determination...

  12. 78 FR 66382 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 40170). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on July 18, 2013, and all persons who... COMMISSION Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from India and Thailand of certain steel threaded rod, provided for...

  13. 78 FR 40170 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    .... See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's Handbook on E-Filing, available on... COMMISSION Certain Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing... from India and Thailand of certain steel threaded rod, provided for primarily in subheading...

  14. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu; Liu Wei; Liu Qing

    2010-01-15

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm ({epsilon} = 0) to 2 nm ({epsilon} = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {l_brace}110{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} or {l_brace}112{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} slip plane traces in the ferrite.

  15. The Microstructure and Hardness of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel During Wire Drawing

    SciTech Connect

    Klmaku, Snukn; Syla, Nairn; Dilo, Teuta

    2010-01-21

    The steel wire samples are hot-dip-galvanized. The zinc coating is preformed using the standard method. To recognize the behavior of the zinc coated steel wire during the submission to deformation, the wire samples are drawn on a machine designed for this aim and then investigated. In this research is represented the phase structure of the zinc coated samples. Afterwards the thickness of the layer and the hardness of the hot-dip galvanized steel depending on the drawing is represented.

  16. 77 FR 66952 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ..., 75 FR 68758, 68761 (November 9, 2010), unchanged in First Administrative Review of Steel Wire Garment... Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 27994, 27996 (May 13, 2011). DATES: Effective November 8, 2012. FOR... Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October...

  17. 75 FR 36678 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of February 23, 2010 (75 FR 8113). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... of prestressed concrete steel wire strand (PC strand), provided for in subheading 7312.10.30 of...

  18. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of... materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China,...

  19. 77 FR 2958 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 83 (January 3, 2012). Subsequent to this publication, we... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC...

  20. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2012 (77 FR... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for...

  1. 77 FR 73424 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Than Fair Value, 77 FR 62492 (October 15, 2012) (``Final Determination''). \\2\\ See Steel Wire Garment... Hangers from Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less than Fair Value, 77 FR 46055 (August 2... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY:...

  2. 77 FR 806 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing... from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for in subheading 7326.20 of...

  3. 78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Countervailing Duty Determination and Final Affirmative Critical Circumstances Determination, 77 FR 75973... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on certain steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam)....

  4. Corrosion resistance of stressed NiTi and stainless steel orthodontic wires in acid artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Huang, Her-Hsiung

    2003-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of stressed NiTi and stainless steel orthodontic wires using cyclic potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests in acid artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. An atomic force microscope was used to measure the 3-D surface topography of as-received wires. Scanning electron microscope observations were carried out before and after the cyclic potentiodynamic tests. The surface chemical analysis was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy after the potentiostatic tests. The cyclic potentiodynamic test results showed that the pH had a significant influence on the corrosion parameters of the stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires (p < 0.05). The pitting potential, protection potential, and passive range of stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires decreased on decreasing pH, whereas the passive current density increased on decreasing pH. The load had no significant influence on the above corrosion parameters (p > 0.05). For all pH and load conditions, stainless steel wire showed higher pitting potential and wider passive range than NiTi wire (p < 0.001), whereas NiTi wire had lower passive current density than stainless steel wire (p < 0.001). The corrosion resistance of the stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires was related to the surface characterizations, including surface defect and passive film. PMID:12926035

  5. 77 FR 70993 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: 2011-2012 Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6, 2008). \\2... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: 2011-2012... antidumping duty order on steel wire garment hangers from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') meets...

  6. DESIGN OF WIRE-WRAPPED ROD BUNDLE MATCHED INDEX-OF-REFRACTION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh McIlroy; Hongbin Zhang; Kurt Hamman

    2008-05-01

    Experiments will be conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility [1] to characterize the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a wire-wrapped rod bundle typically employed in liquid-metal cooled fast reactors and to provide benchmark data for computer code validation. Sodium cooled fast reactors are under consideration for use in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. The experiment model will be constructed of quartz components and the working fluid will be mineral oil. Accurate temperature control (to within 0.05 oC) matches the index-of-refraction of mineral oil with that of quartz and renders the model transparent to the wavelength of laser light employed for optical measurements. The model will be a scaled 7-pin rod bundle enclosed in a hexagonal canister. Flow field measurements will be obtained with a LaVision 3-D particle image velocimeter (PIV) and complimented by near-wall velocity measurements obtained from a 2-D laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). These measurements will be used as benchmark data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation. The rod bundle model dimensions will be scaled up from the typical dimensions of a fast reactor fuel assembly to provide the maximum Reynolds number achievable in the MIR flow loop. A range of flows from laminar to fully-turbulent will be available with a maximum Reynolds number, based on bundle hydraulic diameter, of approximately 22,000. The fuel pins will be simulated by 85 mm diameter quartz tubes (closed on the inlet ends) and the wire-wrap will be simulated by 25 mm diameter quartz rods. The canister walls will be constructed from quartz plates. The model will be approximately 2.13 m in length. Bundle pressure losses will also be measured and the data recorded for code comparisons. The experiment design and preliminary CFD calculations, which will be used to provide qualitative hydrodynamic

  7. Optimizing the sensing performance of a single-rod fluxgate magnetometer using thin magnetic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, Hava; Svec, Peter, Jr.; Tanrıseven, Sercan; Bydzovsky, Jan; Birlikseven, Cengiz; Sözeri, Hüseyin; Svec, Peter, Sr.; Topal, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the optimal conditions for the design of a single-rod fluxgate magnetometer using Co-based amorphous magnetic wires with reduced geometrical dimensions of 100 μm in diameter. In order to enhance the performance of the current sensor (i.e. the noise level, the sensitivity, the dynamical range, the scaling factor, etc), the core materials were subjected to annealing at different annealing temperatures in a longitudinal magnetic field ranging from 0 to 0.5 T. The B-H measurements have shown that the heat treatments significantly change the magnetic parameters of the cores (the saturation field, the initial and apparent permeabilities). For instance, the initial permeability μ i attains values of between 3500 and 4700 depending on the treatment conditions. These magnetic parameters were subsequently correlated with the sensor performance by using the principles of the fluxgate physics. Consequently, the enhanced fluxgate effect with improved sensing characteristics has been obtained by annealing the wire core at 250 °C (B  =  0 T). It is shown that this magnetic wire with a sensing area of 0.00785 mm2 is suitable as a sensor core for the nondestructive testing of metallic objects and the surfaces of magnetic cards. The sensor signal shows perfect linear dependence to dc or low frequency fields up to ~1 Oe. The fitting parameters R 2 of 0.9998 could be achieved in a dc field interval of  -1.0 Oe and 1.0 Oe (when R 2  =1.0, all points lie exactly on the curve with no scatter). Such linearity has not been seen in such a large dynamical range until now in the rod-type single-core fluxgates. It is also shown that there is no hysteresis on the V 2f -H dc graphs (the V 2f is the sensor signal) even after applying fields as high as 100 Oe. Besides, the cross-field effect is almost zero due to the geometry of the long-thin wire.

  8. 77 FR 473 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Republic of China: Notice of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 17154 (April 14, 2009) (``Steel Threaded Rod... the Steel Threaded Rod Order.\\3\\ \\3\\ See Notice of Scope Rulings, 76 FR 10558, 10559 (February 25... chemistry of the steel, focusing instead on basic dimensions, zinc coating, and tensile strength, none...

  9. Effect of microalloying on pearlite transformation of high carbon wire steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie L.

    Microalloying has been shown to improve strength in eutectoid steels for wire applications, and previous work on vanadium-microalloyed eutectoid steels showed delayed pearlite transformation with additions of niobium and accelerated pearlite transformation with additional nitrogen. This study investigates the origin of the CCT shifts with microalloying additions and whether trends in hardness and microstructural feature sizes observed in continuous cooling tests persist through industrial hot rolling simulations. An industrially hot rolled 1080 wire rod with vanadium additions and three laboratory-prepared alloys were studied. The base alloy, denoted the V steel, had a composition of 0.80C-0.50Mn-0.24Si-0.20Cr-0.079V-0.0059N (wt pct). The V+N steel contained 0.0088 wt pct N, and the V+Nb steel contained an additional 0.010 wt pct Nb. All alloys were subjected to a GleebleRTM 3500 torsion hot rolling simulation based on industrial wire rod hot rolling parameters. Microstructural constituents, Vickers hardness, pearlite colony size, and pearlite interlamellar spacing (ILS) were characterized for each alloy. All alloys exhibited pearlitic microstructures with some proeutectoid ferrite at prior austenite grain boundaries, with no evidence of shear transformation products. The V steel has the lowest overall hardness, while both nitrogen and niobium additions increase hardness by approximately 15 HV, correlating to a 43 MPa increase in yield strength. Niobium additions refined ILS, with an average ILS of 92 +/- 3 nm for the V+Nb steel compared to 113 +/- 5 nm for the V steel and 113 +/- 3 nm for the V+N alloy. Vanadium additions produced precipitation strengthening for all alloys and heat treatments, and additional precipitation strengthening with nitrogen and niobium additions was not apparent based on a Taleff regression analysis. Atom probe tomography of an industrially processed wire rod with vanadium additions revealed vanadium enrichment of cementite, and vanadium

  10. Corrosion of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, coated nickel-titanium, and titanium orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Johnson, J W

    1999-02-01

    Orthodontic wires containing nickel have been implicated in allergic reactions. The potential for orthodontic wires to cause allergic reactions is related to the pattern and mode of corrosion with subsequent release of metal ions, such as nickel, into the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference in the corrosive potential of stainless steel, nickel titanium, nitride-coated nickel titanium, epoxy-coated nickel titanium, and titanium orthodontic wires. At least two specimens of each wire were subjected to potentiostatic anodic dissolution in 0.9% NaCl solution with neutral pH at room temperature. Using a Wenking MP 95 potentiostat and an electrochemical corrosion cell, the breakdown potential of each wire was determined. Photographs were taken of the wire speci mens using a scanning electron microscope, and surface changes were qualitatively evaluated. The breakdown potentials of stainless steel, two nickel titanium wires, nitride-coated nickel titanium, epoxy-coated nickel titanium, and titanium were 400 mV, 300 mV, 750 mV, 300 mV, 1800 mV, and >2000 mV, respectively. SEM photographs revealed that some nickel titanium and stainless steel wires were susceptible to pitting and localized corrosion. The results indicate that corrosion occurred readily in stainless steel. Variability in breakdown potential of nickel titanium alloy wires differed across vendors' wires. The nitride coating did not affect the corrosion of the alloy, but epoxy coating decreased corrosion. Titanium wires and epoxy-coated nickel titanium wires exhibited the least corrosive potential. For patients allergic to nickel, the use of titanium or epoxy-coated wires during orthodontic treatment is recommended. PMID:10022183

  11. 76 FR 33242 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigation AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration,...

  12. 76 FR 73589 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Determination: Galvanized Steel Wire from the People's Republic of China, 76 FR 68407 (November 4, 2011... percent of cobalt, or --0.40 percent of lead, or --1.25 percent of nickel, or --0.30 percent of...

  13. Corrosion resistance of premodeled wires made of stainless steel used for heart electrotherapy leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; Młynarski, R.; Szatka, W.

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wire made of X10CrNi18-8 stainless steel designed for use in cardiology treatment. The influence of strain formed in the premodeling process and methods of wire surface preparation to corrosive resistance in artificial plasma solution were analysed. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in the solution of artificial plasma. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of recorded curves of anodic polarization by means of potentiodynamic method. Potentiodynamic tests carried out enabled to determine how the resistance to pitting corrosion of wire changes, depending on strain formed in the premodeling process as well as on the method of wire surface preparation. For evaluation of phenomena occurring on the surface of tested steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied. Deterioration of corrosive properties of wire along with the increase in the formed strain hardening was observed.

  14. Feasibility demonstration of using wire electrical-discharge machining, abrasive flow honing, and laser spot welding to manufacture high-precision triangular-pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel-rod-support grids

    SciTech Connect

    Horwood, W.A.

    1982-05-01

    Results are reported supporting the feasibility of manufacturing high precision machined triangular pitch Zircaloy-4 fuel rod support grids for application in water cooled nuclear power reactors. The manufacturing processes investigated included wire electrical discharge machining of the fuel rod and guide tube cells in Zircaloy plate stock to provide the grid body, multistep pickling of the machined grid to provide smooth and corrosion resistant surfaces, and laser welding of thin Zircaloy cover plates to both sides of the grid body to capture separate AM-350 stainless steel insert springs in the grid body. Results indicated that dimensional accuracy better than +- 0.001 and +- 0.002 inch could be obtained on cell shape and position respectively after wire EDM and surface pickling. Results on strength, corrosion resistance, and internal quality of laser spot welds are provided.

  15. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with single rod electrode.

    PubMed

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2014-11-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this method, the tips of rods are machined individually to form a specific surface, and then a number of the machined rods are arranged to construct an electrode for EDM. The repetition of the EDM process using the electrode enables a number of lens elements to be produced on the mold surface. The effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated by shaping a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, in which the EDM process with a single rod electrode is repeatedly conducted. PMID:25607880

  16. Perforation of HY-100 steel plates with 4340 R{sub c} 38 and T-250 maraging steel rod projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, M.J.; Hanchak, S.J.

    1998-05-25

    The authors conducted perforation experiments with 4340 Rc 38 and T-250 maraging steel, long rod projectiles and HY-100 steel target plates at striking velocities between 80 and 370 m/s. Flat-end rod projectiles with lengths of 89 and 282 mm were machined to nominally 30-mm-diameter so they could be launched from a 30-mm-powder gun without sabots. The target plates were rigidly clamped at a 305-mm-diameter and had nominal thicknesses of 5.3 and 10.5 mm. Four sets of experiments were conducted to show the effects of rod length and plate thickness on the measured ballistic limit and residual velocities. In addition to measuring striking and residual projectile velocities, they obtained framing camera data on the back surfaces of several plates that showed clearly the plate deformation and plug ejection process. They also present a beam model that exhibits qualitatively the experimentally observed mechanisms.

  17. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for steel wire monitoring in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Jan; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Steel wires are widely applied in industrial applications - in most cases as critical components fulfilling high safety requirements in harsh environments (e.g. dockside cranes). In this paper a technique for real-time monitoring of steel ropes applying optical strain sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings is presented. The optical sensors are integrated within the wire strand and replace the core. The strain transmission from the outer wires to the sensors is assured by the mechanical coupling between the optical fiber and the strand. The actual strain load and rope vibrations in the kilohertz range can be determined in real-time.

  18. 76 FR 66895 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ..., 68 FR 54888 (September 19, 2003); and Hot-Rolled Lead and Bismuth Carbon Steel Products from Germany... Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6... Antidumping Duty Order and Extension of Final Determination, 76 FR 27007 (May 10, 2011)...

  19. 78 FR 70271 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR... Administrative Review, 75 FR 68758, 68761 (November 9, 2010), unchanged in First Administrative Review of Steel... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 27994, 27996 (May 13, 2011) (``Hangers 1st AR''). \\3\\ See...

  20. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of April 30, 2013 (78 FR... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the... injured by reason of imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie...

  1. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51 on January 19, 1990). Copies of ASTM A475-78 are available for inspection... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for...

  2. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51 on January 19, 1990). Copies of ASTM A475-78 are available for inspection... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for...

  3. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51 on January 19, 1990). Copies of ASTM A475-78 are available for inspection... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for...

  4. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51 on January 19, 1990). Copies of ASTM A475-78 are available for inspection... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for...

  5. 78 FR 12718 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ...: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of Circumvention of the Antidumping Duty Order, 77 FR 71776 (December 4... Duty Order, 74 FR 17154 (April 14, 2009). Scope of the Order The merchandise covered by the order is... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China:...

  6. 78 FR 71565 - Steel Threaded Rod from India: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 44526 (July 24, 2013). \\2\\ See the memorandum for the record... Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended. 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2008). This notice... International Trade Administration Steel Threaded Rod from India: Postponement of Preliminary Determination...

  7. Scaled long rod perforation experiments using multiple diagnostics: Mild steel against rolled homogeneous armour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Daniel; Proud, William

    2012-03-01

    A series of angled small-scale reverse ballistic long rod experiments were conducted using mild steel rods (6 mm dia., 90 mm long) against both 3 mm and 6 mm rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) plates at 60°. The impact velocity was varied from 450-780 m s-1 and the response of the system monitored by laser velocimetry, strain gauges and high-speed photography. This provided insight into the flexing of the rod during impact, the acceleration of the rear of the rod and the global penetration process. This experimental series involved ricochet, near-ricochet and full perforation, and so allows the sensitivity of the differing diagnostic outputs for these processes to be compared.

  8. Radiative Properties of Implosions of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays with Application to Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S.; Ouart, N. D.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, U. I.; Williamson, K. M.; Shrestha, I.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    Experiments with different stainless steel (SS) wire loads were performed on the 1 MA Zebra Z-pinch generator at University of Nevada, Reno. The wire array loads consisted of 7.6 {mu}m SS wires and had 10 wires for the planar wire array with an interwire gap of 1 mm and 8 wires for the cylindrical wire array of a 16 mm diameter. In addition, a single-wire experiment with a 25 {mu}m SS wire was carried out. The different wire loads were used to provide a broader spectrum of plasma conditions. Time-integrated and time-gated x-ray images, as well as time-integrated, spatially-resolved and spatially-integrated x-ray spectra, were collected and analyzed. Both K-shell and L-shell radiation were recorded using LiF and KAP crystal spectrometers, respectively. Non-LTE kinetic models of Fe and Ni are employed to derive plasma parameters. For axially resolved L-shell spectra, the resulting electron temperatures are between 230 and 300 eV (higher near the cathode) and electron densities vary from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} dependent on the load. The advantage of using Z-pinch plasmas for astrophysical applications is highlighted.

  9. Prospects of increasing the strength of aluminum by reinforcing it with stainless steel wire (a review)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botvina, L. R.; Ivanova, V. S.; Kopev, I. M.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental strength of aluminum reinforced with stainless steel wire is analyzed. Various methods of producing the composite material and it's static and cyclical strengths are considered. The reinforcement of aluminum with stainless steel wire was accomplished from the perspective of increasing the specific strength of aluminum and it's alloys, increasing the strength of the material with respect to high and low temperatures, as well as increasing the cyclical strength. The production of the composite aluminum-stainless steel wire material with approximated or calculated strengthening is possible by any of the considered methods. The selection of the proper production technology depends on precise details and conditions of application of the material.

  10. Clinical Variability in Arch Wires: A Preliminary Study Evaluating Mechanical and Surface Characteristics of Two Different Sized Rectangular Stainless Steel Wires

    PubMed Central

    Vena, Alessandro; Carey, Jason; Badawi, Hisham

    2007-01-01

    Experimental characterization of arch wires has been performed in many previous studies; however with the advent of new arch wire materials being introduced, some new experimental methods and characterization are required. Since literature is available for comparison, this paper examines mechanical and physical characteristics of steel arch wires to quantify their variability in engineering terms. Furthermore, the effect of wire size on properties was evaluated using two of the most common wire sizes. Finally, manufacturing consistency was verified by testing samples from different lots. PMID:19662123

  11. 76 FR 45509 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico, 75 FR 67685 (November 3, 2010... of the Antidumping Duty and Countervailing Duty Orders, and Intent To Revoke Orders in Part, 68 FR...: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 71 FR 27989 (May 15, 2006). Notification This...

  12. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... People's Republic of China, and Thailand: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 29325 (May... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the... antidumping duty investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico,...

  13. 77 FR 50160 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of... garment hangers and less- than-fair-value imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment...

  14. 77 FR 14002 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam. See Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 3737 (January 25, 2012). Currently, the preliminary... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice...

  15. 77 FR 12553 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6, 2008). \\2\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's... Administrative Review, 76 FR 66903 (October 28, 2011) (``Preliminary Results''). DATES: Effective Date: March 1..., 75 FR 68758, 68761 (November 9, 2010), unchanged in First Administrative Review of Steel Wire...

  16. Experimental research on stable fretting wear of stainless steel wires in transformable component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiu-ping; Liu, Guo-quan; Zhang, Li; Bai, Hong-bai; Yang, Jian-chun

    2009-07-01

    Cool-drawn 1Cr18Ni9 stainless steel wires of φ 0.1~0.5 mm can be woven and punched to prepare transformable component which has loose, reticulate structures. When it is uploaded with vibrating force, the displacement will cause intense frictions between wires' surfaces which will dissipate abundant energy and thus it can serve as dampers like natural rubbers. Since such new type of material has double characteristics of both rubbers and metals, it is commonly called "Metal Rubber". There is certain amount of contact point/surface on wires in the transformable component and the displacements between wires are at micron levels. Experiments showed that wear course of 'fretting cell' could be plotted as four phases: polish, adherence, forming of the third bed and stabilization. The stabilization phase, in which the friction coefficients are comparatively stable, dominates the whole course. Based on data of Metal Rubber vibration fatigue experiment, φ 0.3 mm cool-drawn 1Cr18Ni9 stainless steel wires' dry fretting experiments at 10 N load are made on SRV high temperature wear tester, friction coefficients are collected and fret traces are studied by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Results indicate that wire's stabilization wear phase is the circulation process of grindings' forming, concentrating to blocks of φ 20 μm, busting and discharging. Deformation induced martensite transit in wire's cool drawing has significant effects on grinding blocks' bursting performances.

  17. 78 FR 4389 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011, 77 FR 67332 (November 9, 2012) (``Final Results''). Before the... People's Republic of China: Notice of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 17154 (April 14, 2009). \\5\\ See... threaded rod is certain threaded rod, bar, or studs, of carbon quality steel, having a solid,...

  18. 77 FR 46044 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... and Taiwan: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 77 FR 3731 (January 25, 2012) (``Initiation Notice''). \\3\\ See id., 77 FR at 3735-36. On February 13, 2012, the United States International Trade... and 731-TA-1197-1198 (Preliminary), Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam, 77 FR...

  19. 77 FR 17418 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Determination, 76 FR 68407 (November 4, 2011); see also Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 76 FR 68422 (November 4... Determination and Alignment of Final Determination With Final Antidumping Determination, 76 FR 55031...

  20. 77 FR 51514 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative Determination of Critical Circumstances in the Antidumping Duty Investigation AGENCY: Import Administration, International...

  1. 75 FR 32747 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 1333 (January 11, 2010). On January 29, 2010, in.... and Deacero S.A. de C.V. See Initiation of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 9874 (March 4... INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of...

  2. 78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... China, and Thailand: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 29325, 29330 (May 20, 2013... Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 61042 (October 3, 2011). International Trade Commission (``ITC... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of...

  3. 78 FR 8105 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Determination, 77 FR at 46054-55; and Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Determination of Critical Circumstances, 77 FR 75980 (December 26, 2012) (``Vietnam Hangers Final Determination... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 77 FR 46044 (August...

  4. 75 FR 68758 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6... to Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 50772 (October 1, 2009). On October 30, 2009, certain PRC... and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 74 FR 61658 (November 25, 2009) (``Initiation...

  5. 76 FR 27007 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... of Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR... of China: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry, 75 FR 42685 (July 22, 2010) (``Initiation Notice... Determination: Coated Free Sheet Paper from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 30758, 30760 (June 4,...

  6. Ablation dominated implosion dynamics of aluminum and stainless steel nested cylindrical wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, K. M.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Ouart, N. D.; Yilmaz, F. M.; Shrestha, I. K.; Shlyaptseva, V.; McBride, R. D.; Chalenski, D. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.

    2009-01-15

    The results of experiments with combined aluminum (Al) and stainless steel (SS) alloy 304, nested wire arrays from the 1 MA COBRA generator at Cornell University are presented. The loads studied consisted of a 6 mm diameter inner array and a 13 mm diameter outer array with a different material in each array: SS or aluminum. Al implodes before SS in all loads studied, even when Al was on the inner array. The new wire ablation dynamic model and spectroscopic modeling are used to interpret these data. The observed implosion dynamics are likely a result of the higher ablation rate of Al. These initial results suggest that combining wire materials with different ablation rates in wire array loads could be developed into a useful technique for x-ray pulse shaping and radiation yield optimization.

  7. Radiation Hydrodynamics of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays on the Z Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J.; Clark, R. W.; Whitney, K.; Coverdale, C. A.; Lepell, D.; Jones, B.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    Experiments on the Z accelerator with nested stainless steel wire arrays produced K-shell x-ray yields exceeding 50 kJ in the energy range 5.5 to 8 keV. Stainless steel (Z = 24-28) can barely be ionized to the K-shell on Z, and the spectra are therefore sensitive to the details of the implosion. We have simulated the implosion dynamics of stainless steel wire arrays with diameters ranging from 4.5 to 8.0 centimeters using a detailed configuration non-LTE radiation hydrodynamics model. Reasonable agreement with total and K-shell experimental yields was obtained for the various array configurations. A comparison is made between the 1-D and 2-D simulations for shot Z-578.

  8. Structural changes of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films deposited on steel rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Junho; Hatta, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    In this study, hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were deposited on steel rods of various radii by using bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation and deposition, and the film structure and mechanical properties have been investigated. Furthermore, the behavior of plasma surrounding the steel rods (i.e., flux and energy of incident ions and electrons) was investigated using the particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC-MCC) method to examine the mechanism behind the structural changes of the a-C:H films. Three kinds of amorphous carbon films with different microstructures were prepared by changing the negative pulse voltages from -1 kV to -5 kV: one polymer-like carbon film and two diamond-like carbon films that possess the maximum FWHM(G) (full width at half maximum of Raman G-peak) and maximum hardness. The structure of the a-C:H films was evaluated through Raman spectroscopy, and the hardness of the films was measured using nanoindentation. It was found that the structures of a-C:H films deposited on the steel-rod surfaces are quite different from those on flat surfaces, and the film structures are directly affected by the curvature of the rod. It was also determined from the plasma simulation that the incident electron flux and ion flux become more intense as the curvature increases, resulting in the structural changes of the a-C:H films due to hydrogen evolution and thermal relaxation in the films.

  9. 77 FR 17430 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Determination, 76 FR 68407 (November 4, 2011) (``Preliminary Determination''). \\2\\ See Galvanized Steel Wire...: Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 31970, 31971-31972...-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from the Russian Federation, 65 FR 5510, 5518 (February 4,...

  10. Formation quality optimization of laser hot wire cladding for repairing martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Peng; Feng, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Laser cladding is an advantaged repairing technology due to its low heat input and high flexibility. With preheating wire by resistance heat, laser hot wire cladding shows better process stability and higher deposition efficiency compared to laser cold wire/powder cladding. Multi-pass layer were cladded on the surface of martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel FV520B by fiber laser with ER410NiMo wire. Wire feed rate and preheat current were optimized to obtain stable wire transfer, which guaranteed good formation quality of single pass cladding. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters and predict formation quality of multi-pass cladding. Laser power P, scanning speed Vs, wire feed rate Vf and overlap ratio η were selected as the input variables, while flatness ratio, dilution and incomplete fusion value as the responses. Optimal clad layer with flat surface, low dilution and no incomplete fusion was obtained by appropriately reducing Vf, and increasing P, Vs and η. No defect like pore or crack was found. The tensile strength and impact toughness of the clad layer is respectively 96% and 86% of those of the substrate. The clad layer showed nonuniform microstructure and was divided into quenched areas with coarse lath martensite and tempered areas with tempered martensite due to different thermal cycles in adjacent areas. The tempered areas showed similar hardness to the substrate.

  11. Influence of severe plastic deformation on the structure and properties of ultrahigh carbon steel wire

    SciTech Connect

    Leseur, D R; Sherby, O D; Syn, C K

    1999-07-01

    Ultrahigh-carbon steel wire can achieve very high strength after severe plastic deformation, because of the fine, stable substructures produce. Tensile strengths approaching 6000 MPa are predicted for UHCS containing 1.8%C. This paper discusses the microstructural evolution during drawing of UHCS wire, the resulting strength produced and the factors influencing fracture. Drawing produces considerable alignment of the pearlite plates. Dislocation cells develop within the ferrite plates and, with increasing strain, the size normal to the axis ({lambda}) decreases. These dislocation cells resist dynamic recovery during wire drawing and thus extremely fine substructures can be developed ({lambda} < 10 nm). Increasing the carbon content reduces the mean free ferrite path in the as-patented wire and the cell size developed during drawing. For UHCS, the strength varies as {lambda}{sup {minus}5}. Fracture of these steels was found to be a function of carbide size and composition. The influence of processing and composition on achieving high strength in these wires during severe plastic deformation is discussed.

  12. Formation Mechanism of SiO2-Type Inclusions in Si-Mn-Killed Steel Wires Containing Limited Aluminum Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Min; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Haoqian; Cao, Zhanmin

    2015-10-01

    The origin, formation mechanism, and evolution of SiO2-type inclusions in Si-Mn-killed steel wires were studied by pilot trials with systematical samplings at the refining ladle, casting tundish, as-cast bloom, reheated bloom, and hot-rolled rods. It was found that the inclusions in tundish were well controlled in the low melting point region. By contrast, MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions in the as-cast bloom were with compositions located in the primary region of SiO2, and most CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO inclusions lied in primary phase region of anorthite. Therefore, precipitation of SiO2 particles in MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions can be easier than in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO inclusions to form dual-phase inclusions in the as-cast bloom. Thermodynamic calculation by the software FactSage 6.4 (CRCT-ThermFact Inc., Montréal, Canada) showed that mass transfer between liquid steel and inclusions resulted in the rise of SiO2 content in inclusions from tundish to as-cast bloom and accelerated the precipitation of pure SiO2 phase in the formed MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions. As a result, the inclusions characterized by dual-phase structure of pure SiO2 in MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 matrix were observed in both as-cast and reheated blooms. Moreover, the ratio of such dual-phase SiO2-type inclusions witnessed an obvious increase from 0 to 25.4 pct before and after casting, whereas it changed little during the reheating and rolling. Therefore, it can be reasonably concluded that they were mainly formed during casting. Comparing the evolution of the inclusions composition and morphology in as-cast bloom and rolled products, a formation mechanism of the SiO2-type inclusions in wire rods was proposed, which included (1) precipitation of SiO2 in the formed MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusion during casting and (2) solid-phase separation of the undeformed SiO2 precipitation from its softer MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 matrix during multipass rolling.

  13. 78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 61042 (October 3, 2011). International Trade Commission (``ITC... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary.... SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed...

  14. 75 FR 1755 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final Determination AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  15. Spatially Resolved Synthetic Spectra from 2D Simulations of Stainless Steel Wire Array Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Chong, Y. K.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J.

    2009-01-21

    A 2D radiation MHD model has been developed to investigate stainless steel wire array implosion experiments on the Z and refurbished Z machines. This model incorporates within the Mach2 MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE kinetics and ray trace based radiation transport. Such a method is necessary in order to account for opacity effects in conjunction with ionization kinetics of K-shell emitting plasmas. Here the model is used to investigate multi-dimensional effects of stainless steel wire implosions. In particular, we are developing techniques to produce non-LTE, axially and/or radially resolved synthetic spectra based upon snapshots of our 2D simulations. Comparisons between experimental spectra and these synthetic spectra will allow us to better determine the state of the experimental pinches.

  16. Bonding Mechanisms in Resistance Microwelding of 316 Low-Carbon Vacuum Melted Stainless Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. I.; Kim, J. M.; Kuntz, M. L.; Zhou, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Resistance microwelding (RMW) is an important joining process used in the fabrication of miniature instruments, such as electrical and medical devices. The excellent corrosion resistance of 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) wire makes it ideal for biomedical applications. The current study examines the microstructure and mechanical properties of crossed resistance microwelded 316LVM wire. Microtensile and microhardness testing was used to analyze the mechanical performance of welds, and fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Finally, a bonding mechanism is proposed based on optimum joint breaking force (JBF) using metallurgical observations of weld cross sections. Moreover, comparisons with RMWs of Ni, Au-plated Ni, and SUS304 SS wire are discussed.

  17. Process improvement in laser hot wire cladding for martensitic stainless steel based on the Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zilin; Wang, Gang; Wei, Shaopeng; Li, Changhong; Rong, Yiming

    2016-07-01

    Laser hot wire cladding, with the prominent features of low heat input, high energy efficiency, and high precision, is widely used for remanufacturing metal parts. The cladding process, however, needs to be improved by using a quantitative method. In this work, volumetric defect ratio was proposed as the criterion to describe the integrity of forming quality for cladding layers. Laser deposition experiments with FV520B, one of martensitic stainless steels, were designed by using the Taguchi method. Four process variables, namely, laser power (P), scanning speed (V s), wire feed rate (V f), and wire current (I), were optimized based on the analysis of signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Metallurgic observation of cladding layer was conducted to compare the forming quality and to validate the analysis method. A stable and continuous process with the optimum parameter combination produced uniform microstructure with minimal defects and cracks, which resulted in a good metallurgical bonding interface.

  18. Multi-field coupled numerical simulation of hot reversible rolling process of GCr15 steel rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sendong; Zhang, Liwen; Ruan, Jinhua; Mei, Hongyu; Zhen, Yu; Shi, Xinhua

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, based on rolling technology of hot reversible rolling mill, a multi-filed coupled finite element (FE) model of hot reversible rolling process of large dimension cross-section GCr15 steel rod is established. Thermal, mechanical and microstructural phenomena during the rolling process are coupled in the model. By employing grain growth experiment, double and single hit hot compression experiments, the austenite grain size growth mathematical model and recrystallization behavior mathematical models are determined. And a designed subprogram is coupled in the FE model. Actual hot reversible rolling process of GCr15 steel is simulated using the model and the distribution and evolution of different filed-variables, such as temperature, effective strain and austenite grain size are obtained. To verify the model predictions, hot rolling experiments are carried out and the temperature and microstructure of the rolling metal are compared with the predicted results. The comparison between the two sets of data shows a good agreement.

  19. Identification of the mechanisms responsible for static strain ageing in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, A.; Kleber, X.; Massardier-Jourdan, V.; Mari, D.

    2014-08-01

    The microstructural changes occurring during drawing and ageing in pearlitic steel wires have been studied using the thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements combined with atom probe tomography (APT) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). APT analysis confirmed that cementite dissolution occurs during the cold-drawing process. The high sensitivity of TEP to solute atoms allowed two ageing mechanisms to be identified, both related to a redistribution of carbon atoms. The complementary use of tensile tests and DSC confirmed these results.

  20. On mechanical properties of square and rectangular stainless steel wires tested in torsion.

    PubMed

    Meling, T R; Odegaard, J; Meling, E O

    1997-03-01

    Forty different sizes and types of square and rectangular stainless steel wires, supplied by five different manufacturers, were tested in torsion. The study simulated the situation occurring when torque is applied to an individual tooth. We used standard brackets with 0.018-inch slot heights, with an interbracket distance of 4 mm. The results show that variation in cross-sectional dimension and edge bevel leads to variable torsional play (third-order clearance). As an example 0.016 x 0.022-inch wires have a mean torsional play of as much as 18.5 degrees, with a range of 16.6 degrees to 20.4 degrees. We have shown that when 0.016 x 0.022-inch wires are used, one must apply from 24.6 degrees to 29.2 degrees of twist to get 20 Nmm of torsional moment. This variation is mostly due to a rather wide range in torsional play. As a result, the prediction by which a predetermined torsional moment can be delivered becomes uncertain. The results show that because the working range in torsion of stainless steel wires is somewhat limited, precise delivery of torsional moment, based on the condition present in the oral cavity, is difficult. Torsional stiffness varies considerable within the various dimensional groups, this being the result of variation in cross-sectional geometry and material properties. PMID:9082854

  1. Surface Preparation of Powder Metallurgical Tool Steels by Means of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatami, Sepehr; Shahabi-Navid, Mehrdad; Nyborg, Lars

    2012-09-01

    The surface of two types of powder metallurgical (PM) tool steels ( i.e., with and without nitrogen) was prepared using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). From each grade of tool steel, seven surfaces corresponding to one to seven passes of WEDM were prepared. The WEDM process was carried out using a brass wire as electrode and deionized water as dielectric. After each WEDM pass the surface of the tool steels was thoroughly examined. Surface residual stresses were measured by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The measured stresses were found to be of tensile nature. The surface roughness of the WEDM specimens was measured using interference microscopy. The surface roughness as well as the residual stress measurements indicated an insignificant improvement of these parameters after four passes of WEDM. In addition, the formed recast layer was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The characterization investigation clearly shows diffusion of copper and zinc from the wire electrode into the work material, even after the final WEDM step. Finally, the importance of eliminating excessive WEDM steps is thoroughly discussed.

  2. Effect of microalloying on the strength of high carbon wire steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie L.

    Microalloying additions of V, Nb, and N were investigated as means of increasing strength of eutectoid steels for wire applications. In order to examine the effects of microalloying additions during several stages of wire processing, continuous cooling experiments with and without deformation as well as patenting simulations were conducted using a Gleeble® 3500 thermomechanical simulator. Continuous cooling was performed from industrial austenitizing (1093 °C) and laying head (950 °C and 880 °C) temperatures, at rates ranging from 1 50 °C/s. Deformation was induced via hot torsion testing, which was followed by continuous cooling from 950 °C at rates of 5, 10, and 25 °C/s. Industrial wire patenting was simulated by austenitizing at 1093 °C or 950 °C for 30 sec, then rapid cooling to isothermal transformation temperatures of 575, 600, 625, and 650 °C for 15 sec before cooling to room temperature. Metallography, Vickers hardness, pearlite colony size and pearlite interlamellar spacing (ILS) measurements were used to examine the effects of these treatments. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves were constructed for four steels: 1080, V, V+N, and V+Nb. In the V-microalloyed steel, additional N accelerated pearlite transformation and Nb delayed pearlite transformation. Observed N effects are in agreement with the theory of VN nucleating grain boundary ferrite and accelerating pearlite transformation, proposed by Han et al. [1995], and also consistent with observations by Brownrigg and Prior [2002]. Delay of transformation temperatures has been observed due to Nb effects [De Ardo, 2009]. A larger delay observed with higher austenitizing temperatures suggests that Nb precipitates may not be as effective at delaying transformation. V strengthening effects were observed in all microalloyed steels using a model that predicted hardness of eutectoid steels by incorporating colony size and ILS measurements, with maximum strengthening observed

  3. Improving Cleanliness of 95CrMo Drill Rod Steel by Slag Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Wu, Tuo; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Jiaze

    2016-02-01

    Industrial experiments were performed to improve the cleanliness of 95CrMo drill rod steel by slag refining. Higher steel cleanliness, lower corrosion, and small inclusions were obtained using the optimal slag composition (pctCaO/pctSiO2 = 3.7 to 4, pctCaO/pctAl2O3 = 6 to 8). Layered composite inclusions formed during vacuum decarburizing refining. CaS first precipitated around the spinel and subsequently formed inclusions in which solid CaS-CaO wrapped around the Al2O3-MgO-SiO2-CaO system as the modification and diffusion progressed. The thermodynamic equilibrium between slag and liquid 95CrMo steel at 1873 K (1600 °C) was also studied to understand the effect of slag composition on the oxygen content and absorption capacity for Al2O3. A mathematical model based on an investigation of slag viscosity and the interfacial tension between slag and inclusions was used to predict the size of critical inclusions for different slags. The evolution of typical inclusions is discussed in terms of the study of reactions between slag and steel.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF POLARIZATION UPON THE STEEL WIRE-NITRIC ACID MODEL OF NERVE ACTIVITY.

    PubMed

    Bishop, G H

    1927-11-20

    The active process in a short length of steel wire passivated by 65 per cent nitric acid has been observed under the influence of a polarizing current, and the form of the potential recorded by the cathode ray oscillograph. In the passive wire, 80 per cent of the total potential drop takes place at the anode, 20 per cent at the cathode. The change from active to passive states, as measured by the potential change, is very abrupt compared to the duration of activity and the potential curve at a point on the wire is probably almost rectangular. The duration of the refractory state is decreased at the anode and increased at the cathode, as in nerve. This fact is against the idea that reactivity after passivation results from a partial reduction of an oxide layer. Soft iron wire passivated by anodal polarization repassivates after activation in acid of a dilution that fails to passivate it initially. It soon becomes rhythmic with a very short refractory phase, and then reacts continuously. Such a wire exhibits a very sharp alternation between a dark brown oxide coat during activity, and a bright clean surface during passivation. A passive steel wire in nitric acid shows many of the characteristics of an inert electrode such as platinum, and it may be inferred that, superposed upon the primary passivation potential, there exists an electrode or oxidation-reduction potential equilibrium between the effects of the various constituents of the solution. It is suggested that the phenomena of nerve-like reactivity in this system may involve an alternation between two protective coatings of the steel wire. During activity, the surface becomes mechanically coated with a brown oxide. If this coating does not adhere, due to gas convection or to rapid solution of the oxide, passivation does not result. Under sufficiently intense oxidizing conditions, a second oxide coat may form in the interstices of the first, and cover the surface as the first coating dissolves off. This

  5. Effect of heat treatment on stainless steel orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido; Kasbergen, Geraldo Francisco; Santos, Paulo Henrique dos; Mendonça, Marcos Rogério de; Tondelli, Pedro Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on CrNi stainless steel orthodontic archwires. Half of forty archwires of each thickness - 0.014" (0.35 mm), 0.016" (0.40 mm), 0.018" (0.45 mm) and 0.020" (0.50 mm) (totalling 160 archwires) - were subjected to heat treatment while the remainder were not. All of the archwires had their individual thickness measured in the anterior and posterior regions using AutoCad 2000 software before and after compressive and tensile strength testing. The data was statistically analysed utilising multivariance ANOVA at a 5% significance level. All archwires without heat treatment that were subjected to tensile strength testing presented with anterior opening, which was more accentuated in the 0.020" archwires. In the posterior region, the opening produced by the tensile force was more accentuated in the archwires without heat treatment. There was greater stability in the thermally treated archwires, especially those subjected to tensile strength testing, which indicates that the heat treatment of orthodontic archwires establishes a favourable and indispensable condition to preserve the intercanine width. PMID:21359492

  6. 76 FR 68422 - Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... notified the Department of its finding. See Galvanized Steel Wire from China and Mexico, 76 FR 29266 (May... Less Than Fair Value: Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from South Africa, 62 FR 61731, 61732-33... Investigations, 76 FR 23548 (April 27, 2011) (Initiation Notice). The Petitioners in this investigation are...

  7. On the Effect of Counterface Materials on Tribo-Behavior of Steel Wire Sliding Under Dry Contact Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, Su Be; Al Shalabi, Ammar; Yousif, B. F.

    Steel wires are implemented in numerous systems and undergo frequent faults due to tribological loading conditions. Therefore, this paper presents a study on the tribological performance of steel wire sliding against different counterfaces, namely, aluminum alloy, stainless steel, and mild steel using a block-on-ring tribo-tester. According to common mechanisms, the tests were performed under 5 N applied load and 0.15 m/s sliding velocity under dry contact condition. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the damaged features on the worn surfaces of the steel wire. Weight loss and friction coefficient results were presented versus sliding distances (0-1.6 km). In general, the results showed that friction coefficient did not reach the steady state due to the transformation of the wear mechanism from adhesive to abrasive mode. Nevertheless, the average of friction coefficient was found to be about 0.7 ± 0.1 for stainless steel and 0.2 ± 0.1 for mild steel. Weight loss gradually increased with the increase of sliding distance. The micrographs of worn surfaces revealed that the contact mechanism was transformed from adhesive to abrasive wear mode as implied by the scars and grooves on the wire surface.

  8. Corrosion damage estimation in multi-wire steel strands using guided ultrasonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhidzadeh, Alireza; Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a nondestructive evaluation method based on guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) to estimate corrosion in steel strands. Steel strands are one of the main components in constructing prestressed structures. Hidden corrosion in these structures has become a concern for designers, owners and regulators as it can eventuate in disastrous failure. In this study, a reference-free algorithm is proposed to quantify the extent of corrosion through estimating the cross section loss using dispersion curves and the velocity of certain frequency components in the waveform. Experimental test setups were designed to accelerate corrosion on two similarly loaded steel strands. One strand was embedded in concrete (to simulate a prestressed concrete beam) and the other was free (to resemble a prestressed cable). Visual inspection, halfcell potential, and mass loss measurements were employed as supporting evidences for the state of corrosion. An uncertainty analysis was also carried out to investigate how close this method can estimate the diameter of wires in a strand. The method could reasonably estimate the diameter of the wires without a reference baseline.

  9. 77 FR 67332 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...On May 8, 2012, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') published in the Federal Register the Preliminary Results of the second administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain steel threaded rod from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of review (``POR'') April 1, 2010, through March 31, 2011.\\1\\ Based upon our analysis of the comments and information......

  10. Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from deformable steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woong; Lee, Heon-Joo; Shin, Hyunho

    2002-10-01

    Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from oblique steel plates with a finite thickness was investigated numerically using a full three-dimensional explicit finite element method. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated for various impact velocities and strengths of the target plates. It was predicted that critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocities and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. Numerical predictions were compared with existing two-dimensional analytical models. Experiments were also carried out and the results supported the predictions of the numerical analysis.

  11. Arc spraying of nano-structured wire on carbon steel: examination of coating microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Al Askandarani, A.; Hashmi, M. S. J.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2011-01-17

    Arc spraying of nano-structured wire (TAFA 95MX) onto carbon steel is carried out. The workpieces coated were heat treated at temperature similar to the operating temperature of the hot-path components of power gas turbines. The morphological and microstructural changes in the coating are examined using optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The surface roughness and microhardness of the resulting coatings are measured. It is found that the formation of dimples like structure at surface increased the surface roughness of the coating. The microhardness of the resulting coating is significantly higher than the base material hardness. Heat treatment does not alter the microstructure and microhardness of the coating.

  12. An explanation for the anomalous wave profiles obtained in Composition B-3 impacted by flat nosed steel rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Hugh; Gustavsen, Richard; Dattelbaum, Dana

    2015-06-01

    When firing flat nosed steel rods into the 60/40 RDX/TNT explosive Composition B-3, Gustavsen et al. (``Initiation of Composition B-3 by impact of flat nosed rods,'' in 15th Int. Det. Symp.) found an apparently anomalous ``hump'' in particle velocity wave profiles. The hump occurred on the center-line established by the rod, and at relatively late times, > 1 μs, after detonation onset. Several explanations, including that of a late time reaction, were postulated. This report will present evidence that the anomalous late time ``hump'' is due to the arrival of rarefaction waves from the rod periphery. Simple analytic calculations and reactive-burn hydro-code calculations will be presented supporting this hypothesis.

  13. Facile fabrication of micro-nano-rod structures for inducing a superamphiphobic property on steel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Yu, Sirong

    2016-01-01

    The development of the lyophobic surface has potentially practical value in many fields. In this study, a superamphiphobic ZnO film was fabricated on X90 pipeline steel surface via a combined approach using electrodeposition, hydrothermal treatment and chemical modification. The ZnO with micro-nano-rod structures was in situ grown on the deposited Zn coating, and the chemical modification achieved superomniphobic property of the ZnO film. The contact angles of water and glycerol on this film were about 157.59° and 153.76°, respectively, and the sliding angles of them were <10°. In addition, the superamphiphobic ZnO film was excellent repellent to other liquids, including salted water, ethanol-water, crude oil and wax. Both the morphology and the low-surface-energy material play key roles in fabricating the superamphiphobic ZnO film on the steel surface. Importantly, the deposited Zn coating and the superamphiphobic ZnO film ensure the surface with corrosion resistance and excellent lyophobic property, respectively.

  14. GMDH-type neural network modeling and genetic algorithm-based multi-objective optimization of thermal and friction characteristics in heat exchanger tubes with wire-rod bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Beigzadeh, Reza; Parvizi, Mehdi; Eiamsa-ard, Smith

    2016-08-01

    The group method of data handling (GMDH) technique was used to predict heat transfer and friction characteristics in heat exchanger tubes equipped with wire-rod bundles. Nusselt number and friction factor were determined as functions of wire-rod bundle geometric parameters and Reynolds number. The performance of the developed GMDH-type neural networks was found to be superior in comparison with the proposed empirical correlations. For optimization, the genetic algorithm-based multi-objective optimization was applied.

  15. Development of Process Maps in Two-Wire Tandem Submerged Arc Welding Process of HSLA Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, D. V.; Alam, S. A.; De, A.

    2013-04-01

    Appropriate selection of welding conditions to guarantee requisite weld joint mechanical properties is ever difficult because of their complex interactions. An approach is presented here to identify suitable welding conditions in typical two-wire tandem submerged arc welding (SAW-T) that involves many welding variables. First, an objective function is defined, which depicts the squared error between the mechanical properties of weld joint and of base material. A set of artificial neural network (ANN)-based models are developed next to estimate the weld joint properties as function of welding conditions using experimentally measured results. The neural network model-based predictions are used next to create a set of process map contours that depict the minimum achievable values of the objective function and the corresponding welding conditions. In typical SAW-T of HSLA steel, welding speed from 9.0 to 11.5 mm/s, leading wire current from 530 to 580 A, and trailing wire negative current from 680 to 910 A are found to be the most optimal.

  16. Parametric Optimization of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Powder Metallurgical Cold Worked Tool Steel using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakara, Dara; Prasanthi, Guvvala

    2016-08-01

    Wire Cut EDM is an unconventional machining process used to build components of complex shape. The current work mainly deals with optimization of surface roughness while machining P/M CW TOOL STEEL by Wire cut EDM using Taguchi method. The process parameters of the Wire Cut EDM is ON, OFF, IP, SV, WT, and WP. L27 OA is used for to design of the experiments for conducting experimentation. In order to find out the effecting parameters on the surface roughness, ANOVA analysis is engaged. The optimum levels for getting minimum surface roughness is ON = 108 µs, OFF = 63 µs, IP = 11 A, SV = 68 V and WT = 8 g.

  17. 77 FR 59892 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Determination of Circumvention of the Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR 78882 (December 20, 2011) (Preliminary...-Circumvention Inquiry of Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR 33218 (June 8, 2011) (Initiation). The Department is... by this circumvention inquiry. \\3\\ See Preliminary Determination. \\4\\ See Id., 76 FR at 78884....

  18. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Korea and Spain. Background The Commission instituted these reviews effective July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31765, July 2, 2009) and determined on October 5, 2009, that it would conduct full reviews (74 FR 54068... 30, 2009 (74 FR 62588). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on April 8, 2010, and all persons...

  19. 78 FR 2658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 59894 (October 1, 2012). \\2\\ See Letter from Nucor... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 71575 (December 3, 2012). \\4... accordance with 19 CPR 351.305(a)(3). Timely written notification of the return/destruction of APO...

  20. 76 FR 68407 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of Sales at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 76 FR 23548 (April 27, 2011) (``Initiation Notice''). \\3\\ See id., at 76 FR 23553. On May 16, 2011, the United States International Trade Commission (``ITC...), Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico, 76 FR 29266 (May 20, 2011). Period of Investigation The...

  1. 76 FR 47150 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ..., 76 FR 23548 (April 27, 2011). The current deadline for the preliminary determinations of these... International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico... INFORMATION CONTACT: Irene Gorelik (the People's Republic of China), Office 9, or Patrick Edwards...

  2. 75 FR 38977 - Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Concrete Steel Wire Strand from China: Determinations, 75 FR 36678 (June 28, 2010) (ITC Final Determination... Duty Determination, 75 FR 28557 (May 21, 2010) (Final Determination). On June 22, 2010, the ITC... Determination, 74 FR 56576 (November 2, 2009) (Preliminary Determination). In accordance with section 703(d)...

  3. 77 FR 28356 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan: Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 77 FR 3731 (January 25, 2012). Postponement of Preliminary... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan... INFORMATION CONTACT: Irene Gorelik (Vietnam) or Paul Walker (Taiwan), Office 9, AD/CVD Operations,...

  4. 77 FR 75980 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...On August 2, 2012, the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') published its notice of preliminary determination of sales at less than fair value (``LTFV'') in the antidumping investigation of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ We invited interested parties to comment on our Preliminary Determination of sales at LTFV. We continue to......

  5. 76 FR 1134 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... and Preliminary Rescission, in Part, of the First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 68758... for Administrative Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

  6. 75 FR 22739 - First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Steel Wire Hangers From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... September 30, 2009. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 74 FR... Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). This notice... (``Department'') initiated the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on steel wire...

  7. Cold Drawn Steel Wires-Processing, Residual Stresses and Ductility-Part I: Metallography and Finite Element Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Phelippeau,A.; Pommier, S.; Tsakalakos, T.; Clavel, M.; Prioul, C.

    2006-01-01

    Cold drawing steel wires lead to an increase of their mechanical strength and to a drop of their ductility. The increase of their mechanical strength has long been related to the reduction of the various material scales by plastic deformation, but the mechanisms controlling their elongation to failure have received relatively little attention. It is usually found that heavily deformed materials show a tendency to plastic strain localization and necking. However, in this paper it is shown that, though the steel wires are plastically deformed up to strain levels as high as 3.5, a significant capability of plastic deformation is preserved in as-drawn wires. This apparent contradiction is resolved by the existence of residual stresses inside the wire. Finite element analyses have been conducted in order to show that residual stresses, inherited from the drawing process, are sufficient to produce a significant hardening effect during a post-drawing tensile test, without introducing any hardening in the local material behavior. The main conclusion of this paper is that once the material has lost its hardening capabilities, residual stresses, inherited from the process, control the elongation of cold drawn wires. The finite element method allowed also the determination of the residual stress field that would lead to the best agreement between the simulated and the experimental stress strain curve of as-drawn wires.

  8. Effect of confining pressure due to external jacket of steel plate or shape memory alloy wire on bond behavior between concrete and steel reinforcing bars.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2014-12-01

    For external jackets of reinforced concrete columns, shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are easy to install, and they provide active and passive confining pressure; steel plates, on the other hand, only provide passive confining pressure, and their installation on concrete is not convenient because of the requirement of a special device. To investigate how SMA wires distinctly impact bond behavior compared with steel plates, this study conducted push-out bond tests of steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete confined by SMA wires or steel plates. For this purpose, concrete cylinders were prepared with dimensions of 100 mm x 200 mm, and D-22 reinforcing bars were embedded at the center of the concrete cylinders. External jackets of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thickness steel plates were used to wrap the concrete cylinders. Additionally, NiTiNb SMA wire with a diameter of 1.0 mm was wound around the concrete cylinders. Slip of the reinforcing bars due to pushing force was measured by using a displacement transducer, while the circumferential deformation of specimens was obtained by using an extensometer. The circumferential deformation was used to calculate the circumferential strains of the specimens. This study assessed the radial confining pressure due to the external jackets on the reinforcing bars at bond strength from bond stress-slip curves and bond stress-circumferential strain curves. Then, the effects of the radial confining pressure on the bond behavior of concrete are investigated, and an equation is suggested to estimate bond strength using the radial confining pressure. Finally, this study focused on how active confining pressure due to recovery stress of the SMA wires influences bond behavior. PMID:25971115

  9. 1D Scaling with Ablation for K-Shell Radiation from Stainless Steel Wire Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J.; Clark, R. W.; Jones, B.; Cuneo, M.; Coverdale, C. A.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    A 1D Lagrangian magnetohydrodynamic z-pinch simulation code is extended to include wire ablation. The plasma transport coefficients are calibrated to reproduce the K-shell yields measured on the Z generator for three stainless steel arrays of diameter 55 mm and masses ranging from 1.8 to 2.7 mg. The resulting 1D scaling model is applied to a larger SS array (65 mm and 2.5 mg) on the refurbished Z machine. Simulation results predict a maximum K-shell yield of 77 kJ for an 82 kV charging voltage. This maximum drops to 42 kJ at 75 kV charging. Neglecting the ablation precursor leads to a {approx}10% change in the calculated yield.

  10. Distributed image processing system for the monitoring of hot steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Paul; Weiss, Michael; Schiller, Arnulf

    2003-05-01

    In a prototype for monitoring hot steel wire different technologies are integrated to achieve a robust, flexibly configurable and scalable imaging system. It is designed as a distributed system with private network and Tuplespace communication implementable on a LINUX Server. Intelligent cameras grab and process the image data. For real time communication between the cameras and standard industrial I/O-modules (IEC-61131) MODBUS/TCP messaging is applied. A switch with integrated firewall makes services available to the supervisory control system. Results are available as XML-logfiles. The image processing defines the upper and lower edges of the material by minimum/maximum filtering of the y-gradient. Dual Grassmanian coordinates are used to fit two parallel lines to the edge points by singular value decomposition. This gives the distance between the lines and the confidence interval of each measurement simultaneously, whereas latter is used to reject poor data. Changes of the distance are analysed computing local central moments. Presently, 12 images per second are acquired. The application is able to detect spontaneous rotation of the wire around the axis of rolling directly at the rolling stands and treats also poor images (due to steam of cooling water). It indicates resulting defects, which may go undetected otherwise.

  11. Graphene coating bonded onto stainless steel wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-03-01

    A graphene coating bonded onto stainless steel wire was fabricated and investigated as a solid-phase microextraction fiber. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The coating with rough and crinkled structure was about 1 μm. These characteristics were helpful for promoting extraction. Using five n-alkanes (n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane) as analytes, the fiber was evaluated in direct-immersion mode by coupling with gas chromatography (GC). Through optimizing extraction and desorption conditions, a sensitive SPME-GC analytical method was established. SPME-GC method provided wide linearity range (0.2-150 μg L(-1)) and low limits of determination (0.05-0.5 μg L(-1)). It was applied to analyze rain water and a soil sample, and analytes were quantified in the range of 0.85-1.96 μg L(-1) and 0.09-3.34 μg g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of samples spiked at 10 μg L(-1) were in the range of 90.1-120% and 80.6-94.2%, respectively. The fiber also exhibited high thermal and chemical stability, due to the covalent bonds between graphene coating and wire, and the natural resistance of graphene for thermal, acid and basic conditions. PMID:25618658

  12. Comparison of Inclusions in Cold Drawn Wire and Precursor Hot-Rolled Rod Coil in VIM-VAR Nickel-Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sczerzenie, Frank; Paul, Graeme; Belden, Clarence

    2011-07-01

    Inclusion content is important for the mechanical behavior and performance of Nitinol wires, particularly in fatigue-rated devices. The purpose of this work was to make a quantitative comparison between inclusion populations in cold drawn wires and the precursor populations in hot-rolled rod coil. Inclusion content was examined in a series of VIM-VAR alloys with different transformation temperatures (TTR) controlled by the Ni to Ti ratio. This range of chemistry was chosen to assess the effect of Ni to Ti ratio on inclusion formation. In order to understand the differences in behavior between carbides and intermetallic oxides in wire drawing, carbides, and intermetallic oxide inclusions were measured separately using optical metallography pursuant to ASTM F2063. In VIM-VAR alloys at higher Ni to Ti ratios about 50.79 a/o Ni the formation of intermetallic oxides appears to be suppressed in the as-cast material through the presence of carbon and the precipitation of eutectic TiC in place of eutectic Ti4Ni2O x . The structure of VIM-VAR alloy also varies after hot working depending on the TTR of the alloy. Higher TTR binary alloys with lower Ni to Ti ratios tend to have more and larger intermetallic oxides and fewer and smaller carbides after hot working. Microsegregation plays a role in inclusion formation. That is, during solidification, C, O, N diffuse to the interdendritic regions. This increases the potential for the precipitation of nonmetallic species. Carbides and intermetallic oxides behave differently in hot working and cold drawing. The change in maximum carbide size from coil to wire is very near zero for all Ni to Ti ratios. The change in maximum inclusion size from coil to wire is driven mainly by the fracture of intermetallic oxides and the formation of intermetallic oxide stringers.

  13. Investigation of stainless steel clad fuel rod failures and fuel performance in the Connecticut Yankee Reactor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pasupathi, V.; Klingensmith, R. W.

    1981-11-01

    Significant levels of fuel rod failures were observed in the batch 8 fuel assemblies of the Connecticut Yankee reactor. Failure of 304 stainless steel cladding in a PWR environment was not expected. Therefore a detailed poolside and hot cell examination program was conducted to determine the cause of failure and identify differences between batch 8 fuel and previous batches which had operated without failures. Hot cell work conducted consisted of detailed nondestructive and destructive examination of fuel rods from batches 7 and 8. The results indicate that the batch 8 failure mechanism was stress corrosion cracking initiating on the clad outer surface. The sources of cladding stresses are believed to be (a) fuel pellet chips wedged in the cladding gap, (b) swelling of highly nondensifying batch 8 fuel and (c) potentially harmful effects of a power change event that occurred near the end of the second cycle of irradiation for batch 8.

  14. 77 FR 71776 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Republic of China: Notice of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 17154 (April 14, 2009) (``Order''). DATES... rod products with 1.25 percent or more chromium, by weight, produced by Gem-Year Industrial Co., Ltd... threaded rod from the PRC produced by Gem-Year containing greater than 1.25 percent chromium, by...

  15. Decompression Device Using a Stainless Steel Tube and Wire for Treatment of Odontogenic Cystic Lesions: A Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun-Joo; Baek, Jin-A; Leem, Dae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Decompression is considered an effective treatment for odontogenic cystic lesions in the jaw. A variety of decompression devices are successfully used for the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors, radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts, and ameloblastoma. The purpose of these devices is to keep an opening between the cystic lesion and the oral environment during treatment. The aim of this report is to describe an effective decompression tube using a stainless steel tube and wire for treatment of jaw cystic lesions. PMID:27489852

  16. Growth of ZnO Nanorods on Stainless Steel Wire Using Chemical Vapour Deposition and Their Photocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

    2014-01-01

    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small Iuv/Ivis ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics. PMID:24587716

  17. Effect of Auxiliary Preheating of the Filler Wire on Quality of Gas Metal Arc Stainless Steel Claddings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi, Amandeep S.; Pandey, Sunil

    2008-02-01

    Weld cladding is a process for producing surfaces with good corrosion resistant properties by means of depositing/laying of stainless steels on low-carbon steel components with an objective of achieving maximum economy and enhanced life. The aim of the work presented here was to investigate the effect of auxiliary preheating of the solid filler wire in mechanized gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process (by using a specially designed torch to preheat the filler wire independently, before its emergence from the torch) on the quality of the as-welded single layer stainless steel overlays. External preheating of the filler wire resulted in greater contribution of arc energy by resistive heating due to which significant drop in the main welding current values and hence low dilution levels were observed. Metallurgical aspects of the as welded overlays such as chemistry, ferrite content, and modes of solidification were studied to evaluate their suitability for service and it was found that claddings obtained through the preheating arrangement, besides higher ferrite content, possessed higher content of chromium, nickel, and molybdenum and lower content of carbon as compared to conventional GMAW claddings, thereby giving overlays with superior mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. The findings of this study not only establish the technical superiority of the new process, but also, owing to its productivity-enhanced features, justify its use for low-cost surfacing applications.

  18. Growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire using chemical vapour deposition and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

    2014-01-01

    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small I(uv)/I(vis) ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics. PMID:24587716

  19. The Stainless Steel Wire-based Method of Sogawa Effectively Corrects Severe Ingrown Nails

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Koichiro; Sogawa, Hideo; Ogawa, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Ingrown nails are defined as inflammation of the lateral nail fold that is caused by penetration by the nail plate and associates with pain and/or infection. The pain associated with ingrown nail hampers walking, raises the risk of falls, and decreases the quality of life. The Sogawa method is a novel conservative medical treatment for ingrown nails that is based on stainless steel wire. It was first reported in 2012 by Sogawa, and we have found that it is very effective for ingrown nails, especially in difficult cases. Here, we show the beneficial effects of the Sogawa method in 2 extremely difficult cases where ingrown nails had recurred after partial nail ablation. We found the Sogawa method to be a quick and easy technique that rapidly improves the pain associated with ingrown nails and later produces properly configured nails. Our experience suggests that it is suitable for severe ingrown nails, such as too short ingrown nails and ingrown nails that have strong inflammation and granulation tissue formation. This is significant because it is difficult to treat such cases with conventional conservative methods, which means that the only remaining therapeutic option is surgery. Thus, the Sogawa method is a novel and highly effective ingrown nail treatment that obviates the need for invasive surgical treatment. PMID:27622114

  20. Palladium-coated stainless-steel wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimi; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-05-01

    A novel palladium solid-phase microextraction coating was fabricated on a stainless-steel wire by a simple in situ oxidation-reduction process. The palladium coating exhibited a rough microscaled surface and its thickness was about 2 μm. Preparation conditions (reaction time and concentration of palladium chloride and hydrochloric acid) were optimized in detail to achieve sufficient extraction efficiency. Extraction properties of the fiber were investigated by direct immersion solid-phase microextraction of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters in aqueous samples. The extracted analytes were transferred into a gas chromatography system by thermal desorption. The effect of extraction and desorption conditions on extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity was obtained and correlation coefficients between 0.9908 and 0.9990 were obtained. Limits of detection were 0.05-0.10 μg/L for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 0.3 μg/L for phthalate esters. Their recoveries for real aqueous samples were in the range from 97.1 to 121% and from 89.1 to 108%, respectively. The intra- and interday tests were also investigated with three different addition levels, and satisfactory results were also obtained. PMID:25726925

  1. Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding of Dissimilar Titanium Alloy and Stainless Steel Using Copper Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Chen, Cong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zemin; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2015-05-01

    Laser-arc hybrid welding with Cu3Si filler wire was employed to join dissimilar Ti6Al4V titanium alloy and AISI316 stainless steel (316SS). The effects of welding parameters on bead shape, microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior were investigated in detail. The results show that cross-weld tensile strength of the joints is up to 212 MPa. In the joint, obvious nonuniformity of the microstructure is found in the fusion zone (FZ) and at the interfaces from the top to the bottom, which could be improved by increasing heat input. For the homogeneous joint, the FZ is characterized by Fe67- x Si x Ti33 dendrites spreading on α-Cu matrix, and the two interfaces of 316SS/FZ and FZ/Ti6Al4V are characterized by a bamboo-like 316SS layer and a CuTi2 layer, respectively. All the tensile samples fractured in the hardest CuTi2 layer at Ti6Al4V side of the joints. The fracture surface is characterized by river pattern revealing brittle cleavage fracture. The bead formation mechanisms were discussed according to the melt flow and the thermodynamic calculation.

  2. A direct assessment of human prion adhered to steel wire using real-time quaking-induced conversion.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tsuyoshi; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Furukawa, Kana; Takatsuki, Hanae; Satoh, Katsuya; Sano, Kazunori; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accidental transmission of prions during neurosurgery has been reported as a consequence of re-using contaminated surgical instruments. Several decontamination methods have been studied using the 263K-hamster prion; however, no studies have directly evaluated human prions. A newly developed in vitro amplification system, designated real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), has allowed the activity of abnormal prion proteins to be assessed within a few days. RT-QuIC using human recombinant prion protein (PrP) showed high sensitivity for prions as the detection limit of our assay was estimated as 0.12 fg of active prions. We applied this method to detect human prion activity on stainless steel wire. When we put wires contaminated with human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease brain tissue directly into the test tube, typical PrP-amyloid formation was observed within 48 hours, and we could detect the activity of prions at 50% seeding dose on the wire from 10(2.8) to 10(5.8) SD50. Using this method, we also confirmed that the seeding activities on the wire were removed following treatment with NaOH. As seeding activity closely correlated with the infectivity of prions using the bioassay, this wire-QuIC assay will be useful for the direct evaluation of decontamination methods for human prions. PMID:27112110

  3. A direct assessment of human prion adhered to steel wire using real-time quaking-induced conversion

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Tsuyoshi; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Furukawa, Kana; Takatsuki, Hanae; Satoh, Katsuya; Sano, Kazunori; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accidental transmission of prions during neurosurgery has been reported as a consequence of re-using contaminated surgical instruments. Several decontamination methods have been studied using the 263K-hamster prion; however, no studies have directly evaluated human prions. A newly developed in vitro amplification system, designated real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), has allowed the activity of abnormal prion proteins to be assessed within a few days. RT-QuIC using human recombinant prion protein (PrP) showed high sensitivity for prions as the detection limit of our assay was estimated as 0.12 fg of active prions. We applied this method to detect human prion activity on stainless steel wire. When we put wires contaminated with human Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease brain tissue directly into the test tube, typical PrP-amyloid formation was observed within 48 hours, and we could detect the activity of prions at 50% seeding dose on the wire from 102.8 to 105.8 SD50. Using this method, we also confirmed that the seeding activities on the wire were removed following treatment with NaOH. As seeding activity closely correlated with the infectivity of prions using the bioassay, this wire-QuIC assay will be useful for the direct evaluation of decontamination methods for human prions. PMID:27112110

  4. Seismic vulnerability assessment of a steel-girder highway bridge equipped with different SMA wire-based smart elastomeric isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, Farshad; Shahria Alam, M.

    2016-07-01

    Shape memory alloy wire-based rubber bearings (SMA-RBs) possess enhanced energy dissipation capacity and self-centering property compared to conventional RBs. The performance of different types of SMA-RBs with different wire configurations has been studied in detail. However, their reliability in isolating structures has not been thoroughly investigated. The objective of this study is to analytically explore the effect of SMA-RBs on the seismic fragility of a highway bridge. Steel-reinforced elastomeric isolators are equipped with SMA wires and used to isolate the bridge. Results revealed that SMA wires with a superelastic behavior and re-centering capability can increase the reliability of the bearing and the bridge structure. It was observed that at the collapse level of damage, the bridge isolated by SMA-HDRB has the lowest fragility. Findings also showed that equipping NRB with SMA wires decreases the possibility of damage in the bridge while, replacing HDRB with SMA-HDRB; or LRB with SMA-LRB increases the failure probability of the system at slight, moderate, and extensive limit states.

  5. Heat generation and transfer behaviors of ti-coated carbon steel rod adaptable for ablation therapy of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Naohara, Takashi; Aono, Hiromichi; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Hirazawa, Hideyuki; Matsutomo, Shinya; Watanabe, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of developing a novel ablation therapy for oral cancer, the heat generation and transfer properties of a Ti-coated carbon steel rod with 20-mm length and 1.8-mm outer diameter were investigated by means of a high-frequency induction technique at 300 kHz. The heat generation measurement performed using water (15 mL) revealed that the difference of the inclination angles (θ = 0°, 45° and 90°) relative to the magnetic flux direction only slightly affects the heating behavior, exhibiting the overlapped temperature curves during an induction time of 1200 s. These results suggest that the effect of the shape magnetic anisotropy is almost eliminated, being convenient for the precise control of the ablation temperature in clinical use. In the experiments utilizing a tissue-mimicking phantom, the heat transfer concentrically occurred in the lateral direction for both the planar surface and a 10-mm deep cross-section. However, the former exhibited a considerably lower increase in temperature (ΔT), probably due to the effect of heat dissipation to the ambient air. No significant heat transfer was found to occur to the lower side of the inserted Ti-coated carbon steel rod, which is situated in the longitudinal direction. PMID:24955829

  6. Comparison of a multifilament stainless steel suture with FiberWire for flexor tendon repairs--an in vitro biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    McDonald, E; Gordon, J A; Buckley, J M; Gordon, L

    2013-05-01

    Our goal was to investigate and compare the mechanical properties of multifilament stainless steel suture (MFSS) and polyethylene multi-filament core FiberWire in flexor tendon repairs. Flexor digitorum profundus tendons were repaired in human cadaver hands with either a 4-strand cruciate cross-lock repair or 6-strand modified Savage repair using 4-0 and 3-0 multifilament stainless steel or FiberWire. The multifilament stainless steel repairs were as strong as those performed with FiberWire in terms of ultimate load and load at 2 mm gap. This study suggests that MFSS provides as strong a repair as FiberWire. The mode of failure of the MFSS occurred by the suture pulling through the tendon, which suggests an advantage in terms of suture strength. PMID:22745156

  7. Evaluation of load-deflection properties of fiber-reinforced composites and its comparison with stainless steel wires

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Shiva; Mamavi, Tayebe

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of common sized fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) to different deflections due to bending forces and comparing it with stainless steel (SS) wires. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two FRC groups with 0.75 mm and 1.2 mm diameters (Everstick Ortho, Stick Tech, Finland) and three SS groups with 0.016 × 0.022 inch, 0.0215 × 0.028 inch and 0.7 mm diameters (3M Uniteck, Monrovia, California, USA) were tested. Each group contained 10 samples that were tested according to a three point bending test. Each group was tested at deflections of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm and the data was analyzed using the repeated measure ANOVA by SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, IBM SPSS, Inc. in Chicago, Illinois, USA). P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The highest recorded load belonged to the 1.2 mm FRC and after that 0.7 mm SS wire, 0.75 mm FRC, 0.0215 × 0.028 inch SS wire and finally 0.016 × 0.022 inch SS wire. The 0.7 mm SS wire and 0.75 mm FRC were compared as retainers and the results showed the 0.7 mm SS wire showed significantly higher load compared with 0.75 mm FRC (P < 0.05). The 1.2 mm FRC had significantly higher load compared to 0.0215 × 0.028 inch and 0.016 × 0.022 inch SS wires (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that the 1.2 mm FRC group had significantly higher load compared to SS wires and other FRC groups under the 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm deflections. Therefore, it can be suggested that FRC can be used as an esthetic replacement for SS wires for active and passive purposes in orthodontics. PMID:24932195

  8. Selection of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process Parameters on Stainless Steel AISI Grade-304 using Design of Experiments Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingadurai, K.; Nagasivamuni, B.; Muthu Kamatchi, M.; Palavesam, J.

    2012-06-01

    Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a specialized thermal machining process capable of accurately machining parts of hard materials with complex shapes. Parts having sharp edges that pose difficulties to be machined by the main stream machining processes can be easily machined by WEDM process. Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been reported in this work for stainless steel AISI grade-304 which is used in cryogenic vessels, evaporators, hospital surgical equipment, marine equipment, fasteners, nuclear vessels, feed water tubing, valves, refrigeration equipment, etc., is machined by WEDM with brass wire electrode. The DOE method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyze the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics, and to predict the optimal choice for each WEDM parameter such as voltage, pulse ON, pulse OFF and wire feed. It is found that these parameters have a significant influence on machining characteristic such as metal removal rate (MRR), kerf width and surface roughness (SR). The analysis of the DOE reveals that, in general the pulse ON time significantly affects the kerf width and the wire feed rate affects SR, while, the input voltage mainly affects the MRR.

  9. Preliminary design and manufacturing feasibility study for a machined Zircaloy triangular pitch fuel rod support system (grids) (AWBA development program)

    SciTech Connect

    Horwood, W A

    1981-07-01

    General design features and manufacturing operations for a high precision machined Zircaloy fuel rod support grid intended for use in advanced light water prebreeder or breeder reactor designs are described. The grid system consists of a Zircaloy main body with fuel rod and guide tube cells machined using wire EDM, a separate AM-350 stainless steel insert spring which fits into a full length T-slot in each fuel rod cell, and a thin (0.025'' or 0.040'' thick) wire EDM machined Zircaloy coverplate laser welded to each side of the grid body to retain the insert springs. The fuel rods are placed in a triangular pitch array with a tight rod-to-rod spacing of 0.063 inch nominal. Two dimples are positioned at the mid-thickness of the grid (single level) with a 90/sup 0/ included angle. Data is provided on the effectiveness of the manufacturing operations chosen for grid machining and assembly.

  10. Tensile damage effects in steel plate perforation by a tungsten rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftenberg, Martin N.

    1998-07-01

    The EPIC Lagrangian wavecode was used to study sensitivities of rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) target hole size and the length and speed of a tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) residual rod to RHA spall pressure. The target had a 50.8-mm thickness, and the rod had a 112.0-mm length, a 20.9-mm diameter, and a striking speed of 1.52 km/s. Corresponding to a spall pressure of -0.5 GPa, good agreement with experiment was obtained in terms of target hole size and residual length for two different RHA fits to the Johnson-Cook strength model. Adiabatic shear banding in RHA is proposed to be the mechanism by which spall pressure is locally changed from its measured value of -3.0 GPa.

  11. Standard specification for steel strand, uncoated seven-wire for prestressed concrete. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.05 on Steel Reinforcement. Current edition approved May 10, 1998. Published December 1998. Originally published as A 416-57T. Last previous edition A 416-97.

  12. VIEW SOUTHEASTBUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST-BUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING MACHINE - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  13. Electrochemical characterization of the steel wire used as reinforcement in the conductors transmission networks electricity nitride by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Maldonado, J. J.; Dulcé Moreno, H. J.; Aperador, W.

    2016-02-01

    The power company feature infrastructure, which are generally shaped so the transmission and distribution lines, here is why it is necessary to characterize the process of electrochemical corrosion of these components. In this case the steel wire coated with zinc or aluminium, as it is undergoes the rigor of corrosive environments. Given the geographical diversity and different climatic environments, atmospheric corrosion carried affecting service life of structures. For example in very humid environments such as coasts and high altitudes, wetting time (TOW), parameter that meets the conditions of temperature and relative humidity, it affects large proportion, accelerating the corrosion of ferrous materials. Given the importance of establishing mechanisms that lessen the impact on degradation in transmission and distribution lines of both the reliability and the availability of the same. This paper presents the implementation in nitride steels as an alternative or complement to zinc coating.

  14. Effect of Stopper-Rod Misalignment on Fluid Flow in Continuous Casting of Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, R.; Lee, Go-Gi; Thomas, B. G.; Cho, Seong-Mook; Kim, Seon-Hyo; Kwon, Oh-Duck

    2011-04-01

    Misalignment of metal-delivery systems can cause asymmetric fluid flow in the mold region of continuous casters, leading to abnormal surface turbulence, insufficient superheat transport to the meniscus, slag entrainment, inclusion entrapment, and other quality problems. This work investigates the effect of stopper-rod misalignment on nozzle and mold flow velocities in a conventional continuous casting process using both a water model and a computational model. Three stopper-rod configurations are studied (aligned, front misaligned by 2 mm, and left misaligned by 2 mm). The 3-D steady k- ɛ finite-volume model matched well with impeller probe measurements of both velocity and its fluctuations. Negligible asymmetry was found near the narrow faces. Asymmetry close to submerged entry nozzle is the main cause of vortex formation observed in all cases. The left-misaligned stopper-rod produces a shallower jet with a higher flow rate from the right port, leading to higher surface velocities on the right surface. This produced substantially more large vortices on the left side. The asymmetry produced by the nozzle length bore diameter ratio of ~21 in this work is consistent with the theoretical critical entrance length of ~24 for turbulent pipe flow.

  15. Sintered wire annode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  16. Ordered mesoporous polymers in situ coated on a stainless steel wire for a highly sensitive solid phase microextraction fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Juan; Liang, Yeru; Liu, Shuqin; Ding, Yajuan; Shen, Yong; Luan, Tiangang; Zhu, Fang; Jiang, Ruifen; Wu, Dingcai; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-07-01

    Development of facile and effective methods for fabrication of high-performance solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres remains a great challenge. Herein, a new class of ordered mesoporous polymers (OMPs) in situ coated on a stainless steel wire were successfully developed and utilized as a highly sensitive and stable SPME fibre for the first time. Because of the highly ordered mesoporous structure of its OMP coating, the π-π interactions and the dispersion forces, the OMP-coated SPME fibre exhibited much better extraction properties as compared to the commercial PDMS fibre. The findings could provide a new benchmark for preparing well-defined porous materials for the SPME application.Development of facile and effective methods for fabrication of high-performance solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres remains a great challenge. Herein, a new class of ordered mesoporous polymers (OMPs) in situ coated on a stainless steel wire were successfully developed and utilized as a highly sensitive and stable SPME fibre for the first time. Because of the highly ordered mesoporous structure of its OMP coating, the π-π interactions and the dispersion forces, the OMP-coated SPME fibre exhibited much better extraction properties as compared to the commercial PDMS fibre. The findings could provide a new benchmark for preparing well-defined porous materials for the SPME application. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, Fig. S1-S3 and Tables S1-S3. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02674a

  17. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of a hybrid Trombe wall using steel rods and concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Merewether, D.E.; Jablonski, J.R.

    1980-11-15

    A principal drawback of passive solar systems is the large temperature swing observed over a twenty-four hours period. Several methods have been proposed and used to enhance the immediate transfer of high temperatures on the outer surface of Trombe walls to the interior living areas. These methods include convective circulatory systems and fan forced air circulation. The work reported here examines the addition of metal rods imbedded horizontally in the mortar of an unvented Trombe wall to offer a conducting path between the outer and inner surfaces. It was felt this technique would help decrease the periodic temperature swings as well as enhance the overall thermal performance of the Trombe wall.

  18. A rapid determination of brass composition and plating weight on brass-plated steel wire and cord by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van Lingen, R L; Schuurs, H E; Veenstra, G J; Roes, J M; Loef, E C

    1980-08-01

    A rapid and simple means for determination of the brass composition and plating weight on brass-plated steel wire and cord is described. The sample preparation procedure is very simple; wires can be mounted as such, and cords can be mounted either as such or as unstranded single wires. The copper content of the brass and the plating weight are determined by measuring the intensities of the different elements by sequential X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). There is good agreement between the results obtained by XRF and those obtained by differential pulse polarography or spectrophotometry/ complexometry; the precision is even better. PMID:18962748

  19. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  20. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  1. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  2. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  3. Tensile Damage Effects in Steel Plate Perforation by a Tungsten Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftenberg, Martin N.

    1997-07-01

    The EPIC wavecode was used to simulate an experiment in which a tungsten rod impacted at 1.57 km/s and perforated a rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) plate. The rod's residual length, L_r, and the hole's final diameter, \\overlineD, were experimentally determined. The Johnson-Cook strength model was used for RHA with two sets of constants, J83 and G94. When the Johnson-Cook phfracture model was applied to RHA with damage constants recommended by Johnson and Cook, \\overlineD was 13% (J83) and 26% (G94) smaller than the experimental result. An alternative damage model introduces a material constant, p_fail. When the computed pressure within a given finite element of RHA attained a value more negative than p_fail, that element was no longer allowed to support hydrostatic tension or deviatoric stresses. Throughout the p_fail range of -4.0 to -1.0 GPa, \\overlineD remained consistently smaller than the experimental result. As p_fail was increased from -1.0 to -0.1 GPa, \\overlineD increased dramatically. Corresponding to some p_fail in the range of -0.5 to -0.1 GPa, the G94 value for each of \\overlineD and Lr achieved reasonable agreement with experiment. This applies to the J83 value as well in the case of \\overlineD. Microscopy suggests that such large spall pressures may occur locally because of adiabatic shear banding.

  4. The Corrosion Resistance of Composite Arch Wire Laser-Welded By NiTi Shape Memory Alloy and Stainless Steel Wires with Cu Interlayer in Artificial Saliva with Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Hou, Xu; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Daqian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the corrosion resistance of laser-welded composite arch wire (CoAW) with Cu interlayer between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire in artificial saliva with different concentrations of protein was studied. It was found that protein addition had a significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Low concentration of protein caused the corrosion resistance of CoAW decrease in electrochemical corrosion and immersion corrosion tests. High concentration of protein could reduce this effect. PMID:23801895

  5. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... conductors and between each conductor of the completed CCSR aerial service wire and the surrounding water... test specified in ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993, paragraph 8.1.8. (g) Environmental requirements—(1)...

  6. 76 FR 55031 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ..., 76 FR 23564 (April 27, 2011) (Initiation Notice), and accompanying Initiation Checklist. Public...'' (Entry Data Memorandum), dated April 21, 2011. On May 3, 2011, Shanghai Bao Zhang Industry Co. Ltd. (SBZ... Zhang Metal Products Co., Ltd. (ABZ) and B&Z Galvanized Wire Industry filed comments on...

  7. Effect of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviors of NiTi and Stainless Steel Laser-Welded Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirshekari, G. R.; Saatchi, A.; Kermanpur, A.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    Effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of NiTi shape memory wire, laser welded to the 304 stainless steel wire were investigated. The results showed that PWHT at 200 °C increased corrosion resistance and tensile strength of the joint up to ~1.8 times that of the as-weld joint, with no heat treatment. On the contrary, precipitation of neoteric intermetallic compounds like Fe2Ti, Cr2Ti, FeNi, Ni3Ti, and Ti2Ni in the welded region deteriorated these properties, when PWHT was conducted at 400 °C. Due to the vital effects of the PWHT performed after the laser welding, careful control of the PWHT temperature was found to be a prerequisite for achievement of desirable properties in the dissimilar NiTi-304 stainless steel laser-welded wires.

  8. Effect of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviors of NiTi and Stainless Steel Laser-Welded Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirshekari, G. R.; Saatchi, A.; Kermanpur, A.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    Effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of NiTi shape memory wire, laser welded to the 304 stainless steel wire were investigated. The results showed that PWHT at 200 °C increased corrosion resistance and tensile strength of the joint up to ~1.8 times that of the as-weld joint, with no heat treatment. On the contrary, precipitation of neoteric intermetallic compounds like Fe2Ti, Cr2Ti, FeNi, Ni3Ti, and Ti2Ni in the welded region deteriorated these properties, when PWHT was conducted at 400 °C. Due to the vital effects of the PWHT performed after the laser welding, careful control of the PWHT temperature was found to be a prerequisite for achievement of desirable properties in the dissimilar NiTi-304 stainless steel laser-welded wires.

  9. Atomic scale investigation of redistribution of alloying elements in pearlitic steel wires upon cold-drawing and annealing.

    PubMed

    Li, Y J; Choi, P; Goto, S; Borchers, C; Raabe, D; Kirchheim, R

    2013-09-01

    A local electrode atom probe has been employed to analyze the redistribution of alloying elements including Si, Mn, and Cr in pearlitic steel wires upon cold-drawing and subsequent annealing. It has been found that the three elements undergo mechanical mixing upon cold-drawing at large strains, where Mn and Cr exhibit a nearly homogeneous distribution throughout both ferrite and cementite, whereas Si only dissolves slightly in cementite. Annealing at elevated temperatures leads to a reversion of the mechanical alloying. Si atoms mainly segregate at well-defined ferrite (sub)grain boundaries formed during annealing. Cr and Mn are strongly concentrated in cementite adjacent to the ferrite/cementite interface due to their lower diffusivities in cementite than in ferrite. PMID:23237772

  10. Plasma-Based Steel Rod or Rebar Production From In Situ Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, H.; Prisbrey, Keith

    1998-01-01

    The probability of lunar ice has redefined the importance of earlier research reporting Fe as a byproduct of O production from lunar regolith. That emphasis is now on Fe and other materials for in situ resources for construction. In pursuit of O from lunar ilmenite, we have tried (1) a resonating cavity microwave plasma reactor, (2) a nontransferred arc plasma torch feeding a cylindrical reactor, and (3) an inductively coupled plasma reactor feeding a quench chamber with relative success. Instead of using these or other O-focused strategies, and instead of using commercial submerged electric arc smelting of ilmenite to produce Fe, a compact, portable, light, plasma-based cyclone reactor could be adapted as another choice. Cyclone reactors have been under development for several decades, and P. R. Taylor and coworkers have extended their evolution and used them effectively on iron taconites as well as other materials. The advantages of the plasma reactor over other current steel making processes include continuous operation, higher through puts in small reactors, enhanced heat and mass transfer rates, higher temperatures, easy separation of liquids and gases, capture and recycle of plasma gases, and no feed agglomeration. The procedure for producing steel was to feed taconite and CO/CO2 mixtures into the cyclone reactor (Fig. 1), The results were excellent. The procedure and results for lunar ilmenite would be similar. Electrostatically concentrated ilmenite and magnetically concentrated Fe and associated agglutinates would be fed into the reactor along with reductant. Plasma reactors can be modified to produce Al, Ti, glass, ceramics, and advanced materials, and an already automated reactor system can be further automated for remote operation.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot wire laser clad layers for repairing precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Peng; Cai, Zhipeng; Feng, Zhenhua; Wang, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel (PH-MSS) is widely used as load-bearing parts because of its excellent overall properties. It is economical and flexible to repair the failure parts instead of changing new ones. However, it is difficult to keep properties of repaired part as good as those of the substrate. With preheating wire by resistance heat, hot wire laser cladding owns both merits of low heat input and high deposition efficiency, thus is regarded as an advantaged repairing technology for damaged parts of high value. Multi-pass layers were cladded on the surface of FV520B by hot wire laser cladding. The microstructure and mechanical properties were compared and analyzed for the substrate and the clad layer. For the as-cladded layer, microstructure was found non-uniform and divided into quenched and tempered regions. Tensile strength was almost equivalent to that of the substrate, while ductility and impact toughness deteriorated much. With using laser scanning layer by layer during laser cladding, microstructure of the clad layers was tempered to fine martensite uniformly. The ductility and toughness of the clad layer were improved to be equivalent to those of the substrate, while the tensile strength was a little lower than that of the substrate. By adding TiC nanoparticles as well as laser scanning, the precipitation strengthening effect was improved and the structure was refined in the clad layer. The strength, ductility and toughness were all improved further. Finally, high quality clad layers were obtained with equivalent or even superior mechanical properties to the substrate, offering a valuable technique to repair PH-MSS.

  12. Heat treatment induced intermetallic phase transition of arc-sprayed coating prepared by the wires combination of aluminum-cathode and steel-anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongxiong; Liang, Xiubing; Wei, Shicheng; Liu, Yan; Xu, Binshi

    2009-07-01

    A method to prepare intermetallic composite coatings employing the cost-efficient electric arc spraying twin wires assistant with suitable heat treatment was developed. In this study, a Fe-Al composite coating was produced by spraying twin wires, i.e. a carbon steel wire as the anode and an aluminum wire as the cathode. The inter-deposited Fe-Al coating was transformed in-situ to Fe-Al intermetallic composite coating after a post annealing treatment. The effect of annealing treatment conditions on phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coating was investigated by using XRD, SEM, EDS and OM as well as microhardness tester. The results show that the desirable intermetallic phases such as Fe 2Al 5, FeAl and Fe 3Al are obtained under the annealing condition. The main oxide in the coating is FeO which can partially transform to Fe 3O 4 up to the annealing condition.

  13. 2D Radiation MHD K-shell Modeling of Single Wire Array Stainless Steel Experiments on the Z Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Chong, Y. K.; Davis, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Whitney, K. G.; Clark, R. W.; Jones, B.; Coverdale, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    Many physical effects can produce unstable plasma behavior that affect K-shell emission from arrays. Such effects include: asymmetry in the initial density profile, asymmetry in power flow, thermal conduction at the boundaries, and non-uniform wire ablation. Here we consider how asymmetry in the radiation field also contributes to the generation of multidimensional plasma behavior that affects K-shell power and yield. To model this radiation asymmetry, we have incorporated into the MACH2 r-z MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE population kinetics based on radiation transport using multi-dimensional ray tracing. Such methodology is necessary for modeling the enhanced radiative cooling that occurs at the anode and cathode ends of the pinch during the run-in phase of the implosion. This enhanced radiative cooling is due to reduced optical depth at these locations producing an asymmetric flow of radiative energy that leads to substantial disruption of large initial diameter (>5 cm) pinches and drives 1D into 2D fluid (i.e., Rayleigh-Taylor like) flows. The impact of this 2D behavior on K-shell power and yield is investigated by comparing 1D and 2D model results with data obtained from a series of single wire array stainless steel experiments performed on the Z generator.

  14. Stainless steel wire mesh-supported ZnO for the catalytic photodegradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tan T; del Río, Laura; Valdés-Solís, Teresa; Marbán, Gregorio

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of catalysts formed by nanostructured zinc oxide supported on stainless steel wire mesh for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. Catalysts prepared by means of different low temperature synthesis methods, as described in a previous work (Vu et al., Mater. Res. Bull. 47 (2012) 1577-1586) were tested. A new activity parameter was introduced in order to compare the catalytic activity of the different catalysts. The best catalyst showed a catalytic activity higher than that of the reference material TiO(2) P25 (Degussa-Evonik). This high activity is attributed to a higher quantum yield derived from the small particle length of the ZnO deposited on the wire mesh. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of methylene blue fitted a potential model with n orders ranging from 0.5 to 6.9. Reaction orders over 1 were attributed to catalyst deactivation during the reaction resulting from the photocorrosion of ZnO. PMID:23291337

  15. Detecting steel rods and micro-piles: A case history in a civil engineering application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Luciana

    2012-06-01

    Investigating engineered structures with GPR is challenging because quite often the scale of important features is similar or smaller that the natural scale of heterogeneity in the material. In this paper I summarize the key factors and use numerical simulations and real data examples to illustrate the tradeoff between detection and resolution. The targets were micro-piles and steel bars with diameters 0.13 m and 0.02 m, respectively, and embedded in an ancient wall that consists of an aggregate of stones ranging in size from 1 cm to half meter, mortar and air. The data were collected with center frequency antennas of 200, 600, 2000 MHz which provide increasing resolution. The model and measurement results indicate that lower resolution may result in a better understanding of the structure imaged with GPR. In fact, high resolution profiles show enhanced anomalies caused by heterogeneities in the host material, making data interpretation more difficult. This study shows that GPR survey design must be clear about the particular engineering objective and requires selecting the optimal frequency and bandwidth depending on the target dimension.

  16. 78 FR 63450 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 78 FR 33063 (June 3, 2013) (``Notice of..., Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Reviews of the... (``the Department'') published the initiation of the second sunset reviews of the antidumping duty...

  17. 78 FR 60316 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... both that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (78 FR 33103, June... may also be obtained by accessing its internet server ( http://www.usitc.gov ). The public record...

  18. 76 FR 64105 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... of institution (76 FR 38686, July 1, 2011) of the subject five-year review was adequate and that the..., and 207.7 of the Commission's rules. Please consult the Commission's rules, as amended, 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR 62092 (Oct. 6, 2011)...

  19. 75 FR 8650 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Trinidad and Tobago; Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 57648 (November 9, 2009) (Preliminary Results). We gave... Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment of Antidumping Duties). This clarification will apply to... from Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine, 67 FR 65945, 65947...

  20. In vitro comparative study on the friction of stainless steel wires with and without Orthospeed® (JAL 90458) on an inclined plane

    PubMed Central

    Claros-Stucchi, Miguel; Albaladejo, Alberto; Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Alvarado-Lorenzo, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background During the treatment of orthodontics, in the mechanics of slide, there takes place friction, which they reduce the slide of the arch across bracket. Therefore, clinical there takes place an increase of the time of treatment. There are different the technologies that try to reduce this friction, as the self-ligating braces. The purpose of this study was to research the in vitro behavior of JAL 90458 as a buffering agent which reduces friction between brackets and stainless steel arch wires of different cross sections and sizes. Material and Methods Three types of stainless steel wires with different cross sections and three types of ligatures were used with and without JAL 90458 to measure the friction according to the time and distance traveled by the brackets on an inclined plane with two angulations. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks was applied to determine the degree of friction between the group using and the group not using the product (P ≤ .05). Results Separate analysis of the arch wires, ligatures and angulation with and without the compound revealed statistically significant differences between the groups, showing that friction was reduced significantly when JAL 90458 was used (P ≤ .01). The 0.021x0.025” arch wires and the arch wires attached using elastic ligatures produce the least resistance to sliding among all of those analyzed when the product was not used (P ≤ .05). Conclusions The results show that JAL 90458 reduces friction independently of arch wire cross section, type of ligature and angulation of the measuring instrument. Key words:Friction, JAL 90458, arch wires, ligatures, in vitro. PMID:27034753

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Friction Resistance of Titanium, Stainless Steel, Ceramic and Ceramic with Metal Insert Brackets with Varying Dimensions of Stainless Steel Wire: An In vitro Multi-center Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B Sunil; Miryala, Suresh; Kumar, K Kiran; Shameem, K; Regalla, Ravindra Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The orthodontist seeks an archwire–bracket combination that has both good biocompatibility and low friction. Hence, the aim of this multicenter in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the frictional resistance generated between titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SS), ceramic and ceramic with metal insert (CMI) brackets with SS wires of varying dimensions in a specially designed apparatus. Materials and Methods: The material used in this study were Ti, SS, Ceramic and CMI with 0.018″ slot manufactured with zero degree tip and −7° torque premolar brackets (3M, Unitek) and SS wires of varying dimensions (0.016″ round, 0.016 × 0.016″ square, 0.016 × 0.022″ rectangular and 0.017 × 0.025″ rectangular) used. The frictional resistance was measured using Instron Universal testing machine (Model no. 4301). The specimen population in each center composed each of 160 brackets and wires. Differences among the all bracket/wire combinations were tested using (one-way) ANOVA, followed by the student Newman Keuls multiple comparisons of means ranking (at P < 0.05) for the determination of differences among the groups. Results: Ti bracket in combination with 0.017 × 0.025″ SS rectangular wire produced significant force levels for an optimum orthodontic movement with least frictional resistance. Conclusion: Ti brackets have least resistance and rectangular wires produced significant force. These can be used to avoid hazards of Nickel. SS brackets revealed higher static frictional force values as the wire dimension increased and showed lower static friction than Ti brackets for all wires except the thicker wire. Our study recommends the preclusion of brackets with rough surface texture (Ti brackets) with SS ligature wire for ligating bracket and archwire are better to reduce friction. PMID:25395796

  2. Allergic reaction to stainless steel sternotomy wires requiring removal: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lopez, J; Sachithanandan, A; Leow, M

    2016-06-01

    Hypersensitivity to stainless steel sternal sutures are an uncommon occurrence. We present a case of such a patient who developed chronic tissue overgranulation over a sternotomy wound eight weeks post-operatively. Primary suspicion was infection, a more common complication however radiological and laboratory investigation showed otherwise. Conservative management provided limited ephemeral success. After ensuring adequate sternal bone healing, the sutures and granulation tissue were eventually surgically removed without complication and the reoperated wound healed well. PMID:27495890

  3. The effect of strain hardening on resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wires for orthopaedics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; Hadasik, E.; Szymszal, J.

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate electrochemical corrosion resistance of wire with modified surface, made of stainless steel of Cr-Ni-Mo type, widely used in implants for orthopaedics, depending on hardening created in the process of drawing. Tests have been carried out in the environment imitating human osseous tissue. Pitting corrosion was determined on the ground of registered anodic polarisation curves by means of potentiodynamic method with application of electrochemical testing system VoltaLab® PGP 201. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in Tyrode solution on samples that were electrochemically polished as well as electrochemically polished and finally chemically passivated. Initial material for tests was wire rod made of X2CrNiMo17-12-2 steel with diameter of 5.5 mm in supersaturated condition. Wire rod was drawn up to diameter of 1.35 mm. This work shows the course of flow curve of wire made of this grade of steel and mathematical form of yield stress function. The study also presents exemplary curves showing the dependence of polarisation resistance in strain function in the drawing process of electrochemically passivated and electrochemically polished and then chemically passivated wire.

  4. Solid-state flow, mechanical alloying, and melt-related phenomena for [001] single-crystal tungsten ballistic rod penetrators interacting with steel targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizana, Carlos

    This research program consists of a detailed microstructural investigation of in-target, single-crystal [001], clad (with Inconel 718) and unclad, W long-rod, ballistic penetrators. The rods were shot into rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) steel targets approximately 76 mm in thickness at impact velocities ranging from 1100 m/s to 1350 m/s. A comprehensive microstructural overview of the penetration process was obtained from this investigation. Solid-state flow/erosion, solid-state target/rod mixing as well as influencing factors such as strain rate, penetration performance, cladding interference and the interaction between target and projectile were emphasized. Some of the microstructural features observed, including deformation twins, cleaving, adiabatic shear bands and DRX support an overall solid-state penetration process. Furthermore they provide for a unifying perspective for the applicability of the hydrodynamic paradigm (DOP ≈ l∘rp/rt ) and earlier mechanistic erosion approaches. DRX and grain growth within adiabatic shear bands observed at specific high strain/strain-rate zones within the rods suggest that the projectile erodes by means of these microstructures in a solid-state form. This erosion process contributes to the performance of the rod by either allowing optimum flow of rod material which would increase penetration depth, or by maximizing rod material consumption which would reduce it. Since flow and/or erosion are also necessary in the target for perforation to occur, it is not surprising that the erosion process in the target was observed to mirror the one in the projectile. That is both target and projectile developed erosion zones with DRX facilitating the extreme deformation via dense overlapping shear band formation. Mechanical alloying and/or mixing of the target (steel) and rod (W, or W-Inconel 718) was also observed and investigated. Selective etching techniques as well as energy-dispersive x-ray mapping revealed unambiguous evidence of

  5. Nitrogen implantation into steel wire coated with zinc used as reinforcement in power transmission conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Maldonado, J. J.; Dulcé-Moreno, H. J.; V-Niño, E. D.

    2013-11-01

    In tropical environments, diversity of climatic factors such as temperature, relative humidity, deposition of environmental contaminants (such as sulfates and chlorides) affect a large proportion of materials exposed to the weather, and electrochemical corrosion is one of the phenomena that occur in the case of metals and alloys [1, 2]. It is therefore particularly important to study this behavior in the Zinc-coated steel, since this material is used for its economy in the industry specifically in the area of transport of electricity.

  6. CNT-TiO2 coating bonded onto stainless steel wire as a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Qiu, Huamin; Fan, Lulu; Li, Xiangjun; Luo, Chuannan

    2013-09-30

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber based on carbon nanotubes-titanium oxide (CNT-TiO2) composite coating bonded onto stainless steel wire was prepared via electroless plating and sol-gel techniques. The SPME coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microscopy. Coupled to gas chromatography (GC), the fiber was investigated with seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in direct-immersion mode. The SPME-GC analytical method was evaluated under optimized extraction conditions. Compared with other reports, higher sensitivity (LODs, 0.002-0.004 μg L(-1)) and better linear range (0.01-100 and 0.01-200 μg L(-1)) were obtained by the proposed method. The fiber exhibited high thermal stability to 300 °C and excellent durability in HCl and NaOH solutions. The as-established SPME-GC method was used to analyze the real water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:23953442

  7. Influence of Nb Additions on Microstructural Evolution of a V-Microalloyed High-Carbon Wire Steel During Patenting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie L.; de Moor, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of microalloying strategies for improving the strength of high-carbon wire products subjected to industrial patenting heat treatments for two eutectoid steels: a 0.8C-0.5Mn-0.2Cr-0.08 V alloy (wt.%) and the same composition with an additional 100 ppm Nb. A Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator (Dynamic Systems Inc., Poestenkill, NY, USA) was used to perform heat treatments consisting of a 30 s austenitization at 1093 °C, 950 °C, or 880 °C followed by a 15 s isothermal transformation step at 650 °C, 625 °C, 600 °C, or 575 °C. Vickers hardness, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and pearlite interlamellar spacing measurements were conducted to assess the effects of the heat treatments. Niobium microalloying additions were found to provide no hardness increase, but they extended the pearlitic regime to lower isothermal transformation temperatures.

  8. Internal impedance of twisted steel-aluminum wires at an industrial frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkushev, A. G.; Elagin, I. A.

    2015-06-01

    A simplified mathematical model is suggested that describes the harmonic electromagnetic field distribution in high-voltage steel-core twisted cables with a single-layer winding at an industrial frequency. As a physical idealization, the twisted strands are represented in the form of an anisotropically conducting layer. When twisting is taken into consideration, an axial magnetic field arises, which substantially influences losses in the cables. Using the model, the dependences of the internal impedance on the core's magnetic permeability are derived for AS-70 cable at three winding angles of the external strands. These dependences are compared with results obtained in terms of a hollow cylinder model and with calculation data carried out in the complete statement of the problem with the finite element method.

  9. Characterization of hardened cylindrical C1018 steel rods (0.14%-0.2% C, 0.6%-0.9% Mn) using photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chinhua; Mandelis, Andreas

    2007-05-01

    Frequency-domain photothermal radiometry has been used for the evaluation of the hardened case depth and the measurement of the thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity and diffusivity) of cylindrical C1018 heat-treated steel rods. The measurement results of several steel cylinders nominally hardened identically during a common heat-treating process were consistent with each other and also with mechanical indentation hardness test results. The application of the two-layer composite cylinder thermal-wave theory yielded an effective case depth within the discrete two-layer thermal-wave approximation. This technique provides a relatively simple noncontact and nondestructive method for evaluating the thermophysical parameters of layered cylindrical samples. The good fit of the experimental frequency scans to the two-layer thermal-wave model was shown to constitute a reasonable method for calibrating actual continuously decreasing hardness depth profiles by means of abrupt two-layer-equivalent profiles. PMID:17552852

  10. Crossed-Wire Laser Microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 Low-Carbon Vacuum Melted Stainless Steel: Part I. Mechanism of Joint Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, G. S.; Huang, Y. D.; Pequegnat, A.; Li, X. G.; Khan, M. I.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The excellent biocompatibility and corrosion properties of Pt alloys and 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) make them attractive for biomedical applications. With the increasing complexity of medical devices and in order to lower costs, the challenge of joining dissimilar materials arises. In this study, laser microwelding (LMW) of crossed Pt-10 pct Ir to 316 LVM SS wires was performed and the weldability of these materials was determined. The joint geometry, joining mechanism, joint breaking force (JBF), and fracture modes were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and microtensile testing. It was shown that the mechanisms of joint formation transitioned from (1) brazing, (2) a combination of brazing and fusion welding, and (3) fusion welding with increasing pulsed laser energy. The joints demonstrated various tensile failure modes including (1) interfacial failure below a peak power of 0.24 kW, (2) partial interfacial failure that propagated into the Pt-Ir wire, (3) failure in the Pt-Ir wire, and (4) failure in the SS wire due to porosity and severe undercutting caused by overwelding. During this study, the optimal laser peak power range was identified to produce joints with good joint geometry and 90 pct of the tensile strength of the Pt-10 pct Ir wire.

  11. Defect Recovery in Severely Deformed Ferrite Lamellae During Annealing and Its Impact on the Softening of Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Z.; Csiszár, G.; Cizek, J.; Shi, X. H.; Borchers, C.; Li, Y. J.; Liu, F.; Kirchheim, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires with a drawing true strain of 3 were annealed at temperatures ( T ann) ranging from 423 K to 723 K (150 °C to 450 °C) with an interval of 50 K. Recovery of the lattice defects in the severely deformed ferrite lamellae were characterized by means of high-energy X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation techniques (including positron annihilation spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy). Accordingly, the impact of defect recovery on the softening of the annealed wires was investigated. It is found that at low temperatures [ T ann ≤ 523 K (250 °C)], the recovery of the lattice defects in ferrite lamellae is dominated by the agglomeration and annihilation of vacancy clusters, while at T ann > 523 K (250 °C), the recovery process is controlled by the annihilation of dislocations. Further analyses on the softening of the annealed wires indicate that the evolutions of dislocation density and concentration of vacancy clusters, and the strain age hardening in ferrite lamellae play important roles in changing the strength of the wires. The strain aging hardening leads to a maximum strength at 473 K (150 °C). Above 523 K (250 °C), the annihilations of vacancy clusters and dislocations in ferrite lamellae cause a continuous softening of the wires, where the decrease in dislocation density plays a major role.

  12. Fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro. Methods Roots of human mandibular central incisors were covered with silicone, mimicking the periodontal ligament, and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate. The specimens (N = 50), with two teeth each, were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/group) according to the retainer materials: (1) Interlig (E-glass), (2) everStick Ortho (E-glass), (3) DentaPreg Splint (S2-glass), (4) Ribbond (polyethylene), and (5) Quad Cat wire (stainless steel). After the recommended adhesive procedures, the retainers were bonded to the teeth by using flowable composite resin (Tetric Flow). The teeth were subjected to 10,00,000 cyclic loads (8 Hz, 3 - 100 N, 45° angle, under 37 ± 3℃ water) at their incisoproximal contact, and debonding forces were measured with a universal testing machine (1 mm/min crosshead speed). Failure sites were examined under a stereomicroscope (×40 magnification). Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Results All the specimens survived the cyclic loading. Their mean debonding forces were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The DentaPreg Splint group (80%) showed the highest incidence of complete adhesive debonding, followed by the Interlig group (60%). The everStick Ortho group (80%) presented predominantly partial adhesive debonding. The Quad Cat wire group (50%) presented overlying composite detachment. Conclusions Cyclic loading did not cause debonding. The retainers presented similar debonding forces but different failure types. Braided stainless steel wire retainers presented the most repairable failure type. PMID:24015388

  13. Experimental Evaluation of a New Single Wire Stainless Steel Fishscale Coronary Stent (Freedomª).

    PubMed

    Wang; Verbeken; Mukherjee; Zhou; De Scheerder IK

    1996-10-01

    Recent randomized clinical trials revealed a significant reduction in angiographic restenosis rates when adjunctive stenting was performed after conventional coronary balloon angioplasty. Current approved coronary stents are however hampered by their rigidity, limiting their trackability in tortuous vessels and furthermore, needing high pressure deployment for optimal vessel apposition. New coronary stents are currently under development, using more biocompatible metal alloys and/or designs which better align to the vessel wall at moderate deployment pressures. We evaluated the safety, efficacy, angiographic and histological effect of a new stainless steel fishscale designed stent (Freedomª, Global Therapeutics, Co., USA) in a porcine coronary and peripheral artery model. Implantation in the right coronary artery was successful in all 20 pigs. Control angiograms at 6 weeks follow-up demonstrated patent vessels and morphologic evaluation showed only a mild fibromuscular neointimal response resulting in an area stenosis of 28.7 +/- 0.18% and a mean neointimal hyperplasia of 0.18 +/- 0.25 mm. Comparison with the Palmaz-Schatzª coronary stent in a porcine peripheral artery model demonstrated similar quantitative angiographic and morphologic vessel analysis results. Also the morphometric data were comparable. Area stenosis: Palmaz-Schatz: 37 +/- 0.24%, Freedom: 21 +/- 0.14%, p = 0.07. Mean neointimal hyperplasia: Palmaz-Schatz: 0.33 +/- 0.24 mm, Freedom: 0.18 +/- 0.08 mm, p = 0.08. CONCLUSION: Freedom coronary stent implantation in a porcine model resulted in a high procedural success without subacute thrombotic occlusions, despite no further anticoagulation nor antiplatelet therapy. Six weeks histopathological and morphometric evaluation demonstrated only a mild fibromuscular neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:10785732

  14. Effects of thermal aging and neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of three-wire stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Haggag, F.M.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1997-05-01

    Thermal aging of three-wire series-arc stainless steel weld overlay cladding at 288{degrees}C for 1605 h resulted in an appreciable decrease (16%) in the Charpy V-notch (CVN) upper-shelf energy (USE), but the effect on the 41-J transition temperature shift was very small (3{degrees}C). The combined effect of aging and neutron irradiation at 288{degrees}C to a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) was a 22% reduction in the USE and a 29{degrees}C shift in the 41-J transition temperature. The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties was very small. However, the combined effect of irradiation and aging was an increase in the yield strength (6 to 34% at test temperatures from 288 to {minus}125{degrees}C) but no apparent change in ultimate tensile strength or total elongation. Neutron irradiation reduced the initiation fracture toughness (J{sub Ic}) much more than did thermal aging alone. Irradiation slightly decreased the tearing modulus, but no reduction was caused by thermal aging alone. Other results from tensile, CVN, and fracture toughness specimens showed that the effects of thermal aging at 288 or 343{degrees}C for 20,000 h each were very small and similar to those at 288{degrees}C for 1605 h. The effects of long-term thermal exposure time (50,000 h and greater) at 288{degrees}C will be investigated as the specimens become available in 1996 and beyond.

  15. Comparing the Knotless Tension Band and the Traditional Stainless Steel Wire Tension Band Fixation for Medial Malleolus Fractures: A Retrospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Michael W.; Duncan, Kyle; Kosmopoulos, Victor; Motley, Travis A.; Carpenter, Brian B.; Ogunyankin, Fadeke; Garrett, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The traditional stainless steel wire tension band (WTB) has been popularized for small avulsion fractures at the medial malleolus. Despite the tension band principle creating a stable construct, complications continue to arise utilizing the traditional stainless steel WTB with patients experiencing hardware irritation at the tension band site and subsequent hardware removal. Coupled with hardware irritation is fatigue failure with the wire. The goal of this investigation was to retrospectively compare this traditional wire technique to an innovative knotless tension band (KTB) technique in order to decrease costly complications. A total of 107 patients were reviewed with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Outcome measures include descriptive data, fracture classification, results through economic costs, and fixation results (including hardware status, healing status, pain status, and time to healing). The KTB group had a 13% lower true cost as compared to the WTB group while the fixation results were equivocal for the measured outcomes. Our results demonstrate that the innovative KTB is comparable to the traditional WTB while offering a lower true cost, an irritation free reduction all without the frustration of returning to the operating room for additional hardware removal, which averages approximately to $8,288. PMID:27293969

  16. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Kararia, Vandana; Jain, Pradeep; Chaudhary, Seema; Kararia, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1–3 M 0.016” NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016” NiTi, group 3–3 M 0.019” *0.025” SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at ×2000, ×4000 and ×6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0). Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics. PMID:25684911

  17. Analysis of Radiation from Implosions of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays on Zebra and Comparison with Laser Plasma Experiments on Leopard at UNR*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Osborne, G. C.; Williamson, K. M.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. F.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Esaulov, A. A.; Wiewior, P.; Legalloudec, N.; Paudel, Y.; Coverdale, C. A.; Chuvatin, A. S.

    2011-10-01

    The implosions of Stainless Steel (SS) Wire Arrays are extensively studied at SNL and also have applications in astrophysics. The analysis of radiation from low-number-wire SS Single and Nested Cylindrical, and Planar Wire Array experiments on the 1 MA Zebra is presented. The major focus is on x-ray imaging and spectra, total radiation yields, and fast, filtered x-ray detector data. The results of Leopard laser experiments with a flat 25 μm Fe target in the nanosecond (ns) and 350 femtosecond (fs) pulse regimes are discussed and compared with Z-pinch data. This comparison focuses mainly on L-shell Fe radiation and provides an excellent benchmark to the Z-pinch results. Good agreement with laser data is demonstrated in the ns regime, but a substantial difference is observed for the fs pulse. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Coop. Agreements DE-FC52-06NA27588, 27586, and 27616. SNL is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Co., for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Water Desalination with Wires.

    PubMed

    Porada, S; Sales, B B; Hamelers, H V M; Biesheuvel, P M

    2012-06-21

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode pairs in freshwater with and in brine without an applied cell voltage, we create an ion adsorption/desorption cycle. We show experimentally how in six subsequent cycles we can reduce the salinity of 20 mM feed (brackish) water by a factor of 3, while application of a cation exchange membrane on the cathode wires makes the desalination factor increase to 4. Theoretical modeling rationalizes the experimental findings, and predicts that system performance can be significantly enhanced by material modifications. To treat large volumes of water, multiple stacks of wire pairs can be used simultaneously in a "merry-go-round" operational mode. PMID:26285717

  19. VIEW NORTHEASTLEFTBUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHTBUILDING 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHEAST-LEFT-BUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHT-BUILDING 4 NO 1 WIRE MILL (1871) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  20. VIEW WESTLEFTNO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHTNO 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-LEFT-NO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHT-NO 3 WIRE MILL BUILDING 9 (1876) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  1. 78 FR 28803 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Review, 2010-2011, 77 FR 66952 (November 8, 2012) (``Preliminary Results''), and accompanying Decision... Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6, 2008). Analysis of... Rescission, in Part, of the First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 68758, 68761 (November...

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Cr-Al steel wires produced by in-rotating-water spinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, A.; Tomioka, H.; Masumoto, T.

    1985-02-01

    Nonequilibrium austenite, γ, or duplex austenite + lath martensite,γ + α' L, phase wires with high strengths and large elongation have been produced in Fe-Ni-Cr-Al-C alloy system by the in-rotating-water spinning method in which a melt stream is ejected into a rotating water layer. These wires have a circular cross section and a white luster, and the wire diameter is in the range of 80 to 180 µm. The γ phase has a grain size as small as about 1 to 4 µm. The yield strength, Σy, tensile fracture strength, ay, and elongation, ɛp, are about 340 to 655 MPa, 440 to 975 MPa, and 12 to 22 pct for the γ single phase wires and about 465 to 865 MPa, 640 to 1350 MPa, and 2 to 18 pct for the α'L+ γ duplex phase wires. A cold drawing causes significant increases in Σy and Σf, and the attained values are about 3200 MPa and 4030 MPa for Fe-8Ni-12.5Cr-2.5Al-3C wire drawn to about 95 pct reduction in area owing to the formation of a strain-induced α'L phase and a remarkable work-hardening ability of γ and α'L phases. On the subsequent low-temperature annealing around 673 K, the Σy and Σf increase further to 4000 MPa and 4240 MPa, respectively, probably because of the enhancement of the interaction between dislocations and interstitial carbon atoms. Around the temperature (≃800 K) where the γ phase decomposes into a stable mixed structure of α + ordered bec compound + M7C3 on annealing, the ɛp decreases drastically and the fracture surface morphology changes from a dimple pattern to a cleavage pattern. It has been therefore inferred that the high strengths and good ductility of the melt-quenched y and γ + α'L wires are due to the suppression of the phase transformation of y to a mixed structure of γ + ordered bec compound + M7C3 carbide by the melt-quenching technique.

  3. In situ hydrothermal growth of ytterbium-based metal-organic framework on stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu-Lin; Wang, Xia; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we report the use of a porous ytterbium-based metal-organic framework (Yb-MOF) coating material with good thermal stability for the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental samples. The Yb-MOF thin films, grown in situ on stainless steel wire in solution, exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity toward PAHs. Under the optimal conditions, the novel fibers achieved large enrichment factors (130-2288), low limits of detection (0.07-1.67ngL(-1)), and wide range of linearity (10-1000ngL(-1)) for 16 PAHs in the tested samples. The novel fiber was successfully used in the analysis of PAHs in real environmental samples. These results demonstrated that Yb-MOF is a promising coating material for the SPME of PAHs at trace levels from environmental samples. PMID:26346186

  4. Strain measurement in a concrete beam by use of the Brillouin-scattering-based distributed fiber sensor with single-mode fibers embedded in glass fiber reinforced polymer rods and bonded to steel reinforcing bars.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaodong; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chhoa, Chia Yee; Bremner, Theodore W; Brown, Anthony W; DeMerchant, Michael D; Ferrier, Graham; Kalamkarov, Alexander L; Georgiades, Anastasis V

    2002-08-20

    The strain measurement of a 1.65-m reinforced concrete beam by use of a distributed fiber strain sensor with a 50-cm spatial resolution and 5-cm readout resolution is reported. The strain-measurement accuracy is +/-15 microepsilon (microm/m) according to the system calibration in the laboratory environment with non-uniform-distributed strain and +/-5 microepsilon with uniform strain distribution. The strain distribution has been measured for one-point and two-point loading patterns for optical fibers embedded in pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) rods and those bonded to steel reinforcing bars. In the one-point loading case, the strain deviations are +/-7 and +/-15 microepsilon for fibers embedded in the GFRP rods and fibers bonded to steel reinforcing bars, respectively, whereas the strain deviation is +/-20 microepsilon for the two-point loading case. PMID:12206221

  5. Crossed-Wire Laser Microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 LVM Stainless Steel: Part II. Effect of Orientation on Joining Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. D.; Pequegnat, A.; Zou, G. S.; Feng, J. C.; Khan, M. I.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-04-01

    With the increasing complexity of medical devices and with efforts to reduce manufacturing costs, challenges arise in joining dissimilar materials. In this study, the laser weldability of dissimilar joints between Pt-10 pct Ir and 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) crossed wires was investigated by characterizing the weld geometry, joint strength, morphology of weld cross sections, and differences in joining behavior, depending on which material is subject to the incident laser beam. With the Pt-Ir alloy on top, a significant amount of porosity was observed on the surface of the welds as well as throughout the weld cross sections. This unique form of porosity is believed to be a result of preferential vaporization of 316 LVM SS alloying elements that become mixed with the molten Pt-10 pct Ir during welding. The joining mechanism documented in micrographs of cross-sectioned welds was found to transition from laser brazing to fusion welding. It is inferred that the orientation of the two dissimilar metals ( i.e., which material is subject to the incident laser beam) plays an important role in weld quality of crossed-wire laser welds.

  6. Investigation of the Influence Factors on Distortion in Induction-Hardened Steel Shafts Manufactured from Cold-Drawn Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Juan; Epp, Jeremy; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva; Nunes, Rafael Menezes; Zoch, Hans Werner

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the distortion of steel shafts was investigated before and after induction hardening. Several essential influencing factors in the manufacturing process chain regarding cold drawing, cutting method, notches on the shafts, and induction hardening were analyzed by design of experiment (DoE). Further necessary examinations of microstructures, hardness profile, segregation of chemical composition, and residual stress state were conducted for understanding the distortion behavior. The results of the statistical analysis of the DoE showed that the drawing process is the most important factor influencing distortion. The surface hardening depth of induction hardening is the second main factor. The relationship between inhomogeneities in the work pieces and the distortion was finally discussed.

  7. Electrodeposition of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on a stainless steel wire for solid phase microextraction and GC determination of some esters with high boiling points.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuyu; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2013-01-30

    In this work, 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) emulsion is prepared by ultrasonication agitation and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating is fabricated on a stainless steel wire by electrochemical method from a 0.10M sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate aqueous solution containing EDOT. The coating is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, and it presents cauliflower-like structure. When the resulted PEDOT/steel fiber is used for the headspace solid phase-microextraction of some esters (i.e. methyl anthranilate, dimethyl phthalate, ethyl-o-aminobenzoate, methyl laurate and diethyl phthalate) and their GC detection, the limits of detection (LOD) are ca. 7.8-31 ng L(-1) (S/N=3) and the linear ranges are 0.25-800 μg L(-1). The fiber shows high thermal stability (up to 320 °C), good reproducibility and long lifetime (more than 183 times). It also has good chemical stability. After it is immersed in acid, alkali and dichloromethane for 4h its extraction efficiency remains almost unchanged. Besides esters the fiber also exhibits high extraction efficiency for alcohols and aromatic compounds. PMID:23597884

  8. Method for making a hot wire anemometer and product thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milkulla, V. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A hot wire anemometer probe is described that includes a ceramic body supporting two conductive rods parallel to each other. The body has a narrow edge surface from which the rods protrude. A probe wire is welded to the rods and extends along the edge surface. A ceramic adhesive is used to secure the probe wire to the surface so that the probe wire is rigid. A method for fabricating the probe is also described in which the body is molded and precisely shaped by machining techniques before the probe wires are installed.

  9. The evaluation of corrosion resistant rod end rolling element bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Braza, J.F.; Giuntoli, K.; Imundo, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    Recent developments on carburizing grades of stainless steels have provided new materials to produce corrosion resistant airframe control bearings. This paper presents the application of one of these new carburizing grades of stainless steel to rod end ball bearings. The outer ring of the rod end bearing is made out of carburized stainless steel, while the inner ring and balls are made out of through-hardened stainless steel. The stainless steel rod end bearings were evaluated according to various ASTM and Military specifications for performance and corrosion resistance. The stainless steel rod end bearings exceeded the performance requirements of standard rod end bearings (which are comprised of a carburized 8620 steel outer ring and 52100 steel inner ring and balls) in accordance with MIL-B-6039. The rod end bearings were evaluated in the radial fracture load, axial fracture load, and radial dynamic load tests. Also, salt spray and alternate immersion corrosion tests (ASTM B 117-85 and G 44-88, respectively) were conducted on the stainless steel rod end bearings. The stainless steel rod end bearings exhibited superior corrosion resistance to the standard 8620/52100 steel rod end bearings.

  10. Helical anisotropy and Matteucci effect in Co-Si-B amorphous wires with negative magnetostriction (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, J.; Takajo, M.; Humphrey, F. B.

    1994-05-01

    The Co-Si-B amorphous wires having the negative magnetostriction comprises shell and core domains and exhibits the re-entrant flux reversal as the Fe-Si-B wire with positive magnetostriction. One of the characteristic features of Co based wires is that a sharp pulse voltage generation between two wire ends (Matteucci effect) is accompanied with re-entrant flux reversal, which is useful for sensor application because of no need for sense windings. In this work, we studied the origin of the large Matteucci effect of Co-Si-B wires by domain observation with a Kerr microscope and by Sixtus-Tonks experiments by driving the reverse domain propagation with the circular fields generated by the current through wires. We also tried to measure the hysteresis loop in the circular direction by integrating the Matteucci voltage. It was found that the domain patterns of the Co-Si-B wire surface is not the previously reported bamboo configuration but the helical configuration. Most of the anisotropy of the amorphous materials is magnetostrictive in origin. The helical anisotropy of Co based wire seems consistent, if we assume the same residual stress distribution as in the steel rod quenched into the water. Because of the helical anisotropy, the Co wire has the big circular component of magnetization in the core domain as well as in the shell domain, and both domain can interact near the interface region. It was found that reverse domain propagation along the wire axis can be caused by application of the circular field and that the shell domain moves discontinuously during the re-entrant flux reversal in the core domain. These circular magnetization components in both core and shell domains due to helical anisotropy and their interaction seems responsible for the large Matteucci effect in the Co-Si-B wires.

  11. Influence of different brazing and welding methods on tensile strength and microhardness of orthodontic stainless steel wire.

    PubMed

    Bock, Jens Johannes; Fraenzel, Wolfgang; Bailly, Jacqueline; Gernhardt, Christian Ralf; Fuhrmann, Robert Andreas Werner

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength and microhardness of joints made by conventional brazing and tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding. A standardized end-to-end joint configuration of the orthodontic wire material in spring hard quality was used. The joints were made using five different methods: brazing (soldering > 450 degrees C) with universal silver solder, two TIG, and two laser welders. Laser parameters and welding conditions were used according to the manufacturers' guidance. The tensile strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). The microhardness measurements were carried out with a hardness tester (Zwick 3202). Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's post hoc correction (P < 0.05). In all cases, brazing joints ruptured at low levels of tensile strength (198 +/- 146 MPa). Significant differences (P < 0.001) between brazing and TIG or laser welding were found. The highest means were observed for TIG welding (699-754 MPa). Laser welding showed a significantly lower mean tensile strength (369-520 MPa) compared with TIG welding. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were found between the original orthodontic wire and the mean microhardness at the centre of the welded area. The mean microhardness differed significantly between brazing (1.99 GPa), TIG (2.22-2.39 GPa) and laser welding (2.21-2.68 GPa). For orthodontic purposes, laser and TIG welding are solder-free alternatives to joining metal. TIG welding with a lower investment cost is comparable with laser welding. However, while expensive, the laser technique is a sophisticated and simple method. PMID:18617503

  12. Method of fabricating composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Strauss, Bruce P.; Reardon, Paul J.; Remsbottom, Robert H.

    1977-01-01

    An improvement in the method for preparing composite rods of superconducting alloy and normal metal from which multifilament composite superconducting wire is fabricated by bending longitudinally a strip of normal metal around a rod of superconductor alloy and welding the edges to form the composite rod. After the rods have preferably been provided with a hexagonal cross-sectional shape, a plurality of the rods are stacked into a normal metal extrusion can, sealed and worked to reduce the cross-sectional size and form multifilament wire. Diffusion barriers and high-electrical resistance barriers can easily be introduced into the wire by plating or otherwise coating the faces of the normal metal strip with appropriate materials.

  13. In Vivo Evaluation of the Effects of Gravitational Force (+Gz) on Over-the-Wire Stainless Steel Greenfield Inferior VenaCava Filter in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, P.M. Soares, G.M.; Dick, E.J.; Harroff, H.H.

    2003-08-15

    This study was done to determine the effect of exposure to gravitational force (acceleration stress) on invivo over-the-wire stainless steel Greenfield inferior vena cavafilters. Fifteen pigs underwent venous cut down and placement of a stainless steel Greenfield filter. A 4-week observation period simulated realistic convalescence and allowed sufficient time for epithelialization. Ten pigs were exposed to acceleration stress in a centrifuge (3G run for 15 sec followed by rest until return to baseline heart rate, then a 9G run for 15 sec), with inertial loading in ahead-to-tail direction (+Gz). Fluoroscopy during acceleration stress allowed assessment for filter migration. Five pigs were not exposed to acceleration stress. AP and lateral abdominal radiographs were obtained at post-filter placement, convalescence, and centrifuge exposure to determine the position and integrity of the filter. All 15 IVCs were resected and evaluated for gross or histological injury to the vessel wall. IVC filter placement was technically successful in all 15 pigs.Radiographic measurements were limited secondary to differences in pig positioning. Fluoroscopy showed no filter migration. All filters were securely attached to the vena cava by the hooks without gross evidence of perforation or hemorrhage. There were varying degrees of fibroplasia involving the hooks and tip of the filters in both the control and experimental groups. Histologically, there was evidence of prior hemorrhage at the level of the hooks, which was similar between the control and experimental groups. It is concluded that Greenfield filter position and vena caval integrity at the implantation site is unaffected by high acceleration stress.

  14. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

  15. Cooling method prolongs life of hot-wire transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, L. V.; Sandborn, V. A.

    1964-01-01

    To cool a hot-wire transducer, the two ends of the wire are supported on thermally and electrically conductive rods, surrounded by a fluid cooling medium. By keeping the supporting rods at a substantially constant temperature, the probe is prevented from overheating.

  16. High current pulse testing for ground rod integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walko, Lawrence C.

    1991-01-01

    A test technique was developed to assess various grounding system concepts used for mobile facilities. The test technique involves applying a high current pulse to the grounding system with the proper waveshape and magnitude to simulate a lightning return stroke. Of concern were the step voltages present along the ground near the point of lightning strike. Step voltage is equated to how fast the current pulse is dissipated by the grounding system. The applied current pulse was produced by a high current capacitor bank with a total energy content of 80 kilojoules. A series of pulse tests were performed on two types of mobile facility grounding systems. One system consisted of an array of four 10 foot copper clad steel ground rods connected by 1/0 gauge wire. The other system was an array of 10 inch long tapered ground rods, strung on stainless steel cable. The focus here is on the pulse test technique used and its relevance to actual lightning strike conditions.

  17. Ferrite insertion at Recycler Flying Wire System

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2004-02-27

    Ferrite rods are installed inside the flying-wire cavity of the Recycler Ring and at entrance and exit beam pipes in order to absorb high-frequency electromagnetic waves excited by the beam. However, these rods may also deteriorate the vacuum pressure of the ring. An investigation is made to analyze the necessity of the ferrite rods at the entrance and exit beam pipes.

  18. VIEW NORTHEAST, LEFT BUILDING 40 WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) RIGHT BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHEAST, LEFT BUILDING 40 WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) RIGHT BUILDING 42 ROPE SHOP (1910) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  19. BUILDING 25NOW 2 WIRE MILLPATTERNS STORED ON THIRD FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BUILDING 25-NOW 2 WIRE MILL-PATTERNS STORED ON THIRD FLOOR - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  20. VIEW SOUTHSOUTH CLINTON AVENUE BUILDING 35 CLINTON ST. WIRE MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH-SOUTH CLINTON AVENUE BUILDING 35 CLINTON ST. WIRE MILL (1899) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  1. VIEW NORTHWEST ACROSS HUDSON STREET BUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHWEST ACROSS HUDSON STREET BUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION STORE HOUSE (1897) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  2. VIEW NORTHBUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION STORE HOUSE (1897) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-BUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION STORE HOUSE (1897) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  3. VIEW NORTHHUDSON STREET BUILDING 67INSULATED WIRE DEPT. STORAGE (1897) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-HUDSON STREET BUILDING 67-INSULATED WIRE DEPT. STORAGE (1897) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  4. VIEW NORTHWESTBUILDING 35 CLINTON STREET WIRE MILL (1899) John ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHWEST-BUILDING 35 CLINTON STREET WIRE MILL (1899) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  5. Fabrication and application of zinc-zinc oxide nanosheets coating on an etched stainless steel wire as a selective solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenlan; Guo, Mei; Zhang, Yida; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2015-03-01

    A novel zinc-zinc oxide (Zn-ZnO) nanosheets coating was directly fabricated on an etched stainless steel wire substrate as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber via previous electrodeposition of robust Zn coating. The scanning electron micrograph of the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coated fiber exhibits a flower-like nanostructure with high surface area. The SPME performance of as-fabricated fiber was investigated for the concentration and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and ultraviolet (UV) filters coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). It was found that the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coating exhibited high extraction capability, good selectivity and rapid mass transfer for some UV filters. The main parameters affecting extraction performance were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graphs were linear over the range of 0.1-200μgL(-1). The limits of detection of the proposed method were 0.052-0.084μgL(-1) (S/N=3). The single fiber repeatability varied from 5.18% to 7.56% and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility ranged from 6.74% to 8.83% for the extraction of spiked water with 50μgL(-1) UV filters (n=5). The established SPME-HPLC-UV method was successfully applied to the selective concentration and sensitive determination of target UV filters from real environmental water samples with recoveries from 85.8% to 105% at the spiking level of 10μgL(-1) and 30μgL(-1). The relative standard deviations were below 9.7%. PMID:25662065

  6. Rod Has High Tensile Strength And Low Thermal Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Everton, R. L.; Howe, E.; O'Malley, M.

    1996-01-01

    Thoriated tungsten extension rod fabricated to replace stainless-steel extension rod attached to linear variable-differential transformer in gap-measuring gauge. Threads formed on end of rod by machining with special fixtures and carefully chosen combination of speeds and feeds.

  7. Improved method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Finnemore, D.K.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schmidt, F.A.; Owen, C.V.

    1979-10-17

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb/sub 3/Sn in a copper matrix eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb/sub 3/Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  8. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.; Finnemore, Douglas K.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Schmidt, Frederick A.; Owen, Charles V.

    1985-08-06

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb.sub.3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb.sub.3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  9. Chinese NiTi wire--a new orthodontic alloy.

    PubMed

    Burstone, C J; Qin, B; Morton, J Y

    1985-06-01

    Chinese NiTi wire was studied by means of a bending test to determine wire stiffness, springback, and maximum bending moments. Chinese NiTi wire has an unusual deactivation curve (unlike steel and nitinol wires) in which relatively constant forces are produced over a long range of action. The characteristic flexural stiffness of NiTi wire is determined by the amount of activation. At large activations NiTi wires has a stiffness of only 7% that of a comparable stainless steel wire, and at small activations 28% of steel wire. For the same activation at large deflections, the forces produced are 36% that of a comparable nitinol wire. Chinese NiTi wire demonstrates phenomenal springback. It can be deflected 1.6 times as far as nitinol wire or 4.4 times as far as stainless steel wire without appreciable permanent deformation. NiTi wire is highly useful in clinical situations that require a low-stiffness wire with an extremely large springback. PMID:3890554

  10. Anode wire aging tests with selected gases

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyk, J.; Wise, J.; Hess, D.; Williams, M. )

    1990-04-01

    As a continuation of earlier wire aging investigations, additional candidates for wire chamber gas and wire have been tested. These include the gases: argon/ethane, HRS gas, dimethyl ether, carbon dioxide/ethane, and carbon tetrafluoride/isobutane. Wires used were: gold- plated tungsten, Stablohm, Nicotin, and Stainless Steel. Measurements were made of the effects upon wire aging of impurities from plumbing materials or contamination from various types of oil. Attempts were made to induce wire aging by adding measured amounts of oxygen and halogen (methyl chloride) with negative results. In this paper, the possible role of electronegativity in the wire aging process is discussed, and measurements of electronegativity are made with several single carbon Freons, using both an electron capture detector and a wire chamber operating with dimethyl ether.