Science.gov

Sample records for steelconcrete framed structures

  1. Mixed formulation for seismic analysis of composite steel-concrete frame structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Ashraf Salah Eldin

    This study presents a new finite element model for the nonlinear analysis of structures made up of steel and concrete under monotonic and cyclic loads. The new formulation is based on a two-field mixed formulation. In the formulation, both forces and deformations are simultaneously approximated within the element through independent interpolation functions. The main advantages of the model is the accuracy in global and local response with very few elements while maintaining rapid numerical convergence and robustness even under severe cyclic loading. Overall four elements were developed based on the new formulation: an element that describes the behavior of anchored reinforcing bars, an element that describes the behavior of composite steel-concrete beams with deformable shear connectors, an element that describes the behavior of reinforced concrete beam-columns with bond-slip, and an element that describes the behavior of pretensioned or posttensioned, bonded or unbonded prestressed concrete structures. The models use fiber discretization of beam sections to describe nonlinear material response. The transfer of forces between steel and concrete is described with bond elements. Bond elements are modeled with distributed spring elements. The non-linear behavior of the composite element derives entirely from the constitutive laws of the steel, concrete and bond elements. Two additional elements are used for the prestressed concrete models, a friction element that models the effect of friction between the tendon and the duct during the posttensioning operation, and an anchorage element that describes the behavior of the prestressing tendon anchorage in posttensioned structures. Two algorithms for the numerical implementation of the new proposed model are presented; an algorithm that enforces stress continuity at element boundaries, and an algorithm in which stress continuity is relaxed locally inside the element. Stability of both algorithms is discussed. Comparison

  2. Structural Aspects of Railway Truss Bridges Affecting Transverse Shear Forces in Steel-Concrete Composite Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siekierski, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    At the steel-concrete interface, the horizontal shear forces that are transverse to cross beams occur due to joint action of the steel-concrete composite deck and the truss girders. Numerical analysis showed that values of the forces are big in comparison to the longitudinal shear forces. In both cases extreme force values occur near side edges of a slab. The paper studies possibilities of reduction of these shear forces by structural alterations of the following: rigidity of a concrete slab, arrangement of a wind bracing, arrangement of concrete slab expansion joints. An existing railway truss bridge span has been analysed. Numerical analysis shows that it is possible to reduce the values of shear forces transverse to cross beams. It may reach 20% near the side edges of slabs and 23% in the centre of slab width.

  3. Toughness of composite steel-concrete structure of sandwich system

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, Setsuo; Hattori, Yoichi

    1994-12-31

    Offshore structure should have a high degree of structural safety not only under normal conditions but also extreme conditions even under collision loadings. The authors carried out both experimental and theoretical investigations on the toughness of the sandwich composite structures. Experiments were carried out for the two-dimensional models of composite structures under pure bending and combined shear and bending as well. A nonlinear analysis was developed to predict the toughness of sandwich beam under pure bending. In the analysis the material nonlinearity of both concrete and steel plate were taken into consideration. The analysis were found to be very close to the experimental results.

  4. Examples of Solutions for Steel-Concrete Composite Structures in Bridge Engineering / Przykłady Konstrukcji Zespolonych W Budownictwie Mostowym

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaga, Kazimierz; Furtak, Kazimierz

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the article [1] was to discuss the application of steel-concrete composite structures in bridge engineering in the aspect of structural design, analysis and execution. It was pointed out that the concept of steel-concrete structural composition is far from exhausted and new solutions interesting from the engineering, scientific and aesthetic points of view of are constantly emerging. These latest trends are presented against the background of the solutions executed in Poland and abroad. Particular attention is focused on structures of double composition and steel-concrete structures. Concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) structures are highlighted. W artykule [1] omówiono problemy konstrukcyjne, obliczeniowe i realizacyjne, związane z zastosowaniem konstrukcji zespolonych stal-beton w mostownictwie. Wskazano tam, że idea konstrukcyjnego zespolenia stali z betonem jest jeszcze daleka do wyczerpania i że wciąż pojawiają się nowe rozwiązania interesujące z inżynierskiego, naukowego i estetycznego punktu widzenia. W artykule niniejszym pokazano te nowoczesne trendy na tle rozwiązań zrealizowanych w Polsce i na świecie. Szczególną uwagę poświęcono konstrukcjom podwójnie zespolonym oraz konstrukcjom stalowobetonowym. Wyeksponowano tu szczególnie konstrukcje z rur stalowych wypełnionych betonem, typu CFST. Dają one nadzieję na ich szersze zastosowanie w warunkach polskich.

  5. Composite curved frames for helicopter fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, M. J.; Lowry, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of analysis and testing of composite curved frames. A major frame was selected from the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter and designed as a composite structure. The curved beam effects were expected to increase flange axial stresses and induce transverse bending. A NASTRAN finite element analysis was conducted and the results were used in the design of composite curved frame specimens. Three specimens were fabricated and five static tests were conducted. The NASTRAN analysis and test results are compared for axial, transverse, and Web strains. Results show the curved beam effects are closely predicted by a NASTRAN analysis and the effects increase with loading on the composite frames.

  6. Construction Cluster Volume I [Wood Structural Framing].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the first of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials at the basic skills level for the construction cluster. It focuses on wood structural framing and contains 20 units: (1) occupational information; (2) blueprint reading; (3) using leveling instruments and laying out building lines; (4)…

  7. Structural optimization of framed structures using generalized optimality criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolonay, R. M.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.; Tischler, V. A.; Canfield, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The application of a generalized optimality criteria to framed structures is presented. The optimality conditions, Lagrangian multipliers, resizing algorithm, and scaling procedures are all represented as a function of the objective and constraint functions along with their respective gradients. The optimization of two plane frames under multiple loading conditions subject to stress, displacement, generalized stiffness, and side constraints is presented. These results are compared to those found by optimizing the frames using a nonlinear mathematical programming technique.

  8. Frame structure for a four-wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, I.

    1986-09-30

    A frame is described for a four-wheel drive vehicle of the type where the rider straddles the vehicle, comprising a front axle support structure extending transversely of the vehicle; an upper frame structure including two downtubes extending upwardly, rearwardly and inwardly from the axle support structure and two main body tubes extending rearwardly from the downtubes; a lower frame structure extending rearwardly from the axle support structure, the lower frame structure including two lower frame tubes mutually spaced and extending rearwardly from the axle support structure. The lower frame structure is laterally inward of the downtubes at the axle support structure and laterally outward of the main body tubes; and each of the downtubes, main body tubes and lower frame tubes being formed from a continuous tube, the main body tube and the lower frame tube forming a continuous U-bend at the rear of the vehicle.

  9. INTERIOR; DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR; DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 1. VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER (VAL) CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER (VAL) CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING CAMERA TOWER STRUCTURE LOOKING SOUTH AND ARCHED OPENING FOR ROADWAY. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Wave Propagation Properties of Frame Structures─Formulation for Three-Dimensional Frame Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Akemi

    Since it is generally difficult to predict the occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquakes, a performance management system that constantly maintains the safety and functionality of structures is required, particularly for critical structures like nuclear power plants. In order to realize such a system, it is becoming important to carry out detailed modeling procedures and analyses to better understand actual phenomena. The aim of our research is to determine the dynamic behavior─especially the wave propagation phenomena─of piping systems in nuclear power plants, which are complicated assemblages of parts. The spectral element method is adopted in this study, and the formulation considering a shear deformation independently for a frame element is described. The Timoshenko beam theory is introduced for the purpose of this formulation. The validity of the presented element will be shown through comparisons with the conventional beam element.

  12. APT/LEDA RFQ and support frame structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, S.

    1997-04-01

    This report documents structural analysis of the Accelerator Production of Tritium Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (APT/LEDA) Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator structure and its associated support frame. This work was conducted for the Department of Energy in support of the APT/LEDA. Structural analysis of the RFQ was performed to quantify stress levels and deflections due to both vacuum loading and gravity loading. This analysis also verified the proposed support scheme geometry and quantified interface loads. This analysis also determined the necessary stiffness and strength requirements of the RFQ support frame verifying the conceptual design geometry and allowing specification of individual frame elements. Complete structural analysis of the frame was completed subsequently. This report details structural analysis of the RFQ assembly with regard to gravity and vacuum loads only. Thermally induced stresses from the Radio Frequency (RF) surface resistance heating were not considered.

  13. 109. Detail view of structural frame supporting torch arm; cylindrical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. Detail view of structural frame supporting torch arm; cylindrical object in foreground is part of ventilating system. February 1984. - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  14. Predicate argument structure frames for modeling information in operative notes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Melton, Genevieve B

    2013-01-01

    The rich information about surgical procedures contained in operative notes is a valuable data source for improving the clinical evidence base and clinical research. In this study, we propose a set of Predicate Argument Structure (PAS) frames for surgical action verbs to assist in the creation of an information extraction (IE) system to automatically extract details about the techniques, equipment, and operative steps from operative notes. We created PropBank style PAS frames for the 30 top surgical action verbs based on examination of randomly selected sample sentences from 3,000 Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy notes. To assess completeness of the PAS frames to represent usage of same action verbs, we evaluated the PAS frames created on sample sentences from operative notes of 6 other gastrointestinal surgical procedures. Our results showed that the PAS frames created with one type of surgery can successfully denote the usage of the same verbs in operative notes of broader surgical categories. PMID:23920664

  15. Battery Berry Observation Station, detail, frame structure meeting older masonry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Berry Observation Station, detail, frame structure meeting older masonry building on west side of structure; view east - Fort McKinley, Battery Berry Observation Station, North side of Wood Side Drive approximately 80 feet east of Spring Cove Lane, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  16. Large-scale testing of structural clay tile infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-03-18

    A summary of large-scale cyclic static tests of structural clay tile infilled frames is given. In-plane racking tests examined the effects of varying frame stiffness, varying infill size, infill offset from frame centerline, and single and double wythe infill construction. Out-of-plane tests examined infilled frame response to inertial loadings and inter-story drift loadings. Sequential in-plane and out-of-plane loadings were performed to determine the effects of orthogonal damage and degradation on both strength and stiffness. A combined out-of-plane inertial and in-plane racking test was conducted to investigate the interaction of multi-directional loading. To determine constitutive properties of the infills, prism compression, mortar compression and various unit tile tests were performed.

  17. 49. VIEW OF WOOD FRAME STUCCO STRUCTURES ON CONCRETE SLABS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. VIEW OF WOOD FRAME STUCCO STRUCTURES ON CONCRETE SLABS, REPUTED HOUSES FOR PROSTITUTES, LOOKING NORTH. NOTICE SIMILAR RUIN IN BACKGROUND RIGHT. THREE OR FOUR SIMILAR RUINS ALONG RIVER ROAD NORTH OF MINE WORKINGS. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  18. 73. DETAIL OF 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING NORTH SHOWING PROJECTILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. DETAIL OF 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING NORTH SHOWING PROJECTILE CAR, CAMERA TOWER, CANTILEVERED WALKWAYS AND ELECTRICAL GEAR, August 17, 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 69. COMPLETED 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING CANTILEVERED WALKWAYS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. COMPLETED 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING CANTILEVERED WALKWAYS, 'CROWS NEST', CAMERA TOWER, COUNTERWEIGHT CAR AND ROADWAY ARCH, April 30, 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Mechanical Model of Steel-concrete Composite Joint under Sagging Bending Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarek, Zdzisław

    2012-06-01

    In buildings with steel-concrete composite floors, joints are designed to transmit mainly hogging bending moment. In case of the large horizontal loads due to wind, earthquake or accidental events, sagging bending moments in a joint can also occur. Additionally, large deformations of the structure cause tying and prying effects. In the paper, a mechanical model based on "component method" for evaluation of characteristics of the composite joint is presented. The influence of tying and prying actions on distribution of the internal forces in a joint is also analyzed. The procedure for calculation of the characteristics of the composite joint with bolted endplate connection is elaborated too.

  1. NASTRAN nonlinear vibration analysis of beam and frame structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, C.; Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A capability for the nonlinear vibration analysis of beam and frame structures suitable for use with NASTRAN level 15.5 is described. The nonlinearity considered is due to the presence of axial loads induced by longitudinal end restraints and lateral displacements that are large compared to the beam height. A brief discussion is included of the mathematical analysis and the geometrical stiffness matrix for a prismatic beam (BAR) element. Also included are a brief discussion of the equivalent linearization iterative process used to determine the nonlinear frequency, the required modifications to subroutines DBAR and XMPLBD of the NASTRAN code, and the appropriate vibration capability, four example problems are presented. Comparisons with existing experimental and analytical results show that excellent accuracy is achieved with NASTRAN in all cases.

  2. Bayesian decision and mixture models for AE monitoring of steel-concrete composite shear walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhidzadeh, Alireza; Epackachi, Siamak; Salamone, Salvatore; Whittaker, Andrew S.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an approach based on an acoustic emission technique for the health monitoring of steel-concrete (SC) composite shear walls. SC composite walls consist of plain (unreinforced) concrete sandwiched between steel faceplates. Although the use of SC system construction has been studied extensively for nearly 20 years, little-to-no attention has been devoted to the development of structural health monitoring techniques for the inspection of damage of the concrete behind the steel plates. In this work an unsupervised pattern recognition algorithm based on probability theory is proposed to assess the soundness of the concrete infill, and eventually provide a diagnosis of the SC wall’s health. The approach is validated through an experimental study on a large-scale SC shear wall subjected to a displacement controlled reversed cyclic loading.

  3. Design, analysis and test of composite curved frames for helicopter fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, M. J.; Lowry, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    Curved beam effects in composite frame structures representative of a light helicopter airframe are examined, and currently available analytical methods for studying these effects are briefly reviewed. A finite element study of curved composite frames is then reported, and it is shown that the curved frame effects must be accurately accounted for to avoid premature fracture. The finite element method is shown to be accurate to within 10 percent in accounting for the curved beam effects in composite structures.

  4. Design, Fabrication and Test of Composite Curved Frames for Helicopter Fuselage Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, D. W.; Krebs, N. E.; Dobyns, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of curved beam effects and their importance in designing composite frame structures are discussed. The curved beam effect induces radial flange loadings which in turn causes flange curling. This curling increases the axial flange stresses and induces transverse bending. These effects are more important in composite structures due to their general inability to redistribute stresses by general yielding, such as in metal structures. A detailed finite element analysis was conducted and used in the design of composite curved frame specimens. Five specimens were statically tested and compared with predicted and test strains. The curved frame effects must be accurately accounted for to avoid premature fracture; finite element methods can accurately predict most of the stresses and no elastic relief from curved beam effects occurred in the composite frames tested. Finite element studies are presented for comparative curved beam effects on composite and metal frames.

  5. Structural damage localisation for a frame structure from changes in curvature of approximate entropy feature vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Y. H.; Ou, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    At present, accurate vibration-based damage localisation cannot be achieved very well in mechanical and civil engineering fields due to high noise in the measurements and low accuracy in finite element (FE) model of the measured structures. To address these issues, a method for damage detection is proposed in this work, i.e. the mean curvature difference method of approximate entropy (ApEn) feature vectors, based on the ApEn theory and curvature method. Simulation results of both single and multiple damage cases under pulse excitation indicate that the proposed method can be utilised to determine whether the damage is present in the structure or not and to locate the damage accurately, and the method exhibits strong anti-noise ability: it is feasible for damage with 5% stiffness reduction even if the noise level is up to 25%. Moreover, the proposed method does not require a structural FE model. Experimental results of a six-storey shear frame model also validated the proposed method. All of these lay a good foundation for its application in shear frame structures.

  6. Study on the Response Coefficient of Setback Structures Compared to Regular Moment Frame Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mirghaderi, S. Rasoul; Khafaf, Bardia; Epackachi, Siamak

    2008-07-08

    In design practice of many countries, seismic analysis and proportioning of structures are usually based upon linear elastic analysis due to reduced seismic forces by response coefficient; R. Setback structures are one of the most popular shapes of the constructed buildings. In setback structures, the shape and proportions of the building have a major effect on distribution of earthquake forces as they work their way through the building. On the other hand, geometric configuration has a profound effect on the structural-dynamic response of a building. Therefore, when a building has irregular features, such as asymmetric in height or vertical discontinuity, the traditional assumptions used in development of seismic criteria for regular buildings may not be applicable. Inelastic seismic behavior of these types of structures seems to be quite different from the regular steel moment resisting structures in which the overall ductility is localized at beam-ends.In order to investigate the seismic behavior and estimate the Response Coefficient of those structures, nonlinear static analysis (pushover) are used for three categories of setback structures namely low rise, medium rise and high rise buildings with different setbacks in their height. The Response Coefficient are calculated and compared with those taken from regular type of moment frame structures.

  7. The lifting scheme for wavelet bi-frames: theory, structure, and algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyuan; Shi, Yan; Chen, Liuhe; Quan, Zongfeng

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we present the lifting scheme of wavelet bi-frames along with theory analysis, structure, and algorithm. We show how any wavelet bi-frame can be decomposed into a finite sequence of simple filtering steps. This decomposition corresponds to a factorization of a polyphase matrix of a wavelet bi-frame. Based on this concept, we present a new idea for constructing wavelet bi-frames. For the construction of symmetric bi-frames, we use generalized Bernstein basis functions, which enable us to design symmetric prediction and update filters. The construction allows more efficient implementation and provides tools for custom design of wavelet bi-frames. By combining the different designed filters for the prediction and update steps, we can devise practically unlimited forms of wavelet bi-frames. Moreover, we present an algorithm of increasing the number of vanishing moments of bi-framelets to arbitrary order via the presented lifting scheme, which adopts an iterative algorithm and ensures the shortest lifting scheme. Several construction examples are given to illustrate the results. PMID:20028635

  8. Framing and Re-Framing through Computer-Mediated Communication: Providing Pre-Service Teachers with Alternate Support Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherff, Lisa; Singer, Nancy Robb

    2008-01-01

    In this article we suggest that online environments can function as alternate "organizations" for pre-service and beginning teachers who may find themselves struggling in schools. Building on prior work on framing and reframing in organizations and schools, the authors present a new frame of analysis specifically geared for web-based…

  9. Matrix management: not a structure, a frame of mind.

    PubMed

    Barlett, C A; Ghoshal, S

    1990-01-01

    In many of the world's leading corporations, strategic thinking has outdistanced organizational capability. As business challenges have grown more complex over the past 20 years, most companies have avoided the trap of one-dimensional strategic responses-stick to your knitting, stick to the big markets. But many of them have fallen into a second, structural trap and adopted elaborate organizational matrices that actually impair their ability to implement sophisticated strategies. Keeping a company light on its feet strategically while still coordinating its activities across divisions, functions, even continents, means eliminating parochialism, improving communications, and weaving the decision-making process into the company's social fabric. Altering formal structure from the top down is a poor way to achieve these goals. It is easier to work from the bottom up, focusing on the attitudes and behavior of individual managers. The companies that have made best use of this focus-among them NEC, Philips, and Unilever-employ three techniques to capture the capabilities and commitment of each manager: 1. They communicate a clear, consistent corporate vision. 2. They use training and career-path management to broaden individual perspectives and increase identification with corporate goals. 3. They co-opt individual energies and ambitions into the broader corporate-wide agenda. The goal is to build a matrix of corporate values and priorities in the minds of managers and let them make the judgments and negotiate the deals that make strategy pay off. PMID:10106795

  10. Improving stability and strength characteristics of framed structures with nonlinear behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pezeshk, Shahram

    1990-01-01

    In this paper an optimal design procedure is introduced to improve the overall performance of nonlinear framed structures. The design methodology presented here is a multiple-objective optimization procedure whose objective functions involve the buckling eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the structure. A constant volume with bounds on the design variables is used in conjunction with an optimality criterion approach. The method provides a general tool for solving complex design problems and generally leads to structures with better limit strength and stability. Many algorithms have been developed to improve the limit strength of structures. In most applications geometrically linear analysis is employed with the consequence that overall strength of the design is overestimated. Directly optimizing the limit load of the structure would require a full nonlinear analysis at each iteration which would be prohibitively expensive. The objective of this paper is to develop an algorithm that can improve the limit-load of geometrically nonlinear framed structures while avoiding the nonlinear analysis. One of the novelties of the new design methodology is its ability to efficiently model and design structures under multiple loading conditions. These loading conditions can be different factored loads or any kind of loads that can be applied to the structure simultaneously or independently. Attention is focused on optimal design of space framed structures. Three-dimensional design problems are more complicated to carry out, but they yield insight into real behavior of the structure and can help avoiding some of the problems that might appear in planar design procedure such as the need for out-of-plane buckling constraint. Although researchers in the field of structural engineering generally agree that optimum design of three-dimension building frames especially in the seismic regions would be beneficial, methods have been slow to emerge. Most of the research in this area has dealt

  11. Study of the seismic response of a recycled aggregate concrete frame structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changqing; Xiao, Jianzhuang

    2013-12-01

    Based on six-degree-of-freedom three-dimensional shaking table tests, the seismic response of a recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) frame was obtained. The analysis results indicate that the maximum story shear force and overturning moment reduce proportionally along the height of the model under the same earthquake wave. The story shear force, base shear coefficient and overturning moment of the structure increase progressively as the acceleration amplitude increases. The base shear coefficient is primarily controlled by the peak ground acceleration (PGA). The relationships between the PGA and the shear coefficient as well as between the PGA and the dynamic amplification factor are obtained by mathematical fitting. The dynamic amplification factor decreases rapidly at the elastic-plastic stage, but decreases slowly with the development of the elastic-plasticity stage. The results show that the RAC frame structure has reasonable deformability when compared with natural aggregate concrete frame structures. The maximum inter-story drift ratios of the RAC frame model under frequent and rare intensity 8 test phases are 1/266 and 1/29, respectively, which are larger than the allowable value of 1/500 and 1/50 according to Chinese seismic design requirements. Nevertheless, the RAC frame structure does not collapse under base excitations with PGAs from 0.066 g up to 1.170 g.

  12. Shaking table experimental study of recycled concrete frame-shear wall structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianwei; Cao, Wanlin; Meng, Shaobin; Yu, Cheng; Dong, Hongying

    2014-06-01

    In this study, four 1/5 scaled shaking table tests were conducted to investigate the seismic performance of recycled concrete frame-shear wall structures with different recycled aggregates replacement rates and concealed bracing detail. The four tested structures included one normal concrete model, one recycled coarse aggregate concrete model, and two recycled coarse and fine aggregate concrete models with or without concealed bracings inside the shear walls. The dynamic characteristics, dynamic response and failure mode of each model were compared and analyzed. Finite element models were also developed and nonlinear time-history response analysis was conducted. The test and analysis results show that the seismic performance of the recycled coarse aggregate concrete frame-shear wall structure is slightly worse than the normal concrete structure. The seismic resistance capacity of the recycled concrete frame-shear wall structure can be greatly improved by setting up concealed bracings inside the walls. With appropriate design, the recycled coarse aggregate concrete frame-shear wall structure and recycled concrete structure with concealed bracings inside the walls can be applied in buildings.

  13. Low-frequency and wideband vibration energy harvester with flexible frame and interdigital structure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Pengwei Wang, Yanfen; Luo, Cuixian; Li, Gang; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Wendong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Wei

    2015-04-15

    As an alternative to traditional cantilever beam structures and their evolutions, a flexible beam based, interdigital structure, vibration energy harvester has been presented and investigated. The proposed interdigital-shaped oscillator consists of a rectangular flexible frame and series of cantilever beams interdigitally bonded to it. In order to achieve low frequency and wide-bandwidth harvesting, Young’s modulus of materials, frame size and the amount of the cantilevers have been studied systematically. The measured frequency responses of the designed device (PDMS frame, quintuple piezoelectric cantilever beams) show a 460% increase in bandwidth below 80Hz. When excited at an acceleration of 1.0 g, the energy harvester achieves to a maximum open-circuit voltage of 65V, and the maximum output power 4.5 mW.

  14. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame structures using GFRP-tube-confined-concrete composite braces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddasi B., Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of structural bracing intended for seismic retrofitting use in framed structures. This special composite brace, termed glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP)-tube-confined-concrete composite brace, is comprised of concrete confined by a GFRP tube and an inner steel core for energy dissipation. Together with a contribution from the GFRP-tube confined concrete, the composite brace shows a substantially increased stiffness to control story drift, which is often a preferred feature in seismic retrofitting. An analysis model is established and implemented in a general finite element analysis program — OpenSees, for simulating the load-displacement behavior of the composite brace. Using this model, a parametric study of the hysteretic behavior (energy dissipation, stiffness, ductility and strength) of the composite brace was conducted under static cyclic loading and it was found that the area ratio of steel core to concrete has the greatest influence among all the parameters considered. To demonstrate the application of the composite brace in seismic retrofitting, a three-story nonductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was retrofitted with the composite braces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analyses of the retrofitted RC frame structure was performed by employing a suite of 20 strong ground motion earthquake records. The analysis results show that the composite braces can effectively reduce the peak seismic responses of the RC frame structure without significantly increasing the base shear demand.

  15. Life comparative analysis of energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of different building structural frame types.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangyong; Moon, Joon-Ho; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Seo, Deok-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO₂ emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC) or steel (S) structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO₂ emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO₂ emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO₂ emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO₂ emissions cost) of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future. PMID:24227998

  16. Beware of high stresses in ``A`` frame supported two-level bus structures

    SciTech Connect

    Thaik, A.

    1995-10-01

    Rigid-bus structures in many low profile, high voltage transmission substations consist of two-level bus assemblies of tubular conductors with one bus assembly supporting the other bus assembly with rigid tubular ``A`` frames at the crossover points. The lower-level bus is normally supported by a single porcelain post insulator under the ``A`` frame. Rigid ``A`` frames not only support the upper-level bus assembly, but also make the electrical connections between the two buses. This paper addresses the stress problem in the lower-level bus of the two-level bus structure. It presents the results of the structural analysis of a sample two-level bus structure using a simple structural method based on the Three Moment Theorem and equilibrium equations. A spreadsheet template is used to perform the mathematical calculations. The spreadsheet first calculates the maximum allowable bus span length in accordance with the IEEE Standard 605 and then determines the internal stress on the upper and lower-level bus conductors in the two-level rigid bus structures.

  17. Research on seismic behavior and filling effect of a new CFT column-CFT beam frame structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Shima, Hiroshi

    2009-12-01

    Concrete filled-steel tube (CFT) structure is popularly used in practical structures nowadays. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) was employed to construct a new CFT column-CFT beam frame structure (hereinafter cited as new CFT frame structure) in this research. Three specimens, two CFT column-CFT beam joints and one hollow steel column-I beam joint were tested to investigate seismic behavior of the new CFT frame structure. The experimental results showed that SCC can be successfully compacted into the new CFT frame structure joints in the lab, and the joints provided adequate seismic behavior. In order to further assess filling effect of SCC in the long steel tube, scale column-beam subassembly made of acrylics plate was employed and concrete visual model experiment was done. The results showed that the concrete was able to be successfully cast into the subassembly which indicated that the new CFT frame structure is possible to be constructed in the real building.

  18. Research on seismic behavior and filling effect of a new CFT column-CFT beam frame structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Shima, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Concrete filled-steel tube (CFT) structure is popularly used in practical structures nowadays. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) was employed to construct a new CFT column-CFT beam frame structure (hereinafter cited as new CFT frame structure) in this research. Three specimens, two CFT column-CFT beam joints and one hollow steel column-I beam joint were tested to investigate seismic behavior of the new CFT frame structure. The experimental results showed that SCC can be successfully compacted into the new CFT frame structure joints in the lab, and the joints provided adequate seismic behavior. In order to further assess filling effect of SCC in the long steel tube, scale column-beam subassembly made of acrylics plate was employed and concrete visual model experiment was done. The results showed that the concrete was able to be successfully cast into the subassembly which indicated that the new CFT frame structure is possible to be constructed in the real building.

  19. Active tendon control of reinforced concrete frame structures subjected to near-fault effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigdeli, Sinan Melih; Boduroǧlu, M. Hasan

    2013-10-01

    A reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was controlled with active tendons under the excitation of near-fault ground motions. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) type controllers were used and the controller was tuned by using a numerical algorithm. In order to prevent brittle fracture of the structure, the aim of the control is to reduce maximum base shear force. The RC structure was investigated for different characteristic strengths of concrete and the approach is applicable for the structure with 14 MPa concrete strength or higher.

  20. Optical sectioning microscopy using two-frame structured illumination and Hilbert-Huang data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusiak, M.; Patorski, K.; Tkaczyk, T.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a fast, simple and experimentally robust method for reconstructing background-rejected optically-sectioned microscopic images using two-shot structured illumination approach. Innovative data demodulation technique requires two grid-illumination images mutually phase shifted by π (half a grid period) but precise phase displacement value is not critical. Upon subtraction of the two frames the input pattern with increased grid modulation is computed. The proposed demodulation procedure comprises: (1) two-dimensional data processing based on the enhanced, fast empirical mode decomposition (EFEMD) method for the object spatial frequency selection (noise reduction and bias term removal), and (2) calculating high contrast optically-sectioned image using the two-dimensional spiral Hilbert transform (HS). The proposed algorithm effectiveness is compared with the results obtained for the same input data using conventional structured-illumination (SIM) and HiLo microscopy methods. The input data were collected for studying highly scattering tissue samples in reflectance mode. In comparison with the conventional three-frame SIM technique we need one frame less and no stringent requirement on the exact phase-shift between recorded frames is imposed. The HiLo algorithm outcome is strongly dependent on the set of parameters chosen manually by the operator (cut-off frequencies for low-pass and high-pass filtering and η parameter value for optically-sectioned image reconstruction) whereas the proposed method is parameter-free. Moreover very short processing time required to efficiently demodulate the input pattern predestines proposed method for real-time in-vivo studies. Current implementation completes full processing in 0.25s using medium class PC (Inter i7 2,1 GHz processor and 8 GB RAM). Simple modification employed to extract only first two BIMFs with fixed filter window size results in reducing the computing time to 0.11s (8 frames/s).

  1. Soil-structure Interaction in the Seismic Response of Coupled Wall-frame Structures on Pile Foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonari, S.; Dezi, F.; Leoni, G.

    2008-07-08

    This paper presents a study on the seismic response of coupled wall-frame structures founded on piles. A complete soil-structure interaction analysis is carried out with reference to a case study. Three different soils and seven real accelerograms are considered. Local site response analyses are performed in order to evaluate the incoming free-field motion at different depths and the ground motion amplifications. A numerical model, accounting for the pile-soil-pile interaction and for material and radiation damping, is used to evaluate the impedance matrix and the foundation input motion. The domain decomposition technique is adopted to perform time-domain seismic analyses introducing Lumped Parameter Models to take into account the impedance of the soil-structure system. Applications show that the rocking phenomena affect the behaviour of the structure by changing the base shear distribution within the wall and the frame and by increasing the structural displacements.

  2. Kinematic effects associated with molecular frames in structural isomerization dynamics of clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanao, Tomohiro; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2004-05-01

    Kinematic effects associated with movements of molecular frames, which specify instantaneous orientation of molecules, is investigated in structural isomerization dynamics of a triatomic cluster whose total angular momentum is zero. The principal-axis frame is employed to introduce the so-called principal-axis hyperspherical coordinates, with which the mechanism of structural isomerization dynamics of the cluster is systematically analyzed. A force called "democratic centrifugal force" is extracted from the associated kinematics. This force arises from an intrinsic non-Euclidean metric in the internal space and has an effect of distorting the triatomic cluster to a collapsed shape and of trapping the system around collinear transition states. The latter effect is particularly important in that the kinematics effectively makes a basin at the saddle (transition state) on the potential surface. Based on this framework, we study the effect of the gauge field associated with the Eckart frame in internal space, which has not been carefully examined in the conventional reaction rate theories. Numerical comparison between the dynamics with and without the gauge field has revealed that this field has an effect to suppress the rate of isomerization reaction to a considerable amount. Thus a theory neglecting this effect will significantly overestimate the rate of isomerization. We show the physical origin of this suppressing effect.

  3. The inner structure of collisionless magnetic reconnection: The electron-frame dissipation measure and Hall fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex; Black, Carrie; Kuznetsova, Masha

    2011-12-15

    It was recently proposed that the electron-frame dissipation measure, the energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to plasmas in the electron's rest frame, identifies the dissipation region of collisionless magnetic reconnection [Zenitani et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195003 (2011)]. The measure is further applied to the electron-scale structures of antiparallel reconnection, by using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The size of the central dissipation region is controlled by the electron-ion mass ratio, suggesting that electron physics is essential. A narrow electron jet extends along the outflow direction until it reaches an electron shock. The jet region appears to be anti-dissipative. At the shock, electron heating is relevant to a magnetic cavity signature. The results are summarized to a unified picture of the single dissipation region in a Hall magnetic geometry.

  4. Frame rate upconversion using pyramid structure and dense motion vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun-Geon; Lee, Daeho

    2016-05-01

    We propose a frame rate upconversion (FRUC) method using pyramid structures (PS) and dense motion vector fields (MVFs). In FRUC processes, performance is dominantly dependent on motion compensation, thus motion vectors (MVs) must be precisely estimated. Variable sizes of blocks and large search ranges are needed to estimate the MVs of large objects and large movements; however, we use PS and dense MVFs to estimate MVs for various conditions. In the PS, we first estimate MVs on level 0, which is the most reduced image in the PS (L-1 times downsampling), and MVs on the high levels are estimated except for pixels having large corresponding MVs on the lower levels. Integration of MVFs for all levels is followed by a vector median filter to remove noises. Finally, a motion compensated frame is interpolated by weight-overlapped block motion compensation.

  5. Estimation of Cyclic Interstory Drift Capacity of Steel Framed Structures and Future Applications for Seismic Design

    PubMed Central

    Bojórquez, Edén; Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Ruiz, Sonia E.; Terán-Gilmore, Amador

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have been devoted to calibrate damage indices for steel and reinforced concrete members with the purpose of overcoming some of the shortcomings of the parameters currently used during seismic design. Nevertheless, there is a challenge to study and calibrate the use of such indices for the practical structural evaluation of complex structures. In this paper, an energy-based damage model for multidegree-of-freedom (MDOF) steel framed structures that accounts explicitly for the effects of cumulative plastic deformation demands is used to estimate the cyclic drift capacity of steel structures. To achieve this, seismic hazard curves are used to discuss the limitations of the maximum interstory drift demand as a performance parameter to achieve adequate damage control. Then the concept of cyclic drift capacity, which incorporates information of the influence of cumulative plastic deformation demands, is introduced as an alternative for future applications of seismic design of structures subjected to long duration ground motions. PMID:25089288

  6. Estimation of cyclic interstory drift capacity of steel framed structures and future applications for seismic design.

    PubMed

    Bojórquez, Edén; Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Ruiz, Sonia E; Terán-Gilmore, Amador

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have been devoted to calibrate damage indices for steel and reinforced concrete members with the purpose of overcoming some of the shortcomings of the parameters currently used during seismic design. Nevertheless, there is a challenge to study and calibrate the use of such indices for the practical structural evaluation of complex structures. In this paper, an energy-based damage model for multidegree-of-freedom (MDOF) steel framed structures that accounts explicitly for the effects of cumulative plastic deformation demands is used to estimate the cyclic drift capacity of steel structures. To achieve this, seismic hazard curves are used to discuss the limitations of the maximum interstory drift demand as a performance parameter to achieve adequate damage control. Then the concept of cyclic drift capacity, which incorporates information of the influence of cumulative plastic deformation demands, is introduced as an alternative for future applications of seismic design of structures subjected to long duration ground motions. PMID:25089288

  7. Dynamic Shape Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Frame Structures Using the Inverse Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gherlone, Marco; Cerracchio, Priscilla; Mattone, Massimiliano; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A robust and efficient computational method for reconstructing the three-dimensional displacement field of truss, beam, and frame structures, using measured surface-strain data, is presented. Known as shape sensing , this inverse problem has important implications for real-time actuation and control of smart structures, and for monitoring of structural integrity. The present formulation, based on the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM), uses a least-squares variational principle involving strain measures of Timoshenko theory for stretching, torsion, bending, and transverse shear. Two inverse-frame finite elements are derived using interdependent interpolations whose interior degrees-of-freedom are condensed out at the element level. In addition, relationships between the order of kinematic-element interpolations and the number of required strain gauges are established. As an example problem, a thin-walled, circular cross-section cantilevered beam subjected to harmonic excitations in the presence of structural damping is modeled using iFEM; where, to simulate strain-gauge values and to provide reference displacements, a high-fidelity MSC/NASTRAN shell finite element model is used. Examples of low and high-frequency dynamic motion are analyzed and the solution accuracy examined with respect to various levels of discretization and the number of strain gauges.

  8. Generation And Understanding Of Natural Language Using Information In A Frame Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Walton A.

    1989-03-01

    Many expert systems and relational database systems store factual information in the form of attributes values of objects. Problems arise in transforming from that attribute (frame) database representation into English surface structure and in transforming the English surface structure into a representation that references information in the frame database. In this paper we consider mainly the generation process, as it is this area in which we have made the most significant progress. In its interaction with the user, the expert system must generate questions, declarations, and uncertain declarations. Attributes such as COLOR, LENGTH, and ILLUMINATION can be referenced using the template: " of " for both questions and declarations. However, many other attributes, such as RATTLES, in "What is RATTLES of the light bulb?", and HAS_STREP_THROAT in, "HAS_STREP_THROAT of Dan is true." do not fit this template. We examined over 300 attributes from several knowledge bases and have grouped them into 16 classes. For each class there is one "question" template, one "declaration" template, and one "uncertain declaration" template for generating English surface structure. The internal databases identifiers (e.g., HAS_STREP_THROAT and DISEASE_35) must also be replaced by output synonyms. Classifying each attribute in combination with synonym translation remarkably improved the English surface structure that the system generated. In the area of understanding, synonym translation and knowledge of the attribute properties, such as legal values, has resulted in a robust database query capability.

  9. On the estimation of a celestial reference frame in the presence of source structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, L.; Shabala, S. S.; McCallum, J. N.; Krásná, H.; Petrachenko, B.; Rastorgueva-Foi, E.; Lovell, J. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial structure of sources making up the celestial reference frame (CRF) at radio frequencies is a systematic error source in very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using simulations, we investigate the effects of source structure on the CRF, determined by the actual observational programme of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry. This is done using the source structure simulator of the Vienna VLBI Software. Applying various mock two-component source models, systematic displacements of 10-80 μas in median source position offsets are found. These offsets are predominantly aligned with the direction of the jet. The simulations further show that slight changes in the source model can significantly change the estimated positions. We finally present a new parametrization of source positions in the analysis, namely along the jet direction and perpendicular to it, allowing us to significantly mitigate the effects of source structure on an estimated CRF.

  10. Computational procedures for evaluating the sensitivity derivatives of vibration frequencies and Eigenmodes of framed structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetterman, Timothy L.; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1987-01-01

    Computational procedures are presented for evaluating the sensitivity derivatives of the vibration frequencies and eigenmodes of framed structures. Both a displacement and a mixed formulation are used. The two key elements of the computational procedure are: (a) Use of dynamic reduction techniques to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom; and (b) Application of iterative techniques to improve the accuracy of the derivatives of the eigenmodes. The two reduction techniques considered are the static condensation and a generalized dynamic reduction technique. Error norms are introduced to assess the accuracy of the eigenvalue and eigenvector derivatives obtained by the reduction techniques. The effectiveness of the methods presented is demonstrated by three numerical examples.

  11. Plexus structure imaging with thin slab MR neurography: rotating frames, fly-throughs, and composite projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, David T.; McIntee, Diane; Tsuruda, Jay S.; Colletti, Patrick; Tatevossian, Raymond; Frazier, James

    2006-03-01

    We explored multiple image processing approaches by which to display the segmented adult brachial plexus in a three-dimensional manner. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) 1.5-Tesla scans with STIR sequences, which preferentially highlight nerves, were performed in adult volunteers to generate high-resolution raw images. Using multiple software programs, the raw MRN images were then manipulated so as to achieve segmentation of plexus neurovascular structures, which were incorporated into three different visualization schemes: rotating upper thoracic girdle skeletal frames, dynamic fly-throughs parallel to the clavicle, and thin slab volume-rendered composite projections.

  12. LAr Dewar Coil Feed Frame Pipe Analysis (Structural Analysis of General Structures, SAGS)

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, A.W.; /Fermilab

    1990-01-31

    This frame pipe analysis addresses the D0 LAr dewar Condenser tube (coil) feed pipe thermal contraction stresses and moments. The configuration is shown in PEI drawing C-32545, Rev 0, and the parameters detailed in the letter of November 20, 1989, located in appendix A. Note that all other thermal considerations for these condensing coils have been made in D0 EN 3740.512-234. The conclusion of this report is the feed lines, previously deemed appropriate without detailed analysis, have been demonstrated to be adequately designed for the intended service and require no further investigation.

  13. Statistical damage detection method for frame structures using a confidence interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiming; Zhu, Hongping; Luo, Hanbin; Xia, Yong

    2010-03-01

    A novel damage detection method is applied to a 3-story frame structure, to obtain statistical quantification control criterion of the existence, location and identification of damage. The mean, standard deviation, and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) are applied to detect damage information according to statistical process control (SPC) theory. It is concluded that the detection is insignificant with the mean and EWMA because the structural response is not independent and is not a normal distribution. On the other hand, the damage information is detected well with the standard deviation because the influence of the data distribution is not pronounced with this parameter. A suitable moderate confidence level is explored for more significant damage location and quantification detection, and the impact of noise is investigated to illustrate the robustness of the method.

  14. A neural network for controlling the configuration of frame structure with elastic members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsutsumi, Kazuyoshi

    1989-01-01

    A neural network for controlling the configuration of frame structure with elastic members is proposed. In the present network, the structure is modeled not by using the relative angles of the members but by using the distances between the joint locations alone. The relationship between the environment and the joints is also defined by their mutual distances. The analog neural network attains the reaching motion of the manipulator as a minimization problem of the energy constructed by the distances between the joints, the target, and the obstacles. The network can generate not only the final but also the transient configurations and the trajectory. This framework with flexibility and parallelism is very suitable for controlling the Space Telerobotic systems with many degrees of freedom.

  15. Prediction of the Fundamental Period of Infilled RC Frame Structures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Asteris, Panagiotis G.; Tsaris, Athanasios K.; Cavaleri, Liborio; Repapis, Constantinos C.; Papalou, Angeliki; Di Trapani, Fabio; Karypidis, Dimitrios F.

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental period is one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of structures. There are several literature approaches for its estimation which often conflict with each other, making their use questionable. Furthermore, the majority of these approaches do not take into account the presence of infill walls into the structure despite the fact that infill walls increase the stiffness and mass of structure leading to significant changes in the fundamental period. In the present paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to predict the fundamental period of infilled reinforced concrete (RC) structures. For the training and the validation of the ANN, a large data set is used based on a detailed investigation of the parameters that affect the fundamental period of RC structures. The comparison of the predicted values with analytical ones indicates the potential of using ANNs for the prediction of the fundamental period of infilled RC frame structures taking into account the crucial parameters that influence its value. PMID:27066069

  16. Prediction of the Fundamental Period of Infilled RC Frame Structures Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Asteris, Panagiotis G; Tsaris, Athanasios K; Cavaleri, Liborio; Repapis, Constantinos C; Papalou, Angeliki; Di Trapani, Fabio; Karypidis, Dimitrios F

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental period is one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of structures. There are several literature approaches for its estimation which often conflict with each other, making their use questionable. Furthermore, the majority of these approaches do not take into account the presence of infill walls into the structure despite the fact that infill walls increase the stiffness and mass of structure leading to significant changes in the fundamental period. In the present paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to predict the fundamental period of infilled reinforced concrete (RC) structures. For the training and the validation of the ANN, a large data set is used based on a detailed investigation of the parameters that affect the fundamental period of RC structures. The comparison of the predicted values with analytical ones indicates the potential of using ANNs for the prediction of the fundamental period of infilled RC frame structures taking into account the crucial parameters that influence its value. PMID:27066069

  17. Self-centering seismic retrofit scheme for reinforced concrete frame structures: SDOF system study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a parametric study of self-centering seismic retrofit schemes for reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings. The self-centering retrofit system features flag-shaped hysteresis and minimal residual deformation. For comparison purpose, an alternate seismic retrofit scheme that uses a bilinear-hysteresis retrofit system such as buckling-restrained braces (BRB) is also considered in this paper. The parametric study was carried out in a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system framework since a multi-story building structure may be idealized as an equivalent SDOF system and investigation of the performance of this equivalent SDOF system can provide insight into the seismic response of the multi-story building. A peak-oriented hysteresis model which can consider the strength and stiffness degradation is used to describe the hysteretic behavior of RC structures. The parametric study involves two key parameters — the strength ratio and elastic stiffness ratio between the seismic retrofit system and the original RC frame. An ensemble of 172 earthquake ground motion records scaled to the design basis earthquake in California with a probability of exceedance of 10% in 50 years was constructed for the simulation-based parametric study. The effectiveness of the two seismic retrofit schemes considered in this study is evaluated in terms of peak displacement ratio, peak acceleration ratio, energy dissipation demand ratio and residual displacement ratio between the SDOF systems with and without retrofit. It is found from this parametric study that RC structures retrofitted with the self-centering retrofit scheme (SCRS) can achieve a seismic performance level comparable to the bilinear-hysteresis retrofit scheme (BHRS) in terms of peak displacement and energy dissipation demand ratio while having negligible residual displacement after earthquake.

  18. Wing walls for enhancing the seismic performance of reinforced concrete frame structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weisong; Guo, Xun; Xu, Weixiao; Yuan, Xin

    2016-06-01

    A building retrofitted with wing walls in the bottom story, which was damaged during the 2008 M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in China, is introduced and a corresponding 1/4 scale wing wall-frame model was subjected to shake table motions to study the seismic behavior of this retrofitted structural system. The results show that wing walls can effectively protect columns from damage by moving areas that bear reciprocating tension and compression to the sections of the wing walls, thus achieving an extra measure of seismic fortification. A `strong column-weak beam' mechanism was realized, the flexural rigidity of the vertical member was strengthened, and a more uniform distribution of deformation among all the stories was measured. In addition, the joint between the wing walls and the beams suffered severe damage during the tests, due to an area of local stress concentration. A longer area of intensive stirrup is suggested in the end of the beams.

  19. Passive energy dissipation enhancement of linear frame structures by the damped cable system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorace, S.; Terenzi, G.

    2013-10-01

    The Damped Cable System (DCS) is an innovative seismic protection technology of frame structures that incorporates pre-stressed steel cables linked to fluid viscous spring-dampers fixed to the foundation, at their lower ends, and to the top floor, or one of the upper floors, at their upper ends. The cables have sliding contacts with the floor slabs, to which they are joined by steel deviators. This determines a high-dissipative dynamic coupling between DCS and structure, capable of remarkably enhancing the seismic performance of the latter. An extensive research activity has been developed by the authors on the system, which included laboratory and field testing campaigns, structural modelling and assessment, and the formulation of design procedures. In this paper attention is focused on the finite element model of the DCS, conceived to be easily generated by commercial structural analysis programs, and validated by comparison with the results of the experimental surveys carried out. The model was ultimately updated, and its computational performance is examined by application to a demonstrative case study, constituted by a steel school built in the late 1960s.

  20. Damage detection on framed structures: modal curvature evaluation using Stockwell Transform under seismic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditommaso, Rocco; Ponzo, F. C.; Auletta, G.

    2015-06-01

    The key parameters for damage detection and localization are eigenfrequencies, related equivalent viscous damping factors and mode shapes. The classical approach is based on the evaluation of these structural parameters before and after a seismic event, but by using a modern approach based on time-frequency transformations it is possible to quantify these parameters throughout the ground shaking phase. In particular with the use of the S-Transform, it is possible to follow the temporal evolution of the structural dynamics parameters before, during and after an earthquake. In this paper, a methodology for damage localization on framed structures subjected to strong motion earthquakes is proposed based on monitoring the modal curvature variation in the natural frequency of a structure. Two examples of application are described to illustrate the technique: Computer simulation of the nonlinear response of a model, and several laboratory (shaking table) tests performed at the University of Basilicata (Italy). Damage detected using the proposed approach and damage revealed via visual inspections in the tests are compared.

  1. Performance evaluation of a novel rotational damper for structural reinforcement steel frames subjected to lateral excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanati, M.; Khadem, S. E.; Mirzabagheri, S.; Sanati, H.; Khosravieh, M. Y.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a novel rotational damper called a Rotational Friction Viscoelastic Damper (RFVD) is introduced. Some viscoelastic pads are added to the Rotational Friction Damper (RFD) in addition to the friction discs used in this conventional device. Consequently, the amount of energy dissipated by the damper increases in low excitation frequencies. In fact, the input energy to the structure is simultaneously dissipated in the form of friction and heat by frictional discs and viscoelastic pads. In order to compare the performance of this novel damper with the earlier types, a set of experiments were carried out. According to the test results, the RFVD showed a better performance in dissipating input energy to the structure when compared to the RFD. The seismic behavior of steel frames equipped with these dampers was also numerically evaluated based on a nonlinear time history analysis. The numerical results verified the performance of the dampers in increasing the energy dissipation and decreasing the energy input to the structural elements. In order to achieve the maximum dissipated energy, the dampers need to be installed in certain places called critical points in the structure. An appropriate approach is presented to properly find these points. Finally, the performance of the RFVDs installed at these critical points was investigated in comparison to some other configurations and the validity of the suggested method in increasing the energy dissipation was confirmed.

  2. Viscous-Fluid-Spring Damper Retrofit of a Steel Moment Frame Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Saif; Van Benschoten, Paul; Al Satari, Mohamed; Lin, Silian

    2008-07-08

    The subject building is a peculiar pre-Northridge steel moment resisting frame building. Upon investigating the existing lateral resisting system, numerous significant deficiencies were identified; inherent lack of redundancy, poor geometry and inadequate stiffness of the lateral resisting system. All of which resulted in an extremely soft 5-story structure with a primary torsional mode of vibration at T{sub 1} = 5.46 s. Significant structural modifications were deemed necessary to meet the 'life-safety' performance objective as outlined in rehabilitation standards such as ASCE 41. Both increased stiffness and damping were required to adequately retrofit the building. Furthermore, adjacent building separation as well as deformation compatibility issues needed to be addressed and resolved. A three-dimensional computer model of the building was created using ETABS mathematically simulating the building's dynamic characteristics in its current condition. Multiple seismic retrofit systems were investigated such as Buckling Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF's). However, based on the performance effectiveness and constructability of the retrofit schemes studied, the Viscous-Fluid-Spring Damper (VFSD) system was proposed as the 'optimum' solution for the building. The VFSD, was chosen because it combines the relatively compact size and minimally invasive constructability with the required properties (an elastomeric spring in parallel with a nonlinear velocity dependent viscous damper). A site-specific response spectrum was developed for the Design Basis Earthquake (DBE, 475 year return period) event, and three pairs of representative earthquake horizontal ground motion time-histories were scaled to match this DBE. The proposed scheme reduced the building maximum inter-story drift ratio from 5.4% to about 1%. Similarly, the maximum roof displacement was reduced by about 70% (23'' to 7'')

  3. Viscous-Fluid-Spring Damper Retrofit of a Steel Moment Frame Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Saif; Van Benschoten, Paul; Al Satari, Mohamed; Lin, Silian

    2008-07-01

    The subject building is a peculiar pre-Northridge steel moment resisting frame building. Upon investigating the existing lateral resisting system, numerous significant deficiencies were identified; inherent lack of redundancy, poor geometry and inadequate stiffness of the lateral resisting system. All of which resulted in an extremely soft 5-story structure with a primary torsional mode of vibration at T1 = 5.46 s. Significant structural modifications were deemed necessary to meet the "life-safety" performance objective as outlined in rehabilitation standards such as ASCE 41. Both increased stiffness and damping were required to adequately retrofit the building. Furthermore, adjacent building separation as well as deformation compatibility issues needed to be addressed and resolved. A three-dimensional computer model of the building was created using ETABS mathematically simulating the building's dynamic characteristics in its current condition. Multiple seismic retrofit systems were investigated such as Buckling Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF's). However, based on the performance effectiveness and constructability of the retrofit schemes studied, the Viscous-Fluid-Spring Damper (VFSD) system was proposed as the "optimum" solution for the building. The VFSD, was chosen because it combines the relatively compact size and minimally invasive constructability with the required properties (an elastomeric spring in parallel with a nonlinear velocity dependent viscous damper). A site-specific response spectrum was developed for the Design Basis Earthquake (DBE, 475 year return period) event, and three pairs of representative earthquake horizontal ground motion time-histories were scaled to match this DBE. The proposed scheme reduced the building maximum inter-story drift ratio from 5.4% to about 1%. Similarly, the maximum roof displacement was reduced by about 70% (23" to 7").

  4. Flexural Upgrading of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders Using Externally Bonded CFRP Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Mohammad Z.; Eshaghian, M.

    2010-04-01

    This study focuses on the flexural performance of composite steel-concrete beam girders retrofitted with CFRP. The current work is a numerical study of the load carrying capacity of a section which is strengthened by externally bonding of CFRP to the tension flange. At the primarily stage of the work, the model is verified by published experimental data. The three dimensional interactive failure Tsai-Wu criteria was implemented to retrofitted composite girder in order to identify the failure mode. Then a detailed parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of geometry parameters and material characteristics on flexural performance of a composite section.

  5. Concurrent multi-scale design optimization of composite frame structures using the Heaviside penalization of discrete material model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Duan, Zunyi; Lund, Erik; Zhao, Guozhong

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the concurrent multi-scale optimization design of frame structure composed of glass or carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates. In the composite frame structure, the fiber winding angle at the micro-material scale and the geometrical parameter of components of the frame in the macro-structural scale are introduced as the independent variables on the two geometrical scales. Considering manufacturing requirements, discrete fiber winding angles are specified for the micro design variable. The improved Heaviside penalization discrete material optimization interpolation scheme has been applied to achieve the discrete optimization design of the fiber winding angle. An optimization model based on the minimum structural compliance and the specified fiber material volume constraint has been established. The sensitivity information about the two geometrical scales design variables are also deduced considering the characteristics of discrete fiber winding angles. The optimization results of the fiber winding angle or the macro structural topology on the two single geometrical scales, together with the concurrent two-scale optimization, is separately studied and compared in the paper. Numerical examples in the paper show that the concurrent multi-scale optimization can further explore the coupling effect between the macro-structure and micro-material of the composite to achieve an ultra-light design of the composite frame structure. The novel two geometrical scales optimization model provides a new opportunity for the design of composite structure in aerospace and other industries.

  6. Seismic protection of frame structures via semi-active control: modeling and implementation issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattulli, Vincenzo; Lepidi, Marco; Potenza, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Theoretical and practical issues concerning the multi-faceted task of mitigating the latero-torsional seismic response of a prototypal frame structure with asymmetric mass distribution are approached. Chevron braces with embedded magnetorheological dampers acting on the interstory drift are used to ensure additional energy dissipation. The semi-active control strategy employed to govern the modification of the damper characteristics via feedback is based on the selection of optimal forces according to a H2/LQG criterion, with respect to which the actual forces are regulated by a clipped-optimal logic. A dynamic observer is used to estimate the state through a non-collocated placement of the acceleration sensors. Several aspects to be addressed throughout the complex process including the design, modelization, and implementation phases of semi-active protection systems are discussed. Finally, experimental results obtained to mitigate the motion induced by ground excitation in a large-scale laboratory prototype, simulating the seismic response of a two-story building, are summarized.

  7. Structural redundancy of dual and steel moment frame systems under seismic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seung-Han

    The extensive investigation of structural failure after Northridge earthquake showed poor structural performance due to brittle member behavior and improper design. For example, the brittle steel connection fractures were totally unexpected of the highly regarded "ductile" systems. The lack of system ductile capacity and redundancy could lead to system instability and collapse. Since then, the design for redundancy has become a serious concern of both researchers and practitioners. Most reliability and redundancy studies in the past, however, have been limited to ideal simple systems. Structural redundancy under stochastic loads such as earthquakes has not been thoroughly investigated and hence not well understood or clearly defined, which could lead to misunderstandings and confusions among structural engineers. In this study, the redundancy of five-story and ten-story one-way and two-way dual systems of RC shear walls and three-story and nine-story special moment resisting frames (SMRF) is investigated in terms of system reliability. Major factors affecting redundancy considered include structural configuration (number of bays in lateral load resistance system, number and layout of shear walls, and so on), ductility capacity, uncertainty and correlation of shear wall strength. The redundancy of truly ductile SMRF systems of different configurations is also examined. A 4 x 4 bay and a 6 x 6 bay buildings of the same floor area but different numbers and sizes of beams and columns are designed and analyzed. In addition, three SMRF, 1 x 1, 2 x 2, and 3 x 3 bay systems, with torsion are investigated to examine the effect of ductile and brittle beam-column connection behaviors. The proposed uniform-risk redundancy factor is then compared with the reliability and redundancy factor (rho) in the 1996 SEAOC Blue Book, NEHRP 97, and UBC 97, which depends on the system configuration only. The results show the inadequacies of the latter approach in describing the redundancy

  8. Theoretical research and experimental validation of quasi-static load spectra on bogie frame structures of high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ning; Sun, Shou-Guang; Li, Qiang; Zou, Hua

    2014-12-01

    One of the major problems in structural fatigue life analysis is establishing structural load spectra under actual operating conditions. This study conducts theoretical research and experimental validation of quasi-static load spectra on bogie frame structures of high-speed trains. The quasistatic load series that corresponds to quasi-static deformation modes are identified according to the structural form and bearing conditions of high-speed train bogie frames. Moreover, a force-measuring frame is designed and manufactured based on the quasi-static load series. The load decoupling model of the quasi-static load series is then established via calibration tests. Quasi-static load-time histories, together with online tests and decoupling analysis, are obtained for the intermediate range of the Beijing—Shanghai dedicated passenger line. The damage consistency calibration of the quasi-static discrete load spectra is performed according to a damage consistency criterion and a genetic algorithm. The calibrated damage that corresponds with the quasi-static discrete load spectra satisfies the safety requirements of bogie frames.

  9. Detection of earthquake-induced damage in a framed structure using a finite element model updating procedure.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eunjong; Kim, Seung-Nam; Park, Taewon; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Damage of a 5-story framed structure was identified from two types of measured data, which are frequency response functions (FRF) and natural frequencies, using a finite element (FE) model updating procedure. In this study, a procedure to determine the appropriate weightings for different groups of observations was proposed. In addition, a modified frame element which included rotational springs was used to construct the FE model for updating to represent concentrated damage at the member ends (a formulation for plastic hinges in framed structures subjected to strong earthquakes). The results of the model updating and subsequent damage detection when the rotational springs (RS model) were used were compared with those obtained using the conventional frame elements (FS model). Comparisons indicated that the RS model gave more accurate results than the FS model. That is, the errors in the natural frequencies of the updated models were smaller, and the identified damage showed clearer distinctions between damaged and undamaged members and was more consistent with observed damage. PMID:24574888

  10. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF CRACK AND STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF RC SLAB IN STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE GIRDER UNDER NEGATIVE BENDING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Junichi; Nakajima, Akinori; Suzuki, Yasuo

    The sophisticated numerical analysis method is required to simulate the strain behavior of the reinforcement and the crack width of the RC slab, although many researches are conducted on the cracking behavior of the RC slab in the composite girder under the negative bending. In this paper, the numerical analysis method is constructed to evaluate the strain behavior of the reinforcement and the crack width of the RC slab in the steel-concrete composite girder subjected to the negative bending. The analysis method using the rigid body spring model takes into account the imperfect composite action between the steel girder and the RC slab, the bond between the reinforcement and the concrete, and the shrinkage of the concrete. As a result, it is confirmed that the analysis method can simulate the crack and the strain behavior of RC slab quantitatively in the steel-concrete composite girder under the negative bending.

  11. Wake structure of axial-flow hydrokinetic turbines in tri-frame arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawdhary, Saurabh; Yang, Xiaolei; Hill, Craig; Khosronejad, Ali; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-11-01

    Marine and hydro-kinetic (MHK) energy hold promise for future of sustainable energy generation. Tri-frame of turbines, three turbines mounted on vertices of a triangle, are an effective way to build a power producing array of hydrokinetic turbines in marine environment. Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to simulate the flow past a tri-frame and characterize its wake. Full geometry of all three turbines in the tri-frame is resolved using the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) method of Kang et al. (2011). High fidelity solution of flow field is obtained owing to the inclusion of detailed geometry of the turbines. Excellent agreement is obtained with the experiments conducted in a flume at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL). The wake evolution of the three turbines is compared to that of an isolated single turbine. The differences in wake dynamics are highlighted to elucidate the importance of turbine wake interaction in an array. The simulations indicate lower levels of TKE and lower levels of momentum deficit in the wake of the upstream turbine of tri-frame compared to the other turbines. Analysis of the far wake recovery is useful for the optimal MHK array design. This work was supported by NSF grant IIP-1318201. The simulations were carried out at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  12. Mobile marine operations structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalaik, A.; Braddick, P.W.; Brittin, D.S.; Johnson, G.L.

    1988-02-16

    The process of fabricating a marine operations structure having a central core and first and second ice walls circumferentially positioned about the central core for fracturing ice features, with the second ice wall above and contiguous with the first ice wall, wherein the first and second ice walls are constructed according to the process is described comprising the steps of: providing a sloping support base system comprising radial bulkheads and circumferentially-positioned web frame series integrally connecting ice wall plating to the bulkheads and web frames series; integrally affixing an exposed cross grid system of interlocking and reinforcing members to the exterior surfaces of the ice wall plating to form first and second ice wall preforms with the members projecting outward from the plating; installing a slip-form adjacent to the ice wall preforms and exteriorly of the plating; pouring cement/aggregate slurry onto the ice wall preforms between the plating and the slip-form to cover the cross grid of interlocking and reinforcing members; moving the slip-form upwards as the void spaces between the slip-form and the ice wall plating are filled with cement/aggregate slurry; and permitting the cement/aggregate slurry to harden to form an orthotropic composite steel/concrete ice wall with an exposed concrete surface.

  13. Framing Attention in Japanese and American Comics: Cross-Cultural Differences in Attentional Structure

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books – the narrative frames in sequential images – highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese “manga” to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention. PMID:23015794

  14. Framing attention in Japanese and american comics: cross-cultural differences in attentional structure.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books - the narrative frames in sequential images - highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese "manga" to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer's integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention. PMID:23015794

  15. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei

    2012-09-01

    A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the

  16. Quantum frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew J.

    2014-02-01

    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.

  17. Optimal size, shape, and control design in dynamics of planar frame structures under large displacements and rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gams, M.; Saje, M.; Planinc, I.; Kegl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Size, shape, and drive optimization procedures are combined with an energy-conserving time-integration scheme for the dynamic analysis of planar geometrically non-linear frame structures undergoing large overall motions. The solution method is based on the finite-element formulation, employing the classical displacement-based planar beam finite elements described in an inertial frame. Finite axial, bending, and shear strains are taken into account. If the system is conservative, the energy and momenta conservation in the discrete system during motion is guaranteed. Size, shape, and drive design variables are introduced into the model. Shape parameterization is achieved by the design element technique, using Bezier patches. The sensitivity analysis is performed by the discrete approach and the analytical direct differentiation method. A gradient-based optimization method, using an automatically adjustable convex approximation technique, is employed. The efficiency and the applicability of the approach are demonstrated via numerical examples. The shape and the driving function of a load-moving robot arm are optimized to reduce oscillations in its final position. The shape of a steel frame is optimized to reduce oscillations after an idealized ground motion jerk.

  18. Advanced Wall Framing; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Advanced framing techniques for home construction have been researched extensively and proven effective. Both builders and home owners can benefit from advanced framing. Advanced framing techniques create a structurally sound home that has lower material and labor costs than a conventionally framed house. This fact sheet describes advanced framing techniques, design considerations, and framing.

  19. Modern Steel Framed Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.

    In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…

  20. The rest-frame ultraviolet structure of 0.5 < z < 1.5 galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; De Mello, Duilia F.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Rafelski, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Coe, Dan; Grogin, Norman; Gawiser, Eric; Ravindranath, Swara; Scarlata, Claudia

    2014-08-10

    We present the rest-frame UV wavelength dependence of the Petrosian-like half-light radius (r{sub 50}), and the concentration parameter for a sample of 198 star-forming galaxies at 0.5 < z < 1.5. We find a ∼5% decrease in r{sub 50} from 1500 Å to 3000 Å, with half-light radii at 3000 Å ranging from 0.6 kpc to 6 kpc. We also find a decrease in concentration of ∼0.07 (1.9 < C{sub 3000} < 3.9). The lack of a strong relationship between r{sub 50} and wavelength is consistent with a model in which clumpy star formation is distributed over length scales comparable to the galaxy's rest-frame optical light. While the wavelength dependence of r{sub 50} is independent of size at all redshifts, concentration decreases more sharply in the far-UV (∼1500 Å) for large galaxies at z ∼ 1. This decrease in concentration is caused by a flattening of the inner ∼20% of the light profile in disk-like galaxies, indicating that the central regions have different UV colors than the rest of the galaxy. We interpret this as a bulge component with older stellar populations and/or more dust. The size-dependent decrease in concentration is less dramatic at z ∼ 2, suggesting that bulges are less dusty, younger, and/or less massive than the rest of the galaxy at higher redshifts.

  1. Numerical analysis of composite STEEL-CONCRETE SECTIONS using integral equation of Volterra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partov, Doncho; Kantchev, Vesselin

    2011-09-01

    The paper presents analysis of the stress and deflections changes due to creep in statically determinate composite steel-concrete beam. The mathematical model involves the equation of equilibrium, compatibility and constitutive relationship, i.e. an elastic law for the steel part and an integral-type creep law of Boltzmann — Volterra for the concrete part. On the basis of the theory of the viscoelastic body of Arutyunian-Trost-Bažant for determining the redistribution of stresses in beam section between concrete plate and steel beam with respect to time "t", two independent Volterra integral equations of the second kind have been derived. Numerical method based on linear approximation of the singular kernal function in the integral equation is presented. Example with the model proposed is investigated. The creep functions is suggested by the model CEB MC90-99 and the "ACI 209R-92 model. The elastic modulus of concrete Ec(t) is assumed to be constant in time `t'. The obtained results from the both models are compared.

  2. Numerical analysis of composite STEEL-CONCRETE SECTIONS using integral equation of Volterra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partov, Doncho; Kantchev, Vesselin

    2011-09-01

    The paper presents analysis of the stress and deflections changes due to creep in statically determinate composite steel-concrete beam. The mathematical model involves the equation of equilibrium, compatibility and constitutive relationship, i.e. an elastic law for the steel part and an integral-type creep law of Boltzmann — Volterra for the concrete part. On the basis of the theory of the viscoelastic body of Arutyunian-Trost-Bažant for determining the redistribution of stresses in beam section between concrete plate and steel beam with respect to time "t", two independent Volterra integral equations of the second kind have been derived. Numerical method based on linear approximation of the singular kernal function in the integral equation is presented. Example with the model proposed is investigated. The creep functions is suggested by the model CEB MC90-99 and the "ACI 209R-92 model. The elastic modulus of concrete E c (t) is assumed to be constant in time `t'. The obtained results from the both models are compared.

  3. Deep mantle structure as a reference frame for movements in and on the Earth.

    PubMed

    Torsvik, Trond H; van der Voo, Rob; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Burke, Kevin; Steinberger, Bernhard; Ashwal, Lewis D; Trønnes, Reidar G; Webb, Susan J; Bull, Abigail L

    2014-06-17

    Earth's residual geoid is dominated by a degree-2 mode, with elevated regions above large low shear-wave velocity provinces on the core-mantle boundary beneath Africa and the Pacific. The edges of these deep mantle bodies, when projected radially to the Earth's surface, correlate with the reconstructed positions of large igneous provinces and kimberlites since Pangea formed about 320 million years ago. Using this surface-to-core-mantle boundary correlation to locate continents in longitude and a novel iterative approach for defining a paleomagnetic reference frame corrected for true polar wander, we have developed a model for absolute plate motion back to earliest Paleozoic time (540 Ma). For the Paleozoic, we have identified six phases of slow, oscillatory true polar wander during which the Earth's axis of minimum moment of inertia was similar to that of Mesozoic times. The rates of Paleozoic true polar wander (<1°/My) are compatible with those in the Mesozoic, but absolute plate velocities are, on average, twice as high. Our reconstructions generate geologically plausible scenarios, with large igneous provinces and kimberlites sourced from the margins of the large low shear-wave velocity provinces, as in Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. This absolute kinematic model suggests that a degree-2 convection mode within the Earth's mantle may have operated throughout the entire Phanerozoic. PMID:24889632

  4. Deep mantle structure as a reference frame for movements in and on the Earth

    PubMed Central

    Torsvik, Trond H.; van der Voo, Rob; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Burke, Kevin; Steinberger, Bernhard; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Webb, Susan J.; Bull, Abigail L.

    2014-01-01

    Earth’s residual geoid is dominated by a degree-2 mode, with elevated regions above large low shear-wave velocity provinces on the core–mantle boundary beneath Africa and the Pacific. The edges of these deep mantle bodies, when projected radially to the Earth’s surface, correlate with the reconstructed positions of large igneous provinces and kimberlites since Pangea formed about 320 million years ago. Using this surface-to-core–mantle boundary correlation to locate continents in longitude and a novel iterative approach for defining a paleomagnetic reference frame corrected for true polar wander, we have developed a model for absolute plate motion back to earliest Paleozoic time (540 Ma). For the Paleozoic, we have identified six phases of slow, oscillatory true polar wander during which the Earth’s axis of minimum moment of inertia was similar to that of Mesozoic times. The rates of Paleozoic true polar wander (<1°/My) are compatible with those in the Mesozoic, but absolute plate velocities are, on average, twice as high. Our reconstructions generate geologically plausible scenarios, with large igneous provinces and kimberlites sourced from the margins of the large low shear-wave velocity provinces, as in Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. This absolute kinematic model suggests that a degree-2 convection mode within the Earth’s mantle may have operated throughout the entire Phanerozoic. PMID:24889632

  5. Deep Mantle Structure As a Reference Frame for Absolute Plate Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsvik, T. H.; Van Der Voo, R.; Doubrovine, P. V.; Burke, K. C.; Steinberger, B. M.; Domeier, M.

    2014-12-01

    Since the Pangea supercontinent formed some 320 million years ago, the majority of large igneous provinces and diamond-bearing rocks (kimberlites) near Earth's surface can be sourced to plumes erupting from the margins of two large thermochemical reservoirs at the core-mantle boundary. Using this surface to core-mantle boundary correlation to locate continents in longitude and a new iterative approach for defining a paleomagnetic reference frame corrected for true polar wander, we present a model for plate motion back to earliest Paleozoic time (540 Ma). We have identified six phases of slow, oscillatory true polar wander during the Paleozoic. True polar wander rates (<1 Degree/Myr) are compatible to those in the Mesozoic but plate velocities are on average twice as high. We show that a geologically reasonable model that reconstructs continents in longitude in such a way that large igneous provinces and kimberlites are positioned above the plume generation zones at the times of their formation can be successfully applied to the entire Phanerozoic. Our model is a kinematic model for only the continents. The next step in improving it will be developing a model for the entire lithosphere, including synthetic oceanic lithosphere. This is challenging, but we will demonstrate a full-plate model back to the Late Paleozoic (410 Ma).

  6. Semiactive Control Using MR Dampers of a Frame Structure under Seismic Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Gattulli, Vincenzo; Lepidi, Marco; Potenza, Francesco; Carneiro, Rubia

    2008-07-08

    The paper approaches the multifaceted task of semiactively controlling the seismic response of a prototypal building model, through interstorey bracings embedding magnetorheological dampers. The control strategy is based on a synthetic discrete model, purposely formulated in a reduced space of significant dynamic variables, and consistently updated to match the modal properties identified from the experimental response of the modeled physical structure. The occurrence of a known eccentricity in the mass distribution, breaking the structural symmetry, is also considered. The dissipative action of two magnetorheological dampers is governed by a clipped-optimal control strategy. The dampers are positioned in order to deliver two eccentric and independent forces, acting on the first-storey displacements. This set-up allows the mitigation of the three-dimensional motion arising when monodirectional ground motion is imposed on the non-symmetric structure. Numerical investigations on the model response to natural accelerograms are presented. The effectiveness of the control strategy is discussed through synthetic performance indexes.

  7. Analysis and design of an ice wall framing system for an arctic drilling structure

    SciTech Connect

    Schlechten, J.R.; Bivens, H.R.; Dolan, D.K.; Fernandes, R.L.

    1984-05-01

    The exterior shell of a concrete base structure for an arctic oil drilling platform must be designed to resist extremely high local ice pressures. Stringent draft criteria for deployment of these structures in shallow waters require that the exterior shells, commonly called ice walls, have minimal weight in conjunction with maximum strength. These conflicting requirements are satisfactorily balanced by the selection of an arch shape on the interior face of the wall. This geometry induces arching action within the ice wall plate to resist ice loads in compression, thereby minimizing principal tension within the concrete. The development of principal tension in a concrete structure limits its ability to resist external forces. This paper describes the design of a prestressed concrete ice wall which satisfies these load, weight, and material constraints.

  8. Quasar Structure Effects on the VLBI Reference Frame: The Case of 1144 - 379

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabala, S.; Titov, O.; Lovell, J.; McCallum, J.; Blanchard, J.; Watson, C.; Dickey, J.

    2012-12-01

    The structure and variability of quasars used in geodetic VLBI has a significant impact on geodetic solutions. We investigate these effects in the case of ICRF2 quasar 1144 - 379. We find that the precision of geodetic solutions is directly related to the multi-frequency temporal variability in the quasar flux density. Worst solutions are found when the quasar is observed at different evolutionary stages at S and X-bands; this introduces significant error into ionospheric corrections. Our results suggests that quasar variability can be more important than quasar structure. Accurate calibration of IVS amplitude data is crucial for mitigation of these effects.

  9. Sub structure on-line tests on braced frames with self-returning joint mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-hyouk; Ohi, Kenichi

    2006-03-01

    A Ni-Ti-Co alloy exhibits shape memory effect, pseudo-elasticity, and these transition properties depending on the temperature when used. This paper examined a first-step application of such an alloy to an earthquake resistant structural system by making and testing a pseudo-elastic bracing system. Substructure pseudo-dynamic tests were performed to examine the behavior of pseudo-elastic bracing system during an earthquake when combined with fictitious hysteretic dampers. A pseudo-elastic bracing system is better to be used with other hysteretic elements such as a hysteretic damper. A damper provides energy dissipation within small displacement levels, and a pseudo-elastic bracing system works in turn as a back-up/fail-safe system when an accidental failure of damper or damper interface occurs, and also it helps to pull back the structure to the original position by uninstalling the damper after earthquake.

  10. Framing the structural role of mathematics in physics lectures: A case study on electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Physics education research has shown that students tend to struggle when trying to use mathematics in a meaningful way in physics (e.g., mathematizing a physical situation or making sense of equations). Concerning the possible reasons for these difficulties, little attention has been paid to the way mathematics is treated in physics instruction. Starting from an overall distinction between a technical approach, which involves an instrumental (tool-like) use of mathematics, and a structural one, focused on reasoning about the physical world mathematically, the goal of this study is to characterize the development of the latter in didactic contexts. For this purpose, a case study was conducted on the electromagnetism course given by a distinguished physics professor. The analysis of selected teaching episodes with the software Videograph led to the identification of a set of categories that describe different strategies used by the professor to emphasize the structural role of mathematics in his lectures. As a consequence of this research, an analytic tool to enable future comparative studies between didactic approaches regarding the way mathematics is treated in physics teaching is provided.

  11. Experimental study on semi-active control of frame-shear wall eccentric structure using MR dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiu Ling, Sr.; Li, Hong Nan, Sr.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) damper is a kind of intelligent actuator, which shows immense potential in the field of structural vibration control. The construction and mechanical behavior of MR damper are introduced firstly, and then a new mechanical model--double sigmoid model is proposed based on the experimental study of MR damper. The simulation system of the 3-floor frame-shear wall eccentric structure with MR dampers was built according to the coupled translation and torsion response control using MR damper, based on Matlab/Simulink software environment and hardware/software resources of dSPACE. The shaking table experiment of the structural model was implemented by using rapid control prototyping (RCP) technology. The validity of two passive control strategies and one semi-active control strategy is verified under three input earthquake excitation with different peak value. The experimental results show that the coupled translation and torsion response is significantly mitigated, and the semi-active control strategies can achieve higher performance levels as compared to those of the two passive control cases. Moreover, the location of the MR damper has an important effect on the control results.

  12. Structural analysis and evolution of the Hadong-Sancheong-Hwagae area in the Yeongnam massif, Korea: a NS-trend tectonic frame in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deok-Seon, Lee; Ji-Hoon, Kang

    2016-04-01

    The Hadong-Sancheong-Hwagae area in the Jirisan province of the Yeongnam massif, Korea, is mainly composed of Precambrian Hadong anorthosite complex (HAC), Precambrian Jirisan metamorphic rock complex (JMRC), Jurassic˜Triassic granitoids which intrude them, and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which unconformably cover them. Lithofacies distribution and tectonic frame of the Precambrian constituent rocks mainly show a NS trend, unlike a general NE trend of those in the Korean Peninsula. To unravel the geological structures associated with the NS-trend tectonic frame which was built in the HAC and JMRC, we researched the structural characteristics of each deformation phase based on the geometric and kinematic features and the forming sequence of rock structures of the multi-deformed HAC and JMRC. The results indicate that the pre-Late Paleozoic geological structures of this area were formed at least through the following three times of ductile deformation phases. The D1 deformation happened due to the large-scale top-to-the SE shearing, and formed sheath or A-type folds and a regional NE trend of tectonic frame in the HAC and JMRC. The D2 deformation occurred under the EW-directed tectonic compression, and formed a regional NS trend of active and passive folds and Hadong ductile shear zone over 2.3˜1.4 km width, and transposed most of D1 tectonic frame into D1-2 composite tectonic frame. The extensive Hadong shear zone, which was formed in the mylonitization process accompanying the passive folding, was persistently developed along the eastern boundary of HAC and JMRC which corresponds to a limb of passive fold on a geological map scale. It produced a very strong mylonitic structure and stretching lineation. The NE-trend D1 structural elements were mainly reoriented into NS trend by the powerful active and passive folding. The D3 deformation occurred under the NS-trend tectonic compression environment, and formed EW-trend kink or open folds, and partially rearranged

  13. Frame for a firearm

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2008-03-04

    A firearm frame which is adapted to be disposed in operative relationship as a component part of a firearm, the firearm having disposed in operative relationships each with one or more of the others, a barrel, a receiver, and at least one firing mechanism; wherein the barrel and receiver form operative parts of a movable assembly and the at least one firing mechanism is disposed in a substantially stationary operative relationship therewith; the firearm frame including at least one elongated support structure discrete from the barrel and receiver, the elongated support structure being adapted to directly support the movable assembly in an operative movable relationship therewith; whereby at least one of the barrel and receiver is in direct contact with and movable on the elongated support structure; and, a firing mechanism support structure connected to the at least one elongated support structure, the firing mechanism support structure being adapted to have the firing mechanism connected thereto; the firearm frame also directly supporting the movable assembly and the firing mechanism in corresponding movable and stationary operative relationships each with the other.

  14. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  15. The urease structural gene ureA in Rhizobium meliloti is preceded by an open reading frame necessary for urease activity.

    PubMed

    Miksch, G

    1994-12-01

    An open reading frame (ORF1) located upstream of the urease structural gene ureA in Rhizobium meliloti strain AK631 was cloned and characterized by DNA sequencing. Comparison of the amino acid sequence revealed partial homology with the urease accessory gene ureD of Klebsiella aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis. Mutational analysis of ORF1 showed that the gene is necessary for urease activity. Its function is still unknown. PMID:7813887

  16. Mars Science Laboratory Frame Manager for Centralized Frame Tree Database and Target Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Leger, Chris; Peters, Stephen; Carsten, Joseph; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The FM (Frame Manager) flight software module is responsible for maintaining the frame tree database containing coordinate transforms between frames. The frame tree is a proper tree structure of directed links, consisting of surface and rover subtrees. Actual frame transforms are updated by their owner. FM updates site and saved frames for the surface tree. As the rover drives to a new area, a new site frame with an incremented site index can be created. Several clients including ARM and RSM (Remote Sensing Mast) update their related rover frames that they own. Through the onboard centralized FM frame tree database, client modules can query transforms between any two frames. Important applications include target image pointing for RSM-mounted cameras and frame-referenced arm moves. The use of frame tree eliminates cumbersome, error-prone calculations of coordinate entries for commands and thus simplifies flight operations significantly.

  17. Nonlinear analysis of spatial framed structures by a lumped plasticity model based on the Haar-Kàrmàn principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Fabio; Mazza, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    A lumped plasticity model is proposed for the nonlinear static and dynamic analyses of three-dimensional reinforced concrete (r.c.) frames. A bilinear moment-curvature law and an interaction surface axial force-biaxial bending moment are considered. The nonlinear dynamic analysis is performed using a two-parameter implicit integration scheme and an initial-stress like iterative strategy, adopting the Haar-Kàrmàn principle. As a preliminary, two cantilever steel beams, one with box-section and one with tubular section, are used for validating the proposed model under monotonic and cyclic loadings. Moreover single-storey r.c. three-dimensional frames, with square and rectangular cross-sections, subjected to bi-directional ground motions, are assumed as test structures for studying the sensitivity of the model to changes in strength and stiffness input parameters. Comparisons with more refined fibre models prove the reliability of the proposed model.

  18. Fatigue experience from tests carried out with forged beam and frame structures in the development of the Saab aircraft Viggen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    A part of the lower side of the main wing at the joint of the main spar with the fuselage frame was investigated. This wing beam area was simulated by a test specimen consisting of a spar boom of AZ 74 forging (7075 aluminum alloy modified with 0.3 percent Ag) and a portion of a honeycomb sandwich panel attached to the boom flange with steel bolts. The cross section was reduced to half scale. However, the flange thickness, the panel height, and the bolt size were full scale. Further, left and right portions of the fuselage frame intended to carry over the bending moment of the main wing were tested. Each of these frame halves consisted of a forward and a rear forging (7079 aluminum alloy, overaged) connected by an outer and inner skin (Alclad 7075) creating a box beam. These test specimens were full scale and were constructed principally of ordinary aircraft components. The test load spectrum was common to both types of specimens with regard to percentage levels. It consisted of maneuver and gust loads, touchdown loads, and loads due to ground roughness. A load history of 200 hours of flight with 15,000 load cycles was punched on a tape. The loads were randomized in groups according to the flight-by-flight principle. The highest positive load level was 90 percent of limit load and the largest negative load was -27 percent. A total of 20 load levels were used. Both types of specimens were provided with strain gages and had a nominal stress of about 300 MN/sq m in some local areas. As a result of the tests, steps were taken to reduce the risk of fatigue damage in aircraft. Thus stress levels were lowered, radii were increased, and demands on surface finish were sharpened.

  19. Efficient Restoration of the Dystrophin Gene Reading Frame and Protein Structure in DMD Myoblasts Using the CinDel Method.

    PubMed

    Iyombe-Engembe, Jean-Paul; Ouellet, Dominique L; Barbeau, Xavier; Rousseau, Joël; Chapdelaine, Pierre; Lagüe, Patrick; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a great revolution in biology. This technology allows the modification of genes in vitro and in vivo in a wide variety of living organisms. In most Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, expression of dystrophin (DYS) protein is disrupted because exon deletions result in a frame shift. We present here the CRISPR-induced deletion (CinDel), a new promising genome-editing technology to correct the DMD gene. This strategy is based on the use of two gRNAs targeting specifically exons that precede and follow the patient deletion in the DMD gene. This pair of gRNAs induced a precise large additional deletion leading to fusion of the targeted exons. Using an adequate pair of gRNAs, the deletion of parts of these exons and the intron separating them restored the DMD reading frame in 62% of the hybrid exons in vitro in DMD myoblasts and in vivo in electroporated hDMD/mdx mice. Moreover, adequate pairs of gRNAs also restored the normal spectrin-like repeat of the dystrophin rod domain; such restoration is not obtained by exon skipping or deletion of complete exons. The expression of an internally deleted DYS protein was detected following the formation of myotubes by the unselected, treated DMD myoblasts. Given that CinDel induces permanent reparation of the DMD gene, this treatment would not have to be repeated as it is the case for exon skipping induced by oligonucleotides. PMID:26812655

  20. Seismic fragility assessment of RC frame structure designed according to modern Chinese code for seismic design of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D.; Tesfamariam, S.; Stiemer, S. F.; Qin, D.

    2012-09-01

    Following several damaging earthquakes in China, research has been devoted to find the causes of the collapse of reinforced concrete (RC) building sand studying the vulnerability of existing buildings. The Chinese Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (CCSDB) has evolved over time, however, there is still reported earthquake induced damage of newly designed RC buildings. Thus, to investigate modern Chinese seismic design code, three low-, mid- and high-rise RC frames were designed according to the 2010 CCSDB and the corresponding vulnerability curves were derived by computing a probabilistic seismic demand model (PSDM).The PSDM was computed by carrying out nonlinear time history analysis using thirty ground motions obtained from the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Finally, the PSDM was used to generate fragility curves for immediate occupancy, significant damage, and collapse prevention damage levels. Results of the vulnerability assessment indicate that the seismic demands on the three different frames designed according to the 2010 CCSDB meet the seismic requirements and are almost in the same safety level.

  1. Popcorn Story Frames from a Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLella, Carol Ann

    Popcorn story frames from a multicultural perspective are holistic outlines that in the reading/writing process facilitate comprehension for all cultures learning to read and write stories. Popcorn story frames are structured and modeled in a horizontal fashion just like popcorn pops in a horizontal fashion. The frames are designed for learners…

  2. Ethical considerations for a better collaboration between architects and structural engineers: design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems in earthquake zones.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca

    2014-06-01

    Architects design building structures, although structural design is the profession of structural engineers. Thus, it is better for architects and structural engineers to collaborate starting from the initial phases of the architectural design. However, this is not very common because of the contradictory design processes and value systems held within the two professions. This article provides a platform upon which architects and structural engineers can resolve the value conflicts between them by analysing phases of the structural design of reinforced concrete frame systems in architecture, the criteria of the structural design for each phase and determining the conflicting values for each criterion. The results shown in the article demonstrate that the architectural design of structures is a complex process, which is based on contradictory values and value systems. Finally, the article suggests to architects and structural engineers to use Value Sensitive Design and to choose an appropriate team leader in order to resolve the unethical conflict between them and to avoid any unreasonable decision making. PMID:23700122

  3. Thirty Frames per Second

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Analyzing real motion with frame-by-frame precision can be conducted using modestly priced digital-video camcorders. Although well below the 1,000 frames-per-second threshold of high-speed cameras, commercially available camcorders grab 30 frames per second. A replay dissected at this lower frequency is fun to watch, challenges students'…

  4. Classroom Discourse Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.

    An analysis of classroom discourse proposes four frames, modeled as concentric circles. The inner most circle is the lesson frame, removed or sheltered from outside influences and most likely, in a language class, to maintain second-language usage. The next frame from the center is the lesson-support frame, an intermediate layer of classroom…

  5. Fabric panel clean change-out frame

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ronald M.

    1995-01-31

    A fabric panel clean change-out frame, for use on a containment structure having rigid walls, is formed of a compression frame and a closure panel. The frame is formed of elongated spacers, each carrying a plurality of closely spaced flat springs, and each having a hooked lip extending on the side of the spring facing the spacer. The closure panel is includes a perimeter frame formed of flexible, wedge-shaped frame members that are receivable under the springs to deflect the hooked lips. A groove on the flexible frame members engages the hooked lips and locks the frame members in place under the springs. A flexible fabric panel is connected to the flexible frame members and closes its center.

  6. Automating Frame Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Franklin, Lyndsey; Tratz, Stephen C.; Danielson, Gary R.; Mileson, Nicholas D.; Riensche, Roderick M.; McGrath, Liam

    2008-04-01

    Frame Analysis has come to play an increasingly stronger role in the study of social movements in Sociology and Political Science. While significant steps have been made in providing a theory of frames and framing, a systematic characterization of the frame concept is still largely lacking and there are no rec-ognized criteria and methods that can be used to identify and marshal frame evi-dence reliably and in a time and cost effective manner. Consequently, current Frame Analysis work is still too reliant on manual annotation and subjective inter-pretation. The goal of this paper is to present an approach to the representation, acquisition and analysis of frame evidence which leverages Content Analysis, In-formation Extraction and Semantic Search methods to provide a systematic treat-ment of a Frame Analysis and automate frame annotation.

  7. Identification of member connectivity and mass changes on a two-storey framed structure using frequency response functions and artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dackermann, Ulrike; Li, Jianchun; Samali, Bijan

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a structural health monitoring (SHM) technique that utilises pattern changes in frequency response functions (FRFs) as input parameters for a system of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to assess the structural condition of a structure. To verify the proposed method, it is applied to numerical and experimental models of a two-storey framed structure, on which structural damage is induced by member connectivity and mass changes, respectively. For the numerical structure, simulated time-history data are polluted with various levels of white Gaussian noise in order to realistically represent field-testing conditions. As a damage indicator, residual FRFs are used, which are derived by calculating the differences in FRF data between the undamaged/baseline structure and the structure with changed joint conditions or added mass. To obtain suitable patterns for neural network training, principal component analysis (PCA) techniques are adopted to reduce the size of the residual FRF data and to filter noise. A hierarchical system of individual ANNs, termed network ensemble, is then trained to map changes in PCA-reduced residual FRFs to damage conditions. The results obtained for both damage investigations, namely joint damage and mass changes, demonstrate that the proposed SHM technique is accurate and reliable in assessing the condition of the test structure numerically and experimentally based on direct FRF measurements and network ensemble analysis. From the outcomes of the individual networks, it is found that the proposed hierarchical network ensemble approach is highly efficient in filtering poor results of underperforming networks obtained from measurement locations with low damage sensitivity.

  8. The Architecture and Dynamics of Developing Mind: Experiential Structuralism as a Frame for Unifying Cognitive Developmental Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriou, Andreas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents a theory of cognitive development that postulates a general cognitive processing system, a hypercognitive system governing self-regulation, and specialized structural systems responsible for processing different reality domains. Suggests five principles that serve as organizational pivots of developing cognition. Reports the results of…

  9. Non-local physics: Applications from the universe evolution to the atom structure in the frame of the unified theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, B. V.

    2013-10-01

    The main principles of the non-local physics are delivered. The unified theory of transport processes is applicable to the physical systems in tremendous diapason of scales - from atom structures to the Universe evolution. The origin of difficulties connected with the hypothetical dark matter and dark energy consists in the total Oversimplification following from the principles of local physics and reflects the general shortcomings of the local kinetic transport theory.

  10. Evidence that aerodynamic effects, including dynamic stall, dictate HAWT structural loads and power generation in highly transient time frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, D. E.; Miller, M. S.; Robinson, M. C.; Luttges, M. W.; Simms, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.

  11. Evidence that aerodynamic effects, including dynamic stall, dictate HAWT structural loads and power generation in highly transient time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, D.E.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Simms, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.

  12. Strategy and Issue Frames in Election Campaign Coverage: A Social Cognitive Account of Framing Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, June Woong

    1997-01-01

    Examines how news frames in campaign coverage affect an individual's interpretation of campaigns. Conceptualizes framing effects in terms of a construction of a mental model and emphasizes how news interpretation is influenced by news texts and by interpreter's social knowledge. Explores message structures of the strategy and issue frames, and…

  13. Frame Dominance in Infants with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hapsburg, Deborah; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: According to the frames then content (f/c) hypothesis (P. F. MacNeilage & B. L. Davis, 1990), the internal structure of syllables with consonant plus vowel structure (CV) during canonical babbling is determined primarily by production system properties related to rhythmic mandibular oscillations ("motor frames"). The purpose of this study…

  14. Space-Frame Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The space-frame lunar lander was originally intended to (1) land on rough lunar terrain, (2) deform itself to conform to the terrain so as to be able to remain there in a stable position and orientation, and (3) if required, further deform itself to perform various functions. In principle, the space-frame lunar lander could be used in the same way on Earth, as might be required, for example, to place meteorological sensors or a radio-communication relay station on an otherwise inaccessible mountain peak. the space-frame lunar lander would include a truss-like structure consisting mostly of a tetrahedral mesh of nodes connected by variable-length struts, the lengths of which would be altered in coordination to impart the desired overall size and shape to the structure. Thrusters (that is, small rocket engines), propellant tanks, a control system, and instrumentation would be mounted in and on the structure (see figure). Once it had landed and deformed itself to the terrain through coordinated variations in the lengths of the struts, the structure could be further deformed into another space-frame structure

  15. Adding HDLC Framing to CCSDS Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Current Space IP missions use High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) framing to provide standard serial link interfaces over a space link. HDLC is the standard framing technique used by all routers over clock and data serial lines and is also the basic framing used in all Frame Relay services which are widely deployed in national and international communication networks. In late 2003 a presentation was made to CCSDS committees to initiate discussion on including HDLC in the CCSDS recommendations for space systems. This presentation will summarize the differences between variable length HDLC frames and fixed length CCSDS frames. It will also discuss where and how HDLC framing would fit into the overall CCSDS structures.

  16. Technological Frame Incongruence, Diffusion, and Noncompliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobreperez, Polly

    The technological frames of reference strand of social shaping of technology theory is used to overlay the issues arising from a case study looking at noncompliance with information systems. A recent review of the theory suggests that although frame content is often addressed, frame structure, the process of framing, and the characteristics and outcomes of frames are largely overlooked. This paper attempts to address this shortfall by applying the indicators identified by case study research to the frames of different groups and using them to highlight differing perceptions and attitudes. In this way, the author suggests that issues surrounding noncompliance should not be dismissed as resistance but instead should be further studied by managers and developers, leading to accommodation of differing views. Further examination of frame incongruence reveals dependence on inefficient or ineffective organizational situations and thus these indicators can be useful in future studies to identify and address procedural, acceptance and cultural issues leading to acts of noncompliance.

  17. Cracking in Concrete near Joints in Steelconcrete Composite Slab / Zarysowanie Płyty Żelbetowej W Strefie Przywęzłowej Stropu Zespolonego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedośpiał, Marcin; Knauff, Michał; Barcewicz, Wioleta

    2015-03-01

    In this paper results of the experimental tests of four full-scale composite steel-concrete elements are reported. In the steel-concrete composite elements, a steel beam was connected with a slab cast on profiled sheeting, by shear studs. The end-plates were (the thickness of 8 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm) thinner than in ordinary design. Joints between the column and the beams have been designed as semi-rigid, i.e. the deformations of endplates affect the distribution of forces in the adjacent parts of the slab. The paper presents the theory of cracking in reinforced concrete and steel-concrete composite members (according to the codes), view of crack pattern on the surface of the slabs and a comparison of the tests results and the code calculations. It was observed, that some factors influencing on crack widths are not taken in Eurocode 4 (which is based on Eurocode 2 with taking into account the phenomenon called "tension stiffening"). W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań czterech elementów zespolonych. Kształtownik stalowy połączony był z betonowym stropem wykonanym na blasze fałdowej. W modelu zastosowano cienkie blachy czołowe (o grubości 8 mm, 10 mm i 12 mm), cieńsze niż zwykle przyjmowane w praktyce projektowej. Połączenie to zaprojektowano jako podatne tzn. takie, w którym odkształcenia blach czołowych mają istotny wpływ na rozkład sił w połączeniu. Przedstawiono normową teorię dotyczącą zarysowania elementów żelbetowych i zespolonych, obraz zarysowania stropu oraz porównano otrzymane wyniki z obliczeniami wykonanymi wg aktualnych norm. Zauważono, iż nie wszystkie czynniki obliczania szerokości rys w konstrukcjach zespolonych są zdefiniowane w normie projektowania konstrukcji zespolonych (która w tej kwestii odwołuje się do normy projektowania konstrukcji żelbetowych z uwzględnieniem zjawiska "tension stiffening").

  18. Effects of topographic position and geology on shaking damage to residential wood-framed structures during the 2003 San Simeon earthquake, western San Luis obispo county, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrink, T.P.; Wills, C.J.; Real, C.R.; Manson, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical evaluation of shaking damage to wood-framed houses caused by the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake indicates that both the rate and severity of damage, independent of structure type, are significantly greater on hilltops compared to hill slopes when underlain by Cretaceous or Tertiary sedimentary rocks. This increase in damage is interpreted to be the result of topographic amplification. An increase in the damage rate is found for all structures built on Plio-Pleistocene rocks independent of topographic position, and this is interpreted to be the result of amplified shaking caused by geologic site response. Damage rate and severity to houses built on Tertiary rocks suggest that amplification due to both topographic position and geologic site response may be occurring in these rocks, but effects from other topographic parameters cannot be ruled out. For all geologic and topographic conditions, houses with raised foundations are more frequently damaged than those with slab foundations. However, the severity of damage to houses on raised foundations is only significantly greater for those on hill slopes underlain by Tertiary rocks. Structures with some damage-resistant characteristics experienced greater damage severity on hilltops, suggesting a spectral response to topographic amplification. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  19. Forced Evolution Reveals the Importance of Short Open Reading Frame A and Secondary Structure in the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S RNA Leader

    PubMed Central

    Pooggin, Mikhail M.; Hohn, Thomas; Fütterer, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    Cauliflower mosaic virus pregenomic 35S RNA begins with a long leader sequence containing an extensive secondary structure and up to nine short open reading frames (sORFs), 2 to 35 codons in length. To test whether any of these sORFs are required for virus viability, their start codons were mutated either individually or in various combinations. The resulting viral mutants were tested for infectivity on mechanically inoculated turnip plants. Viable mutants were passaged several times, and the stability of the introduced mutations was analyzed by PCR amplification and sequencing. Mutations at the 5′-proximal sORF A and in the center of the leader resulted in delayed symptom development and in the appearance of revertants. In the central leader region, the predicted secondary structure, rather than the sORF organization, was restored, while true reversions or second-site substitutions in response to mutations of sORF A restored this sORF. Involvement of sORF A and secondary structure of the leader in the virus replication cycle, and especially in translation of the 35S RNA via ribosome shunting, is discussed. PMID:9557705

  20. Pyramidal space frame and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Ryan Michael; White, David; Farr, Jr, Adrian Lawrence

    2016-07-19

    A space frame having a high torsional strength comprising a first square bipyramid and two planar structures extending outward from an apex of the first square bipyramid to form a "V" shape is disclosed. Some embodiments comprise a plurality of edge-sharing square bipyramids configured linearly, where the two planar structures contact apexes of all the square bipyramids. A plurality of bridging struts, apex struts, corner struts and optional internal bracing struts increase the strength and rigidity of the space frame. In an embodiment, the space frame supports a solar reflector, such as a parabolic solar reflector. Methods of fabricating and using the space frames are also disclosed.

  1. Short Time Impulse Response Function (STIRF) for automatic evaluation of the variation of the dynamic parameters of reinforced concrete framed structures during strong earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco

    2015-04-01

    the results provided in this study, the methodology seems to be able to evaluate fast variations (over time) of dynamic parameters of a generic reinforced concrete framed structure. Further analyses are necessary to better calibrate the length of the moving time-window (in order to minimize the spurious frequency within each Interferometric Response Function evaluated on both weak and strong motion phases) and to verify the possibility to use the STIRF to analyse the nonlinear behaviour of general systems. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department within the project DPC-RELUIS 2014 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and health monitoring''. References R. Ditommaso, F.C. Ponzo (2015). Automatic evaluation of the fundamental frequency variations and related damping factor of reinforced concrete framed structures using the Short Time Impulse Response Function (STIRF). Engineering Structures, 82 (2015), 104-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.10.023.

  2. Design the Cost Approach in Trade-Off's for Structural Components, Illustrated on the Baseline Selection of the Engine Thrust Frame of Ariane 5 ESC-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appolloni, L.; Juhls, A.; Rieck, U.

    2002-01-01

    Designing for value is one of the very actual upcoming methods for design optimization, which broke into the domain of aerospace engineering in the late 90's. In the frame of designing for value two main design philosophies exist: Design For Cost and Design To Cost. Design To Cost is the iterative redesign of a project until the content of the project meets a given budget. Designing For Cost is the conscious use of engineering process technology to reduce life cycle cost while satisfying, and hopefully exceeding, customer demands. The key to understanding cost, and hence to reducing cost, is the ability to measure cost accurately and to allocate it appropriately to products. Only then can intelligent decisions be made. Therefore the necessity of new methods as "Design For Value" or "Design For Competitiveness", set up with a generally multidisciplinary approach to find an optimized technical solution driven by many parameters, depending on the mission scenario and the customer/market needs. Very often three, but not more than five parametric drivers are sufficient. The more variable exist, the higher is in fact the risk to find just a sub-optimized local and not the global optimum, and the less robust is the found solution against change of input parameters. When the main parameters for optimization have been identified, the system engineer has to communicate them to all design engineers, who shall take care of these assessment variables during the entire design and decision process. The design process which has taken to the definition of the feasible structural concepts for the Engine Thrust Frame of the Ariane 5 Upper Cryogenic Stage ESC-B follows these most actual design philosophy methodologies, and combines a design for cost approach, to a design to cost optimization loop. Ariane 5 is the first member of a family of heavy-lift launchers. It aims to evolve into a family of launchers that responds to the space transportation challenges of the 21st century. New

  3. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  4. A new frame-based registration algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, C. H.; Whalen, R. T.; Beaupre, G. S.; Sumanaweera, T. S.; Yen, S. Y.; Napel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for frame registration. Our algorithm requires only that the frame be comprised of straight rods, as opposed to the N structures or an accurate frame model required by existing algorithms. The algorithm utilizes the full 3D information in the frame as well as a least squares weighting scheme to achieve highly accurate registration. We use simulated CT data to assess the accuracy of our algorithm. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to two commonly used algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable to the best existing techniques with knowledge of the exact mathematical frame model. For CT data corrupted with an unknown in-plane rotation or translation, the proposed technique is also comparable to the best existing techniques. However, in situations where there is a discrepancy of more than 2 mm (0.7% of the frame dimension) between the frame and the mathematical model, the proposed technique is significantly better (p < or = 0.05) than the existing techniques. The proposed algorithm can be applied to any existing frame without modification. It provides better registration accuracy and is robust against model mis-match. It allows greater flexibility on the frame structure. Lastly, it reduces the frame construction cost as adherence to a concise model is not required.

  5. A new frame-based registration algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yan, C H; Whalen, R T; Beaupre, G S; Sumanaweera, T S; Yen, S Y; Napel, S

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for frame registration. Our algorithm requires only that the frame be comprised of straight rods, as opposed to the N structures or an accurate frame model required by existing algorithms. The algorithm utilizes the full 3D information in the frame as well as a least squares weighting scheme to achieve highly accurate registration. We use simulated CT data to assess the accuracy of our algorithm. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to two commonly used algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable to the best existing techniques with knowledge of the exact mathematical frame model. For CT data corrupted with an unknown in-plane rotation or translation, the proposed technique is also comparable to the best existing techniques. However, in situations where there is a discrepancy of more than 2 mm (0.7% of the frame dimension) between the frame and the mathematical model, the proposed technique is significantly better (p < or = 0.05) than the existing techniques. The proposed algorithm can be applied to any existing frame without modification. It provides better registration accuracy and is robust against model mis-match. It allows greater flexibility on the frame structure. Lastly, it reduces the frame construction cost as adherence to a concise model is not required. PMID:9472834

  6. Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A method for space frame synthesis based on the application of a full gamut of approximation concepts is presented. It is found that with the thoughtful selection of design space, objective function approximation, constraint approximation and mathematical programming problem formulation options it is possible to obtain near minimum mass designs for a significant class of space frame structural systems while requiring fewer than 10 structural analyses. Example problems are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for frame structures subjected to multiple static loading conditions with limits on structural stiffness and strength.

  7. Frame independent cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl

    2013-09-01

    We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.

  8. Pilotless Frame Synchronization Using LDPC Code Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christopher; Vissasenor, John

    2009-01-01

    A method of pilotless frame synchronization has been devised for low- density parity-check (LDPC) codes. In pilotless frame synchronization , there are no pilot symbols; instead, the offset is estimated by ex ploiting selected aspects of the structure of the code. The advantag e of pilotless frame synchronization is that the bandwidth of the sig nal is reduced by an amount associated with elimination of the pilot symbols. The disadvantage is an increase in the amount of receiver data processing needed for frame synchronization.

  9. CFTR mRNA expression is regulated by an upstream open reading frame and RNA secondary structure in its 5' untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Lukowski, Samuel W; Rothnagel, Joseph A; Trezise, Ann E O

    2015-02-15

    Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through 5' untranslated region (5'UTR)-encoded cis-acting elements is an important mechanism for the control of protein expression levels. Through controlling specific aspects of translation initiation, expression can be tightly regulated while remaining responsive to cellular requirements. With respect to cystic fibrosis (CF), the overexpression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein trafficking mutants, such as delta-F508, is of great biological and clinical interest. By understanding the post-transcriptional mechanisms that regulate CFTR expression, new procedures can be developed to enhance CFTR expression in homozygous delta-F508 CF patients. We have identified the key elements of a complex negative regulatory mechanism that is encoded within the human CFTR 5'UTR and show how these elements act in combination to restrict CFTR gene expression to a consistently low level in a transcript-specific manner. This study shows, for the first time, that endogenous human CFTR expression is post-transcriptionally regulated through a 5'UTR-mediated mechanism. We show that the very low levels of endogenous CFTR expression, compared with other low expression genes, are maintained through the co-operative inhibitory effects of an upstream open reading frame and a thermodynamically stable RNA secondary structure. PMID:25274779

  10. Dragging of inertial frames.

    PubMed

    Ciufolini, Ignazio

    2007-09-01

    The origin of inertia has intrigued scientists and philosophers for centuries. Inertial frames of reference permeate our daily life. The inertial and centrifugal forces, such as the pull and push that we feel when our vehicle accelerates, brakes and turns, arise because of changes in velocity relative to uniformly moving inertial frames. A classical interpretation ascribed these forces to acceleration relative to some absolute frame independent of the cosmological matter, whereas an opposite view related them to acceleration relative to all the masses and 'fixed stars' in the Universe. An echo and partial realization of the latter idea can be found in Einstein's general theory of relativity, which predicts that a spinning mass will 'drag' inertial frames along with it. Here I review the recent measurements of frame dragging using satellites orbiting Earth. PMID:17805287

  11. Covariance and the hierarchy of frame bundles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Frank B.

    1987-01-01

    This is an essay on the general concept of covariance, and its connection with the structure of the nested set of higher frame bundles over a differentiable manifold. Examples of covariant geometric objects include not only linear tensor fields, densities and forms, but affinity fields, sectors and sector forms, higher order frame fields, etc., often having nonlinear transformation rules and Lie derivatives. The intrinsic, or invariant, sets of forms that arise on frame bundles satisfy the graded Cartan-Maurer structure equations of an infinite Lie algebra. Reduction of these gives invariant structure equations for Lie pseudogroups, and for G-structures of various orders. Some new results are introduced for prolongation of structure equations, and for treatment of Riemannian geometry with higher-order moving frames. The use of invariant form equations for nonlinear field physics is implicitly advocated.

  12. Complex equiangular tight frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropp, Joel A.

    2005-08-01

    A complex equiangular tight frame (ETF) is a tight frame consisting of N unit vectors in Cd whose absolute inner products are identical. One may view complex ETFs as a natural geometric generalization of an orthonormal basis. Numerical evidence suggests that these objects do not arise for most pairs (d, N). The goal of this paper is to develop conditions on (d, N) under which complex ETFs can exist. In particular, this work concentrates on the class of harmonic ETFs, in which the components of the frame vectors are roots of unity. In this case, it is possible to leverage field theory to obtain stringent restrictions on the possible values for (d, N).

  13. Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  14. Behavior of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Tenbus, M.A.; Bennett, R.M.; Jamal, B.D.

    1992-09-21

    A review of current analytical methods for infilled frame behavior is conducted. A subset of these methods are applied to experimental results. Parametric studies are used to find the sensitivity of the behavior to various parameters. In-plane loading, out-of-plane inertial loading, out-of-plane interstory drift loading, and combined loadings are examined. Particular reference is made to clay tile infilled frames, and the behavior of clay tile in compression.

  15. Limit Analysis of Geometrically Hardening Composite Steel-Concrete Systems / Stany Graniczne Geometrycznie Wzmacniających Się Konstrukcji Zespolonych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawdin, Piotr; Urbańska, Krystyna

    2015-03-01

    The paper considers some results of creating load-carrying composite systems that have uprated strength, rigidity and safety, and therefore are called geometrically (self-) hardening systems. The optimization mathematic models of structures as discrete mechanical systems withstanding dead load, monotonic or low cyclic static and kinematic actions are proposed. To find limit parameters of these actions the extreme energetic principle is suggested what result in the bilevel mathematic programming problem statement. The limit parameters of load actions are found on the first level of optimization. On the second level the power of the constant load with equilibrium preloading is maximized and/or system cost is minimized. The examples of using the proposed methods are presented and geometrically hardening composite steel-concrete system are taken into account. W pracy przedstawiono sposoby projektowania konstrukcji, które ze względu na swoją geometrię oraz topologię posiadają podwyższoną nośność, sztywność i bezpieczeństwo. Systemy takie nazwano geometrycznie (samo-) wzmacniającymi się. Zaproponowano optymalizacyjne modele matematyczne konstrukcji jako dyskretne systemy mechaniczne będące pod obciążeniem stałym, zmiennym monotoniczne lub niskocyklowym, statycznym lub kinematycznym. Dla znalezienia granicznych parametrów obciążeń wprowadzona została ekstremalna zasada energetyczna, przedstawiona jako problem dwupoziomowego programowania matematycznego. Graniczne parametry obciążeń szukane są na pierwszym poziomie optymalizacji. Na drugim poziomie minimalizowany jest koszt systemu i/lub maksymalizowana jest moc stałego równoważącego obciążenia z dociążeniem. Ponadto w pracy przeanalizowano numerycznie i analitycznie zachowanie konstrukcji geometrycznie wzmacniających się na przykładzie konstrukcji zespolonych stalowobetonowych. Pierwszy przykład dotyczy konstrukcji belkowo-prętowej z podciągiem, belkę stanowi stalowy dwuteownik

  16. Effects of cement alkalinity, exposure conditions and steel-concrete interface on the time-to-corrosion and chloride threshold for reinforcing steel in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Jingak

    Effects of (1) cement alkalinity (low, normal and high), (2) exposure conditions (RH and temperature), (3) rebar surface condition (as-received versus cleaned) and (4) density and distribution of air voids at the steel-concrete interface on the chloride threshold and time-to-corrosion for reinforcing steel in concrete have been studied. Also, experiments were performed to evaluate effects of RH and temperature on the diffusion of chloride in concrete and develop a method for ex-situ pH measurement of concrete pore water. Once specimens were fabricated and exposed to a corrosive chloride solution, various experimental techniques were employed to determine time-to-corrosion, chloride threshold, diffusion coefficient and void density along the rebar trace as well as pore water pH. Based upon the resultant data, several findings related to the above parameters have been obtained as summarized below. First, time for the corrosion initiation was longest for G109 concrete specimens with high alkalinity cement (HA). Also, chloride threshold increased with increasing time-to-corrosion and cement alkalinity. Consequently, the HA specimens exhibited the highest chloride threshold compared to low and normal alkalinity ones. Second, high temperature and temperature variations reduced time-to-corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete since chloride diffusion was accelerated at higher temperature and possibly by temperature variations. The lowest chloride threshold values were found for outdoor exposed specimens suggesting that variation of RH or temperature (or both) facilitated rapid chloride diffusion. Third, an elevated time-to-corrosion and chloride threshold values were found for the wire brushed steel specimens compared to as-received ones. The higher ratio of [OH-]/[Fe n+] on the wire brushed steel surface compared to that of as-received case can be the possible cause because the higher ratio of this parameter enables the formation of a more protective passive film on

  17. From "Wiggly Structures" to "Unshaky Towers": Problem Framing, Solution Finding, and Negotiation of Courses of Actions During a Civil Engineering Unit for Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1995-01-01

    Investigated problem- and solution-related activity of (n=28) fourth and fifth graders in ill-defined and open-ended settings. In the course of their negotiations, students demonstrated an uncanny competence to frame and reframe problems and solutions and to decide courses of actions of different complexities in spite of the ambiguous nature of…

  18. Popcorn Story Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLella, Carol Ann

    This paper presents "popcorn story frames"--holistic outlines that facilitate comprehension when reading and writing stories, useful for outlining stories read and for creating outlines for original student stories--that are particularly useful for elementary and intermediate school students. "Popcorn" pops in a horizontal manner rather than in a…

  19. Aluminum space frame technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, S.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the increased application of aluminum to the construction of automobile frames. The topics of the article include a joint venture between Audi and Alcoa, forms in which aluminum is used, new alloys and construction methods, meeting rigidity and safety levels, manufacturing techniques, the use of extrusions, die casting, joining techniques, and pollution control during manufacturing.

  20. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  1. Target activated frame capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G. Marlon; Fitzgerald, James; McCormack, Michael; Steadman, Robert

    2008-04-01

    Over the past decade, technological advances have enabled the use of increasingly intelligent systems for battlefield surveillance. These systems are triggered by a combination of external devices including acoustic and seismic sensors. Such products are mainly used to detect vehicles and personnel. These systems often use infra-red imagery to record environmental information, but Textron Defense Systems' Terrain Commander is one of a small number of systems which analyze these images for the presence of targets. The Terrain Commander combines acoustic, infrared, magnetic, seismic, and visible spectrum sensors to detect nearby targets in military scenarios. When targets are detected by these sensors, the cameras are triggered and images are captured in the infrared and visible spectrum. In this paper we discuss a method through which such systems can perform target tracking in order to record and transmit only the most pertinent surveillance images. This saves bandwidth which is crucial because these systems often use communication systems with throughputs below 2400bps. This method is expected to be executable on low-power processors at frame rates exceeding 10HZ. We accomplish this by applying target activated frame capture algorithms to infra-red video data. The target activated frame capture algorithms combine edge detection and motion detection to determine the best frames to be transmitted to the end user. This keeps power consumption and bandwidth requirements low. Finally, the results of the algorithm are analyzed.

  2. Framing for Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Leema K.; Hammer, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, research on students' scientific argumentation has progressed to a recognition of nascent resources: Students can and do argue when they experience the need and possibility of persuading others who may hold competing views. Our purpose in this article is to contribute to this progress by applying the perspective of framing to the…

  3. Frame dragging and superenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Carot, J.

    2007-08-15

    We show that the vorticity appearing in stationary vacuum spacetimes is always related to the existence of a flow of superenergy on the plane orthogonal to the vorticity vector. This result, together with the previously established link between vorticity and superenergy in radiative (Bondi-Sachs) spacetimes, strengthens further the case for this latter quantity as the cause of frame dragging.

  4. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A.

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  5. 260 frames-per-second 648x488 resolution division-of-focal-plane polarimeter with structural dynamics and tracking applications.

    PubMed

    York, Timothy; Marinov, Radoslav; Gruev, Viktor

    2016-04-18

    We have designed an image sensor that can capture the first three Stokes parameters at 648 by 488 spatial resolution at 260 frames per second. The sensor consists of a CCD image sensor monolithically integrated with pixel pitch-matched aluminum nanowire polarization filters. The sensor demonstrates a Malus law response over all pixels, and has a relatively uniform diattenuation over the visible spectrum. We demonstrate two potential applications for the sensor. The first uses circular polarization in transmission mode to observe high-speed stress failure in polycarbonate. The second uses polarization in reflected mode to track high speed automobile traffic. PMID:27137263

  6. Nanosecond frame cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A M; Wilkins, P R

    2001-01-05

    The advent of CCD cameras and computerized data recording has spurred the development of several new cameras and techniques for recording nanosecond images. We have made a side by side comparison of three nanosecond frame cameras, examining them for both performance and operational characteristics. The cameras include; Micro-Channel Plate/CCD, Image Diode/CCD and Image Diode/Film; combinations of gating/data recording. The advantages and disadvantages of each device will be discussed.

  7. Recursive adaptive frame integration limited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-05-01

    Recursive Frame Integration Limited was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed for conventional frame integration. The technique applies two thresholds - one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate - and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration Limited is proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration.

  8. Electrically insulating and sealing frame

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Robin J.

    1983-11-08

    A combination gas seal and electrical insulator having a closed frame shape interconnects a fuel cell stack and a reactant gas plenum of a fuel cell generator. The frame can be of rectangular shape including at least one slidable spline connection in each side to permit expansion or contraction consistent with that of the walls of the gas plenum and fuel cell stack. The slidable spline connections in the frame sides minimizes lateral movement between the frame side members and sealing material interposed between the frame and the fuel cell stack or between the frame and the reactant gas plenum.

  9. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  10. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-04-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.

  11. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  12. The Levels of Visual Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Lulu; Dimitrova, Daniela V.

    2011-01-01

    While framing research has centered mostly on the evaluations of media texts, visual news discourse has remained relatively unexamined. This study surveys the visual framing techniques and methods employed in previous studies and proposes a four-tiered model of identifying and analyzing visual frames: (1) visuals as denotative systems, (2) visuals…

  13. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. PMID:26970853

  14. Frame architecture for video servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatramani, Chitra; Kienzle, Martin G.

    1999-11-01

    Video is inherently frame-oriented and most applications such as commercial video processing require to manipulate video in terms of frames. However, typical video servers treat videos as byte streams and perform random access based on approximate byte offsets to be supplied by the client. They do not provide frame or timecode oriented API which is essential for many applications. This paper describes a frame-oriented architecture for video servers. It also describes the implementation in the context of IBM's VideoCharger server. The later part of the paper describes an application that uses the frame architecture and provides fast and slow-motion scanning capabilities to the server.

  15. The Frame Game: A Flexible Conversation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Carl

    The Frame Game is a second language conversation activity that allows instructors to determine the content. The activity provides a structure for communication between students and adapts easily to almost any topic. The basic version of the game has been adapted from a management training activity, and is presented along with several variations…

  16. Scarcity frames value.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anuj K; Shafir, Eldar; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2015-04-01

    Economic models of decision making assume that people have a stable way of thinking about value. In contrast, psychology has shown that people's preferences are often malleable and influenced by normatively irrelevant contextual features. Whereas economics derives its predictions from the assumption that people navigate a world of scarce resources, recent psychological work has shown that people often do not attend to scarcity. In this article, we show that when scarcity does influence cognition, it renders people less susceptible to classic context effects. Under conditions of scarcity, people focus on pressing needs and recognize the trade-offs that must be made against those needs. Those trade-offs frame perception more consistently than irrelevant contextual cues, which exert less influence. The results suggest that scarcity can align certain behaviors more closely with traditional economic predictions. PMID:25676256

  17. RC Infilled Frame-RC Plane Frame Interactions for Seismic Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulselvan, Suyamburaja; Subramanian, K.; Perumal Pillai, E. B.; Santhakumar, A. R.

    Experimental investigation was planned and conducted to study the influence of brick masonry infill in a reinforced cement concrete frame. The analytical methods available needs validation by comparison with experimental results and more accurate methods of analysis like finite element analysis has to be used for the above purpose. In this study, RC frame with middle bay brick infilled representing a five-stories, three bay building in quarter-scale has been taken for experimental investigation and the available methods of theoretical analysis and finite element analysis using ANSYS software for the frames have been carried out. Until the cracks developed in infills, the contribution of the infill to both lateral stiffness and strength was very significant. The change in lateral stiffness, strength, ductility and natural period of the framed structure due to the presence of infills change the behaviour of the building under seismic action. The object of this study was to investigate the behaviour of such infilled frames under seismic loads. For this purpose, five stories, three bay frames with central portion infilled with brick were tested under static cyclic loading simulating seismic action. Analytical works was done to understand the stiffness, strength and behaviour of these types of frames.

  18. Semiclassical framed BPS states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory W.; Royston, Andrew B.; Van den Bleeken, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    We provide a semiclassical description of framed BPS states in four-dimensional {N}=2 super Yang-Mills theories probed by 't Hooft defects, in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the moduli space of singular monopoles. Framed BPS states, like their ordinary counterparts in the theory without defects, are associated with the L 2 kernel of certain Dirac operators on moduli space, or equivalently with the L 2 cohomology of related Dolbeault operators. The Dirac/Dolbeault operators depend on two Cartan-valued Higgs vevs. We conjecture a map between these vevs and the Seiberg-Witten special coordinates, consistent with a one-loop analysis and checked in examples. The map incorporates all perturbative and nonperturbative corrections that are relevant for the semiclassical construction of BPS states, over a suitably defined weak coupling regime of the Coulomb branch. We use this map to translate wall crossing formulae and the no-exotics theorem to statements about the Dirac/Dolbeault operators. The no-exotics theorem, concerning the absence of nontrivial SU(2) R representations in the BPS spectrum, implies that the kernel of the Dirac operator is chiral, and further translates into a statement that all L 2 cohomology of the Dolbeault operator is concentrated in the middle degree. Wall crossing formulae lead to detailed predictions for where the Dirac operators fail to be Fredholm and how their kernels jump. We explore these predictions in nontrivial examples. This paper explains the background and arguments behind the results announced in the short note [1].

  19. Damage evaluation on a multi-story framed structures: comparison of results retrieved from algorithms based on modal and non-modal parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auletta, Gianluca; Ditommaso, Rocco; Iacovino, Chiara; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Pina Limongelli, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Continuous monitoring based on vibrational identification methods is increasingly employed with the aim of evaluate the state of the health of existing structures and infrastructures and to evaluate the performance of safety interventions over time. In case of earthquakes, data acquired by means of continuous monitoring systems can be used to localize and quantify a possible damage occurred on a monitored structure using appropriate algorithms based on the variations of structural parameters. Most of the damage identification methods are based on the variation of few modal and/or non-modal parameters: the former, are strictly related to the structural eigenfrequencies, equivalent viscous damping factors and mode shapes; the latter, are based on the variation of parameters related to the geometric characteristics of the monitored structure whose variations could be correlated related to damage. In this work results retrieved from the application of a curvature evolution based method and an interpolation error based method are compared. The first method is based on the evaluation of the curvature variation (related to the fundamental mode of vibration) over time and compares the variations before, during and after the earthquake. The Interpolation Method is based on the detection of localized reductions of smoothness in the Operational Deformed Shapes (ODSs) of the structure. A damage feature is defined in terms of the error related to the use of a spline function in interpolating the ODSs of the structure: statistically significant variations of the interpolation error between two successive inspections of the structure indicate the onset of damage. Both methods have been applied using both numerical data retrieved from nonlinear FE models and experimental tests on scaled structures carried out on the shaking table of the University of Basilicata. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department within the project DPC

  20. From ``wiggly structures'' to ``unshaky towers'': problem framing, solution finding, and negotiation of courses of actions during a civil engineering unit for elementary students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1995-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate problem- and solution-related activity of elementary students in ill-defined and open-ended settings. One Grade 4/5 class of 28 students engaged in the activities of the “Engineering for Children: Structures” curriculum, designed as a vehicle for introducing science concepts, providing ill-defined problem solving contexts, and fostering positive attitudes towards science and technology. Data included video recordings, ethnographic field notes, student produced artefacts (projects and engineering logbooks), and interviews with teachers and observers. These data supported the notion of problems, solutions, and courses of actions as entities with flexible ontologies. In the course of their negotiations, students demonstrated an uncanny competence to frame and reframe problems and solutions and to decide courses of actions of different complexities in spite of the ambiguous nature of (arte)facts, plans, and language. A case study approach was chosen as the literary device to report these general findings. The discussion focuses on the inevitably ambiguous nature of (arte)facts, plans, and language and the associated notion of “interpretive flexibility.” Suggestions are provided for teachers on how to deal with interpretive flexibility without seeking recourse to the didactic approaches of direct teaching. But what happens when problems and solutions are negotiable, when there are no longer isolated problems which one tries to solve but problems which maintain complex linkages with ensembles of other problems and diverse constraints, or when problems and solutions are simultaneously invented? (Lestel, 1989, p. 692, my translation)

  1. Virtual Frame Buffer Interface Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as generic frame buffer with specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write codes that run unmodified on all supported hardware. Converts generic commands to actual device commands. Consists of definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines called by application programs. Developed in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX 11/780 or DEC VAX 11/750 computer under VMS 4.X.

  2. SINS/zC-SINF Survey of z ˜ 2 Galaxy Kinematics: Rest-frame Morphology, Structure, and Colors from Near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacchella, S.; Lang, P.; Carollo, C. M.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Renzini, A.; Shapley, A. E.; Wuyts, S.; Cresci, G.; Genzel, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Mancini, C.; Newman, S. F.; Tacconi, L. J.; Zamorani, G.; Davies, R. I.; Kurk, J.; Pozzetti, L.

    2015-04-01

    We present the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) J- and H-band imaging for 29 galaxies on the star-forming main sequence at z ˜ 2, which have adaptive optics Very Large Telescope SINFONI integral field spectroscopy from our SINS/zC-SINF program. The SINFONI Hα data resolve the ongoing star formation and the ionized gas kinematics on scales of 1-2 kpc; the near-IR images trace the galaxies’ rest-frame optical morphologies and distributions of stellar mass in old stellar populations at a similar resolution. The global light profiles of most galaxies show disk-like properties well described by a single Sérsic profile with n˜ 1, with only ˜ 15% requiring a high n\\gt 3 Sérsic index, all more massive than {{10}10} {{M}⊙ }. In bulge+disk fits, about 40% of galaxies have a measurable bulge component in the light profiles, with ˜ 15% showing a substantial bulge-to-total ratio (B/T) B/T≳ 0.3. This is a lower limit to the frequency of z ˜ 2 massive galaxies with a developed bulge component in stellar mass because it could be hidden by dust and/or outshined by a thick actively star-forming disk component. The galaxies’ rest-optical half-light radii range between 1 and 7 kpc, with a median of 2.1 kpc, and lie slightly above the size-mass relation at these epochs reported in the literature. This is attributed to differences in sample selection and definitions of size and/or mass measurements. The {{(u-g)}rest} color gradient and scatter within individual z ˜ 2 massive galaxies with ≳ {{10}11} {{M}⊙ } are as high as in z = 0 low-mass, late-type galaxies and are consistent with the high star formation rates of massive z ˜ 2 galaxies being sustained at large galactocentric distances. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  3. Backreaction of frame dragging

    SciTech Connect

    Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Rebelo, Carmen; Warnick, Claude M.

    2009-10-15

    The backreaction on black holes due to dragging heavy, rather than test, objects is discussed. As a case study, a five-dimensional regular black Saturn system where the central black hole has vanishing intrinsic angular momentum, J{sup BH}=0, is considered. It is shown that there is a correlation between the sign of two response functions. One is interpreted as a moment of inertia of the black ring in the black Saturn system. The other measures the variation of the black ring horizon angular velocity with the central black hole mass, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. The two different phases defined by these response functions collapse, for small central black hole mass, to the thin and fat ring phases. In the fat phase, the zero area limit of the black Saturn ring has reduced spin j{sup 2}>1, which is related to the behavior of the ring angular velocity. Using the 'gravitomagnetic clock effect', for which a universality property is exhibited, it is shown that frame dragging measured by an asymptotic observer decreases, in both phases, when the central black hole mass increases, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. A close parallelism between the results for the fat phase and those obtained recently for the double Kerr solution is drawn, considering also a regular black Saturn system with J{sup BH}{ne}0.

  4. Optical characterization of frame grabbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, A. M.; Rubiño, M.

    2013-04-01

    Today, video cameras connected to frame grabbers are used in many applications such as traffic control, surveillance, medical systems or machine vision. In this work, we present an optical characterization of frame grabbers in terms of their spatial-frequency responses. This characterization is based on the modulation transfer function (MTF) determination from speckle patterns using a low-cost experimental setup. We have characterized and compared three different frame grabbers. The three frame grabbers produce an amplification (boost) in the horizontal MTF in different spatial-frequency ranges and having different maximum amplification values.

  5. Paleoproterozoic structural frame of the Yetti domain (Eglab shield, Algeria): Emplacement conditions of the Tinguicht late pluton from magnetic fabric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merabet, Nacer-eddine; Mahdjoub, Yamina; Henry, Bernard; Abtout, Abdeslam; Maouche, Said; Kahoui, Mohamed; Lamali, Atmane; Ayache, Mohamed

    2016-02-01

    The Tinguicht pluton is part of the ˜2.07 Ga post-collisional magmatic suites that intruded the Yetti Paleoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary series of the western part of the Eglab Shield (West African Craton). It represents one of the most recent units of these suites. This pluton, with a NW-SE elliptic shape, is unfoliated, and its deformational structures are practically restricted to fracturing and faulting. New structural, microstructural and aeromagnetic data are presented in order to analyze in particular the relationship between the Tinguicht pluton emplacement and the related NNW-SSE major mega-shear zone, separating the Yetti and Eglab domains. To constrain the context of the regional post-collisional evolution of the Eglab shield, a structural analysis was performed by mapping the magnetic structures (foliation and lineation) using AMS. The combination of the results of all the used approaches leads to a new and enriched image of this granitic pluton and of its tectonic emplacement context. The elliptic shape of the granitic body and the AMS strain pattern are consistent with the presence of a NNW-SSE major structure. NNW-SSE is also one of the major directions highlighted by the aeromagnetic data. This study thus evidences the role of the pre-existing major shear zones in controlling emplacement of post-collisional Paleoproterozoic plutons like Tinguicht, as shown for Drissa pluton in the Eglab domain earlier.

  6. Framing Leadership: Contributions and Impediments to Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retallick, John; Fink, Dean

    2002-01-01

    Discusses results of 3-year study of the leadership of the principals of 4 Ontario secondary school involved in the Change Frames project, requiring each school to initiate change using each of 7 frames--purpose, emotions, politics, structure, culture, learning, and leadership. (Contains 18 references.) (PKP)

  7. FRAMES and Other IEM Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation package is developed that describes the FRAMES software technology system. The philosophy of FRAMES is discussed; its components and editors are reviewed; its relationship to integrated environmental modeling technologies; such as D4EM and SuperMUSE, are described;...

  8. Behavior of Frame-Stiffened Composite Panels with Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and The Boeing Company have worked to develop new low-cost, light-weight composite structures for aircraft. A Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept has been developed which offers advantages over traditional metallic structures. In this concept, a stitched carbon-epoxy material system has been developed with the potential for reducing the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure by eliminating fasteners, thereby reducing part count and labor. Stitching and the use of thin skins with rod-stiffeners to move loading away from the morevulnerable outer surface produces a structurally efficient, damage tolerant design. This study focuses on the behavior of PRSEUS panels loaded in the frame direction and subjected to severe damage in the form of a severed central frame in a three-frame panel. Experimental results for a pristine two-frame panel and analytical predictions for pristine two-frame and three-frame panels as well as damaged three-frame panels are described.

  9. Framed School--Frame Factors, Frames and the Dynamics of Social Interaction in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to show how the Goffman frame perspective can be used in an analysis of school and education and how it can be combined, in such analysis, with the frame factor perspective. The latter emphasizes factors that are determined outside the teaching process, while the former stresses how actors organize their experiences and define…

  10. Integral structural health and load monitoring of a helicopter tail boom manufactured from aluminum sheet metal with support from frames and stringers by guided ultrasonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkelbach, Gerhard; Grill, Wolfgang; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Pavelko, Vitalijs

    2012-04-01

    Based on mode selective monitoring of the transport of guided ultrasonic waves with high temporal resolution achieved by correlation techniques, a helicopter tail boom section, manufactured from aluminum, has been monitored concerning structural health and load including monitoring under shaker driven conditions. The characteristic sensitivities of the developed health and load monitoring schemes are presented together with methods suitable for the compensation of the influence of temperature variations during monitoring. Concerning the detection of loose joints, a novel monitoring scheme has been introduced capable to detect fluctuations in joints including riveted joints and connections by high-locks. The currently operated system is fully remote controlled and can be operated by internet. Concerning the rather compact size and power consumption, the developed instrumentation is already suitable for in-flight respectively for on-ground hand hold and battery powered operation. The observations, achievements, and results are presented, explained, and discussed.

  11. Orwell Framed for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    Tracy Sutherland, a secondary school teacher, gives her opinion of the American public education that keeps changing so often that it finally loses its sight of the overall structure. She has taken George Orwell's book "Animal Farm" as examples in helping students apply the issues from the book in real life.

  12. Framing Obesity: How News Frames Shape Attributions and Behavioral Responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Krakow, Melinda; John, Kevin K; Liu, Miao; Weaver, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Based on a public health model of obesity, this study set out to examine whether a news article reporting the obesity issue in a societal versus individual frame would increase perceptions of societal responsibilities for the obesity problem and motivate responsibility-taking behaviors. Responsibility-taking behaviors were examined at 3 levels: personal, interpersonal, and societal. Data from a Web-based experiment revealed significant framing effects on behaviors via causal and treatment responsibility attributions. The societal frame increased societal causal and treatment attribution, which led to greater likelihoods of interpersonal and social responsibility-taking behaviors as well as personal behaviors. Our findings suggest that news framing can be an effective venue for raising awareness of obesity as a societal issue and mobilizing collective efforts. PMID:26375052

  13. Optimization of a space spectrograph main frame and frequency response analysis of the frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin-yu; Chen, Zhi-yuan; Yang, Shi-mo

    2009-07-01

    A space spectrograph main structure is optimized and examined in order to satisfy the space operational needs. The space spectrograph will be transported into its operational orbit by the launch vehicle and it will undergo dynamic environment in the spacecraft injection period. The unexpected shocks may cause declination of observation accuracy and even equipment damages. The main frame is one of the most important parts because its mechanical performance has great influence on the operational life of the spectrograph, accuracy of observation, etc. For the reason of cost reduction and stability confirming, lower weight and higher structure stiffness of the frame are simultaneously required. Structure optimization was conducted considering the initial design modal analysis results. The base modal frequency raised 10.34% while the whole weight lowered 8.63% compared to the initial design. The purpose of this study is to analyze the new design of main frame mechanical properties and verify whether it can satisfy strict optical demands under the dynamic impact during spacecraft injection. For realizing and forecasting the frequency response characteristics of the main structure in mechanical environment experiment, dynamic analysis of the structure should be performed simulating impulse loads from the bottom base. Therefore, frequency response analysis (FRA) of the frame was then performed using the FEA software MSC.PATRAN/NASTRAN. Results of shock response spectrum (SRS) responses from the base excitations were given. Stress and acceleration dynamic responses of essential positions in the spacecraft injection course were also calculated and spectrometer structure design was examined considering stiffness / strength demands. In this simulation, maximum stresses of Cesic material in two acceleration application cases are 45.1 and 74.1 MPa, respectively. They are all less than yield strengths. As is demonstrated from the simulation, strength reservation of the frame is

  14. View south, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, recent galvanized straps, bolts and washers - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  15. View northwest, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, charred piers, recent galvanized fastenings - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  16. 36. VAL, DETAIL OF TYPICAL INTERIOR OF CONCRETE 'A' FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. VAL, DETAIL OF TYPICAL INTERIOR OF CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING PAINTED CONCRETE WALLS, CONCRETE STAIRS AND INTERIOR WOOD DOOR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. View of parking (resting) frame that supported the Shuttle assembly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of parking (resting) frame that supported the Shuttle assembly when the hydrodynamic supports were not engaged (removed from structure). - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. Role of superthermality on dust acoustic structures in the frame of a modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation in magnetized dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabetkar, Akbar; Dorranian, Davoud

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a theoretical investigation is presented to study the existence and characteristics of the propagation of dust acoustic (DA) waves in an obliquely propagating magnetized dusty plasma with two populations of ions having two distinct temperatures, electrons that are modeled by three-dimensional nonextensive and κ -distribution functions, respectively, and negative dust particles. Normal mode analysis (reductive perturbation method) is used to derive lower- and higher-order nonlinear equations governing the evolution of small but finite amplitude DA waves, namely the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) and the modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov (mZK) equations. The basic features (e.g., amplitude, width, phase speed, polarity) of both DA ZK and mZK solitons have been thoroughly examined by the numerical analysis of their equations. It is observed that the characteristics and properties of the DA solitary waves (DASWs) are significantly modified by the superthermality of electrons, nonextensivity of ions, cold-to-hot ion temperature ratio, relative number densities of two species of ions, and the strength of the magnetic field and obliqueness of the system. Furthermore, it has been found that the DA ZK solitons exhibit only negative polarity of solitary waves when the superthermality of electrons, nonextensivity of ions, and temperature ratio of ions are smaller or greater than their critical values. The present study may add to the understanding of the nonlinear propagation features of DA wave structures in high-energy astrophysical plasma systems.

  19. Compressive Testing of Stitched Frame and Stringer Alternate Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.; Jegley, Dawn C.

    2016-01-01

    A series of single-frame and single-stringer compression tests were conducted at NASA Langley Research Center on specimens harvested from a large panel built using the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. Different frame and stringer designs were used in fabrication of the PRSEUS panel. In this report, the details of the experimental testing of single-frame and single-stringer compression specimens are presented, as well as discussions on the performance of the various structural configurations included in the panel.

  20. Multiple reference frames in haptic spatial processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volčič, R.

    2008-08-01

    in the vicinity of the haptic stimuli parametrically modulated the magnitude of the deviations. The influence of the hand-centered reference frame was shown also in the haptic mental rotation task where participants were quicker in judging the parity of objects when these were aligned with respect to the hands than when they were physically aligned. Similarly, in the visuo-haptic cross-modal mental rotation task the parity judgments were influenced by the orientation of the exploring hand with respect to the viewing direction. This effect was shown to be modulated also by an intervening temporal delay that supposedly counteracts the influence of the hand-centered reference frame. We suggest that the hand-centered reference frame is embedded in a hierarchical structure of reference frames where some of these emerge depending on the demands and the circumstances of the surrounding environment and the needs of an active perceiver.

  1. Framing the patent troll debate.

    PubMed

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system? PMID:24354803

  2. Ties Between Celestial And Planetary Reference Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Mark H.; Folkner, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents new determination of relative orientation (or frame tie) between reference frame of extra-galactic radio sources and reference frame of planetary ephemeris. Method employed for improved frame-tie estimate relies on ability to measure orientation of Earth with respect to inertial reference frame. Improves orbit determination for interplanetary spacecraft.

  3. A Frame Manipulation Algebra for ER Logical Stage Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, Antonio L.; Casanova, Marco A.; Breitman, Karin K.; Barbosa, Simone D. J.

    The ER model is arguably today's most widely accepted basis for the conceptual specification of information systems. A further common practice is to use the Relational Model at an intermediate logical stage, in order to adequately prepare for physical implementation. Although the Relational Model still works well in contexts relying on standard databases, it imposes certain restrictions, not inherent in ER specifications, which make it less suitable in Web environments. This paper proposes frames as an alternative to move from ER specifications to logical stage modelling, and treats frames as an abstract data type equipped with a Frame Manipulation Algebra (FMA). It is argued that frames, with a long tradition in AI applications, are able to accommodate the irregularities of semi-structured data, and that frame-sets generalize relational tables, allowing to drop the strict homogeneity requirement. A prototype logic-programming tool has been developed to experiment with FMA. Examples are included to help describe the use of the operators.

  4. Analysis of 140 gigahertz folded frame travelling wave tube

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Guo; Wei, Yanyu; Zhang, Minghao; Yue, Lingna; Xu, Jin; Yin, Hairong; Huang, Minzhi; Gong, Yubin; Wang, Wenxiang; Travish, Gil

    2013-10-15

    A study on the low voltage, high efficiency and wide bandwidth travelling wave tube by using a novel folded frame slow-wave structure is carried out in this paper. The radio frequency characteristics of the folded frame structure, including dispersion property, interaction impedances, and reflection property are investigated and compared to the similar symmetric double V-shape meander-line structure. Then, the beam-wave interaction process of the folded frame travelling wave tube (TWT) with rectangular sheet electron beam is simulated by 3-D particle-in-cell algorithms. The results show that the output power and electron efficiency can reach 259 W and 13.5% at the center frequency of 140 GHz, respectively. Simultaneously, the instantaneous 3-dB bandwidth is 24 GHz. Compared to the symmetric double V-shaped TWT, the output power and electron efficiency of the folded frame TWT are increased.

  5. Analysis of 140 gigahertz folded frame travelling wave tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guo; Wei, Yanyu; Zhang, Minghao; Travish, Gil; Yue, Lingna; Xu, Jin; Yin, Hairong; Huang, Minzhi; Gong, Yubin; Wang, Wenxiang

    2013-10-01

    A study on the low voltage, high efficiency and wide bandwidth travelling wave tube by using a novel folded frame slow-wave structure is carried out in this paper. The radio frequency characteristics of the folded frame structure, including dispersion property, interaction impedances, and reflection property are investigated and compared to the similar symmetric double V-shape meander-line structure. Then, the beam-wave interaction process of the folded frame travelling wave tube (TWT) with rectangular sheet electron beam is simulated by 3-D particle-in-cell algorithms. The results show that the output power and electron efficiency can reach 259 W and 13.5% at the center frequency of 140 GHz, respectively. Simultaneously, the instantaneous 3-dB bandwidth is 24 GHz. Compared to the symmetric double V-shaped TWT, the output power and electron efficiency of the folded frame TWT are increased.

  6. Composite lightweight non-metallic vehicle frame

    SciTech Connect

    Pabst, R.D.

    1986-03-04

    A non-metallic ladder type automotive frame is described having beam elements formed of composite plastic materials. The frame consists of: paired opposed elongate lateral beams interconnected by plural cross beams, each of the beams and cross beams having, a rigid lower density core formed by foaming plastic material in a peripheral mold to create a structure having closed cells and a graduated density that is greatest at the periphery of the core, and a higher density peripheral skin formed of polymeric matrix material adhered to the core and embedding reinforcing fiber in the form of woven cloth, plural layers of the cloth, covering the peripheral surfaces of the beams and additional layers of the cloth covering top and bottom portions of the beams, and means of releasably fastening automotive components to at least some of the beams.

  7. Hamiltonian approach to frame dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Kenneth J.

    2008-07-01

    A Hamiltonian approach makes the phenomenon of frame dragging apparent “up front” from the appearance of the drag velocity in the Hamiltonian of a test particle in an arbitrary metric. Hamiltonian (1) uses the inhomogeneous force equation (4), which applies to non-geodesic motion as well as to geodesics. The Hamiltonian is not in manifestly covariant form, but is covariant because it is derived from Hamilton’s manifestly covariant scalar action principle. A distinction is made between manifest frame dragging such as that in the Kerr metric, and hidden frame dragging that can be made manifest by a coordinate transformation such as that applied to the Robertson-Walker metric in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3 a zone of repulsive gravity is found in the extreme Kerr metric. Section 4 treats frame dragging in special relativity as a manifestation of the equivalence principle in accelerated frames. It answers a question posed by Bell about how the Lorentz contraction can break a thread connecting two uniformly accelerated rocket ships. In Sect. 5 the form of the Hamiltonian facilitates the definition of gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric potentials.

  8. "Speaking for another": the management of participant frames in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Kingston, Debbie; Schultz, Misty

    2004-05-01

    A sociolinguistic analysis of an interaction between a woman with aphasia and a nonaphasic speaking partner was conducted to investigate participant framing in aphasia. Participant frames, or the stances that people take in conversation, help conversational participants structure their talk and collaboratively negotiate meaning (I. Goffman, 1974). This analysis revealed a configuration in which a person with severe aphasia enlisted her speaking partner to speak for her. That is, the interaction was framed such that the nonaphasic speaking partner served as the "spokesperson" for messages that were authored by the person with aphasia. The clinical requirements of adopting a "speaking for another" framework are discussed. PMID:15198631

  9. Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.

  10. Frame Synchronization Without Attached Sync Markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to synchronize codeword frames without making use of attached synchronization markers (ASMs). Instead, the synchronizer identifies the code structure present in the received symbols, by operating the decoder for a handful of iterations at each possible symbol offset and forming an appropriate metric. This method is computationally more complex and doesn't perform as well as frame synchronizers that utilize an ASM; nevertheless, the new synchronizer acquires frame synchronization in about two seconds when using a 600 kbps software decoder, and would take about 15 milliseconds on prototype hardware. It also eliminates the need for the ASMs, which is an attractive feature for short uplink codes whose coding gain would be diminished by the overheard of ASM bits. The lack of ASMs also would simplify clock distribution for the AR4JA low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and adds a small amount to the coding gain as well (up to 0.2 dB).

  11. SEOS frame camera applications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A research and development satellite is discussed which will provide opportunities for observation of transient phenomena that fall within the fixed viewing circle of the spacecraft. The evaluation of possible applications for frame cameras, for SEOS, are studied. The computed lens characteristics for each camera are listed.

  12. Epistemic Frames for Epistemic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, develops the concept of "epistemic frames" as a mechanism through which students can use experiences in video games, computer games, and other interactive learning environments to help them deal more effectively with situations outside of the original context of learning. Building on ideas of "islands of expertise" [Crowley, K., &…

  13. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  14. Plasma physics in noninertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Thyagaraja, A.; McClements, K. G.

    2009-09-15

    Equations describing the nonrelativistic motion of a charged particle in an arbitrary noninertial reference frame are derived from the relativistically invariant form of the particle action. It is shown that the equations of motion can be written in the same form in inertial and noninertial frames, with the effective electric and magnetic fields in the latter modified by inertial effects associated with centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations. These modifications depend on the particle charge-to-mass ratio, and also the vorticity, specific kinetic energy, and compressibility of the frame flow. The Newton-Lorentz, Vlasov, and Fokker-Planck equations in such a frame are derived. Reduced models such as gyrokinetic, drift-kinetic, and fluid equations are then derivable from these equations in the appropriate limits, using standard averaging procedures. The results are applied to tokamak plasmas rotating about the machine symmetry axis with a nonrelativistic but otherwise arbitrary toroidal flow velocity. Astrophysical applications of the analysis are also possible since the power of the action principle is such that it can be used to describe relativistic flows in curved spacetime.

  15. Examining the Linkage Between FRAMES and GMS

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Castleton, Karl J.

    2006-02-13

    Because GMS provides so many features, of which some are also addressed by FRAMES, it could represent a platform to link to FRAMES, or FRAMES could represent a platform to link to GMS. The focus of this summary is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the potential linkage direction and provide recommendations for the linkage between FRAMES and GMS.

  16. Uniform lateral load capacity of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-11-11

    Three tests were conducted on 2.4 meter by 2.4 meter steel frames infilled with structural clay tile to determine the behavior and capacity when subjected to uniform lateral loads. An air bag was used to apply the out-of-plane loads. The walls were subjected to increasing load-unload cycles until virtual destruction of the infill. Cracking in the mortar joints occurred early in the tests, and then the primary load resisting mechanism was arching of the infilled panel. Typically, vertical arching occurred until failure of the top and bottom course tiles. Following failure of these courses, horizontal arching developed enabling the walls to maintain stability.

  17. Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Kenneth J.; Boboltz, David; Fey, Alan Lee; Gaume, Ralph A.; Zacharias, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame defined by extragalactic objects and to remove any residual frame rotation with respect to the extragalactic frame. The current realization of the extragalactic frame is the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The ICRF is defined by the radio positions of 212 extragalactic objects and is the IAU sanctioned fundamental astronomical reference frame. This key project will advance our knowledge of the physics of the objects which will make up the SIM grid, such as quasars and chromospherically active stars, and relates directly to the stability of the SIM reference frame. The following questions concerning the physics of reference frame tie objects will be investigated.

  18. Framing the ultimatum game: the contribution of simulation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Lotto, Lorella; Sarlo, Michela; Civai, Claudia; Rumiati, Rino; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2013-01-01

    It has now become widely accepted that economic decisions are influenced by cognitive and emotional processes. In the present study, we aimed at disentangling the neural mechanisms associated with the way in which the information is formulated, i.e., framing effect, in terms of gain or loss, which influences people's decisions. Participants played a fMRI version of the Ultimatum Game (UG) where we manipulated bids through two different frames: the expression "I give you" (gain) focusing on money the respondent would receive if she/he agreed with the proponent, and the expression "I take" (loss) focusing on the money that would be removed from the respondent in the event that she/he accepted the offer. Neuroimaging data revealed a frame by response interaction, showing an increase of neural activity in the right rolandic operculum/insular cortex, the anterior cingulate, among other regions, for accepting the frame "I take" vs. rejecting, as compared to accepting the frame "I give you" vs. rejecting. In addition, the left occipito-temporal junction was activated for "I take" vs. "I give you" for offer 5, corresponding to the equal offer made unpleasant by the presence of the frame "I take," where is the proposer that takes the money. Our data extend the current understanding of the neural substrates of social decision making, by disentangling the structures sensitive to the way in which the information is formulated (i.e., framing effect), in terms of gain or loss. PMID:23847507

  19. An ontology for tactical behaviors derived from verb frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterline, Albert C., Jr.; BouSaba, Chafic W.

    2008-04-01

    We present an initial ontology for tactical behaviors conducted by unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). We focus on activities, which are the denotations of verbs, notably 'move' but also 'look (for)' and several others. These take collective subjects, allowing activities to be attributed to units at various hierarchical levels. The semantics of verbs must consider the denotations of their grammatical complements; that is, we must consider entire verb frames. The thematic relations of the noun-phrase complements are critical, but prepositions also play an important role. FrameNet is an online lexical database of frames derived from text corpora. Our other major resource is Levin's classification of verbs according to how changes in their frames affect their meanings. Although natural languages have a large variety of words for aspects of tactical behaviors, there is motivation to get by with as few basic verbs as possible. A variety of meanings can often be associated with a verb by altering its frame, and we can impose co-reference constraints on combinations of frames to generate structures denoting more complex activities. A simple grammar is developed for the verbs of interest. Protege-Frames ontologies include classes that inherit from linguistically inspired classes but capture domain-specific notions.

  20. Using quasar physics to improve the celestial reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabala, Stanislav; Plank, Lucia; McCallum, Jamie; Boehm, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    Radio-loud quasars making up the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) are dynamic objects with significant structure that changes on timescales of months and years. This is a problem for reference frame stability, as realised through the geodetic and astrometric Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique, which has so far largely treated quasars as point sources in analysis. I will describe the source structure simulator recently implemented in the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) package, and quantify the effects of various levels of source structure on the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, and Earth Orientation Parameters linking these two frames. We find that even relatively modest levels of quasar structure can produce systematic effects that affect derived quasar positions significantly in excess of the noise floor of the present ICRF realisation, ICRF2.I will also discuss the observed relationship between astrophysical properties of quasars, their structure and geodetic stability. By simulating quasar structure and evolution in VieVS, we have devised various quasar mitigation strategies. These include: (1) astrophysically-based quasar selection techniques; (2) scheduling sources by taking into account quasar structure; and (3) analyzing geodetic and astrometric VLBI observations using knowledge of quasar structure. I will describe our simulation results, and outline promising quasar structure mitigation strategies.

  1. The Operational Principle and Problem Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Michael

    In the problem frames approach to software development as its name indicates analysis of theproblem precedes construction of thesolution. The problem analysis rests on certain ideas of structure and simplicity, including a general recommendation that composition should be postponed until the parts to be composed are well understood in their preliminary isolated forms. These ideas are discussed in the light of Michael Polanyi's notion of theoperational principle of a machine orcontrivance, and his account of the relationship between scientific knowledge and understanding of machines. Criteria are suggested for simplicity in problem decomposition. The outline structure of the associated development approach is sketched, and the relationship between formal development methods and problem structuring is clarified.

  2. Nine Frames as Jupiter Turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This sequence of nine true-color, narrow-angle images shows the varying appearance of Jupiter as it rotated through more than a complete 360-degree turn. The smallest features seen in this sequence are no bigger than about 380 kilometers (about 236 miles). Rotating more than twice as fast as Earth, Jupiter completes one rotation in about 10 hours. These images were taken on Oct. 22 and 23, 2000. From image to image (proceeding left to right across each row and then down to the next row), cloud features on Jupiter move from left to right before disappearing over the edge onto the nightside of the planet. The most obvious Jovian feature is the Great Red Spot, which can be seen moving onto the dayside in the third frame (below and to the left of the center of the planet). In the fourth frame, taken about 1 hour and 40 minutes later, the Great Red Spot has been carried by the planet's rotation to the east and does not appear again until the final frame, which was taken one complete rotation after the third frame.

    Unlike weather systems on Earth, which change markedly from day to day, large cloud systems in Jupiter's colder, thicker atmosphere are long-lived, so the two frames taken one rotation apart have a very similar appearance. However, when this sequence of images is eventually animated, strong winds blowing eastward at some latitudes and westward at other latitudes will be readily apparent. The results of such differential motions can be seen even in the still frames shown here. For example, the clouds of the Great Red Spot rotate counterclockwise. The strong westward winds northeast of the Great Red Spot are deflected around the spot and form a wake of turbulent clouds downstream (visible in the fourth image), just as a rock in a rapidly flowing river deflects the fluid around it.

    The equatorial zone on Jupiter is currently bright white, indicating the presence of clouds much like cirrus clouds on Earth, but made of ammonia instead of water ice. This

  3. Performance-based plastic design method for steel concentric braced frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banihashemi, M. R.; Mirzagoltabar, A. R.; Tavakoli, H. R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a performance-based plastic design (PBPD) methodology for the design of steel concentric braced frames. The design base shear is obtained based on energy-work balance equation using pre-selected target drift and yield mechanism. To achieve the intended yield mechanism and behavior, plastic design is applied to detail the frame members. For validity, three baseline frames (3, 6, 9-story) are designed according to AISC (Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, 2005) seismic provisions (baseline frames). Then, the frames are redesigned based on the PBPD method. These frames are subjected to extensive nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses. The results show that the PBPD frames meet all the intended performance objectives in terms of yield mechanisms and target drifts, whereas the baseline frames show very poor response due to premature brace fractures leading to unacceptably large drifts and instability.

  4. A 4.6 kb DNA region of Rhizobium meliloti involved in determining urease and hydrogenase activities carries the structural genes for urease (ureA, ureB, ureC) interrupted by other open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Miksch, G; Arnold, W; Lentzsch, P; Priefer, U B; Pühler, A

    1994-03-01

    A 4.6 kb DNA region of the Rhizobium meliloti strain AK631 was found to contain seven open reading frames (ORFs), all oriented in the same direction. The putative gene products of four of these ORFs were highly homologous to UreA, UreB and UreC of Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Canavalia ensiformis. The overall organisation of the DNA region analysed was ORF1, ureA (ORF2), ORF3, ureB (ORF4), ORF5, ORF6 and ureC (ORF7), indicating that the organisation of the urease structural genes in R. meliloti differs from that of other urease genes so far characterized. ORF1 was incomplete; only the 3' end of the coding region was present. The six complete ORFs coded for polypeptides of 11.1 (UreA), 8.9 (ORF3), 10.8 (UreB), 15.0 (ORF5), 13.8 (ORF6) and 60.7 kDa (UreC). No sequence homology to known polypeptides could be detected for the gene products of ORF1, ORF3, ORF5 and ORF6. Using a lacZ fusion and insertional mutagenesis it was shown that the seven ORFs identified were all located in the same transcription unit. For mutational analysis a resistance gene cassette was introduced into each of the complete ORFs resulting in apolar mutations. Mutations in ureA, ureB and ureC, but not in ORF3, ORF5 and ORF6, abolished urease activity in R. meliloti. The determination of hydrogen uptake in these R. meliloti mutants revealed that only ORF6 and ureB are necessary for hydrogen uptake. PMID:8121412

  5. Design optimization of the S-frame to improve crashworthiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shu-Tian; Tong, Ze-Qi; Tang, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Zong-Hua

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the S-frames, the front side rail structures of automobile, were investigated for crashworthiness. Various cross-sections including regular polygon, non-convex polygon and multi-cell with inner stiffener sections were investigated in terms of energy absorption of S-frames. It was determined through extensive numerical simulation that a multi-cell S-frame with double vertical internal stiffeners can absorb more energy than the other configurations. Shape optimization was also carried out to improve energy absorption of the S-frame with a rectangular section. The center composite design of experiment and the sequential response surface method (SRSM) were adopted to construct the approximate design sub-problem, which was then solved by the feasible direction method. An innovative double S-frame was obtained from the optimal result. The optimum configuration of the S-frame was crushed numerically and more plastic hinges as well as shear zones were observed during the crush process. The energy absorption efficiency of the structure with the optimal configuration was improved compared to the initial configuration.

  6. Turbulence modeling in non-inertial frames of reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speziale, Charles G.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of an arbitrary change of frame on the structure of turbulence models is examined from a fundamental theoretical standpoint. It is proven, as a rigorous consequence of the Navier-Stokes equations, that turbulence models must be form invariant under arbitrary translational accelerations of the reference frame and should only be affected by rotations through the intrinsic mean vorticity. A direct application of the invariance property along with the Taylor-Proudman Theorem, material frame-indifference in the limit of two-dimensional turbulence and Rapid Distortion Theory is shown to yield powerful constraints on the allowable form of turbulence models. Most of the commonly used turbulence models are demonstrated to be in serious violation of these constraints and consequently are inconsistent with the Navier-Stokes equations in non-inertial frames. Alternative models with improved non-inertial properties are developed and some simple applications to rotating turbulent flows are considered.

  7. Lattice QCD in rotating frames.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata; Hirono, Yuji

    2013-08-23

    We formulate lattice QCD in rotating frames to study the physics of QCD matter under rotation. We construct the lattice QCD action with the rotational metric and apply it to the Monte Carlo simulation. As the first application, we calculate the angular momenta of gluons and quarks in the rotating QCD vacuum. This new framework is useful to analyze various rotation-related phenomena in QCD. PMID:24010426

  8. Ultra-fast framing camera tube

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

  9. A-frame model for metaphor

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, W.

    1982-01-01

    While literal language is successfully being subjected to automatic analysis, metaphors remain intractable. Using Minsky's frame theory the metaphoric process is viewed as a copying of stereotypic terminal clusters from the frames of the 1 degrees and 2 degrees terms of the metaphor. Stereotypic values from the two original frames share equal status in this new frame, while non-stereotypic values from the two will be kept separate for possible use in metaphoric extension. The a-frame analysis is illustrated by application to non-literary novel metaphors. Frames provide the quantity of information needed for interpretation. Certain frame values are marked as stereotypic. Creativity is realized by the construction of a new a-frame, and the tension is realized by the presence in a single a-frame of both shared stereotypic and discrete non-stereotypic values. 10 references.

  10. Corrosion process and structural performance of a 17 year old reinforced concrete beam stored in chloride environment

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, T. Castel, A. Francois, R.

    2007-11-15

    The long-term corrosion process of reinforced concrete beams is studied in this paper. The reinforced concrete elements were stored in a chloride environment for 17years under service loading in order to be representative of real structural conditions. At different stages, cracking maps were drawn, total chloride contents were measured and mechanical tests were performed. Results show that the bending cracks and their width do not influence significantly the service life of the structure. The chloride threshold at the reinforcement depth, used by standards as a single parameter to predict the end of the initiation period, is a necessary but not a sufficient parameter to define service life. The steel-concrete interface condition is also a determinant parameter. The bleeding of concrete is an important cause of interface de-bonding which leads to an early corrosion propagation of the reinforcements. The structural performance under service load (i.e.: stiffness in flexure) is mostly affected by the corrosion of the tension reinforcement (steel cross-section and the steel-concrete bond reduction). Limit-state service life design based on structural performance reduction in terms of serviceability shows that the propagation period of the corrosion process is an important part of the reinforced concrete service life.

  11. The Kepler Full Frame Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Batalha, N.; Bryson, S.; Caldwell, D. A.; Clarke, B.; Haas, M. R.; Jenkins, J.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Quintana, E.; Van Cleve, J.; Kepler Team

    2010-01-01

    NASA's exoplanet discovery mission Kepler provides uninterrupted 1-min and 30-min optical photometry of a 100 square degree field over a 3.5 yr nominal mission. Downlink bandwidth is filled at these short cadences by selecting only detector pixels specific to 105 preselected stellar targets. The majority of the Kepler field, comprising 4 x 106 mv < 20 sources, is sampled at much lower 1-month cadence in the form of a full-frame image. The Full Frame Images (FFIs) are calibrated by the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. The Kepler Team employ these images for astrometric and photometric reference but make the images available to the astrophysics community through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST). The full-frame images provide a resource for potential Kepler Guest Observers to select targets and plan observing proposals, while also providing a freely-available long-cadence legacy of photometric variation across a swathe of the Galactic disk. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  12. The Kepler Full Frame Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's exoplanet discovery mission Kepler provides uninterrupted 1-min and 30-min optical photometry of a 100 square degree field over a 3.5 yr nominal mission. Downlink bandwidth is filled at these short cadences by selecting only detector pixels specific to 105 preselected stellar targets. The majority of the Kepler field, comprising 4 x 10(exp 6) m_v < 20 sources, is sampled at much lower 1-month cadence in the form of a full-frame image. The Full Frame Images (FFIs) are calibrated by the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. The Kepler Team employ these images for astrometric and photometric reference but make the images available to the astrophysics community through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST). The full-frame images provide a resource for potential Kepler Guest Observers to select targets and plan observing proposals, while also providing a freely-available long-cadence legacy of photometric variation across a swathe of the Galactic disk.

  13. Framed Morse functions on surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtseva, Elena A; Permyakov, Dmitrii A

    2010-06-09

    Let M be a smooth, compact, not necessarily orientable surface with (maybe empty) boundary, and let F be the space of Morse functions on M that are constant on each component of the boundary and have no critical points at the boundary. The notion of framing is defined for a Morse function f element of F. In the case of an orientable surface M this is a closed 1-form {alpha} on M with punctures at the critical points of local minimum and maximum of f such that in a neighbourhood of each critical point the pair (f,{alpha}) has a canonical form in a suitable local coordinate chart and the 2-form df and {alpha} does not vanish on M punctured at the critical points and defines there a positive orientation. Each Morse function on M is shown to have a framing, and the space F endowed with the C{sup {infinity}-}topology is homotopy equivalent to the space F of framed Morse functions. The results obtained make it possible to reduce the problem of describing the homotopy type of F to the simpler problem of finding the homotopy type of F. As a solution of the latter, an analogue of the parametric h-principle is stated for the space F. Bibliography: 41 titles.

  14. Self-organized architectures from assorted DNA-framed nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenyan; Halverson, Jonathan; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, Alexei V; Gang, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    The science of self-assembly has undergone a radical shift from asking questions about why individual components self-organize into ordered structures, to manipulating the resultant order. However, the quest for far-reaching nanomanufacturing requires addressing an even more challenging question: how to form nanoparticle (NP) structures with designed architectures without explicitly prescribing particle positions. Here we report an assembly concept in which building instructions are embedded into NPs via DNA frames. The integration of NPs and DNA origami frames enables the fabrication of NPs with designed anisotropic and selective interactions. Using a pre-defined set of different DNA-framed NPs, we show it is possible to design diverse planar architectures, which include periodic structures and shaped meso-objects that spontaneously emerge on mixing of the different topological types of NP. Even objects of non-trivial shapes, such as a nanoscale model of Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man, can be self-assembled successfully. PMID:27554413

  15. A Possible Approach to Inclusion of Space and Time in Frame Fields of Quantum Representations of Real and Complex Numbers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Benioff, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Tmore » his work is based on the field of reference frames based on quantum representations of real and complex numbers described in other work. Here frame domains are expanded to include space and time lattices. Strings of qukits are described as hybrid systems as they are both mathematical and physical systems. As mathematical systems they represent numbers. As physical systems in each frame the strings have a discrete Schrodinger dynamics on the lattices.he frame field has an iterative structure such that the contents of a stage j frame have images in a stage j - 1 (parent) frame. A discussion of parent frame images includes the proposal that points of stage j frame lattices have images as hybrid systems in parent frames.he resulting association of energy with images of lattice point locations, as hybrid systems states, is discussed. Representations and images of other physical systems in the different frames are also described.« less

  16. Monolithic LTCC seal frame and lid

    DOEpatents

    Krueger, Daniel S.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Stockdale, Dave; Duncan, James Brent; Riggs, Bristen

    2016-06-21

    A method for forming a monolithic seal frame and lid for use with a substrate and electronic circuitry comprises the steps of forming a mandrel from a ceramic and glass based material, forming a seal frame and lid block from a ceramic and glass based material, creating a seal frame and lid by forming a compartment and a plurality of sidewalls in the seal frame and lid block, placing the seal frame and lid on the mandrel such that the mandrel fits within the compartment, and cofiring the seal frame and lid block.

  17. Framing and global health governance: key findings.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Colin; Lee, Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread agreement that collective action to address shared health challenges across countries is desirable and necessary, the realm of global health governance has remained highly problematic. A key reason for this is the manner in which health issues are presented ('framed'). Because multiple frames are operating simultaneously, confusion and a range of competing policy recommendations and priorities result. Drawing on the previous articles published in this Special Supplement, these key findings explore how health issues are framed, what makes a framing successful, what frames are used for and what effects framing has. PMID:23088193

  18. Local Frame Junction Trees in SLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehnel, Frank O.

    2005-11-01

    Junction trees (JT) is a general purpose tool for exact inference on graphical models. Many of the existing algorithms for building junction trees require a fixed static graphical model. The construction process is not unique, finding the one with the best computational structure (smallest clique size) is also a hard problem. For large scale inference problems, such as Geo-referencing using triangular geodetic networks or equivalent, the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem in robotics pose some challenges to junction tree applications. Incremental junction tree techniques for dynamic graphical models prescribe heuristic methods for growing the tree structure, and are applicable to large scale graphical models. Of concern are the proliferative widening of the tree, which makes message passing expensive. In the context of SLAM we present a new apporach that exploits the local frame dependence of novel observation variables.

  19. Framing effects on metacognitive monitoring and control

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Bridgid

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments explored the contribution of framing effects on metamemory judgments. In Experiment 1, participants studied word pairs. After each presentation, they made an immediate judgment of learning (JOL), framed in terms of either remembering or forgetting. In the remember frame, participants made judgments about how likely it was that they would remember each pair on the upcoming test. In the forget frame, participants made judgments about how likely it was that they would forget each pair. Confidence differed as a result of the frame. Forget frame JOLs, equated to the remember frame JOL scale by a 1-judgment conversion, were lower and demonstrated a smaller overconfidence bias than did remember frame JOLs. When judgments were made at a delay, framing effects did not occur. In Experiment 2, people chose to restudy more items when choices were made within a forget frame. In Experiment 3, people studied Spanish–English vocabulary pairs ranging in difficulty. The framing effect was replicated with judgments and choices. Moreover, forget frame participants included more easy and medium items to restudy. These results demonstrated the important consequences of framing effects on assessment and control of study. PMID:18604963

  20. Reference frames in learning from maps and navigation.

    PubMed

    Meilinger, Tobias; Frankenstein, Julia; Watanabe, Katsumi; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Hölscher, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    In everyday life, navigators often consult a map before they navigate to a destination (e.g., a hotel, a room, etc.). However, not much is known about how humans gain spatial knowledge from seeing a map and direct navigation together. In the present experiments, participants learned a simple multiple corridor space either from a map only, only from walking through the virtual environment, first from the map and then from navigation, or first from navigation and then from the map. Afterwards, they conducted a pointing task from multiple body orientations to infer the underlying reference frames. We constructed the learning experiences in a way such that map-only learning and navigation-only learning triggered spatial memory organized along different reference frame orientations. When learning from maps before and during navigation, participants employed a map- rather than a navigation-based reference frame in the subsequent pointing task. Consequently, maps caused the employment of a map-oriented reference frame found in memory for highly familiar urban environments ruling out explanations from environmental structure or north preference. When learning from navigation first and then from the map, the pattern of results reversed and participants employed a navigation-based reference frame. The priority of learning order suggests that despite considerable difference between map and navigation learning participants did not use the more salient or in general more useful information, but relied on the reference frame established first. PMID:25416007

  1. Rest frame of bubble nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, Jaume; Kanno, Sugumi; Tanaka, Takahiro E-mail: sugumi@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum bubbles nucleate at rest with a certain critical size and subsequently expand. But what selects the rest frame of nucleation? This question has been recently addressed in [1] in the context of Schwinger pair production in 1+1 dimensions, by using a model detector in order to probe the nucleated pairs. The analysis in [1] showed that, for a constant external electric field, the adiabatic ''in'' vacuum of charged particles is Lorentz invariant, (and in this) case pairs tend to nucleate preferentially at rest with respect to the detector. Here, we sharpen this picture by showing that the typical relative velocity between the frame of nucleation and that of the detector is at most of order Δv ∼ S{sub E}{sup −1/3} << 1. Here, S{sub E} >> 1 is the action of the instanton describing pair creation. The bound Δv coincides with the minimum uncertainty in the velocity of a non-relativistic charged particle embedded in a constant electric field. A velocity of order Δv is reached after a time interval of order Δt ∼ S{sub E}{sup −1/3}r{sub 0} << r{sub 0} past the turning point in the semiclassical trajectory, where r{sub 0} is the size of the instanton. If the interaction takes place in the vicinity of the turning point, the semiclassical description of collision does not apply. Nonetheless, we find that even in this case there is still a strong asymmetry in the momentum transferred from the nucleated particles to the detector, in the direction of expansion after the turning point. We conclude that the correlation between the rest frame of nucleation and that of the detector is exceedingly sharp.

  2. Language use depending on news frame and immigrant origin.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Itziar; Igartua, Juan-José; Moral, Félix; Palacios, Elena; Acosta, Tania; Muñoz, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the media on individuals' specific language use in relation to a news story on immigration: the influence of the news frame and group cue. Abstraction, complexity of language use, and negative affective language were evaluated. The 523 participants were randomly distributed to each of the four experimental conditions: news frame (crime versus economic contribution) by group cue (geographical origin of the immigrants involved: Moroccans versus Latin Americans). Through content analysis of the ideas and reflections that arose after the participants read the different news stories, using the Linguistic Category Model (LCM; Semin & Fiedler, 1991) to measure abstract language and the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker, Booth, & Francis, 2007) to analyze complex language and negative affective language, it emerged that abstract language and negative affective language were more frequent in the participants assigned to the news frame on crime. Complex language was more commonly used when the news frame referred to the economic contribution of immigrants. Regression analyses showed the mediating role of attitude to immigration in the effects of news frame on negative affective language. The bootstrap method was used to assess the magnitude of the indirect effect. A significant mediator effect was also found through structural equation modeling. Analyses of covariance showed one interaction between news frame and group cue: Among those who read the news story in a frame linking immigration to crime and Moroccan origin, abstract language was more characteristic. The results are discussed from the theoretical perspective of framing. PMID:23113573

  3. Informative frame detection from wireless capsule video endoscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashar, Md. Khayrul; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mekada, Yoshito

    2008-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a new clinical technology permitting the visualization of the small bowel, the most difficult segment of the digestive tract. The major drawback of this technology is the high amount of time for video diagnosis. In this study, we propose a method for informative frame detection by isolating useless frames that are substantially covered by turbid fluids or their contamination with other materials, e.g., faecal, semi-processed or unabsorbed foods etc. Such materials and fluids present a wide range of colors, from brown to yellow, and/or bubble-like texture patterns. The detection scheme, therefore, consists of two stages: highly contaminated non-bubbled (HCN) frame detection and significantly bubbled (SB) frame detection. Local color moments in the Ohta color space are used to characterize HCN frames, which are isolated by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier in Stage-1. The rest of the frames go to the Stage-2, where Laguerre gauss Circular Harmonic Functions (LG-CHFs) extract the characteristics of the bubble-structures in a multi-resolution framework. An automatic segmentation method is designed to extract the bubbled regions based on local absolute energies of the CHF responses, derived from the grayscale version of the original color image. Final detection of the informative frames is obtained by using threshold operation on the extracted regions. An experiment with 20,558 frames from the three videos shows the excellent average detection accuracy (96.75%) by the proposed method, when compared with the Gabor based- (74.29%) and discrete wavelet based features (62.21%).

  4. Reference frames and reference networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosy, Jaroslaw; Krynski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The summary of research activities concerning reference frames and reference networks performed in Poland in a period of 2011-2014 is presented. It contains the results of research on implementation of IUGG2011 and IAU2012 resolutions on reference systems, implementation of the ETRS89 in Poland, operational work of permanent IGS/ EUREF stations in Poland, operational work of ILRS laser ranging station in Poland, active GNSS station networks in Poland, maintenance of vertical control in Poland, maintenance and modernization of gravity control, and maintenance of magnetic control in Poland. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.

  5. Entangled light in moving frames

    SciTech Connect

    Gingrich, Robert M.; Bergou, Attila J.; Adami, Christoph

    2003-10-01

    We calculate the entanglement between a pair of polarization-entangled photon beams as a function of the reference frame, in a fully relativistic framework. We find the transformation law for helicity basis states and show that, while it is frequency independent, a Lorentz transformation on a momentum-helicity eigenstate produces a momentum-dependent phase. This phase leads to changes in the reduced polarization density matrix, such that entanglement is either decreased or increased, depending on the boost direction, the rapidity, and the spread of the beam.

  6. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  7. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  8. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  9. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  10. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  11. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  12. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…

  13. Non-Syntactic Antecedents and Frame Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensler, Orin

    A polemic is made for frame semantics and the linguistic phenomenon of anaphoric reference without noun phrase (NP) antecedent is examined within this frame. Non-syntactic anaphora is that which does not point out into the real world but rather points back into the discourse in a frame which has been built up between the speaker and hearer in a…

  14. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  15. Influence of framing on medical decision making

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience. PMID:27034630

  16. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  17. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  18. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  19. Simultaneous message framing and error detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, A. H., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Circuitry simultaneously inserts message framing information and detects noise errors in binary code data transmissions. Separate message groups are framed without requiring both framing bits and error-checking bits, and predetermined message sequence are separated from other message sequences without being hampered by intervening noise.

  20. From Game Protection to Wildlife Management: Frame Shifts, Organizational Development, and Field Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brulle, Robert J.; Benford, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    One enduring question in social movements research is the relationship between cultural representations and organizational structure. In this article, we examine the development of different discursive frames over time, and how such frame shifts affect movement structure and practices. This approach seeks to illuminate the dialectical interplay…

  1. Frame by Frame II: A Filmography of the African American Image, 1978-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotman, Phyllis R.; Gibson, Gloria J.

    A reference guide on African American film professionals, this book is a companion volume to the earlier "Frame by Frame I." It focuses on giving credit to African Americans who have contributed their talents to a film industry that has scarcely recognized their contributions, building on the aforementioned "Frame by Frame I," which included…

  2. A multi-frame, megahertz CCd imager

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jacob; Balzer, Stephen; Watson, Scott; Reich, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To record high-speed, explosively driven, events, a high efficiency, high speed, imager has been fabricated which is capable of framing rates of 2 MHz. This device utilizes a 512 x 512 pixel charge coupled device (CCD) with a 25cm{sup 2} active area, and incorporates an electronic shutter technology designed for back-illuminated CCD's, making this the largest and fastest back-illuminated CCD in the world. Characterizing an imager capable of this frame rate presents unique challenges. High speed LED drivers and intense radioactive sources are needed to perform the most basic measurements. We investigate properties normally associated with single-frame CCD's such as read noise, full-well capacity, sensitivity, signal to noise ratio, linearity and dynamic range. In addition, we investigate several properties associated with the imager's multi-frame operation such as transient frame response and frame-to-frame isolation while contrasting our measurement techniques and results with more conventional devices.

  3. A multi-frame, megahertz CCD imager

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jacob A; Balzer, Stephen J; Watson, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    A high-efficiency, high-speed imager has been fabricated capable of framing rates of 2 MHz. This device utilizes a 512 x 512 pixel charge coupled device (CCD) with a 25cmZ active area, and incorporates an electronic shutter technology designed for back-illuminated CCD's, making this the largest and fastest back-illuminated CCD in the world. Characterizing an imager capable of this frame rate presents unique challenges. High speed LED drivers and intense radioactive sources are needed to perform basic measurements. We investigate properties normally associated with single-frame CCD's such as read noise, gain, full-well capacity, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), sensitivity, and linearity. In addition, we investigate several properties associated with the imager's multi-frame operation such as transient frame response and frame-to-frame isolation while contrasting our measurement techniques and results with more conventional devices.

  4. 31. Interior of fabrication buildingnote pipe truss and timber framing. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Interior of fabrication building-note pipe truss and timber framing. Railway to move vessels in and out of structure. Flying bridge roof of barbour-built vessel Stardust (#1) to right. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  5. Framing Educational Success: A Comparative Study of Shanghai and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2011-01-01

    In the light of the global trends towards international assessment, inter-country comparison and policy convergence, this article critically discusses the contextual factors that influence educational success in Shanghai and Singapore. Focussing on the structural and cultural frames, this article maintains that the educational achievement in…

  6. Recursive Frame Analysis: A Practitioner's Tool for Mapping Therapeutic Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    Recursive frame analysis (RFA), both a practical therapeutic tool and an advanced qualitative research method that maps the structure of therapeutic conversation, is introduced with a clinical case vignette. We present and illustrate a means of mapping metaphorical themes that contextualize the performance taking place in the room, recursively…

  7. Onboard centralized frame tree database for intelligent space operations of the Mars Science Laboratory Rover.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won S; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio; Peters, Stephen F; Carsten, Joseph L; Leger, Chris

    2014-11-01

    Planetary surface science operations performed by robotic space systems frequently require pointing cameras at various objects and moving a robotic arm end effector tool toward specific targets. Earlier NASA Mars Exploration Rovers did not have the ability to compute actual coordinates for given object coordinate frame names and had to be provided with explicit coordinates. Since it sometimes takes hours to more than a day to get final approval of certain calculated coordinates for command uplink via the Earth-based mission operations procedures, a highly desired enhancement for future rovers was to have the onboard automated capability to compute the coordinates for a given frame name. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission is the first to have a centralized coordinate transform database to maintain the knowledge of spatial relations. This onboard intelligence significantly simplifies communication and control between Earth-based human mission operators and the robotic rover on Mars by supporting higher level abstraction of commands using object and target names instead of coordinates. More specifically, the spatial relations of many object frames are represented hierarchically in a tree data structure, called the frame tree. Individual frame transforms are populated by their respective modules that have specific knowledge of the frames. Through this onboard centralized frame tree database, client modules can query transforms between any two frames and support spacecraft commands that use any frames maintained in the frame tree. Various operational examples in the MSL mission that have greatly benefitted from this onboard centralized frame tree database are presented. PMID:25330473

  8. Parallel integrated frame synchronizer chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghuman, Parminder Singh (Inventor); Solomon, Jeffrey Michael (Inventor); Bennett, Toby Dennis (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A parallel integrated frame synchronizer which implements a sequential pipeline process wherein serial data in the form of telemetry data or weather satellite data enters the synchronizer by means of a front-end subsystem and passes to a parallel correlator subsystem or a weather satellite data processing subsystem. When in a CCSDS mode, data from the parallel correlator subsystem passes through a window subsystem, then to a data alignment subsystem and then to a bit transition density (BTD)/cyclical redundancy check (CRC) decoding subsystem. Data from the BTD/CRC decoding subsystem or data from the weather satellite data processing subsystem is then fed to an output subsystem where it is output from a data output port.

  9. Quantum decoherence in noninertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang

    2010-09-01

    Quantum decoherence, which appears when a system interacts with its environment in an irreversible way, plays a fundamental role in the description of quantum-to-classical transitions and has been successfully applied in some important experiments. Here, we study the decoherence in noninertial frames. It is shown that the decoherence and loss of the entanglement generated by the Unruh effect will influence each other remarkably. It is interesting to note that, in the case of the total system under decoherence, the sudden death of entanglement may appear for any acceleration. However, in the case of only Rob’s qubit undergoing decoherence, sudden death may only occur when the acceleration parameter is greater than a “critical point.”

  10. Moving frames and prolongation algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1982-01-01

    Differential ideals generated by sets of 2-forms which can be written with constant coefficients in a canonical basis of 1-forms are considered. By setting up a Cartan-Ehresmann connection, in a fiber bundle over a base space in which the 2-forms live, one finds an incomplete Lie algebra of vector fields in the fields in the fibers. Conversely, given this algebra (a prolongation algebra), one can derive the differential ideal. The two constructs are thus dual, and analysis of either derives properties of both. Such systems arise in the classical differential geometry of moving frames. Examples of this are discussed, together with examples arising more recently: the Korteweg-de Vries and Harrison-Ernst systems.