Science.gov

Sample records for stellar velocity field

  1. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism.We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) = (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) = (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star...

  2. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-07-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism. We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (VX,VY,VZ)=(10.5,18.5,7.3)+/-0.1 km s-1 not corrected for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (VX,VY,VZ)=(9.9,15.6,6.9)+/-0.2 km s-1. The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star. The Oort parameters determined by a straightforward least-squares adjustment in vector spherical harmonics are A=14.0+/-1.4, B=-13.1+/-1.2, K=1.1+/-1.8, and C=-2.9+/-1.4 km s-1 kpc-1. The physical meaning and the implications of these parameters are discussed in the framework of a general linear model of the velocity field. We find a few statistically significant higher degree harmonic terms that do not correspond to any parameters in the classical linear model. One of them, a third-degree electric harmonic, is tentatively explained as the response to a negative linear gradient of rotation velocity with distance from the Galactic plane, which we estimate at ~-20 km s-1 kpc-1. A similar vertical gradient of rotation velocity has been detected for more distant stars representing the thick disk (z>1 kpc), but here we surmise its existence in the thin disk at z<200 pc. The most unexpected and unexplained term within

  3. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism. We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not corrected for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star. The Oort parameters determined by a straightforward least-squares adjustment in vector spherical harmonics are A=14.0 +/- 1.4, B=13.1 +/- 1.2, K=1.1 +/- 1.8, and C=2.9 +/- 1.4 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). The physical meaning and the implications of these parameters are discussed in the framework of a general linear model of the velocity field. We find a few statistically significant higher degree harmonic terms that do not correspond to any parameters in the classical linear model. One of them, a third-degree electric harmonic, is tentatively explained as the response to a negative linear gradient of rotation velocity with distance from the Galactic plane, which we estimate at approximately -20 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). A similar vertical gradient of rotation velocity has been detected for more distant stars representing the thick disk (z greater than 1 kpc

  4. The stellar wind velocity field of HD 77581

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manousakis, A.; Walter, R.

    2015-12-01

    Aims: The early acceleration of stellar winds in massive stars is poorly constrained. The scattering of hard X-ray photons emitted by the pulsar in the high-mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 can be used to probe the stellar wind velocity and density profile close to the surface of its supergiant companion HD 77581. Methods: We built a high signal-to-noise and high resolution hard X-ray lightcurve of Vela X-1 measured by Swift/BAT over 300 orbital periods of the system and compared it with the predictions of a grid of hydrodynamic simulations. Results: We obtain very good agreement between observations and simulations for a narrow set of parameters, implying that the wind velocity close to the stellar surface is twice higher than usually assumed with the standard beta law. Locally a velocity gradient of β ~ 0.5 is favoured. Even if still incomplete, hydrodynamic simulations successfully reproduce several observational properties of Vela X-1.

  5. Analysis of the three-dimensional stellar velocity field using vector spherical functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vityazev, V. V.; Tsvetkov, A. S.

    2009-02-01

    We apply vector spherical functions to problems of stellar kinematics. Using these functions allows all of the systematic components in the stellar velocity field to be revealed without being attached to a specific physical model. Comparison of the theoretical decomposition coefficients of the equations for a particular kinematical model with observational data can provide precise information about whether the model is compatible with the observations and can reveal systematic components that are not described by this model. The formalism of vector spherical functions is particularly well suited for analyzing the present and future (e.g., GAIA) catalogs containing all three velocity vector components: the propermotions in both coordinates and the radial velocity. We show that there are systematic components in the proper motions of Hipparcos stars that cannot be interpreted in terms of the linear Ogorodnikov-Milne model. The same result is also confirmed by an analysis of the radial velocities for these stars.

  6. Disk Galaxy Stellar Velocity Ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, M. A.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Andersen, D. R.; Swaters, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    We have measured the disk stellar velocity ellipsoids in a subset of spiral galaxies observed for the Disk-Mass Survey, which provide information on disk stability and secular heating mechanisms. Our methodology invokes our 2D ionized gas and stellar kinematics and a suite of dynamical assumptions based on the Jeans' equations. When combined with orthogonal axes from our 2D data, either the epicycle approximation (EA) or asymmetric drift (AD) equation may close the necessary equation set, individually. We have isolated large observational and inherent systematic effects via EA-only, AD-only, and EA+AD ellipsoid decomposition methodologies. In an attempt to minimize these effects and generate robust ellipsoid measurements we explore constraints provided by higher order expansions of the Jeans' equations and direct orbital integrations. We compare our best ellipsoid axial ratio estimates to similar measurements made by, e.g., van der Kruit & de Grijs (1999, A&A, 352, 129) and Shapiro et al. (2003, AJ, 126, 2707). Finally, we discuss possibilities for the measurement of vertical velocity dispersions in low-surface-brightness galaxies by applying the characterization of the stellar velocity ellipsoid in late-type galaxies. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (AST-0607516).

  7. Kinematic alignment of non-interacting CALIFA galaxies. Quantifying the impact of bars on stellar and ionised gas velocity field orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; García-Lorenzo, B.; van de Ven, G.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Spekkens, K.; Lyubenova, M.; Sánchez, S. F.; Husemann, B.; Mast, D.; García-Benito, R.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Del Olmo, A.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Kehrig, C.; Marino, R. A.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Ziegler, B.; McIntosh, D. H.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Walcher, C. J.; Califa Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    We present 80 stellar and ionised gas velocity maps from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey in order to characterise the kinematic orientation of non-interacting galaxies. The study of galaxies in isolation is a key step towards understanding how fast-external processes, such as major mergers, affect kinematic properties in galaxies. We derived the global and individual (projected approaching and receding sides) kinematic position angles (PAs) for both the stellar and ionised gas line-of-sight velocity distributions. When compared to the photometric PA, we find that morpho-kinematic differences are smaller than 22 degrees in 90% of the sample for both stellar and nebular components and that internal kinematic misalignments are generally smaller than 16 degrees. We find a tight relation between the global stellar and ionised gas kinematic PA consistent with circular-flow pattern motions in both components (~90% of the sample has differences smaller than 16 degrees). This relation also holds, generally in barred galaxies across the bar and galaxy disc scales. Our findings suggest that even in the presence of strong bars, both the stellar and the gaseous components tend to follow the gravitational potential of the disc. As a result, kinematic orientation can be used to assess the degree of external distortions in interacting galaxies. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Magnetic Fields in Stellar Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartigan, Patrick; Frank, Adam; Varniére, Peggy; Blackman, Eric G.

    2007-06-01

    Although several lines of evidence suggest that jets from young stars are driven magnetically from accretion disks, existing observations of field strengths in the bow shocks of these flows imply that magnetic fields play only a minor role in the dynamics at these locations. To investigate this apparent discrepancy we performed numerical simulations of expanding magnetized jets with stochastically variable input velocities with the AstroBEAR MHD code. Because the magnetic field B is proportional to the density n within compression and rarefaction regions, the magnetic signal speed drops in rarefactions and increases in the compressed areas of velocity-variable flows. In contrast, B~n0.5 for a steady state conical flow with a toroidal field, so the Alfvén speed in that case is constant along the entire jet. The simulations show that the combined effects of shocks, rarefactions, and divergent flow cause magnetic fields to scale with density as an intermediate power 1>p>0.5. Because p>0.5, the Alfvén speed in rarefactions decreases on average as the jet propagates away from the star. Hence, a typical Alfvén velocity in the jet close to the star is significantly larger than it is in the rarefactions ahead of bow shocks at larger distances. We find that the observed values of weak fields at large distances are consistent with strong fields required to drive the observed mass loss close to the star. Typical velocity perturbations, which form shocks at large distances, will produce only magnetic waves close to the star. For a typical stellar jet the crossover point inside which velocity perturbations of 30-40 km s-1 no longer produce shocks is ~300 AU from the source.

  9. Radial Velocity Planet Detection Biases at the Stellar Rotational Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Plavchan, Peter; Asher Johnson, John; Ciardi, David R.; Swift, Jonathan; Kane, Stephen R.

    2016-04-01

    Future generations of precise radial velocity (RV) surveys aim to achieve sensitivity sufficient to detect Earth mass planets orbiting in their stars' habitable zones. A major obstacle to this goal is astrophysical radial velocity noise caused by active areas moving across the stellar limb as a star rotates. In this paper, we quantify how stellar activity impacts exoplanet detection with radial velocities as a function of orbital and stellar rotational periods. We perform data-driven simulations of how stellar rotation affects planet detectability and compile and present relations for the typical timescale and amplitude of stellar radial velocity noise as a function of stellar mass. We show that the characteristic timescales of quasi-periodic radial velocity jitter from stellar rotational modulations coincides with the orbital period of habitable zone exoplanets around early M-dwarfs. These coincident periods underscore the importance of monitoring the targets of RV habitable zone planet surveys through simultaneous photometric measurements for determining rotation periods and activity signals, and mitigating activity signals using spectroscopic indicators and/or RV measurements at different wavelengths.

  10. High Precision Measurement of Stellar Radial Velocity Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    A prototype instrument for measurement of stellar radial velocity variations to a precision of a few meters per second is discussed. The instrument will be used to study low amplitude stellar non-radial oscillations, to search for binary systems with large mass ratios, and ultimately to search for extrasolar planetary systems. The instrument uses a stable Fabry-Perot etalon, in reflection, to impose a set of fixed reference absorption lines on the stellar spectrum before it enters the coude spectrograph of the McDonald Observatory 2.7-m telescope. The spectrum is recorded on the Octicon detector, which consists of eight Reticon arrays placed end to end. Radial velocity variations of the star are detected by measuring the shift of the stellar lines with respect the artificial Fabry-Perot lines, and correcting for the known motions in the solar system.

  11. Principal velocity surfaces in stellar dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynden-Bell, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recent work by An and Evans has revived interest in the coordinate surfaces that lie along the principal axes of the stress tensor. Here we complete our list of non-axially symmetric systems with local integrals and prove that those principal velocity surfaces exist for all systems with three local integrals. We then demonstrate how systems in non-separable potentials evade the Eddington-An theorem by having distribution functions that lack perfect reflection symmetry in a meridional velocity component, and discuss other consequences of this remarkable theorem.

  12. Radial velocity planet detection biases at the stellar rotational period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Plavchan, Peter; Johnson, John Asher; Ciardi, David R.; Swift, Jonathan; Kane, Stephen R.

    2016-07-01

    Future generations of precise radial velocity (RV) surveys aim to achieve sensitivity sufficient to detect Earth mass planets orbiting in their stars' habitable zones. A major obstacle to this goal is astrophysical RV noise caused by active areas moving across the stellar limb as a star rotates. In this paper, we quantify how stellar activity impacts exoplanet detection with radial velocities as a function of orbital and stellar rotational periods. We perform data-driven simulations of how stellar rotation affects planet detectability and compile and present relations for the typical time-scale and amplitude of stellar RV noise as a function of stellar mass. We show that the characteristic time-scales of quasi-periodic RV jitter from stellar rotational modulations coincides with the orbital period of habitable-zone exoplanets around early M-dwarfs. These coincident periods underscore the importance of monitoring the targets of RV habitable-zone planet surveys through simultaneous photometric measurements for determining rotation periods and activity signals, and mitigating activity signals using spectroscopic indicators and/or RV measurements at different wavelengths.

  13. Stellar Rotation and Precise Radial Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, D. F.

    Two aspects will be considered. First, I will view the spectroscopic measurement of rotation rates as a differential precision radial velocity: how do we get rotation rates; what are the uncertainties stemming from differential rotation, time variable profiles caused by spots, uncertain limb darkening, and the presence of macroturbulence? What do we even mean by the rotation rate when there is differential rotation? Second, I will discuss the effects of rotation on specifying the precise position of spectral lines, i.e., the classical radial velocity of a star. I will present some thoughts on the effects of having our sharp markers of the Doppler effect degraded by rotation, the meaning of line position when the Doppler effects of rotation and convection interact, and the altered shapes of composite spectrum features with increased rotational smearing.

  14. Stellar velocity dispersion in dissipative galaxy mergers with star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Stickley, Nathaniel R.; Canalizo, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    In order to better understand stellar dynamics in merging systems, such as NGC 6240, we examine the evolution of central stellar velocity dispersion (σ{sub *}) in dissipative galaxy mergers using a suite of binary disk merger simulations that include feedback from stellar formation and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that σ{sub *} undergoes the same general stages of evolution that were observed in our previous dissipationless simulations: coherent oscillation, then phase mixing, followed by dynamical equilibrium. We also find that measurements of σ{sub *} that are based only upon the youngest stars in simulations consistently yield lower values than measurements based upon the total stellar population. This finding appears to be consistent with the so-called 'σ{sub *} discrepancy', observed in real galaxies. We note that quasar-level AGN activity is much more likely to occur when σ{sub *} is near its equilibrium value rather than during periods of extreme σ{sub *}. Finally, we provide estimates of the scatter inherent in measuring σ{sub *} in ongoing mergers.

  15. Starspot-Induced Radial Velocity Jitter During a Stellar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Heidi; Andersen, Jan Marie; Järvinen, Silva

    2014-04-01

    Late-type stars exhibit cool regions on their surface, the stellar equivalent of sunspots. These dark starspots can also mimic the radial velocity variations caused by orbiting planets, making it at times difficult to distinguish between planets and activity signatures. The amount of spots on the Sun and other cool stars changes cyclically during an activity cycle, which has length varying from about a year to longer than the solar 11 years. In this work we investigate the influence of varying amount of starspots on the sparsely sampled radial velocity observations - which are the norm in the radial velocity studies searching for exoplanets on wide orbits. We study two simulated cases: one with a random spot configuration, and one where the spot occurrence is concentrated. In addition we use Doppler images of young solar analogue V889 Her as a high activity case.

  16. Short-period terrestrial planets and radial velocity stellar jitter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumusque, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Stellar jitter is the main limitation to ultra-precise radial velocity (RV) measurements. It currently precludes our ability to detect a planet like the Earth. Short-period terrestrial planets present first the advantage of inducing a stronger RV signal. In addition, the signal produced by these planets have a period completely different than stellar activity. This allows us, when the observational strategy is adequate, to decorrelate the planetary signal from the jitter induced by the star using filtering techniques. I will show the examples of Kepler-78b and Corot-7b, where the amplitude of the planetary signal can be detected, despite the stellar activity jitter that is 5 and 3 times larger, respectively. The cases of Alpha Cen Bb will also be reviewed, with a new reduction of the published data that increases the significance of the planetary signal.This project is funded by ETAEARTH, a transnational collaboration between European countries and the US (the Swiss Space Office, the Harvard Origin of Life Initiative, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the University of Geneva, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the Italian National Astrophysical Institute, the University of St. Andrews, Queens University Belfast, and the University of Edinburgh) setup to optimize the synergy between space-and ground-based data whose scientific potential for the characterization of extrasolar planets can only be fully exploited when analyzed together.

  17. Radial velocity fitting challenge. I. Simulating the data set including realistic stellar radial-velocity signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumusque, X.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Stellar signals are the main limitation for precise radial-velocity (RV) measurements. These signals arise from the photosphere of the stars. The m s-1 perturbation created by these signals prevents the detection and mass characterization of small-mass planetary candidates such as Earth-twins. Several methods have been proposed to mitigate stellar signals in RV measurements. However, without precisely knowing the stellar and planetary signals in real observations, it is extremely difficult to test the efficiency of these methods. Aims: The goal of the RV fitting challenge is to generate simulated RV data including stellar and planetary signals and to perform a blind test within the community to test the efficiency of the different methods proposed to recover planetary signals despite stellar signals. Methods: In this first paper, we describe the simulation used to model the measurements of the RV fitting challenge. Each simulated planetary system includes the signals from instrumental noise, stellar oscillations, granulation, supergranulation, stellar activity, and observed and simulated planetary systems. In addition to RV variations, this simulation also models the effects of instrumental noise and stellar signals on activity observables obtained by HARPS-type high-resolution spectrographs, that is, the calcium activity index log (R'HK) and the bisector span and full width at half maximum of the cross-correlation function. Results: We publish the 15 systems used for the RV fitting challenge including the details about the planetary systems that were injected into each of them. Based on observations collected at the La Silla Parana Observatory, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6-m telescope.The simulated data sets are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/593/A5 and at the wiki of the RV fitting challenge http://https://rv-challenge.wikispaces.com.

  18. Surface velocity fields from tidal interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenigsberger, Gloria; Moreno, Edmundo; Harrington, David

    2009-09-01

    Binary stars in eccentric orbits are the clearest example of stars whose equatorial rotation velocity is not synchronized with orbital motion. Under these conditions, the surface velocity field is perturbed from its purely rotational nature, thus modifying the shape of the observationally-detectable photospheric absorption lines on a variety of timescales. Absorption lines are used to derive basic stellar parameters and gain a better physical understanding of the star. Although their variability is often interpreted in terms of non-radial pulsation theory, it is important to understand the nature of the surface velocity fields that are induced by the tidal interactions alone, especially under conditions of rapid rotation and large orbital eccentricity, where the perturbations become highly non-linear. We use a time-marching numerical calculation from first principles to model the surface velocity field due to the tidal interaction (Moreno & Koenigsberger 1999; Toledano et al. 2007). This velocity field is then projected along the line-of-sight to the observer to predict the orbital phase-dependent line-profile variability (Moreno et al. 2005). We compare our model results with very high quality observational data of the B-type binary system α Vir (Spica, HD 116658, P = 4d, e = 0.1), whose variability has in the past been modeled in the context of non-radial pulsations (Smith 1985). Our model reproduces the general features of the observations (Harrington et al. 2009). It is interesting to note that because tidal flows are associated with viscous shear energy dissipation, the question arises as to whether the atmospheric structure of an asynchronously rotating binary star may be reliably modeled using techniques that disregard the dynamical effects on the stellar surface of the tidal interactions.

  19. The evolving velocity field around protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinch, Christian

    2008-10-01

    Using a hydrodynamical simulation of a gravitational collapse and subsequent disk formation, we calculate a time-resolved synthetic data set with a sophisticated molecular excitation and radiation transfer code. These synthetic data consist of a number of molecular gas emission lines that contains information about the density, temperature, and the velocity field. We use this simulated data set to asses how accurately we can extract information about the underlying velocity field from the lines with a simple parameterized velocity model. This model has only two free parameters, the central stellar mass and a geometric angle that describes the ratio of infall to rotation. We find that, by modeling the spectral lines, we can reliably and uniquely describe the underlying velocity field as given by the hydrodynamical simulation and we then assume that by applying the same parameterized model to real data, we can equally well determine the velocity field of observed young stellar objects. We observe two young sources, L1489 IRS in the Taurus star forming region and IRAS2A in NGC-1333. Both sources are observed with single dish telescopes (JCMT, OSO) and with the Submilimeter Array. For L1489~IRS, the interferometric observations reveal a kinematically distinct region on a scale of a few hundred AUs, dominated by rotation, which is still surrounded by some envelope material. Contrary to this, IRAS2A shows no sign of rotation despite the fact that a compact (disk) component is needed in order to interpret the continuum measurements. We do not detect this component in the velocity field and we conclude that IRAS2A is a considerably younger source than L1489 IRS. While this result is based on the gas flow alone, it is entirely consistent with the current classification of IRAS2A as a Class 0 object and L1489~IRS as a Class I object. This thesis also contains a treatment of CO depletion in the disk and envelope. Under certain temperature and density conditions, CO may freeze

  20. Measurement of surface velocity fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, J. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A new technique for measuring surface velocity fields is briefly described. It determines the surface velocity vector as a function of location and time by the analysis of thermal fluctuations of the surface profile in a small domain around the point of interest. The apparatus now being constructed will be used in a series of experiments involving flow fields established by temperature gradients imposed along a surface.

  1. Stellar velocity dispersions to z=2 and tests of stellar population models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franx, Marijn

    2015-08-01

    We have measured stellar velocity dispersions of non-starforming galaxies to a redshift of 2, and we augment our sample with values from literature. We find that the galaxies lie on a well-defined mass Fundamental Plane. We establish a simple relation between restframe colors and mass-to-light ratio, and we show that the M/L can be estimated to 0.25 dex from a single restframe color. In addition, we compare the relation between color with predictions from stellar population models. The galaxies span a wide range in restframe colors, and produce a stringest test of the models. Whereas this test is a classic test of the shape of the IMF, we find thatpopulation models from different authors show substantial differences, comparable to the variations between the predictions due to a different IMF. No single model reproduces the mass-to-light variations in the visual and near-infrared satisfactorily, and a broken IMF models produces the best results. Either the stellar populations are complex, or the models need modification.

  2. Estimating Stellar Radial Velocity Variability from Kepler and GALEX: Implications for the Radial Velocity Confirmation of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegla, H. M.; Stassun, K. G.; Watson, C. A.; Bastien, F. A.; Pepper, J.

    2014-01-01

    We cross match the GALEX and Kepler surveys to create a unique dataset with both ultraviolet (UV) measurements and highly precise photometric variability measurements in the visible light spectrum. As stellar activity is driven by magnetic field modulations, we have used UV emission from the magnetically heated gas in the stellar atmosphere to serve as our proxy for the more well-known stellar activity indicator, R' HK . The R' HK approximations were in turn used to estimate the level of astrophysical noise expected in radial velocity (RV) measurements and these were then searched for correlations with photometric variability. We find significant scatter in our attempts to estimate RV noise for magnetically active stars, which we attribute to variations in the phase and strength of the stellar magnetic cycle that drives the activity of these targets. However, for stars we deem to be magnetically quiet, we do find a clear correlation between photometric variability and estimated levels of RV noise (with variability up to ~10 m s-1). We conclude that for these quiet stars, we can use photometric measurements as a proxy to estimate the RV noise expected. As a result, the procedure outlined in this paper may help select targets best-suited for RV follow-up necessary for planet confirmation.

  3. Estimating stellar radial velocity variability from Kepler and GALEX: Implications for the radial velocity confirmation of exoplanets

    SciTech Connect

    Cegla, H. M.; Watson, C. A.; Stassun, K. G.; Bastien, F. A.; Pepper, J.

    2014-01-01

    We cross match the GALEX and Kepler surveys to create a unique dataset with both ultraviolet (UV) measurements and highly precise photometric variability measurements in the visible light spectrum. As stellar activity is driven by magnetic field modulations, we have used UV emission from the magnetically heated gas in the stellar atmosphere to serve as our proxy for the more well-known stellar activity indicator, R' {sub HK}. The R' {sub HK} approximations were in turn used to estimate the level of astrophysical noise expected in radial velocity (RV) measurements and these were then searched for correlations with photometric variability. We find significant scatter in our attempts to estimate RV noise for magnetically active stars, which we attribute to variations in the phase and strength of the stellar magnetic cycle that drives the activity of these targets. However, for stars we deem to be magnetically quiet, we do find a clear correlation between photometric variability and estimated levels of RV noise (with variability up to ∼10 m s{sup –1}). We conclude that for these quiet stars, we can use photometric measurements as a proxy to estimate the RV noise expected. As a result, the procedure outlined in this paper may help select targets best-suited for RV follow-up necessary for planet confirmation.

  4. The Stellar Kinematic Fields of NGC 3379

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statler, Thomas S.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy

    1999-02-01

    We have measured the stellar kinematic profiles of NGC 3379 along four position angles, using absorption lines in spectra obtained with the Multiple Mirror Telescope. We derive a far more detailed description of the kinematic fields through the main body of the galaxy than could be obtained from previous work. Our data extend 90" from the center, at essentially seeing-limited resolution out to 17". The derived mean velocities and dispersions have total errors (internal and systematic) better than +/-10 km s^-1, and frequently better than 5 km s^-1, out to 55". We find very weak (3 km s^-1) rotation on the minor axis interior to 12" and no detectable rotation above 6 km s^-1 from 12" to 50" or above 16 km s^-1 out to 90" (95% confidence limits). However, a Fourier reconstruction of the mean velocity field from all four sampled PAs does indicate a ~5 deg twist of the kinematic major axis, in the direction opposite to the known isophotal twist. The h_3 and h_4 parameters are found to be generally small over the entire observed region. The azimuthally averaged dispersion profile joins smoothly at large radii with the velocity dispersions of planetary nebulae. Unexpectedly, we find sharp bends in the major axis rotation curve, also visible (though less pronounced) on the diagonal position angles. The outermost bend closely coincides in position with other sharp kinematic features: an abrupt flattening of the dispersion profile, and local peaks in h_3 and h_4. All of these features are in a photometrically interesting region in which the surface brightness profile departs significantly from an r^1/4 law. Features such as these are not generally known in elliptical galaxies owing to a lack of data at comparable resolution. Very similar behavior, however, is seen the kinematics of the edge-on S0 galaxy NGC 3115. We discuss the suggestion that NGC 3379 could be a misclassified S0 galaxy; preliminary results from dynamical modeling indicate that it may be a flattened, weakly

  5. Preflare magnetic and velocity fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Gaizauskas, V.; Chapman, G. A.; Deloach, A. C.; Gary, G. A.; Jones, H. P.; Karpen, J. T.; Martres, M.-J.; Porter, J. G.; Schmeider, B.

    1986-01-01

    A characterization is given of the preflare magnetic field, using theoretical models of force free fields together with observed field structure to determine the general morphology. Direct observational evidence for sheared magnetic fields is presented. The role of this magnetic shear in the flare process is considered within the context of a MHD model that describes the buildup of magnetic energy, and the concept of a critical value of shear is explored. The related subject of electric currents in the preflare state is discussed next, with emphasis on new insights provided by direct calculations of the vertical electric current density from vector magnetograph data and on the role of these currents in producing preflare brightenings. Results from investigations concerning velocity fields in flaring active regions, describing observations and analyses of preflare ejecta, sheared velocities, and vortical motions near flaring sites are given. This is followed by a critical review of prevalent concepts concerning the association of flux emergence with flares

  6. Kriging interpolating cosmic velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie

    2015-10-01

    Volume-weighted statistics of large-scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of the uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in observed number density-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. Therefore, the exploration of velocity assignment methods with well-controlled sampling artifacts is of great importance. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number nk of the nearby particles to interpolate, and the density nP of the observed sample are investigated. First, we find that Kriging induces 1% and 3% systematics at k ˜0.1 h Mpc-1 when nP˜6 ×1 0-2(h-1 Mpc )-3 and nP˜6 ×1 0-3(h-1 Mpc )-3 , respectively. The deviation increases for decreasing nP and increasing k . When nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 , a smoothing effect dominates small scales, causing significant underestimation of the velocity power spectrum. Second, increasing nk helps to recover small-scale power. However, for nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 cases, the recovery is limited. Finally, Kriging is more sensitive to the variogram prior for a lower sample density. The most straightforward application of Kriging on the cosmic velocity field does not show obvious advantages over the nearest-particle method [Y. Zheng, P. Zhang, Y. Jing, W. Lin, and J. Pan, Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013)] and could not be directly applied to cosmology so far. However, whether potential improvements may be achieved by more delicate versions of Kriging is worth further investigation.

  7. STELLAR MASS VERSUS STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION: WHICH IS BETTER FOR LINKING GALAXIES TO THEIR DARK MATTER HALOS?

    SciTech Connect

    Li Cheng; Wang Lixin; Jing, Y. P.

    2013-01-01

    It was recently suggested that compared to its stellar mass (M{sub *}), the central stellar velocity dispersion ({sigma}{sub *}) of a galaxy might be a better indicator for its host dark matter halo mass. Here we test this hypothesis by estimating the dark matter halo mass for central galaxies in groups as a function of M{sub *} and {sigma}{sub *}. For this we have estimated the redshift-space cross-correlation function (CCF) between the central galaxies at given M{sub *} and {sigma}{sub *} and a reference galaxy sample, from which we determine both the projected CCF, w{sub p} (r{sub p} ), and the velocity dispersion profile. A halo mass is then obtained from the average velocity dispersion within the virial radius. At fixed M{sub *}, we find very weak or no correlation between halo mass and {sigma}{sub *}. In contrast, strong mass dependence is clearly seen even when {sigma}{sub *} is limited to a narrow range. Our results thus firmly demonstrate that the stellar mass of central galaxies is still a good (if not the best) indicator for dark matter halo mass, better than the stellar velocity dispersion. The dependence of galaxy clustering on {sigma}{sub *} at fixed M{sub *}, as recently discovered by Wake et al., may be attributed to satellite galaxies, for which the tidal stripping occurring within halos has stronger effect on stellar mass than on central stellar velocity dispersion.

  8. The StEllar Counterparts of COmpact high velocity clouds (SECCO) survey. I. Photos of ghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, M.; Beccari, G.; Battaglia, G.; Martin, N.; Testa, V.; Ibata, R.; Correnti, M.; Cusano, F.; Sani, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present an imaging survey that searches for the stellar counterparts of recently discovered ultra-compact high-velocity H i clouds (UCHVC). It has been proposed that these clouds are candidate mini-haloes in the Local Group and its surroundings within a distance range of 0.25-2.0 Mpc. Using the Large Binocular Telescope we obtained wide-field (≃ 23' × 23') g- and r-band images of the twenty-five most promising and most compact clouds amongst the fifty-nine that have been identified. Careful visual inspection of all the images does not reveal any stellar counterpart that even slightly resembles Leo P, the only local dwarf galaxy that was found as a counterpart to a previously detected high-velocity cloud. Only a possible distant (D> 3.0 Mpc) counterpart to HVC274.68+74.70-123 has been identified in our images. The point source photometry in the central 17.3' × 7.7' chips reaches r ≤ 26.5 and is expected to contain most of the stellar counterparts to the UCHVCs. However, no obvious stellar over-density is detected in any of our fields, in marked contrast to our comparison Leo P field, in which the dwarf galaxy is detected at a >30σ-significance level. Only HVC352.45+59.06+263 may be associated with a weak over-density, whose nature cannot be ascertained with our data. Sensitivity tests show that our survey would have detected any dwarf galaxy dominated by an old stellar population, with an integrated absolute magnitude of MV ≤ - 8.0 and a half-light radius of rh ≤ 300 pc that lies within 1.5 Mpc of us, thereby confirming that it is unlikely that the observed UCHVCs are associated with the stellar counterparts typical of known Local Group dwarf galaxies. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration amongst institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica

  9. The energy budget of stellar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, V.; Jardine, M.; Vidotto, A. A.; Donati, J.-F.; Folsom, C. P.; Boro Saikia, S.; Bouvier, J.; Fares, R.; Gregory, S. G.; Hussain, G.; Jeffers, S. V.; Marsden, S. C.; Morin, J.; Moutou, C.; do Nascimento, J. D.; Petit, P.; Rosén, L.; Waite, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations have been used to map stellar magnetic fields, many of which display strong bands of azimuthal fields that are toroidal. A number of explanations have been proposed to explain how such fields might be generated though none are definitive. In this paper, we examine the toroidal fields of a sample of 55 stars with magnetic maps, with masses in the range 0.1-1.5 M⊙. We find that the energy contained in toroidal fields has a power-law dependence on the energy contained in poloidal fields. However the power index is not constant across our sample, with stars less and more massive than 0.5 M⊙ having power indices of 0.72 ± 0.08 and 1.25 ± 0.06, respectively. There is some evidence that these two power laws correspond to stars in the saturated and unsaturated regimes of the rotation-activity relation. Additionally, our sample shows that strong toroidal fields must be generated axisymmetrically. The latitudes at which these bands appear depend on the stellar rotation period with fast rotators displaying higher latitude bands than slow rotators. The results in this paper present new constraints for future dynamo studies.

  10. Source of the Stellar Age-Velocity Dispersion Relation in Simulated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Drew; Christensen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the source of the stellar age-velocity dispersion relation using six high-resolution simulated galaxies. Observations show that velocity dispersion increases with stellar age. This trend is thought to be due to a combination of the evolution of the velocity dispersion of the interstellar media (ISM), interactions within the disk, and galactic mergers. Our simulated galaxies show redshift zero age-velocity dispersion relations consistent with those of observed galaxies. In order to determine how the velocity dispersion of stars evolves after their formation, we calculated the velocity dispersion versus the age of the stars at both redshift zero and at their time of formation. We found that while the ISM velocity dispersion evolves, it cannot be the sole source of the relation. Additionally, dwarf galaxies display a greater relative change in their velocity dispersion than more massive galaxies. Furthermore, we show that major mergers markedly increase the velocity dispersion of stars.

  11. Using mean polarization profiles to study stellar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorlin, Stephen L. S.

    2004-12-01

    Approximately 10-20% of moderate mass main sequence stars show marked chemical peculiarities. Characteristic chemical over- and underabundance patterns are well correlated with several physical attributes; most notably the existence or non-existence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields. The details of the origins of both the fields and abundance patterns are topics of continuing study, as are detailed descriptions of field structures in magnetic stars and the possible existence of magnetic fields in the canonically "non-magnetic" stars. We expect that mean spectral line profiles, calculated from entire stellar spectra in polarized and unpolarized light, will be useful in studying these topics. Circular spectropolarimetric observations of 74 survey stars were obtained using the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter in an attempt to detect magnetic fields. The sample observed includes normal B, A and F stars, emission-line B and A stars, Am stars, HgMn stars, l Boo stars and magnetic Ap stars. Using the multi-line analysis technique known as "Least-Squares Deconvolution" (LSD) to extract mean unpolarized (Stokes I ) and circularly polarized (Stokes V ) signatures from each spectrum, we find absolutely no evidence for magnetic fields in the normal, Am and HgMn stars, with considerably smaller upper limits on longitudinal field measurements than previously obtained for these objects. We conclude that if any magnetic fields exist in the photospheres of these stars, these fields are not ordered as in the magnetic Ap stars, nor do they resemble the fields of active late-type stars. We also detect for the first time a field in the A2pSr star HD 108945 and make new precise measurements of longitudinal fields in five previously known magnetic Ap stars, but do not detect fields in five other stars classified as Ap SrCrEu. Also presented is the first ever exploratory investigation into both the applicability of the LSD technique in analyzing stellar spectra, as well as an examination

  12. PROBABILISTIC CATALOGS FOR CROWDED STELLAR FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, Brendon J.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Hogg, David W.

    2013-07-01

    We present and implement a probabilistic (Bayesian) method for producing catalogs from images of stellar fields. The method is capable of inferring the number of sources N in the image and can also handle the challenges introduced by noise, overlapping sources, and an unknown point-spread function. The luminosity function of the stars can also be inferred, even when the precise luminosity of each star is uncertain, via the use of a hierarchical Bayesian model. The computational feasibility of the method is demonstrated on two simulated images with different numbers of stars. We find that our method successfully recovers the input parameter values along with principled uncertainties even when the field is crowded. We also compare our results with those obtained from the SExtractor software. While the two approaches largely agree about the fluxes of the bright stars, the Bayesian approach provides more accurate inferences about the faint stars and the number of stars, particularly in the crowded case.

  13. Probabilistic Catalogs for Crowded Stellar Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Brendon J.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Hogg, David W.

    2013-07-01

    We present and implement a probabilistic (Bayesian) method for producing catalogs from images of stellar fields. The method is capable of inferring the number of sources N in the image and can also handle the challenges introduced by noise, overlapping sources, and an unknown point-spread function. The luminosity function of the stars can also be inferred, even when the precise luminosity of each star is uncertain, via the use of a hierarchical Bayesian model. The computational feasibility of the method is demonstrated on two simulated images with different numbers of stars. We find that our method successfully recovers the input parameter values along with principled uncertainties even when the field is crowded. We also compare our results with those obtained from the SExtractor software. While the two approaches largely agree about the fluxes of the bright stars, the Bayesian approach provides more accurate inferences about the faint stars and the number of stars, particularly in the crowded case.

  14. MERIDIONAL TILT OF THE STELLAR VELOCITY ELLIPSOID DURING BAR BUCKLING INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Kanak; Pfenniger, Daniel; Taam, Ronald E.

    2013-02-20

    The structure and evolution of the stellar velocity ellipsoid play an important role in shaping galaxies undergoing bar-driven secular evolution and the eventual formation of a boxy/peanut bulge such as is present in the Milky Way. Using collisionless N-body simulations, we show that during the formation of such a boxy/peanut bulge, the meridional shear stress of stars, which can be measured by the meridional tilt of the velocity ellipsoid, reaches a characteristic peak in its time evolution. It is shown that the onset of a bar buckling instability is closely connected to the maximum meridional tilt of the stellar velocity ellipsoid. Our findings bring a new insight to this complex gravitational instability of the bar which complements the buckling instability studies based on orbital models. We briefly discuss the observed diagnostics of the stellar velocity ellipsoid during such a phenomenon.

  15. Measuring the Stellar Halo Velocity Anisotropy With 3D Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Emily C.; Deason, Alis J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Rockosi, Constance M.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Sohn, S. Tony

    2016-08-01

    We present the first measurement of the anisotropy parameter β using 3D kinematic information outside of the solar neighborhood. Our sample consists of 13 Milky Way halo stars with measured proper motions and radial velocities in the line of sight of M31. Proper motions were measured using deep, multi-epoch HST imaging, and radial velocities were measured from Keck II/DEIMOS spectra. We measure β = -0.3-0.9 +0.4, which is consistent with isotropy, and inconsistent with measurements in the solar neighborhood. We suggest that this may be the kinematic signature of a relatively early, massive accretion event, or perhaps several such events.

  16. On Animating 2D Velocity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Pang, Alex; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A velocity field, even one that represents a steady state flow, implies a dynamical system. Animated velocity fields is an important tool in understanding such complex phenomena. This paper looks at a number of techniques that animate velocity fields and propose two new alternatives. These are texture advection and streamline cycling. The common theme among these techniques is the use of advection on some texture to generate a realistic animation of the velocity field. Texture synthesis and selection for these methods are presented. Strengths and weaknesses of the techniques are also discussed in conjunctions with several examples.

  17. On Animating 2D Velocity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Pang, Alex

    2000-01-01

    A velocity field. even one that represents a steady state flow implies a dynamical system. Animated velocity fields is an important tool in understanding such complex phenomena. This paper looks at a number of techniques that animate velocity fields and propose two new alternatives, These are texture advection and streamline cycling. The common theme among these techniques is the use of advection on some texture to generate a realistic animation of the velocity field. Texture synthesis and selection for these methods are presented. Strengths and weaknesses of the techniques are also discussed in conjunction with several examples.

  18. New GNSS velocity field and preliminary velocity model for Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Ludeña, Marco P.; Staller, Alejandra; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge M.; Belén Benito, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present a new preliminary velocity model of Ecuador based on the GNSS data of the REGME network (continuous monitoring GNSS network). To date, there is no velocity model available for the country. The only existing model in the zone is the regional model VEMOS2009 for South America and Caribbean (Drewes and Heidbach, 2012). This model was developed from the SIRGAS station positions, the velocities of the SIRGAS-CON stations, and several geodynamics projects performed in the region. Just two continuous GNSS (cGNSS) stations of Ecuador were taking into account in the VEMOS2009 model. The first continuous station of the REGME network was established in 2008. At present, it is composed by 32 continuous GNSS stations, covering the country. All the stations provided data during at least two years. We processed the data of the 32 GNSS stations of REGME for the 2008-2014 period, as well as 20 IGS stations in order to link to the global reference frame IGb08 (ITRF2008). GPS data were processed using Bernese 5.0 software (Dach et al., 2007). We obtained and analyzed the GNSS coordinate time series of the 32 REGME stations and we calculated the GPS-derived horizontal velocity field of the country. Velocities in ITRF2008 were transformed into a South American fixed reference frame, using the Euler pole calculated from 8 cGNSS stations throughout this plate. Our velocity field is consistent with the tectonics of the country and contributes to a better understanding of it. From the horizontal velocity field, we determined a preliminary model using the kriging geostatistical technique. To check the results we use the cross-validation method. The differences between the observed and estimated values range from ± 5 mm. This is a new velocity model obtained from GNSS data for Ecuador.

  19. Interval velocity analysis using wave field continuation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhusheng, Z. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author proposes a new interval velocity inversion method which, based on wave field continuation theory and fuzzy decision theory, uses CMP seismic gathers to automatically estimate interval velocity and two-way travel time in layered medium. The interval velocity calculated directly from wave field continuation is not well consistent with that derived from VSP data, the former is usually higher than the latter. Three major factors which influence the accuracy of interval velocity from wave field continuation are corrected, so that the two kinds of interval velocity are well consistent. This method brings better interval velocity, adapts weak reflection waves and resists noise well. It is a feasible method.

  20. Binary stellar winds. [flow and magnetic field interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siscoe, G. L.; Heinemann, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    Stellar winds from a binary star will interact with each other along a contact discontinuity. We discuss qualitatively the geometry of the flow and field resulting from this interaction in the simplest case where the stars and winds are identical. We consider the shape of the critical surface (defined as the surface where the flow speed is equal to the sound speed) as a function of stellar separation and the role of shock waves in the flow field. The effect of stellar spin and magnetic sectors on the field configuration is given. The relative roles of mass loss and magnetic torque in the evolution of orbital parameters are discussed.

  1. Binary stellar winds. [flow and magnetic field geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siscoe, G. L.; Heinemann, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    Stellar winds from a binary star pair will interact with each other along a contact discontinuity. We discuss qualitatively the geometry of the flow and field resulting from this interaction in the simplest case where the stars and winds are identical. We consider the shape of the critical surface (defined as the surface where the flow speed is equal to the sound speed) as a function of stellar separation and the role of shock waves in the flow field. The effect of stellar spin and magnetic sectors on the field configuration is given. The relative roles of mass loss and magnetic torque in the evolution of orbital parameters is discussed.

  2. The stellar wind velocity function for red supergiants determined in eclipsing binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Imad A.; Stencel, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    The potential for direct measurement of the acceleration of stellar winds from the supergiant component of Zeta Aurigae-type binary stars is discussed. The aberration angle of the interaction shock cone centered on the hot star provides a measure of the velocity of the cool star wind at the orbit of the secondary. This is confirmed by direct observations of stellar wind (P Cygni) line profile variations. This velocity is generally smaller than the final (terminal) velocity of the wind, deduced from the P Cygni line profiles. The contrast between these results and previously published supergiant wind models is discussed. The implication on the physics of energy source dissipation predicted in the theoretical models is considered.

  3. Velocity asymmetries in young stellar object jets. Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakos, T.; Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K.; Karampelas, K.; Sauty, C.; Cayatte, V.; Matt, S. P.; Massaglia, S.; Trussoni, E.; Mignone, A.

    2012-09-01

    Context. It is well established that some YSO jets (e.g. RW Aur) display different propagation speeds between their blue and red shifted parts, a feature possibly associated with the central engine or the environment in which the jet propagates. Aims: To understand the origin of asymmetric YSO jet velocities, we investigate the efficiency of two candidate mechanisms, one based on the intrinsic properties of the system and the other on the role of the external medium. In particular, a parallel or anti-parallel configuration between the protostellar magnetosphere and the disk magnetic field is considered, and the resulting dynamics examined both in an ideal and in a resistive magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) regime. Moreover, we explore the effects of a potential difference in the pressure of the environment, as a consequence of the nonuniform density distribution of molecular clouds. Methods: Ideal and resistive axisymmetric numerical simulations were carried out for a variety of models, all of which are based on a combination of two analytical solutions, a disk wind and a stellar outflow. The initial two-component jet is modified by either inverting the orientation of its inner magnetic field or imposing a constant surrounding pressure. The velocity profiles are studied by assuming steady flows as well as after strong time variable ejection is incorporated. Results: Discrepancies between the speeds of the two outflows in opposite directions can indeed occur both due to unaligned magnetic fields and different outer pressures. In the former case, the asymmetry appears only on the dependence of the velocity on the cylindrical distance, but the implied observed value is significantly altered when the density distribution is also taken into account. On the other hand, a nonuniform medium collimates the two jets unevenly, directly affecting their propagation speed. A further interesting feature of the pressure-confined outflow simulations is the formation of static knots

  4. Velocity fields in a collectively migrating epithelium.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, L; Reffay, M; Grasland-Mongrain, E; Poujade, M; Ladoux, B; Buguin, A; Silberzan, P

    2010-05-19

    We report quantitative measurements of the velocity field of collectively migrating cells in a motile epithelium. The migration is triggered by presenting free surface to an initially confluent monolayer by using a microstencil technique that does not damage the cells. To avoid the technical difficulties inherent in the tracking of single cells, the field is mapped using the technique of particle image velocimetry. The main relevant parameters, such as the velocity module, the order parameter, and the velocity correlation function, are then extracted from this cartography. These quantities are dynamically measured on two types of cells (collectively migrating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and fibroblastlike normal rat kidney (NRK) cells), first as they approach confluence, and then when the geometrical constraints are released. In particular, for MDCK cells filling up the patterns, we observe a sharp decrease in the average velocity after the point of confluence, whereas the densification of the monolayer is much more regular. After the peeling off of the stencil, a velocity correlation length of approximately 200 microm is measured for MDCK cells versus only approximately 40 microm for the more independent NRK cells. Our conclusions are supported by parallel single-cell tracking experiments. By using the biorthogonal decomposition of the velocity field, we conclude that the velocity field of MDCK cells is very coherent in contrast with the NRK cells. The displacements in the fingers arising from the border of MDCK epithelia are very oriented along their main direction. They influence the velocity field in the epithelium over a distance of approximately 200 microm. PMID:20441742

  5. The rising stellar velocity dispersion of M87 from integrated starlight

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Jeremy D.; Gebhardt, Karl; Cradit, Mason

    2014-04-20

    We have measured the line-of-sight velocity distribution from integrated stellar light at two points in the outer halo of M87 (NGC 4486), the second-rank galaxy in the Virgo Cluster. The data were taken at R = 480'' (∼41.5 kpc) and R = 526'' (∼45.5 kpc) along the SE major axis. The second moment for a non-parametric estimate of the full velocity distribution is 420 ± 23 km s{sup –1} and 577 ± 35 km s{sup –1}, respectively. There is intriguing evidence in the velocity profiles for two kinematically distinct stellar components at the position of our pointing. Under this assumption, we employ a two-Gaussian decomposition and find the primary Gaussian having rest velocities equal to M87 (consistent with zero rotation) and second moments of 383 ± 32 km s{sup –1} and 446 ± 43 km s{sup –1}, respectively. The asymmetry seen in the velocity profiles suggests that the stellar halo of M87 is not in a relaxed state and confuses a clean dynamical interpretation. That said, either measurement (full or two component model) shows a rising velocity dispersion at large radii, consistent with previous integrated light measurements, yet significantly higher than globular cluster measurements at comparable radial positions. These integrated light measurements at large radii, and the stark contrast they make to the measurements of other kinematic tracers, highlight the rich kinematic complexity of environments like the center of the Virgo Cluster and the need for caution when interpreting kinematic measurements from various dynamical tracers.

  6. Slipher, Galaxies, and Cosmological Velocity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J. A.

    2013-04-01

    By 1917, V. M. Slipher had singlehandedly established a general tendency for ‘spiral nebulae’ to be redshifted (21 out of 25 cases). From a modern perspective, it could seem surprising that the discovery of the expansion of the universe was not announced at this point. Examination of the data and arguments contained in Slipher's papers shows that he reached a more subtle conclusion: the identification of cosmological peculiar velocities, including the bulk motion of the Milky Way, leading to a beautiful argument in favor of spiral nebulae as distant stellar systems. Nevertheless, Slipher's data actually contain evidence at >8σ for a positive mean velocity, even after subtracting the best-fitting dipole pattern owing to motion of the observer. In 1929, Hubble provided distance estimates for a sample of no greater depth, using redshifts due almost entirely to Slipher. Hubble's distances turned out to be flawed in two distinct ways: in addition to an incorrect absolute calibration, the largest distances were systematically under-estimated. Nevertheless, he claimed the detection of a linear distance-redshift relation. Statistically, the evidence for such a correlation is less strong than the simple evidence for a positive mean velocity in Hubble's sample. Comparison with modern data shows that a sample of more than twice Hubble's depth would generally be required in order to reveal clearly the global linear expansion in the face of the ‘noise’ from peculiar velocities. When the theoretical context of the time is examined, the role of the de Sitter model and its prediction of a linear distance-redshift relation looms large. A number of searches for this relation were performed prior to Hubble over the period 1924-1928, with a similar degree of success. All were based on the velocities measured by Slipher, whose work from a Century ago stands out both for the precision of his measurements and for the subtle clarity of the arguments he employed to draw correct

  7. On Stellar Wind Bow Shocks with External Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkin, Francis P.

    2016-06-01

    Stellar wind bow shocks have been seen driven by stars of many types, from O to AGB stars as well as pulsars. Recent simulations (e.g. van Marle et al. 2014) have considered the bubble created by a stellar wind of a stationary star in a region of constant magnetic field. By applying a thin-shell formalism, I consider the problem of a stellar wind from a star moving supersonically with respect to a magnetized medium. The properties of the resulting shell are derived, and limitations to the application of the resulting solution are discussed.

  8. A high stellar velocity dispersion for a compact massive galaxy at redshift z = 2.186.

    PubMed

    van Dokkum, Pieter G; Kriek, Mariska; Franx, Marijn

    2009-08-01

    Recent studies have found that the oldest and most luminous galaxies in the early Universe are surprisingly compact, having stellar masses similar to present-day elliptical galaxies but much smaller sizes. This finding has attracted considerable attention, as it suggests that massive galaxies have grown in size by a factor of about five over the past ten billion years (10 Gyr). A key test of these results is a determination of the stellar kinematics of one of the compact galaxies: if the sizes of these objects are as extreme as has been claimed, their stars are expected to have much higher velocities than those in present-day galaxies of the same mass. Here we report a measurement of the stellar velocity dispersion of a massive compact galaxy at redshift z = 2.186, corresponding to a look-back time of 10.7 Gyr. The velocity dispersion is very high at km s(-1), consistent with the mass and compactness of the galaxy inferred from photometric data. This would indicate significant recent structural and dynamical evolution of massive galaxies over the past 10 Gyr. The uncertainty in the dispersion was determined from simulations that include the effects of noise and template mismatch. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that some subtle systematic effect may have influenced the analysis, given the low signal-to-noise ratio of our spectrum. PMID:19661911

  9. Rotation and Magnetic Fields: the Evil Twins of Stellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, P.

    In this paper I give an overview of the numerous ways in which rotation and magnetic fields can interact under stellar interior conditions. I first provide “tutorial” examples of how magnetic fields can (1) alter existing stellar internal flows, (2) generate internal flows, and of how rotation can (3) amplify or (4) destroy magnetic fields. The upshot of all this is that treating rotation or magnetic fields in isolation of one another, as intermediate steps towards the “full picture”, may yield a situation that can only be applied meaningfully under very limited and specific astrophysical circumstances, if any.

  10. INTEGRAL-FIELD STELLAR AND IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS OF PECULIAR VIRGO CLUSTER SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cortés, Juan R.; Hardy, Eduardo; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P. E-mail: ehardy@nrao.cl

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and ionized gas kinematics of 13 bright peculiar Virgo cluster galaxies observed with the DensePak Integral Field Unit at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in order to look for kinematic evidence that these galaxies have experienced gravitational interactions or gas stripping. Two-dimensional maps of the stellar velocity V, stellar velocity dispersion σ, and the ionized gas velocity (Hβ and/or [O III]) are presented for the galaxies in the sample. The stellar rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are determined for 13 galaxies, and the ionized gas rotation curves are determined for 6 galaxies. Misalignments between the optical and kinematical major axes are found in several galaxies. While in some cases this is due to a bar, in other cases it seems to be associated with gravitational interaction or ongoing ram pressure stripping. Non-circular gas motions are found in nine galaxies, with various causes including bars, nuclear outflows, or gravitational disturbances. Several galaxies have signatures of kinematically distinct stellar components, which are likely signatures of accretion or mergers. For all of our galaxies, we compute the angular momentum parameter λ {sub R}. An evaluation of the galaxies in the λ {sub R} ellipticity plane shows that all but two of the galaxies have significant support from random stellar motions, and have likely experienced gravitational interactions. This includes some galaxies with very small bulges and truncated/compact Hα morphologies, indicating that such galaxies cannot be fully explained by simple ram pressure stripping, but must have had significant gravitational encounters. Most of the sample galaxies show evidence for ICM-ISM stripping as well as gravitational interactions, indicating that the evolution of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies is likely strongly impacted by both effects.

  11. Rotating field mass and velocity analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven Joel (Inventor); Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A rotating field mass and velocity analyzer having a cell with four walls, time dependent RF potentials that are applied to each wall, and a detector. The time dependent RF potentials create an RF field in the cell which effectively rotates within the cell. An ion beam is accelerated into the cell and the rotating RF field disperses the incident ion beam according to the mass-to-charge (m/e) ratio and velocity distribution present in the ion beam. The ions of the beam either collide with the ion detector or deflect away from the ion detector, depending on the m/e, RF amplitude, and RF frequency. The detector counts the incident ions to determine the m/e and velocity distribution in the ion beam.

  12. Laser Frequency Comb Supported Stellar Radial Velocity Determination in the NIR: Initial Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterman, Steve; Diddams, S.; Quinlan, F.; Ycas, G.; Mahadevan, S.; Ramsey, L.; Bender, C.; Terrien, R.; Botzer, B.; Redman, S.

    2011-09-01

    The laser frequency comb presents the potential for a revolutionary increase in radial velocity precision by providing a calibration reference of unprecedented quality in terms of wavelength knowledge, repeatability, number, density and regularity of lines. Promising first steps have been taken leading to the derivation of stellar radial velocities in the NIR H band, a wavelength range well suited to the observation of M dwarfs. These stars, with low mass and low luminosity, are the most prevalent class of stars within 10 parsecs and can be expected to yield a higher reflex velocity for a terrestrial mass planet in the liquid water habitable zone than would be the case with a more massive star such as our own. We present the design and both laboratory and on-sky performance of an H-band laser frequency comb used in conjunction with the Penn State Pathfinder testbed spectrograph and discuss lessons learned and plans for follow on testing.

  13. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Empirical determination of the precision of stellar radial velocities and projected rotation velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. J.; Jeffries, R. D.; Lewis, J.; Koposov, S. E.; Sacco, G. G.; Randich, S.; Gilmore, G.; Asplund, M.; Binney, J.; Bonifacio, P.; Drew, J. E.; Feltzing, S.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Micela, G.; Neguerela, I.; Prusti, T.; Rix, H.-W.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Blomme, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Francois, P.; Hambly, N.; Irwin, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Van Eck, S.; Walton, N.; Bayo, A.; Bergemann, M.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Edvardsson, B.; Franciosini, E.; Frasca, A.; Heiter, U.; Hill, V.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Marconi, G.; Martayan, C.; Masseron, T.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sbordone, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) is a large public spectroscopic survey at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Aims: A key aim is to provide precise radial velocities (RVs) and projected equatorial velocities (vsini) for representative samples of Galactic stars, which will complement information obtained by the Gaia astrometry satellite. Methods: We present an analysis to empirically quantify the size and distribution of uncertainties in RV and vsini using spectra from repeated exposures of the same stars. Results: We show that the uncertainties vary as simple scaling functions of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and vsini, that the uncertainties become larger with increasing photospheric temperature, but that the dependence on stellar gravity, metallicity and age is weak. The underlying uncertainty distributions have extended tails that are better represented by Student's t-distributions than by normal distributions. Conclusions: Parametrised results are provided, which enable estimates of the RV precision for almost all GES measurements, and estimates of the vsini precision for stars in young clusters, as a function of S/N, vsini and stellar temperature. The precision of individual high S/N GES RV measurements is 0.22-0.26 km s-1, dependent on instrumental configuration. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia- ESO Large Public Survey (188.B-3002).Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/580/A75

  14. STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS IN HIGH-LUMINOSITY QUASAR HOSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE AGN BLACK HOLE MASS SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Grier, C. J.; Martini, P.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Zu, Y.; Watson, L. C.; Bentz, M. C.; Dasyra, K. M.; Dietrich, M.; Ferrarese, L.

    2013-08-20

    We present new stellar velocity dispersion measurements for four luminous quasars with the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer instrument and the ALTAIR laser guide star adaptive optics system on the Gemini North 8 m telescope. Stellar velocity dispersion measurements and measurements of the supermassive black hole (BH) masses in luminous quasars are necessary to investigate the coevolution of BHs and galaxies, trace the details of accretion, and probe the nature of feedback. We find that higher-luminosity quasars with higher-mass BHs are not offset with respect to the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation exhibited by lower-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with lower-mass BHs, nor do we see correlations with galaxy morphology. As part of this analysis, we have recalculated the virial products for the entire sample of reverberation-mapped AGNs and used these data to redetermine the mean virial factor (f) that places the reverberation data on the quiescent M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation. With our updated measurements and new additions to the AGN sample, we obtain (f) = 4.31 {+-} 1.05, which is slightly lower than, but consistent with, most previous determinations.

  15. Low-velocity variability in the stellar wind of HD 152408 (O8: Iafpe)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinja, Raman K.; Fullerton, A. W.

    1994-01-01

    We describe high-quality, spectroscopic time series observations of variability at low velocities in the stellar wind of the extreme O-supergiant HD 152408. These observations were obtained during a monitoring campaign coordinated between Australia and Chile in 1992 July. Systematic variability on hourly time scales is particularly apparent in the He I lambda 5876 P Cygni profile, which diagnoses the deeper, denser region of the wind. These changes indicate the presence of evolving wind structure, which takes the form of blueward-migrating, discrete optical depth enhancements. Four distinct features are identified over approximately 5 days, spanning a velocity range of about -50 km/s at formation to about -500 km/s (i.e., greater than or approximately equal to 0.5 of the terminal velocity) at the blue edge of the He I absorption trough. Sympathetic variations are also apparent in the Balmer emission lines of HD 152408. The characteristics of these features, including their widths, column densities, and accelerations, suggest similarities to discrete absorption components commonly seen at larger velocities in UV P Cygni profiles of other O-type stars. These optical results demonstrate that frequent, systematic wind variability is present down to very large depths, and provide constraints on the stability of the low-velocity regime of hot-star winds.

  16. TOWARD UNDERSTANDING STELLAR RADIAL VELOCITY JITTER AS A FUNCTION OF WAVELENGTH: THE SUN AS A PROXY

    SciTech Connect

    Marchwinski, Robert C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Robertson, Paul; Ramsey, Lawrence; Harder, Jerald E-mail: suvrath@astro.psu.edu E-mail: lwr@psu.edu

    2015-01-01

    Using solar spectral irradiance measurements from the SORCE spacecraft and the F/F' technique, we have estimated the radial velocity (RV) scatter induced on the Sun by stellar activity as a function of wavelength. Our goal was to evaluate the potential advantages of using new near-infrared (NIR) spectrographs to search for low-mass planets around bright F, G, and K stars by beating down activity effects. Unlike M dwarfs, which have higher fluxes and therefore greater RV information content in the NIR, solar-type stars are brightest at visible wavelengths, and, based solely on information content, are better suited to traditional optical RV surveys. However, we find that the F/F' estimated RV noise induced by stellar activity is diminished by up to a factor of four in the NIR versus the visible. Observations with the upcoming future generation of NIR instruments can be a valuable addition to the search for low-mass planets around bright FGK stars in reducing the amount of stellar noise affecting RV measurements.

  17. Toward Understanding Stellar Radial Velocity Jitter as a Function of Wavelength: The Sun as a Proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchwinski, Robert C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Robertson, Paul; Ramsey, Lawrence; Harder, Jerald

    2015-01-01

    Using solar spectral irradiance measurements from the SORCE spacecraft and the F/F' technique, we have estimated the radial velocity (RV) scatter induced on the Sun by stellar activity as a function of wavelength. Our goal was to evaluate the potential advantages of using new near-infrared (NIR) spectrographs to search for low-mass planets around bright F, G, and K stars by beating down activity effects. Unlike M dwarfs, which have higher fluxes and therefore greater RV information content in the NIR, solar-type stars are brightest at visible wavelengths, and, based solely on information content, are better suited to traditional optical RV surveys. However, we find that the F/F' estimated RV noise induced by stellar activity is diminished by up to a factor of four in the NIR versus the visible. Observations with the upcoming future generation of NIR instruments can be a valuable addition to the search for low-mass planets around bright FGK stars in reducing the amount of stellar noise affecting RV measurements.

  18. Disentangling planetary orbits from stellar activity in radial-velocity surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, R. D.; Cameron, A. Collier; Queloz, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Deleuil, M.; Fares, R.; Gillon, M.; Hatzes, A.; Lanza, A. F.; Lovis, C.; Moutou, C.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Santerne, A.; Ségransan, D.; Unruh, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The majority of extra-solar planets have been discovered (or confirmed after follow-up) through radial-velocity (RV) surveys. Using ground-based spectrographs such as High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planetary Search (HARPS) and HARPS-North, it is now possible to detect planets that are only a few times the mass of the Earth. However, the presence of dark spots on the stellar surface produces RV signals that are very similar in amplitude to those caused by orbiting low-mass planets. Disentangling these signals has thus become the biggest challenge in the detection of Earth-mass planets using RV surveys. To do so, we use the star's lightcurve to model the RV variations produced by spots. Here we present this method and show the results of its application to CoRoT-7.

  19. Modified methods of stellar magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholtygin, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The standard methods of the magnetic field measurement, based on an analysis of the relation between the Stokes V-parameter and the first derivative of the total line profile intensity, were modified by applying a linear integral operator \\hat{L} to both sides of this relation. As the operator \\hat{L}, the operator of the wavelet transform with DOG-wavelets is used. The key advantage of the proposed method is an effective suppression of the noise contribution to the line profile and the Stokes parameter V. The efficiency of the method has been studied using model line profiles with various noise contributions. To test the proposed method, the spectropolarimetric observations of the A0 star α2 CVn, the Of?p star HD 148937, and the A0 supergiant HD 92207 were used. The longitudinal magnetic field strengths calculated by our method appeared to be in good agreement with those determined by other methods.

  20. An updated GPS velocity field for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craymer, M. R.; Henton, J. A.; Piraszewski, M.; Lapelle, E.

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to improve previous continental-scale GPS velocity fields for North America and Canada in particular, we have reprocessed data from nearly all continuous GPS sites in Canada, the northern portions of the US including Alaska, Greenland as well as a set of global sites used to define the reference frame. In addition, repeated high accuracy campaign surveys of the Canadian Base Network were included. Previous velocity fields were derived from coordinate time series of somewhat inhomogeneous GPS results due to: (1) the use of relative antenna calibrations that did not include satellite antennas or account for the presence of antenna radomes, (2) the use of different reference frames, (3) the use of IGS precise orbits based on these calibrations and reference frames, and (4) the use of different (evolving) versions of GPS processing software and procedures. This reprocessing effort of all previous data since 2000 is based on more consistent and accurate absolute antenna calibrations of both station and satellite antennas, the ITRF2005 reference frame and the latest versions of the Bernese GPS Software and IGS processing procedures with their so-called "repro1" reprocessed orbits. Also, more than four additional years of continuous data and a new CBN survey campaign have been included in this velocity field estimation. Furthermore, we have processed all the continuous data with NRCan's Precise Point Positioning (PPP) software using the same IGS repro1 orbits, precise clocks and absolute antenna calibrations together with the Vienna Mapping Function (VMF1) for the tropospheric model. The PPP software has proven to be highly efficient for processing such large networks and the additional solutions have provided much needed redundancy for some regions. The new time series and velocity results from both the Bernese and PPP solutions are compared with each other and with our previous solution. Comparisons are also made with solutions from other GPS analysis

  1. A Gaussian process framework for modelling stellar activity signals in radial velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpaul, V.; Aigrain, S.; Osborne, M. A.; Reece, S.; Roberts, S.

    2015-09-01

    To date, the radial velocity (RV) method has been one of the most productive techniques for detecting and confirming extrasolar planetary candidates. Unfortunately, stellar activity can induce RV variations which can drown out or even mimic planetary signals - and it is notoriously difficult to model and thus mitigate the effects of these activity-induced nuisance signals. This is expected to be a major obstacle to using next-generation spectrographs to detect lower mass planets, planets with longer periods, and planets around more active stars. Enter Gaussian processes (GPs) which, we note, have a number of attractive features that make them very well suited to disentangling stellar activity signals from planetary signals. We present here a GP framework we developed to model RV time series jointly with ancillary activity indicators (e.g. bisector velocity spans, line widths, chromospheric activity indices), allowing the activity component of RV time series to be constrained and disentangled from e.g. planetary components. We discuss the mathematical details of our GP framework, and present results illustrating its encouraging performance on both synthetic and real RV data sets, including the publicly available Alpha Centauri B data set.

  2. THE VELOCITY FIELD AROUND GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwick, F. D. A.

    2011-06-15

    A statistical method is presented for determining the velocity field in the immediate vicinity of groups of galaxies using only positional and redshift information with the goal of studying the perturbation of the Hubble flow around groups more distant than the Local Group. The velocities are assumed to obey a Hubble-like expansion law, i.e., V = H{sub exp} R, where the expansion rate H{sub exp} is to be determined. The method is applied to a large, representative group catalog and evidence is found for a sub-Hubble expansion rate within two well-defined radii beyond the virial radii of the groups. This result is consistent with that of Teerikorpi et al. who found a similar expansion law around three nearby groups and extends it to a more representative volume of space.

  3. Axonal Velocity Distributions in Neural Field Equations

    PubMed Central

    Bojak, Ingo; Liley, David T. J.

    2010-01-01

    By modelling the average activity of large neuronal populations, continuum mean field models (MFMs) have become an increasingly important theoretical tool for understanding the emergent activity of cortical tissue. In order to be computationally tractable, long-range propagation of activity in MFMs is often approximated with partial differential equations (PDEs). However, PDE approximations in current use correspond to underlying axonal velocity distributions incompatible with experimental measurements. In order to rectify this deficiency, we here introduce novel propagation PDEs that give rise to smooth unimodal distributions of axonal conduction velocities. We also argue that velocities estimated from fibre diameters in slice and from latency measurements, respectively, relate quite differently to such distributions, a significant point for any phenomenological description. Our PDEs are then successfully fit to fibre diameter data from human corpus callosum and rat subcortical white matter. This allows for the first time to simulate long-range conduction in the mammalian brain with realistic, convenient PDEs. Furthermore, the obtained results suggest that the propagation of activity in rat and human differs significantly beyond mere scaling. The dynamical consequences of our new formulation are investigated in the context of a well known neural field model. On the basis of Turing instability analyses, we conclude that pattern formation is more easily initiated using our more realistic propagator. By increasing characteristic conduction velocities, a smooth transition can occur from self-sustaining bulk oscillations to travelling waves of various wavelengths, which may influence axonal growth during development. Our analytic results are also corroborated numerically using simulations on a large spatial grid. Thus we provide here a comprehensive analysis of empirically constrained activity propagation in the context of MFMs, which will allow more realistic studies

  4. WIYN OPEN CLUSTER STUDY. XXXVIII. STELLAR RADIAL VELOCITIES IN THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER M35 (NGC 2168)

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Aaron M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Braden, Ella K.; Meibom, Soeren; Dolan, Christopher J.; Platais, Imants E-mail: mathieu@astro.wisc.edu E-mail: smeibom@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: imants@pha.jhu.edu

    2010-04-15

    We present 5201 radial-velocity (RV) measurements of 1144 stars as part of an ongoing study of the young (150 Myr) open cluster M35 (NGC 2168). We have observed M35 since 1997, using the Hydra Multi-Object Spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. Our stellar sample covers main-sequence stars over a magnitude range of 13.0 {<=} V {<=} 16.5 (1.6-0.8 M {sub sun}) and extends spatially to a radius of 30 arcmin (7 pc in projection at a distance of 805 pc or {approx}4 core radii). Due to its youth, M35 provides a sample of late-type stars with a range of rotation periods. Therefore, we analyze the RV measurement precision as a function of the projected rotational velocity. For narrow-lined stars (vsin i{<=} 10 km s{sup -1}), the RVs have a precision of 0.5 km s{sup -1}, which degrades to 1.0 km s{sup -1} for stars with vsin i = 50 km s{sup -1}. The RV distribution shows a well-defined cluster peak with a central velocity of -8.16 {+-} 0.05 km s{sup -1}, permitting a clean separation of the cluster and field stars. For stars with {>=}3 measurements, we derive RV membership probabilities and identify RV variables, finding 360 cluster members, 55 of which show significant RV variability. Using these cluster members, we construct a color-magnitude diagram for our stellar sample cleaned of field star contamination. We also compare the spatial distribution of the single and binary cluster members, finding no evidence for mass segregation in our stellar sample. Accounting for measurement precision, we place an upper limit on the RV dispersion of the cluster of 0.81 {+-} 0.08 km s{sup -1}. After correction for undetected binaries, we derive a true RV dispersion of 0.65 {+-} 0.10 km s{sup -1}.

  5. Velocity field of isolated turbulent puffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaem-Maghami, E.; Johari, H.

    2010-11-01

    The velocity field of isolated turbulent puffs was measured using the particle image velocimetry technique and was compared with the steady jet flow field. Puffs were generated by injecting air through a 5 mm diameter nozzle into a flow chamber with a weak coflow. Isolated puffs with a Reynolds number of 5000 were examined in the range of 40-75 diameters downstream of the nozzle. The injection time was varied in order to assess the effects of injection volume and equivalent stroke ratio on the puff structure. The results from phase-locked measurements indicate that as the injection volume increased, puffs elongated in the axial direction and became similar to starting jets in the range considered. The largest scaled fluctuating velocities and turbulent shear stress within the puffs were twice the steady jet values. Inspection of the vorticity field revealed the presence of vorticity throughout the puff volume. Entrainment takes place on the portion of the puff closest to the nozzle and the entrainment rate is greater for the puffs with the smaller injection volume. This is consistent with the observations of rapid mixing and combustion of puffs in previous studies.

  6. [The radial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type low resolution stellar spectra at different signal-to-noise ratio].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Fei; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2014-02-01

    The radial velocity of the star is very important for the study of the dynamics structure and chemistry evolution of the Milky Way, is also an useful tool for looking for variable or special objects. In the present work, we focus on calculating the radial velocity of different spectral types of low-resolution stellar spectra by adopting a template matching method, so as to provide effective and reliable reference to the different aspects of scientific research We choose high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectra of different spectral type stellar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and add different noise to simulate the stellar spectra with different SNR. Then we obtain theradial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type stellar spectra at different SNR by employing a template matching method. Meanwhile, the radial velocity measurement accuracy of white dwarf stars is analyzed as well. We concluded that the accuracy of radial velocity measurements of early-type stars is much higher than late-type ones. For example, the 1-sigma standard error of radial velocity measurements of A-type stars is 5-8 times as large as K-type and M-type stars. We discuss the reason and suggest that the very narrow lines of late-type stars ensure the accuracy of measurement of radial velocities, while the early-type stars with very wide Balmer lines, such as A-type stars, become sensitive to noise and obtain low accuracy of radial velocities. For the spectra of white dwarfs stars, the standard error of radial velocity measurement could be over 50 km x s(-1) because of their extremely wide Balmer lines. The above conclusion will provide a good reference for stellar scientific study. PMID:24822441

  7. Stellar magnetic fields: From the photosphere into the corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liefke, Carolin

    2007-10-01

    Simultaneous X-ray and optical observations of the active M dwarf CN Leo have shown variability in its magnetic flux (as measured through magnetically sensitive lines in the molecular FeH band) on different timescales: within a few days, within one night, and possibly even related to a flare event. We propose to extend these studies to a larger sample of stars and observe the two flare stars Proxima Cen and YZ CMi simultaneously with XMM-Newton and VLT/UVES in order to characterize the amplitudes and time scales of variations in their photospheric magnetic fields together with the behavior of chromospheric emission lines and coronal X-ray emission. This will enable us to trace activity-related changes in the stellar magnetic field through all layers of the stellar atmosphere.

  8. Stellar radial velocities using a laser frequency comb: Application and observations in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterman, Steve

    2011-04-01

    The laser frequency comb presents the potential for a revolutionary increase in radial velocity precision by providing a calibration reference of unprecedented quality in terms of wavelength knowledge, repeatability, number, density, and regularity of lines. However, implementation has proven challenging, particularly in the near infrared. Nevertheless, with the right combination of comb and instrument, promising first steps have been taken, allowing for the derivation of stellar radial velocities in a wavelength range which is well suited to the observation of M dwarfs. These stars, with low mass and low luminosity, are the most prevalent class of stars within 10 parsecs and can be expected to yield a higher reflex velocity for a terrestrial mass planet in the liquid water habitable zone than would be the case with a more massive star such as our own. We present the design and both laboratory and on-sky performance of an H-band laser frequency comb used in conjunction with the Penn State Pathfinder testbed spectrograph and discuss lessons learned and plans for follow on testing with both the Pathfinder and the CSHELL instruments.

  9. AN UPPER LIMIT TO THE VELOCITY DISPERSION OF RELAXED STELLAR SYSTEMS WITHOUT MASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M. Coleman; Davies, Melvyn B.

    2012-08-10

    Massive black holes have been discovered in all closely examined galaxies with high velocity dispersion. The case is not as clear for lower-dispersion systems such as low-mass galaxies and globular clusters. Here we suggest that above a critical velocity dispersion {approx}40 km s{sup -1}, massive central black holes will form in relaxed stellar systems at any cosmic epoch. This is because above this dispersion primordial binaries cannot support the system against deep core collapse. If, as previous simulations show, the black holes formed in the cluster settle to produce a dense subcluster, then given the extremely high densities reached during core collapse the holes will merge with each other. For low velocity dispersions and hence low cluster escape speeds, mergers will typically kick out all or all but one of the holes due to three-body kicks or the asymmetric emission of gravitational radiation. If one hole remains, it will tidally disrupt stars at a high rate. If none remain, one is formed after runaway collisions between stars, and then it tidally disrupts stars at a high rate. The accretion rate after disruption is many orders of magnitude above Eddington. If, as several studies suggest, the hole can accept matter at that rate because the generated radiation is trapped and advected, then it will grow quickly and form a massive central black hole.

  10. Uncovering the planets and stellar activity of CoRoT-7 using only radial velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, J. P.; Haywood, R. D.; Brewer, B. J.; Figueira, P.; Oshagh, M.; Santerne, A.; Santos, N. C.

    2016-04-01

    Stellar activity can induce signals in the radial velocities of stars, complicating the detection of orbiting low-mass planets. We present a method to determine the number of planetary signals present in radial-velocity datasets of active stars, using only radial-velocity observations. Instead of considering separate fits with different number of planets, we use a birth-death Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to infer the posterior distribution for the number of planets in a single run. In a natural way, the marginal distributions for the orbital parameters of all planets are also inferred. This method is applied to HARPS data of CoRoT-7. We confidently recover the orbits of both CoRoT-7b and CoRoT-7c although the data show evidence for the presence of additional signals. All data and software presented in this article are available online at http://https://github.com/j-faria/exoBD-CoRoT7

  11. Binaries at Birth: Stellar multiplicity in embedded clusters from radial velocity variations in the IN-SYNC survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskar Jaehnig, Karl; Stassun, Keivan; Tan, Jonathan C.; Covey, Kevin R.; Da Rio, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    We study the nature of stellar multiplicity in young stellar systems using the INfrared Spectroscopy of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC) survey, carried out in SDSS III with the APOGEE spectrograph. Multi-epoch observations of thousands of low-mass stars in Orion A, NGC2264, NGC1333 and IC348 have been carried out, yielding H-band spectra with R=22,500 for sources with H<12 mag. Radial velocity sensitivities ~0.3 km/s can be achieved, depending on the spectral type of the star. We search the IN-SYNC radial velocity catalog to identify sources with radial velocity variations indicative of spectroscopically undetected companions, analyze their spectral properties and discuss the implications for the overall multiplicity of stellar populations in young, embedded star clusters.

  12. Velocity Field of Isolated Turbulent Puffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaem-Maghami, Elham; Johari, Hamid

    2006-11-01

    The velocity field of isolated turbulent puffs was investigated by the PIV technique. Particular attention was paid to the entrainment pattern of isolated puffs. Puffs were generated by injecting seeded air through a 5 mm diameter nozzle into a flow chamber with a weak co-flow. Puffs with a Reynolds number of 5,000 were examined in the range of 35 -- 75 diameters downstream of the nozzle. The injection time was varied in order to assess the effect of injection volume and impulse on the puff structure. The results indicate that as the injection volume increased, puffs elongated in the axial direction. The largest mean and fluctuating velocities were within the central portion of the puff. The maximum turbulent shear stress within the puff was as much as 2.5 times the steady jet value. The vorticity field showed the presence of vorticity throughout the puff volume. The ratio of volume flow rate at the puff center to the steady jet volume flux at the same location was largest for the smallest injection volume. The majority of entrainment into the puff occurs below the puff center while the puff cap pushes out into surrounding fluid.

  13. The velocity field in MOND cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candlish, G. N.

    2016-08-01

    The recently developed code for N-body/hydrodynamics simulations in Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), known as RAYMOND, is used to investigate the consequences of MOND on structure formation in a cosmological context, with a particular focus on the velocity field. This preliminary study investigates the results obtained with the two formulations of MOND implemented in RAYMOND, as well as considering the effects of changing the choice of MOND interpolation function, and the cosmological evolution of the MOND acceleration scale. The simulations are contrived such that structure forms in a background cosmology that is similar to Λcold dark matter, but with a significantly lower matter content. Given this, and the fact that a fully consistent MOND cosmology is still lacking, we compare our results with a standard ΛCDM simulation, rather than observations. As well as demonstrating the effectiveness of using RAYMOND for cosmological simulations, it is shown that a significant enhancement of the velocity field is likely an unavoidable consequence of the gravitational modification implemented in MOND, and may represent a clear observational signature of such a modification. It is further suggested that such a signal may be clearest in intermediate-density regions such as cluster outskirts and filaments.

  14. The velocity field in MOND cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candlish, G. N.

    2016-08-01

    The recently developed code for N-body/hydrodynamics simulations in Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), known as RAyMOND, is used to investigate the consequences of MOND on structure formation in a cosmological context, with a particular focus on the velocity field. This preliminary study investigates the results obtained with the two formulations of MOND implemented in RAyMOND, as well as considering the effects of changing the choice of MOND interpolation function, and the cosmological evolution of the MOND acceleration scale. The simulations are contrived such that structure forms in a background cosmology that is similar to $\\Lambda$CDM, but with a significantly lower matter content. Given this, and the fact that a fully consistent MOND cosmology is still lacking, we compare our results with a standard $\\Lambda$CDM simulation, rather than observations. As well as demonstrating the effectiveness of using RAyMOND for cosmological simulations, it is shown that a significant enhancement of the velocity field is likely an unavoidable consequence of the gravitational modification implemented in MOND, and may represent a clear observational signature of such a modification. It is further suggested that such a signal may be clearest in intermediate density regions such as cluster outskirts and filaments.

  15. Asteroseismic Signatures of Evolving Internal Stellar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantiello, Matteo; Fuller, Jim; Bildsten, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Recent asteroseismic analyses indicate the presence of strong (B ≳ 105 G) magnetic fields in the cores of many red giant stars. Here, we examine the implications of these results for the evolution of stellar magnetic fields, and we make predictions for future observations. Those stars with suppressed dipole modes indicative of strong core fields should exhibit moderate but detectable quadrupole mode suppression. The long magnetic diffusion times within stellar cores ensure that dynamo-generated fields are confined to mass coordinates within the main-sequence (MS) convective core, and the observed sharp increase in dipole mode suppression rates above 1.5 M ⊙ is likely explained by the larger convective core masses and faster rotation of these more massive stars. In clump stars, core fields of ∼105 G can suppress dipole modes, whose visibility should be equal to or less than the visibility of suppressed modes in ascending red giants. High dipole mode suppression rates in low-mass (M ≲ 2 M ⊙) clump stars would indicate that magnetic fields generated during the MS can withstand subsequent convective phases and survive into the compact remnant phase. Finally, we discuss implications for observed magnetic fields in white dwarfs and neutron stars, as well as the effects of magnetic fields in various types of pulsating stars.

  16. Warm and dense stellar matter under strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rabhi, A.; Panda, P. K.; Providencia, C.

    2011-09-15

    We investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the equation of state of warm stellar matter as it may occur in a protoneutron star. Both neutrino-free and neutrino-trapped matter at a fixed entropy per baryon are analyzed. A relativistic mean-field nuclear model, including the possibility of hyperon formation, is considered. A density-dependent magnetic field with a magnitude of 10{sup 15} G at the surface and not more than 3x10{sup 18} G at the center is considered. The magnetic field gives rise to a neutrino suppression, mainly at low densities, in matter with trapped neutrinos. It is shown that a hybrid protoneutron star will not evolve into a low-mass black hole if the magnetic field is strong enough and the magnetic field does not decay. However, the decay of the magnetic field after cooling may give rise to the formation of a low-mass black hole.

  17. Stellar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This eerie, dark structure, resembling an imaginary sea serpent's head, is a column of cool molecular hydrogen gas (two atoms of hydrogen in each molecule) and dust that is an incubator for new stars. The stars are embedded inside finger-like protrusions extending from the top of the nebula. Each 'fingertip' is somewhat larger than our own solar system. The pillar is slowly eroding away by the ultraviolet light from nearby hot stars, a process called 'photoevaporation.' As it does, small globules of especially dense gas buried within the cloud is uncovered. These globules have been dubbed 'EGGs' -- an acronym for 'Evaporating Gaseous Globules.' The shadows of the EGGs protect gas behind them, resulting in the finger-like structures at the top of the cloud. Forming inside at least some of the EGGs are embryonic stars -- stars that abruptly stop growing when the EGGs are uncovered and they are separated from the larger reservoir of gas from which they were drawing mass. Eventually the stars emerge, as the EGGs themselves succumb to photoevaporation. The stellar EGGS are found, appropriately enough, in the 'Eagle Nebula' (also called M16 -- the 16th object in Charles Messier's 18th century catalog of 'fuzzy' permanent objects in the sky), a nearby star-forming region 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Serpens. The picture was taken on April 1, 1995 with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The color image is constructed from three separate images taken in the light of emission from different types of atoms. Red shows emission from singly-ionized sulfur atoms. Green shows emission from hydrogen. Blue shows light emitted by doubly-ionized oxygen atoms.

  18. Resolving stellar populations with crowded field 3D spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamann, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Roth, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new method of extracting the spectra of stars from observations of crowded stellar fields with integral field spectroscopy (IFS). Our approach extends the well-established concept of crowded field photometry in images into the domain of 3-dimensional spectroscopic datacubes. The main features of our algorithm follow. (1) We assume that a high-fidelity input source catalogue already exists, e.g. from HST data, and that it is not needed to perform sophisticated source detection in the IFS data. (2) Source positions and properties of the point spread function (PSF) vary smoothly between spectral layers of the datacube, and these variations can be described by simple fitting functions. (3) The shape of the PSF can be adequately described by an analytical function. Even without isolated PSF calibrator stars we can therefore estimate the PSF by a model fit to the full ensemble of stars visible within the field of view. (4) By using sparse matrices to describe the sources, the problem of extracting the spectra of many stars simultaneously becomes computationally tractable. We present extensive performance and validation tests of our algorithm using realistic simulated datacubes that closely reproduce actual IFS observations of the central regions of Galactic globular clusters. We investigate the quality of the extracted spectra under the effects of crowding with respect to the resulting signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) and any possible changes in the continuum level, as well as with respect to absorption line spectral parameters, radial velocities, and equivalent widths. The main effect of blending between two nearby stars is a decrease in the S/N in their spectra. The effect increases with the crowding in the field in a way that the maximum number of stars with useful spectra is always ~0.2 per spatial resolution element. This balance breaks down when exceeding a total source density of one significantly detected star per resolution element. We also explore the

  19. Impact of magnetic field on radial velocity measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébrard, E. M.; Delfosse, X.; Morin, J.; Boisse, I.; Moutou, C.; Hébrard, G.

    2014-12-01

    Very low-mass stars are very promising targets for planet-search programs, in particular to discover super-Earths / Earths located in their habitable zone. Their detection is in principle accessible to the existing velocimeters of highest radial-velocity (RV) precision, but challenging due to activity ( i.e., dark spots and magnetic regions at their surfaces) which generate a noise level in RV curves (RV jitter). It can severely limit our practical ability at detecting Earth-like planets. To overcome this intrinsic limitation, a promising option consists in modeling directly the stellar activity behind the activity jitter, and in particular the magnetic field that gives rise to it. To do this, simultaneous observations in velocimetry (for activity jitter) and in spectropolarimetry (for the Zeeman signatures in spectral lines tracing the presence of a large-scale field) are needed. We present here our first results both on the simulations on the impact of magnetic fields on line profiles (bisectors & RV data), and on the simultaneous observations done thanks to HARPSPol@LaSilla and NARVAL@TBL/SOPHIE@OHP on a small sample.

  20. Stellar coronal magnetic fields and star-planet interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, A. F.

    2009-10-01

    Context: Evidence of magnetic interaction between late-type stars and close-in giant planets is provided by the observations of stellar hot spots rotating synchronously with the planets and showing an enhancement of chromospheric and X-ray fluxes. Possible photospheric signatures of such an interaction have also been reported. Aims: We investigate star-planet interaction in the framework of a magnetic field model of a stellar corona, considering the interaction between the coronal field and that of a planetary magnetosphere moving through the corona. This is motivated, among other reasons, by the difficulty of accounting for the energy budgets of the interaction phenomena with previous models. Methods: A linear force-free model is applied to describe the coronal field and study the evolution of its total magnetic energy and relative helicity according to the boundary conditions at the stellar surface and the effects related to the planetary motion through the corona. Results: The energy budget of the star-planet interaction is discussed, assuming that the planet may trigger a release of the energy of the coronal field by decreasing its relative helicity. The observed intermittent character of the star-planet interaction is explained by a topological change in the stellar coronal field, induced by a variation in its relative helicity. The model predicts the formation of many prominence-like structures in the case of highly active stars owing to the accumulation of matter evaporated from the planet inside an azimuthal flux rope in the outer corona. Moreover, the model can explain why stars accompanied by close-in planets have a higher X-ray luminosity than those with distant planets. It predicts that the best conditions for detecting radio emission from the exoplanets and their host stars are achieved when the field topology is characterized by field lines connected to the surface of the star, leading to a chromospheric hot spot rotating synchronously with the planet

  1. High-precision measurements of global stellar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachinda, S. I.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the development of devices and techniques for high-precision measurements of stellar magnetic fields. Two main approaches for the processing of spectral-polarimetric observations are described: the method of least-squares deconvolution (LSD), which is used to find a mean-weighted average of the normalized polarization profile using a set of spectral lines, and a method in which each individual spectral line is used to determine the magnetic field, viz., the single line method (SL). The advantages and disadvantages of the LSD and SL methods are discussed.

  2. Thermal properties of stellar matter in the strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piloyan, Arpine

    2012-07-01

    Low statistics and selection effects of the existing observational records of neutron stars ( NSs) do not allow to draw a coherent picture of the NSs typology only from observations. From theoretical point of view the unsufficient understanding of the mechanism of Supernovae explosion as well as the uncertainties in the modeling of the stellar matter equation of state make the knowledge of the parameters of the NS's structure and thermal, magnetic field or spin evolution non robust. The model's which are including the effects of superfluidity, superconductivity in dense matter and electro dynamics of super strong magnetic fields due to The complicated physics of matter under extrim conditions need further detailed investigations. The results are demonstrating the influence of magnetic field on the cooling regulators of NSs such as neutrino emissivity, heat conductivity and specific heat in the presence of magnetic fields for the investigations of cooling evolution of magnetars.

  3. Data reduction, radial velocities and stellar parameters from spectra in the very low signal-to-noise domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavolta, Luca

    2013-10-01

    Large astronomical facilities usually provide data reduction pipeline designed to deliver ready-to-use scientific data, and too often as- tronomers are relying on this to avoid the most difficult part of an astronomer job Standard data reduction pipelines however are usu- ally designed and tested to have good performance on data with av- erage Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) data, and the issues that are related with the reduction of data in the very low SNR domain are not taken int account properly. As a result, informations in data with low SNR are not optimally exploited. During the last decade our group has collected thousands of spec- tra using the GIRAFFE spectrograph at Very Large Telescope (Chile) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) to determine the ge- ometrical distance and dynamical state of several Galactic Globular Clusters but ultimately the analysis has been hampered by system- atics in data reduction, calibration and radial velocity measurements. Moreover these data has never been exploited to get other informa- tions like temperature and metallicity of stars, because considered too noisy for these kind of analyses. In this thesis we focus our attention on data reduction and analysis of spectra with very low SNR. The dataset we analyze in this thesis comprises 7250 spectra for 2771 stars of the Globular Cluster M 4 (NGC 6121) in the wavelength region 5145-5360Å obtained with GIRAFFE. Stars from the upper Red Giant Branch down to the Main Sequence have been observed in very different conditions, including nights close to full moon, and reaching SNR - 10 for many spectra in the dataset. We will first review the basic steps of data reduction and spec- tral extraction, adapting techniques well tested in other field (like photometry) but still under-developed in spectroscopy. We improve the wavelength dispersion solution and the correction of radial veloc- ity shift between day-time calibrations and science observations by following a completely

  4. Constraining scalar fields with stellar kinematics and collisional dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Rezzolla, Luciano E-mail: jbarranc@aei.mpg.de E-mail: rezzolla@aei.mpg.de

    2010-11-01

    The existence and detection of scalar fields could provide solutions to long-standing puzzles about the nature of dark matter, the dark compact objects at the centre of most galaxies, and other phenomena. Yet, self-interacting scalar fields are very poorly constrained by astronomical observations, leading to great uncertainties in estimates of the mass m{sub φ} and the self-interacting coupling constant λ of these fields. To counter this, we have systematically employed available astronomical observations to develop new constraints, considerably restricting this parameter space. In particular, by exploiting precise observations of stellar dynamics at the centre of our Galaxy and assuming that these dynamics can be explained by a single boson star, we determine an upper limit for the boson star compactness and impose significant limits on the values of the properties of possible scalar fields. Requiring the scalar field particle to follow a collisional dark matter model further narrows these constraints. Most importantly, we find that if a scalar dark matter particle does exist, then it cannot account for both the dark-matter halos and the existence of dark compact objects in galactic nuclei.

  5. Radiative accretion shocks along nonuniform stellar magnetic fields in classical T Tauri stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, S.; Bonito, R.; Argiroffi, C.; Reale, F.; Peres, G.; Miceli, M.; Matsakos, T.; Stehlé, C.; Ibgui, L.; de Sa, L.; Chièze, J. P.; Lanz, T.

    2013-11-01

    Context. According to the magnetospheric accretion model, hot spots form on the surface of classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) in regions where accreting disk material impacts the stellar surface at supersonic velocity, generating a shock. Aims: We investigate the dynamics and stability of postshock plasma that streams along nonuniform stellar magnetic fields at the impact region of accretion columns. We study how the magnetic field configuration and strength determine the structure, geometry, and location of the shock-heated plasma. Methods: We model the impact of an accretion stream onto the chromosphere of a CTTS by 2D axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Our model considers the gravity, the radiative cooling, and the magnetic-field-oriented thermal conduction (including the effects of heat flux saturation). We explore different configurations and strengths of the magnetic field. Results: The structure, stability, and location of the shocked plasma strongly depend on the configuration and strength of the magnetic field. In the case of weak magnetic fields (plasma β ≳ 1 in the postshock region), a large component of B may develop perpendicular to the stream at the base of the accretion column, which limits the sinking of the shocked plasma into the chromosphere and perturbs the overstable shock oscillations induced by radiative cooling. An envelope of dense and cold chromospheric material may also develop around the shocked column. For strong magnetic fields (β < 1 in the postshock region close to the chromosphere), the field configuration determines the position of the shock and its stand-off height. If the field is strongly tapered close to the chromosphere, an oblique shock may form well above the stellar surface at the height where the plasma β ≈ 1. In general, we find that a nonuniform magnetic field makes the distribution of emission measure vs. temperature of the postshock plasma at T > 106 K lower than when there is uniform magnetic field

  6. Long-lived, long-period radial velocity variations in Aldebaran: A planetary companion and stellar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzes, A. P.; Cochran, W. D.; Endl, M.; Guenther, E. W.; MacQueen, P.; Hartmann, M.; Zechmeister, M.; Han, I.; Lee, B.-C.; Walker, G. A. H.; Yang, S.; Larson, A. M.; Kim, K.-M.; Mkrtichian, , D. E.; Döllinger, M.; Simon, , A. E.; Girardi, L.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: We investigate the nature of the long-period radial velocity variations in α Tau first reported over 20 yr ago. Methods: We analyzed precise stellar radial velocity measurements for α Tau spanning over 30 yr. An examination of the Hα and Ca II λ8662 spectral lines, and Hipparcos photometry was also done to help discern the nature of the long-period radial velocity variations. Results: Our radial velocity data show that the long-period, low amplitude radial velocity variations are long-lived and coherent. Furthermore, Hα equivalent width measurements and Hipparcos photometry show no significant variations with this period. Another investigation of this star established that there was no variability in the spectral line shapes with the radial velocity period. An orbital solution results in a period of P = 628.96 ± 0.90 d, eccentricity, e = 0.10 ± 0.05, and a radial velocity amplitude, K = 142.1 ± 7.2 m s-1. Evolutionary tracks yield a stellar mass of 1.13 ± 0.11 M⊙, which corresponds to a minimum companion mass of 6.47 ± 0.53 MJup with an orbital semi-major axis of a = 1.46 ± 0.27 AU. After removing the orbital motion of the companion, an additional period of ≈520 d is found in the radial velocity data, but only in some time spans. A similar period is found in the variations in the equivalent width of Hα and Ca II. Variations at one-third of this period are also found in the spectral line bisector measurements. The ~520 d period is interpreted as the rotation modulation by stellar surface structure. Its presence, however, may not be long-lived, and it only appears in epochs of the radial velocity data separated by ~10 yr. This might be due to an activity cycle. Conclusions: The data presented here provide further evidence of a planetary companion to α Tau, as well as activity-related radial velocity variations. Based in part on observations obtained at the 2-m-Alfred Jensch Telescope at the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg and the

  7. Study on a multi-delay spectral interferometry for stellar radial velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Jiang, Haijiao; Tang, Jin; Ji, Hangxin; Zhu, Yongtian; Wang, Liang

    2014-08-01

    High accuracy radial velocity measurement isn't only one of the most important methods for detecting earth-like Exoplanets, but also one of the main developing fields of astronomical observation technologies in future. Externally dispersed interferometry (EDI) generates a kind of particular interference spectrum through combining a fixed-delay interferometer with a medium-resolution spectrograph. It effectively enhances radial velocity measuring accuracy by several times. Another further study on multi-delay interferometry was gradually developed after observation success with only a fixed-delay, and its relative instrumentation makes more impressive performance in near Infrared band. Multi-delay is capable of giving wider coverage from low to high frequency in Fourier field so that gives a higher accuracy in radial velocity measurement. To study on this new technology and verify its feasibility at Guo Shoujing telescope (LAMOST), an experimental instrumentation with single fixed-delay named MESSI has been built and tested at our lab. Another experimental study on multi-delay spectral interferometry given here is being done as well. Basically, this multi-delay experimental system is designed in according to the similar instrument named TEDI at Palomar observatory and the preliminary test result of MESSI. Due to existence of LAMOST spectrograph at lab, a multi-delay interferometer design actually dominates our work. It's generally composed of three parts, respectively science optics, phase-stabilizing optics and delay-calibrating optics. To switch different fixed delays smoothly during observation, the delay-calibrating optics is possibly useful to get high repeatability during switching motion through polychromatic interferometry. Although this metrology is based on white light interferometry in theory, it's different that integrates all of interference signals independently obtained by different monochromatic light in order to avoid dispersion error caused by

  8. PROJECTED ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES AND STELLAR CHARACTERIZATION OF 350 B STARS IN THE NEARBY GALACTIC DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Braganca, G. A.; Daflon, S.; Cunha, K.; Bensby, T.; Oey, M. S.; Walth, G.

    2012-11-01

    Projected rotational velocities (v sin i) are presented for a sample of 350 early B-type main-sequence stars in the nearby Galactic disk. The stars are located within {approx}1.5 kpc from the Sun, and the great majority within 700 pc. The analysis is based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Spectral types were estimated based on relative intensities of some key line absorption ratios and comparisons to synthetic spectra. Effective temperatures were estimated from the reddening-free Q index, and projected rotational velocities were then determined via interpolation on a published grid that correlates the synthetic FWHM of the He I lines at 4026, 4388 and 4471 A with v sin i. As the sample has been selected solely on the basis of spectral types, it contains a selection of B stars in the field, in clusters, and in OB associations. The v sin i distribution obtained for the entire sample is found to be essentially flat for v sin i values between 0 and 150 km s{sup -1}, with only a modest peak at low projected rotational velocities. Considering subsamples of stars, there appears to be a gradation in the v sin i distribution with the field stars presenting a larger fraction of the slow rotators and the cluster stars distribution showing an excess of stars with v sin i between 70 and 130 km s{sup -1}. Furthermore, for a subsample of potential runaway stars we find that the v sin i distribution resembles the distribution seen in denser environments, which could suggest that these runaway stars have been subject to dynamical ejection mechanisms.

  9. Linear relation between H I circular velocity and stellar velocity dispersion in early-type galaxies, and slope of the density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Paolo; Oosterloo, Tom; Cappellari, Michele; den Heijer, Milan; Józsa, Gyula I. G.

    2016-04-01

    We report a tight linear relation between the H I circular velocity measured at 6 Re and the stellar velocity dispersion measured within 1 Re for a sample of 16 early-type galaxies with stellar mass between 1010 and 1011 M⊙. The key difference from previous studies is that we only use spatially resolved vcirc(H I) measurements obtained at large radius for a sizeable sample of objects. We can therefore link a kinematical tracer of the gravitational potential in the dark-matter dominated outer regions of galaxies with one in the inner regions, where baryons control the distribution of mass. We find that vcirc(H I) = 1.33 σe with an observed scatter of just 12 percent. This indicates a strong coupling between luminous and dark matter from the inner- to the outer regions of early-type galaxies, analogous to the situation in spirals and dwarf irregulars. The vcirc(H I)-σe relation is shallower than those based on vcirc measurements obtained from stellar kinematics and modelling at smaller radius, implying that vcirc declines with radius - as in bulge-dominated spirals. Indeed, the value of vcirc(H I) is typically 25 percent lower than the maximum vcirc derived at ˜0.2 Re from dynamical models. Under the assumption of power-law total density profiles ρ∝r-γ, our data imply an average logarithmic slope <γ> = 2.18 ± 0.03 across the sample, with a scatter of 0.11 around this value. The average slope and scatter agree with recent results obtained from stellar kinematics alone for a different sample of early-type galaxies.

  10. Linear relation between H I circular velocity and stellar velocity dispersion in early-type galaxies, and slope of the density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Paolo; Oosterloo, Tom; Cappellari, Michele; den Heijer, Milan; Józsa, Gyula I. G.

    2016-08-01

    We report a tight linear relation between the H I circular velocity measured at 6 Re and the stellar velocity dispersion measured within 1 Re for a sample of 16 early-type galaxies with stellar mass between 1010 and 1011 M⊙. The key difference from previous studies is that we only use spatially resolved vcirc(H I) measurements obtained at large radius for a sizeable sample of objects. We can therefore link a kinematical tracer of the gravitational potential in the dark-matter dominated outer regions of galaxies with one in the inner regions, where baryons control the distribution of mass. We find that vcirc(H I)= 1.33 σe with an observed scatter of just 12 per cent. This indicates a strong coupling between luminous and dark matter from the inner- to the outer regions of early-type galaxies, analogous to the situation in spirals and dwarf irregulars. The vcirc(H I)-σe relation is shallower than those based on vcirc measurements obtained from stellar kinematics and modelling at smaller radius, implying that vcirc declines with radius - as in bulge-dominated spirals. Indeed, the value of vcirc(H I) is typically 25 per cent lower than the maximum vcirc derived at ˜0.2 Re from dynamical models. Under the assumption of power-law total density profiles ρ ∝ r-γ, our data imply an average logarithmic slope <γ> = 2.18 ± 0.03 across the sample, with a scatter of 0.11 around this value. The average slope and scatter agree with recent results obtained from stellar kinematics alone for a different sample of early-type galaxies.

  11. Field comparison of the point velocity probe with other groundwater velocity measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaky, W.; Devlin, J. F.; Gillham, R. W.

    2009-04-01

    Field testing of a new tool for measuring groundwater velocities at the centimeter scale, the point velocity probe (PVP), was undertaken at Canadian Forces Base, Borden, Ontario, Canada. The measurements were performed in a sheet pile-bounded alleyway in which bulk flow rate and direction could be controlled. PVP velocities were compared with those estimated from bulk flow, a Geoflo® instrument, borehole dilution, colloidal borescope measurements, and a forced gradient tracer test. In addition, the velocity profiles were compared with vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) measured by permeameter testing of core samples and in situ high-resolution slug tests. There was qualitative agreement between the trends in velocity and K among all the various methods. The PVP and Geoflo® meter tests returned average velocity magnitudes of 30.2 ± 7.7 to 34.7 ± 13.1 cm/d (depending on prior knowledge of flow direction in PVP tests) and 36.5 ± 10.6, respectively, which were near the estimated bulk velocity (20 cm/d). The other direct velocity measurement techniques yielded velocity estimates 5 to 12 times the bulk velocity. Best results with the PVP instrument were obtained by jetting the instrument into place, though this method may have introduced a slight positive bias to the measured velocities. The individual estimates of point velocity direction varied, but the average of the point velocity directions agreed quite well with the expected bulk flow direction. It was concluded that the PVP method is a viable technique for use in the field, where high-resolution velocity data are required.

  12. Reconstruction of velocity fields in electromagnetic flow tomography.

    PubMed

    Lehtikangas, Ossi; Karhunen, Kimmo; Vauhkonen, Marko

    2016-06-28

    Electromagnetic flow meters (EMFMs) are the gold standard in measuring flow velocity in process industry. The flow meters can measure the mean flow velocity of conductive liquids and slurries. A drawback of this approach is that the velocity field cannot be determined. Asymmetric axial flows, often encountered in multiphase flows, pipe elbows and T-junctions, are problematic and can lead to serious systematic errors. Recently, electromagnetic flow tomography (EMFT) has been proposed for measuring velocity fields using several coils and a set of electrodes attached to the surface of the pipe. In this work, a velocity field reconstruction method for EMFT is proposed. The method uses a previously developed finite-element-based computational forward model for computing boundary voltages and a Bayesian framework for inverse problems. In the approach, the vz-component of the velocity field along the longitudinal axis of the pipe is estimated on the pipe cross section. Different asymmetric velocity fields encountered near pipe elbows, solids-in-water flows in inclined pipes and in stratified or multiphase flows are tested. The results suggest that the proposed reconstruction method could be used to estimate velocity fields in complicated pipe flows in which the conventional EMFMs have limited accuracy. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185961

  13. VELOCITY DISPERSIONS AND STELLAR POPULATIONS OF THE MOST COMPACT AND MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT {approx}1

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Manso, Jesus; Guzman, Rafael; Barro, Guillermo; Cardiel, Nicolas; Gallego, Jesus; Cenarro, Javier; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Trujillo, Ignacio; Balcells, Marc; Hempel, Angela; Prieto, Mercedes

    2011-09-10

    We present Gran-Telescopio-Canarias/OSIRIS optical spectra of four of the most compact and massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the Groth Strip Survey at redshift z {approx} 1, with effective radii R{sub e} = 0.5-2.4 kpc and photometric stellar masses M{sub *} = (1.2-4) x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}. We find that these galaxies have velocity dispersions {sigma} = 156-236 km s{sup -1}. The spectra are well fitted by single stellar population models with approximately 1 Gyr of age and solar metallicity. We find that (1) the dynamical masses of these galaxies are systematically smaller by a factor of {approx}6 than the published stellar masses using BRIJK photometry, and (2) when estimating stellar masses as 0.7x M{sub dyn}, a combination of passive luminosity fading with mass/size growth due to minor mergers can plausibly evolve our objects to match the properties of the local population of ETGs.

  14. THE GEMINI SPECTRAL LIBRARY OF NEAR-IR LATE-TYPE STELLAR TEMPLATES AND ITS APPLICATION FOR VELOCITY DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Winge, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    We present a spectroscopic library of late spectral type stellar templates in the near-IR range 2.15-2.42 {mu}m, at R = 5300-5900 resolution, oriented to support stellar kinematics studies in external galaxies, such as the direct determination of the masses of supermassive black holes in nearby active (or non-active) galaxies. The combination of high spectral resolution and state-of-the-art instrumentation available in 8 m class telescopes has made the analysis of circumnuclear stellar kinematics using the near-IR CO band heads one of the most used techniques for such studies, and this library aims to provide the supporting data sets required by the higher spectral resolution and larger spectral coverage currently achieved with modern near-IR spectrographs. Examples of the application for kinematical analysis are given for data obtained with two Gemini instruments, but the templates can be easily adjusted for use with other near-IR spectrographs at similar or lower resolution. The example data sets are also used to revisit the 'template mismatch' effect and the dependence of the velocity dispersion values obtained from the fitting process with the characteristics of the stellar templates. The library is available in electronic form from the Gemini Web pages.

  15. Stellar Radial Velocities in the Old Open Cluster M67 (NGC 2682). I. Memberships, Binaries, and Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Aaron M.; Latham, David W.; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2015-09-01

    We present results from 13776 radial-velocity (RV) measurements of 1278 candidate members of the old (4 Gyr) open cluster M67 (NGC 2682). The measurements are the results of a long-term survey that includes data from seven telescopes with observations for some stars spanning over 40 years. For narrow-lined stars, RVs are measured with precisions ranging from about 0.1 to 0.8 km s-1. The combined stellar sample reaches from the brightest giants in the cluster down to about 4 mag below the main-sequence turnoff (V=16.5), covering a mass range of about 1.34 {M}⊙ to 0.76 {M}⊙ . Spatially, the sample extends to a radus of 30 arcmin (7.4 pc in projection at a distance of 850 pc or 6-7 core radii). We find M67 to have a mean RV of +33.64 km s-1 (with an internal precision of ±0.03 km s-1) well separated from the mean velocity of the field. For stars with ≥slant 3 measurements, we derive RV membership probabilities and identify RV variables, finding 562 cluster members, 142 of which show significant RV variability. We use these cluster members to construct a color-magnitude diagram and identify a rich sample of stars that lie far from the standard single star isochrone, including the well-known blue stragglers, sub-subgiants and yellow giants. These exotic stars have a binary frequency of (at least) 80%, more than three times that detected for stars in the remainder of the sample. We confirm that the cluster is mass segregated, finding the binaries to be more centrally concentrated than the single stars in our sample at the 99.8% confidence level (and at the 98.7% confidence level when only considering main-sequence stars). The blue stragglers are centrally concentrated as compared to the solar-type main-sequence single stars in the cluster at the 99.7% confidence level. Accounting for measurement precision, we derive an RV dispersion in M67 of 0.80 ± 0.04 km s-1 for our sample of single main-sequence stars, subgiants and giants with V≤slant 15.5. When corrected

  16. Environmental dependence of the stellar velocity dispersion at fixed parameters or for different galaxy families in the main galaxy sample of SDSS DR10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xinfa; Jiang, Peng; Zhong, Shuangying; Ding, Yingping

    2015-01-01

    Using the apparent magnitude-limited Main Galaxy Sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10), we examine the environmental dependence of the stellar velocity dispersion at fixed parameters or for different galaxy families. Limiting or fixing certain parameters exerts substantial influence on the environmental dependence of the stellar velocity dispersion of the galaxies which suggests that much of the stellar velocity dispersion-density relation is likely attributable to the relations between other galaxy parameters and density. The environmental dependence of the stellar velocity dispersion for red galaxies is very strong in certain redshift bins. This dependence can still be observed in some redshift bins for late-type galaxies, HSM galaxies, and LSM galaxies but is fairly weak in all redshift bins for early-type galaxies and blue galaxies.

  17. CHASING DISK DISPERSAL INDICATORS: THE ORIGIN OF THE [OI] LOW-VELOCITY COMPONENT FROM YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigliaco, Elisabetta; Pascucci, I.; Gorti, U.; Edwards, S.; Hollenbach, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The formation time, masses, and location of planets are strongly impacted by the physical mechanisms that disperse protoplanetary disks and the timescale over which protoplanetary material is cleared out. Accretion of matter onto the central star, protostellar winds/jets, magnetic disk winds, and photoevaporative winds operate concurrently. Hence, disentangling their relative contribution to disk dispersal requires identifying diagnostics that trace different star-disk environments. Here, I will discuss the analysis the low velocity component (LVC) of the Oxygen optical forbidden lines, which is found to be blueshifted by a few km/s with respect to the stellar velocity. We find that the [OI] LVC profiles are different from those of other lines tracing disk and photoevaporative winds ([NeII] at 12.81μm and CO at 4.7μm), pointing to different origins for these gas lines. The analysis of the [OI] LVC, and the comparison with the stellar properties favor an origin of the [OI] LVC in a region where OH is photodissociated by stellar FUV photons and argue against thermal emission from an X-ray-heated layer. Detailed modeling of two spectra with the highest S/N and resolution shows that there are two components within the LVC: a broad, centrally peaked component that can be attributed to gas arising in a warm disk surface in Keplerian rotation, and a narrow component that may arise in a cool (<1,000 K) molecular wind.

  18. Stellar Properties of Pulsating B Star Candidates in the Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waskie, Steven; McSwain, M. Virginia

    2016-01-01

    We measure physical properties of 31 candidate β Cephei, slowly pulsating B stars (SPB), and hybrid pulsating B stars in the Kepler field. We employ LTE Kurucz ATLAS9 model atmospheres and the TLUSTY BSTAR2006 non-LTE grid to measure the projected rotational velocity, v sin i, effective temperature, Teff, and surface gravity, log g, from blue optical spectra for our stars. Results are plotted against the evolutionary tracks of Ekström et al. for determination of stellar masses, radii, and ages. Accurate determination of these parameters is crucial for asteroseismic analysis as it has been shown by Balona et al. that the predicted parameters in the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) for these hot stars are unreliable.We would like to thank Lehigh University for supporting this research. This work has been funded by NSF grants AST-1109247 and PHY-11359195.

  19. On the Velocity Field and the 3D Structure of the Galactic Soccer Ball Abell 43

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Thomas; Werner, Klaus; Ercolano, Barbara; Köppen, Joachim

    2005-11-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) and their central stars (CSs) are ideal tools to test evolutionary theory: photospheric properties of their exciting stars give stringent constraints for theoretical predictions of stellar evolution. The nebular abundances display the star's photosphere chemical composition at the time of the nebula's ejection which allows to look back into the history of stellar evolution. More importantly, they even provide a possibility to investigate on the chemical evolution of our Galaxy because most of the nuclear processed material goes back into the interstellar medium via PNe. The recent developments in observation techniques and the new three-dimensional photoionization code MOCASSIN (Ercolano et al. 2003) enable us to analyze PNe properties accurately by the construction of consistent models of PNe and CSs. In addition to PNe imaging and spectroscopy, detailed information about the velocity field within the PNe is a pre-requisite to employ de-projection techniques in modeling the physical structure of the PNe.

  20. Velocity field measurement of a round jet using quantitative schlieren.

    PubMed

    Iffa, Emishaw D; Aziz, A Rashid A; Malik, Aamir S

    2011-02-10

    This paper utilizes the background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique to measure the velocity field of a variable density round jet. The density field of the jet is computed based on the light deflection created during the passage of light through the understudy jet. The deflection vector estimation was carried out using phase-based optical flow algorithms. The density field is further exploited to extract the axial and radial velocity vectors with the aid of continuity and energy equations. The experiment is conducted at six different jet-exit temperature values. Additional turbulence parameters, such as velocity variance and power spectral density of the vector field, are also computed. Finally, the measured velocity parameters are compared with the hot wire anemometer measurements and their correlation is displayed. PMID:21343981

  1. Rapid alignment of velocity and magnetic field in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Matthaeus, W H; Pouquet, A; Mininni, P D; Dmitruk, P; Breech, B

    2008-02-29

    We show that local directional alignment of the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations occurs rapidly in magnetohydrodynamics for a variety of parameters and is seen both in direct numerical simulations and in solar wind data. The phenomenon is due to an alignment between magnetic field and gradients of either pressure or kinetic energy, and is similar to alignment of velocity and vorticity in Navier-Stokes turbulence. This rapid and robust relaxation process leads to a local weakening of nonlinear terms. PMID:18352632

  2. Bayesian 3D velocity field reconstruction with VIRBIUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaux, Guilhem

    2016-03-01

    I describe a new Bayesian-based algorithm to infer the full three dimensional velocity field from observed distances and spectroscopic galaxy catalogues. In addition to the velocity field itself, the algorithm reconstructs true distances, some cosmological parameters and specific non-linearities in the velocity field. The algorithm takes care of selection effects, miscalibration issues and can be easily extended to handle direct fitting of e.g. the inverse Tully-Fisher relation. I first describe the algorithm in details alongside its performances. This algorithm is implemented in the VIRBIUS (VelocIty Reconstruction using Bayesian Inference Software) software package. I then test it on different mock distance catalogues with a varying complexity of observational issues. The model proved to give robust measurement of velocities for mock catalogues of 3000 galaxies. I expect the core of the algorithm to scale to tens of thousands galaxies. It holds the promises of giving a better handle on future large and deep distance surveys for which individual errors on distance would impede velocity field inference.

  3. The winds of O-stars. II - The terminal velocities of stellar winds of O-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.

    1989-01-01

    The SEI method (Lamers et al., 1987) is used to obtain P Cygni profiles of the UV resonance lines of C IV, N V, and S IV and of the subordinate UV lines of N IV and C III observed in the spectra of 27 O-type stars. Theoretical profiles which include the turbulence effects agree well with the observations, and they can account for the deep absorption troughs, the shape of the violet absorption wings, and the wavelength of the emission peak. The resulting terminal velocities of the stellar winds are found to be systematically lower by about 400 km/s than previous estimates obtained using the Sobolev approximation (Castor and Lamers, 1979), suggesting that the narrow absorption components, observed in the UV resonance lines of O and B stars, reach the terminal velocity of the winds.

  4. Vacuum magnetic field mapping experiments for validated determination of the helical field coil location in stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.; Hanson, J.; Hartwell, G.; Knowlton, S.

    2010-03-15

    Understanding the behavior of plasmas in magnetic confinement fusion devices typically requires accurate knowledge of the magnetic field structure. In stellarator-type confinement devices, the helical magnetic field is produced by currents in external coils and may be traced experimentally in the absence of plasma through the experimental technique of vacuum magnetic field mapping. Field mapping experiments, such as these, were performed on the recently constructed compact toroidal hybrid to verify the range of accessible magnetic configurations, compare the actual magnetic configuration with the design configuration, and identify any vacuum field errors that lead to perturbations of the vacuum magnetic flux surfaces. Furthermore, through the use of a new coil optimization routine, modifications are made to the simulation coil model such that better agreement exists between the experimental and simulation results. An outline of the optimization procedure is discussed in conjunction with the results of one such optimization process performed on the helical field coil.

  5. Velocity-Field Theory, Boltzmann's Transport Equation and Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Shoichi

    Boltzmann equation describes the time development of the velocity distribution in the continuum fluid matter. We formulate the equation using the field theory where the velocity-field plays the central role. The matter (constituent particles) fields appear as the density and the viscosity. Fluctuation is examined, and is clearly discriminated from the quantum effect. The time variable is emergently introduced through the computational process step. The collision term, for the (velocity)**4 potential (4-body interaction), is explicitly obtained and the (statistical) fluctuation is closely explained. The present field theory model does not conserve energy and is an open-system model. (One dimensional) Navier-Stokes equation or Burger's equation, appears. In the latter part, we present a way to directly define the distribution function by use of the geometry, appearing in the mechanical dynamics, and Feynman's path-integral.

  6. Magnetic Cloud Field Intensities and Solar Wind Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Walter D.; Clau de Gonzalez, Alicia D.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Arballo, John K.

    1997-01-01

    For the sets of magnetic clouds studied in this work we have shown that there is a general relationship between their magnetic fields strength and velocities. With a clear tendency that the faster the speed of the cloud the higher the magnetic field.

  7. Approximate quasi-isodynamicity at a finite aspect ratio in a stellarator vacuum magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailov, M. I.; Nührenberg, J. Zille, R.

    2015-12-15

    A stellarator vacuum field is found in which, at a finite aspect ratio (A ≈ 40), the contours of the second adiabatic invariant of nearly all particles reflected inside that surface are poloidally closed.

  8. Estimation of Turbulent Wall Jet Velocity Fields for Noise Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickels, Adam; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Reger, Robert; Cattafesta, Louis

    2015-11-01

    Estimation of the time-dependent turbulent velocity field of a planar wall jet based on discrete surface pressure measurements is performed using stochastic estimation in both the time and frequency domain. Temporally-resolved surface pressure measurements are measured simultaneously with planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) snapshots, obtained at a relatively reduced rate. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is then applied to both the surface pressure probes and the PIV snapshots, allowing for the isolation of portions of the wall pressure and velocity field signals that are well correlated. Using the time-varying pressure expansion coefficients as unconditional variables, velocity expansion coefficients are estimated and used to produce reconstructed estimates of the velocity field. Optimization in terms of number of unconditional probes employed, location of probes, and effects of PIV discretization are investigated with regards to the resulting estimates. Coupled with this analysis, Poisson's equation for fluctuating pressure is solved such that the necessary source terms of an acoustic analogy can be calculated for estimates of the far-field acoustics. Specifically in this work, the effects of using estimated velocity fields to solve for the hydrodynamic pressure and acoustic pressure will be studied.

  9. Searching for Non-Circular Motions in Halpha Velocity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Wesley; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    We present Halpha velocity fields for four spiral galaxies: NGC 2654, NGC 2841, NGC 5746 and NGC 6674. These velocity fields were constructed from SparsePak IFU data taken on the WIYN telescope at KPNO. We use the DiskFit code to model the kinematics of these galaxies and to determine a rotation curve for each object. We find that two of these galaxies, NGC 2654 and NGC 5746, are nearly edge-on and display both photometric and kinematic evidence of a bar. NGC 6674 is closer to face-on and shows the signatures of a bar and ring. The velocity field of NGC 2841 does not show evidence for significant non-circular motions in the disk.

  10. A stochastic filtering technique for fluid flow velocity fields tracking.

    PubMed

    Cuzol, Anne; Mémin, Etienne

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we present a method for the temporal tracking of fluid flow velocity fields. The technique we propose is formalized within a sequential Bayesian filtering framework. The filtering model combines an Itô diffusion process coming from a stochastic formulation of the vorticity-velocity form of the Navier-Stokes equation and discrete measurements extracted from the image sequence. In order to handle a state space of reasonable dimension, the motion field is represented as a combination of adapted basis functions, derived from a discretization of the vorticity map of the fluid flow velocity field. The resulting nonlinear filtering problem is solved with the particle filter algorithm in continuous time. An adaptive dimensional reduction method is applied to the filtering technique, relying on dynamical systems theory. The efficiency of the tracking method is demonstrated on synthetic and real-world sequences. PMID:19443925

  11. Comparison of the flows and radial electric field in the HSX stellarator to neoclassical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briesemeister, A.; Zhai, K.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B.; Talmadge, J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic flow velocities of up to ˜20 km s-1 have been measured using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) in the quasi-helically symmetric HSX stellarator and are compared with the neoclassical values calculated using an updated version (Lore 2010 Measurement and Transport Modeling with Momentum Conservation of an Electron Internal Transport Barrier in HSX (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin); Lore et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 056101) of the PENTA code (Spong 2005 Phys. Plasmas. 12 056114). PENTA uses the monoenergetic transport coefficients calculated by the drift kinetic equation solver code (Hirshman et al 1986 Phys. Fluids 29 2951; van Rij and Hirshman 1989 Phys. Fluids B 1 563), but corrects for momentum conservation. In the outer half of the plasma good agreement is seen between the measured parallel flow profile and the calculated neoclassical values when momentum correction is included. The flow velocity in HSX is underpredicted by an order of magnitude when this momentum correction is not applied. The parallel flow is calculated to be approximately equal for the majority hydrogen ions and the C6+ ions used for the CHERS measurements. The pressure gradient of the protons is the primary drive of the calculated parallel flow for a significant portion of the outer half of the plasma. The values of the radial electric field calculated with and without momentum correction were similar, but both were smaller than the measured values in the outer half of the plasma. Differences between the measured and predicted radial electric field are possibly a result of uncertainty in the composition of the ion population and sensitivity of the ion flux calculation to resonances in the radial electric field.

  12. The conducting shell stellarator: A simple means for producing complicated fields

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of stellarators, both helical and modular, is that their coil sets must take difficult shapes in order to produce the complicated stellarator magnetic fields. The complex coil shapes make fabrication difficult and costly compared to say the toroidal field, TF, coil set of a tokamak. The conducting shell stellarator, CSS, configuration described in this report shows that complicated stellarator fields can be produced by inducing eddy currents in a conducting shell from a simple TF coil set (a field that varies like 1/R). This technique is applicable not only to a pulsed system at room or cryogenic temperatures, but can be implemented for a superconducting TF with a superconducting shell in a stellarator reactor. The CSS has the added benefit that within this device the metallic shell which can be made up of discrete plates can be changed out and replaced with new plates to create a different stellarator configuration within the same TF coil set. The work of creating the complicated magnetics is done by the passive conductor reshaping the simple TF field.

  13. THE STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION OF A COMPACT MASSIVE GALAXY AT z = 1.80 USING X-SHOOTER: CONFIRMATION OF THE EVOLUTION IN THE MASS-SIZE AND MASS-DISPERSION RELATIONS {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Sande, Jesse; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo; Kriek, Mariska; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Bezanson, Rachel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Brammer, Gabriel; Groot, Paul J.; Kaper, Lex

    2011-07-20

    Recent photometric studies have shown that early-type galaxies at fixed stellar mass were smaller and denser at earlier times. In this Letter, we assess that finding by deriving the dynamical mass of such a compact quiescent galaxy at z = 1.8. We have obtained a high-quality spectrum with full UV-NIR wavelength coverage of galaxy NMBS-C7447 using X-Shooter on the Very Large Telescope. We determined a velocity dispersion of 294 {+-} 51 km s{sup -1}. Given this velocity dispersion and the effective radius of 1.64 {+-} 0.15 kpc (as determined from Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 F160W observations) we derive a dynamical mass of (1.7 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}. Comparison of the full spectrum with stellar population synthesis models indicates that NMBS-C774 has a relatively young stellar population (0.40 Gyr) with little or no star formation and a stellar mass of M{sub *} {approx} 1.5 x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}. The dynamical and photometric stellar masses are in good agreement. Thus, our study supports the conclusion that the mass densities of quiescent galaxies were indeed higher at earlier times, and this earlier result is not caused by systematic measurement errors. By combining available spectroscopic measurements at different redshifts, we find that the velocity dispersion at fixed dynamical mass was a factor of {approx}1.8 higher at z = 1.8 compared with z = 0. Finally, we show that the apparent discrepancies between the few available velocity dispersion measurements at z > 1.5 are consistent with the intrinsic scatter of the mass-size relation.

  14. Determining Pressure and Velocity Fields from Experimental Schlieren Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Frank M.; Allshouse, Michael R.; Morrison, P. J.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2015-11-01

    Internal gravity waves generated by tidal flow over bottom topography in the ocean are important because they contribute significantly to the energy composition of the ocean. Determination of the instantaneous internal wave energy flux requires knowledge of the pressure and velocity fields, each of which is difficult to measure in the ocean or the laboratory. However, the density perturbation field can be measured using a laboratory technique known as ``synthetic schlieren.'' We present an analytical method for deducing both the pressure and velocity fields from the density perturbation field. This yields the instantaneous energy flux of linear internal waves. Our method is verified in tests with data from a Navier-Stokes direct numerical simulation. The method is then applied to laboratory schlieren data obtained for the conditions in the numerical simulations. MRA and HLS were supported by ONR. FML and PJM supported by DOE contract DE-FG02-04ER-54742.

  15. First Stellar Radial Velocities with a Laser Frequency Comb: Observations in the NIR H Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterman, Steve; Diddams, S.; Quinlan, F.; Ycas, G.; Mahadevan, S.; Ramsey, L.; Bender, C.; Redman, S.; Terrien, R.; Botzer, B.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in high precision radial velocity spectroscopy have been hindered by the lack of suitable wavelength references. This has been especially the case in the infrared where until recently radial velocity precision has been limited to 50-100m/s, hindering investigations such as the search for extrasolar planets orbiting cooler M stars at these wavelengths. To redress deficiency this we have developed a 25GHz laser frequency comb spanning the H band and suitable for use with spectrographs with spectral resolution in the range of 40,000 - 60,000, with RV precision limited by instrument stability and object S/N rather than by the lack of a suitable wavelength standard. We will present CU/NIST frequency comb performance and results obtained using the Pennsylvania State University's Pathfinder Spectrograph on the Hobby Eberly Telescope and will discuss lessons learned.

  16. Kinematics and Velocity Ellipsoid Parameters of Stellar Groups and Open Star Clusters: II Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsanhoury, W. H.

    2016-06-01

    Based on the galactic space velocity components (U, V, W) and with aid of the vector and matrix analyses, we computed the velocity ellipsoid parameters for 790 late-type stars from CoRoT (Convection, Rotation and Transits) observations and 290 L dwarf stars. We ran the calculations for spectral types F, G, and K for late-type stars and L0, L1, L2, and L3 for L dwarf stars. We found that the ratio of the middle to the major axis in the galaxy ranged from 0.35 to 0.73. The vertex deviation from the galactic center was very small for the samples under investigation, which agrees well with earlier calculations.

  17. Stellar evolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, H.-Y. (Editor); Muriel, A.

    1972-01-01

    Aspects of normal stellar evolution are discussed together with evolution near the main sequence, stellar evolution from main sequence to white dwarf or carbon ignition, the structure of massive main-sequence stars, and problems of stellar stability and stellar pulsation. Other subjects considered include variable stars, white dwarfs, close binaries, novae, early supernova luminosity, neutron stars, the photometry of field horizontal-branch stars, and stellar opacity. Transport mechanisms in stars are examined together with thermonuclear reactions and nucleosynthesis, the instability problem in nuclear burning shells, stellar coalescence, and intense magnetic fields in astrophysics. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  18. The StEllar Counterparts of COmpact high velocity clouds (SECCO) survey. II. Sensitivity of the survey and the atlas of synthetic dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccari, G.; Bellazzini, M.; Battaglia, G.; Ibata, R.; Martin, N.; Testa, V.; Cignoni, M.; Correnti, M.

    2016-06-01

    The searching for StEllar Counterparts of COmpact high velocity clouds (SECCO) survey is devoted to the search for stellar counterparts within ultra compact high velocity clouds that are candidate low-mass, low-luminosity galaxies. We present the results of a set of simulations aimed at the quantitative estimate of the sensitivity of the survey as a function of the total luminosity, size, and distance of the stellar systems we are looking for. For all of our synthetic galaxies we assumed an exponential surface brightness profile and an old and metal-poor population. The synthetic galaxies are simulated both on the images and on the photometric catalogues, taking all the observational effects into account. In the fields where the available observational material is of top quality (≃36% of the SECCO fields), we detect synthetic galaxies as ≥5σ over-densities of resolved stars down to μV,h ≃ 30.0 mag/arcsec2, for D ≤ 1.5 Mpc, and down to μV,h ≃ 29.5 mag/arcsec2, for D ≤ 2.5 Mpc. In the field with the worst observational material of the whole survey, we detect synthetic galaxies with μV,h ≤ 28.8 mag/arcsec2 out to D ≤ 1.0 Mpc, and those with μV,h ≤ 27.5 mag/arcsec2 out to D ≤ 2.5 Mpc. Dwarf galaxies with MV = -10.0, with sizes in the range spanned by known dwarfs, are detected by visual inspection of the images up to D = 5 Mpc independent of the image quality. In the best quality images, dwarfs are partially resolved into stars up to D = 3.0 Mpc and completely unresolved at D = 5 Mpc. As an independent test of the sensitivity of our images to low surface brightness galaxies, we report on the detection of several dwarf spheroidal galaxies probably located in the Virgo cluster with MV ≲ -8.0 and μV,h ≲ 26.8 mag/arcsec2. The nature of the previously discovered SECCO 1 stellar system, also likely located in the Virgo cluster, is rediscussed in comparison with these dwarfs. While specific for the SECCO survey, our study may also provide general

  19. Non-axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction for stellarators, reversed field pinches and tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, J. D.; Anderson, D. T.; Cianciosa, M.; Franz, P.; Harris, J. H.; Hartwell, G. H.; Hirshman, S. P.; Knowlton, S. F.; Lao, L. L.; Lazarus, E. A.; Marrelli, L.; Maurer, D. A.; Schmitt, J. C.; Sontag, A. C.; Stevenson, B. A.; Terranova, D.

    2013-08-01

    Axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction using magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium solutions to the Grad-Shafranov equation has long been an important tool for interpreting tokamak experiments. This paper describes recent results in non-axisymmetric (three-dimensional) equilibrium reconstruction of nominally axisymmetric plasmas (tokamaks and reversed field pinches (RFPs)), and fully non-axisymmetric plasmas (stellarators). Results from applying the V3FIT code to CTH and HSX stellarator plasmas, RFX-mod RFP plasmas and the DIII-D tokamak are presented.

  20. Computation of flow pressure fields from magnetic resonance velocity mapping.

    PubMed

    Yang, G Z; Kilner, P J; Wood, N B; Underwood, S R; Firmin, D N

    1996-10-01

    Magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping has unrivalled capacities for acquiring in vivo multi-directional blood flow information. In this study, the authors set out to derive both spatial and temporal components of acceleration, and hence differences of pressure in a flow field using cine magnetic resonance velocity data. An efficient numerical algorithm based on the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible Newtonian fluid was used. The computational approach was validated with in vitro flow phantoms. This work aims to contribute to a better understanding of cardiovascular dynamics and to serve as a basis for investigating pulsatile pressure/flow relationships associated with normal and impaired cardiovascular function. PMID:8892202

  1. VECTUM. Irregular 2D Velocity Vector Field Plotting Package

    SciTech Connect

    McClurg, F.R.; Mousseau, V.A.

    1992-05-04

    VECTUM is a NCAR Graphics based package, for generating a plot of an irregular 2D velocity vector field. The program reads an ASCII database of x, y, u, v, data pairs and produces a plot in Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) format. The program also uses an ASCII parameter file for controlling annotation details such as the plot title, arrowhead style, scale of vectors, windowing, etc. Simple geometry (i.e. lines, arcs, splines) can be defined to be included with the velocity vectors. NCAR Graphics drivers can be used to display the CGM file into PostScript, HPGL, HDF, etc, output.

  2. Turbulence in Flowing Soap Films: Velocity, Vorticity, and Thickness Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, M.; Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.

    1998-08-01

    We report experimental measurements of the velocity, vorticity, and thickness fields of turbulent flowing soap films using a modified particle-image velocimetry technique. These data yield the turbulent energy and enstrophy of the two-dimensional flows with microscale Reynolds numbers of about 100 and demonstrate the effects of compressibility arising from variations in film thickness. Despite the compressibility of the flow, real-space correlations of velocity, vorticity, and enstrophy flux are consistent with theoretical predictions for two-dimensional turbulence. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }

  3. Confronting predictions of stellar evolution theory: the case of single field M dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Mann, Andrew W.; Gaidos, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Using a homogenous sample of single field M dwarf stars from the CONCH-SHELL catalog, we confront the reliability of predictions from low mass stellar evolution models. Empirical values for the bolometric flux, effective temperature, and stellar radius are typically determined with better than 1%, 2%, and 5% precision, respectively. Coupled with precise [M/H] values, these observations place strong constraints on the accuracy of stellar models. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) formalism is used to establish the most likely stellar properties, with associated uncertainties, by interpolating within a dense grid of Dartmouth stellar evolution models with mass, age, metallicity, and distance as free parameters. The observed effective temperature and bolometric flux are adopted as independent observables in the MCMC likelihood function with the addition of the observed [M/H] and distance as informative Bayesian priors. Results are presented comparing model mass estimates to those from an empirical mass-luminosity calibration, and showing how well stellar models reproduce the observed radii, effective temperatures, and luminosities. Reliability of stellar models is then investigated as a function of mass, [M/H], equivalent width of H-alpha, and X-ray luminosity. Finally, we briefly discuss various physical mechanisms to explain the observed trends, particularly in the context of the hypothesis that magnetic activity is the source of model-observation discrepancies.

  4. Preliminary results of an updated North American GPS velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craymer, M. R.; Henton, J. A.; Piraszewski, M.; Lapelle, E.

    2010-12-01

    In an effort to improve previous continental-scale GPS velocity fields for North America, we and other collaborators in the North American Reference Frame (NAREF) Working Group have reprocessed, or are in the process of reprocessing, data from nearly all continuous GPS sites in North America (as well as a selection of global sites used to define the reference frame). Previous velocity fields were derived from coordinate time series of somewhat inhomogeneous GPS results due to: (1) the use of relative antenna calibrations that did not include satellite antennas or account for the presence of antenna radomes, (2) the use of difference reference frames, (3) the use of IGS precise orbits based on these calibrations and reference frames, and (4) the use of different (evolving) versions of GPS processing software and procedures. This reprocessing effort of all previous data is based on more consistent and accurate absolute antenna calibrations of both station and satellite antennas, the ITRF2005 reference frame and the latest versions of GPS processing software and procedures. Also, more than three additional years of data have been included in the velocity field estimation. The new time series and velocity results from the different NAREF collaborators are compared with each other and with previous reported results. We also compare these results to new precise point positioning (PPP) solutions that are much more efficient for processing large networks and to recent model predictions of glacial isostatic adjustment.

  5. The ATLAS3D project - XXI. Correlations between gradients of local escape velocity and stellar populations in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Nicholas; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Bois, Maxime; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    We explore the connection between the local escape velocity, Vesc, and the stellar population properties in the ATLAS3D survey, a complete, volume-limited sample of nearby early-type galaxies. We make use of ugriz photometry to construct Multi-Gaussian Expansion models of the surface brightnesses of our galaxies. We are able to fit the full range of surface brightness profiles found in our sample, and in addition we reproduce the results of state-of-the-art photometry in the literature with residuals of 0.04 mag. We utilize these photometric models and SAURON integral-field spectroscopy, combined with Jeans dynamical modelling, to determine the local Vesc derived from the surface brightness. We find that the local Vesc is tightly correlated with the Mg b and Fe5015 line strengths and optical colours, and anti-correlated with the Hβ line strength. In the case of the Mg b and colour-Vesc relations we find that the relation within individual galaxies follows the global relation between different galaxies. We intentionally ignored any uncertain contribution due to dark matter since we are seeking an empirical description of stellar population gradients in early-type galaxies that is ideal for quantitative comparison with model predictions. We also make use of single stellar population (SSP) modelling to transform our line strength index measurements into the SSP-equivalent parameters age (t), metallicity ([Z/H]) and α-enhancement [α/Fe]. The residuals from the relation are correlated with age, [α/Fe], molecular gas mass and local environmental density. We identify a population of galaxies that occur only at low Vesc that exhibit negative gradients in the Mg b- and Colour-Vesc relations. These galaxies typically have young central stellar populations and contain significant amounts of molecular gas and dust. Combining these results with N-body simulations of binary mergers we use the Mg b-Vesc relation to constrain the possible number of dry mergers experienced by

  6. Recovering slant and angular velocity from a linear velocity field: modeling and psychophysics.

    PubMed

    Domini, Fulvio; Caudek, Corrado

    2003-07-01

    The data from two experiments, both using stimuli simulating orthographically rotating surfaces, are presented, with the primary variable of interest being whether the magnitude of the simulated gradient was from expanding vs. contracting motion. One experiment asked observers to report the apparent slant of the rotating surface, using a gauge figure. The other experiment asked observers to report the angular velocity, using a comparison rotating sphere. The results from both experiments clearly show that observers are less sensitive to expanding than to contracting optic-flow fields. These results are well predicted by a probabilistic model which derives the orientation and angular velocity of the projected surface from the properties of the optic flow computed within an extended time window. PMID:12818345

  7. Development of a Data Reduction Pipeline to Measure Stellar Radial Velocities Using Kutztown University's On-Campus Research Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Odysseus; Reed, Phillip A.

    2016-01-01

    The Kutztown University Observatory (KUO) houses a 0.6m Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with a focal ratio of f/8. It is a dedicated observatory collecting data every clear night using the eShel model (Shelyak Instruments) echelle spectrograph. The spectral resolution is R = 11,000 and the final dispersion is 0.050 Å/pixel over the range of 4300 Å to 8100 Å.It is paramount to ensure accurate radial velocity (RV) measurements when conducting projects for research and education. RV measurements at KUO are used to determine the masses of spectroscopic binary stars, study pulsations of stellar photospheres (Cepheid variables), and to perform reconnaissance RV measurements of exoplanet candidates (reflex motion of host star).We present a data reduction pipeline program that produces RV measurements from observed spectra. After using the eShel's built in ThAr lamp for wavelength calibration, the program continuum normalizes the spectrum, creates a non-moving template (synthetic and/or observed spectrum), and corrects for barycentric motion. Finally, the program performs a cross correlation of the data and template to produce accurate RV measurements.Examples of completed and on-going projects at KUO are presented. We also demonstrate our ability to observe stellar RV's with uncertainties as good as 0.13 km/s. The eShel spectrograph is commercially available and is becoming popular among users of smaller telescopes. This data reduction pipeline will be useful to the increasing number of researchers utilizing the eShel spectrograph.

  8. Visualizing 3D velocity fields near contour surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Grant, C.

    1994-03-01

    Vector field rendering is difficult in 3D because the vector icons overlap and hide each other. We propose four different techniques for visualizing vector fields only near surfaces. The first uses motion blurred particles in a thickened region around the surface. The second uses a voxel grid to contain integral curves of the vector field. The third uses many antialiased lines through the surface, and the fourth uses hairs sprouting from the surface and then bending in the direction of the vector field. All the methods use the graphite pipeline, allowing real time rotation and interaction, and the first two methods can animate the texture to move in the flow determined by the velocity field.

  9. Lattice Models for Granular-Like Velocity Fields: Hydrodynamic Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manacorda, Alessandro; Plata, Carlos A.; Lasanta, Antonio; Puglisi, Andrea; Prados, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    A recently introduced model describing—on a 1d lattice—the velocity field of a granular fluid is discussed in detail. The dynamics of the velocity field occurs through next-neighbours inelastic collisions which conserve momentum but dissipate energy. The dynamics is described through the corresponding Master Equation for the time evolution of the probability distribution. In the continuum limit, equations for the average velocity and temperature fields with fluctuating currents are derived, which are analogous to hydrodynamic equations of granular fluids when restricted to the shear modes. Therefore, the homogeneous cooling state, with its linear instability, and other relevant regimes such as the uniform shear flow and the Couette flow states are described. The evolution in time and space of the single particle probability distribution, in all those regimes, is also discussed, showing that the local equilibrium is not valid in general. The noise for the momentum and energy currents, which are correlated, are white and Gaussian. The same is true for the noise of the energy sink, which is usually negligible.

  10. Lattice Models for Granular-Like Velocity Fields: Hydrodynamic Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manacorda, Alessandro; Plata, Carlos A.; Lasanta, Antonio; Puglisi, Andrea; Prados, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    A recently introduced model describing—on a 1d lattice—the velocity field of a granular fluid is discussed in detail. The dynamics of the velocity field occurs through next-neighbours inelastic collisions which conserve momentum but dissipate energy. The dynamics is described through the corresponding Master Equation for the time evolution of the probability distribution. In the continuum limit, equations for the average velocity and temperature fields with fluctuating currents are derived, which are analogous to hydrodynamic equations of granular fluids when restricted to the shear modes. Therefore, the homogeneous cooling state, with its linear instability, and other relevant regimes such as the uniform shear flow and the Couette flow states are described. The evolution in time and space of the single particle probability distribution, in all those regimes, is also discussed, showing that the local equilibrium is not valid in general. The noise for the momentum and energy currents, which are correlated, are white and Gaussian. The same is true for the noise of the energy sink, which is usually negligible.

  11. VELOCITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION IN A FORMING PENUMBRA

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, P.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Frasca, D.; Zuccarello, F.; Ermolli, I.; Tritschler, A.; Reardon, K. P.

    2013-07-01

    We present results from the analysis of high-resolution spectropolarimetric and spectroscopic observations of the solar photosphere and chromosphere, obtained shortly before the formation of a penumbra in one of the leading polarity sunspots of NOAA active region 11490. The observations were performed at the Dunn Solar Telescope of the National Solar Observatory on 2012 May 28, using the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer. The data set is comprised of a 1 hr time sequence of measurements in the Fe I 617.3 nm and Fe I 630.25 nm lines (full Stokes polarimetry) and in the Ca II 854.2 nm line (Stokes I only). We perform an inversion of the Fe I 630.25 nm Stokes profiles to derive magnetic field parameters and the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity at the photospheric level. We characterize chromospheric LOS velocities by the Doppler shift of the centroid of the Ca II 854.2 nm line. We find that, before the formation of the penumbra, an annular zone of 3''-5'' width is visible around the sunspot. In the photosphere, we find that this zone is characterized by an uncombed structure of the magnetic field although no visible penumbra has formed yet. We also find that the chromospheric LOS velocity field shows several elongated structures characterized by downflow and upflow motions in the inner and outer parts of the annular zone, respectively.

  12. Meeting on Stellar and Planetary Magnetic Fields, Potsdam, East Germany, August 29-September 2, 1983, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The morphologies and origins of the magnetic fields of the planets, the sun, and different classes of stars are examined in reviews and reports of theoretical and observational investigations. Topics discussed include topological-pumping mechanisms, solar-cyclic oscillatory motions, turbulent heat transfer in convective envelopes, premain-sequence stellar magnetic activity, magnetic starspots, three types of planetary dynamo, and the dynamics and energetics of the earth's core. Consideration is given to mean-field models of the planetary or stellar dynamo, photometry and spectrophotometry of magnetic stars, the binary nature of Beta CrB, and precession-induced long-period variations in magnetic stars.

  13. A Stellar Velocity Dispersion for a Strongly-lensed, Intermediate-mass Quiescent Galaxy at z=2.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Allison. R.; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; van de Sande, Jesse

    2016-03-01

    Measuring stellar velocity dispersions of quiescent galaxies beyond z˜ 2 is observationally challenging. Such measurements require near-infrared spectra with a continuum detection of at least moderate signal to noise, often necessitating long integrations. In this paper, we present deep X-Shooter spectroscopy of one of only two known gravitationally lensed massive quiescent galaxies at z\\gt 2. This galaxy is quadruply imaged, with the brightest images magnified by a factor of ˜5. The total exposure time of our data is 9.8 hr on-source; however, the magnification, and the slit placement encompassing two images, provides a total equivalent exposure time of 215 hr. From this deep spectrum we measure a redshift of ({z}{spec}=2.756+/- 0.001), making this one of the highest redshift quiescent galaxies that is spectroscopically confirmed. We simultaneously fit both the spectroscopic and photometric data to determine stellar population parameters and conclude that this galaxy is relatively young ({560}-80+100 {Myr}), of intermediate mass ({log} {M}*/{M}⊙ ={10.59}-0.05+0.04), consistent with low dust content ({A}V={0.20}-0.20+0.26), and has quenched only relatively recently. This recent quenching is confirmed by strong Balmer absorption, particularly Hδ (H{δ }A={6.66}-0.92+0.96). Remarkably, this proves that at least some intermediate-mass galaxies have already quenched as early as z˜ 2.8. Additionally, we have measured a velocity dispersion of (σ =187+/- 43 {km} {{{s}}}-1), making this the highest-redshift quiescent galaxy with a dispersion measurement. We confirm that this galaxy falls on the same mass fundamental plane (MFP) as galaxies at z = 2.2, consistent with little to no evolution in the MFP up to z = 2.8. Overall this galaxy is proof of the existence of intermediate-mass quenched galaxies in the distant universe, and that lensing is a powerful tool for determining their properties with improved accuracy.

  14. Field-effect transistor having a superlattice channel and high carrier velocities at high applied fields

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, R.J.; Dawson, L.R.; Fritz, I.J.; Osbourn, G.C.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1984-04-19

    In a field-effect transistor comprising a semiconductor having therein a source, a drain, a channel and a gate in operational relationship, there is provided an improvement wherein said semiconductor is a superlattice comprising alternating quantum well and barrier layers, the quantum well layers comprising a first direct gap semiconductor material which in bulk form has a certain bandgap and a curve of electron velocity versus applied electric field which has a maximum electron velocity at a certain electric field, the barrier layers comprising a second semiconductor material having a bandgap wider than that of said first semiconductor material, wherein the layer thicknesses of said quantum well and barrier layers are sufficiently thin that the alternating layers constitute a superlattice having a curve of electron velocity versus applied electric field which has a maximum electron velocity at a certain electric field, and wherein the thicknesses of said quantum well layers are selected to provide a superlattice curve of electron velocity versus applied electric field whereby, at applied electric fields higher than that at which the maximum electron velocity occurs in said first material when in bulk form, the electron velocities are higher in said superlattice than they are in said first semiconductor material in bulk form.

  15. RADIAL VELOCITIES AND PULSATION EPHEMERIDES OF 11 FIELD RR Lyrae STARS

    SciTech Connect

    For, Bi-Qing; Sneden, Christopher; Preston, George W.

    2011-06-01

    We present new radial velocities (RVs), improved pulsation periods, and reference epochs of 11 field RR Lyrae ab-type variables: AS Vir, BS Aps, CD Vel, DT Hya, RV Oct, TY Gru, UV Oct, V1645 Sgr, WY Ant, XZ Aps, and Z Mic. This study is based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the echelle spectrograph of the 2.5 m du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We obtained {approx}200 spectra per star (i.e., a total of {approx}2300 spectra), distributed more or less uniformly throughout their pulsation cycles. RV curves and photometric light curves phased to our new ephemerides are presented for all program stars. In a subsequent paper, we will use these spectra to derive stellar atmospheric parameters and chemical compositions throughout the pulsational cycles, based purely on spectroscopic constraints.

  16. Radial Velocities and Pulsation Ephemerides of 11 Field RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    For, Bi-Qing; Preston, George W.; Sneden, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    We present new radial velocities (RVs), improved pulsation periods, and reference epochs of 11 field RR Lyrae ab-type variables: AS Vir, BS Aps, CD Vel, DT Hya, RV Oct, TY Gru, UV Oct, V1645 Sgr, WY Ant, XZ Aps, and Z Mic. This study is based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the echelle spectrograph of the 2.5 m du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We obtained ~200 spectra per star (i.e., a total of ~2300 spectra), distributed more or less uniformly throughout their pulsation cycles. RV curves and photometric light curves phased to our new ephemerides are presented for all program stars. In a subsequent paper, we will use these spectra to derive stellar atmospheric parameters and chemical compositions throughout the pulsational cycles, based purely on spectroscopic constraints.

  17. Stellar Masses from the CANDELS Survey: The GOODS-South and UDS Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Fontana, A.; Mobasher, B.; Barro, G.; Castellano, M.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Grazian, A.; Hsu, L. T.; Lee, B.; Lee, S.-K.; Pforr, J.; Salvato, M.; Wiklind, T.; Wuyts, S.; Almaini, O.; Cooper, M. C.; Galametz, A.; Weiner, B.; Amorin, R.; Boutsia, K.; Conselice, C. J.; Dahlen, T.; Dickinson, M. E.; Giavalisco, M.; Grogin, N. A.; Guo, Y.; Hathi, N. P.; Kocevski, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kurczynski, P.; Merlin, E.; Mortlock, A.; Newman, J. A.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Simons, R.; Willner, S. P.

    2015-03-01

    We present the public release of the stellar mass catalogs for the GOODS-S and UDS fields obtained using some of the deepest near-IR images available, achieved as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey project. We combine the effort from 10 different teams, who computed the stellar masses using the same photometry and the same redshifts. Each team adopted their preferred fitting code, assumptions, priors, and parameter grid. The combination of results using the same underlying stellar isochrones reduces the systematics associated with the fitting code and other choices. Thanks to the availability of different estimates, we can test the effect of some specific parameters and assumptions on the stellar mass estimate. The choice of the stellar isochrone library turns out to have the largest effect on the galaxy stellar mass estimates, resulting in the largest distributions around the median value (with a semi interquartile range larger than 0.1 dex). On the other hand, for most galaxies, the stellar mass estimates are relatively insensitive to the different parameterizations of the star formation history. The inclusion of nebular emission in the model spectra does not have a significant impact for the majority of galaxies (less than a factor of 2 for ~80% of the sample). Nevertheless, the stellar mass for the subsample of young galaxies (age <100 Myr), especially in particular redshift ranges (e.g., 2.2 < z < 2.4, 3.2 < z < 3.6, and 5.5 < z < 6.5), can be seriously overestimated (by up to a factor of 10 for <20 Myr sources) if nebular contribution is ignored.

  18. Constraints on the original ejection velocity fields of asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, V.; Nesvorný, D.

    2016-04-01

    Asteroid families form as a result of large-scale collisions among main belt asteroids. The orbital distribution of fragments after a family-forming impact could inform us about their ejection velocities. Unfortunately, however, orbits dynamically evolve by a number of effects, including the Yarkovsky drift, chaotic diffusion, and gravitational encounters with massive asteroids, such that it is difficult to infer the ejection velocities eons after each family's formation. Here, we analyse the inclination distribution of asteroid families, because proper inclination can remain constant over long time intervals, and could help us to understand the distribution of the component of the ejection velocity that is perpendicular to the orbital plane (vW). From modelling the initial break up, we find that the distribution of vW of the fragments, which manage to escape the parent body's gravity, should be more peaked than a Gaussian distribution (i.e. be leptokurtic) even if the initial distribution was Gaussian. We surveyed known asteroid families for signs of a peaked distribution of vW using a statistical measure of the distribution peakedness or flatness known as kurtosis. We identified eight families whose vW distribution is significantly leptokurtic. These cases (e.g. the Koronis family) are located in dynamically quiet regions of the main belt, where, presumably, the initial distribution of vW was not modified by subsequent orbital evolution. We suggest that, in these cases, the inclination distribution can be used to obtain interesting information about the original ejection velocity field.

  19. BAYESIAN INFERENCE OF SOLAR AND STELLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE WEAK-FIELD APPROXIMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Asensio Ramos, A.

    2011-04-10

    The weak-field approximation is one of the simplest models that allows us to relate the observed polarization induced by the Zeeman effect with the magnetic field vector present on the plasma of interest. It is usually applied for diagnosing magnetic fields in the solar and stellar atmospheres. A fully Bayesian approach to the inference of magnetic properties in unresolved structures is presented. The analytical expression for the marginal posterior distribution is obtained, from which we can obtain statistically relevant information about the model parameters. The role of a priori information is discussed and a hierarchical procedure is presented that gives robust results that are almost insensitive to the precise election of the prior. The strength of the formalism is demonstrated through an application to IMaX data. Bayesian methods can optimally exploit data from filter polarimeters given the scarcity of spectral information as compared with spectro-polarimeters. The effect of noise and how it degrades our ability to extract information from the Stokes profiles is analyzed in detail.

  20. LAMOST Observations in the Kepler Field. Analysis of the Stellar Parameters Measured with LASP Based on Low-resolution Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Anbing; Fu, Jianning; De Cat, Peter; Wu, Yue; Yang, Xiaohu; Shi, Jianrong; Luo, Ali; Zhang, Haotong; Dong, Subo; Zhang, Ruyuan; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Cao, Zihuang; Du, Bing

    2016-08-01

    All 14 subfields of the Kepler field were observed at least once with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (lamost, Xinglong Observatory, China) during the 2012–2014 observation seasons. There are 88,628 reduced spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio in the g band (S/N g ) ≥ 6 after the first round (2012–2014) of observations of the lamost– Kepler project (LK-project). By adopting the upgraded version of the lamost Stellar Parameter pipeline (lasp), we have determined the atmospheric parameters ({T}{eff}, {log}g, and [Fe/H]) and heliocentric radial velocity v rad for 51,406 stars with 61,226 spectra. Compared with the atmospheric parameters derived from both high-resolution spectroscopy and asteroseismology for common stars in Huber et al., an external calibration of lasp atmospheric parameters was made, leading to the determination of the external errors for giants and dwarfs. Multiple spectroscopic observations of the same objects in the LK-project were used to estimate the internal uncertainties of the atmospheric parameters as a function of S/N g with the unbiased estimation method. The lasp atmospheric parameters were calibrated based on both the external and internal uncertainties for the giants and dwarfs. A general statistical analysis of the stellar parameters leads to the discovery of 106 candidate metal-poor stars, 9 candidate very metal-poor stars, and 18 candidate high-velocity stars. Fitting formulae were obtained segmentally for both the calibrated atmospheric parameters of the LK-project and the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) parameters with common stars. The calibrated atmospheric parameters and radial velocities of the LK-project will be useful for studying stars in the Kepler field. ) located at the Xinglong Observatory, China.

  1. Velocity field measurements on high-frequency, supersonic microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreth, Phillip A.; Ali, Mohd Y.; Fernandez, Erik J.; Alvi, Farrukh S.

    2016-05-01

    The resonance-enhanced microjet actuator which was developed at the Advanced Aero-Propulsion Laboratory at Florida State University is a fluidic-based device that produces pulsed, supersonic microjets by utilizing a number of microscale, flow-acoustic resonance phenomena. The microactuator used in this study consists of an underexpanded source jet that flows into a cylindrical cavity with a single, 1-mm-diameter exhaust orifice through which an unsteady, supersonic jet issues at a resonant frequency of 7 kHz. The flowfields of a 1-mm underexpanded free jet and the microactuator are studied in detail using high-magnification, phase-locked flow visualizations (microschlieren) and two-component particle image velocimetry. These are the first direct measurements of the velocity fields produced by such actuators. Comparisons are made between the flow visualizations and the velocity field measurements. The results clearly show that the microactuator produces pulsed, supersonic jets with velocities exceeding 400 m/s for roughly 60 % of their cycles. With high unsteady momentum output, this type of microactuator has potential in a range of ow control applications.

  2. The DiskMass Survey. VI. Gas and stellar kinematics in spiral galaxies from PPak integral-field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Schechtman-Rook, Andrew; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.

    2013-09-01

    We present ionized-gas ([Oiii]λ5007 Å) and stellar kinematics (velocities and velocity dispersions) for 30 nearly face-on spiral galaxies out to as many as three K-band disk scale lengths (hR). These data have been derived from PPak integral-field-unit spectroscopy from 4980-5370 Å observed at a mean resolution of λ/Δλ = 7700 (σinst = 17 km s-1). These data are a fundamental product of our survey and will be used in companion papers to, e.g., derive the detailed (baryonic+dark) mass budget of each galaxy in our sample. Our presentation provides a comprehensive description of the observing strategy and data reduction, including a robust measurement and removal of shift, scale, and rotation effects in the data due to instrumental flexure. Using an in-plane coordinate system determined by fitting circular-speed curves to our velocity fields, we derive azimuthally averaged rotation curves and line-of-sight velocity dispersion (σLOS) and luminosity profiles for both the stars and [Oiii]-emitting gas. Along with a clear presentation of the data, we demonstrate: (1) The [Oiii] and stellar rotation curves exhibit a clear signature of asymmetric drift with a rotation difference that is 11% of the maximum rotation speed of the galaxy disk, comparable to measurements in the solar neighborhood in the Milky Way. (2) The e-folding length of the stellar velocity dispersion (hσ) is 2hR on average, as expected for a disk with a constant scale height and mass-to-light ratio, with a scatter that is notably smaller for massive, high-surface-brightness disks in the most luminous galaxies. (3) At radii larger than 1.5hR, σLOS tends to decline slower than the best-fitting exponential function, which may be due to an increase in the disk mass-to-light ratio, disk flaring, or disk heating by the dark-matter halo. (4) A strong correlation exists between the central vertical stellar velocity dispersion of the disks (σz,0) and their circular rotational speed at 2.2hR (V2.2h

  3. Velocity and Attenuation Structure of the Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, J. J.; Hutchings, L. J.; Kasameyer, P. W.

    1993-01-01

    The Geysers geothermal field is located in northern California and is one of the world's largest producers of electricity from geothermal energy. The resource consists of primarily dry steam which is produced from a low, porosity fractured graywacke. Over the last several years steam pressure at the Geysers has been dropping. Concern over decline of the resource has prompted research to understand its fundamental nature. A key issue is the distribution of fluid in the matrix of the reservoir rock. In this paper we interpret seismic compressional-wave velocity and attenuation data at the Geysers in terms of the geologic structure and fluid saturation in the reservoir. Our data consist of approximately 300 earthquakes that are of magnitude 1.2 and are distributed in depth between sea level and 2.5 km. Using compressional-wave arrival times, we invert for earthquake location, origin time, and velocity along a three-dimensional grid. Using the initial pulse width of the compressional-wave, we invert for the initial pulse width associated with the source, and the one-dimensional Q structure. We find that the velocity structure correlates with known mapped geologic units, including a velocity high that is correlated with a felsite body at depth that is known from drilling. The dry steam reservoir, which is also known from drilling, is mostly correlated with low velocity. The Q increases with depth to the top of the dry steam reservoir and decreases with depth within the reservoir. The decrease of Q with depth probably indicates that the saturation of the matrix of the reservoir rock increases with depth.

  4. Shear velocity of the Rotokawa geothermal field using ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civilini, F.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient noise correlation is an increasingly popular seismological technique that uses the ambient seismic noise recorded at two stations to construct an empirical Green's function. Applications of this technique include determining shear velocity structure and attenuation. An advantage of ambient noise is that it does not rely on external sources of seismic energy such as local or teleseismic earthquakes. This method has been used in the geothermal industry to determine the depths at which magmatic processes occur, to distinguish between production and non-production areas, and to observe seismic velocity perturbations associated with fluid extraction. We will present a velocity model for the Rotokawa geothermal field near Taupo, New Zealand, produced from ambient noise cross correlations. Production at Rotokawa is based on the "Rotokawa A" combined cycle power station established in 1997 and the "Nga Awa Purua" triple flash power plant established in 2010. Rotokawa Joint Venture, a partnership between Mighty River Power and Tauhara North No. 2 Trust currently operates 174 MW of generation at Rotokawa. An array of short period seismometers was installed in 2008 and occupies an area of roughly 5 square kilometers around the site. Although both cultural and natural noise sources are recorded at the stations, the instrument separation distance provides a unique challenge for analyzing cross correlations produced by both signal types. The inter-station spacing is on the order of a few kilometers, so waves from cultural sources generally are not coherent from one station to the other, while the wavelength produced by natural noise is greater than the station separation. Velocity models produced from these two source types will be compared to known geological models of the site. Depending on the amount of data needed to adequately construct cross-correlations, a time-dependent model of velocity will be established and compared with geothermal production processes.

  5. REVEALING VELOCITY DISPERSION AS THE BEST INDICATOR OF A GALAXY's COLOR, COMPARED TO STELLAR MASS, SURFACE MASS DENSITY, OR MORPHOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Wake, David A.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn

    2012-06-01

    Using data of nearby galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey we investigate whether stellar mass (M{sub star}), central velocity dispersion ({sigma}), surface mass density ({Sigma}), or the Sersic n parameter is best correlated with a galaxy's rest-frame color. Specifically, we determine how the mean color of galaxies varies with one parameter when another is fixed. When M{sub star} is fixed we see that strong trends remain with all other parameters, whereas residual trends are weaker when {Sigma}, n, or {sigma} is fixed. Overall {sigma} is the best indicator of a galaxy's typical color, showing the largest residual color dependence when any of the other three parameters are fixed, and M{sub star} is the poorest. Other studies have indicated that both the central black hole mass and possibly host dark matter halo properties (mass or concentration) are also better correlated with {sigma} than with M{sub star}, {Sigma}, or n. Therefore, it could be the case that the strong correlation between color and {sigma} reflects an underlying relationship between a galaxy's star formation history and/or present star formation rate and the properties of its dark matter halo and/or the feedback from its central supermassive black hole.

  6. The Milky Way stellar populations in CFHTLS fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guittet, M.; Haywood, M.; Schultheis, M.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the characteristics of the thick disk in the Canada -- France -- Hawaii -- Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) fields, complemented at bright magnitudes with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. The ([Fe/H], Z) distributions are derived in the W1 and W3 fields, and compared with simulated maps produced using the Besançon model. It is shown that the thick disk, represented in star-count models by a distinct component, is not an adequate description of the observed ([Fe/H], Z) distributions in these fields.

  7. Resistive dissipation and magnetic field topology in the stellar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1993-01-01

    Tangential discontinuities, or current sheets, in a magnetic field embedded in a fluid with vanishing resistivity are created by discontinuous fluid motion. Tangential discontinuities are also created when a magnetic field is allowed to relax to magnetostatic equilibrium after mixing by fluid motions (either continuous or discontinuous) into any but the simplest topologies. This paper shows by formal examples that the current sheets arising solely from discontinuous fluid motions do not contribute significantly to the dissipation of magnetic free energy when a small resistivity is introduced. Dissipation that is significant under coronal conditions occurs only by rapid reconnection, which arises when, and only when, the current sheets are required by the field topology. Hence it is topological dissipation that is primarily responsible for heating tenuous coronal gases in astronomical settings, whether the fluid displacements of the field are continuous or discontinuous.

  8. The FORS1 catalogue of stellar magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnulo, S.; Fossati, L.; Landstreet, J. D.; Izzo, C.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope was used to obtain low-resolution circular polarised spectra of nearly a thousand different stars, with the aim of measuring their mean longitudinal magnetic fields. Magnetic fields were measured by different authors, and using different methods and software tools. Aims: A catalogue of FORS1 magnetic measurements would provide a valuable resource with which to better understand the strengths and limitations of this instrument and of similar low-dispersion, Cassegrain spectropolarimeters. However, FORS1 data reduction has been carried out by a number of different groups using a variety of reduction and analysis techniques. Our understanding of the instrument and our data reduction techniques have both improved over time. A full re-analysis of FORS1 archive data using a consistent and fully documented algorithm would optimise the accuracy and usefulness of a catalogue of field measurements. Methods: Based on the ESO FORS pipeline, we have developed a semi-automatic procedure for magnetic field determinations, which includes self-consistent checks for field detection reliability. We have applied our procedure to the full content of circular spectropolarimetric measurements of the FORS1 archive. Results: We have produced a catalogue of spectro-polarimetric observations and magnetic field measurements for ~1400 observations of ~850 different objects. The spectral type of each object has been approximately classified. We have also been able to test different methods for data reduction is a systematic way. The resulting catalogue has been used to produce an estimator for an upper limit to the uncertainty in a field strength measurement of an early type star as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio of the observation. Conclusions: While FORS1 is not necessarily an optimal instrument for the discovery of weak magnetic fields, it is very useful for the systematic study of larger fields, such as those found in Ap

  9. Michelson wide-field stellar interferometry: principles and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Montilla, I; Pereira, S F; Braat, J J M

    2005-01-20

    A new interferometric technique for Michelson wide-field interferometry is presented that consists of a Michelson pupil-plane combination scheme in which a wide field of view can be achieved in one shot. This technique uses a stair-shaped mirror in the intermediate image plane of each telescope in the array, allowing for simultaneous correction of the differential delay for the on-axis and off-axis image positions. Experimental results in a laboratory setup show that it is possible to recover the fringes of on-axis and off-axis stars with an angular separation of 1 arc min simultaneously and with a similar contrast. This new technique represents a considerable extension of the field of view of an interferometer without the need for extra observation time. PMID:15717821

  10. The expansion velocity field within the planetary nebula NGC 7008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbadin, F.; Ortolani, S.; Bianchini, A.; Hamzaoglu, E.

    1983-06-01

    The forbidden O III, H-alpha, and forbidden N II expansion velocity fields within the planetary nebula NGC 7008 have been obtained from high dispersion spectrograms. The photographic and spectroscopic data indicate that this nebula is very inhomogeneous. A rough model consists of two coaxial prolate spheroids of moderate ellipticity. Evidence is presented that K 4-44 (93 + 5 deg 1), classified as a distinct planetary nebula in the Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae of Perek and Kohoutek (1967) is a condensation within NGC 7008.

  11. The connection between stellar activity cycles and magnetic field topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, V.; Jardine, M.; Vidotto, A. A.; Donati, J.-F.; Boro Saikia, S.; Bouvier, J.; Fares, R.; Folsom, C. P.; Gregory, S. G.; Hussain, G.; Jeffers, S. V.; Marsden, S. C.; Morin, J.; Moutou, C.; do Nascimento, J. D.; Petit, P.; Waite, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Zeeman Doppler imaging has successfully mapped the large-scale magnetic fields of stars over a large range of spectral types, rotation periods and ages. When observed over multiple epochs, some stars show polarity reversals in their global magnetic fields. On the Sun, polarity reversals are a feature of its activity cycle. In this paper, we examine the magnetic properties of stars with existing chromospherically determined cycle periods. Previous authors have suggested that cycle periods lie on multiple branches, either in the cycle period-Rossby number plane or the cycle period-rotation period plane. We find some evidence that stars along the active branch show significant average toroidal fields that exhibit large temporal variations while stars exclusively on the inactive branch remain dominantly poloidal throughout their entire cycle. This lends credence to the idea that different shear layers are in operation along each branch. There is also evidence that the short magnetic polarity switches observed on some stars are characteristic of the inactive branch while the longer chromospherically determined periods are characteristic of the active branch. This may explain the discrepancy between the magnetic and chromospheric cycle periods found on some stars. These results represent a first attempt at linking global magnetic field properties obtained form ZDI and activity cycles.

  12. Simulated stellar kinematics studies of high-redshift galaxies with the HARMONI Integral Field Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrew, S.; Zieleniewski, S.; Houghton, R. C. W.; Thatte, N.; Devriendt, J.; Tecza, M.; Clarke, F.; O'Brien, K.; Häußler, B.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study into the capabilities of integrated and spatially resolved integral field spectroscopy of galaxies at z = 2-4 with the future HARMONI spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) using the simulation pipeline, HSIM. We focus particularly on the instrument's capabilities in stellar absorption line integral field spectroscopy, which will allow us to study the stellar kinematics and stellar population characteristics. Such measurements for star-forming and passive galaxies around the peak star formation era will provide a critical insight into the star formation, quenching and mass assembly history of high-z, and thus present-day galaxies. First, we perform a signal-to-noise study for passive galaxies at a range of stellar masses for z = 2-4, assuming different light profiles; for this population, we estimate that integrated stellar absorption line spectroscopy with HARMONI will be limited to galaxies with M* ≳ 1010.7 M⊙. Secondly, we use HSIM to perform a mock observation of a typical star-forming 1010 M⊙ galaxy at z = 3 generated from the high-resolution cosmological simulation NUTFB. We demonstrate that the input stellar kinematics of the simulated galaxy can be accurately recovered from the integrated spectrum in a 15-h observation, using common analysis tools. Whilst spatially resolved spectroscopy is likely to remain out of reach for this particular galaxy, we estimate HARMONI's performance limits in this regime from our findings. This study demonstrates how instrument simulators such as HSIM can be used to quantify instrument performance and study observational biases on kinematics retrieval; and shows the potential of making observational predictions from cosmological simulation output data.

  13. Chandrasekhar's relation and stellar rotation in the Kepler field

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, J. R. P.; Soares, B. B.; De Freitas, D. B. E-mail: brauliosoares@uern.br

    2014-11-20

    According to the statistical law of large numbers, the expected mean of identically distributed random variables of a sample tends toward the actual mean as the sample increases. Under this law, it is possible to test the Chandrasekhar's relation (CR), (V) = (π/4){sup –1}(Vsin i), using a large amount of Vsin i and V data from different samples of similar stars. In this context, we conducted a statistical test to check the consistency of the CR in the Kepler field. In order to achieve this, we use three large samples of V obtained from Kepler rotation periods and a homogeneous control sample of Vsin i to overcome the scarcity of Vsin i data for stars in the Kepler field. We used the bootstrap-resampling method to estimate the mean rotations ((V) and (Vsin i)) and their corresponding confidence intervals for the stars segregated by effective temperature. Then, we compared the estimated means to check the consistency of CR, and analyzed the influence of the uncertainties in radii measurements, and possible selection effects. We found that the CR with (sin i) = π/4 is consistent with the behavior of the (V) as a function of (Vsin i) for stars from the Kepler field as there is a very good agreement between such a relation and the data.

  14. The velocity field under breaking waves: coherent structures and turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, W. Kendall; Veron, Fabrice; White, Christopher J.

    2002-03-01

    Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) measurements of the velocity field under breaking waves in the laboratory are presented. The region of turbulent fluid directly generated by breaking is too large to be imaged in one video frame and so an ensemble-averaged representation of the flow is built up from a mosaic of image frames. It is found that breaking generates at least one coherent vortex that slowly propagates downstream at a speed consistent with the velocity induced by its image in the free surface. Both the kinetic energy of the flow and the vorticity decay approximately as t[minus sign]1. The Reynolds stress of the turbulence also decays as t[minus sign]1 and is, within the accuracy of the measurements, everywhere negative, consistent with downward transport of streamwise momentum. Estimates of the mometum flux from waves to currents based on the measurements of the Reynolds stress are consistent with earlier estimates. The implications of the measurements for breaking in the field are discussed. Based on geometrical optics and wave action conservation, we suggest that the presence of the breaking-induced vortex provides an explanation for the suppression of short waves by breaking. Finally, in Appendices, estimates of the majority of the terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget are presented at an early stage in the evolution of the turbulence, and comparisons with independent acoustical measurements of breaking are presented.

  15. Elasticity Estimation of Thin Flap Using Optical PIV Velocity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerdale, John; Belohlavek, Marek; McMahon, Eileen; Jiamsripong, Panupong; Heys, Jeffery; Milano, Michele

    2010-11-01

    We estimate the elasticity of a thin, cellulose acetate flap using forcing data derived from optical particle imaging velocimetry (optical-PIV) velocity fields. The flap is fixed on one end to a stand submerged within a PIV tank and deformed using a water jet pulse. PIV is then performed at the interface between the thin sheet and water jet throughout the deformation cycle; the resulting velocity field allows the determination of instantaneous pressure measurements via Poisson's equation. An optimal estimation technique utilizing ensemble Kalman filtering is coupled with a finite element analysis program to determine the sheet's elasticity. Results show good agreement with actual elasticity measurements for both homogeneous and non-homogeneous elasticity sheets. In addition, we performed a quantitative study to determine the optimal vector density for a given element size to achieve an accurate elasticity estimation value. Considering the success of this technique using optical-PIV, it should also be possible for in-vitro elasticity estimates based on ultrasound-PIV measurements.

  16. Full field gas phase velocity measurements in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Devon W.; Yanis, William

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of full-field velocities via Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is common in research efforts involving fluid motion. While such measurements have been successfully performed in the liquid phase in a microgravity environment, gas-phase measurements have been beset by difficulties with seeding and laser strength. A synthesis of techniques developed at NASA LeRC exhibits promise in overcoming these difficulties. Typical implementation of PIV involves forming the light from a pulsed laser into a sheet that is some fraction of a millimeter thick and 50 or more millimeters wide. When a particle enters this sheet during a pulse, light scattered from the particle is recorded by a detector, which may be a film plane or a CCD array. Assuming that the particle remains within the boundaries of the sheet for the second pulse and can be distinguished from neighboring particles, comparison of the two images produces an average velocity vector for the time between the pulses. If the concentration of particles in the sampling volume is sufficiently large but the particles remain discrete, a full field map may be generated.

  17. Stellar Rotation in the Orion Nebula Cluster Flanking Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebull, L.

    1999-12-01

    We present an optical study of four 45' x 45' fields centered 35' north, south, east, and west of the Orion Nebula Cluster center. We have measured V and I C photometry for 5000 stars in three of these fields, and U photometry for 1600 of those. We have obtained spectral classifications for 300 of the stars with UVI C photometry plus an additional 200 stars located outside the area of our photometric survey. Based on these data, we find 230 active accretion disk candidates. We have also obtained time-series data for stars in each of these four fields, and 300 periods derived from these data will be presented and discussed. In recent months, several investigators have presented rotation rates for stars in the Trapezium and its immediate environs. The paradigm (e.g. Choi and Herbst 1996) until now has been that the slow rotators are still (magnetically) locked to their disks, and that the fast rotators have dissipated their disks sufficiently as to allow spinup. Herbst et al. (2000) claim they see a bimodal distribution of rotators in Orion; Stassun et al. (1999) claim not to see such a distribution in a very similar region, and in fact cast doubt on the bimodality of the original distribution. Different selection effects (as well as different numbers of stars) are likely to be affecting these conclusions; the addition of data presented here will clarify the issues. This research has made use of data taken at McDonald Observatory (by R. Makidon and M. Adams), data taken at the KPNO 0.9m (with B. Patten and C. Pavlovsky), data taken through the WIYN-Queue program, software written by B. Patten, and partial funding via NASA Origins Grants (L. Hillenbrand and S. Strom).

  18. Far-ultraviolet stellar photometry: Fields in Sagittarius and Scorpius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Edward G.; Carruthers, George R.

    1995-02-01

    Far-ultraviolet photometry for 741 objects in a field in Sagittarius centered near M8 and 541 objects in a field centered near sigma Scorpii is presented. These data were extracted from electographic images obtained with two cameras during a shuttle flight in 1991 April/May. The cameras provided band passes with lambdaeff = 1375 A and lambdaeff = 1781 A. Synthetic colors show that these bands are sensitive to effective temperature for hot stars. Our measurements were placed on a quantitative far-ultraviolet magnitude scale by convolving the spectra of stars observed by IUE with our cameras' spectral response functions. Fifty-eight percent of the ultraviolet objects were identified with visible stars using the SIMBAD database while another 40% of the objects are blends of early type stars too close together to separate with our resolution. Our photometry is compared with that from the TD-1, OAO 2, and ANS satellites and the S201 (Apollo 16) far-ultraviolet camera and found to agree at the level of a few tenths of a magnitude. Unlike previous studies, almost half of the identified visual counterparts to the ultraviolet objects are early B stars. A plot of distance modulus against ultraviolet color excess reveals a significant population of stars with strong ultraviolet excess.

  19. A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion and ~100 Globular Clusters for the Ultra-diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Danieli, Shany; Merritt, Allison; Mowla, Lamiya; Romanowsky, Aaron; Zhang, Jielai

    2016-09-01

    Recently a population of large, very low surface brightness, spheroidal galaxies was identified in the Coma cluster. The apparent survival of these ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in a rich cluster suggests that they have very high masses. Here, we present the stellar kinematics of Dragonfly 44, one of the largest Coma UDGs, using a 33.5 hr integration with DEIMOS on the Keck II telescope. We find a velocity dispersion of σ ={47}-6+8 {km} {{{s}}}-1, which implies a dynamical mass of {M}{dyn}(\\lt {r}1/2)={0.7}-0.2+0.3× {10}10 {M}ȯ within its deprojected half-light radius of {r}1/2=4.6+/- 0.2 {kpc}. The mass-to-light ratio is M/{L}I(\\lt {r}1/2)={48}-14+21 {M}ȯ /{L}ȯ , and the dark matter fraction is 98% within {r}1/2. The high mass of Dragonfly 44 is accompanied by a large globular cluster population. From deep Gemini imaging taken in 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 seeing we infer that Dragonfly 44 has {94}-20+25 globular clusters, similar to the counts for other galaxies in this mass range. Our results add to other recent evidence that many UDGs are “failed” galaxies, with the sizes, dark matter content, and globular cluster systems of much more luminous objects. We estimate the total dark halo mass of Dragonfly 44 by comparing the amount of dark matter within r=4.6 {kpc} to enclosed mass profiles of NFW halos. The enclosed mass suggests a total mass of ∼ {10}12 {M}ȯ , similar to the mass of the Milky Way. The existence of nearly dark objects with this mass is unexpected, as galaxy formation is thought to be maximally efficient in this regime.

  20. Empirically Interrelating Stellar Magnetic Activity, Photometric Variability and Radial Velocity “Jitter” to Enhance Planet Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic activity of Sun-like stars, which can manifest as short time scale photometric and radial velocity (RV) variability, adds to the difficulty of detecting planets, particularly those in the Earth mass range: RV jitter can wash out the very small RV signal of such planets, and photometric “noise” caused by stellar activity can similarly preclude the detection of the tiny transit signature that a planet like ours would produce. Hence, in order to successfully detect Earth-like planets, via either the transit or RV method, the exoplanet community needs a way to characterize the photometric and RV stability of a star in advance. Many studies have examined pair-wise relationships between the magnetic activity, photometric variability and RV jitter of stars. We expand upon this work by using as our foundation the high quality photometric data from NASA's Kepler mission, supplemented by archival Keck RV measurements and our own Ca II H&K magnetic activity measurements, aiming to empirically interrelate all three quantities for both dwarf and evolved Sun-like stars. We find that some of the low level photometric variability correlates poorly with magnetic activity and instead traces granulation, yielding a simple tool to measure surface gravity with a precision of 0.1 dex. We tie the RV jitter of magnetically inactive stars (stars with observed RV jitter ranging from ~3m/s to 135.5m/s but with photometric variations of less than 3 mmag) to the Fourier complexity of the light curve, finding that higher frequency photometric variations drive the RV jitter. Finally, we present initial comparisons between magnetic activity, as traced by Ca II H&K measurements, and other measures of photometric variability, as well as ongoing and future applications of our work.

  1. THE BLACK HOLE MASS-STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION RELATIONSHIP FOR QUASARS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE 7

    SciTech Connect

    Salviander, S.; Shields, G. A.

    2013-02-10

    We assess evolution in the M {sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relationship for quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 for the redshift range 0.1 < z < 1.2. We estimate the black hole mass, M {sub BH}, using the 'photoionization method', with the broad H{beta} or Mg II emission line and the quasar continuum luminosity. For the stellar velocity dispersion, we use the narrow [O III] or [O II] emission line as a surrogate. This study is a follow-up to an earlier study in which we investigated evolution in the M {sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relationship in quasars from Data Release 3. The greatly increased number of quasars in our new sample has allowed us to break our lower-redshift subsample into black hole mass bins and probe the M {sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relationship for constant black hole mass. The M {sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relationship for the highest-mass (M {sub BH} > 10{sup 9.0} M {sub Sun }) and lowest-mass (M {sub BH} < 10{sup 7.5} M {sub Sun }) black holes appears to evolve significantly; however, most or all of this apparent evolution can be accounted for by various observational biases due to intrinsic scatter in the relationship and to uncertainties in observed quantities. The M {sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relationship for black holes in the middle mass range (10{sup 7.5} < M {sub BH} < 10{sup 9.0} M {sub Sun }) shows minimal change with redshift. The overall results suggest a limit of {+-}0.2 dex on any evolution in the M {sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relationship for quasars out to z Almost-Equal-To 1 compared with the relationship observed in the local universe. Intrinsic scatter may also provide a plausible way to reconcile the wide range of results of several different studies of the black hole-galaxy relationships.

  2. A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion and ~100 Globular Clusters for the Ultra-diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Danieli, Shany; Merritt, Allison; Mowla, Lamiya; Romanowsky, Aaron; Zhang, Jielai

    2016-09-01

    Recently a population of large, very low surface brightness, spheroidal galaxies was identified in the Coma cluster. The apparent survival of these ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in a rich cluster suggests that they have very high masses. Here, we present the stellar kinematics of Dragonfly 44, one of the largest Coma UDGs, using a 33.5 hr integration with DEIMOS on the Keck II telescope. We find a velocity dispersion of σ ={47}-6+8 {km} {{{s}}}-1, which implies a dynamical mass of {M}{dyn}(\\lt {r}1/2)={0.7}-0.2+0.3× {10}10 {M}ȯ within its deprojected half-light radius of {r}1/2=4.6+/- 0.2 {kpc}. The mass-to-light ratio is M/{L}I(\\lt {r}1/2)={48}-14+21 {M}ȯ /{L}ȯ , and the dark matter fraction is 98% within {r}1/2. The high mass of Dragonfly 44 is accompanied by a large globular cluster population. From deep Gemini imaging taken in 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 seeing we infer that Dragonfly 44 has {94}-20+25 globular clusters, similar to the counts for other galaxies in this mass range. Our results add to other recent evidence that many UDGs are “failed” galaxies, with the sizes, dark matter content, and globular cluster systems of much more luminous objects. We estimate the total dark halo mass of Dragonfly 44 by comparing the amount of dark matter within r=4.6 {kpc} to enclosed mass profiles of NFW halos. The enclosed mass suggests a total mass of ˜ {10}12 {M}ȯ , similar to the mass of the Milky Way. The existence of nearly dark objects with this mass is unexpected, as galaxy formation is thought to be maximally efficient in this regime.

  3. An algorithm to estimate unsteady and quasi-steady pressure fields from velocity field measurements.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, John O; Bose, Sanjeeb; Gemmell, Brad J; Colin, Sean P; Costello, John H

    2014-02-01

    We describe and characterize a method for estimating the pressure field corresponding to velocity field measurements such as those obtained by using particle image velocimetry. The pressure gradient is estimated from a time series of velocity fields for unsteady calculations or from a single velocity field for quasi-steady calculations. The corresponding pressure field is determined based on median polling of several integration paths through the pressure gradient field in order to reduce the effect of measurement errors that accumulate along individual integration paths. Integration paths are restricted to the nodes of the measured velocity field, thereby eliminating the need for measurement interpolation during this step and significantly reducing the computational cost of the algorithm relative to previous approaches. The method is validated by using numerically simulated flow past a stationary, two-dimensional bluff body and a computational model of a three-dimensional, self-propelled anguilliform swimmer to study the effects of spatial and temporal resolution, domain size, signal-to-noise ratio and out-of-plane effects. Particle image velocimetry measurements of a freely swimming jellyfish medusa and a freely swimming lamprey are analyzed using the method to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach when applied to empirical data. PMID:24115059

  4. M dwarfs in the Local Milky Way: The Field Low-Mass Stellar Luminosity and Mass Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bochanski, John J., Jr.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.

    2006-06-01

    Modern sky surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, have revolutionized how Astronomy is done. With millions of photometric and spectroscopic observations, global observational properties can be studied with unprecedented statistical significance. Low-mass stars dominate the local Milky Way, with tens of millions observed by SDSS within a few kpc. Thus, they make ideal tracers of the Galactic potential, and the thin and thick disks. In this thesis dissertation, I present my efforts to characterize the local low-mass stellar population, using a collection of observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). First, low-mass stellar template spectra were constructed from the co-addition of thousands of SDSS spectroscopic observations. These template spectra were used to quantify the observable changes introduced by chromospheric activity and metallicity. Furthermore, the average ugriz colors were measured as a function of spectral type. Next, the local kinematic structure of the Milky Way was quantified, using a special set of SDSS spectroscopic observations. Combining proper motions and radial velocities (measured using the spectral templates), along with distances, the full UVW space motions of over 7000 low-mass stars along one line of sight were computed. These stars were also separated kinematically to investigate other observational differences between the thin and thick disks. Finally, this dissertation details a project designed to measure the luminosity and mass functions of low-mass stars. Using a new technique optimized for large surveys, the field luminosity function (LF) and local stellar density profile are measured simultaneously. The sample size used to estimate the LF is nearly three orders of magnitude larger than any previous study, offering a definitive measurement of this quantity. The observed LF is transformed into a mass function (MF) and compared to previous studies.

  5. Complex Velocity Fields in the Shell of T Pyxidis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margon, Bruce; Deutsch, Eric W.

    1998-05-01

    We present spatially resolved, moderate-resolution spectrophotometry of the recurrent nova T Pyxidis and a portion of the surrounding shell. The spectrum extracted from a strip of width 10'' centered on the star shows well-known, strong emission lines typical of old novae plus a prominent, unfamiliar emission line at 6590 Å. This line, and a weaker companion at 6540 Å, which we also detect, has been previously reported by Shahbaz et al. and attributed to Doppler-shifted Hα emission from a collimated jet emerging from T Pyx. We demonstrate that these lines are instead due to [N II] λλ6548, 6584 from a complex velocity field in the surrounding nebula. The comments of past workers concerning the great strength of He II λ4686 in T Pyx itself are also reiterated.

  6. Large-scale velocity fields. [of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Robert F.; Kichatinov, L. L.; Bogart, Richard S.; Ribes, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    The present evaluation of recent observational results bearing on the nature and characteristics of solar rotation gives attention to the status of current understanding on such large-scale velocity-field-associated phenomena as solar supergranulation, mesogranulation, and giant-scale convection. Also noted are theoretical suggestions reconciling theory and observations of giant-scale solar convection. The photosphere's global meridional circulation is suggested by solar rotation models requiring pole-to-equator flows of a few m/sec, as well as by the observed migration of magnetic activity over the solar cycle. The solar rotation exhibits a latitude and cycle dependence which can be understood in terms of a time-dependent convective toroidal roll pattern.

  7. Instantaneous velocity field imaging instrument for supersonic reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.; Kessler, W. J.; Legner, H. H.; Mcmanus, K. R.; Mulhall, P. A.; Parker, T. E.; Sonnenfroh, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    The technical tasks conducted to develop and demonstrate a new gas velocity measurement technique for high enthalpy reacting flows is described. The technique is based on Doppler-shifted Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the OH radical. The imaging approach permits, in principle, single-shot measurements of the 2-D distribution of a single velocity component in the measurement plane, and is thus a technique of choice for applications in high enthalpy transient flow facilities. In contrast to previous work in this area, the present program demonstrated an approach which modified the diagnostic technique to function under the constraints of practical flow conditions of engineering interest, rather than vice-versa. In order to accomplish the experimental demonstrations, the state-of-the-art in PLIF diagnostic techniques was advanced in several ways. Each of these tasks is described in detail and is intended to serve as a reference in supporting the transition of this new capability to the fielded PLIF instruments now installed at several national test facilities. Among the new results of general interest in LlF-based flow diagnostics, a detailed set of the first measurements of the collisional broadening and shifting behavior of OH (1,0) band transitions in H7-air combustion environments is included. Such measurements are critical in the design of a successful strategy for PLIF velocity imaging; they also relate to accurate concentration and temperature measurements, particularly in compressible flow regimes. Furthermore, the results shed new light on the fundamental relationship between broadening and energy transfer collisions in OH A(sup 2)Sigma(+)v(sup ') = 1. The first single-pulse, spectrally-resolved measurements of the output of common pulsed dye lasers were also produced during the course of this effort. As with the OH broadening measurements, these data are a significant aspect of a successful velocity imaging strategy, and also have

  8. THE TRIPLE EVOLUTION DYNAMICAL INSTABILITY: STELLAR COLLISIONS IN THE FIELD AND THE FORMATION OF EXOTIC BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Perets, Hagai B.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2012-12-01

    Physical collisions and close approaches between stars play an important role in the formation of exotic stellar systems. Standard theories suggest that collisions are rare, occurring only via random encounters between stars in dense clusters. We present a different formation pathway, the triple evolution dynamical instability (TEDI), in which mass loss in an evolving triple star system causes orbital instability. The subsequent chaotic orbital evolution of the stars triggers close encounters, collisions, exchanges between the stellar components, and the dynamical formation of eccentric compact binaries (including Sirius-like binaries). We demonstrate that the rate of stellar collisions due to the TEDI is approximately 10{sup -4} yr{sup -1} per Milky Way Galaxy, which is nearly 30 times higher than the total collision rate due to random encounters in the Galactic globular clusters. Moreover, we find that the dominant type of stellar collision is qualitatively different; most collisions involve asymptotic giant branch stars, rather than main sequence or slightly evolved stars, which dominate collisions in globular clusters. The TEDI mechanism should lead us to revise our understanding of collisions and the formation of compact, eccentric binaries in the field.

  9. The stellar field in the vicinity of Sirius and the color enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.; Gry, C.

    1991-12-01

    Several ancient texts suggest that the bright star Sirius was red in the recent past. Evidence is presented from an observation record found in Chinese sources (of about 100 BC) in which mention is made of a color change of Sirius. Photometric observations are reported of the stellar field around Sirius with the aim to find the possible causes of the color change(s) of the stellar system within historical times. Among the possible causes are objects external to Sirius A-B, namely a small interstellar cloud or a third body interacting with the system. Both could have caused an observed reddening effect consistent with the historical record, and two stars in the field may have the right characteristics and orbits to interact with Sirius.

  10. Stellar photometry with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide-field/Planetary camera - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, Jon A.; Hunter, Deidre; Groth, Edward J.; Light, Robert M.; Faber, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    The prospects for the use of the Wide-Field/Planetary Camera (WFPC) for stellar photometry are described. The large halos of the point-spread function (PSF) resulting from spherical aberration and from spatial, temporal, and color variations of the PSF are the main limitations to accurate photometry. Degradations caused by crowding are exacerbated by the halos of the PSF. An attempt is made to quantify these effects and determine the current accuracy of stellar photometry with the WFPC. In realistic cases, the brighter stars in crowded fields have 0.09 mag errors; fainter stars have larger errors depending on the degree of crowding. It is shown that measuring Cepheids in Virgo Cluster galaxies is not currently possible without inordinate increases in exposure times.

  11. The SLUGGS survey: wide-field stellar kinematics of early-type galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Woodley, Kristin A.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S.; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher; Strader, Jay; Spitler, Lee R.; Foster, Caroline

    2014-08-20

    We present stellar kinematics of 22 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), based on two-dimensional (2D) absorption line stellar spectroscopy out to ∼2-4 R {sub e} (effective radii), as part of the ongoing SLUGGS Survey. The galaxies span a factor of 20 in intrinsic luminosity, as well as a full range of environment and ETG morphology. Our data consist of good velocity resolution (σ{sub inst} ∼ 25 km s{sup –1}) integrated stellar-light spectra extracted from the individual slitlets of custom made Keck/DEIMOS slitmasks. We extract stellar kinematics measurements (V, σ, h {sub 3}, and h {sub 4}) for each galaxy. Combining with literature values from smaller radii, we present 2D spatially resolved maps of the large-scale kinematic structure in each galaxy. We find that the kinematic homogeneity found inside 1 R {sub e} often breaks down at larger radii, where a variety of kinematic behaviors are observed. While central slow rotators remain slowly rotating in their halos, central fast rotators show more diversity, ranging from rapidly increasing to rapidly declining specific angular momentum profiles in the outer regions. There are indications that the outer trends depend on morphological type, raising questions about the proposed unification of the elliptical and lenticular (S0) galaxy families in the ATLAS{sup 3D} survey. Several galaxies in our sample show multiple lines of evidence for distinct disk components embedded in more slowly rotating spheroids, and we suggest a joint photometric-kinematic approach for robust bulge-disk decomposition. Our observational results appear generally consistent with a picture of two-phase (in-situ plus accretion) galaxy formation.

  12. The PAndAS field of streams: Stellar structures in the milky way halo toward Andromeda and Triangulum

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Rich, R. Michael; Collins, Michelle L. M.; Fardal, Mark A.; Irwin, Michael J.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Bate, Nicholas F.; Conn, Anthony R.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Babul, Arif; Navarro, Julio F.; Chapman, Scott C.; Crnojević, Denija; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Mackey, A. Dougal; Tanvir, Nial T.; Valls-Gabaud, David

    2014-05-20

    We reveal the highly structured nature of the Milky Way (MW) stellar halo within the footprint of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS) photometric survey from blue main sequence (MS) and MS turn-off stars. We map no fewer than five stellar structures within a heliocentric range of ∼5-30 kpc. Some of these are known (the Monoceros Ring, the Pisces/Triangulum globular cluster stream), but we also uncover three well-defined stellar structures that could be, at least partly, responsible for the so-called Triangulum/Andromeda and Triangulum/Andromeda 2 features. In particular, we trace a new faint stellar stream located at a heliocentric distance of ∼17 kpc. With a surface brightness of Σ {sub V} ∼ 32-32.5 mag arcsec{sup –2}, it follows an orbit that is almost parallel to the Galactic plane north of M31 and has so far eluded surveys of the MW halo as these tend to steer away from regions dominated by the Galactic disk. Investigating our follow-up spectroscopic observations of PAndAS, we serendipitously uncover a radial velocity signature from stars that have colors and magnitudes compatible with the stream. From the velocity of eight likely member stars, we show that this stellar structure is dynamically cold, with an unresolved velocity dispersion that is lower than 7.1 km s{sup –1} at the 90% confidence level. Along with the width of the stream (300-650 pc), its dynamics point to a dwarf-galaxy-accretion origin. The numerous stellar structures we can map in the MW stellar halo between 5 and 30 kpc and their varying morphology is a testament to the complex nature of the stellar halo at these intermediate distances.

  13. Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Maingi, R; Kaiser, T; Hill, D N; Lyon, J F; Monticello, D; Zarnstorff, M C

    2006-06-12

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is a three-field period compact stellarator presently in the construction phase at Princeton, NJ. The design parameters of the device are major radius R=1.4m, average minor radius = 0.32m, 1.2 {le} toroidal field (B{sub t}) {le} 1.7 T, and auxiliary input power up to 12 MW with neutral beams and radio-frequency heating. The NCSX average aspect ratio of 4.4 lies well below present stellarator experiments and designs, enabling the investigation of high {beta} physics in a compact stellarator geometry. Also the NCSX design choice for a quasi-axisymmetric configuration aims toward the achievement of tokamak-like transport. In this paper, we report on the magnetic field line tracing calculations used to evaluate conceptual plasma facing component (PFC) designs. In contrast to tokamaks, axisymmetric target plates are not required to intercept the majority of the heat flux in stellarators, owing to the nature of the 3-D magnetic field footprint. The divertor plate design investigated in this study covers approximately one half of the toroidal extent in each period. Typical Poincare plots in Figure 1 illustrate the plasma cross-section at several toroidal angles for a computed NCSX high-beta equilibrium. The plates used for these calculations are centered in each period about the elongated cross-section shown in Figure 1a, extending to +/- {pi}/6 in each direction. Two methods for tracing the edge field line topology were used in this study. The first entails use of the VMEC/MFBE-2001 packages, whereas the second entails use of the PIES code with a post-processor by Michael Drevlak; the same field line integration routine was used to evaluate the equilibria for this comparison. Both inputs were generated based on the {beta}=4%, =iota=0.5 equilibrium computed from the final NCSX coil set. We first compare these two methods for a specific plate geometry, and conclude with a comparison of the strike characteristics

  14. Improved methods for the measurement and analysis of stellar magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saar, Steven H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents several improved methods for the measurement of magnetic fields on cool stars which take into account simple radiative transfer effects and the exact Zeeman patterns. Using these methods, high-resolution, low-noise data can be fitted with theoretical line profiles to determine the mean magnetic field strength in stellar active regions and a model-dependent fraction of the stellar surface (filling factor) covered by these regions. Random errors in the derived field strength and filling factor are parameterized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, wavelength, spectral resolution, stellar rotation rate, and the magnetic parameters themselves. Weak line blends, if left uncorrected, can have significant systematic effects on the derived magnetic parameters, and thus several methods are developed to compensate partially for them. The magnetic parameters determined by previous methods likely have systematic errors because of such line blends and because of line saturation effects. Other sources of systematic error are explored in detail. These sources of error currently make it difficult to determine the magnetic parameters of individual stars to better than about + or - 20 percent.

  15. Galaxy Transformation as probed by Morphology and Velocity Fields of Distant Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Bodo

    2005-07-01

    We seek to obtain ACS imaging of four distant {0.3field covered by a 2x2 mosaic to determine morphological and structural parameters of late-type galaxies. We specifically concentrate on peculiarities indicative of past or ongoing interaction processes. The 90 target galaxies have been {Period74} or will be {P75} observed with 3D-spectroscopy at ESO-VLT yielding 2D-velocity fields with unprecedented spatial coverage and sampling. The good spatial resolution of the ground-based data will be further enhanced by a deconvolution method based on the proposed ACS images. The velocity field and the morphology in restframe-UV light will reveal possible transformation mechanisms affecting not only the stellar populations but also the mass distribution of the galaxies. Additionally, it will be possible to pin down the nature of the interaction {e.g. tidally or ram-pressure induced}. This assessment gets supported by our N-body/SPH simulations {including star formation} of different interaction processes that allow the direct comparison of structural and kinematical characteristics at each time step with the observations on an individual basis taking into account all observational constraints for a given galaxy. All together, we will be able to explore the relative efficiency of the various proposed transformation phenomena. In the case of non-disturbed spirals, a rotation curve can be extracted from the full 2D velocity field with unprecedented quality, from which the maximum rotation speed can be derived with high confidence. In combination with accurate size and luminosity determinations from the ACS images, we will be able to establish the Tully-Fisher and Fundamental Plane relations of cluster spiral members at cosmological epochs. At these distances cluster assembly is predicted to peak and we can probe the galaxies' luminosity, size and mass evolution with robust methods. Together with our already existing sample of 200

  16. Variance Anisotropy of Solar Wind Velocity and Magnetic Field Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oughton, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, M.

    2015-12-01

    At MHD scales in the solar wind, velocity and magnetic fieldfluctuations are typically observed to have much more energy in thecomponents transverse to the mean magnetic field, relative to theparallel components [eg, 1,2]. This is often referred to asvariance anisotropy. Various explanations for it have been suggested,including that the fluctuations are predominantly shear Alfvén waves[1] and that turbulent dynamics leads to such states [eg, 3].Here we investigate the origin and strength of such varianceanisotropies, using spectral method simulations of thecompressible (polytropic) 3D MHD equations. We report on results from runs with several different classes ofinitial conditions. These classes include(i) fluctuations polarized only in the same sense as shear Alfvénwaves (aka toroidal polarization),(ii) randomly polarized fluctuations, and(iii) fluctuations restricted so that most of the energy is inmodes which have their wavevectors perpendicular, or nearly so, to thebackground magnetic field: quasi-2D modes. The plasma beta and Mach number dependence [4] of quantities like the variance anisotropy, Alfven ratio, and fraction of the energy in the toroidal fluctuations will be examined, along with the timescales for the development of any systematic features.Implications for solar wind fluctuations will be discussed. References:[1] Belcher & Davis 1971, J. Geophys. Res, 76, 3534.[2] Oughton et al 2015, Phil Trans Roy Soc A, 373, 20140152.[3] Matthaeus et al 1996, J. Geophys. Res, 101, 7619.[4] Smith et al 2006, J. Geophys. Res, 111, A09111.

  17. Coronal structure of the large scale magnetic field and its influence on stellar rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Réville, Victor; Brun, Allan Sacha; Matt, Sean; Strugarek, Antoine; Bouvier, Jérôme

    2015-08-01

    The braking of magnetic stars through the extraction of angular momentum by stellar winds has been studied for decades, leading to several formulations as functions of stellar parameters. We recently demonstrated that the dependency of the braking law on the coronal magnetic field topology can be taken into account through a simple scalar parameter : the open magnetic flux. This parameter can be integrated anywhere beyond the last closed coronal loop in steady-state. The Zeeman-Doppler Imaging technique has brought the community a reliable and precise description of the surface magnetic field of distant stars. However reconstruction of the coronal structure of the large scale magnetic field without running costly numerical simulations of the stellar wind is not trivial. An alternative is to use the classical analytical potential field extrapolation to describe the opening of the field lines by the magnetized wind but this technique relies on knowing the so-called radius of the surface source term which must vary from star to star. To resolve this issue, we use our extended set of 2.5D wind simulations published in 2015, to provide a criteria for the field lines opening as well as a simple tool to assess the surface source term radius and the open magnetic flux. This allows us to derive the magnetic torque applied to the star by the wind from any spectropolarimetric observations. We conclude our talk by discussing the case of 3D wind simulations of the BCool sample ; whose surface magnetic field has been obtained by ZDI and to discuss how non-axisymmetry modifies or not our recent findings.

  18. Is there a relation between stellar wind braking and the spatial structure of surface magnetic fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy M.

    2015-08-01

    For open cluster ages between about 100 Myr and 500 Myr, plots of rotational period vs. color (or equivalently, stellar mass) are almost bimodal, with distinct groups fast and slow rotators at all masses between roughly 0.5 and 1.3 M_sun. One cannot explain these diagrams without invoking some process with a lifetime of a few hundred Myr, that for some but not all stars isolates most of the stellar angular momentum from the torque caused by a magnetized stellar wind. The prevailing theory [e.g. Epstein & Pinsonneault 2014 (ApJ 780, 159) and references therein] locates this process at the base of the stellar convection zone, allowing the wind to spin down the convection zone without much affecting the core. In Brown 2014 (ApJ 789,101) I suggested rather that the break occurs above the stellar photosphere, with different spatial structures of the stellar dynamos accounting for drastically different degrees of magnetic coupling to the stellar wind. In this talk I will describe preliminary results from two observing programs that aim to test the latter hypothesis.One program uses photometry from the LCOGT (ground-based, world-wide) telescope network to measure rotational periods of stars in fairly young open clusters, to improve comparisons between modeled and observed period-color diagrams by increasing sample sizes. The LCOGT network proves nearly ideal for this kind of work, having already provided good data sets for the clusters NGC 6281 and NGC 3532. These clusters are both about 300 Myr old, filling a gap in the current age distribution of observed clusters. The second program uses K2 photometry combined with multicolor photometry (from LCOGT) and spectroscopy (from the ARC 3.5m telescope) to search for rotation-dependent differences in possible proxies for the typical spatial scale of surface magnetic fields. These include the spot/photosphere temperature contrast, and short-timescale variations in various diagnostics of projected starspot area.

  19. HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION INTEGRAL-FIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF THE GALAXY'S NUCLEAR CLUSTER: A MISSING STELLAR CUSP?

    SciTech Connect

    Do, T.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Yelda, S.; Larkin, J.; Lu, J. R.; Matthews, K.

    2009-10-01

    We report on the structure of the nuclear star cluster in the innermost 0.16 pc of the Galaxy as measured by the number density profile of late-type giants. Using laser guide star adaptive optics in conjunction with the integral field spectrograph, OSIRIS, at the Keck II telescope, we are able to differentiate between the older, late-type (approx 1 Gyr) stars, which are presumed to be dynamically relaxed, and the unrelaxed young (approx 6 Myr) population. This distinction is crucial for testing models of stellar cusp formation in the vicinity of a black hole, as the models assume that the cusp stars are in dynamical equilibrium in the black hole potential. In the survey region, we classified 60 stars as early-type (22 newly identified) and 74 stars as late-type (61 newly identified). We find that contamination from young stars is significant, with more than twice as many young stars as old stars in our sensitivity range (K' < 15.5) within the central arcsecond. Based on the late-type stars alone, the surface stellar number density profile, SIGMA(R) propor to R {sup -G}AMMA, is flat, with GAMMA = -0.27 +- 0.19. Monte Carlo simulations of the possible de-projected volume density profile, n(r) propor tor {sup -g}amma, show that gamma is less than 1.0 at the 99.7% confidence level. These results are consistent with the nuclear star cluster having no cusp, with a core profile that is significantly flatter than that predicted by most cusp formation theories, and even allows for the presence of a central hole in the stellar distribution. Of the possible dynamical interactions that can lead to the depletion of the red giants observable in this survey-stellar collisions, mass segregation from stellar remnants, or a recent merger event-mass segregation is the only one that can be ruled out as the dominant depletion mechanism. The lack of a stellar cusp around a supermassive black hole would have important implications for black hole growth models and inferences on the

  20. A Kiloparsec-scale Nuclear Stellar Disk in the Milky Way as a Possible Explanation of the High Velocity Peaks in the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debattista, Victor P.; Ness, Melissa; Earp, Samuel W. F.; Cole, David R.

    2015-10-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment has measured the stellar velocities of red giant stars in the inner Milky Way. We confirm that the line of sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs) in the mid-plane exhibit a second peak at high velocities, whereas those at | b| =2^\\circ do not. We use a high resolution simulation of a barred galaxy, which crucially includes gas and star formation, to guide our interpretation of the LOSVDs. We show that the data are fully consistent with the presence of a thin, rapidly rotating, nuclear disk extending to ∼1 kpc. This nuclear disk is orientated perpendicular to the bar and is likely to be composed of stars on x2 orbits. The gas in the simulation is able to fall onto such orbits, leading to stars populating an orthogonal disk.

  1. Variable Field Analytical Ultracentrifugation: II. Gravitational Sweep Sedimentation Velocity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jia; Zhao, Huaying; Sandmaier, Julia; Alexander Liddle, J; Schuck, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation velocity (SV) analytical ultracentrifugation is a classical biophysical technique for the determination of the size-distribution of macromolecules, macromolecular complexes, and nanoparticles. SV has traditionally been carried out at a constant rotor speed, which limits the range of sedimentation coefficients that can be detected in a single experiment. Recently we have introduced methods to implement experiments with variable rotor speeds, in combination with variable field solutions to the Lamm equation, with the application to expedite the approach to sedimentation equilibrium. Here, we describe the use of variable-field sedimentation analysis to increase the size-range covered in SV experiments by ∼100-fold with a quasi-continuous increase of rotor speed during the experiment. Such a gravitational-sweep sedimentation approach has previously been shown to be very effective in the study of nanoparticles with large size ranges. In the past, diffusion processes were not accounted for, thereby posing a lower limit of particle sizes and limiting the accuracy of the size distribution. In this work, we combine variable field solutions to the Lamm equation with diffusion-deconvoluted sedimentation coefficient distributions c(s), which further extend the macromolecular size range that can be observed in a single SV experiment while maintaining accuracy and resolution. In this way, approximately five orders of magnitude of sedimentation coefficients, or eight orders of magnitude of particle mass, can be probed in a single experiment. This can be useful, for example, in the study of proteins forming large assemblies, as in fibrillation process or capsid self-assembly, in studies of the interaction between very dissimilar-sized macromolecular species, or in the study of broadly distributed nanoparticles. PMID:26745414

  2. STELLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS AS A HEATING SOURCE FOR EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Buzasi, D.

    2013-03-10

    It has been observed that hot Jupiters located within 0.08 AU of their host stars commonly display radii in excess of those expected based on models. A number of theoretical explanations for this phenomenon have been suggested, but the ability of any one mechanism to account for the full range of observations remains to be rigorously proven. I identify an additional heating mechanism, arising from the interaction of the interplanetary magnetic field and the planetary magnetosphere, and show that this is capable of providing enough energy to explain the observed planetary radii. Such a model predicts that the degree of heating should be dependent on the stellar magnetic field, for which stellar activity serves as a proxy. Accordingly, I examine populations of hot Jupiters from the Kepler database and confirm that stellar activity (determined using Kepler CDPP levels) is correlated with the presence of planetary radii inflated beyond the basal level of R = 0.87 R{sub J} identified by previous researchers. I propose that the primary mechanism for transferring energy from the magnetosphere to the planetary interior is Joule heating arising from global electric circuits analogous to those seen in solar system objects.

  3. The SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. III. Comparison with High-Resolution Spectroscopy of SDSS/SEGUE Field Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Allende Prieto, C.; Sivarani, T.; Beers, T.C.; Lee, Y.S.; Koesterke, L.; Shetrone, M.; Sneden, C.; Lambert, D.L.; Wilhelm, R.; Rockosi, C.M.; Lai, D.

    2007-10-01

    The authors report high-resolution spectroscopy of 125 field stars previously observed as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and its program for Galactic studies, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). These spectra are used to measure radial velocities and to derive atmospheric parameters, which they compare with those reported by the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP). The SSPP obtains estimates of these quantities based on SDSS ugriz photometry and low-resolution (R {approx} 2000) spectroscopy. For F- and G-type stars observed with high signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), they empirically determine the typical random uncertainties in the radial velocities, effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities delivered by the SSPP to be 2.4 km s{sup -1}, 130 K (2.2%), 0.21 dex, and 0.11 dex, respectively, with systematic uncertainties of a similar magnitude in the effective temperatures and metallicities. They estimate random errors for lower S/N spectra based on numerical simulations.

  4. Integral field spectroscopy of massive young stellar objects in the N113 H II region in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, J. L.; Oliveira, J. M.; van Loon, J. Th.; Sewiło, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) survey has allowed the identification and analysis of significant samples of Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). However, the angular resolution of Spitzer is relatively poor meaning that at the distance of the LMC, it is likely that many of the Spitzer YSO candidates in fact contain multiple components. We present high-resolution K-band integral field spectroscopic observations of the three most prominent massive YSO candidates in the N113 H II region using Very Large Telescope/Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (VLT/SINFONI). We have identified six K-band continuum sources within the three Spitzer sources and we have mapped the morphology and velocity fields of extended line emission around these sources. Br γ, He I and H2 emission is found at the position of all six K-band sources; we discuss whether the emission is associated with the continuum sources or whether it is ambient emission. H2 emission appears to be mostly ambient emission and no evidence of CO emission arising in the discs of YSOs has been found. We have mapped the centroid velocities of extended Br γ emission and He I emission and found evidence of two expanding compact H II regions. One source shows compact and strong H2 emission suggestive of a molecular outflow. The diversity of spectroscopic properties observed is interpreted in the context of a range of evolutionary stages associated with massive star formation.

  5. Induced velocity field of a jet in a crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fearn, R. L.; Weston, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a subsonic round jet exhausting perpendicularly from a flat plate into a subsonic crosswind of the same temperature was conducted. Velocity and pressure measurements were made in planes perpendicular to the path of the jet for ratios of jet velocity to crossflow velocity ranging from 3 to 10. The results of these measurements are presented in tabular and graphical forms. A pair of diffuse contrarotating vortices is identified as a significant feature of the flow, and the characteristics of the vortices are discussed.

  6. Stability of an ellipsoidal stellar cluster in the tidal force field of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhanov, T. S.

    1992-02-01

    Attention is given to the dynamical characteristics of an ellipsoidal stellar cluster which rotates on an elliptical orbit relative to the center of the Galaxy in the field of its tidal forces. Regions of stability and instability of the cluster as a function of its form are defined on the basis of a numerical solution of the equations of the motion of stars inside the cluster. It is shown that, if the flattening of the cluster along the Y-axis, which coincides with the rotation direction, is larger than along the X-axis, which is directed toward the center of the Galaxy), the cluster is unstable.

  7. Velocity-Field Characteristics of Polycrystalline Pentacene Field-Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, Brian; Wang, Liang; Dunn, Lawrence; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2010-06-15

    In this article we report on the carrier velocity of polycrystalline pentacene transistors as a function of electric field in both quasistatic and non-quasistatic regimes. We performed a series of measurements on devices with a range of channel lengths. At moderate electric fields (< 5 x 105 V/cm), the characteristics are similar to those of disordered or amorphous organic semiconductors. The highest velocities we have measured are near 6 x 104 cm/s at room temperature. Additional dynamic measurements, using both step response and frequency response methods, correlate strongly to the quasistatic findings. These results fill an important void between experimental results that have been obtained with disordered/amorphous organic semiconductors and single crystals.

  8. On the latitude dependence of drift velocity of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukutake, Takesi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2016-08-01

    There is an apparent difference in the westward drift between the geomagnetic main field and its time derivative, secular variation. The drift velocity of the main field is about 0.2°/year, definitely lower than that of the secular variation, 0.3°/year. The drift velocity of the main field appears to change with latitude, being low at high latitudes and higher at low latitudes, whereas the velocity of the secular variation is nearly constant irrespective of latitude. This paper examines what causes this difference by adopting the drifting and standing field model that assumes the geomagnetic field consists of the field steadily drifting westwards and the field remaining at nearly the same location. In this study, we confirm that the existence of the non-drifting standing field significantly affects the estimate of the drift velocity of the total field (i.e., the main field), and makes it slower than that of the secular variation. The drifting field is intense in low latitudes with its maximum at the equator, while the standing field dominates in higher latitudes. As a consequence, reduction of the apparent drifting velocity of the total field by the standing field is conspicuous in higher latitudes and less so in low latitudes. This creates the observed latitudinal structure of the drift velocity of the main field. On the other hand, the drift velocity of the secular variation is less affected by existence of the standing field, and mostly reflects the velocity of the drifting field that is almost constant with latitude. The velocity of the secular variation thus becomes almost uniform independent of latitude. The observed difference between the main field and the secular variation is naturally derived from the drifting and standing field model. This implies that physical mechanisms to generate the drifting and standing fields can be considered independently.

  9. The ejection of shells in the stellar wind of P CYG - The most plausible explanation of the Balmer-line radial velocity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, N.

    1986-07-01

    Our new data of the Balmer line radial velocities in the P Cygni spectrum are compared to the measurments published by de Groot (1969), Kolka (1983) and Markova (1986). The observed variations are analysed in terms of a model proposed by Kolka (1983) which implies a multiple ejection of shells in the stellar wind of P Cygni. It is shown that all data agree to an ejection time scale of about 200 days. The estimated accelerations for the three data groups are very close which supposes a stability of the ejection mechanism over an interval of about 40 yr. The radial velocities of nalmer and the FeII and FeIII (far UV) lines are compared. The identity of the Balmer and the FeII and FeIII shells is discussed.

  10. Experimental and numerical study of error fields in the CNT stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, K. C.; Anichowski, A.; Brenner, P. W.; Pedersen, T. S.; Raftopoulos, S.; Traverso, P.; Volpe, F. A.

    2016-07-01

    Sources of error fields were indirectly inferred in a stellarator by reconciling computed and numerical flux surfaces. Sources considered so far include the displacements and tilts of the four circular coils featured in the simple CNT stellarator. The flux surfaces were measured by means of an electron beam and fluorescent rod, and were computed by means of a Biot–Savart field-line tracing code. If the ideal coil locations and orientations are used in the computation, agreement with measurements is poor. Discrepancies are ascribed to errors in the positioning and orientation of the in-vessel interlocked coils. To that end, an iterative numerical method was developed. A Newton–Raphson algorithm searches for the coils’ displacements and tilts that minimize the discrepancy between the measured and computed flux surfaces. This method was verified by misplacing and tilting the coils in a numerical model of CNT, calculating the flux surfaces that they generated, and testing the algorithm’s ability to deduce the coils’ displacements and tilts. Subsequently, the numerical method was applied to the experimental data, arriving at a set of coil displacements whose resulting field errors exhibited significantly improved agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Peculiar velocity field: Constraining the tilt of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Yinzhe; Gordon, Christopher; Feldman, Hume A.

    2011-05-15

    A large bulk flow, which is in tension with the Lambda cold dark matter ({Lambda}CDM) cosmological model, has been observed. In this paper, we provide a physically plausible explanation of this bulk flow, based on the assumption that some fraction of the observed dipole in the cosmic microwave background is due to an intrinsic fluctuation, so that the subtraction of the observed dipole leads to a mismatch between the cosmic microwave background defined rest frame and the matter rest frame. We investigate a model that takes into account the relative velocity (hereafter the tilted velocity) between the two frames, and develop a Bayesian statistic to explore the likelihood of this tilted velocity. By studying various independent peculiar velocity catalogs, we find that (1) the magnitude of the tilted velocity u is around 400 km/s, and its direction is close to what is found from previous bulk flow analyses; for most catalogs analyzed, u=0 is excluded at about the 2.5{sigma} level; (2) constraints on the magnitude of the tilted velocity can result in constraints on the duration of inflation, due to the fact that inflation can neither be too long (no dipole effect) nor too short (very large dipole effect); (3) under the assumption of a superhorizon isocurvature fluctuation, the constraints on the tilted velocity require that inflation lasts at least 6 e-folds longer (at the 95% confidence interval) than that required to solve the horizon problem. This opens a new window for testing inflation and models of the early universe from observations of large scale structure.

  12. Beyond Phase 3: The FORS1 Catalogue of Stellar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnulo, S.; Landstreet, J. D.; Fossati, L.

    2015-12-01

    Over the course of a decade of operations, more than 200 nights of telescope time have been granted for magnetic field measurements with the FORS1 instrument on the VLT. Motivated by some conflicting results published in the literature, we have studied the instrument characteristics and critically revised previous magnetic field detections obtained with FORS1. Our study has led to the publication of a catalogue of 1400 magnetic field measurements of a sample of 850 different stars, together with their intensity spectra. This catalogue includes nearly all the circular spectropolarimetric measurements taken during ten years of operation. Here we summarise some of the lessons learned from the analysis of the FORS1 stellar spectropolarimetric archive.

  13. The global velocity field of the filament in NGC 6334

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zernickel, A.; Schilke, P.; Smith, R. J.

    2013-06-01

    Aims: Star formation involves the collapse of gas from the scale of giant molecular clouds down to dense cores. Our aim is to trace the velocities in the filamentary, massive star-forming region NGC 6334 and to explain its dynamics. Methods: The main filament was mapped with the single-dish telescope APEX in HCO+ (J = 3-2) at 267.6 GHz to trace the dense gas. In order to reproduce the position-velocity diagram, we use a 3D radiative transfer code and create a model of a cylinder that undergoes a gravitational collapse toward its center. Results: We find a velocity gradient in the filament from the end toward its center, with the highest masses being found at both ends. Similar velocities have been predicted by recent calculations of the gravitational collapse of a sheet or cylinder of gas, and the observed velocities are consistent with these predictions. The 3D structure is revealed by taking the inclination and curvature of the filament into account. The free-fall collapse timescale of the filamentary molecular cloud is estimated to be ~1 Myr. This publication is based on data acquired with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.

  14. Glacier surface velocity fields in South Shetland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanoglu, B.; Giseke, H.; Navarro, F. J.; Rueckamp, M.; Falk, U.; Corcuera, M. I.; Braun, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this study surface velocity of glaciers in South Shetland Islands (Antarctic Peninsula) are calculated based on synthetic aperture radar data from ALOS PALSAR and TerraSAR-X as well as differential GPS measurements. The obtained glacier velocities will be used to calculate the total glacier mass budget and to better understand the contribution of the study areas to the sea level rise. Only recent studies have examined the region for mass balance and sea level rise estimates. However, larger scale mass budget computations are not yet available. Ice dynamics obtained from satellite data have only been derived in a few occasions, often due to lacking spatial resolution or temporal decorrelation. Hence, any spacebased information on ice dynamics can significantly improve estimates of calving fluxes and mass loss. In this study we analysed over 30 PALSAR and 30 TSX scenes acquired over the King George Island and Livingston Island, the two largest islands in the South Shetland Island group. In the study areas the glacier velocities are calculated using two independent data sets; namely satellite radar imagery and GPS. Feature-tracking methods are applied to the radar imagery to obtain glacier velocities using Gamma Interferometric SAR Processor and TU-Delft DORIS. Results from Gamma and Doris software packages are compared to each other as well as GPS measurements where available. For a subset of the study area tracking results from different acquisitions modes (stripmap and spotlight) and orbits are compared. Comparison of glacier velocities obtained by radar and GPS provide an estimate for the uncertainties in the measured rates. The results obtained from all data sets are then compiled to construct a map of glacier velocities for the entire island group.

  15. State of the Field: Extreme Precision Radial Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Debra A.; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Arriagada, Pamela; Baluev, Roman V.; Bean, Jacob L.; Bouchy, Francois; Buchhave, Lars A.; Carroll, Thorsten; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Crepp, Justin R.; Dawson, Rebekah I.; Diddams, Scott A.; Dumusque, Xavier; Eastman, Jason D.; Endl, Michael; Figueira, Pedro; Ford, Eric B.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Fournier, Paul; Fűrész, Gabor; Gaudi, B. Scott; Gregory, Philip C.; Grundahl, Frank; Hatzes, Artie P.; Hébrard, Guillaume; Herrero, Enrique; Hogg, David W.; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Jorden, Paul; Jurgenson, Colby A.; Latham, David W.; Laughlin, Greg; Loredo, Thomas J.; Lovis, Christophe; Mahadevan, Suvrath; McCracken, Tyler M.; Pepe, Francesco; Perez, Mario; Phillips, David F.; Plavchan, Peter P.; Prato, Lisa; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Reiners, Ansgar; Robertson, Paul; Santos, Nuno C.; Sawyer, David; Segransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Steinmetz, Tilo; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Udry, Stéphane; Valenti, Jeff A.; Wang, Sharon X.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Wright, Jason T.

    2016-06-01

    The Second Workshop on Extreme Precision Radial Velocities defined circa 2015 the state of the art Doppler precision and identified the critical path challenges for reaching 10 cm s‑1 measurement precision. The presentations and discussion of key issues for instrumentation and data analysis and the workshop recommendations for achieving this bold precision are summarized here. Beginning with the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher spectrograph, technological advances for precision radial velocity (RV) measurements have focused on building extremely stable instruments. To reach still higher precision, future spectrometers will need to improve upon the state of the art, producing even higher fidelity spectra. This should be possible with improved environmental control, greater stability in the illumination of the spectrometer optics, better detectors, more precise wavelength calibration, and broader bandwidth spectra. Key data analysis challenges for the precision RV community include distinguishing center of mass (COM) Keplerian motion from photospheric velocities (time correlated noise) and the proper treatment of telluric contamination. Success here is coupled to the instrument design, but also requires the implementation of robust statistical and modeling techniques. COM velocities produce Doppler shifts that affect every line identically, while photospheric velocities produce line profile asymmetries with wavelength and temporal dependencies that are different from Keplerian signals. Exoplanets are an important subfield of astronomy and there has been an impressive rate of discovery over the past two decades. However, higher precision RV measurements are required to serve as a discovery technique for potentially habitable worlds, to confirm and characterize detections from transit missions, and to provide mass measurements for other space-based missions. The future of exoplanet science has very different trajectories depending on the precision that

  16. Stellar parameters for stars of the CoRoT exoplanet field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, C.; Maciel, S. C.; Vieira, S.; Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Leão, I. C.; de Oliveira, G. P.; Correia, C.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Catelan, M.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Spectroscopic observations represent a fundamental step in the physical characterization of stars and, in particular, in the precise location of stars in the HR diagram. Rotation is also a key parameter, impacting stellar properties and evolution, which modulates the interior and manifests itself on the surface of stars. To date, the lack of analysis based on large samples has prevented our understanding of the real impact of stellar parameters and rotation on the stellar evolution as well as on the behavior of surface abundances. The space missions, CoRoT and Kepler, are providing us with rotation periods for thousands of stars, thus enabling a robust assessment of the behavior of rotation for different populations and evolutionary stages. For these reasons, the follow-up programs are fundamental to increasing the returns of these space missions. An analysis that combines spectroscopic data and rotation/modulation periods obtained from these space missions provides the basis for establishing the evolutionary behavior of the angular momentum of solar-like stars at different evolutionary stages, and the relation of rotation with other relevant physical and chemical parameters. Aims: To support the computation and evolutionary interpretation of periods associated with the rotational modulation, oscillations, and variability of stars located in the CoRoT fields, we are conducting a spectroscopic survey for stars located in the fields already observed by the satellite. These observations allow us to compute physical and chemical parameters for our stellar sample. Methods: Using spectroscopic observations obtained with UVES/VLT and Hydra/Blanco, and based on standard analysis techniques, we computed physical and chemical parameters (Teff, log (g), [Fe/H], vmic, vrad, vsin (i), and A(Li)) for a large sample of CoRoT targets. Results: We provide physical and chemical parameters for a sample comprised of 138 CoRoT targets. Our analysis shows the stars in our

  17. Seismic imaging for velocity and attenuation structure in geothermal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, J.J. ); Evans, J.R. )

    1989-06-01

    We have applied the attenuation inversion technique developed by Evans and Zucca (1988) to a seismic tomographic data set taken at Newberry Volcano by Achauer et al. (1988). Our preliminary results suggest that the interpretation of the velocity data by Achauer et al. that a magma chamber is present 3 km beneath the caldera is not confirmed by the attenuation data.

  18. Laboratory Velocity Measurements Used for Recovering Soil Distributions from Field Seismic Data

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P A; Bertete-Aguirre, H

    1999-10-20

    Recent advances in field methods make it possible to obtain high quality compressional (P) and shear (S) velocity data for the shallow subsurface. Environmental and engineering problems require new methods for interpreting the velocity data in terms of sub-surface soil distribution. Recent advances in laboratory measurement techniques have provided high quality velocity data for soils at low pressures that can be used to improve interpretation of field data. We show how laboratory data can be used to infer lithology from field data. We use laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements from artificial soils made by combining various amounts of sand and peat moss.

  19. Magnetic Field Line Topology of the Scrape-Off Layer in the Compact Stellarator NCSX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Arthur; Mioduszewski, Peter; Fenstermacher, Max; Koniges, Alice; Rognlien, Tom

    2001-10-01

    The magnetic topology of the plasma boundary of the proposed compact stellarator NCSX is investigated using the MFBE[1] and VMEC2000[2] codes. The VMEC code provides a free boundary equilibrium and the magnetics from external coils and bootstrap plasma currents inside the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS). The MFBE code uses these results to calculate the magnetic fields of these finite beta equilibria outside the LCMS in a form suitable for line tracing. The Poincaré plots of field lines started outside the LCMS indicate preservation of initial radial ordering of field lines up to intersections with vacuum vessel and plasma facing components. A large flux expansion of field lines is observed between the midplane and tips of the banana shaped cross-section, due to the presence of a nearby poloidal field null used to create the banana shape. TRIM coils used to heal islands just within the LCMS appear to reduce stochasticity just outside the LCMS as well as enhance an island structure outside the LCMS. Field lines are observed to move in and out radially as they are followed toroidally. Power and particle control design based on these observations include the limiting structure geometry and baffles designed to intersect islands outside the LCMS. [1] E.Strumberger, Nuclear Fusion 37 1997 19. [2] S.Hirshman, Comp. Phys. Commun. 43 1986 143.

  20. Characterizing the original ejection velocity field of the Koronis family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, V.; Nesvorný, D.; Aljbaae, S.

    2016-06-01

    An asteroid family forms as a result of a collision between an impactor and a parent body. The fragments with ejection speeds higher than the escape velocity from the parent body can escape its gravitational pull. The cloud of escaping debris can be identified by the proximity of orbits in proper element, or frequency, domains. Obtaining estimates of the original ejection speed can provide valuable constraints on the physical processes occurring during collision, and used to calibrate impact simulations. Unfortunately, proper elements of asteroids families are modified by gravitational and non-gravitational effects, such as resonant dynamics, encounters with massive bodies, and the Yarkovsky effect, such that information on the original ejection speeds is often lost, especially for older, more evolved families. It has been recently suggested that the distribution in proper inclination of the Koronis family may have not been significantly perturbed by local dynamics, and that information on the component of the ejection velocity that is perpendicular to the orbital plane (vW), may still be available, at least in part. In this work we estimate the magnitude of the original ejection velocity speeds of Koronis members using the observed distribution in proper eccentricity and inclination, and accounting for the spread caused by dynamical effects. Our results show that (i) the spread in the original ejection speeds is, to within a 15% error, inversely proportional to the fragment size, and (ii) the minimum ejection velocity is of the order of 50 m/s, with larger values possible depending on the orbital configuration at the break-up.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Stellar parameters for CoRoT exoplanet field stars (Cortes+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, C.; Maciel, S. C.; Vieira, S.; Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Leao, I. C.; de Oliveira, G. P.; Correia, C.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Catelan, M.; de Medeiros, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    The present stellar sample is composed of 138 stars of spectral types F, G, and K, with visual magnitudes V between 10 to 14, located in two exoplanet fields observed by CoRoT, namely the Galactic center (LRc01: Long Run Center 01) and the Galactic anticenter (LRa01: Long Run Anticenter 01) fields. (4 data files).

  2. Far-Field and Middle-Field Vertical Velocities Associated with Megathrust Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleitout, L.; Trubienko, O.; Klein, E.; Vigny, C.; Garaud, J.; Shestakov, N.; Satirapod, C.; Simons, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    The recent megathrust earthquakes (Sumatra, Chili and Japan) have induced far-field postseismic subsidence with velocities from a few mm/yr to more than 1cm/yr at distances from 500 to 1500km from the earthquake epicentre, for several years following the earthquake. This subsidence is observed in Argentina, China, Korea, far-East Russia and in Malaysia and Thailand as reported by Satirapod et al. ( ASR, 2013). In the middle-field a very pronounced uplift is localized on the flank of the volcanic arc facing the trench. This is observed both over Honshu, in Chile and on the South-West coast of Sumatra. In Japan, the deformations prior to Tohoku earthquake are well measured by the GSI GPS network: While the East coast was slightly subsiding, the West coast was raising. A 3D finite element code (Zebulon-Zset) is used to understand the deformations through the seismic cycle in the areas surrounding the last three large subduction earthquakes. The meshes designed for each region feature a broad spherical shell portion with a viscoelastic asthenosphere. They are refined close to the subduction zones. Using these finite element models, we find that the pattern of the predicted far-field vertical postseismic displacements depends upon the thicknesses of the elastic plate and of the low viscosity asthenosphere. A low viscosity asthenosphere at shallow depth, just below the lithosphere is required to explain the subsidence at distances from 500 to 1500km. A thick (for example 600km) asthenosphere with a uniform viscosity predicts subsidence too far away from the trench. Slip on the subduction interface is unable tot induce the observed far-field subsidence. However, a combination of relaxation in a low viscosity wedge and slip or relaxation on the bottom part of the subduction interface is necessary to explain the observed postseismic uplift in the middle-field (volcanic arc area). The creep laws of the various zones used to explain the postseismic data can be injected in

  3. Global Neuromagnetic Cortical Fields Have Non-Zero Velocity.

    PubMed

    Alexander, David M; Nikolaev, Andrey R; Jurica, Peter; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Mathiak, Klaus; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Globally coherent patterns of phase can be obscured by analysis techniques that aggregate brain activity measures across-trials, whether prior to source localization or for estimating inter-areal coherence. We analyzed, at single-trial level, whole head MEG recorded during an observer-triggered apparent motion task. Episodes of globally coherent activity occurred in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands of the signal in the form of large-scale waves, which propagated with a variety of velocities. Their mean speed at each frequency band was proportional to temporal frequency, giving a range of 0.06 to 4.0 m/s, from delta to beta. The wave peaks moved over the entire measurement array, during both ongoing activity and task-relevant intervals; direction of motion was more predictable during the latter. A large proportion of the cortical signal, measurable at the scalp, exists as large-scale coherent motion. We argue that the distribution of observable phase velocities in MEG is dominated by spatial filtering considerations in combination with group velocity of cortical activity. Traveling waves may index processes involved in global coordination of cortical activity. PMID:26953886

  4. Global Neuromagnetic Cortical Fields Have Non-Zero Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, David M.; Nikolaev, Andrey R.; Jurica, Peter; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Mathiak, Klaus; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Globally coherent patterns of phase can be obscured by analysis techniques that aggregate brain activity measures across-trials, whether prior to source localization or for estimating inter-areal coherence. We analyzed, at single-trial level, whole head MEG recorded during an observer-triggered apparent motion task. Episodes of globally coherent activity occurred in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands of the signal in the form of large-scale waves, which propagated with a variety of velocities. Their mean speed at each frequency band was proportional to temporal frequency, giving a range of 0.06 to 4.0 m/s, from delta to beta. The wave peaks moved over the entire measurement array, during both ongoing activity and task-relevant intervals; direction of motion was more predictable during the latter. A large proportion of the cortical signal, measurable at the scalp, exists as large-scale coherent motion. We argue that the distribution of observable phase velocities in MEG is dominated by spatial filtering considerations in combination with group velocity of cortical activity. Traveling waves may index processes involved in global coordination of cortical activity. PMID:26953886

  5. Probing the large-scale velocity field with clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Cen, Renyue; Gramann, Mirt

    1994-01-01

    What is the role of clusters of galaxies in probing the large-scale velocity field of the universe? We investigate the distribution of peculiar velocities of clusters of galaxies in the popular low-density (omega = 0.3) flat cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model, which best fits many large-scale structure observations. An omega = 1 CDM model is also studied for comparison. We find that clusters of galaxies are efficient tracers of the large-scale velocity field. The clusters exhibit a Maxwellian distribution of peculiar velocities, as expected from Gaussian initial density fluctuations. The cluster three-dimensional velocity distribution for the omega = 0.3 model peaks at nu approximately greater than 400 km/s and extends to high velocities of nu approximately 1200 km/s. The rms peculiar velocity of the clusters is 440 km/s. Approximately 10% of all model clusters move with high peculiar velocities nu greater or equal to 700 km/s. The observed velocity distribution of clusters of galaxies is compared with the predictions from cosmological models. The observed data exhibit a larger velocity tail than seen in the model simulations; however, due to the large observational uncertainties, the data are consistent at approximately equal to 3 sigma level with the odel predictions, and with a Gaussian initial density field. The large peculiar velocities reported for some clusters of galaxies (nu approximately greater than 3000 km/s) are likely to be overestimated, if the current model is viable.

  6. Measurement of core velocity fluctuations and the dynamo in a reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Fontana, P.W.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Chapman, J.T.

    1998-12-31

    Plasma flow velocity fluctuations have been directly measured in the high temperature magnetically confined plasma in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). These measurements show that the flow velocity fluctuations are correlated with magnetic field fluctuations. This initial measurement is subject to limitations of spatial localization and other uncertainties, but is evidence for sustainment of the RFP magnetic field configuration by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo. Both the flow velocity and magnetic field fluctuations are the result of global resistive MHD modes of helicity m = 1, n = 5--10 in the core of MST. Chord-averaged flow velocity fluctuations are measured in the core of MST by recording the Doppler shift of impurity line emission with a specialized high resolution and throughput grating spectrometer. Magnetic field fluctuations are recorded with a large array of small edge pickup coils, which allows spectral decomposition into discrete modes and subsequent correlation with the velocity fluctuation data.

  7. Some features of the radial-velocity variations of lines of different intensity in the spectrum of HD 93521. Variability of the stellar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzaev, A. Kh.

    2007-12-01

    CCD spectra taken with the PFES echelle spectrograph of the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences are used to perform a detailed study of the variability of the profiles of Hell, H β, and H α lines in the spectrum of HD 93521. The pattern and nature of the variability of the Hell lines are similar to those of weak HeI lines and are due to nonradial pulsations. The period and amplitude of the radial-velocity variations are the same for the blue and red halves of the absorption profile but their phases are opposite. The behavior of the variations of H β and H α hydrogen lines relative to their mean profiles is the same as that of strong HeI line and is due to nonradial pulsations. The period and phase of the radial-velocity oscillations are the same for the blue and red halves of the absorption profile but their amplitude are different. The behavior of the radial-velocity variations of the absorption and emission components of the H α line indicates that the latter also are caused by nonradial pulsations. All this is indicative of the complex structure of the stellar wind in the region of its origin. The behavior of variability and wind kinematics differ in different directions and for different regions of the atmosphere and/or envelope.

  8. Comparisons of a standard galaxy model with stellar observations in five fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, J. N.; Soneira, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Modern data on the distribution of stellar colors and on the number of stars as a function of apparent magnitude in five directions in the Galaxy are analyzed. It is found that the standard model is consistent with all the available data. Detailed comparisons with the data for five separate fields are presented. The bright end of the spheroid luminosity function and the blue tip of the spheroid horizontal branch are analyzed. The allowed range of the disk scale heights and of fluctuations in the volume density is determined, and a lower limit is set on the disk scale length. Calculations based on the thick disk model of Gilmore and Reid (1983) are presented.

  9. Stellar Populations in the Kepler and K2 fields: APOGEE-KASC Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jennifer; APOKASC Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The age distribution, both absolute and relative, of stars throughout the Milky Way reveals the history of star formation and migration and is a key constraint on galaxy formation models. The combination of spectroscopic and asteroseismic information for stars observed by both the APOGEE survey and the Kepler/K2 missions provides ages for field red giants along many lines of sight through the Galaxy. The fundamental stellar properties derived from these data are used to test theories of the formation of the thin and thick disks, the role of radial migration, and the timescales for nucleosynthesis in our Galaxy. We also explore correlations between asteroseismic mass and spectroscopic abundances, with a view towards age calibrations for large current and future spectroscopic surveys.

  10. Estimation of macro velocity models by wave field extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Hendricus Lambertus Hubertus

    A method to estimate accurate macro velocity models for prediction of traveltimes of seismic waves in the earth's subsurface is developed. The sensitivity of prestack migration is used to estimate the model and since model errors are expressed in the quality of the migration result, the migration process itself can be used to determine these errors. Using an initial model, shot records are downward extrapolated to grid points (depth points) in the subsurface. The extrapolated data can be reordered into so called common depth point (CDP) gathers, image gathers and focus panels. The deviation from horizontal alignment is used to quantify the errors in the model and to apply update corrections accordingly. The analysis can be done before or after stacking over all shot records (CDP stacking). the previously mentioned focus panels are generated by CDP stacking. The alignment analysis reduces then to a simple focusing analysis. The examples discussed show that horizontal alignment gives accurate macro velocity models for prestack depth migration. Focus panels can be difficult to interpret in complicated situations, where it is impossible to converge to the correct solution with focus panels only. The process should be guided by macrogeologic models of the area. In complicated situations, a layer stripping strategy is preferred.

  11. Virgo cluster and field dwarf ellipticals in 3D - III. Spatially and temporally resolved stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryś, Agnieszka; Koleva, Mina; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Lisker, Thorsten; Peletier, Reynier; van de Ven, Glenn

    2015-09-01

    We present the stellar population analysis of a sample of 12 dwarf elliptical galaxies, observed with the SAURON integral field unit, using the full-spectrum fitting method. We show that star formation histories (SFHs) resolved into two populations can be recovered even within a limited wavelength range, provided that high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) data are used. We confirm that dEs have had complex SFHs, with star formation extending to (more) recent epochs: for the majority of our galaxies star formation activity was either still strong a few (≲5) Gyr ago or they experienced a secondary burst of star formation roughly at that time. This latter possibility is in agreement with the proposed dE formation scenario where tidal harassment drives the gas remaining in their progenitors inwards and induces a star formation episode. For one of our field galaxies, ID 0918, we find a correlation between its stellar population and kinematic properties, pointing to a possible merger origin of its kinematically decoupled core. One of our cluster objects, VCC 1431, appears to be composed exclusively of an old population (≳10-12 Gyr). Combining this with our earlier dynamical results, we conclude that the galaxy was either ram-pressure stripped early on in its evolution in a group environment and subsequently tidally heated, or that it evolved in situ in the cluster's central parts, compact enough to avoid tidal disruption. These are only two of the examples illustrating the SFH richness of these objects confirmed with our data.

  12. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE STELLAR RADIATION FIELD IMPINGING ON TRANSITIONAL DISK ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Szulagyi, Judit; Pascucci, Ilaria; Abraham, Peter; Moor, Attila; Apai, Daniel; Bouwman, Jeroen

    2012-11-01

    Mid-infrared atomic and ionic line ratios measured in spectra of pre-main-sequence stars are sensitive indicators of the hardness of the radiation field impinging on the disk surface. We present a low-resolution Spitzer IRS search for [Ar II] at 6.98 {mu}m, [Ne II] at 12.81 {mu}m, and [Ne III] 15.55 {mu}m lines in 56 transitional disks. These objects, characterized by reduced near-infrared but strong far-infrared excess emission, are ideal targets to set constraints on the stellar radiation field onto the disk, because their spectra are not contaminated by shock emission from jets/outflows or by molecular emission lines. After demonstrating that we can detect [Ne II] lines and recover their fluxes from the low-resolution spectra, here we report the first detections of [Ar II] lines toward protoplanetary disks. We did not detect [Ne III] emission in any of our sources. Our [Ne II]/[Ne III] line flux ratios combined with literature data suggest that a soft-EUV or X-ray spectrum produces these gas lines. Furthermore, the [Ar II]/[Ne II] line flux ratios point to a soft X-ray and/or soft-EUV stellar spectrum as the ionization source of the [Ar II] and [Ne II] emitting layer of the disk. If the soft X-ray component dominates over the EUV, then we would expect larger photoevaporation rates and, hence, a reduction of the time available to form planets.

  13. New interpretations of measured antihydrogen velocities and field ionization spectra.

    PubMed

    Pohl, T; Sadeghpour, H R; Gabrielse, G

    2006-10-01

    We present extensive Monte Carlo simulations, showing that cold antihydrogen (H) atoms are produced when antiprotons (p) are gently heated in the side wells of a nested Penning trap. The observed H with high energies, that had seemed to indicate otherwise, are instead explained by a surprisingly effective charge-exchange mechanism. We shed light on the previously measured field-ionization spectrum, and reproduce both the characteristic low-field power law as well as the enhanced H production at higher fields. The latter feature is shown to arise from H toms too deeply bound to be described as guiding center atoms, atoms with internally chaotic motion. PMID:17155247

  14. Laser transit anemometer measurements of a JANNAF nozzle base velocity flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, William W., Jr.; Russ, C. E., Jr.; Clemmons, J. I., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Velocity flow fields of a nozzle jet exhausting into a supersonic flow were surveyed. The measurements were obtained with a laser transit anemometer (LTA) system in the time domain with a correlation instrument. The LTA data is transformed into the velocity domain to remove the error that occurs when the data is analyzed in the time domain. The final data is shown in velocity vector plots for positions upstream, downstream, and in the exhaust plane of the jet nozzle.

  15. VELOCITY-FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF A SHOCK-ACCELERATED FLUID INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    K. PRESTRIDGE; C. ZOLID; ET AL

    2001-05-01

    A cylinder of heavy gas (SF{sub 6}) in air is hit by a Mach 1.2 shock. The resultant Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is observed as it propagates through the test section of the shock tube. Six images are taken after shock impact, and the velocity field at one time is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The images of the density field show the development of a secondary instability in the cylinder. The velocity field provides us with information about the magnitudes of the velocities as well as the magnitude of the vorticity in the flow.

  16. Observation and analysis of abrupt changes in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. N.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a limited study of the physical nature of abrupt changes in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field based on 19 day's data from the Pioneer 6 spacecraft. The period was chosen to include a high-velocity solar wind stream and low-velocity wind. Abrupt events were accepted for study if the sum of the energy density in the magnetic field and velocity changes was above a specified minimum. A statistical analysis of the events in the high-velocity solar wind stream shows that Alfvenic changes predominate. This conclusion is independent of whether steady state requirements are imposed on conditions before and after the event. Alfvenic changes do not dominate in the lower-speed wind. This study extends the plasma field evidence for outwardly propagating Alfvenic changes to time scales as small as 1 min (scale lengths on the order of 20,000 km).

  17. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the revised Catalogue of Stellar Rotational Velocities of Uesugi and Fukuda (1982)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The machine-readable catalog provides mean data on the old Slettebak system for 6472 stars. The catalog results from the review, analysis and transformation of 11460 data from 102 sources. Star identification, (major catalog number, name if the star has one, or cluster identification, etc.), a man projected rotational velocity, and a list of source references re included. The references are given in a second file included with the catalog when it is distributed on magnetic tape. The contents and/formats of the the data and reference files of the machine-readable catalog are described to enable users to read and process the data.

  18. Velocity field control of a class of electrically-driven manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Valenzuela, Javier; Campa, Ricardo; Santibáñez, Víctor

    2014-03-01

    This article addresses the control of robotic manipulators under the assumption that the desired motion in the operational space is encoded through a velocity field. In other words, a vectorial function assigns a velocity vector to each point in the robot workspace. Thus, the control objective is to design a control input such that the actual operational space velocity of the robot end-effector asymptotically tracks the desired velocity from the velocity field. This control formulation is known in the literature as velocity field control. A new velocity field controller together with a rigorous stability analysis is introduced in this article. The controller is developed for a class of electrically-driven manipulators. In this class of manipulators, the passivity property from the servo-amplifier voltage input to the joint velocity is not satisfied. However, global exponential stability of the state space origin of the closed-loop system is proven. Furthermore, the closed-loop system is proven to be and output strictly passive map from an auxiliary input to a filtered error signal. To confirm the theoretical conclusions, a detailed experimental study in a two degrees-of-freedom direct-drive manipulator is provided. Particularly, experiments consist of comparing the performance of a simple PI controller and a high-gain PI controller with respect to the new control scheme.

  19. The design of a MSE polarimetry diagnostic for the measurement of radial electric fields on the HSX stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, T.; Kumar, S. T. A.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B.

    2014-10-01

    HSX is a quasi-symmetric stellarator that is designed to reduce neoclassical transport. Neoclassical codes estimate a large positive radial electric field (40-50 kV/m) near the core of the HSX plasma. Impurity ion flow measurements could not resolve this large electric field. A single channel, dual PEM (Photo Elastic Modulators) MSE polarimetry diagnostic has therefore been designed for the HSX stellarator to directly measure the radial electric field near the core of the plasma. The design has been optimized to get a maximum change in polarization angle from a radial electric field with a good spatial resolution. A change in radial electric field as small as 1.5 kV/m can be detected with a careful selection of the sightline. The diagnostic design and initial characterization are presented.

  20. Solar subsurface magnetic and velocity fields from tilt angle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranyi, Tünde; Muraközy, Judit; Ludmány, András

    2015-08-01

    ABSTRACT A refined form of the well known Joy's law has been formulated by using the new Debrecen tilt angle datasets. These data are intercalibrated with the traditional datasets and several determination methods help to make the material reliable. It has been found that the latitudinal distribution of the tilt angles is not merely a monotonously increasing function, but it has a plateau between the latitudes of about 15-25 degrees, where the toroidal field is the strongest. This may provide new constraints for the theoretical investigations about the mechanisms contributing to the observable tilt angles. The new data also allow to demonstrate that the tilts are primarily caused by the Coriolis impact, no signature has been found for the winding up of the global magnetic field. This work has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2012-2015) under grant agreement No. 284461 (eHEROES).

  1. The velocity field created by a shallow bump in a boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaster, Michael; Grosch, Chester E.; Jackson, Thomas L.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of measurements of the disturbance velocity field generated in a boundary layer by a shallow three-dimensional bump oscillating at a very low frequency on the surface of a flat plate. Profiles of the mean velocity, the disturbance velocity at the fundamental frequency and at the first harmonic are presented. These profiles were measured both upstream and downstream of the oscillating bump. Measurements of the disturbance velocity were also made at various spanwise and downstream locations at a fixed distance from the boundary of one displacement thickness. Finally, the spanwise spectrum of the disturbances at three locations downstream of the bump are presented.

  2. Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-10-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of ten. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group, are used as building blocks to analyse these integrated stellar populations.

  3. Simulation and visualization of velocity fields in simple electrokinetic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanti, Prasun; Taylor, Thomas; Cochran, Douglas; Keebaugh, Michael; Hayes, Mark A.

    2013-12-01

    Capillary electrophoresis and similar techniques which use an electrified contracting-flow interface (gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis, electrophoretic exclusion, for examples) are widely used, but the detailed flow dynamics and local electric field effects within this zone have only recently been quantitatively investigated. The motivating force behind this work is establishing particle flow based visualization tools enabling advances for arbitrary interfacial designs beyond this traditional flow/electric field interface. These tools work with pre-computed 2-dimensional fundamental interacting fields which govern particle and(or) fluid flow and can now be obtained from various computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software packages. The particle-flow visualization calculations implemented in the tool and are built upon a solid foundation in fluid dynamics. The module developed in here provides a simulated video particle observation tool which generates a fast check for legitimacy. Further, estimating the accuracy and precision of full 2-D and 3-D simulation is notoriously difficult and a centerline estimation is used to quickly and easily quantitate behaviors in support of decision points. This tool and the recent quantitative assessment of particle behavior within the interfacial area have set the stage for new designs which can emphasize advantageous behaviors not offered by the traditional configuration.

  4. Measurement of velocity and vorticity fields in the wake of an airfoil in periodic pitching motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The velocity field created by the wake of an airfoil undergoing a prescribed pitching motion was sampled using hot wire anemometry. Data analysis methods concerning resolution of velocity components from cross wire data, computation of vorticity from velocity time history data, and calculation of vortex circulation from vorticity field data are discussed. These data analysis methods are applied to a flow field relevant to a two dimensional blade-vortex interaction study. Velocity time history data were differentiated to yield vorticity field data which are used to characterize the wake of the pitching airfoil. Measurement of vortex strength in sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal wakes show vortices in the sinusoidal wake have stronger circulation and more concentrated vorticity distributions than the tailored nonsinusoidal wake.

  5. Investigating magnetic activity in very stable stellar magnetic fields. Long-term photometric and spectroscopic study of the fully convective M4 dwarf V374 Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vida, K.; Kriskovics, L.; Oláh, K.; Leitzinger, M.; Odert, P.; Kővári, Zs.; Korhonen, H.; Greimel, R.; Robb, R.; Csák, B.; Kovács, J.

    2016-05-01

    The ultrafast-rotating (Prot ≈ 0.44 d) fully convective single M4 dwarf V374 Peg is a well-known laboratory for studying intense stellar activity in a stable magnetic topology. As an observable proxy for the stellar magnetic field, we study the stability of the light curve, hence the spot configuration. We also measure the occurrence rate of flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We have analysed spectroscopic observations, BV(RI)C photometry covering 5 yrs, and additional RC photometry that expands the temporal base over 16 yr. The light curve suggests an almost rigid-body rotation and a spot configuration that is stable over about 16 yrs, confirming the previous indications of a very stable magnetic field. We observed small changes on a nightly timescale and frequent flaring, including a possible sympathetic flare. The strongest flares seem to be more concentrated around the phase where the light curve indicates a smaller active region. Spectral data suggest a complex CME with falling-back and re-ejected material with a maximal projected velocity of ~675 km s-1. We observed a CME rate that is much lower than expected from extrapolations of the solar flare-CME relation to active stars. Tables of the photometry are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A11

  6. Ultra-diffuse Galaxies in Clusters and the Field: Masses and Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowsky, Aaron; Laine, Seppo; Krick, Jessica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Villaume, Alexa; Brodie, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) were recognized only last year as a novel class of galaxies, with luminosities like dwarfs but sizes like giants. Although some UDGs appear to be just unusually extended dwarfs, others show evidence of being very different and unexpected: their dark matter halos are overmassive by factors of ~10, with one UDG even being arguably a 'failed Milky Way.' These exotic galaxies might be a byproduct of environmental processes within galaxy clusters, but UDGs have also now been found in the field. It is crucial for understanding their origins to test if UDGs have the same properties in cluster and field environments. Here we propose studying the stellar populations (ages and metallicities) of seven UDGs using Spitzer/IRAC 3.6- and 4.5-micron imaging combined with optical photometry, along with mass estimation of three of the UDGs using HST/ACS imaging to provide globular cluster number counts and colors (proxies for halo mass). This ultra low surface brightness photometry in the near infrared, on an important new class of galaxies, could become a legacy result from the Spitzer mission.

  7. Measurement of temperature and velocity fields of freezing water using liquid crystal tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Tomasz A.

    A new experimental technique based on a computational analysis of the colour and displacement of thermochromic liquid crystal tracers was applied to determine both the temperature and velocity fields of freezing water. The technique combines Digital Particle Image Thermometry and Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Full 2-D temperature and velocity fields are determined from a pair or a longer sequence, of colour images taken for the selected cross-section of the flow.

  8. First-order torques and solid-body spinning velocities in intense sound fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Kanber, H.; Rudnick, I.

    1977-01-01

    The letter reports an observation of first-order nonzero time-averaged torques and solid-body spinning velocities in intense acoustic fields. The experimental apparatus consisted of a vertical cylindrical rod supported on an air bearing and passing through a box with two loudspeakers centered on adjoining vertical sides. The rim velocity of the cylinder and the torque on the cylinder are measured as functions of air-particle velocity and the phase difference between the x and y components of the particle velocity. It is found that both rim velocity and torque are linear functions of particle velocity. Difficulties in constructing a proper theoretical description of the observed effects are discussed.

  9. An exact solution of solute transport by one-dimensional random velocity fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cvetkovic, V.D.; Dagan, G.; Shapiro, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of one-dimensional transport of passive solute by a random steady velocity field is investigated. This problem is representative of solute movement in porous media, for example, in vertical flow through a horizontally stratified formation of variable porosity with a constant flux at the soil surface. Relating moments of particle travel time and displacement, exact expressions for the advection and dispersion coefficients in the Focker-Planck equation are compared with the perturbation results for large distances. The first- and second-order approximations for the dispersion coefficient are robust for a lognormal velocity field. The mean Lagrangian velocity is the harmonic mean of the Eulerian velocity for large distances. This is an artifact of one-dimensional flow where the continuity equation provides for a divergence free fluid flux, rather than a divergence free fluid velocity. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Ultrasonic propagation velocity in magnetic and magnetorheological fluids due to an external magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Bramantya, M A; Motozawa, M; Sawada, T

    2010-08-18

    Ultrasonic propagation velocity in a magnetic fluid (MF) and magnetorheological fluid (MRF) changes with the application of an external magnetic field. The formation of clustering structures inside the MF and MRF clearly has an influence on the ultrasonic propagation velocity. Therefore, we propose a qualitative analysis of these structures by measuring properties of ultrasonic propagation. Since MF and MRF are opaque, non-contact inspection using the ultrasonic technique can be very useful for analyzing the inner structures of MF and MRF. In this study, we measured ultrasonic propagation velocity in a hydrocarbon-based MF and MRF precisely. Based on these results, the clustering structures of these fluids are analyzed experimentally in terms of elapsed time dependence and the effect of external magnetic field strength. The results reveal hysteresis and anisotropy in the ultrasonic propagation velocity. We also discuss differences of ultrasonic propagation velocity between MF and MRF. PMID:21386478

  11. Determining Stellar Magnetic Fields and Coronal Densities by Radio Spectrum Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deam, Sophie; Stercula, Tyler; Maier, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Radio emission from active stars provides a sensitive measure of stellar coronal characteristics such as temperature, density and magnetic field strengths. Gyro-synchrotron (GS) emission from mildly relativistic electrons spiraling in magnetic fields is commonly detected in hot coronae of stars with extended magnetospheres, and allows for quantitative estimates of coronal features. Another radiation mechanism, thermal gyro-synchrotron (TGS) radiation, which arises from the thermal electron populations in the high energy tail of a Maxwellian energy distribution, depends strongly on the coronal temperature and strength of the magnetic field. Thus, TGS can potentially provide sensitive constraints on these physical parameters. However, TGS radiation has never been observed. Models predict that TGS should be characterized by an increase in flux, and a corresponding sharp increase in fractional circular polarization at high frequencies. Using the Very Large Array (VLA), we observed eight stars of three different classes: pre-main sequence stars, classical flare stars and close binaries, to determine if their spectral energy distributions (SED's) might display these distinguishing features. The VLA observations were made using 4 GHz wide frequency bands between 15 GHz and 44 Ghz, measuring both Stokes I flux and V flux. For six of the eight stars, the results from VLA are consistent with the SED's we expect for GS, not TGS. For the two pre-main sequence stars, we measured a significant increase in the fractional circular polarization at the higher frequency bands. We are in the process of building detailed modeled fits to determine if we can attribute this to TGS. The development of comprehensive models describing SED's for all of the observed stars will allow us to set upper limits constraining the magnetic field strengths for each source, and, in the case of potential TGS detection, refine TGS models.

  12. Radiography by selective detection of scatter field velocity components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Alan M. (Inventor); Dugan, Edward T. (Inventor); Shedlock, Daniel (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A reconfigurable collimated radiation detector, system and related method includes at least one collimated radiation detector. The detector has an adjustable collimator assembly including at least one feature, such as a fin, optically coupled thereto. Adjustments to the adjustable collimator selects particular directions of travel of scattered radiation emitted from an irradiated object which reach the detector. The collimated detector is preferably a collimated detector array, where the collimators are independently adjustable. The independent motion capability provides the capability to focus the image by selection of the desired scatter field components. When an array of reconfigurable collimated detectors is provided, separate image data can be obtained from each of the detectors and the respective images cross-correlated and combined to form an enhanced image.

  13. A simple measuring technique of surface flow velocity to analyze the behavior of velocity fields in hydraulic engineering applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez, Jackson; Gomez, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino; Redondo, Jose M.

    2015-04-01

    An important achievement in hydraulic engineering is the proposal and development of new techniques for the measurement of field velocities in hydraulic problems. The technological advances in digital cameras with high resolution and high speed found in the market, and the advances in digital image processing techniques now provides a tremendous potential to measure and study the behavior of the water surface flows. This technique was applied at the Laboratory of Hydraulics at the Technical University of Catalonia - Barcelona Tech to study the 2D velocity fields in the vicinity of a grate inlet. We used a platform to test grate inlets capacity with dimensions of 5.5 m long and 4 m wide allowing a zone of useful study of 5.5m x 3m, where the width is similar of the urban road lane. The platform allows you to modify the longitudinal slopes from 0% to 10% and transversal slope from 0% to 4%. Flow rates can arrive to 200 l/s. In addition a high resolution camera with 1280 x 1024 pixels resolution with maximum speed of 488 frames per second was used. A novel technique using particle image velocimetry to measure surface flow velocities has been developed and validated with the experimental data from the grate inlets capacity. In this case, the proposed methodology can become a useful tools to understand the velocity fields of the flow approaching the inlet where the traditional measuring equipment have serious problems and limitations. References DigiFlow User Guide. (2012), (June). Russo, B., Gómez, M., & Tellez, J. (2013). Methodology to Estimate the Hydraulic Efficiency of Nontested Continuous Transverse Grates. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 139(10), 864-871. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000625 Teresa Vila (1), Jackson Tellez (1), Jesus Maria Sanchez (2), Laura Sotillos (1), Margarita Diez (3, 1), and J., & (1), M. R. (2014). Diffusion in fractal wakes and convective thermoelectric flows. Geophysical Research Abstracts - EGU General Assembly 2014

  14. Intense velocity-shears, magnetic fields and filaments in diffuse gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgarone, Edith; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Levrier, François; Berthet, Manuel; Bastien, Pierre; Clemens, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The dissipation of turbulence is a key process in the evolution of diffuse gas towards denser structures. The vast range of coupled scales and the variety of dissipative processes in interstellar turbulence make it a complex system to analyze. Observations now provide powerful statistics of the gas velocity field, density and magnetic field orientations, opening a rich field of investigation. On-going comparisons of the orientation of intense velocity-shears, magnetic field and tenuous filaments of matter in a turbulent high-latitude cloud are promising.

  15. Drift velocity versus electric field in ⟨ 110 ⟩ Si nanowires: Strong confinement effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Mugny, Gabriel; Niquet, Yann-Michel; Delerue, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    We have performed atomistic simulations of the phonon-limited high field carrier transport in ⟨ 110 ⟩ Si nanowires with small diameter. The carrier drift velocities are obtained from a direct solution of the non-linear Boltzmann transport equation. The relationship between the drift velocity and the electric field considerably depends on the carrier, temperature, and diameter of the nanowires. In particular, the threshold between the linear and non-linear regimes exhibits important variations. The drift velocity reaches a maximum value and then drops. These trends can be related to the effects of quantum confinement on the band structure of the nanowires. We also discuss the impact of the different phonon modes and show that high-energy phonons can, unexpectedly, increase the drift velocity at a high electric field.

  16. Velocity field measurements in oblique static divergent vocal fold models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron

    2005-11-01

    During normal phonation, the vocal fold cycle is characterized by the glottal opening transitioning from a convergent to a divergent passage and then closing before the cycle is repeated. Under ordinary phonatory conditions, both vocal folds, which form the glottal passage, move in phase with each other, creating a time-varying symmetric opening. However, abnormal pathological conditions, such as unilateral paralysis, and polyps, can result in geometrical asymmetries between the vocal folds throughout the phonatory cycle. This study investigates pulsatile flow fields through 7.5 times life-size vocal fold models with included divergence angles of 5 to 30 degrees, and obliquities between the vocal folds of up to 15 degrees. Flow conditions were scaled to match physiological parameters. Data were taken at the anterior posterior mid-plane using phase-averaged Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Viscous flow phenomena including the Coanda effect, flow separation points, and jet "flapping" were investigated. The results are compared to previously reported work of flow through symmetric divergent vocal fold models.

  17. Inferred properties of stellar granulation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.F.; Toner, C.G.

    1985-06-01

    Apparent characteristics of stellar granulation in F and G main-sequence stars are inferred directly from observed spectral-line asymmetries and from comparisons of numerical simulations with the observations: (1) the apparent granulation velocity increases with effective temperature, (2) the dispersion of granule velocities about their mean velocity of rise increases with the apparent granulation velocity, (3) the mean velocity of rise of granules must be less than the total line broadening, (4) the apparent velocity difference between granules and dark lanes corresponds to the granulation velocity deduced from stellar line bisectors, (5) the dark lanes show velocities of fall approximately twice as large as the granule rise velocities, (6) the light contributed to the stellar flux by the granules is four to ten times more than the light from the dark lanes. Stellar rotation is predicted to produce distortions in the line bisectors which may give information on the absolute velocity displacements of the line bisectors. 37 references.

  18. Modelling of the solar/stellar wind two-jet structure induced by azimuthal stellar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golikov, Evgeniy; Belov, Nickolai; Alexashov, Dmitry; Izmodenov, Vladislav

    2016-07-01

    Opher et al. (2015), Drake et al. (2015) have shown that the heliospheric magnetic field results in formation of two-jet structure of the solar wind flow in the inner heliosheath, i.e. in the subsonic region between the heliospheric termination shock and the heliopause. In this scenario the heliopause has tube-like topology as compared with sheet-like topology in the most models of the global heliosphere (e.g. Izmodenov and Alexashov, 2015). In this paper we explore the two-jet scenario for the simplified astrosphere with the star is at rest with respect to the circumstellar medium and radial magnetic field is neglected as compared with azimuthal component. Our work is further elaboration of Drake et al. (2015) paper. We performed parametric numerical analyses showing how the structure of the flow changes depending on the model parameters. Also, we present three first integrals of the ideal MHD equations for the considered problem and use them to get links between analytical and numerical considerations.

  19. SOAP 2.0: A Tool to Estimate the Photometric and Radial Velocity Variations Induced by Stellar Spots and Plages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumusque, X.; Boisse, I.; Santos, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents SOAP 2.0, a new version of the Spot Oscillation And Planet (SOAP) code that estimates in a simple way the photometric and radial velocity (RV) variations induced by active regions. The inhibition of the convective blueshift (CB) inside active regions is considered, as well as the limb brightening effect of plages, a quadratic limb darkening law, and a realistic spot and plage contrast ratio. SOAP 2.0 shows that the activity-induced variation of plages is dominated by the inhibition of the CB effect. For spots, this effect becomes significant only for slow rotators. In addition, in the case of a major active region dominating the activity-induced signal, the ratio between the FWHM and the RV peak-to-peak amplitudes of the cross correlation function can be used to infer the type of active region responsible for the signal for stars with v sin i <=8 km s-1. A ratio smaller than three implies a spot, while a larger ratio implies a plage. Using the observation of HD 189733, we show that SOAP 2.0 manages to reproduce the activity variation as well as previous simulations when a spot is dominating the activity-induced variation. In addition, SOAP 2.0 also reproduces the activity variation induced by a plage on the slowly rotating star α Cen B, which is not possible using previous simulations. Following these results, SOAP 2.0 can be used to estimate the signal induced by spots and plages, but also to correct for it when a major active region is dominating the RV variation. . The work in this paper is based on observations made with the MOST satellite, the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope at La Silla Observatory (Chile), and the SOPHIE instrument at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (France).

  20. SOAP 2.0: a tool to estimate the photometric and radial velocity variations induced by stellar spots and plages

    SciTech Connect

    Dumusque, X.; Boisse, I.; Santos, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents SOAP 2.0, a new version of the Spot Oscillation And Planet (SOAP) code that estimates in a simple way the photometric and radial velocity (RV) variations induced by active regions. The inhibition of the convective blueshift (CB) inside active regions is considered, as well as the limb brightening effect of plages, a quadratic limb darkening law, and a realistic spot and plage contrast ratio. SOAP 2.0 shows that the activity-induced variation of plages is dominated by the inhibition of the CB effect. For spots, this effect becomes significant only for slow rotators. In addition, in the case of a major active region dominating the activity-induced signal, the ratio between the FWHM and the RV peak-to-peak amplitudes of the cross correlation function can be used to infer the type of active region responsible for the signal for stars with v sin i ≤8 km s{sup –1}. A ratio smaller than three implies a spot, while a larger ratio implies a plage. Using the observation of HD 189733, we show that SOAP 2.0 manages to reproduce the activity variation as well as previous simulations when a spot is dominating the activity-induced variation. In addition, SOAP 2.0 also reproduces the activity variation induced by a plage on the slowly rotating star α Cen B, which is not possible using previous simulations. Following these results, SOAP 2.0 can be used to estimate the signal induced by spots and plages, but also to correct for it when a major active region is dominating the RV variation.

  1. Electric field measurements at the magnetopause. I Observation of large convective velocities at rotational magnetopause discontinuities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Maynard, N. C.; Gambardella, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    Large convective electric fields of the order of 10 mV/m (sometimes as high as 22 mV/m) are observed at rotational magnetopause discontinuities. These observations were made with the long cylindrical (179-m base line) probes carried on the ISEE 1 satellite. These electric field observations yield convective velocity magnitudes (equal to the cross product of the vector E and the vector B, the latter divided by the square of the magnitude of B) of the order of 150 km/s. In this format for the convective velocity magnitudes, some of these observations are similar to the high speed plasma velocity observations that were made at the magnetopause with the plasma experiment carried on the ISEE 1 satellite. It is shown that, for many of these magnetopause crossings, there exists a special moving coordinate system where the observed electric fields vanish. Such a unique reference system is often used in theoretical studies of magnetic discontinuities. This special coordinate system does not move at the local plasma velocity but moves instead at a velocity intermediate between the convective velocity and the local Alfven velocity. It is used here as a diagnostic tool for the experimental investigation of rotational discontinuities at the magnetopause.

  2. The relationship between the instantaneous velocity field and the rate of moment release in the lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2003-01-01

    Instantaneous velocity gradients within the continental lithosphere are often related to the tectonic driving forces. This relationship is direct if the forces are secular, as for the case of loading of a locked section of a subduction interface by the downgoing plate. If the forces are static, as for the case of lateral variations in gravitational potential energy, then velocity gradients can be produced only if the lithosphere has, on average, zero strength. The static force model may be related to the long-term velocity field but not the instantaneous velocity field (typically measured geodetically over a period of several years) because over short time intervals the upper lithosphere behaves elastically. In order to describe both the short- and long-term behaviour of an (elastic) lithosphere-(viscoelastic) asthenosphere system in a self-consistent manner, I construct a deformation model termed the expected interseismic velocity (EIV) model. Assuming that the lithosphere is populated with faults that rupture continually, each with a definite mean recurrence time, and that the Earth is well approximated as a linear elastic-viscoelastic coupled system, I derive a simple relationship between the instantaneous velocity field and the average rate of moment release in the lithosphere. Examples with synthetic fault networks demonstrate that velocity gradients in actively deforming regions may to a large extent be the product of compounded viscoelastic relaxation from past earthquakes on hundreds of faults distributed over large (??? 106 km2) areas.

  3. Distances and stellar populations of seven low surface brightness galaxies in the field of M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dokkum, Pieter

    2014-10-01

    We have recently discovered seven large, extremely low surface brightness galaxies in the field of the nearby massive spiral galaxy M101. The galaxies were found with Dragonfly, a telescope that is optimized for the detection of low surface brightness emission. If the galaxies are associated with M101, their properties are similar to those of faint dwarf galaxies around the Milky Way and M31, and this would be the first time that a population of "typical", low luminosity dwarfs has been identified around a galaxy outside of the Local Group. Available CFHT imaging does not resolve the galaxies into stars, which makes it difficult to determine their distances and to characterize their stellar populations. Here we propose to obtain ACS imaging of these seven low surface brightness galaxies, with the aim of resolving them into individual stars. The primary goal is to determine their distances using the tip of the red giant branch, and the secondary goal is to constrain their star formation histories from the distribution of stars in the color-magntiude diagram.

  4. Emission line eclipse mapping of velocity fields in dwarf nova accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makita, M.; Mineshige, S.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new method, emission-line eclipse mapping, to map the velocity fields in an accretion disc. We apply the usual eclipse mapping technique to the light curves at each of 12-24 wavelengths across the line center to map the region with same line-of-sight velocity, from which we are able to plot the rotational velocity as a function of radius on the assumption of axisymmetric disc. We calculate time changes of the emission line profiles, assuming Keplerian rotation fields (vvarphi propto r-1/2) and the emissivity distribution of j propto r-3/2, and reconstruct emissivity profiles. The results show typically a `two-eye' pattern for high line-of-sight velocities and we can recover the relation, vvarphi propto d-1/2, where d is the separation of two lq eyes.'

  5. 3-D seismic velocity and attenuation structures in the geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Nugraha, Andri Dian; Syahputra, Ahmad; Fatkhan,; Sule, Rachmat

    2013-09-09

    We conducted delay time tomography to determine 3-D seismic velocity structures (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio) using micro-seismic events in the geothermal field. The P-and S-wave arrival times of these micro-seismic events have been used as input for the tomographic inversion. Our preliminary seismic velocity results show that the subsurface condition of geothermal field can be fairly delineated the characteristic of reservoir. We then extended our understanding of the subsurface physical properties through determining of attenuation structures (Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio) using micro-seismic waveform. We combined seismic velocities and attenuation structures to get much better interpretation of the reservoir characteristic. Our preliminary attanuation structures results show reservoir characterization can be more clearly by using the 3-D attenuation model of Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio combined with 3-D seismic velocity model of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio.

  6. Three-dimensional reconstruction of cardiac flows based on multi-planar velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falahatpisheh, Ahmad; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Kheradvar, Arash

    2014-11-01

    Measurement of the three-dimensional flow field inside the cardiac chambers has proven to be a challenging task. This is mainly due to the fact that generalized full-volume velocimetry techniques cannot be easily implemented to the heart chambers. In addition, the rapid pace of the events in the heart does not allow for accurate real-time flow measurements in 3D using imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging, which neglects the transient variations of the flow due to averaging of the flow over multiple heartbeats. In order to overcome these current limitations, we introduce a multi-planar velocity reconstruction approach that can characterize 3D incompressible flows based on the reconstruction of 2D velocity fields. Here, two-dimensional, two-component velocity fields acquired on multiple perpendicular planes are reconstructed into a 3D velocity field through Kriging interpolation and by imposing the incompressibility constraint. Subsequently, the scattered experimental data are projected into a divergence-free vector field space using a fractional step approach. We validate the method in exemplary 3D flows, including the Hill's spherical vortex and a numerically simulated flow downstream of a 3D orifice. During the process of validation, different signal-to-noise ratios are introduced to the flow field, and the method's performance is assessed accordingly. The results show that as the signal-to-noise ratio decreases, the corrected velocity field significantly improves. The method is also applied to the experimental flow inside a mock model of the heart's right ventricle. Taking advantage of the periodicity of the flow, multiple 2D velocity fields in multiple perpendicular planes at different locations of the mock model are measured while being phase-locked for the 3D reconstruction. The results suggest the metamorphosis of the original transvalvular vortex, which forms downstream of the inlet valve during the early filling phase of the right

  7. Classification of Field Dwarfs and Giants in RAVE and Its Use in Stellar Stream Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klement, R. J.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Fuchs, B.; Rix, H.-W.; Smith, K. W.

    2011-01-01

    Samples of bright stars, as they emerge from surveys such as RAVE, contain comparable fractions of dwarf and giant stars. An efficient separation of these two luminosity classes is therefore important, especially for studies in which distances are estimated through photometric parallax relations. We use the available spectroscopic log g estimates from the second RAVE data release (DR2) to assign each star a probability for being a dwarf or subgiant/giant based on mixture model fits to the log g distribution in different color bins. We further attempt to use these stars as a labeled training set in order to classify stars which lack log g estimates into dwarfs and giants with a Support Vector Machine algorithm. We assess the performance of this classification against different choices of the input feature vector. In particular, we use different combinations of reduced proper motions, 2MASS JHK, DENIS IJK, and USNO-B B2R2 apparent magnitudes. Our study shows that—for our color ranges—the infrared bands alone provide no relevant information to separate dwarfs and giants. Even when optical bands and reduced proper motions are added, the fraction of true giants classified as dwarfs (the contamination) remains above 20%. Using only the dwarfs with available spectroscopic log g and distance estimates (the latter from Breddels et al.), we then repeat the stream search by Klementet al. (KFR08), which assumed that all stars were dwarfs and claimed the discovery of a new stellar stream at V ≈ -160 km s-1 in a sample of 7015 stars from RAVE DR1. The existence of the KFR08 stream has been supported by two recent studies using other independent data sets. Our re-analysis of the pure DR2 dwarf sample exhibits an overdensity of five stars at the phase-space position of the KFR08 stream, with a metallicity distribution that appears inconsistent with that of stars at comparably low rotational velocities. Compared to several smooth Milky Way models, the mean standardized

  8. Spatiotemporal properties of Sub-Rayleigh and supershear rupture velocity fields: Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Michael; Bhat, Harsha S.; Rosakis, Ares J.

    2016-08-01

    Fundamental spatiotemporal field properties and particle velocity waveform signatures of sub-Rayleigh and supershear ruptures were experimentally investigated through a series of laboratory earthquake experiments. We appeal to dynamic rupture theory to extract and highlight previously unnoticed aspects and results, which are of direct relevance to our new experiments. Kinematic relationships derived from both singular and non-singular solutions are applied to analyze and interpret various features observed in these experiments. A strong correspondence is demonstrated between particle velocity records obtained in lab experiments and synthetic particle velocity waveform profiles derived from theory. Predicted temporal profiles, sense of particle motion, and amplitude decay properties of sub-Rayleigh and supershear particle velocity waveforms are experimentally verified. In a particular set of supershear rupture experiments, the fault-normal (FN) and fault-parallel (FP) velocity waveforms were simultaneously recorded at fixed, off-fault field points as a shear Mach front swept these locations. Particle velocity records collected over a broad range of stable supershear rupture speeds validate the predicted scaling relationship δu˙1s / δu˙2s =√{Vr2 / Cs2-1 } =βs, between the FP (δu1ṡ) and the FN (δu2ṡ) velocity jumps propagated by a shear Mach front. Additional experimental findings include detailed rupture speed measurements of sub-Rayleigh and supershear ruptures and the observation of a supershear daughter crack with vanishing shear Mach front.

  9. Using a constraint on the parallel velocity when determining electric fields with EISCAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caudal, G.; Blanc, M.

    1988-01-01

    A method is proposed to determine the perpendicular components of the ion velocity vector (and hence the perpendicular electric field) from EISCAT tristatic measurements, in which one introduces an additional constraint on the parallel velocity, in order to take account of our knowledge that the parallel velocity of ions is small. This procedure removes some artificial features introduced when the tristatic geometry becomes too unfavorable. It is particularly well suited for the southernmost or northernmost positions of the tristatic measurements performed by meridian scan experiments (CP3 mode).

  10. Instantaneous velocity field measurement of objects in coaxial rotation using digital image velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y.-C.; Park, H.

    1990-01-01

    The instantaneous velocity fields of time-dependent flows, or of a collection of objects moving with spatially varying velocities, can be measured by means of digital image velocimetry (DIV). DIV overcomes several shortcomings of such existing techniques as laser-speckle or particle-image velocimetry. Attention is presently given to numerically generated images representing objects in uniform motion which are then used for the experimental validation of DIV.

  11. The velocity field near the orifice of a Helmholtz resonator in grazing flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charwat, A. F.; Walker, B. E.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement of the time-dependent velocities induced inside and outside the opening of acoustically excited, two-dimensional Helmholtz resonator imbedded in a grazing flow are presented. The remarkably clear structure of the perturbation field which evokes a pulsating source and a coherently pulsating vortex-image pair is described. The simple phenomenological "lid-model" which correlates the variation in the components of the acoustic impedance with the velocity of the grazing flow is discussed and extended.

  12. Stellarator hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Ludescher, C.

    1984-08-01

    The present paper briefly reviews the subject of tokamak-stellarator and pinch-stellarator hybrids, and points to two interesting new possibilities: compact-torus-stellarators and mirror-stellarators.

  13. Three-component velocity field measurements of propeller wake using a stereoscopic PIV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Paik, Bu Geun; Yoon, Jong Hwan; Lee, Choung Mook

    A stereoscopic PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique was used to measure the three-dimensional flow structure of the turbulent wake behind a marine propeller with five blades. The out-of-plane velocity component was determined using two CCD cameras with an angular displacement configuration. Four hundred instantaneous velocity fields were measured for each of four different blade phases, and ensemble averaged in order to find the spatial evolution of the propeller wake in the region from the trailing edge up to one propeller diameter (D) downstream. The influence of propeller loading conditions on the wake structure was also investigated by measuring the velocity fields at three advance ratios (J=0.59, 0.72 and 0.88). The phase-averaged velocity fields revealed that a viscous wake formed by the boundary layers developed along the blade surfaces. Tip vortices were generated periodically and the slipstream contracted in the near-wake region. The out-of-plane velocity component and strain rate had large values at the locations of the tip and trailing vortices. As the flow moved downstream, the turbulence intensity, the strength of the tip vortices, and the magnitude of the out-of-plane velocity component at trailing vortices all decreased due to effects such as viscous dissipation, turbulence diffusion, and blade-to-blade interaction.

  14. Automatic NMO Correction and Full Common Depth Point NMO Velocity Field Estimation in Anisotropic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedek, Mohamed; Gross, Lutz; Tyson, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    We present a new computational method of automatic normal moveout (NMO) correction that not only accurately flattens and corrects the far offset data, but simultaneously provides NMO velocity (v_nmo ) for each individual seismic trace. The method is based on a predefined number of NMO velocity sweeps using linear vertical interpolation of different NMO velocities at each seismic trace. At each sweep, we measure the semblance between the zero offset trace (pilot trace) and the next seismic trace using a trace-by-trace rather than sample-by-sample based semblance measure; then after all the sweeps are done, the one with the maximum semblance value is chosen, which is assumed to be the most suitable NMO velocity trace that accurately flattens seismic reflection events. Other traces follow the same process, and a final velocity field is then extracted. Isotropic, anisotropic and lateral heterogenous synthetic geological models were built to test the method. A range of synthetic background noise, ranging from 10 to 30 %, was applied to the models. In addition, the method was tested on Hess's VTI (vertical transverse isotropy) model. Furthermore, we tested our method on a real pre-stack seismic CDP gathered from a gas field in Alaska. The results from the presented examples show an excellent NMO correction and extracted a reasonably accurate NMO velocity field.

  15. The black hole mass of NGC 4151. II. Stellar dynamical measurement from near-infrared integral field spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura; Valluri, Monica; Brown, Jonathan S.; McGregor, Peter J.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.; Bentz, Misty C.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogemar A. E-mail: mvalluri@umich.edu

    2014-08-10

    We present a revised measurement of the mass of the central black hole (M{sub BH} ) in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. The new stellar dynamical mass measurement is derived by applying an axisymmetric orbit-superposition code to near-infrared integral field data obtained using adaptive optics with the Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS). When our models attempt to fit both the NIFS kinematics and additional low spatial resolution kinematics, our results depend sensitively on how χ{sup 2} is computed—probably a consequence of complex bar kinematics that manifest immediately outside the nuclear region. The most robust results are obtained when only the high spatial resolution kinematic constraints in the nuclear region are included in the fit. Our best estimates for the black hole mass and H-band mass-to-light ratio are M{sub BH} ∼ 3.76 ± 1.15 × 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉} (1σ error) and Y{sub H} ∼ 0.34 ± 0.03 M{sub ☉}/L{sub ☉} (3σ error), respectively (the quoted errors reflect the model uncertainties). Our black hole mass measurement is consistent with estimates from both reverberation mapping (3.57{sub −0.37}{sup +0.45}×10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}) and gas kinematics (3.0{sub −2.2}{sup +0.75}×10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}; 1σ errors), and our best-fit mass-to-light ratio is consistent with the photometric estimate of Y{sub H} = 0.4 ± 0.2 M{sub ☉}/L{sub ☉}. The NIFS kinematics give a central bulge velocity dispersion σ{sub c} = 116 ± 3 km s{sup –1}, bringing this object slightly closer to the M{sub BH}-σ relation for quiescent galaxies. Although NGC 4151 is one of only a few Seyfert 1 galaxies in which it is possible to obtain a direct dynamical black hole mass measurement—and thus, an independent calibration of the reverberation mapping mass scale—the complex bar kinematics makes it less than ideally suited for this purpose.

  16. A Unified Geodetic Vertical Velocity Field (UGVVF), Version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzle, G.; Wdowinski, S.

    2014-12-01

    Tectonic motion, volcanic inflation or deflation, as well as oil, gas and water pumping can induce vertical motion. In southern California these signals are inter-mingled. In tectonics, properly identifying regions that are contaminated by other signals can be important when estimating fault slip rates. Until recently vertical deformation rates determined by high precision Global Positioning Systems (GPS) had large uncertainties compared to horizontal components and were rarely used to constrain tectonic models of fault motion. However, many continuously occupied GPS stations have been operating for ten or more years, often delivering uncertainties of ~1 mm/yr or less, providing better constraints for tectonic modeling. Various processing centers produced GPS time series and estimated vertical velocity fields, each with their own set of processing techniques and assumptions. We compare vertical velocity solutions estimated by seven data processing groups as well as two combined solutions (Figure 1). These groups include: Central Washington University (CWU) and New Mexico Institute of Technology (NMT), and their combined solution provided by the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) through the UNAVCO website. Also compared are the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) and their combined solution provided as part of the NASA MEaSUREs project. Smaller velocity fields included are from Amos et al., 2014, processed at the Nevada Geodetic Laboratory, Shen et al., 2011, processed by UCLA and called the Crustal Motion Map 4.0 (CMM4) dataset, and a new velocity field provided by the University of Miami (UM). Our analysis includes estimating and correcting for systematic vertical velocity and uncertainty differences between groups. Our final product is a unified velocity field that contains the median values of the adjusted velocity fields and their uncertainties. This product will be periodically updated when new velocity fields

  17. Stellar dynamics of CEN A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, A.; Sharples, R. M.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Wallace, P. T.

    1986-01-01

    The first complete map of the stellar velocity field within 100 arcsec of the nucleus of the bright elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 (Cen A) has been compiled, and complementary long-slit spectra out to 400 arcsec along the optical major axis have been obtained. These data show that the ellipsoidal stellar component is rotating slowly (maximum line-of-sight velocity 40 km/s) approximately perpendicular to the dust lane about a projected axis lying in pa approximately 135 deg and in the opposite sense to that expected if the warp were due to the dust lying in stable orbits round a triaxial potential. The velocity field may be explained by either an effectively stationary oblate triaxial model where the radio jet lies along the major axis perpendicular to the dust lane, or by an effectively stationary prolate model where the jet is not constrained to be perpendicular to the dust lane, but in either case the present warped dust lane configuration must be transient. It is shown that the dust lane can significantly affect the steepness of the rotation curve, the skew of the velocity field, and the magnitude of the dispersion.

  18. Reconstructing the galaxy density field with photometric redshifts. I. Methodology and validation on stellar mass functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavasi, N.; Pozzetti, L.; Cucciati, O.; Bardelli, S.; Cimatti, A.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Measuring environment for large numbers of galaxies in the distant Universe is an open problem in astrophysics, as environment is important in determining many properties of galaxies during their formation and evolution. In order to measure galaxy environments, we need galaxy positions and redshifts. Photometric redshifts are more easily available for large numbers of galaxies, but at the price of larger uncertainties than spectroscopic redshifts. Aims: We study how photometric redshifts affect the measurement of galaxy environment and how the reconstruction of the density field may limit an analysis of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) in different environments. Methods: Through the use of mock galaxy catalogues, we measured galaxy environment with a fixed aperture method, using each galaxy's true and photometric redshifts. We varied the parameters defining the fixed aperture volume and explored different configurations. We also used photometric redshifts with different uncertainties to simulate the case of various surveys. We then computed GSMF of the mock galaxy catalogues as a function of redshift and environment to see how the environmental estimate based on photometric redshifts affects their analysis. Results: We found that the most extreme environments can be reconstructed in a fairly accurate way only when using high-precision photometric redshifts with σΔz/ (1 + z) ≲ 0.01, with a fraction ≥ 60 ÷ 80% of galaxies placed in the correct density quartile and a contamination of ≤10% by opposite quartile interlopers. A length of the volume in the radial direction comparable to the ±1.5σ error of photometric redshifts and a fixed aperture radius of a size similar to the physical scale of the studied environment grant a better reconstruction than other volume configurations. When using this kind of an estimate of the density field, we found that any difference between the starting GSMF (divided accordingly to the true galaxy environment

  19. Velocity field from twenty-two years of combined GPS daily coordinate time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilo, Meilano, Irwan; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Sapiie, Benyamin; Efendi, Joni; Wijanarto, Antonius B.

    2016-05-01

    We uses survey mode (sGPS) and continuous GPS (cGPS) from Geospatial Information Agency, National Land Agency and Sumatran GPS Array (SUGAR) from 1993 - 2014 to derive new GPS velocities field in Indonesia region. In this study we quantify the velocities field from our GPS sites during this period. We reprocess and analyses our GPS data using the GAMIT/GLOBK 10.5 software suite. Our analysis reveals that the velocities field in Indonesia region has a distinctly pattern with the different direction and magnitude which represents the plates or blocks tectonic motion in Indonesia region. This information is useful for determines Indonesian deformation model to support the new Indonesian datum which called Sistem Referensi Geospasial Indonesia 2013 (Indonesian Geospatial Reference System 2013).

  20. A Collaborative Approach Toward the Densification of the ITRF Velocity Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, J.; Bruyninx, C.; Saria, E.; Griffiths, J.; Craymer, M. R.; Dawson, J. H.; Kenyeres, A.; Santamaria-Gomez, A.; Sanchez, L.; Altamimi, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the IAG Working Group 'Integration of Dense Velocity Fields in the ITRF' is to provide a GNSS-based dense, unified and reliable velocity field globally referenced in the ITRF (International Terrestrial Reference Frame) and useful for geodynamical and geophysical interpretations. The WG is embedded in IAG Sub-Commission 1.3 'Regional Reference Frames' where it coexists with the Regional Reference Frame Sub-Commissions AFREF (Africa), APREF (Asia & Pacific), EUREF (Europe), NAREF (North America), SCAR (Antarctica), SIRGAS (Latin America & Caribbean). These IAG Regional Reference Frame sub-commissions are responsible for providing GNSS-based densified weekly solutions for their region. To obtain such a densified velocity field, the WG combined the individual weekly solutions from 7 individual contributors (AFREF, APREF, EUREF, NAREF (NGS, GSB), SIRGAS, IGS) and then stacked these weekly combined solutions in order to derive a ITRF2008 densification as well as the associated residual position time series for more than 2000 sites.

  1. Effects of the mean velocity field on the renormalized turbulent viscosity and correlation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Verma, Mahendra

    2015-11-01

    We perform renormalization group analysis of the Navier Stokes equation in the Eulerian framework in the presence of mean velocity field U0, and observe that that the renormalized viscosity ν (k) is independent of U0, where k is the wavenumber. Thus we show that ν (k) in the Eulerian field theory is Galilean invariant. We also compute ν (k) using numerical simulations and verify the above theoretical prediction. The velocity-velocity correlation function however exhibits damped oscillations whose time period of oscillation and damping time scales are given by 1 / kU0 and 1 / (ν (k) k2) respectively. In a modified form of Kraichnan's direct interaction approximation (DIA), the ``random mean velocity field'' of the large eddies sweeps the small-scale fluctuations. The DIA calculations also reveal that in the weak turbulence limit, the energy spectrum E (k) ~k - 3 / 2 , but for the strong turbulence limit, the random velocity field of the large-scale eddies is scale-dependent that leads to Kolmogorov's energy spectrum.

  2. Mass-conservative reconstruction of Galerkin velocity fields for transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudeler, C.; Putti, M.; Paniconi, C.

    2016-08-01

    Accurate calculation of mass-conservative velocity fields from numerical solutions of Richards' equation is central to reliable surface-subsurface flow and transport modeling, for example in long-term tracer simulations to determine catchment residence time distributions. In this study we assess the performance of a local Larson-Niklasson (LN) post-processing procedure for reconstructing mass-conservative velocities from a linear (P1) Galerkin finite element solution of Richards' equation. This approach, originally proposed for a-posteriori error estimation, modifies the standard finite element velocities by imposing local conservation on element patches. The resulting reconstructed flow field is characterized by continuous fluxes on element edges that can be efficiently used to drive a second order finite volume advective transport model. Through a series of tests of increasing complexity that compare results from the LN scheme to those using velocity fields derived directly from the P1 Galerkin solution, we show that a locally mass-conservative velocity field is necessary to obtain accurate transport results. We also show that the accuracy of the LN reconstruction procedure is comparable to that of the inherently conservative mixed finite element approach, taken as a reference solution, but that the LN scheme has much lower computational costs. The numerical tests examine steady and unsteady, saturated and variably saturated, and homogeneous and heterogeneous cases along with initial and boundary conditions that include dry soil infiltration, alternating solute and water injection, and seepage face outflow. Typical problems that arise with velocities derived from P1 Galerkin solutions include outgoing solute flux from no-flow boundaries, solute entrapment in zones of low hydraulic conductivity, and occurrences of anomalous sources and sinks. In addition to inducing significant mass balance errors, such manifestations often lead to oscillations in concentration

  3. A RADIAL VELOCITY AND CALCIUM TRIPLET ABUNDANCE SURVEY OF FIELD SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    De Propris, Roberto; Rich, R. Michael; Mallery, Ryan C.; Howard, Christian D.

    2010-05-10

    We present the results of a pilot wide-field radial velocity and metal abundance survey of red giants in 10 fields in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The targets lie at projected distances of 0.9 and 1.9 kpc from the SMC center (m - M = 18.79) to the north, east, south, and west. Two more fields are to the east at distances of 3.9 and 5.1 kpc. In this last field, we find only a few to no SMC giants, suggesting that the edge of the SMC in this direction lies approximately at 6 kpc from its center. In all eastern fields, we observe a double peak in the radial velocities of stars, with a component at the classical SMC recession velocity of {approx}160 km s{sup -1} and a high-velocity component at about 200 km s{sup -1}, similar to observations in H I. In the most distant field (3.9 kpc), the low-velocity component is at 106 km s{sup -1}. The metal abundance distribution in all fields is broad and centered at about [Fe/H] {approx}-1.25, reaching to solar and possibly slightly supersolar values and down to [Fe/H] of about -2.5. In the two innermost (0.9 kpc) northern and southern fields, we observe a secondary peak at metallicities of about {approx}-0.6. This may be evidence of a second episode of star formation in the center, possibly triggered by the interactions that created the Stream and Bridge.

  4. Electric and magnetic field measurements inside a high-velocity neutral beam undergoing ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Swenson, C. M.; Brenning, N.; Baker, K.; Pfaff, R.

    1991-01-01

    Vector electric field measurements were made inside two ionizing, high-velocity streams of barium atoms in the earth's ionosphere, and a variety of electrical phenomena across the frequency spectrum are reported. A very large quasi-dc electric field was detected antiparallel to the beam velocity at a roughly 45 deg angle with the magnetic field B0. A very large component of E is found parallel to B0. The fluctuating electric fields are also quite large, of the same order of magnitude as the quasi-dc pulse. The wave energy maximizes at frequencies below the barium lower hybrid frequency and includes strong signatures of the oxygen cyclotron frequency. Measurements made on a subpayload separated across B0 by several hundred meters and along B0 by several km do not show the large pulse. Very large amplitude magnetic field fluctuations were observed in both bursts.

  5. Full-field velocity imaging of red blood cells in capillaries with spatiotemporal demodulation autocorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingyi; Zeng, Yaguang; Dong, Nannan; Liao, Riwei; Yang, Guojian

    2016-03-01

    We propose a full-field optical method for the label-free and quantitative mapping of the velocities of red blood cells (RBCs) in capillaries. It integrates spatiotemporal demodulation and an autocorrelation algorithm, and measures RBC velocity according to the ratio of RBC length to lag time. Conventionally, RBC length is assumed to be a constant and lag time is taken as a variable, while our method treats both of them as variables. We use temporal demodulation and the Butterworth spatial filter to separate RBC signal from background signal, based on which we obtain the RBC length by image segmentation and lag time by autocorrelation analysis. The RBC velocity calculated now is more accurate. The validity of our method is verified by an in vivo experiment on a mouse ear. Owing to its higher image signal-to-noise ratio, our method can be used for mapping RBC velocity in the turbid tissue case.

  6. Measurements of Dendritic Growth Velocities in Undercooled Melts of Pure Nickel Under Static Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Jianrong; Zhang, Zongning; Zhang, Yingjie

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic growth velocities in undercooled melts of pure Ni have been intensively studied over the past fifty years. However, the literature data are at marked variance with the prediction of the widely accepted model for rapid dendritic growth both at small and at large undercoolings. In the present work, bulk melts of pure Ni samples of high purity were undercooled by glass fluxing treatment under a static magnetic field. The recalescence processes of the samples at different undercoolings were recorded using a high-speed camera, and were modeled using a software to determine the dendritic growth velocities. The present data confirmed the effect of melt flow on dendritic growth velocities at undercoolings below 100 K. A comparison of the present data with previous measurements on a lower purity material suggested an effect of impurities on dendritic growth velocities at undercoolings larger than 200 K as well.

  7. Time evolution of the lateral-velocity distribution for a strong-field-ionization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. A.

    2016-05-01

    We study time development of a cusp in the lateral-velocity distribution for the process of strong-field ionization. The lateral-velocity distribution is computed using an ab initio quantum mechanical procedure for the moments of time inside and after the end of the laser pulse. We show that at the moment of time corresponding to the midpoint of the laser pulse the lateral-velocity distribution is a smooth Gaussian curve, its parameters agreeing very well with the predictions of the tunelling theories. At the moment of time corresponding to the end of the pulse the lateral-velocity distribution narrows considerably, showing the initial stage of the cusp-formation process due to the Coulomb focusing effect. Following evolution of the ionized wave packet yet further in time we consider the cusp formation in detail.

  8. Intensive surveys of the Azores Front: 2. Inferring the geostrophic and vertical velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, Daniel L.

    1996-07-01

    The geostrophic and vertical velocity fields are inferred using density and horizontal velocity data from three SeaSoar/acoustic Doppler current profiler surveys of the Azores Front. The analysis is a two-step procedure consisting of (1) objective analyses to reflect the observed length scales and (2) dynamical adjustments so that the density field is statically stable and the velocity field is in geostrophic balance. The vertical velocity is inferred using a version of the quasi-geostrophic omega equation in which the stratification is allowed to vary in the horizontal. The resulting vertical velocity peaks at 2 × 10-4 m s-1 at 200-300 m. There is a tendency for the denser water to the north of the front to be downwelled, while the warmer water to the south is upwelled. The implied heat flux exceeds 10 W m-2 near 100-m depth, so the upper 100 m is warmed while the lower water column is cooled, tending to stratify the upper ocean. Ageostrophic horizontal flow is toward the dense side of the front at the surface. The dominant terms in the density balance are time rate of change and horizontal advection. The inferred circulation cells may be an important mechanism of subduction in the upper ocean.

  9. Exploiting SENTINEL-1 Amplitude Data for Glacier Surface Velocity Field Measurements: Feasibility Demonstration on Baltoro Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascetti, A.; Nocchi, F.; Camplani, A.; Di Rico, C.; Crespi, M.

    2016-06-01

    The leading idea of this work is to continuously retrieve glaciers surface velocity through SAR imagery, in particular using the amplitude data from the new ESA satellite sensor Sentinel-1 imagery. These imagery key aspects are the free access policy, the very short revisit time (down to 6 days with the launch of the Sentinel-1B satellite) and the high amplitude resolution (up to 5 m). In order to verify the reliability of the proposed approach, a first experiment has been performed using Sentinel-1 imagery acquired over the Karakoram mountain range (North Pakistan) and Baltoro and other three glaciers have been investigated. During this study, a stack of 11 images acquired in the period from October 2014 to September 2015 has been used in order to investigate the potentialities of the Sentinel-1 SAR sensor to retrieve the glacier surface velocity every month. The aim of this test was to measure the glacier surface velocity between each subsequent pair, in order to produce a time series of the surface velocity fields along the investigated period. The necessary coregistration procedure between the images has been performed and subsequently the glaciers areas have been sampled using a regular grid with a 250 × 250 meters posting. Finally the surface velocity field has been estimated, for each image pair, using a template matching procedure, and an outlier filtering procedure based on the signal to noise ratio values has been applied, in order to exclude from the analysis unreliable points. The achieved velocity values range from 10 to 25 meters/month and they are coherent to those obtained in previous studies carried out on the same glaciers and the results highlight that it is possible to have a continuous update of the glacier surface velocity field through free Sentinel-1 imagery, that could be very useful to investigate the seasonal effects on the glaciers fluid-dynamics.

  10. STELLAR AGES AND CONVECTIVE CORES IN FIELD MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: FIRST ASTEROSEISMIC APPLICATION TO TWO KEPLER TARGETS

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Chaplin, W. J.; Basu, S.; Deheuvels, S.; Brandao, I. M.; Cunha, M. S.; Sousa, S. G.; Dogan, G.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Serenelli, A. M.; Garcia, R. A.; Ballot, J.; Weiss, A.; Appourchaux, T.; Casagrande, L.; Cassisi, S.; Creevey, O. L.; Lebreton, Y.; Noels, A.; and others

    2013-06-01

    Using asteroseismic data and stellar evolution models we obtain the first detection of a convective core in a Kepler field main-sequence star, putting a stringent constraint on the total size of the mixed zone and showing that extra mixing beyond the formal convective boundary exists. In a slightly less massive target the presence of a convective core cannot be conclusively discarded, and thus its remaining main-sequence lifetime is uncertain. Our results reveal that best-fit models found solely by matching individual frequencies of oscillations corrected for surface effects do not always properly reproduce frequency combinations. Moreover, slightly different criteria to define what the best-fit model is can lead to solutions with similar global properties but very different interior structures. We argue that the use of frequency ratios is a more reliable way to obtain accurate stellar parameters, and show that our analysis in field main-sequence stars can yield an overall precision of 1.5%, 4%, and 10% in radius, mass, and age, respectively. We compare our results with those obtained from global oscillation properties, and discuss the possible sources of uncertainties in asteroseismic stellar modeling where further studies are still needed.

  11. Effects of magnetic field and Hall current to the blood velocity and LDL transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, I.; Naser, N.; Talib, A. H.; Mahali, S.

    2015-09-01

    The magnetic field and Hall current effects have been considered on blood velocity and concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). It is important to observe those effects to the flowing blood in a stenosed artery. The analysis from the obtained results may be useful to some clinical procedures, such as MRI, where the radiologists may have more information in the investigations before cardiac operations could be done. In this study, the uniform magnetic field and Hall current are applied to the Newtonian blood flow through an artery having a cosine-shaped stenosis. The governing equations are coupled with mass transfer and solved employing a finite difference Marker and Cell (MAC) method with an appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The graphical results of velocity profiles and LDL concentration are presented in this paper and the results show that the velocity increases and concentration decreases as Hall parameter increased.

  12. Velocity-Space Diffusion Coefficients Due to Full-Wave ICRF Fields in Toroidal Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.W.; Jaeger, F.; Berry, L.A.; Batchelor, D.B.; D'Azevedo, E.; Carter, M.D.; Ershov, N.M.; Smirnov, A.P.; Bonoli, P.; Wright, J.C.; Smithe, D.N.

    2005-09-26

    Jaeger et al. have calculated bounce-averaged QL diffusion coefficients from AORSA full-wave fields, based on non-Maxwellian distributions from CQL3D Fokker-Planck code. A zero banana-width approximation is employed. Complementing this calculation, a fully numerical calculation of ion velocity diffusion coefficients using the full-wave fields in numerical tokamak equilibria has been implemented to determine the finite orbit width effects. The un-approximated Lorentz equation of motion is integrated to obtain the change in velocity after one complete poloidal transit of the tokamak. Averaging velocity changes over initial starting gyro-phase and toroidal angle gives bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients. The coefficients from the full-wave and Lorentz orbit methods are compared for an ITER DT second harmonic tritium ICRF heating case: the diffusion coefficients are similar in magnitude but reveal substantial finite orbit effects.

  13. Magnetic and velocity fluctuation measurements in the REPUTE-1 reversed-field pinch plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ejiri, A.; Ohdachi, S.; Oikawa, T.; Shinohara, S.; Yamagishi, K.; Toyama, H.; Miyamoto, K. )

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic and velocity fluctuations are studied in the REPUTE-1 [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion [bold 28], 805 (1986)] reversed-field pinch (RFP). The first measurement of velocity fluctuation in an RFP plasma has been done using a Doppler shift of the O V(O[sup 4+], 278.1 nm) line. The fluctuation level increases as the radius of the viewing chord increases. Magnetic fluctuation measurements by an insertable probe reveal that the radial cross correlation of toroidal field fluctuation changes its sign at the radius slightly inside the reversal surface. The level of magnetohydrodynamic dynamo term is estimated from magnetic fluctuations at the surface correlation changes and oxygen velocity fluctuations measured with the chord distance of 115 mm. The dynamo term and that due to resistivity are the same level. This fact is consistent with Ohm's law on which magnetohydrodynamic dynamo models are based.

  14. VELOCITY POWER SPECTRA FROM CROSS-FIELD TURBULENCE IN THE PROTON KINETIC REGIME

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, Bernard J.; Markovskii, Sergei A. E-mail: sergei.markovskii@unh.edu

    2012-03-01

    Numerical hybrid simulations with particle protons and fluid electrons are conducted for turbulent fluctuations with spatial variations in a plane perpendicular to the background magnetic field. In the turbulent phase, the proton bulk velocity spectrum has a dissipation range starting at a smaller wavenumber than the magnetic spectrum dissipation range. The steepened portion of the proton bulk velocity spectrum is constrained to a smaller wavenumber with an increasing ratio of background proton plasma to magnetic pressure {beta}{sub p}. The form of the magnetic spectrum does not depend on {beta}{sub p}. The collisionless proton and fluctuation interaction which heats protons mainly across the magnetic field is deemed to be the result of a viscous-like interaction based, in part, on the dependence of the velocity spectrum on {beta}{sub p}.

  15. VELOCITY FIELD OF COMPRESSIBLE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE: WAVELET DECOMPOSITION AND MODE SCALINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Kowal, Grzegorz; Lazarian, A. E-mail: lazarian@astro.wisc.ed

    2010-09-01

    We study compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, which holds the key to many astrophysical processes, including star formation and cosmic-ray propagation. To account for the variations of the magnetic field in the strongly turbulent fluid, we use wavelet decomposition of the turbulent velocity field into Alfven, slow, and fast modes, which presents an extension of the Cho and Lazarian decomposition approach based on Fourier transforms. The wavelets allow us to follow the variations of the local direction of the magnetic field and therefore improve the quality of the decomposition compared to the Fourier transforms, which are done in the mean field reference frame. For each resulting component, we calculate the spectra and two-point statistics such as longitudinal and transverse structure functions as well as higher order intermittency statistics. In addition, we perform a Helmholtz- Hodge decomposition of the velocity field into incompressible and compressible parts and analyze these components. We find that the turbulence intermittency is different for different components, and we show that the intermittency statistics depend on whether the phenomenon was studied in the global reference frame related to the mean magnetic field or in the frame defined by the local magnetic field. The dependencies of the measures we obtained are different for different components of the velocity; for instance, we show that while the Alfven mode intermittency changes marginally with the Mach number, the intermittency of the fast mode is substantially affected by the change.

  16. Methodology to estimate the relative pressure field from noisy experimental velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolin, C. D.; Raguin, L. G.

    2008-11-01

    The determination of intravascular pressure fields is important to the characterization of cardiovascular pathology. We present a two-stage method that solves the inverse problem of estimating the relative pressure field from noisy velocity fields measured by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) on an irregular domain with limited spatial resolution, and includes a filter for the experimental noise. For the pressure calculation, the Poisson pressure equation is solved by embedding the irregular flow domain into a regular domain. To lessen the propagation of the noise inherent to the velocity measurements, three filters - a median filter and two physics-based filters - are evaluated using a 2-D Couette flow. The two physics-based filters outperform the median filter for the estimation of the relative pressure field for realistic signal-to-noise ratios (SNR = 5 to 30). The most accurate pressure field results from a filter that applies in a least-squares sense three constraints simultaneously: consistency between measured and filtered velocity fields, divergence-free and additional smoothness conditions. This filter leads to a 5-fold gain in accuracy for the estimated relative pressure field compared to without noise filtering, in conditions consistent with PC-MRI of the carotid artery: SNR = 5, 20 x 20 discretized flow domain (25 X 25 computational domain).

  17. Methods for measuring 1/1 error field in Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhenkov, S. A.; Lazerson, S.; Otte, M.; Gates, D. A.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Wolf, R. C.

    2016-07-01

    Wendelstein 7-X is an optimized helical axis stellarator that came into operation at the end of 2015. A m/n  =  5/5 island chain is used in most of its configurations to form a divertor. This island chain at \

  18. Investigation of the pressure and velocity fields in a turbulent separated flow using the LES technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Friedrich, R.

    1991-01-01

    The large eddy simulation (LES) technique is utilized to investigate the turbulent separating and reattaching flow over a rearward-facing step. Simulations on a series of successively refined grids were performed (maximum resolution: 320 x 64 x 48). Statistical results are compared with experimental data and show good agreement. An examination of the simulated flow fields reveals the instantaneous structure of the separating shear layer, the reattachment zone and the recirculation region. Large departures from the mean in both the velocity and pressure fields are found to occur in all three regions. The shape and size of structures in the velocity and pressure fields varies with the proximity of solid walls and the region of the flow domain. Awareness of the instantaneous flow field structure is shown to be instrumental to having a complete understanding of the unsteady turbulent flow.

  19. Probing High-Velocity Transient-Field Strength Using Heavy-ions Traversing Fe and Gd

    SciTech Connect

    Fiori, E.; Georgiev, G.; Cabaret, S.; Lozeva, R.; Jungclaus, A.; Modamio, V.; Walker, J.; Balabanski, D. L.; Blazhev, A.; Clement, E.; Grevy, S.; Stodel, C.; Thomas, J. C.; Danchev, M.; Daugas, J. M.; Hass, M.; Kumar, V.; Leske, J.; Pietralla, N.

    2009-08-26

    The transient field strength for {sup 76}Ge ions, passing through iron and gadolinium layers at velocities approxZv{sub 0}, has been measured. Although a sizeable value has been obtained for Gd, a vanishing strength has been observed in Fe.

  20. A simple method to estimate threshold friction velocity of wind erosion in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all wind erosion models require the specification of threshold friction velocity (TFV). Yet determining TFV of wind erosion in field conditions is difficult as it depends on both soil characteristics and distribution of vegetation or other roughness elements. While several reliable methods ha...

  1. Conditions for similitude between the fluid velocity and electric field in electroosmotic flow

    SciTech Connect

    E. B. Cummings; S. K. Griffiths; R. H. Nilson; P. H. Paul

    1999-04-01

    Electroosmotic flow is fluid motion driven by an electric field acting on the net fluid charge produced by charge separation at a fluid-solid interface. Under many conditions of practical interest, the resulting fluid velocity is proportional to the local electric field, and the constant of proportionality is everywhere the same. Here the authors show that the main conditions necessary for this similitude are a steady electric field, uniform fluid and electric properties, an electric Debye layer that is thin compared to any physical dimension, and fluid velocities on all inlet and outlet boundaries that satisfy the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski relation normally applicable to fluid-solid boundaries. Under these conditions, the velocity field can be determined directly from the Laplace equation governing the electric potential, without solving either the continuity or momentum equations. Three important consequences of these conditions are that the fluid motion is everywhere irrotational, that fluid velocities in two-dimensional channels bounded by parallel planes are independent of the channel depth, and that such flows exhibit no dependence on the Reynolds number.

  2. STELLAR LOCI II. A MODEL-FREE ESTIMATE OF THE BINARY FRACTION FOR FIELD FGK STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Haibo; Liu, Xiaowei; Xiang, Maosheng; Huang, Yang; Chen, Bingqiu; Wu, Yue; Hou, Yonghui; Zhang, Yong E-mail: x.liu@pku.edu.cn

    2015-02-01

    We propose a stellar locus outlier (SLOT) method to determine the binary fraction of main-sequence stars statistically. The method is sensitive to neither the period nor mass ratio distributions of binaries and is able to provide model-free estimates of binary fraction for large numbers of stars of different populations in large survey volumes. We have applied the SLOT method to two samples of stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, constructed by combining the recalibrated SDSS photometric data with the spectroscopic information from the SDSS and LAMOST surveys. For the SDSS spectroscopic sample, we find an average binary fraction for field FGK stars of 41% ± 2%. The fractions decrease toward late spectral types and are 44% ± 5%, 43% ± 3%, 35% ± 5%, and 28% ± 6% for stars with g – i colors in the range 0.3-0.6 mag, 0.6-0.9 mag, 0.9-1.2 mag, and 1.2-1.6 mag, respectively. A modest metallicity dependence is also found. The fraction decreases with increasing metallicity. For stars with [Fe/H] between –0.5 and 0.0 dex, –1.0 and –0.5 dex, –1.5 and –1.0 dex, and –2.0 and –1.5 dex, the inferred binary fractions are 37% ± 3%, 39% ± 3%, 50% ± 9%, and 53% ± 20%, respectively. We have further divided the sample into stars from the thin disk, the thick disk, the transition zone between them, and the halo. The results suggest that the Galactic thin and thick disks have comparable binary fractions, whereas the Galactic halo contains a significantly larger fraction of binaries. Applying the method to the LAMOST spectroscopic sample yields consistent results. Finally, other potential applications and future work with the method are discussed.

  3. Electric-field dependence of electron drift velocity in 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. A.; Potapov, A. S.; Samsonova, T. P.; Grekhov, I. V.

    2016-09-01

    Room temperature isothermal forward current-voltage characteristics of mesa-epitaxial 4H-SiC Schottky diodes were measured at high electric fields (beyond 105 V/cm) in the 34-μm thick n-base doped at 1 × 1015 cm-3. The effect of diode self-heating on current was minimized when using single 4-ns pulses. The analytical formula was derived for the dependence of electron drift velocity on electric field along c-axis.

  4. Effect of Range and Angular Velocity of Passive Movement on Somatosensory Evoked Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Onishi, Hideaki; Yamashiro, Koya; Kojima, Sho; Miyaguchi, Shota; Kotan, Shinichi; Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Shirozu, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Shigeki

    2016-09-01

    To clarify characteristics of each human somatosensory evoked field (SEF) component following passive movement (PM), PM1, PM2, and PM3, using high spatiotemporal resolution 306-channel magnetoencephalography and varying PM range and angular velocity. We recorded SEFs following PM under three conditions [normal range-normal velocity (NN), small range-normal velocity (SN), and small range-slow velocity (SS)] with changing movement range and angular velocity in 12 participants and calculated the amplitude, equivalent current dipole (ECD) location, and the ECD strength for each component. All components were observed in six participants, whereas only PM1 and PM3 in the other six. Clear response deflections at the ipsilateral hemisphere to PM side were observed in seven participants. PM1 amplitude was larger under NN and SN conditions, and mean ECD location for PM1 was at primary motor area. PM3 amplitude was larger under SN condition and mean ECD location for PM3 under SS condition was at primary somatosensory area. PM1 amplitude was dependent on the angular velocity of PM, suggesting that PM1 reflects afferent input from muscle spindle, whereas PM3 amplitude was dependent on the duration. The ECD for PM3 was located in the primary somatosensory cortex, suggesting that PM3 reflects cutaneous input. We confirmed the hypothesis for locally distinct generators and characteristics of each SEF component. PMID:27075772

  5. Clear and measurable signature of modified gravity in the galaxy velocity field.

    PubMed

    Hellwing, Wojciech A; Barreira, Alexandre; Frenk, Carlos S; Li, Baojiu; Cole, Shaun

    2014-06-01

    The velocity field of dark matter and galaxies reflects the continued action of gravity throughout cosmic history. We show that the low-order moments of the pairwise velocity distribution v_{12} are a powerful diagnostic of the laws of gravity on cosmological scales. In particular, the projected line-of-sight galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion σ_{12}(r) is very sensitive to the presence of modified gravity. Using a set of high-resolution N-body simulations, we compute the pairwise velocity distribution and its projected line-of-sight dispersion for a class of modified gravity theories: the chameleon f(R) gravity and Galileon gravity (cubic and quartic). The velocities of dark matter halos with a wide range of masses would exhibit deviations from general relativity at the (5-10)σ level. We examine strategies for detecting these deviations in galaxy redshift and peculiar velocity surveys. If detected, this signature would be a "smoking gun" for modified gravity. PMID:24949751

  6. Field assessment of noncontact stream gauging using portable surface velocity radars (SVR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welber, Matilde; Le Coz, Jérôme; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Zolezzi, Guido; Zamler, Daniel; Dramais, Guillaume; Hauet, Alexandre; Salvaro, Martino

    2016-02-01

    The applicability of a portable, commercially available surface velocity radar (SVR) for noncontact stream gauging was evaluated through a series of field-scale experiments carried out in a variety of sites and deployment conditions. Comparisons with various concurrent techniques showed acceptable agreement with velocity profiles, with larger uncertainties close to the banks. In addition to discharge error sources shared with intrusive velocity-area techniques, SVR discharge estimates are affected by flood-induced changes in the bed profile and by the selection of a depth-averaged to surface velocity ratio, or velocity coefficient (α). Cross-sectional averaged velocity coefficients showed smaller fluctuations and closer agreement with theoretical values than those computed on individual verticals, especially in channels with high relative roughness. Our findings confirm that α = 0.85 is a valid default value, with a preferred site-specific calibration to avoid underestimation of discharge in very smooth channels (relative roughness ˜ 0.001) and overestimation in very rough channels (relative roughness > 0.05). Theoretically derived and site-calibrated values of α also give accurate SVR-based discharge estimates (within 10%) for low and intermediate roughness flows (relative roughness 0.001 to 0.05). Moreover, discharge uncertainty does not exceed 10% even for a limited number of SVR positions along the cross section (particularly advantageous to gauge unsteady flood flows and very large floods), thereby extending the range of validity of rating curves.

  7. Near-Field Scattering due to Topography and Lateral Velocity Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imperatori, Walter; Mai, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The scattering of seismic waves traveling in the Earth is not only caused by velocity heterogeneity, but also by rough surface topography. Both factors are known to play an important role on ground motion complexity even at short distances from the source. In this study, we simulate ground motion with a 3D finite-difference wave propagation solver in the frequency band 0-5 Hz using different rough topography models and realistic heterogeneous media characterized by Von Karman correlation functions. We analyze the characteristics of the scattered wave-field, focusing in particular on coda waves. Our study shows that topography and velocity heterogeneity scattering generate coda waves with different characteristics. We notice that, while coda waves originated by velocity heterogeneity have a more diffusive nature presenting envelope broadening as a result of forward scattering, coda waves caused by topography scattering are composed of more coherent body and surface waves reflected and diffracted by irregular topography surface. Results indicate that, for shallow sources, topography scattering can generate more intense early-coda waves at short and intermediate distances from the source. As distance increases, velocity heterogeneity scattering starts to dominate. However results show a rather high degree of variability as topography scattering is very sensitive to source position and features of the topography model. On the other hand, velocity perturbations generate more intense late-coda waves We conclude that topography scattering cannot be used as a proxy for velocity heterogeneity scattering.

  8. Separation of non-stationary sound fields with single layer pressure-velocity measurements.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chuan-Xing; Geng, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Zheng

    2016-02-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of extracting the non-stationary sound field generated by a target source in the presence of disturbing source from single layer pressure-velocity measurements. Unlike the method described in a previous paper [Bi, Geng, and Zhang, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135(6), 3474-3482 (2014)], the proposed method allows measurements of pressure and particle velocity signals on a single plane instead of pressure signals on two planes, and the time-dependent pressure generated by the target source is extracted by a simple superposition of the measured pressure and the convolution between the measured particle velocity and the corresponding impulse response function. Because the particle velocity here is measured directly, the error caused by the finite difference approximation can be avoided, which makes it possible to perform the separation better than the previous method. In this paper, a Microflown pressure-velocity probe is used to perform the experimental measurements, and the calibration procedure of the probe in the time domain is given. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in extracting the desired non-stationary sound field generated by the target source from the mixed one in both time and space domains, and it obtains more accurate results than the previous method. PMID:26936560

  9. Near-field Oblique Remote Sensing of Stream Water-surface Elevation, Slope, and Surface Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minear, J. T.; Kinzel, P. J.; Nelson, J. M.; McDonald, R.; Wright, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    A major challenge for estimating discharges during flood events or in steep channels is the difficulty and hazard inherent in obtaining in-stream measurements. One possible solution is to use near-field remote sensing to obtain simultaneous water-surface elevations, slope, and surface velocities. In this test case, we utilized Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) to remotely measure water-surface elevations and slope in combination with surface velocities estimated from particle image velocimetry (PIV) obtained by video-camera and/or infrared camera. We tested this method at several sites in New Mexico and Colorado using independent validation data consisting of in-channel measurements from survey-grade GPS and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) instruments. Preliminary results indicate that for relatively turbid or steep streams, TLS collects tens of thousands of water-surface elevations and slopes in minutes, much faster than conventional means and at relatively high precision, at least as good as continuous survey-grade GPS measurements. Estimated surface velocities from this technique are within 15% of measured velocity magnitudes and within 10 degrees from the measured velocity direction (using extrapolation from the shallowest bin of the ADCP measurements). Accurately aligning the PIV results into Cartesian coordinates appears to be one of the main sources of error, primarily due to the sensitivity at these shallow oblique look angles and the low numbers of stationary objects for rectification. Combining remotely-sensed water-surface elevations, slope, and surface velocities produces simultaneous velocity measurements from a large number of locations in the channel and is more spatially extensive than traditional velocity measurements. These factors make this technique useful for improving estimates of flow measurements during flood flows and in steep channels while also decreasing the difficulty and hazard associated with making measurements in these

  10. Electric field variations due to resonance between ground velocity and ions motion in the Earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, M.; Honkura, Y.; Kuriki, M.; Ogawa, Y.

    2011-12-01

    We have so far observed clear electric field variations coincident with the passage of seismic waves. Circular polarization of electric field is the distinguishing feature in this phenomenon which can be interpreted in terms of the so-called seismic dynamo effect proposed by Honkura et al. (2009). That is, circularly polarized electric field is caused by resonance-like motion of ion in groundwater under the Earth's magnetic field. Therefore, left-handed and right-handed circular polarizations, if seen towards the direction of the magnetic field, are associated with anions with negative charge and cations with positive charge, respectively. Such polarization may be inconsistent with seismoelectric signals due to the electrokinetic mechanism, because they are mainly found in the direction of transmission of seismic compressional waves, as pointed out by Strahser et al. (2007) who examined polarization of seismoelectric signals by recording the three components of electric field. However, even such circular polarization of electric field is somehow interpreted in terms of the electrokinetic mechanism. Therefore, further convincing evidence is required to support the seismic dynamo effect. On 25-26 July 2011, an experiment for studies of crustal seismic structure was made in central Japan. We carried out simultaneous observations of ground velocity and electric field on this occasion at three sites near a blasting point using 50 kg of dynamite; about 280 m east-southeast, about 190 m east, and about 360 m northwest from the blasting point. Taking into account typical frequencies of ground velocity for artificial earthquakes by blasting higher than those for natural earthquakes, we used data loggers with sampling rate of 1 kHz and could obtain the waveforms of ground velocity and electric field very clearly. We show characteristics of electric field variations, their dependence of azimuth angle with respect to the blasting point, and frequency response functions.

  11. Velocity controlled sound field reproduction by non-uniformly spaced loudspeakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Mincheol; Nelson, Philip A.; Fazi, Filippo M.; Seo, Jeongil

    2016-05-01

    One approach to the reproduction of a sound field is to ensure the reproduction of the acoustic pressure on the surface bounding the volume within which reproduction is sought. However, this approach suffers from technical limitations when the loudspeakers used for the reproduction of the surface acoustic pressures are unevenly spaced. It is shown in this paper that sound field reproduction with a spatially non-uniform loudspeaker arrangement can be considerably improved by changing the physical quantity to be controlled on the bounding surface from pressure to particle velocity. One of the main advantages of the velocity control method is the simplicity with which the inverse problem can be regularized, irrespective of the direction of arrival of the sound to be reproduced. In addition, the velocity controlled sound field shows better reproduction of the time averaged intensity flow in the reproduction region which in turn appears to be closely linked with better human perception of sound localization. Furthermore, the proposed method results in smoother "panning functions" that describe the variation of the source outputs as a function of the angle of incidence of the sound to be reproduced. The performance of the velocity matching method has been evaluated by comparison to the conventional pressure matching method and through simulations with several non-uniform loudspeaker layouts. The simulated results were also verified with experiments and subjective tests.

  12. Cooling tower irrigator layout with allowances for non-uniformity of the airflow velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushnov, A. S.; Ryabushenko, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    This article covers the results of analysis of aerodynamic processes in the cooling tower irrigator and provides the approaches to optimal layout of preformed packing blocks (of the irrigator) developed based on these results. The analysis of the airflow velocity field in the cooling towers shows that the irrigation space can be broken down into the following zones: the peripheral zone of the cooling tower near the airblast windows, the zone near the cooling tower center, and the intermediate zone. Furthermore, the highest level of nonuniformity of the airflow velocity field in cooling towers is in the zone adjoining the tower's airblast windows. The proposed concept of the cooling tower irrigator's layout is made with allowances for the airflow velocity field characteristics in the cross-section of the irrigation space of the cooling tower. Based on this concept, we suggest that higher irrigator blocks should be placed in the zone of increased airflow consumption, which provides the possibility to enhance the hydraulic resistance and, respectively, decrease the gas flow velocity as well as to boost the efficiency of chilling the circulating water in the cooling tower. For this purpose, additional irrigator blocks can be of the same design as the main irrigator. As an option, it is possible to use blocks of the geometry and design other than the main irrigator block in the cooling tower.

  13. Erratum: Precision Velocity Fields in Spiral Galaxies. I. Noncircular Motions and rms Noise in Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvais, Charles; Bothun, G.

    2000-05-01

    In the paper ``Precision Velocity Fields in Spiral Galaxies. I. Noncircular Motions and rms Noise in Disks'' by Charles Beauvais and G. Bothun (ApJS, 125, 99) the abstract was incorrect. The corrected abstract is as follows: Imaging Fabry-Perot data have been acquired for a sample of spiral galaxies from which two-dimensional velocity fields have been constructed on a subkiloparsec resolution scale. These velocity fields are then examined for evidence of noncircular motions. Individual spectra are extracted and the resultant line profiles are fitted with Voigt, Gaussian, and Lorentzian functions. Gaussians are shown to provide a better model for simultaneously fitting a large number of line profiles, successfully fitting a higher fraction. The kinematic disk (i.e., tilted ring) modeling procedure is studied in detail and is shown to accurately recover the underlying rotational structure of galactic disks. The process of obtaining rotation curves from full two-dimensional velocity data is examined. Small-scale ``bumps and wiggles'' on the rotation curves are shown to be due to the inclusion of noncircular motions. Use of the rotation curve estimate returned by the modeling procedure rather than deprojection of the velocity field is recommended to avoid their inclusion. Investigation of the symmetry of the major- and minor-axis rotation curves reveal strong evidence of nonconcentric gas orbits with the maximum center shift of ~300 pc. Comparisons between kinematic and photometric structure (e.g., position angles, inclinations, centers) show considerable noise on small scales. Although large-scale averages are in agreement, this noise is a matter of some concern in the application of the Tully-Fisher method to disk galaxies. Moreover, cases of significant misalignment in position angle between the inner and outer disks are seen in two of the sample galaxies and may indicate the transition between luminous and dark-matter-dominated regions (i.e., where the maximum disk

  14. Synchrotron microimaging technique for measuring the velocity fields of real blood flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Joon; Kim, Guk Bae

    2005-03-15

    Angiography and Doppler methods used for diagnosing vascular diseases give information on the shape of blood vessels and pointwise blood speed but do not provide detailed information on the flow fields inside the blood vessels. In this study, we developed a method for visualizing blood flow by using coherent synchrotron x rays. This method, which does not require the addition of any contrast agent or tracer particles, visualizes the flow pattern of blood by enhancing the diffraction and interference characteristics of the blood cells. This was achieved by optimizing the sample- (blood) to-detector (charge-coupled device camera) distance and the sample thickness. The proposed method was used to extract quantitative velocity field information from blood flowing inside an opaque microchannel by applying a two-frame particle image velocimetry algorithm to enhanced x-ray images of the blood flow. The measured velocity field data showed a flow structure typical of flow in a macrochannel.

  15. Measurements of the time dependent velocity field surrounding a model propeller in uniform water flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaurock, Joerg; Lammers, Gerd

    1987-06-01

    As part of a research program, the flow field around an operating ship propeller was investigated in a water tunnel, using laser Doppler velocimetry. The 3-D velocity field was measured in three planes at the suction side and four planes on the pressure side of the propeller at the design thrust coefficient of K sub T = 0.185. In one of the planes in the propeller's slipstream, the measurements were repeated at thrust coefficients of K sub T = 0.12 and 0.25. The volocity profiles measured in the propeller's slipstream are compared with the induced velocities derived from design calculations, and occurring deviations are discussed. Furthermore, the instationary flow field permits study of the tip vortices at different distances behind the propeller. The measurements yield a quantitative description of the vortices, and the influence of propeller load at the blade tips on geometry and intensity of the tip vortices can be seen.

  16. Underwater patch near-field acoustical holography based on particle velocity and vector hydrophone array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Yang, DeSen; Li, SiChun; Sun, Yu; Mo, ShiQi; Shi, ShengGuo

    2012-11-01

    One-step patch near-field acoustical holography (PNAH) is a powerful tool for identifying noise sources from the partially known sound pressure field. The acoustical property to be reconstructed on the surface of interest is related to the partially measured pressure on the hologram surface in terms of sampling and bandlimiting matrices, which cost more in computation. A one-step procedure based on measuring of the normal component of the particle velocity is described, including the mathematical formulation. The numerical simulation shows that one-step PNAH based on particle velocity can obtain more accurately reconstructed results and it is also less sensitive to noise than the method based on pressure. These findings are confirmed by an underwater near-field acoustical holography experiment conducted with a vector hydrophone array. The experimental results have illustrated the high performance of one-step PNAH based on particle velocity in the reconstruction of sound field and the advantages of a vector hydrophone array in an underwater near-field measurement.

  17. Radiation fields of intermediate-age stellar populations with binaries as ionizing sources of H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Li, L.; Cheng, L.; Wang, L.; Kang, X.; Zhuang, Y.; Han, Z.

    2015-02-01

    Radiation fields emitted by O- and B-type stars or young stellar populations (SPs) are generally considered as significant central ionizing sources (CISs) of classic H II regions. In our previous studies, we showed that the inclusion of binary interactions in stellar population synthesis models can significantly increase the ultraviolet spectrum hardness and the number of ionizing photons of intermediate-age (IA) SPs (7 ≲ log(t/yr) ≲ 8). In this work, we present photoionization models of H II regions ionized by radiation fields emitted by IA SPs, including binary systems, and show that these fields are in theory possible candidates for significant CISs of classic H II regions. When radiation fields of IA SPs comprising binary systems are used as the CISs of classic H II regions, the theoretical strengths of a number of lines (such as [O III] λ4959', [S II] λ6716', etc.), which are weaker than observations, are increased; the border or selection-criterion lines between star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the diagnostic diagrams (for example, [N II] λ6583/Hα versus [O III] λ5007/Hβ), move into the region occupied originally by AGNs; and the He II λ1640 line, observed in Lyman break and high-redshift gravitationally lensed galaxies, also can be produced.

  18. Precision Velocity Fields in Spiral Galaxies. I. Noncircular Motions and rms Noise in Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvais, Charles; Bothun, G.

    1999-11-01

    Investigation of the symmetry of the major- and minor-axis rotation curves reveals strong evidence of nonconcentric gas orbits with the maximum center shift of ~300 pc. Comparisons between kinematic and photometric structure (e.g., position angles, inclinations, centers) show considerable noise on small scales. Although large-scale averages are in agreement, this noise is a matter of some concern in the application of the Tully-Fisher method to disk galaxies. Moreover, cases of significant misalignment in position angle between the inner and outer disks are seen in two of the sample galaxies and may indicate the transition between luminous and dark-matter-dominated regions (i.e., where the maximum-disk hypothesis begins to fail). The kinematic disk models are used to find the residual velocity fields, and typical residuals are found to be 10-15 km s-1 over regions 0.5-1.5 kpc in diameter. Correlations are shown to exist between the residual velocity fields and both the Hα intensity and the velocity dispersion images. This suggests that kinematic feedback to the gas from star formation is an important source of noncircular motion. However, the relative quiescence of the large-scale velocity field indicates that the effect does not cause a significant deviation from circular symmetry, kinematically indicating that star formation is not a hidden parameter in the Tully-Fisher relation. Finally, the residual velocity fields are examined for signs of noncircular orbits by looking for azimuthal angular harmonics that would be present if disk galaxies are embedded in a triaxial dark matter potential. For our sample we find the ellipticity of the gas orbits to be <~0.08, which implies the potential is relatively round. This is consistent with disks being maximal.

  19. A comparison of measured and modeled velocity fields for a laminar flow in a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, B. D.; Apte, S. V.; Liburdy, J. A.; Ziazi, R. M.; He, X.; Finn, J. R.; Patil, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    Obtaining highly-resolved velocity data from experimental measurements in porous media is a significant challenge. The goal of this work is to compare the velocity fields measured in a randomly-packed porous medium obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV) with corresponding fields predicted from direct numerical simulation (DNS). Experimentally, the porous medium was comprised of 15 mm diameter spherical beads made of optical glass placed in a glass flow cell to create the packed bed. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate was refractive-index matched to the glass creating a medium that could be illuminated with a laser sheet without distortion. The bead center locations were quantified using the imaging system so that the geometry of the porous medium was known very accurately. Two-dimensional PIV data were collected and processed to provide high-resolution velocity fields at a single plane within the porous medium. A Cartesian-grid-based fictitious domain approach was adopted for the direct numerical simulation of flow through the same geometry as the experimental measurements and without any adjustable parameters. The uncertainties associated with characterization of the pore geometry, PIV measurements, and DNS predictions were all systematically quantified. Although uncertainties in bead position measurements led to minor discrepancies in the comparison of the velocity fields, the axial and normal velocity deviations exhibited normalized root mean squared deviations (NRMSD) of only 11.32% and 4.74%, respectively. The high fidelity of both the experimental and numerical methods have significant implications for understanding and even for engineering the micro-macro relationship in porous materials. The ability to measure and model sub-pore-scale flow features also has relevance to the development of upscaled models for flow in porous media, where physically reasonable closure models must be developed at the sub-pore scale. These results provide valuable data

  20. Velocity Field Measurements of Human Coughing Using Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, T.; Marr, D. R.; Higuchi, H.; Glauser, M. N.

    2003-11-01

    Quantitative fluid mechanics analysis of human coughing has been carried out using new Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TRPIV). The study involves measurement of velocity vector time-histories and velocity profiles. It is focused on the average normal human coughing. Some work in the past on cough mechanics has involved measurement of flow rates, tidal volumes and sub-glottis pressure. However, data of unsteady velocity vector field of the exiting highly time-dependent jets is not available. In this study, human cough waveform data are first acquired in vivo using conventional respiratory instrumentation for various volunteers of different gender/age groups. The representative waveform is then reproduced with a coughing/breathing simulator (with or without a manikin) for TRPIV measurements and analysis. The results of this study would be useful not only for designing of indoor air quality and heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, but also for devising means of protection against infectious diseases.

  1. Velocity-Field Measurements of an Axisymmetric Separated Flow Subjected to Amplitude-Modulated Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trosin, Barry James

    2007-01-01

    Active flow control was applied at the point of separation of an axisymmetric, backward-facing-step flow. The control was implemented by employing a Helmholtz resonator that was externally driven by an amplitude-modulated, acoustic disturbance from a speaker located upstream of the wind tunnel. The velocity field of the separating/reattaching flow region downstream of the step was characterized using hotwire velocity measurements with and without flow control. Conventional statistics of the data reveal that the separating/reattaching flow is affected by the imposed forcing. Triple decomposition along with conditional averaging was used to distinguish periodic disturbances from random turbulence in the fluctuating velocity component. A significant outcome of the present study is that it demonstrates that amplitude-modulated forcing of the separated flow alters the flow in the same manner as the more conventional method of periodic excitation.

  2. Multifractal Analysis of Velocity Vector Fields and a Continuous In-Scale Cascade Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitton, G.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-04-01

    In this study we have compared the multifractal analyses of small-scale surface-layer wind velocities from two different datasets. The first dataset consists of six-months of wind velocity and temperature measurements at the heights 22, 23 and 43m. The measurements came from 3D sonic anemometers with a 10Hz data output rate positioned on a mast in a wind farm test site subject to wake turbulence effects. The location of the test site (Corsica, France) meant the large scale structures were subject to topography effects that therefore possibly caused buoyancy effects. The second dataset (Germany) consists of 300 twenty minute samples of horizontal wind velocity magnitudes simultaneously recorded at several positions on two masts. There are eight propeller anemometers on each mast, recording velocity magnitude data at 2.5Hz. The positioning of the anemometers is such that there are effectively two grids. One grid of 3 rows by 4 columns and a second of 5 rows by 2 columns. The ranges of temporal scale over which the analyses were done were from 1 to 103 seconds for both datasets. Thus, under the universal multifractal framework we found both datasets exhibit parameters α ≈ 1.5 and C1 ≈ 0.1. The parameters α and C1, measure respectively the multifractality and mean intermittency of the scaling field. A third parameter, H, quantifies the divergence from conservation of the field (e.g. H = 0 for the turbulent energy flux density). To estimate the parameters we used the ratio of the scaling moment function of the energy flux and of the velocity increments. This method was particularly useful when estimating the parameter α over larger scales. In fact it was not possible to obtain a reasonable estimate of alpha using the usual double trace moment method. For each case the scaling behaviour of the wind was almost isotropic when the scale ranges remained close to the sphero-scale. For the Corsica dataset this could be seen by the agreement of the spectral exponents of

  3. Interpretation of the electric fields measured in an ionospheric critical ionization velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenning, N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Marklund, G.; Haerendel, G.; Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R.

    1991-01-01

    The quasi-dc electric fields measured in the CRIT I ionospheric release experiment are studied. In the experiment, two identical barium shaped charges were fired toward a main payload, and three-dimensional measurements of the electric field inside the streams were made. The relevance of proposed mechanisms for electron heating in the critical ionization velocity (CIV) mechanism is addressed. It is concluded that both the 'homogeneous' and the 'ionizing front' models probably are valid, but in different parts of the streams. It is also possible that electrons are directly accelerated by a magnetic field-aligned component of the electric field. The coupling between the ambient ionosphere and the ionized barium stream is more complicated that is usually assumed in CIV theories, with strong magnetic-field-aligned electric fields and probably current limitation as important processes.

  4. The settling velocity and shape distortion of drops in a uniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homsy, G. M.

    2005-11-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate the settling velocity and deformation of a dielectric liquid drop in a second dielectric liquid subject to a uniform electric field, E. Both shape distortion and charge convection, when coupled with the asymmetric velocity profiles, will produce a net drag and a shift in the settling speed. Perturbation methods for small shape distortion and small charge convection are used to solve the problem. Corrections to the settling velocity from both contributions are combined linearly at the lowest order, and show a dependence on the drop size. The shape distortion due to charge convection is given up to second order, with the result that the distortion is asymmetric. Experiments are performed to measure the settling velocity and deformation of PhenylMethylsiloxane-DiMethylsiloxane (PMM) drops in castor oil. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the theory: the symmetric and asymmetric deformations and the change in settling velocity are all proportional to E^2, as predicted, and the settling speed shows the correct trends with drop size. Quantitative agreement is lacking, presumably due to the imprecision of the fluid properties, but the theory can fit all the data with reasonable choices for these properties.

  5. Velocity measurement and flow field simulation of a sit-type water closet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei-Seng; Jhang, Chao-Yu

    2012-06-01

    Evacuation of a sit-type water closet is driven by siphon effect established inside its water passage when flushed. However, the flow condition in the passage of a water closet is still unclear. It is clear that we have a fundamental understanding of the flow phenomenon before we know how to enhance siphon effect. This research studies the flow phenomenon in the passage imbedded in a sit-type water closet by using both experimental measurement and numerical simulation. Particle-tracing technique by using a high speed camera is used to measure velocity of particles flowing with the water flow in a full scale model. These velocity values of particles are transformed to estimate the mean velocity of the water flow in the passage of the model throughout the time span of a flush. This velocity profile in time compares reasonably well in trend with literature data and is used to validate the results of subsequent numerical simulations. Numerical simulations of the transient flushed-flow based on in-compressible, viscous, turbulent and two-phase assumptions are performed. Simulation result agrees reasonably well with measurement data and can provide detail information of the transient flow field. Numerical simulation reveals that a clear circulation center exists in the flow and when siphon effect takes place water flow will reach its highest velocity value.

  6. Field-derived relationships for flow velocity and resistance in high-gradient streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Comiti, F.; Mao, L.; Wilcox, A.; Wohl, E.E.; Lenzi, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We measured velocity and channel geometry in 10 reaches (bed gradient = 0.08-0.21) of a predominantly step-pool channel, the Rio Cordon, Italy, over a range of discharges (3-80% of the bankfull discharge). The resulting data were used to compute flow resistance. At-a-station hydraulic geometry relations indicate that in most reaches, the exponent describing the rate of velocity increases with discharge was between 0.48 and 0.6, which is within the range of published values for pool-riffle channels. The Rio Cordon data are also combined with published hydraulics data from step-pool streams to explore non-dimensional relationships between velocity and flow resistance and factors including unit discharge, channel gradient, and step geometry. Multiple regression analysis of this combined field dataset indicated that dimensionless unit discharge (q*) is the most important independent variable overall in explaining variations in velocity and flow resistance, followed by channel slope and the ratio of step height to step length. Empirical equations are provided both for dimensionless velocity and flow resistance, but prediction of the former variable appears more reliable. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The settling velocity and shape distortion of drops in a uniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiumei; Homsy, G. M.

    2006-10-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate the settling velocity and deformation of a leaky dielectric liquid drop in a second leaky dielectric liquid subject to a uniform electric field, E. Both shape distortion and charge convection, when coupled with the asymmetric velocity profiles, will produce a net drag and a shift in the settling speed. Perturbation methods for small shape distortion and small charge convection are used to solve the problem. Corrections to the settling velocity from both contributions are combined linearly at the lowest order, and show a dependence on the drop size. The shape distortion due to charge convection is known to be asymmetric. Experiments are performed to measure the settling velocity and deformation of phenylmethylsiloxane-dimethylsiloxane (PMM) drops in castor oil. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the theory: the symmetric and asymmetric deformations and the change in settling velocity are all proportional to E(2) , as predicted, and the settling speed shows the correct trends with drop size. Quantitative agreement is lacking, presumably due to the imprecision of the fluid properties, but the theory can fit all the data with reasonable choices for these properties.

  8. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE WESTERN CIRCINUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wilson M.; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Padgett, Deborah L.; Leisawitz, David; Koenig, Xavier P.

    2011-05-20

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has uncovered a population of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Western Circinus molecular cloud. Images show the YSOs to be clustered into two main groups that are coincident with dark filamentary structure in the nebulosity. Analysis of photometry shows numerous Class I and II objects. The locations of several of these objects are found to correspond to known dense cores and CO outflows. Class I objects tend to be concentrated in dense aggregates, and Class II objects more evenly distributed throughout the region.

  9. The Three-Dimensional Velocity Fields Of Solar Disappearing Filaments And Their Relations To Coronal Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, T.; Kurokawa, H.

    2003-12-01

    Solar filament disappearance (Disparition Brusque: DB) is often accompanied by a great magnetic activities such as flares and transient shock waves on and near the solar surface as well as enormous disturbances in interplanetary space due to the associated coronal mass ejection (CMEs). Thus, DBs are of great interest not only to solar physics research, but also to space science, and solar-terrestrial study. Since it is impossible to measure the velocity field of DBs with ordinal observations in the Hα line center alone, most previous studies have focused on the morphological signatures of DBs. In order to obtain the physical characteristics of DBs and relate them to other active phenomena, much effort is put into the calculation of their three-dimensional (3-D) velocity fields. Using the Hα line center, blue and red wing (Hα +/- 0.8 Å ) images obtained by the Flare Monitoring Telescope (FMT) at Hida Observatory, Kyoto University, and based on the Beckers' cloud model, we developed a new method to obtain the line-of-sight velocity of disappearing solar filaments. The line-of-sight velocity is obtained (i) by calculating the Hα line profile of the filament, and (ii) by measuring the Doppler shift which best fits the observed temporal variations of contrasts of the filament. The tangential velocity is obtained by tracing the motions of internal structures on successive images, and both line-of-sight and tangential velocities are combined to yield the 3-D velcoty field of DBs. In this method, corrections for the effective filter bandwidths of the instrument, stray light and Doppler brightening effect, are performed. Using the 3-D velocity field of DBs, we also developed a method to judge whether the DB was ejected into interplanetary space (eruptive) or remained in the corona (quasi-eruptive). The type of DBs are compared with the type of the associated coronal activites such as arcade formations observed in soft X-rays and EUV, CMEs and we conclude that the

  10. High-Resolution Hα Velocity Fields of Nearby Spiral Galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Carl; Williams, Ted; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, Karen; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Sellwood, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to test ΛCDM predictions of galaxy mass distributions, we have obtained spectrophotometric observations of several nearby spiral galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometer as part of the RSS Imaging spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey. Utilizing the SALT FP's 8 arcmin field of view and 2 arcsec angular resolution, we have derived 2D velocity fields of the Hα emission line to high spatial resolution at large radii. We have modeled these velocity fields with the DiskFit software package and found them to be in good agreement with lower-resolution velocity fields of the HI 21 cm line for the same galaxies. Here we present our Hα kinematic map of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 578. At the distance to this galaxy (22 Mpc), our kinematic data has a spatial resolution of 185 pc and extends to galactocentric radii of 13 kpc. The high spatial resolution of this data allows us to resolve the inner rising part of the rotation curves, which is compromised by beam smearing in lower-resolution observations. We are using these Hα kinematic data, combined with HI 21 cm kinematics and broadband photometric observations, to place constraints on NGC 578's mass distribution.

  11. Comparison of remotely sensed chlorophyll and Lagrangian Coherent Structures for velocity field validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Ron; Efrati, Shai; Lehahn, Yoav; Gertman, Isaac; Heifetz, Eyal

    2014-05-01

    We present a tool for daily validation of modeled or satellite derived velocity fields in the southeastern region of the Mediterranean. Within this tool, spatial patterns of Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) derived from the velocity field are compared to distribution patterns of satellite derived surface chlorophyll. This comparison is advantageous to pollution spread predictions since it compares the location of fronts in passive tracer spread. The suggested methodology is based on Lagrangian tools that were shown to be very effective in reconstructing the specific effect of horizontal stirring on individual oceanic patterns. Lagrangian techniques are based, in general, on the identification of the velocity field characteristics along particle trajectories. They are well suited for diagnosing properties of tracers like chlorophyll, since they allow to quantify the dynamical properties experienced by a parcel of water during its motion. The Lagrangian diagnostics performed in this tool are based on analyzing the spatial structure of LCS from calculation of finite size Lyapunov exponents (FSLE). These LCS induce in advected tracer fields filament patterns with typical length in the range of 10 - 100 km and lifetime in the range of days/weeks (though it can be much longer if the patterns are associated to long-lived and energetic mesoscale features with low temporal variability). Since LCS represent transport barriers and tracer boundaries, they separate between water bodies with possibly different physical - biogeochemical properties. Daily analyses ( available online at http://isramar.ocean.org.il/isramar2009/cosem/fsle.aspx ) of LCS is performed on AVISO altimetry derived velocity fields and on operational numerical circulation forecasts, which are produced as part of the South Eastern Levantine Israeli Prediction System (SELIPS). The LCS analyses are then placed atop maps of surface Chlorophyll concentrations, which is provided within the MyOcean project. A

  12. Italy - Adriatic Sea - Barbara - A giant gas field marked by seismic velocity anomaly - A subtle trap

    SciTech Connect

    Ianniello, A.; Bolelli, W.; Di Scala, L. )

    1990-09-01

    Barbara gas field, discovered in 1971, is located in the northern sector of the Adriatic offshore. The field is a gentle anticline involving Quaternary clastic sediments and shaped by carbonate Mesozoic morphology. The presence of shallow gas pockets at the crest of the structure distort the seismic signal to such an extent that structural reconstruction using seismic data is not possible. Moreover, time delays and ray-path anomalies do not allow the use of staking velocities for the depth conversion. Seismic attribute analysis, instead of velocities, and time delays on the isochrone maps are providing a key to the understanding of seismic anomalies and are an indirect tool for reconstructing the real structural configuration of the field. The appraisal story of the field illustrates how the previously mentioned complications influenced its delineation and how an understanding of these complications helped in upgrading the reserves from an initial value of 10 billion ECM of gas to 40 billion ECM. Additional data acquired with the development wells tend to increase the estimate. Therefore, Barbara field is the most important Italian gas field of the decade. The producing formation is composed of very thin-bedded sandstone and shale intercalations, representing the peculiarity of this reservoir. Development of the field is being achieved with six production platforms and 72 wells.

  13. Cluster Analysis of Velocity Field Derived from Dense GNSS Network of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, A.; Hashimoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Dense GNSS networks have been widely used to observe crustal deformation. Simpson et al. (2012) and Savage and Simpson (2013) have conducted cluster analyses of GNSS velocity field in the San Francisco Bay Area and Mojave Desert, respectively. They have successfully found velocity discontinuities. They also showed an advantage of cluster analysis for classifying GNSS velocity field. Since in western United States, strike-slip events are dominant, geometry is simple. However, the Japanese Islands are tectonically complicated due to subduction of oceanic plates. There are many types of crustal deformation such as slow slip event and large postseismic deformation. We propose a modified clustering method of GNSS velocity field in Japan to separate time variant and static crustal deformation. Our modification is performing cluster analysis every several months or years, then qualifying cluster member similarity. If a GNSS station moved differently from its neighboring GNSS stations, the station will not belong to in the cluster which includes its surrounding stations. With this method, time variant phenomena were distinguished. We applied our method to GNSS data of Japan from 1996 to 2015. According to the analyses, following conclusions were derived. The first is the clusters boundaries are consistent with known active faults. For examples, the Arima-Takatsuki-Hanaore fault system and the Shimane-Tottori segment proposed by Nishimura (2015) are recognized, though without using prior information. The second is improving detectability of time variable phenomena, such as a slow slip event in northern part of Hokkaido region detected by Ohzono et al. (2015). The last one is the classification of postseismic deformation caused by large earthquakes. The result suggested velocity discontinuities in postseismic deformation of the Tohoku-oki earthquake. This result implies that postseismic deformation is not continuously decaying proportional to distance from its epicenter.

  14. Emission-Line Eclipse Mapping of Velocity Fields in a Dwarf-Nova Accretion Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makita, Makoto; Mineshige, Shin

    2002-06-01

    We propose a new method, emission-line eclipse mapping, to map the velocity fields of an accretion disk in position space. Quiescent dwarf novae usually exhibit double-peaked emission-line profiles because of disk rotation. Since a part of a disk having a different line-of-sight velocity is successively obscured by a companion in eclipsing systems, they show time-varying line profiles. We calculated the time changes of the emission-line profiles, assuming Keplerian rotation fields (vφ ~ r-1/2 with r being the distance from the disk center) and an emissivity distribution of j ~ r-3/2. We, then, applied the usual eclipse mapping technique to the light curves at each of 12-24 wavelengths across the line center to map the region with the same line-of-sight velocity. The reconstructed images typically exhibit a `two-eye' pattern for high line-of-sight velocities, and we can recover the relation, vφ ~ d-1/2, on the assumption of an axisymmetric disk, where d is the separation between the two `eyes'. We will be able to probe the Keplerian rotation law, the most fundamental assumption adopted in many disk models, by high-speed spectroscopic observations with 8-m class telescopes.

  15. The velocity and vorticity fields of the turbulent near wake of a circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, James; Ong, Lawrence; Moin, Parviz

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide a detailed experimental database of velocity and vorticity statistics in the very near wake (x/d less than 10) of a circular cylinder at Reynolds number of 3900. This study has determined that estimations of the streamwise velocity component in flow fields with large nonzero cross-stream components are not accurate. Similarly, X-wire measurements of the u and v velocity components in flows containing large w are also subject to the errors due to binormal cooling. Using the look-up table (LUT) technique, and by calibrating the X-wire probe used here to include the range of expected angles of attack (+/- 40 deg), accurate X-wire measurements of instantaneous u and v velocity components in the very near wake region of a circular cylinder has been accomplished. The approximate two-dimensionality of the present flow field was verified with four-wire probe measurements, and to some extent the spanwise correlation measurements with the multisensor rake. Hence, binormal cooling errors in the present X-wire measurements are small.

  16. The Velocity Field of the Local Universe From Measurements of Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Haugbolle, T.; Hannestad, S.; Thomsen, B.; Fynbo, J.; Sollerman, J.; Jha, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-12-08

    We present a measurement of the velocity flow of the local universe relative to the CMB rest frame, based on the Jha, Riess & Kirshner (2007) sample of 133 low redshift type Ia supernovae. At a depth of 4500 km s{sup -1} we find a dipole amplitude of 279 {+-} 68 km s{sup -1} in the direction l = 285{sup o} {+-} 18{sup o}, b = -10{sup o} {+-} 15{sup o}, consistent with earlier measurements and with the assumption that the local velocity field is dominated by the Great Attractor region. At a larger depth of 5900 km s{sup -1} we find a shift in the dipole direction towards the Shapley concentration. We also present the first measurement of the quadrupole term in the local velocity flow at these depths. Finally, we have performed detailed studies based on N-body simulations of the expected precision with which the lowest multipoles in the velocity field can be measured out to redshifts of order 0.1. Our mock catalogues are in good agreement with current observations, and demonstrate that our results are robust with respect to assumptions about the influence of local environment on the type Ia supernova rate.

  17. Lift distribution and velocity field measurements for a three-dimensional, steady blade/vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.; Norman, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment simulating a steady three-dimensional helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction is reported. The experimental configuration consisted of a vertical semispan vortex-generating wing, mounted upstream of a horizontal semispan rotor blade airfoil. A three-dimensional laser velocimeter was used to measure the velocity field in the region of the blade. Sectional lift coefficients were calculated by integrating the velocity field to obtain the bound vorticity. Total lift values, obtained by using an internal strain-gauge balance, verified the laser velocimeter data. Parametric variations of vortex strength, rotor blade angle of attack, and vortex position relative to the rotor blade were explored. These data are reported (with attention to experimental limitations) to provide a dataset for the validation of analytical work.

  18. Application of Helical Characteristics of the Velocity Field to Evaluate the Intensity of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levina, G.; Glebova, E.; Naumov, A.; Trosnikov, I.

    The paper presents results of numerical analysis for helical features of velocity field to investigate the process of tropical cyclone formation, namely, the downward helicity flux through the upper boundary of the viscous atmospheric turbulent boundary layer has been calculated. The simulation was carried out by use of the regional atmospheric ETA model and NCEP reanalysis global data. Calculations were performed for two tropical cyclones - Wilma (Atlantic basin, 2005) and Man-Yi (North-West Pacific, 2007). It has been found, that the chosen helical characteristic reveals an adequate response to basic trends in variation of such important meteorological fields as pressure and wind velocity during the hurricane vortex evolution. The analysis carried out in the paper shows that the helicity flux can be used as an illustrative characteristic to describe the intensity and destructive power of tropical cyclones.

  19. A submerged singularity method for calculating potential flow velocities at arbitrary near-field points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, B.

    1976-01-01

    A discrete singularity method has been developed for calculating the potential flow around two-dimensional airfoils. The objective was to calculate velocities at any arbitrary point in the flow field, including points that approach the airfoil surface. That objective was achieved and is demonstrated here on a Joukowski airfoil. The method used combined vortices and sources ''submerged'' a small distance below the airfoil surface and incorporated a near-field subvortex technique developed earlier. When a velocity calculation point approached the airfoil surface, the number of discrete singularities effectively increased (but only locally) to keep the point just outside the error region of the submerged singularity discretization. The method could be extended to three dimensions, and should improve nonlinear methods, which calculate interference effects between multiple wings, and which include the effects of force-free trailing vortex sheets. The capability demonstrated here would extend the scope of such calculations to allow the close approach of wings and vortex sheets (or vortices).

  20. Velocity field in a vicinity of cylinder bouncing off horizontal wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chara, Z.; Kysela, B.; Dolansky, J.

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes experimental and numerical investigations of velocity fields around a circular cylinder colliding perpendicularly with a plane wall. The cylinder of the diameter D = 20 mm was moving vertically in a water tank and the motion was recorded by a fast digital camera. Reynolds numbers ranged from 3000 to 8100 and the initial positions L of the cylinder above the wall were L/D = 2.5; 3.5; 4.5 and 5.5. An evolution of fluid agitation in an area close to the impact point was based on the results of the velocity field measurements. The numerical simulations were performed using a 2D-LES model.

  1. Spectral density of velocity fluctuations under switching field conditions in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, J. M.; Martín, M. J.; Pascual, E.; Rengel, R.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the velocity fluctuations during transient regimes arising from an abrupt shift of the electric field in bulk monolayer graphene. For this purpose a material Ensemble Monte Carlo simulator is used to examine these fluctuations by means of the transient autocorrelation function and power spectral density. The evolution of these quantities as well as the non-stationary phenomena taking place during the transients is explained with a microscopic approach.

  2. Stellar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookbinder, Jay A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the various radiation mechanisms believed to play a role in stellar radio emission. The radio emission from most stars is nonthermal and is generally due to mildly relativistic electrons with energies from a few keV to over 10 MeV. Magnetic fields play a crucial role both in accelerating the electrons to the requisite energies and in mediating the emission mechanism. They also play a fundamental role in creating the velocity anisotropies that are necessary for the operation of some of the coherent emission mechanisms. Coherent emission is seen most commonly on the M dwarfs, rarely on the RS CVns, and has yet to be detected for any other class of star. These coherent processes are best studied by means of their dynamic spectra; such studies are now just getting underway.

  3. Inferring the 3D gravitational field of the Milky Way with stellar streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian Michael

    2016-06-01

    We develop two new methods to measure the structure of matter around the Milky Way using stellar tidal streams from disrupting dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. The dark matter halo of the Milky Way is expected to be triaxial and filled with substructure, but measurements of the shape and profile of dark matter around the Galaxy are highly uncertain and often contradictory. We demonstrate that kinematic data from near-future surveys for stellar streams or shells produced by tidal disruption of stellar systems around the Milky Way will provide precise measures of the gravitational potential to test these predictions. We develop a probabilistic method for inferring the Galactic potential with tidal streams based on the idea that the stream stars were once close in phase space and test this method on synthetic datasets generated from N-body simulations of satellite disruption with observational uncertainties chosen to mimic current and near-future surveys of various stars. We find that with just four well-measured stream stars, we can infer properties of a triaxial potential with precisions of order 5--7 percent. We then demonstrate that, if the Milky Way's dark matter halo is triaxial and is not fully integrable (as is expected), an appreciable fraction of orbits will be chaotic. We examine the influence of chaos on the phase-space morphology of cold tidal streams and show that streams even in weakly chaotic regions look very different from those in regular regions. We discuss the implications of this fact given that we see several long, thin streams in the Galactic halo; our results suggest that long, cold streams around our Galaxy must exist only on regular (or very nearly regular) orbits and potentially provide a map of the regular regions of the Milky Way potential. We then apply this understanding of stream formation along chaotic orbits to the interpretation of a newly-discovered, puzzling stellar stream near the Galactic bulge. We conclude that the

  4. Simultaneous Concentration and Velocity Field Measurements in a Shock-accelerated Mixing Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Daniel; Oakley, Jason; Weber, Chris; Rothamer, David; Navarro, Jose; Bonazza, Riccardo

    2013-11-01

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) is experimentally investigated at the Wisconsin Shock Tube Laboratory. Simultaneous concentration and velocity field measurements from the mixing layer of experimental RMI images are obtained through the application of the Advection-Corrected Correlation Image Velocimetry (ACCIV) technique. A statistically repeatable broadband initial condition is created by first setting up a gravitationally stable stagnation plane of helium +acetone over argon and then injecting the gases horizontally at the interface to create a shear layer. The shear layer is then accelerated by a Mach 2.2 planar shock wave that causes the growth of any perturbations present at the interface, and time-separated image pair data of the mixing layer are obtained using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF). The image pair is corrected to show relative acetone concentration, and is then used as input to the ACCIV algorithm to obtain velocity field results. These velocity field measurements are compared with those obtained from numerical simulations. Turbulent kinetic energy spectra are compared with particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and simulation results to validate regions of applicability. We wish to thank the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration for supporting this work.

  5. Toward Two-dimensional Velocity Fields in Kiloparsec-scale Quasar Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, David; Jones, Gareth

    2012-03-01

    An outstanding question in quasar jet physics concerns their velocity fields (Blandford 2008, ASP Conf.Ser. 386, 3). We are investigating this in a sample of 21 3CR lobe-dominated quasars. Complex structures and narrow widths present difficulties not found in smooth, well-resolved radio galaxy jets (Laing and Bridle 2002, MNRAS, 336, 328). We now have a systematic method for distinguishing between compact knots and lower-level inter-knot emission. Application to four sources with prominent knot trains in Bridle et al. (1994, AJ, 108, 766) shows that the first knot is the brightest with a simple Gaussian profile. Succeeding knots are both fainter and have a broad, complex base of associated emission. We will report on analyses of knot vs. inter-knot brightnesses and their implications via Doppler boosting for longitudinal velocity fields. We have also begun investigating transverse velocity fields by convolving trial spine-sheath profiles with the beam. We studied profiles with a fast spine occupying the central one-third, Doppler-dimmed by a factor of two relative to a slower sheath, with these results: a spine of width half a beam yields a convolved profile 30 per cent wider than the beam, while a spine of width one beam leads to a clearly resolved sheath.

  6. Strain rate tensor in Iran from a new GPS velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Frédéric; Lehujeur, Maximilien; Ziegler, Yann; Doubre, Cécile

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the strain rate tensor (SRT) for the Iranian region. In this study, (1) we apply a method of computation of the SRT never used for the Iranian area and (2) we use a new GPS velocity field obtained from several previously published velocity fields. First, the method is described and tested on a synthetic case, which mimics the real Iranian case. The synthetic tests confirm that the method allows us to both retrieve high gradients of the strain rate field and reduce the effect of an erroneous velocity vector. Second, the method is applied to a real data set covering the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran. We particularly focus on the Zagros-Makran transition zone, the Central Iran region and the northernmost part of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone (NW Iran-Caucasus-East Turkey). Whereas the main characteristics of the obtained SRT are consistent with known tectonic features, important new results are found in the Central Iran, with the strike-slip style along the Anar and Deshir faults, and the Zagros-Makran transition zone, with a north-south variation of the SRT along the Zendan-Minab-Palami fault system. We link these results to recent active tectonic studies.

  7. Image registration using stationary velocity fields parameterized by norm-minimizing Wendland kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Akshay; Sommer, Stefan; Sørensen, Lauge; Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-03-01

    Interpolating kernels are crucial to solving a stationary velocity field (SVF) based image registration problem. This is because, velocity fields need to be computed in non-integer locations during integration. The regularity in the solution to the SVF registration problem is controlled by the regularization term. In a variational formulation, this term is traditionally expressed as a squared norm which is a scalar inner product of the interpolating kernels parameterizing the velocity fields. The minimization of this term using the standard spline interpolation kernels (linear or cubic) is only approximative because of the lack of a compatible norm. In this paper, we propose to replace such interpolants with a norm-minimizing interpolant - the Wendland kernel which has the same computational simplicity like B-Splines. An application on the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative showed that Wendland SVF based measures separate (Alzheimer's disease v/s normal controls) better than both B-Spline SVFs (p<0.05 in amygdala) and B-Spline freeform deformation (p<0.05 in amygdala and cortical gray matter).

  8. Kernel Bundle Diffeomorphic Image Registration Using Stationary Velocity Fields and Wendland Basis Functions.

    PubMed

    Pai, Akshay; Sommer, Stefan; Sorensen, Lauge; Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-scale, multi-kernel shape, compactly supported kernel bundle framework for stationary velocity field-based image registration (Wendland kernel bundle stationary velocity field, wKB-SVF). We exploit the possibility of directly choosing kernels to construct a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) instead of imposing it from a differential operator. The proposed framework allows us to minimize computational cost without sacrificing the theoretical foundations of SVF-based diffeomorphic registration. In order to recover deformations occurring at different scales, we use compactly supported Wendland kernels at multiple scales and orders to parameterize the velocity fields, and the framework allows simultaneous optimization over all scales. The performance of wKB-SVF is extensively compared to the 14 non-rigid registration algorithms presented in a recent comparison paper. On both MGH10 and CUMC12 datasets, the accuracy of wKB-SVF is improved when compared to other registration algorithms. In a disease-specific application for intra-subject registration, atrophy scores estimated using the proposed registration scheme separates the diagnostic groups of Alzheimer's and normal controls better than the state-of-the-art segmentation technique. Experimental results show that wKB-SVF is a robust, flexible registration framework that allows theoretically well-founded and computationally efficient multi-scale representation of deformations and is equally well-suited for both inter- and intra-subject image registration. PMID:26841388

  9. Scaling of velocity and mixture fraction fields in laminar counterflow configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Scribano, Gianfranco

    2015-11-01

    Counterflow configurations are widely used to characterize premixed, nonpremixed, and partially premixed laminar flames. We performed a systematic analysis of the velocity and mixture fraction fields in the counterflow configuration and obtained scaling laws, which depend on two suitable nondimensional numbers: (i) the Reynolds number based on the bulk velocity U and half the separation distance between the nozzles L, and (ii) the ratio of the separation distance H = 2 L to the nozzle diameter D. Our study combines velocity measurements via Particle Image Velocimetry, detailed two-dimensional simulations including the nozzle geometry, and an exhaustive analysis of the data based on the nondimensional numbers. The flow field is shown to be moderately sensitive to the Reynolds number and strongly affected by the ratio H / D . By describing the self-similar behavior of the flow field in counterflow configurations comprehensively, our results provide a systematic explanation of existing burner designs as well as clear guidelines for the design of counterflows for pressurized nonpremixed flames. Finally, questions related to the limitations of one-dimensional models for counterflows are addressed conclusively.

  10. GNSS-based densification of the ITRF velocity field through a collaborative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Juliette; Bruyninx, Carine; Craymer, Michael; Dawson, John; Griffiths, Jake; Kenyeres, Ambrus; Rebischung, Paul; Sánchez, Laura; Santamaría-Gómez, Alvaro; Saria, Elifuraha; Altamimi, Zuheir

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the IAG Working Group "Integration of Dense Velocity Fields in the ITRF" is to provide a GNSS-based dense, unified and reliable velocity field globally referenced in the ITRF (International Terrestrial Reference Frame) and useful for geodynamical and geophysical interpretations. The WG is embedded in IAG Sub-Commission 1.3 "Regional Reference Frames" where it coexists with the Regional Reference Frame Sub-Commissions AFREF (Africa), APREF (Asia & Pacific), EUREF (Europe), NAREF (North America), SCAR (Antarctica), SIRGAS (Latin America & Caribbean). These IAG Regional Reference Frame sub-commissions are responsible for providing GNSS-based densified weekly solutions for their region. To obtain such a densified velocity field, the WG combined the individual weekly solutions from 7 individual contributors (AFREF, APREF, EUREF, NAREF (NGS, GSB), SIRGAS, IGS) and then stacked these weekly combined solutions in order to derive a ITRF2008 densification as well as the associated residual position time series for more than 2800 sites. Here we present the latest densification results.

  11. Crustal velocity field near the big bend of California's San Andreas fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snay, R.A.; Cline, M.W.; Philipp, C.R.; Jackson, D.D.; Feng, Y.; Shen, Z.-K.; Lisowski, M.

    1996-01-01

    We use geodetic data spanning the 1920-1992 interval to estimate the horizontal velocity field near the big bend segment of California's San Andreas fault (SAF). More specifically, we estimate a horizontal velocity vector for each node of a two-dimensional grid that has a 15-min-by-15-min mesh and that extends between latitudes 34.0??N and 36.0??N and longitudes 117.5??W and 120.5??W. For this estimation process, we apply bilinear interpolation to transfer crustal deformation information from geodetic sites to the grid nodes. The data include over a half century of triangulation measurements, over two decades of repeated electronic distance measurements, a decade of repeated very long baseline interferometry measurements, and several years of Global Positioning System measurements. Magnitudes for our estimated velocity vectors have formal standard errors ranging from 0.7 to 6.8 mm/yr. Our derived velocity field shows that (1) relative motion associated with the SAF exceeds 30 mm/yr and is distributed on the Earth's surface across a band (> 100 km wide) that is roughly centered on this fault; (2) when velocities are expressed relative to a fixed North America plate, the motion within our primary study region has a mean orientation of N44??W ?? 2?? and the surface trace of the SAF is congruent in shape to nearby contours of constant speed yet this trace is oriented between 5?? and 10?? counterclockwise relative to these contours; and (3) large strain rates (shear rates > 150 nrad/yr and/or areal dilatation rates < -150 nstr/yr) exist near the Garlock fault, near the White Wolf fault, and in the Ventura basin.

  12. Pulse-shape-dependent strong-field ionization viewed with velocity-map imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Geissler, Dominik; Weinacht, Thomas C.; Rozgonyi, Tamas; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Jesus

    2011-11-15

    We explore strong field molecular ionization with velocity map imaging of fragment ions produced by dissociation following ionization. Our measurements and ab initio electronic structure calculations allow us to identify various electronic states of the molecular cation populated during ionization, with multiple pathways to individual states highlighted by the pulse shape dependence. In addition, we show that relative populations can be reconstructed from our measurements. The results illustrate how strong field molecular ionization can be complicated by the presence and interaction of multiple cationic states during ionization.

  13. Modeling of integrated sunlight velocity measurements: The effect of surface darkening by magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Henney, C. J.; Schimpf, S.; Fossat, E.; Gelly, B.; Grec, G.; Loudagh, S.; Schmider, F.-X; Palle, P.; Regulo, C.

    1993-01-01

    It has been known since the work by Claverie et al. (1982) that integrated-sunlight velocities measured with the resonance scattering technique show variations with time scales of weeks to months. The cause can be understood in terms of the effects of solar activity as was pointed out by Edmunds & Gough (1983) and Andersen & Maltby (1983). The latter authors included a model calculation based on sunspot areas which showed good promise of being able to quantitatively reproduce the observed velocity shifts. We discuss in this paper a new modeling effort based on daily magnetograms obtained at the 150-ft tower on Mt. Wilson. This type of database is more quantitative than sunspot area. Similar maps of magnetically sensitive quantities will be measured on a continuous time base as part of several planned helioseismology experiments (from space with the Solar Oscillations Imagery/Michelson Doppler Imager (SOI/MDI) experiment on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), see Scherrer et al. (1991) or with ground-based networks, see Hill & Leibacher (1991)). We discuss the correlations between various magnetically sensitive quantities and develop a new model for the effects of magnetic field on line profiles and surface brightness. From these correlations we integrate the line profile changes over the solar surface using observed magnetic field strengths measured at lambda 5250.2. The final output is a new model for the effects of magnetic fields on integrated sunlight velocities which we compare with daily offset velocities derived from the International Research on the Interior of the Sun (IRIS)-T instrument at the Observatorio del Teide.

  14. Integration of Dense Velocity Fields in the ITRF: Quantification and Mitigation of Inconsistencies Between Individual Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Juliette; Bruyninx, Carine; Saria, Elifuraha; Griffiths, Jake; Craymer, Michael; Dawson, John; Kenyeres, Ambrus; Santamaría-Gómez, Alvaro; Sanchez, Laura; Altamimi, Zuheir

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the IAG Working Group "Integration of Dense Velocity Fields in the ITRF" is to provide a GNSS-based dense, unified and reliable velocity field globally referenced in the ITRF (International Terrestrial Reference Frame) and useful for geodynamical and geophysical interpretations. The WG is embedded in IAG Sub-Commission 1.3 "Regional Reference Frames" where it coexists with the Regional Reference Frame Sub-Commissions AFREF (Africa), APREF (Asia & Pacific), EUREF (Europe), NAREF (North America), SCAR (Antarctica), SIRGAS (Latin America & Caribbean). These IAG Regional Reference Frame sub-commissions are responsible for providing GNSS-based densified weekly solutions for their region. In addition, the ULR consortium is also a contributor to the WG. To obtain such a densified velocity field, the WG will combine the individual weekly solutions from different contributors and then stack these weekly combined solutions in order to derive a cumulative position and velocity solution as well as the associated residual position time series. The preliminary weekly combinations include 8 individual solutions (AFREF, APREF, EUREF, NAREF (NGS, GSB), SIRGAS, IGS, ULR) and contain about two thousand stations in addition to the ITRF2008. The agreement between the solutions is promising and leads to weekly RMS ranging from 2 to 8 mm. However, this agreement is presently limited by inconsistencies at the modeling and meta data level: 1) the meta data need to be verified as systematic biases occur, probably due to wrong antenna eccentricities and 2) different antenna calibration models have been used by the contributors: some solutions use igs08.atx, while others use igs05.atx or even individual calibrations. In addition, an optimal rescaling of the covariance matrices during the weekly combination is still under investigation. This poster will focus on the quantification and, if possible, the mitigation of these inconsistencies and on the improvement of the

  15. Rapid analysis of non-uniformly sampled pulsed field gradient data for velocity estimation.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, K; Park, J C; Pavlovskaya, G E; Gibbs, S J

    2001-06-01

    Bretthorst's recent generalization of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram shows that a sufficient statistic for frequency estimation from non-uniformly, but simultaneously sampled quadrature data is equivalent to the FFT of those data with the missing samples replaced by zeros. We have applied this concept to the rapid analysis of pulsed field gradient MRI data which have been non-uniformly sampled in the velocity encoding wave vector q. For a small number of q samples, it is more computationally efficient to calculate the periodogram directly rather than using the FFT algorithm with a large number of zeros. The algorithm we have implemented for finding the peak of the generalized periodogram is simple and robust; it involves repeated apodization and grid searching of the periodogram until the desired velocity resolution is achieved. The final estimate is refined by quadratic interpolation. We have tested the method for fully developed Poiseuille flow of a Newtonian fluid and have demonstrated substantial improvement in the precision of velocity measurement achievable in a fixed acquisition time with non-uniform sampling. The method is readily extendible to multidimensional data. Analysis of a 256 by 256 pixel image with 8 q samples and an effective velocity resolution of better than 1/680 of the Nyquist range requires approximately 1 minute computation time on a 400 MHz SUN Ultrasparc II processor. PMID:11672628

  16. Molecular clouds. [significance in stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, P.

    1977-01-01

    An attempt is made to understand star formation in the context of the dense interstellar molecular gas from which stars are made. Attention is given to how molecular observations (e.g., UV spectroscopy and radio 21-cm and recombination line observations) provide data on the physical state of the dense interstellar gas; observations of H II regions, stellar associations, and dark nebulae are discussed. CO clouds are studied with reference to radial velocity, temperature, density, ionization, magnetic field.

  17. Magnetic Field Strength in an Intermediate-velocity Ionized Filament in the First Galactic Quadrant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stil, J. M.; Hryhoriw, A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the magnetic field in an intermediate-velocity filament for which the Hα intensity in the WHAM survey correlates with excess Faraday rotation of extragalactic radio sources over the length of the filament from b ≈ 20° to b ≈ 55°. The density-weighted mean magnetic field is 2.8 +/- 0.8 μ {{G}}, derived from rotation measures and an empirical relation between Hα emission measure and dispersion measure from Berkhuijsen et al. In view of the uncertainties in the derived magnetic field strength, we propose an alternative use of the available data, rotation measure, and emission measure, to derive a lower limit to the Alfvén speed, weighted by electron density {n}e3/2. We find lower limits to the Alfvén speed that are comparable to or larger than the sound speed in a {10}4 {{K}} plasma, and conclude that the magnetic field is dynamically important. We discuss the role of intermediate-velocity gas as a locus of Faraday rotation in the interstellar medium, and propose that this lower limit to the Alfvén speed may also be applicable to Faraday rotation by galaxy clusters.

  18. Velocity Field Measurements in Rarefied, Hypersonic Flows of Nitrogen Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, Eric

    Velocity fields are measured in the shock layer and boundary layer on a plate with a cylindrical fin immersed in a hypersonic, free jet of nitrogen, using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of iodine. A sheet beam from a single-mode argon laser at 514 nm is used to excite hyperfine components of the P(13), R(15) and P(48), P(103) blended rotational-vibrational lines in the B-X electronic transition for iodine seeded in the flow. The Doppler broadening and shift of these lines, and the relative rotational line strengths are determined for excitation spectra recorded in a planar grid. Using this measurement technique, estimates for iodine of the mass velocity component and kinetic temperature of translation in the direction of laser propagation, rotational temperature, and relative number density are determined at each point. Sectional planes of the flow over the body are investigated at a spatial resolution on the scale of the molecular mean-free-path in the free jet near the plate leading edge. Two directions within each plane are examined, to determine the velocity vector and to investigate translational non-equilibrium. Predictions from two direct simulation Monte Carlo computations of the flow are compared with the measurements. Large values of slip velocity and temperature jump at the plate surface are observed for iodine. Measurements and DSMC predictions indicate strong translational non-equilibrium effects for the iodine in the shock wave and the thick boundary layer on the plate, and are qualitatively consistent with a bimodal velocity distribution function. As a consequence of the ratio of molecular masses, the translational non-equilibrium of iodine is much greater than for nitrogen.

  19. Effects of light illumination on electron velocity of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures under high electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Lei; Yang, Xuelin Cheng, Jianpeng; Sang, Ling; Xu, Fujun; Tang, Ning; Feng, Zhihong; Lv, Yuanjie; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, B.; Ge, Weikun

    2014-12-15

    We have investigated the variation of electron velocity in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures depending on illuminating light intensity and wavelength. It is shown that the electron velocity at high electric field increases under above-band light illumination. This electron velocity enhancement is found to be related to the photo-generated cold holes which interact with hot electrons and thus accelerate the energy relaxation at high electric field. The results suggest an alternative way to improve the electron energy relaxation rate and hence the electron velocity in GaN based heterostructures.

  20. Ion velocity and plasma potential measurements of a cylindrical cusped field thruster

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, N. A.; Young, C. V.; Cappelli, M. A.; Hargus, W. A. Jr.

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of the most probable time-averaged axial ion velocities and plasma potential within the acceleration channel and in the plume of a straight-channeled cylindrical cusped field thruster operating on xenon are presented. Ion velocities for the thruster are derived from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 5d[4]{sub 7/2}-6p[3]{sub 5/2} xenon ion excited state transition centered at {lambda}=834.72nm. Plasma potential measurements are made using a floating emissive probe with a thoriated-tungsten filament. The thruster is operated in a power matched condition with 300 V applied anode potential for comparison to previous krypton plasma potential measurements, and a low power condition with 150 V applied anode potential. Correlations are seen between the plasma potential drop outside of the thruster and kinetic energy contours of the accelerating ions.

  1. Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.; Kessler, W. J.; Sonnenfroh, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    The application of Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows is analyzed. Focussing on fluorescence of the OH molecule in typical H2-air Scramjet flows, the effects of uncharacterized variations in temperature, pressure, and collisional partner composition across the measurement plane are examined. Detailed measurements of the (1,0) band OH lineshape variations in H2-air combustions are used, along with single-pulse and time-averaged measurements of an excimer-pumped dye laser, to predict the performance of a model velocimeter with typical Scramjet flow properties. The analysis demonstrates the need for modification and control of the laser bandshape in order to permit accurate velocity measurements in the presence of multivariant flow properties.

  2. Thermal stability effects on the structure of the velocity field above an air-water interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadimitrakis, Y. A.; Hsu, Y.-H. L.; Wu, J.

    1987-01-01

    Mean velocity and turbulence measurements are described for turbulent flows above laboratory water waves, under various wind and thermal stratification conditions. Experimental results, when presented in the framework of Monin-Obukhov (1954) similarity theory, support local scaling based on evaluation of stratification effects at the same nondimensional distance from the mean water surface. Such scaling allows an extension of application of the above theory to the outer region of the boundary layer. Throughout the fully turbulent region, ratios of mean velocity gradients, eddy viscosities, and turbulence intensities under nonneutral and neutral conditions correlate well with the parameter z/Lambda (Lambda being a local Obukhov length and z the vertical coordinate of the mean air flow) and show good agreement with established field correlations. The influence of stratification on the wind-stress coefficient can be estimated from an empirical relationship in terms of its value under neutral conditions and a bulk Richardson number.

  3. A redshift survey of IRAS galaxies. III - Reconstruction of the velocity and density fields in N-body model universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Marc; Strauss, Michael A.; Yahil, Amos

    1991-01-01

    N-body simulations of a 'cold dark matter' universe are presently used to calibrate the accuracy, and assess the limitations, of the procedure previously employed to predict the velocity field within 8000 km/sec of the Local Group through the application of linear gravitational theory to a full-sky, flux-limited sample of IRAS galaxies. The rms difference between the one-dimensional acceleration and velocity of field particles is an increasing function of local density; linear theory can in this way account for all but one-sixth of kinetic energy. A series of artificial IRAS catalogs closely matching the real sample in space density and clustering amplitude is constructed. Velocity correlation functions are used to demonstrate that the predicted velocity fields are in good agreement with the true velocity fields on large scales.

  4. Statistical properties of the interplanetary microscale fluctuations. [in plasma velocity and magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported for a statistical study of short-period fluctuations in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field. The data base used consists of measurements of the interplanetary plasma and magnetic field by Pioneer 6 with a time resolution of 72 sec and by Mariner 5 with a resolution of 5 min. The analysis is conducted to characterize the parent population from which all individual microscale events on these time scales are drawn. The microscale changes are grouped according to their energy densities relative to the energy density of the background magnetic field, and it is found that each grouping exhibits certain statistical properties within the limits of observational uncertainty. It is noted that these statistical properties are purely observational and independent of any physical model which may be used to interpret them. The results are discussed in the context of MHD discontinuity theory for a thermally anisotropic plasma.

  5. Axisymmetric electromagnetic field influence on the characteristic velocity of an arc-jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oggero, M.; Gennuso, D.

    1984-01-01

    Tests for determining the influence of an axisymmetric EM field on the characteristic velocity of an arc jet are presented. The experimental set up is briefly described. Tests were performed with rotation induced by the centrifugal and magnetic fields in the same sense. The fuels used were HE and N2 and the results are discussed. It is found that by variation of the induction, current, and arc jet strength, the behavior is determined essentially by the shape of the cathodic and anodic blobs on the electrodes together with their movement under the combined effect of the aerodynamic and magnetic fields. In view of the different characteristics of He and N2 in respect to the dissociation heat and ionization, it is expected that the regime of the arc jet when used with H2 fuel will be similar to that with He.

  6. TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF VELOCITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD IN AND AROUND UMBRAL DOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Bellot Rubio, Luis R.; De la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc

    2012-09-20

    We study the temporal evolution of umbral dots (UDs) using measurements from the CRISP imaging spectropolarimeter at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. Scans of the magnetically sensitive 630 nm iron lines were performed under stable atmospheric conditions for 71 minutes with a cadence of 63 s. These observations allow us to investigate the magnetic field and velocity in and around UDs at a resolution approaching 0.''13. From the analysis of 339 UDs, we draw the following conclusions: (1) UDs show clear hints of upflows, as predicted by magnetohydrodynamic simulations. By contrast, we could not find systematic downflow signals. Only in very deep layers, we detect localized downflows around UDs, but they do not persist in time. (2) We confirm that UDs exhibit weaker and more inclined fields than their surroundings, as reported previously. However, UDs that have strong fields above 2000 G or are in the decay phase show enhanced and more vertical fields. (3) There are enhanced fields at the migration front of UDs detached from penumbral grains, as if their motion were impeded by the ambient field. (4) Long-lived UDs travel longer distances with slower proper motions. Our results appear to confirm some aspects of recent numerical simulations of magnetoconvection in the umbra (e.g., the existence of upflows in UDs), but not others (e.g., the systematic weakening of the magnetic field at the position of UDs).

  7. Field-aligned and field-perpendicular velocities in the ionospheric F2-layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rishbeth, H.; Ganguly, S.; Walker, J. C. G.

    1978-01-01

    The correlation between variations in the components of the ionospheric F2-layer parallel and perpendicular to the geomagnetic field is theoretically examined. The servo model of Rishbath (1967) is used as a basis for further calculations. The equations involved are presented in full and results are given for various assumed conditions. The response of the model to both steplike and periodic perturbations of the perpendicular component is considered along with the effects of winds and the Coriolis force. Arecibo and Malvern data are reviewed on the basis of theoretically predicted behavior.

  8. Velocity Fields and Structure above LDE arcades: Possible Observational Signatures of Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, D. E.

    2000-10-01

    In a growing number of CME events, the X-ray images from Yohkoh SXT reveal velocity fields above the eruption site, directed downward into the top of the flare arcade. These motions, with plane-of-sky speeds typically between 50 -- 500 km s-1, are evidenced by both dark (in X-rays) and bright (i.e., X-ray emitting) features, some of which appear to have a looplike morphology. No counterparts have been detected in simultaneous Hα or EUV imagery. The ``supra-arcade downflows" are tentatively interpreted as resulting from magnetic field line shrinkage, a signature of outflow from reconnection sites above the post-eruption arcade. I will present a summary of the flare events in which these velocity fields have been detected (to date, 17 in the last two years), and movies showing the structure and motion above some of the flare arcades. This work was supported by NASA under Marshall Space Flight Center contract NAS8-40801 with the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center.

  9. Retrieving density and velocity fields of the ocean's interior from surface data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Peng, Shiqiu; Wang, Jinbo; Huang, Rui Xin

    2014-12-01

    Using the "interior + surface quasigeostrophic" (isQG) method, the density and horizontal velocity fields of the ocean's interior can be retrieved from surface data. This method was applied to the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) and the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)/Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) reanalysis data sets. The input surface data include sea surface height (SSH), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), and a region-averaged stratification. The retrieved subsurface fields are compared with reanalysis data for three tested regions, and the results indicate that the isQG method is robust. The isQG method is particularly successful in the energetic regions like the Gulf Stream region with weak stratification, and the Kuroshio region with strong correlation between sea surface density (SSD) and SSH. It also works, though less satisfactorily, in the Agulhas leakage region. The performance of the isQG method in retrieving subsurface fields varies with season, and peaks in winter when the mixed layer is deeper and stratification is weaker. In addition, higher-resolution data may facilitate the isQG method to achieve a more successful reconstruction for the velocity retrieval. Our results suggested that the isQG method can be used to reconstruct the ocean interior from the satellite-derived SSH, SST, and SSS data in the near future.

  10. Stationary electron velocity distribution function in crossed electric and magnetic fields with collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Shagayda, Andrey

    2012-08-15

    Analytical studies and numerical simulations show that the electron velocity distribution function in a Hall thruster discharge with crossed electric and magnetic fields is not Maxwellian. This is due to the fact that the mean free path between collisions is greater than both the Larmor radius and the characteristic dimensions of the discharge channel. However in numerical models of Hall thrusters, a hydrodynamic approach is often used to describe the electron dynamics, because discharge simulation in a fully kinetic approach requires large computing resources and is time consuming. A more accurate modeling of the electron flow in the hydrodynamic approximation requires taking into account the non-Maxwellian character of the distribution function and finding its moments, an approach that reflects the properties of electrons drifting in crossed electric and magnetic fields better than the commonly used Euler or Navier-Stokes approximations. In the present paper, an expression for the electron velocity distribution function in rarefied spatially homogeneous stationary plasma with crossed electric and magnetic fields and predominance of collisions with heavy particles is derived in the relaxation approximation. The main moments of the distribution function including longitudinal and transversal temperatures, the components of the viscous stress tensor, and of the heat flux vector are calculated. Distinctive features of the hydrodynamic description of electrons with a strongly non-equilibrium distribution function and the prospects for further development of the proposed approach for calculating the distribution function in spatially inhomogeneous plasma are discussed.

  11. Integrated velocity field from ground and satellite geodetic techniques: application to Arenal volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Cyril; del Potro, Rodrigo; Biggs, Juliet; Gottsmann, Joachim; Ebmeier, Susanna K.; Guillaume, Sébastien; Cattin, Paul-Henri; Van der Laat, Rodolfo

    2015-02-01

    Measurements of ground deformation can be used to identify and interpret geophysical processes occurring at volcanoes. Most studies rely on a single geodetic technique, or fit a geophysical model to the results of multiple geodetic techniques. Here we present a methodology that combines GPS, Total Station measurements and InSAR into a single reference frame to produce an integrated 3-D geodetic velocity surface without any prior geophysical assumptions. The methodology consists of five steps: design of the network, acquisition and processing of the data, spatial integration of the measurements, time series computation and finally the integration of spatial and temporal measurements. The most significant improvements of this method are (1) the reduction of the required field time, (2) the unambiguous detection of outliers, (3) an increased measurement accuracy and (4) the construction of a 3-D geodetic velocity field. We apply this methodology to ongoing motion on Arenal's western flank. Integration of multiple measurement techniques at Arenal volcano revealed a deformation field that is more complex than that described by individual geodetic techniques, yet remains consistent with previous studies. This approach can be applied to volcano monitoring worldwide and has the potential to be extended to incorporate other geodetic techniques and to study transient deformation.

  12. Contribution of the source velocity to the scattering of electromagnetic fields caused by airborne magnetic dipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanoel Starteri Sampaio, Edson

    2014-08-01

    The velocity of controlled airborne sources of electromagnetic geophysical surveys plays an additional role in the scattering of the fields by the earth. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate its contribution in the space and time variation of secondary electromagnetic fields. The model of a vertical magnetic dipole moving at a constant speed along a horizontal line in the air and above a homogeneous conductive half-space constitutes a first approach to stress the kinematic aspect and determine the difference between the fields due to an airborne and a static source. The magnetic moment of the source is equal to 104 A m2, its height is 120 m, and the horizontal and vertical separations between it and the receiver are, respectively, equal to 100 and 50 m: these values of the model are typical of towed-bird airborne TDEM surveys. We employed four values for the common velocities of source and receiver (0, 60, 80, and 100 m s-1), four values of the conductivity of the half-space (0.5, 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01 S m-1), and two causal source currents (box with periods of 80 and 10 ms and periodic with frequency values of 12.5 and 100 Hz). The results demonstrate that the relative velocity between source and medium yields a measurable variation compared to the static condition. Therefore, it must be taken into consideration by compensating the discrepancy in measured data employing the respective theoretical result. The results also show that it is necessary to adjust the concepts of time and frequency domain for electromagnetic measurements with traveling sources.

  13. The Fourier Tachometer 2: an Instrument for Measuring Global Solar Velocity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, T. M.

    1984-01-01

    The High Altitude Observatory and Sacramento Peak Observatory have jointly constructed a second version of the Fourier Tachometer, which is now undergoing final integration and testing. This is an interferometric instrument for measuring the Doppler shift of solar spectrum lines. The principal features and performance goals of this instrument are: simultaneous velocity observations over a 2-dimensional, 100 x 100 pixel field of view; measurement of absolute Doppler shifts with 1 m/s accuracy; noise level for moderate-1 oscillation modes of 1 cm/s for a 1-day observing run; flexibility and ease of use. Early (though incomplete) testing suggests that these goals should be attainable with the current instrument.

  14. Computer simulation of velocity and temperature fields during gas quenching in vacuum heat treatment furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Meekisho, L.; Zhang, J.; Blicblau, A.; Doyle, D.

    1995-12-31

    Gas quenching is a form of cooling process in heat treatment, especially widely applied in vacuum heat treatment. Using computational fluid dynamic package Flow-3D and self-programmed heat transfer software, the gas flow velocity distribution during some of the typical gas quenching processes and temperature fields within the components are simulated. The simulated results are not only important in determining the heat transfer behavior of the quenched components, but also helpful in quenching optimization, quenching equipment design and further simulation and final distortion control of the heat treated components.

  15. Permeability, electrical impedance, and acoustic velocities on reservoir rocks from the Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Boitnott, G.N.; Boyd, P.J.

    1996-01-24

    Previous measurements of acoustic velocities on NEGU- 17 cores indicate that saturation effects are significant enough to cause Vp/Vs anomalies observed in the field. In this study we report on the results of new measurements on core recently recovered from SB-15-D along with some additional measurements on the NEGU-17 cores. The measurements indicate correlations between mechanical, transport, and water storage properties of the matrix which may prove useful for reservoir assessment and management. The SB-15-D material is found to be similar to the NEGU-17 material in terms of acoustic velocities, being characterized by a notably weak pressure dependence on the velocities and a modest Vp/Vs signature of saturation. The effect of saturation on Vp/Vs appears to result in part from a chemo-mechanical weakening of the shear modulus due to the presence of water. Electrical properties of SB-15-D material are qualitatively similar to those of the NEGU-17 cores, although resistivities of SB-15-D cores are notably lower and dielectric permittivities higher than in their NEGU- 17 counterparts. While some limited correlations of measured properties with depth are noted, no clear change in character is observed within SB-15-D cores which can be associated with the proposed cap-rock/reservoir boundary.

  16. The crustal velocity field mosaic of the Alpine Mediterranean area (Italy): Insights from new geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farolfi, Gregorio; Del Ventisette, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    A new horizontal crustal velocity field of Alpine Mediterranean area was determined by continuous long time series (6.5 years) of 113 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) permanent stations. The processing was performed using state-of-the-art absolute antenna phase center correction model and recomputed precise IGS orbits available since April 2014. Moreover, a new more accurate tropospheric mapping function for geodetic applications was adopted. Results provide a new detailed map of the kinematics throughout the entire study area. This area is characterized by a complex tectonic setting driven by the interaction of Eurasian and African plates. The eastern Alps, Corsica, Sardinia and the Tyrrhenian Sea (which is covered only by interpolation data) show small velocity residuals with respect to the Eurasian plate. The whole Apennines axis discriminates two different velocity patterns, the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian area. The area around Messina Strait, which separates peninsular Italy and Sicily, represents a poorly understood region. Results identify an important boundary zone between two different domains, Calabria and Sicily, which are characterized by different crustal motions. The northeastern part of Sicily and Calabria move like Adriatic area, whilst the rest of Sicily, Malta and Lampedusa are dominated by African motion.

  17. The Continuous Monitoring of Flash Flood Velocity Field based on an Automated LSPIV System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Ran, Q.; Liao, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) is a non-intrusive tool for flow velocity field measurement and has more advantages against traditional techniques, with its applications on river, lake and ocean, especially under extreme conditions. An automated LSPIV system is presented in this study, which can be easily set up and executed for continuous monitoring of flash flood. The experiment site is Longchi village, Sichuan Province, where 8.0 magnitude earthquake occurred in 2008 and debris flow happens every year since then. The interest of area is about 30m*40m of the channel which has been heavily destroyed by debris flow. Series of videos obtained during the flood season indicates that flood outbreaks after rainstorm just for several hours. Measurement is complete without being influenced by this extreme weather condition and results are more reliable and accurate due to high soil concentration. Compared with direct measurement by impellor flow meter, we validated that LSPIV works well at mountain stream, with index of 6.7% (Average Relative Error) and 95% (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient). On Jun 26, the maximum flood surface velocity reached 4.26 m/s, and the discharge based on velocity-area method was also decided. Overall, this system is safe, non-contact and can be adjusted according to our requirement flexibly. We can get valuable data of flood which is scarce before, which will make a great contribution to the analysis of flood and debris flow mechanism.

  18. Crustal Velocity Field from InSAR and GPS reveals Internal Deformation of Western Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Wright, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Two contrasting views continue to dominate the debate about continental tectonics - do the continents behave like the oceans, with a few large plates (blocks) separated by major faults (e.g. Tapponnier et al., 1982, 2001; Thatcher, 2007; Meade, 2007), or is a smooth continuum a more appropriate and compact description (e.g. England and Molnar, 1997, 2005). The Tibetan plateau has long been the testing ground for this debate and despite decades of research it has yet to be put to bed. Existing observations of crustal deformation in Tibet are largely derived from the Global Positioning System (GPS). Because large gaps in the GPS coverage exist, particularly in central and Western Tibet, the data have been used to support both the models (e.g. England and Molnar, 2005; Thatcher, 2007; Meade, 2007). On the other hand, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) offers an independent means of measuring present-day crustal deformation with a spatial resolution of a few tens of meters and an accuracy comparable to with GPS (e.g., Wright et al., 2001, 2004; Wang et al 2009). We have used InSAR data from multiple tracks in conjunction with available GPS to constrain a 2D velocity field model for the Tibetan plateau. About 300 ERS/Envisat interferograms are produced spanning 6 tracks (five descending and one ascending), covering ~200,000 km2 of Western Tibet. Each track is analysed using a network approach which yields line-of-sight deformation rates and realistic uncertainties (Biggs et al., 2007; Elliott et al., 2008; Wang et al., 2009). These are combined with the GPS, using full covariances, by adapting the velocity field method of England and Molnar (1997) to incorporate InSAR observations. Initially, we set up a triangular mesh spanning the target area; we then solve for the horizontal velocities on each node, as well as additional orbital and atmospheric terms for the InSAR data. The solution is regularised using Laplacian smoothing, whose weight is determined as

  19. Field-effect transistor having a superlattice channel and high carrier velocities at high applied fields

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, R.J.; Dawson, L.R.; Fritz, I.J.; Osbourn, G.C.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-06-08

    A field effect transistor comprises a semiconductor having a source, a drain, a channel and a gate in operational relationship. The semiconductor is a strained layer superlattice comprising alternating quantum well and barrier layers, the quantum well layers and barrier layers being selected from the group of layer pairs consisting of InGaAs/AlGaAs, InAs/InAlGaAs, and InAs/InAlAsP. The layer thicknesses of the quantum well and barrier layers are sufficiently thin that the alternating layers constitute a superlattice which has a superlattice conduction band energy level structure in k-vector space. The layer thicknesses of the quantum well layers are selected to provide a superlattice L/sub 2D/-valley which has a shape which is substantially more two-dimensional than that of said bulk L-valley. 2 figs.

  20. Stellar mass assembly and star formation history from z=0.2 out to z=6 in the COSMOS and VIPERS fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilbert, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    A clear and comprehensive picture describing the physical processes which regulate the stellar mass assembly is still missing in galaxy formation scenario. I will present a measurement of the galaxy stellar mass function and stellar mass density from z=0.2 out to z=6. Our study relies on deep near-infrared imaging over wide fields: the WIRCAM/CFHT coverage of the 20 sq-deg VIPERS fields combined with the new IRAC/Spitzer coverage (the SPLASH survey) of the 2 sq-deg COSMOS field. Our analysis is based on photometric redshifts of 1,5 million of galaxies reaching a precision around 4% at 4stellar mass. I will also use the stellar mass density to infer the cosmic star formation history over 90% of the age of the Universe. I will compare this estimate with the results obtained using direct tracers of the star formation rate as the UV or IR emissivity.

  1. Repeating firing fields of CA1 neurons shift forward in response to increasing angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Stephen L; Nitz, Douglas A

    2014-01-01

    Self-motion information influences spatially-specific firing patterns exhibited by hippocampal neurons. Moreover, these firing patterns can repeat across similar subsegments of an environment, provided that there is similarity of path shape and head orientations across subsegments. The influence of self-motion variables on repeating fields remains to be determined. To investigate the role of path shape and angular rotation on hippocampal activity, we recorded the activity of CA1 neurons from rats trained to run on spiral-shaped tracks. During inbound traversals of circular-spiral tracks, angular velocity increases continuously. Under this condition, most neurons (74%) exhibited repeating fields across at least three adjacent loops. Of these neurons, 86% exhibited forward shifts in the angles of field centers relative to centers on preceding loops. Shifts were absent on squared-spiral tracks, minimal and less reliable on concentric-circle tracks, and absent on outward-bound runs on circular-spiral tracks. However, outward-bound runs on the circular-spiral track in the dark were associated with backward shifts. Together, the most parsimonious interpretation of the results is that continuous increases or decreases in angular velocity are particularly effective at shifting the center of mass of repeating fields, although it is also possible that a nonlinear integration of step counts contributes to the shift. Furthermore, the unexpected absence of field shifts during outward journeys in light (but not darkness) suggests visual cues around the goal location anchored the map of space to an allocentric reference frame. PMID:24381284

  2. Wide-field infrared survey explorer observations of young stellar objects in the Lynds 1509 dark cloud in Auriga

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wilson M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Padgett, Deborah L.; Terebey, Susan; Angione, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; Leisawitz, David

    2014-06-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  3. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of Young Stellar Objects in the Lynds 1509 Dark Cloud in Auriga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Wilson M.; Padgett, Deborah L.; Terebey, Susan; Angione, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Leisawitz, David

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  4. AN ALMA SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: NEAR-INFRARED MORPHOLOGIES AND STELLAR SIZES

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C.; Biggs, A. D.; Ivison, R. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dannerbauer, H.; Greve, T. R.; Karim, A.; Menten, Karl M.; Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F.; Wardlow, J. L.; and others

    2015-02-01

    We analyze Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/H {sub 160}-band observations of a sample of 48 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South field, to study their stellar morphologies and sizes. We detect 79% ± 17% of the SMGs in the H {sub 160}-band imaging with a median sensitivity of 27.8 mag, and most (80%) of the nondetections are SMGs with 870 μm fluxes of S {sub 870} < 3 mJy. With a surface brightness limit of μ {sub H} ∼ 26 mag arcsec{sup –2}, we find that 82% ± 9% of the H {sub 160}-band-detected SMGs at z = 1-3 appear to have disturbed morphologies, meaning they are visually classified as either irregulars or interacting systems, or both. By determining a Sérsic fit to the H {sub 160} surface brightness profiles, we derive a median Sérsic index of n = 1.2 ± 0.3 and a median half-light radius of r{sub e} = 4.4{sub −0.5}{sup +1.1} kpc for our SMGs at z = 1-3. We also find significant displacements between the positions of the H {sub 160} component and 870 μm emission in these systems, suggesting that the dusty starburst regions and less-obscured stellar distribution are not colocated. We find significant differences in the sizes and the Sérsic index between our z = 2-3 SMGs and z ∼ 2 quiescent galaxies, suggesting that a major transformation of the stellar light profile is needed in the quenching processes if SMGs are progenitors of the red-and-dead z ∼ 2 galaxies. Given the short-lived nature of SMGs, we postulate that the majority of the z = 2-3 SMGs with S {sub 870} ≳ 2 mJy are early/mid-stage major mergers.

  5. Low-frequency internal waves in magnetized rotating stellar radiation zones. II. Angular momentum transport with a toroidal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, S.; de Brye, N.

    2012-04-01

    Context. With the progress of observational constraints on dynamical processes in stars, it becomes necessary to understand the angular momentum and the rotation profile history. In this context, internal waves constitute an efficient transport mechanism over long distances in stellar radiation zones. Indeed, they could be one of the mechanisms responsible for the quasi-flat rotation profile of the solar radiative region up to 0.2 R⊙. Aims: Angular momentum transport induced by internal waves depends on the properties of their excitation regions and of their dissipation during propagation. Then, the bottom of convective envelopes (the top of convective cores, respectively) are differentially rotating magnetic layers while radiation zones may host fossil magnetic fields. It is therefore necessary to understand the modification of internal wave mechanisms by both rotation and magnetic fields. Methods: We continue our previous work by proceeding step by step. We analytically built a complete formalism that treats the angular momentum transport by internal waves while taking into account both the Coriolis acceleration and the Lorentz force in a non-perturbative way for an axisymmetric toroidal field. We assumed a uniform Alfvén frequency and a weak differential rotation to isolate the transport properties as a function of the Rossby and Elsasser numbers. Results: We examined the different possible approximations to describe low-frequency internal waves modified by the Coriolis acceleration and the Lorentz force in a deep spherical shell. The complete structure of these waves, which become magneto-gravito-inertial waves, is given assuming the quasi-linear approximation first in the adiabatic case and then in the dissipative one. Vertical and equatorial trapping phenomena appear that favor retrograde waves. The efficiency of the induced transport as a function of the Rossby and Elsasser numbers is then obtained. Conclusions: A complete study of the transport of

  6. Field-effect transistor having a superlattice channel and high carrier velocities at high applied fields

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, deceased, Roger J.; Dawson, Ralph; Fritz, Ian J.; Osbourn, Gordon C.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    A field effect transistor comprises a semiconductor having a source, a drain, a channel and a gate in operational relationship. The semiconductor is a strained layer superlattice comprising alternating quantum well and barrier layers, the quantum well layers and barrier layers being selected from the group of layer pairs consisting of InGaAs/AlGaAs, InAs/InAlGaAs, and InAs/InAlAsP. The layer thicknesses of the quantum well and barrier layers are sufficiently thin that the alternating layers constitute a superlattice which has a superlattice conduction band energy level structure in k-vector space which includes a lowest energy .GAMMA.-valley and a next lowest energy L-valley, each k-vector corresponding to one of the orthogonal directions defined by the planes of said layers and the directions perpendicular thereto. The layer thicknesses of the quantum well layers are selected to provide a superlattice L.sub.2D -valley which has a shape which is substantially more two-dimensional than that of said bulk L-valley.

  7. Retrieval of Hydrometeor Drop Size Distributions from TRMM Field Campaign Profiler Doppler Velocity Spectra Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Christopher R.; Gage, Kenneth S.

    2003-01-01

    Consistent with the original proposal and work plan, this project focused on estimating the raindrop size distributions (DSDs) retrieved from vertically pointing Doppler radar profilers and analyzing the relationship of the retrieved DSDs with the dynamics of the precipitation processes. The first phase of this project focused on developing the model to retrieve the DSD from the observed Doppler velocity spectra. The second phase used this model to perform DSD retrievals from the profiler observations made during the TRMM Ground Validation Field Campaigns of TEFLUN-B, TRMM-LBA, and KWAJEX. The third phase of this project established collaborations with scientists involved with each field campaign in order to validate the profiler DSD estimates and to enable the profiler retrievals to be used in their research. Through these collaborations, the retrieved DSDs were placed into context with the dynamical processes of the observed precipitating cloud systems.

  8. Velocity and pressure fields associated with near-wall turbulence structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, Arne V.; Alfredsson, P. Henrik; Kim, John

    1990-01-01

    Computer generated databases containing velocity and pressure fields in three-dimensional space at a sequence of time-steps, were used for the investigation of near-wall turbulence structures, their space-time evolution, and their associated pressure fields. The main body of the results were obtained from simulation data for turbulent channel flow at a Reynolds number of 180 (based on half-channel height and friction velocity) with a grid of 128 x 129 x and 128 points. The flow was followed over a total time of 141 viscous time units. Spanwise centering of the detected structures was found to be essential in order to obtain a correct magnitude of the associated Reynolds stress contribution. A positive wall-pressure peak is found immediately beneath the center of the structure. The maximum amplitude of the pressure pattern was, however, found in the buffer region at the center of the shear-layer. It was also found that these flow structures often reach a maximum strength in connection with an asymmetric spanwise motion, which motivated the construction of a conditional sampling scheme that preserved this asymmetry.

  9. Kr II and Xe II axial velocity distribution functions in a cross-field ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lejeune, A.; Bourgeois, G.; Mazouffre, S.

    2012-07-15

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements were carried out in a cross-field ion source to examine the behaviour of the axial ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) in the expanding plasma. In the present paper, we focus on the axial VDFs of Kr II and Xe II ions. We examine the contourplots in a 1D-phase space (x,v{sub x}) representation in front of the exhaust channel and along the centerline of the ion source. The main ion beam, whose momentum corresponds to the ions that are accelerated through the whole potential drop, is observed. A secondary structure reveals the ions coming from the opposite side of the channel. We show that the formation of the neutralized ion flow is governed by the annular geometry. The assumption of a collisionless shock or a double layer due to supersonic beam interaction is not necessary. A non-negligible fraction of slow ions originates in local ionization or charge-exchange collision events between ions of the expanding plasma and atoms of the background residual gas. Slow ions that are produced near the centerline in the vicinity of the exit plane are accelerated toward the source body with a negative velocity leading to a high sputtering of front face. On the contrary, the ions that are produced in the vicinity of the channel exit plane are partially accelerated by the extended electric field.

  10. Kr II and Xe II axial velocity distribution functions in a cross-field ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejeune, A.; Bourgeois, G.; Mazouffre, S.

    2012-07-01

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements were carried out in a cross-field ion source to examine the behaviour of the axial ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) in the expanding plasma. In the present paper, we focus on the axial VDFs of Kr II and Xe II ions. We examine the contourplots in a 1D-phase space (x,vx) representation in front of the exhaust channel and along the centerline of the ion source. The main ion beam, whose momentum corresponds to the ions that are accelerated through the whole potential drop, is observed. A secondary structure reveals the ions coming from the opposite side of the channel. We show that the formation of the neutralized ion flow is governed by the annular geometry. The assumption of a collisionless shock or a double layer due to supersonic beam interaction is not necessary. A non-negligible fraction of slow ions originates in local ionization or charge-exchange collision events between ions of the expanding plasma and atoms of the background residual gas. Slow ions that are produced near the centerline in the vicinity of the exit plane are accelerated toward the source body with a negative velocity leading to a high sputtering of front face. On the contrary, the ions that are produced in the vicinity of the channel exit plane are partially accelerated by the extended electric field.

  11. Velocity Inversion from Magnetic Field Measurements in a Liquid Sodium Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N. Z.; Clark, M. M.; Forest, C. B.; Nornberg, M. D.; Wallace, J. P.

    2013-10-01

    In an analogy to helioseismology, the measured induced magnetic field generated by a spherical flow of liquid metal is used to determine the mean velocity profile through an inversion process. In the Madison dynamo experiment (MDE) the two vortex flow, driven by two counter-rotating impellers, is predicted to self-excite at low magnetic Reynolds number in the laminar case. The conductive flow is probed with external magnetic fields and the resulting induced field is measured by external and internal hall sensors. The measurements are compared with a forward model prediction of the induced magnetic field which is adjusted to fit the data. Knowledge of the mean flow can be used to optimize the pitch of the flow using rotatable vanes. A direct measurement of the turbulent EMF confirms that turbulent eddies act as an enhanced resistivity, keeping the experiment below the dynamo threshold. The detrimental large-scale turbulence has been mitigated with the installation of baffles. Although no self-excited dynamo has been observed, the resulting induced field closely matches laminar predictions for flows just below threshold. Supported by NSF and DoE.

  12. Gyrokinetic full f analysis of electric field dynamics and poloidal velocity in the FT2-tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Leerink, S.; Heikkinen, J. A.; Janhunen, S. J.; Kiviniemi, T. P.; Nora, M.; Ogando, F.

    2008-09-15

    The ELMFIRE gyrokinetic simulation code has been used to perform full f simulations of the FT-2 tokamak. The dynamics of the radial electric field and the creation of poloidal velocity in the presence of turbulence are presented.

  13. Topologies of velocity-field stagnation points generated by a single pair of magnets in free-surface electromagnetic experiments.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, J M García; Vassilicos, J C; Rossi, L

    2014-10-01

    The velocity fields generated by a static pair of magnets in free-surface electromagnetically forced flows are analyzed for different magnet attitudes, ionic currents, and brine depths. A wide range of laminar velocity fields is obtained despite the forcing simplicity. The velocity fields are classified according to their temporal mean flow topology, which strongly depends on the forcing geometry but barely on its strength, even through the bifurcation to unsteady regimes. The mean flow topology possesses a major influence on the critical Reynolds number Rec under which the steady velocity fields remain stable. The qualitative comparison of the dependence of Rec on the topology is in agreement with previous works. The unsteady configurations evidence the advection of smaller flow structures by the largest scales, commonly known as "sweeping." PMID:25375588

  14. Spatial dependence of correlation functions in the decay problem for a passive scalar in a large-scale velocity field

    SciTech Connect

    Vergeles, S. S.

    2006-04-15

    Statistical characteristics of a passive scalar advected by a turbulent velocity field are considered in the decay problem with a low scalar diffusivity {kappa} (large Prandtl number v/{kappa}, where v is kinematic viscosity). A regime in which the scalar correlation length remains smaller than the velocity correlation length is analyzed. The equal-time correlation functions of the scalar field are found to vary according to power laws and have angular singularities reflecting locally layered distribution of the scalar in space.

  15. Effects of the curvature of a lava channel on velocity and stress fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, Antonella; Tallarico, Andrea; Dragoni, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Bends in lava flows due to local variations in topography are commonly observed in volcanic fields. The curvature of a channel affects the flow surface morphology, as described in literature by Greeley (1971) and Peterson (1994). Where channels make an especially sharp bend, crust plates break and are incorporated within the flow by remelting. In some places, they jam together welding to the sides of the channel and forming a stable roof. We propose a model to explain the effects of the curvature of a channel on velocity, shear stress and formation of solid crust at the surface. Lava is described as a Newtonian, homogeneous, isotropic and incompressible fluid. The steady-state solution of the Navier-Stokes equation is found for a unidirectional flow, in cylindrical polar coordinates, neglecting the gradient of pressure and assuming a dependence of velocity on the radial coordinate only. The flow levees are described as arcs of concentric circumferences, with their centres in the origin of the reference frame. The equation is solved using non-slip boundary conditions at the levees. From the constitutive equation of a Newtonian incompressible fluid we obtain the nonvanishing component of the shear stress. As a consequence of the curvature of the channel, velocity and shear stress show an asymmetric behaviour in respect to the centre of the channel. The gradient of velocity and the shear stress reach larger values close to the levee with the higher curvature. Heat radiation and convection into the atmosphere are considered as the main cooling processes. Solid platforms form at the flow surface during cooling. Crust plates are laterally confined by the shear regions with high stress values. The model analyses the effects of the curvature of a channel on the development and shape of surface solid plates. The dimension and shape of plates are controlled by the competition between the shear stress and crust yield strength, and the degree of crust coverage of the channel

  16. Modelling the Velocity Field in a Regular Grid in the Area of Poland on the Basis of the Velocities of European Permanent Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Kłos, Anna; Grzempowski, Piotr; Kontny, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of testing the various methods of permanent stations' velocity residua interpolation in a regular grid, which constitutes a continuous model of the velocity field in the territory of Poland. Three packages of software were used in the research from the point of view of interpolation: GMT ( The Generic Mapping Tools), Surfer and ArcGIS. The following methods were tested in the softwares: the Nearest Neighbor, Triangulation (TIN), Spline Interpolation, Surface, Inverse Distance to a Power, Minimum Curvature and Kriging. The presented research used the absolute velocities' values expressed in the ITRF2005 reference frame and the intraplate velocities related to the NUVEL model of over 300 permanent reference stations of the EPN and ASG-EUPOS networks covering the area of Europe. Interpolation for the area of Poland was done using data from the whole area of Europe to make the results at the borders of the interpolation area reliable. As a result of this research, an optimum method of such data interpolation was developed. All the mentioned methods were tested for being local or global, for the possibility to compute errors of the interpolated values, for explicitness and fidelity of the interpolation functions or the smoothing mode. In the authors' opinion, the best data interpolation method is Kriging with the linear semivariogram model run in the Surfer programme because it allows for the computation of errors in the interpolated values and it is a global method (it distorts the results in the least way). Alternately, it is acceptable to use the Minimum Curvature method. Empirical analysis of the interpolation results obtained by means of the two methods showed that the results are identical. The tests were conducted using the intraplate velocities of the European sites. Statistics in the form of computing the minimum, maximum and mean values of the interpolated North and East components of the velocity residuum were prepared for all

  17. Variation of the instantaneous angular velocity of the rigid Earth in the lunar-solar gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin-Sen

    2016-04-01

    The variation of the instantaneous rotational angular velocity of the rigid Earth in the lunar-solar gravitational field is studied. The formula is derived for variation of the instantaneous angular velocity of the rigid oblate Earth using the potential function from Euler's dynamic equations. The theoretical results show that under the influence of the gravitational field of the Moon and the Sun the Earth instantaneous angular velocity varies with periodic terms, but without secular variations. Amplitudes of the periodic terms and their periods are calculated and discussed.

  18. Application of acoustic tomography to reconstruct the horizontal flow velocity field in a shallow river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razaz, Mahdi; Kawanisi, Kiyosi; Kaneko, Arata; Nistor, Ioan

    2015-12-01

    A novel acoustic tomographic measurement system capable of resolving sound travel time in extremely shallow rivers is introduced and the results of an extensive field measurements campaign are presented and further discussed. Acoustic pulses were transmitted over a wide frequency band of 20-35 kHz between eight transducers for about a week in a meandering reach of theBāsen River, Hiroshima, Japan. The purpose of the field experiment was validating the concept of acoustic tomography in rivers for visualizing current fields. The particular novelty of the experiment resides in its unusual tomographic features: subbasin scale (100 m × 270 m) and shallowness (0.5-3.0 m) of the physical domain, frequency of the transmitted acoustic signals (central frequency of 30 kHz), and the use of small sampling intervals (105 s). Inverse techniques with no a priori statistical information were used to estimate the depth-average current velocity components from differential travel times. Zeroth-order Tikhonov regularization, in conjunction with L-curve method deployed to stabilize the solution and to determine the weighting factor appearing in the inverse analysis. Concurrent direct environmental measurements were provided in the form of ADCP readings close to the right and left bank. Very good agreement found between along-channel velocities larger than 0.2 m/s obtained from the two techniques. Inverted quantities were, however, underestimated, perhaps due to vicinity of the ADCPs to the banks and strong effect of river geometry on the readings. In general, comparing the visualized currents with direct nodal measurements illustrate the plausibility of the tomographically reconstructed flow structures.

  19. Velocity fields and optical turbulence near the boundary in a strongly convective laboratory flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, Silvia; Hou, Weilin; Goode, Wesley; Hellman, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    Boundary layers around moving underwater vehicles or other platforms can be a limiting factor for optical communication. Turbulence in the boundary layer of a body moving through a stratified medium can lead to small variations in the index of refraction, which impede optical signals. As a first step towards investigating this boundary layer effect on underwater optics, we study the flow near the boundary in the Rayleigh-Bénard laboratory tank at the Naval Research Laboratory Stennis Space Center. The tank is set up to generate temperature-driven, i.e., convective turbulence, and allows control of the turbulence intensity. This controlled turbulence environment is complemented by computational fluid dynamics simulations to visualize and quantify multi-scale flow patterns. The boundary layer dynamics in the laboratory tank are quantified using a state-of-the-art Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system to examine the boundary layer velocities and turbulence parameters. The velocity fields and flow dynamics from the PIV are compared to the numerical model and show the model to accurately reproduce the velocity range and flow dynamics. The temperature variations and thus optical turbulence effects can then be inferred from the model temperature data. Optical turbulence is also visible in the raw data from the PIV system. The newly collected data are consistent with previously reported measurements from high-resolution Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter profilers (Nortek Vectrino), as well as fast thermistor probes and novel next-generation fiber-optics temperature sensors. This multi-level approach to studying optical turbulence near a boundary, combining in-situ measurements, optical techniques, and numerical simulations, can provide new insight and aid in mitigating turbulence impacts on underwater optical signal transmission.

  20. Simulating Convection in Stellar Envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Joel

    Understanding convection in stellar envelopes, and providing a mathematical description of it, would represent a substantial advance in stellar astrophysics. As one of the largest sources of uncertainty in stellar models, existing treatments of convection fail to account for many of the dynamical effects of convection, such as turbulent pressure and asymmetry in the velocity field. To better understand stellar convection, we must be able to study and examine it in detail, and one of the best tools for doing so is numerical simulation. Near the stellar surface, both convective and radiative process play a critical role in determining the structure and gas dynamics. By following these processes from first principles, convection can be simulated self-consistently and accurately, even in regions of inefficient energy transport where existing descriptions of convection fail. Our simulation code includes two radiative transfer solvers that are based on different assumptions and approximations. By comparing simulations that differ only in their respective radiative transfer methods, we are able to isolate the effect that radiative efficiency has on the structure of the superadiabatic layer. We find the simulations to be in good general agreement, but they show distinct differences in the thermal structure in the superadiabatic layer and atmosphere. Using the code to construct a grid of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the link between convection and various chemical compositions. The stellar parameters correspond to main-sequence stars at several surface gravities, and span a range in effective temperatures (4500 < Teff < 6400). Different chemical compositions include four metallicities (Z = 0.040, 0.020, 0.010, 0.001), three helium abundances (Y = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) and several levels of alpha-element enhancement. Our grid of simulations shows that various convective properties, such as velocity and the degree of superadiabaticity, are

  1. SAR-based Estimation of Glacial Extent and Velocity Fields on Isanotski Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, D.; Lee, A.; Parker, O. P.; Pressler, Y.; Guo, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Global studies show that Earth's glaciers are losing mass at increasing rates, creating a challenge for communities that rely on them as natural resources. Field observation of glacial environments is limited by cost and inaccessibility. Optical remote sensing is often precluded by cloud cover and seasonal darkness. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) overcomes these obstacles by using microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation to provide high resolution information on large spatial scales and in remote, atmospherically obscured environments. SAR is capable of penetrating clouds, operating in darkness, and discriminating between targets with ambiguous spectral signatures. This study evaluated the efficacy of two SAR Earth observation methods on small (< 7 km2) glaciers in rugged topography. The glaciers chosen for this study lie on Isanotski Volcano in Unimak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, USA. The local community on the island, the City of False Pass, relies on glacial melt for drinking water and hydropower. Two methods were used: (1) velocity field estimation based on Repeat Image Feature Tracking (RIFT) and (2) glacial boundary delineation based on interferometric coherence mapping. NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) single-polarized power images and JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band SAR (ALOS PALSAR) single-look complex images were analyzed over the period 2008-2011. UAVSAR image pairs were coregistered to sub-pixel accuracy and processed with the Coregistration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) feature tracking module to derive glacial velocity field estimates. Maximum glacier velocities ranged from 28.9 meters/year to 58.3 meters/year. Glacial boundaries were determined from interferometric coherence of ALOS PALSAR data and subsequently refined with masking operations based on terrain slope and segment size. Accuracy was assessed against hand-digitized outlines from high resolution UAVSAR power images

  2. STELLARATOR INJECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1962-09-01

    A method and means are described for injecting energetic neutral atoms or molecular ions into dense magnetically collimated plasma columns of stellarators and the like in such a manner that the atoms or ions are able to significantly penetrate the column before being ionized by collision with the plasma constituent particles. Penetration of the plasma column by the neutral atoms or molecular ions is facilitated by superposition of two closely spaced magnetic mirrors on the plasma confinement field. The mirrors are moved apart to magnetically sweep plasma from a region between the mirrors and establish a relatively low plasma density therein. By virture of the low density, neutral atoms or molecular ions injected into the region significantly penetrate the plasma column before being ionized. Thereafter, the mirrors are diminished to permit the injected material to admix with the plasma in the remainder of the column. (AEC)

  3. Remote Numerical Simulations of the Interaction of High Velocity Clouds with Random Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, Alfredo; Hernandez--Cervantes, Liliana; Gonzalez--Ponce, Alejandro; Kim, Jongsoo

    The numerical simulations associated with the interaction of High Velocity Clouds (HVC) with the Magnetized Galactic Interstellar Medium (ISM) are a powerful tool to describe the evolution of the interaction of these objects in our Galaxy. In this work we present a new project referred to as Theoretical Virtual i Observatories. It is oriented toward to perform numerical simulations in real time through a Web page. This is a powerful astrophysical computational tool that consists of an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and a database produced by numerical calculations. In this Website the user can make use of the existing numerical simulations from the database or run a new simulation introducing initial conditions such as temperatures, densities, velocities, and magnetic field intensities for both the ISM and HVC. The prototype is programmed using Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (LAMP), based on the open source philosophy. All simulations were performed with the MHD code ZEUS-3D, which solves the ideal MHD equations by finite differences on a fixed Eulerian mesh. Finally, we present typical results that can be obtained with this tool.

  4. Velocity field investigation inside a bulb turbine runner using endoscopic PIV measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, S.; Aeschlimann, V.; Fraser, R.; Ciocan, G. D.; Deschênes, C.

    2015-06-01

    The flow in the inter-blade channels of a bulb turbine was measured using endoscopic cameras integrated to a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (S-PIV) system. This paper presents results from the measurement campaign and also provides some key conclusions based on the dataset. The technical aspect of the measurement configuration is addressed. The main focus is on the novelties and challenges brought by the use of endoscopic cameras to achieve S-PIV measurements between the runner blades. For the first time in hydraulic rotating machinery, velocity measurements covered 62 % of a rotor inter-blade flow. After outlining the techniques used, comparison with laser Doppler velocimetry measurements allows assessing the intrusiveness of the endoscopes. Then, some velocity field analyses are shown. First, the rotor-stator interaction is outlined as the influence of the guide vane wakes on the runner flow. The size, localization, strength and dissipation of those structures are inferred from the information coming from measurements. Finally, the PIV data allow the identification of a vortex located near the suction side of the blades and originating from the corner between the leading edge and the hub when operating the bulb turbine at part-load.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of 3D zooplankton trajectories and surrounding fluid velocity field in complex flows.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Deepak; Gemmell, Brad J; Hallberg, Michael P; Longmire, Ellen K; Buskey, Edward J

    2015-11-01

    We describe an automated, volumetric particle image velocimetry (PIV) and tracking method that measures time-resolved, 3D zooplankton trajectories and surrounding volumetric fluid velocity fields simultaneously and non-intrusively. The method is demonstrated for groups of copepods flowing past a wall-mounted cylinder. We show that copepods execute escape responses when subjected to a strain rate threshold upstream of a cylinder, but the same threshold range elicits no escape responses in the turbulent wake downstream. The method was also used to document the instantaneous slip velocity of zooplankton and the resulting differences in trajectory between zooplankton and non-inertial fluid particles in the unsteady wake flow, showing the method's capability to quantify drift for both passive and motile organisms in turbulent environments. Applications of the method extend to any group of organisms interacting with the surrounding fluid environment, where organism location, larger-scale eddies and smaller-scale fluid deformation rates can all be tracked and analyzed. PMID:26486364

  6. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  7. Evolution of the velocity gradient tensor in the near field of a square cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breda, Massimiliano; Buxton, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    The condition of the velocity gradient tensor (VGT) is analysed in the near field of the flow past a square cylinder. The data was acquired by tomographic particle image velocimetry at a moderate Reynolds number (Re = 16,000). The analysis focused on the evolution of the joint pdf (jpdf) between the second and third invariants of the characteristic equation for the VGT. These invariants are known to fully characterise the state of the VGT and have been previously used to observe the transition to a fully developed turbulent state in the interface region between turbulent and non-turbulent flows. We analyse the flow very close to the cylinder, where developed turbulence is not necessarily expected. The findings show that in the mean recirculation region, where the intermittency of the shear layer is low no tear drop shaped jpdf, indicative of fully developed turbulence, is found. Once the intermittency increases, tear drop shaped jpdfs are found where the velocity fluctuations are not Gaussian distributed, suggesting the small scales reach a fully developed turbulent state ahead of the large ones. This is further investigated by analysing the geometry of the local straining, the vorticity-strain rate alignment and enstrophy production.

  8. Velocity profiles of electric-field-induced backflows in liquid crystals confined between parallel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Tomohiro; Chono, Shigeomi; Matsumi, Takanori

    2015-02-01

    For the purpose of developing liquid crystalline microactuators, we visualize backflows induced between two parallel plates for various parameters such as the twist angle, cell gap, applied voltage, and molecular configuration mode. We use 4-cyano-4'-pentyl biphenyl, a typical low-molar-mass nematic liquid crystal. By increasing the twist angle from 0° to 180°, the velocity component parallel to the anchoring direction of the lower plate changes from an S-shaped profile to a distorted S-shaped profile before finally becoming unidirectional. In contrast, the velocity component perpendicular to the anchoring direction evolves from a flat profile at 0° into an S-shaped profile at 180°. Because both an increase in the applied voltage and a decrease in the cell gap increase the electric field intensity, the backflow becomes large. The hybrid molecular configuration mode induces a larger backflow than that for the planar aligned mode. The backflow develops in two stages: an early stage with a microsecond time scale and a later stage with a millisecond time scale. The numerical predictions are in qualitative agreement with the measurements, but not quantitative agreement because our computation ignores the plate edge effect of surface tension.

  9. An experimental investigation of velocity fields in divergent glottal models of the human vocal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2005-09-01

    In speech, sound production arises from fluid-structure interactions within the larynx as well as viscous flow phenomena that is most likely to occur during the divergent orientation of the vocal folds. Of particular interest are the flow mechanisms that influence the location of flow separation points on the vocal folds walls. Physiologically scaled pulsatile flow fields in 7.5 times real size static divergent glottal models were investigated. Three divergence angles were investigated using phase-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV). The pulsatile glottal jet exhibited a bi-modal stability toward both glottal walls, although there was a significant amount of variance in the angle the jet deflected from the midline. The attachment of the Coanda effect to the glottal model walls occurred when the pulsatile velocity was a maximum, and the acceleration of the waveform was zero. The location of the separation and reattachment points of the flow from the glottal models was a function of the velocity waveform and divergence angle. Acoustic analogies show that a dipole sound source contribution arising from the fluid interaction (Coanda jet) with the vocal fold walls is expected. [Work funded by NIH Grant RO1 DC03577.

  10. Computer simulations of pressure and velocity fields in a human upper airway during sneezing.

    PubMed

    Rahiminejad, Mohammad; Haghighi, Abdalrahman; Dastan, Alireza; Abouali, Omid; Farid, Mehrdad; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the airflow field including the velocity, pressure and turbulence intensity distributions during sneezing of a female subject was simulated using a computational fluid dynamics model of realistic upper airways including both oral and nasal cavities. The effects of variation of reaction of the subject during sneezing were also investigated. That is, the impacts of holding the nose or closing the mouth during sneezing on the pressure and velocity distributions were studied. Few works have studied the sneeze and therefore different aspects of this phenomenon have remained unknown. To cover more possibilities about the inlet condition of trachea in different sneeze scenarios, it was assumed that the suppressed sneeze happens with either the same inlet pressure or the same flow rate as the normal sneeze. The simulation results showed that during a normal sneeze, the pressure in the trachea reaches about 7000Pa, which is much higher than the pressure level of about 200Pa during the high activity exhalation. In addition, the results showed that, suppressing the sneeze by holding the nose or mouth leads to a noticeable increase in pressure difference in the tract. This increase was about 5 to 24 times of that during a normal sneeze. This significant rise in the pressure can justify some reported damage due to suppressing a sneeze. PMID:26914240

  11. Filaments from the galaxy distribution and from the velocity field in the local universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libeskind, Noam I.; Tempel, Elmo; Hoffman, Yehuda; Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Hélène

    2015-10-01

    The cosmic web that characterizes the large-scale structure of the Universe can be quantified by a variety of methods. For example, large redshift surveys can be used in combination with point process algorithms to extract long curvilinear filaments in the galaxy distribution. Alternatively, given a full 3D reconstruction of the velocity field, kinematic techniques can be used to decompose the web into voids, sheets, filaments and knots. In this Letter, we look at how two such algorithms - the Bisous model and the velocity shear web - compare with each other in the local Universe (within 100 Mpc), finding good agreement. This is both remarkable and comforting, given that the two methods are radically different in ideology and applied to completely independent and different data sets. Unsurprisingly, the methods are in better agreement when applied to unbiased and complete data sets, like cosmological simulations, than when applied to observational samples. We conclude that more observational data is needed to improve on these methods, but that both methods are most likely properly tracing the underlying distribution of matter in the Universe.

  12. Whole-field, time resolved velocity measurements of flow structures on insect wings during free flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langley, Kenneth; Thomson, Scott; Truscott, Tadd

    2012-11-01

    The development of micro air vehicles (MAVs) that are propelled using flapping flight necessitates an understanding of the unsteady aerodynamics that enable this mode of flight. Flapping flight has been studied using a variety of methods including computational models, experimentation and observation. Until recently, the observation of natural flyers has been limited to qualitative methods such as smoke-line visualization. Advances in imaging technology have enabled the use of particle image velocimetry (PIV) to gain a quantitative understanding of the unsteady nature of the flight. Previously published PIV studies performed on insects have been limited to velocities in a single plane on tethered insects in a wind tunnel. We present the three-dimensional, time-resolved velocity fields of flight around a butterfly, using an array of high-speed cameras at 1 kHz through a technique known as 3D Synthetic Aperture PIV (SAPIV). These results are useful in understanding the relationship between wing kinematics and the unsteady aerodynamics generated.

  13. The Stellar Content of the COSMOS Field as Derived from Morphological and SED-based Star/Galaxy Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, A. C.; Rich, R. M.; Aussel, H.; Capak, P.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Jahnke, K.; Kakazu, Y.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koekemoer, A.; Leauthaud, A. C.; Lilly, S.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D. J.

    2007-09-01

    We report on the stellar content of the COSMOS two degree field, as derived from a rigorous star-galaxy separation approach developed for using stellar sources to define the point-spread function variation map used in a study of weak galaxy lensing. The catalog obtained in one filter from the ACS (Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope) is cross-identified with ground-based multiwavelength catalogs obtained using the Suprime-Cam instrument on the Subaru Telescope, which makes possible detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting in order to separate stars from QSOs and compact galaxies. The classification is reliable to magnitude F814W=24, and the sample is complete even fainter. We construct a color-magnitude diagram and color histograms and compare them with predictions of a standard model of population synthesis at (l,b)=(236.816deg,+42.12deg). We find features corresponding to the halo subdwarf main-sequence turnoff, the thick disk, and the thin disk. We propose improvements to the standard model that give a better fit: this data set provides constraints on the thick disk and spheroid density laws and on the initial mass function at low mass, although complementary lines of sight would help in lifting the degeneracy between model parameters as well as mitigating any variations in the stellar populations. The depth of this survey makes it possible to explore the spheroid up to distances of ~80 kpc; we find no evidence of a sharp spheroid edge out to this distance, which corresponds to a galactocentric radius of 83 kpc. We identify a blue population of white dwarfs with counts that agree with model predictions. We find a hint for a possible slight stellar overdensity at about 22-34 kpc, but the data are not strong enough at present to claim detection of a stream feature in the halo. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of

  14. Blood flow velocity vector field reconstruction from dual-beam bidirectional Doppler OCT measurements in retinal veins.

    PubMed

    Aschinger, Gerold C; Schmetterer, Leopold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Leitgeb, Rainer A; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Gröschl, Martin; Werkmeister, René M

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the actual blood flow velocity vector field in retinal microvessels from dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography measurements. First, for a better understanding of measured phase patterns, several flow situations were simulated on the basis of the known dual beam measurement geometry. We were able to extract the vector field parameters that determine the measured phase pattern, allowing for the development of an algorithm to reconstruct the velocity vector field from measured phase data. In a next step, measurements were performed at a straight vessel section and at a venous convergence; the obtained phase data were evaluated by means of the new approach. For the straight vessel section, the reconstructed flow velocity vector field yielded a parabolic flow. For the venous convergence, however, the reconstructed vector field deviated from a parabolic profile, but was in very good accordance with the simulated vector field for the given vessel geometry. The proposed algorithm allows predictions of the velocity vector field. Moreover, the algorithm is also sensitive to directional changes of the flow velocity as small as <1°, thereby offering insight in the flow characteristics of the non-Newtonian fluid blood in microvessels. PMID:26137367

  15. Blood flow velocity vector field reconstruction from dual-beam bidirectional Doppler OCT measurements in retinal veins

    PubMed Central

    Aschinger, Gerold C.; Schmetterer, Leopold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Gröschl, Martin; Werkmeister, René M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the actual blood flow velocity vector field in retinal microvessels from dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography measurements. First, for a better understanding of measured phase patterns, several flow situations were simulated on the basis of the known dual beam measurement geometry. We were able to extract the vector field parameters that determine the measured phase pattern, allowing for the development of an algorithm to reconstruct the velocity vector field from measured phase data. In a next step, measurements were performed at a straight vessel section and at a venous convergence; the obtained phase data were evaluated by means of the new approach. For the straight vessel section, the reconstructed flow velocity vector field yielded a parabolic flow. For the venous convergence, however, the reconstructed vector field deviated from a parabolic profile, but was in very good accordance with the simulated vector field for the given vessel geometry. The proposed algorithm allows predictions of the velocity vector field. Moreover, the algorithm is also sensitive to directional changes of the flow velocity as small as <1°, thereby offering insight in the flow characteristics of the non-Newtonian fluid blood in microvessels. PMID:26137367

  16. A new method to disentangle the rotational velocities of stars: Application to main-sequence field Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D. F.; Cassetti, J.; Christen, A.

    2014-10-01

    The projected rotational velocity v sin i is a fundamental observable quantity. In order to obtain the rotational velocity distribution of a sample of v sin i, Chandrasekhar & Münch (1950) developed a formalism to obtain this distribution under the assumption that rotational axes are uniformly distributed, but this method is not usually applied due to an intrinsic numerical problem associated to the derivative of an Abel's integral. An alternative iterative method was developed by Lucy (1974) to disentangle the distribution function of this kind of inverse problem, but this method has no convergence criteria. Here we present a new method to disentangle the distribution of rotational velocities, based on Chandrasekhar & Münch (1950) formalism. We obtain the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the rotational velocities from projected velocities (v sin i) under the standard assumption of uniform distributed rotational axes. Through simulations the method is tested using a) theoretical Maxwellian distribution functions for the rotational velocity distribution and b) with a sample of about 12.500 main-sequence field stars. Our main results are: The method is robust and in just one step gives the cumulative distribution function of rotational velocities. When applied to theoretical distributions it recovers the CDF with very high confidence. When applied to real data, we recover the results from Carvalho et al. (2009) proving that the velocity distribution function of main-sequence field stars is non-Maxwellian and are better described by Tsallis or Kaniadakis distribution functions.

  17. A simple method to estimate threshold friction velocity of wind erosion in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junran; Okin, Gregory S.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Belnap, Jayne; Munson, Seth M.; Miller, Mark E.

    2010-05-01

    This study provides a fast and easy-to-apply method to estimate threshold friction velocity (TFV) of wind erosion in the field. Wind tunnel experiments and a variety of ground measurements including air gun, pocket penetrometer, torvane, and roughness chain were conducted in Moab, Utah and cross-validated in the Mojave Desert, California. Patterns between TFV and ground measurements were examined to identify the optimum method for estimating TFV. The results show that TFVs were best predicted using the air gun and penetrometer measurements in the Moab sites. This empirical method, however, systematically underestimated TFVs in the Mojave Desert sites. Further analysis showed that TFVs in the Mojave sites can be satisfactorily estimated with a correction for rock cover, which is presumably the main cause of the underestimation of TFVs. The proposed method may be also applied to estimate TFVs in environments where other non-erodible elements such as postharvest residuals are found.

  18. Velocity Vector Field Visualization of Flow in Liquid Acquisition Device Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John B.; Chao, David F.; Hall, Nancy R.; Zhang, Nengli

    2012-01-01

    A capillary flow liquid acquisition device (LAD) for cryogenic propellants has been developed and tested in NASA Glenn Research Center to meet the requirements of transferring cryogenic liquid propellants from storage tanks to an engine in reduced gravity environments. The prototypical mesh screen channel LAD was fabricated with a mesh screen, covering a rectangular flow channel with a cylindrical outlet tube, and was tested with liquid oxygen (LOX). In order to better understand the performance in various gravity environments and orientations at different liquid submersion depths of the screen channel LAD, a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of LOX flow through the LAD screen channel was undertaken. The resulting velocity vector field visualization for the flow in the channel has been used to reveal the gravity effects on the flow in the screen channel.

  19. Gated photon correlation spectroscopy for acoustical particle velocity measurements in free-field conditions.

    PubMed

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos; Piper, Ben; Theobald, Pete

    2013-03-01

    The measurement of acoustic pressure at a point in space using optical methods has been the subject of extensive research in airborne acoustics over the last four decades. The main driver is to reliably establish the acoustic pascal, thus allowing the calibration of microphones with standard and non-standard dimensions to be realized in an absolute and direct manner. However, the research work so far has mostly been limited to standing wave tubes. This Letter reports on the development of an optical system capable of measuring acoustic particle velocities in free-field conditions; agreement within less than 0.6 dB was obtained with standard microphone measurements during these initial experiments. PMID:23464122

  20. The X-Ray Luminosity Functions of Field Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries in Early-Type Galaxies: Evidence for a Stellar Age Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Berkeley, M.; Zezas, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Basu-Zych, A.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Kalogera, V.; Ptak, A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Tzanavaris, P.; Yukita, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present direct constraints on how the formation of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations in galactic fields depends on stellar age. In this pilot study, we utilize Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to detect and characterize the X-ray point source populations of three nearby early-type galaxies: NGC 3115, 3379, and 3384. The luminosity-weighted stellar ages of our sample span approximately equal to 3-10 Gyr. X-ray binary population synthesis models predict that the field LMXBs associated with younger stellar populations should be more numerous and luminous per unit stellar mass than older populations due to the evolution of LMXB donor star masses. Crucially, the combination of deep Chandra and HST observations allows us to test directly this prediction by identifying and removing counterparts to X-ray point sources that are unrelated to the field LMXB populations, including LMXBs that are formed dynamically in globular clusters, Galactic stars, and background AGN/galaxies. We find that the "young" early-type galaxy NGC 3384 (approximately equals 2-5 Gyr) has an excess of luminous field LMXBs (L(sub x) approximately greater than (5-10) × 10(exp 37) erg s(exp -1)) per unit K-band luminosity (L(sub K); a proxy for stellar mass) than the "old" early-type galaxies NGC 3115 and 3379 (approximately equals 8-10 Gyr), which results in a factor of 2-3 excess of L(sub X)/L(sub K) for NGC 3384. This result is consistent with the X-ray binary population synthesis model predictions; however, our small galaxy sample size does not allow us to draw definitive conclusions on the evolution field LMXBs in general. We discuss how future surveys of larger galaxy samples that combine deep Chandra and HST data could provide a powerful new benchmark for calibrating X-ray binary population synthesis models.

  1. The X-ray luminosity functions of field low-mass X-ray binaries in early-type galaxies: Evidence for a stellar age dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmer, B. D.; Tzanavaris, P.; Yukita, M.; Berkeley, M.; Basu-Zych, A.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Ptak, A.; Zezas, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fragos, T.; Kalogera, V.; Sivakoff, G. R.

    2014-07-01

    We present direct constraints on how the formation of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations in galactic fields depends on stellar age. In this pilot study, we utilize Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to detect and characterize the X-ray point source populations of three nearby early-type galaxies: NGC 3115, 3379, and 3384. The luminosity-weighted stellar ages of our sample span ≈3-10 Gyr. X-ray binary population synthesis models predict that the field LMXBs associated with younger stellar populations should be more numerous and luminous per unit stellar mass than older populations due to the evolution of LMXB donor star masses. Crucially, the combination of deep Chandra and HST observations allows us to test directly this prediction by identifying and removing counterparts to X-ray point sources that are unrelated to the field LMXB populations, including LMXBs that are formed dynamically in globular clusters, Galactic stars, and background active galactic nuclei/galaxies. We find that the 'young' early-type galaxy NGC 3384 (≈2-5 Gyr) has an excess of luminous field LMXBs (L {sub X} ≳ (5-10) × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}) per unit K-band luminosity (L{sub K} ; a proxy for stellar mass) than the 'old' early-type galaxies NGC 3115 and 3379 (≈8-10 Gyr), which results in a factor of ≈2-3 excess of L {sub X}/L{sub K} for NGC 3384. This result is consistent with the X-ray binary population synthesis model predictions; however, our small galaxy sample size does not allow us to draw definitive conclusions on the evolution field LMXBs in general. We discuss how future surveys of larger galaxy samples that combine deep Chandra and HST data could provide a powerful new benchmark for calibrating X-ray binary population synthesis models.

  2. Predicting field-scale dispersion under realistic conditions with the polar Markovian velocity process model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dünser, Simon; Meyer, Daniel W.

    2016-06-01

    In most groundwater aquifers, dispersion of tracers is dominated by flow-field inhomogeneities resulting from the underlying heterogeneous conductivity or transmissivity field. This effect is referred to as macrodispersion. Since in practice, besides a few point measurements the complete conductivity field is virtually never available, a probabilistic treatment is needed. To quantify the uncertainty in tracer concentrations from a given geostatistical model for the conductivity, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is typically used. To avoid the excessive computational costs of MC, the polar Markovian velocity process (PMVP) model was recently introduced delivering predictions at about three orders of magnitude smaller computing times. In artificial test cases, the PMVP model has provided good results in comparison with MC. In this study, we further validate the model in a more challenging and realistic setup. The setup considered is derived from the well-known benchmark macrodispersion experiment (MADE), which is highly heterogeneous and non-stationary with a large number of unevenly scattered conductivity measurements. Validations were done against reference MC and good overall agreement was found. Moreover, simulations of a simplified setup with a single measurement were conducted in order to reassess the model's most fundamental assumptions and to provide guidance for model improvements.

  3. Numerical studies of light-matter interaction driven by plasmonic fields: The velocity gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón, A.; Ciappina, M. F.; Lewenstein, M.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional theoretical approaches to model strong field phenomena driven by plasmonic fields are based on the length gauge formulation of the laser-matter coupling. Obviously, from the physical point of view, there exists no preferable gauge and, consequently, the predictions and outcomes should be independent of this choice. The use of the length gauge is mainly due to the fact that the quantity obtained from finite-element simulations of plasmonic fields is the plasmonic enhanced laser electric field rather than the laser vector potential. We develop, from first principles, the velocity gauge formulation of the problem and we apply it to the high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) in atoms. A comparison to the results obtained with the length gauge is made. As expected, it is analytically and numerically demonstrated that both gauges give equivalent descriptions of the emitted HHG spectra resulting from the interaction of a spatially inhomogeneous field and the single active electron model of the helium atom. We discuss, however, advantages and disadvantages of using different gauges in terms of numerical efficiency, which turns out to be very different. In order to understand it, we analyze the quantum mechanical results using time-frequency Gabor distributions. This analysis, combined with classical calculations based on solutions of the Newton equation, yields important physical insight into the electronic quantum paths underlying the dynamics of the harmonic generation process. The results obtained in this way also allow us to assess the quality of the quantum approaches in both gauges and put stringent limits on the numerical parameters required for a desired accuracy.

  4. Internal deformation and velocity field measurements by use of digital speckle radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, Fredrik; Grantham, Stephen G.

    2003-05-01

    Using X-rays as information carriers it is possible to obtain data about motion inside an object that is opaque to visible light. An image correlation algorithm can be applied to a set of two X-ray images taken sequentially during a process, where the interior of the object is in motion. A displacement field describing the projected intermediate motion is thus obtained to sub-pixel accuracy. If this image set is expanded to contain several pictures separated in time, together describing the whole process, the images can be sequentially correlated to obtain a dynamic displacement field. In this paper, dynamical displacement field measurements have been carried out on two different objects, the first being a silo, where the motion of the flowing material in the center plane is investigated. In the second case, the motion in a layer of glue between two wooden plates is examined during a process where a shearing force acts on the system. The plane in which the measurements are carried out is defined by the use of a contrast agent, usually a tungsten powder seeding. The obtained displacement field, together with the known intermediate time interval between exposures, gives the velocity field in the seeded plane. The results show good agreement with the expected motion in the respective processes, but also provide evidence of behavior that would be undetectable using other existing techniques. A third experiment has also been carried out on a material requiring no contrast enhancing media. These measurements were performed on a chicken thigh being deformed by an external force. The results will be discussed in relation to their reliability and applicability. Further, the direction of future research will be indicated.

  5. Concurrent field measurements of turbulent velocities, plant reconfiguration and drag forces on Ranunculus penicillatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Maike; Thomas, Robert E.; Keevil, Gareth M.

    2013-04-01

    In lowland rivers, seasonal patterns of in-stream macrophyte growth and decay have significant implications for flood risk. For a given discharge, flood risk is increased when dense macrophyte canopies reduce flow areas, increase blockage ratios and alter reach-scale roughness values. These factors combine and can increase the flow depth. Conversely, submerged vegetation is exposed to drag forces exerted by the flow, which may be sufficient to damage limbs or dislodge plants. The classical drag equation suggests that the force exerted by fluid flows upon submerged vegetation is a function of the fluid properties, the projected area of the vegetation, and the square of the flow velocity. However, very few studies have simultaneously monitored all of these parameters, resulting in significant uncertainty in the estimation of the coefficient that relates these parameters to the drag force and also the related roughness parameters that control the flow depth for a given discharge. To our knowledge, this study presents the first concurrent field measurements of turbulent velocities, plant reconfigurations and drag forces acting on Ranunculus penicillatus ssp. pseudofluitans (Syme) S.D.Webster. Measurements were undertaken in an artificially straightened reach of the chalk-bed River Wylye, near Longbridge Deverill, Wiltshire, UK. The reach is 5.7 m wide and during measurements there was a mean flow depth of 0.28 m and an average discharge of 0.28 m³s-1. The reach is cleared of vegetation up to three times a year for flood defence purposes, but Ranunculus p. grows back within several weeks. Measurements were carried out after re-growth, when plants were fully developed with a mean length of 0.75 m and on average 6 nodes along the stem. The distances between the nodes increased from the base towards the tip and each node produced a capillary leaf, sometimes in conjunction with a branch. Floating leaves and flowers were not present. Plants were attached to a custom

  6. Minimalist coupled evolution model for stellar X-ray activity, rotation, mass loss, and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.; Owen, James E.

    2016-05-01

    Late-type main-sequence stars exhibit an X-ray to bolometric flux ratio that depends on {tilde{R}o}, the ratio of rotation period to convective turnover time, as {tilde{R}o}^{-ζ } with 2 ≤ ζ ≤ 3 for {tilde{R}o} > 0.13, but saturates with |ζ| < 0.2 for {tilde{R}o} < 0.13. Saturated stars are younger than unsaturated stars and show a broader spread of rotation rates and X-ray activity. The unsaturated stars have magnetic fields and rotation speeds that scale roughly with the square root of their age, though possibly flattening for stars older than the Sun. The connection between faster rotators, stronger fields, and higher activity has been established observationally, but a theory for the unified time-evolution of X-ray luminosity, rotation, magnetic field and mass loss that captures the above trends has been lacking. Here we derive a minimalist holistic framework for the time evolution of these quantities built from combining a Parker wind with new ingredients: (1) explicit sourcing of both the thermal energy launching the wind and the X-ray luminosity via dynamo produced magnetic fields; (2) explicit coupling of X-ray activity and mass-loss saturation to dynamo saturation (via magnetic helicity build-up and convection eddy shredding); (3) use of coronal equilibrium to determine how magnetic energy is divided into wind and X-ray contributions. For solar-type stars younger than the Sun, we infer conduction to be a subdominant power loss compared to X-rays and wind. For older stars, conduction is more important, possibly quenching the wind and reducing angular momentum loss. We focus on the time evolution for stars younger than the Sun, highlighting what is possible for further generalizations. Overall, the approach shows promise towards a unified explanation of all of the aforementioned observational trends.

  7. Rejuvenation of stellar mergers and the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Langer, N.; Castro, N.; Fossati, L.

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 10 per cent of massive OBA main-sequence (MS) and pre-MS stars harbour strong, large-scale magnetic fields. At the same time, there is a dearth of magnetic stars in close binaries. A process generating strong magnetic fields only in some stars must be responsible with the merging of pre-MS and MS stars being suggested as one such channel. Stars emerging from the coalescence of two MS stars are rejuvenated, appearing younger than they are. They can therefore be identified by comparison with reference clocks. Here, we predict the rejuvenation of MS merger products over a wide range of masses and binary configurations calibrated to smoothed-particle-hydrodynamical merger models. We find that the rejuvenation is of the order of the nuclear time-scale and is strongest in the lowest mass mergers and the most evolved binary progenitors with the largest mass ratios. These predictions allow us to put constraints on the binary progenitors of merger products. We show that the magnetic stars HR 2949 and τ Sco are younger than the potential binary companion HR 2948 and the Upper-Sco association, respectively, making them promising merger candidates. We find that the age discrepancies and the potential binary progenitors of both are consistent with them being rejuvenated merger products, implying that their magnetic fields may originate from this channel. Searching for age discrepancies in magnetic stars is therefore a powerful way to explore which fraction of magnetic stars may have obtained their strong magnetic field in MS mergers and to improve our understanding of magnetism in massive stars and their remnants.

  8. Field observations of seismic velocity changes caused by shaking-induced damage and healing due to mesoscopic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassenmeier, M.; Sens-Schönfelder, C.; Eulenfeld, T.; Bartsch, M.; Victor, P.; Tilmann, F.; Korn, M.

    2016-03-01

    To investigate temporal seismic velocity changes due to earthquake related processes and environmental forcing in Northern Chile, we analyse 8 yr of ambient seismic noise recorded by the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC). By autocorrelating the ambient seismic noise field measured on the vertical components, approximations of the Green's functions are retrieved and velocity changes are measured with Coda Wave Interferometry. At station PATCX, we observe seasonal changes in seismic velocity caused by thermal stress as well as transient velocity reductions in the frequency range of 4-6 Hz. Sudden velocity drops occur at the time of mostly earthquake-induced ground shaking and recover over a variable period of time. We present an empirical model that describes the seismic velocity variations based on continuous observations of the local ground acceleration. The model assumes that not only the shaking of large earthquakes causes velocity drops, but any small vibrations continuously induce minor velocity variations that are immediately compensated by healing in the steady state. We show that the shaking effect is accumulated over time and best described by the integrated envelope of the ground acceleration over the discretization interval of the velocity measurements, which is one day. In our model, the amplitude of the velocity reduction as well as the recovery time are proportional to the size of the excitation. This model with two free scaling parameters fits the data of the shaking induced velocity variation in remarkable detail. Additionally, a linear trend is observed that might be related to a recovery process from one or more earthquakes before our measurement period. A clear relationship between ground shaking and induced velocity reductions is not visible at other stations. We attribute the outstanding sensitivity of PATCX to ground shaking and thermal stress to the special geological setting of the station, where the subsurface material

  9. Stellar explosion in the weak field approximation of the Brans Dicke theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamity, Victor H.; Barraco, Daniel E.

    2005-10-01

    We treat a very crude model of an exploding star, in the weak field approximation of the Brans Dicke theory, in a scenario that resembles some characteristic data of a type Ia supernova. The most noticeable feature, in the electromagnetic component, is the relationship between the absolute magnitude at maximum brightness of the star and the decline rate in one magnitude from that maximum. This characteristic has become one of the most accurate methods to measure luminosity distances to objects at cosmological distances (Phillips M M 1993 Astrophys. J. 413 L105; see www.all-science-fair-projects.com/science_fair_projects_encyclopedia/Supernova, for a brief description of supernovae types). An interesting result is that the active mass associated with the scalar field is totally radiated to infinity, representing a mass loss in the ratio of the 'tensor' component to the scalar component of 1 to (2ω + 3) (ω is the Brans Dicke parameter), in agreement with a general result of Hawking (1972 Commun. Math. Phys. 25 167). Then, this model shows explicitly, in a dynamical case, the mechanism of the radiation of a scalar field, which is necessary to understand the Hawking result.

  10. TURBULENT CONVECTION IN STELLAR INTERIORS. III. MEAN-FIELD ANALYSIS AND STRATIFICATION EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Viallet, Maxime; Meakin, Casey; Mocak, Miroslav; Arnett, David

    2013-05-20

    We present three-dimensional implicit large eddy simulations of the turbulent convection in the envelope of a 5 M{sub Sun} red giant star and in the oxygen-burning shell of a 23 M{sub Sun} supernova progenitor. The numerical models are analyzed in the framework of one-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The effects of pressure fluctuations are more important in the red giant model, owing to larger stratification of the convective zone. We show how this impacts different terms in the mean-field equations. We clarify the driving sources of kinetic energy, and show that the rate of turbulent dissipation is comparable to the convective luminosity. Although our flows have low Mach numbers and are nearly adiabatic, our analysis is general and can be applied to photospheric convection as well. The robustness of our analysis of turbulent convection is supported by the insensitivity of the mean-field balances to linear mesh resolution. We find robust results for the turbulent convection zone and the stable layers in the oxygen-burning shell model, and robust results everywhere in the red giant model, but the mean fields are not well converged in the narrow boundary regions (which contain steep gradients) in the oxygen-burning shell model. This last result illustrates the importance of unresolved physics at the convective boundary, which governs the mixing there.

  11. Critical points of the cosmic velocity field and the uncertainties in the value of the Hubble constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Mohayaee, Roya; Naselsky, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The existence of critical points for the peculiar velocity field is a natural feature of the correlated vector field. These points appear at the junctions of velocity domains with different orientations of their averaged velocity vectors. Since peculiar velocities are the important cause of the scatter in the Hubble expansion rate, we propose that a more precise determination of the Hubble constant can be made by restricting analysis to a subsample of observational data containing only the zones around the critical points of the peculiar velocity field, associated with voids and saddle points. On large-scales the critical points, where the first derivative of the gravitational potential vanishes, can easily be identified using the density field and classified by the behavior of the Hessian of the gravitational potential. We use high-resolution N-body simulations to show that these regions are stable in time and hence are excellent tracers of the initial conditions. Furthermore, we show that the variance of the Hubble flow can be substantially minimized by restricting observations to the subsample of such regions of vanishing velocity instead of aiming at increasing the statistics by averaging indiscriminately using the full data sets, as is the common approach.

  12. DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY LEO A: SUPRIME-CAM WIDE-FIELD STELLAR PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Stonkutė, Rima; Narbutis, Donatas; Vansevičius, Vladas; Arimoto, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Takashi; Tamura, Naoyuki

    2014-10-01

    We have surveyed a complete extent of Leo A—an apparently isolated gas-rich low-mass dwarf irregular galaxy in the Local Group. The B, V, and I passband CCD images (typical seeing ∼0.''8) were obtained with the Subaru Telescope equipped with the Suprime-Cam mosaic camera. The wide-field (20' × 24') photometry catalog of 38,856 objects (V ∼ 16-26 mag) is presented. This survey is also intended to serve as ''a finding chart'' for future imaging and spectroscopic observation programs of Leo A.

  13. On the magnetic field required for driving the observed angular-velocity variations in the solar convection zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antia, H. M.; Chitre, S. M.; Gough, D. O.

    2013-01-01

    A putative temporally varying circulation-free magnetic-field configuration is inferred in an equatorial segment of the solar convection zone from the helioseismologically inferred angular-velocity variation, assuming that the predominant dynamics is an angular acceleration produced by the azimuthal Maxwell stress exerted by a field whose surface values are consistent with photospheric line-of-sight measurements.

  14. Double-helix stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-09-01

    A new stellarator configuration, the Double-Helix Stellarator (DHS), is introduced. This novel configuration features a double-helix center post as the only helical element of the stellarator coil system. The DHS configuration has many unique characteristics. One of them is the extreme low plasma aspect ratio, A {approx} 1--1.2. Other advantages include a high enclosed volume, appreciable rotational transform, and a possibility of extreme-high-{beta} MHD equilibria. Moreover, the DHS features improved transport characteristics caused by the absence of the magnetic field ripple on the outboard of the torus. Compactness, simplicity and modularity of the coil system add to the DHS advantages for fusion applications.

  15. How good a clock is rotation? The stellar rotation-mass-age relationship for old field stars

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Courtney R.; Pinsonneault, Marc H. E-mail: pinsono@astronomy.ohio-state.edu

    2014-01-10

    The rotation-mass-age relationship offers a promising avenue for measuring the ages of field stars, assuming the attendant uncertainties to this technique can be well characterized. We model stellar angular momentum evolution starting with a rotation distribution from open cluster M37. Our predicted rotation-mass-age relationship shows significant zero-point offsets compared to an alternative angular momentum loss law and published gyrochronology relations. Systematic errors at the 30% level are permitted by current data, highlighting the need for empirical guidance. We identify two fundamental sources of uncertainty that limit the precision of rotation-based ages and quantify their impact. Stars are born with a range of rotation rates, which leads to an age range at fixed rotation period. We find that the inherent ambiguity from the initial conditions is important for all young stars, and remains large for old stars below 0.6 M {sub ☉}. Latitudinal surface differential rotation also introduces a minimum uncertainty into rotation period measurements and, by extension, rotation-based ages. Both models and the data from binary star systems 61 Cyg and α Cen demonstrate that latitudinal differential rotation is the limiting factor for rotation-based age precision among old field stars, inducing uncertainties at the ∼2 Gyr level. We also examine the relationship between variability amplitude, rotation period, and age. Existing ground-based surveys can detect field populations with ages as old as 1-2 Gyr, while space missions can detect stars as old as the Galactic disk. In comparison with other techniques for measuring the ages of lower main sequence stars, including geometric parallax and asteroseismology, rotation-based ages have the potential to be the most precise chronometer for 0.6-1.0 M {sub ☉} stars.

  16. The ultrasonic velocity profile measurement of flow structure in the near field of a square free jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Y.; Yamashita, S.; Kondo, K.

    Coherent structures in the near field of a three-dimensional jet have been investigated. Experiments were carried out for a free jet issuing from a square nozzle using a water channel. Instantaneous velocity profiles were obtained in the axial and radial directions by using an ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) monitor. Axial variations of dominant time-scales of vortex structures were examined from one-dimensional wavelet spectra. Wavenumber-frequency spectra were calculated by two-dimensional Fourier transform along the axial direction in a mixing layer, and it was found that a convective velocity of flow structures was nearly constant independently of their scales in space and time. Coherent structures in the axial direction were investigated in terms of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Eigenfunctions are similar to a sinusoidal wave, and reconstructed velocity fields by the lower-order and higher-order POD modes demonstrate large-scale and smaller-scale coherent structures, respectively.

  17. Evidence for stellar chromospheres presented by ground based spectra of the sun and stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praderie, F.

    1973-01-01

    Direct observational evidence of stellar chromospheres is provided by H and K lines and their relationships to mass flux, mechanical dissipation and magnetic fields. Interpretation of half widths of these lines and of the H alpha lines provides indirect indications of potential chromospheric heating in the presence of velocity fields.

  18. Study of SBS 1202+583. Features of the Radial Velocity Distribution Over the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakopian, S. A.

    2014-09-01

    This article is a continuation of our study of the galaxy SBS 1202+583 (VV270ab) by using panoramic spectroscopy data obtained in our observations with multipupil spectrographs - the MPFS at the 6-m telescope of the SAO of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the `'VAGR" at the 2.6-m telescope of the BAO in Armenia. An analysis of the radial velocity field in the Hα emission line of this object, previously characterized as a complex consisting of more than nine HII regions [1], indicates the two main substructures of them. The closest substructure associated with the HII region SBS1202+583C1 (from the component VV270b) is disintegrating under the influence of a distant substructure associated with SBS1202+583NE4 (from the component VV270a) which is the most massive and most powerful Hα emission source. The perturbation field, owing to its gravitational effect, stimulates a directed motion of most of the HII regions as they rotate simultaneously.

  19. Using microencapsulated fluorescent dyes for simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, J.; Stephan, P.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a novel particle image thermometry method based on microcapsules filled with a fluorescent dye solution is described. The microcapsules consist of a liquid core of hexadecane in which the dye is dissolved and a solid polymer shell. The combination of a temperature-sensitive dye (Pyrromethene 597-8C9) and a dye showing a relatively smaller temperature sensitivity (Pyrromethene 567) in hexadecane makes application of the ratiometric LIF possible. This is necessary to compensate for fluctuations of the illuminating pulsed Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) as well as the different particle sizes. The applicability of this measurement technique is demonstrated for a cubic test cell (10 × 10 × 10 mm3) with flow and temperature fields driven by natural convection and a capillary tube (1.16 mm inner diameter) inducing a temperature gradient and a Hagen-Poiseuille velocity profile. For the first case, a light sheet illumination is used making two optical accesses necessary. In the second case an inverted microscope is used, so only one optical access is needed and a volume illumination is applied. The technique facilitates high-resolution measurements (first case: 79 × 79 μm2 second case: 8 × 8 μm2). Although the measurement uncertainty is high compared to LIF measurements with dissolved dyes, temperature fields can be reproduced very well, and the experimental results are in good agreement with numerical computations.

  20. Chiral symmetry and effective field theories for hadronic, nuclear and stellar matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jeremy W.; Rho, Mannque; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    Chiral symmetry, first entering in nuclear physics in the 1970s for which Gerry Brown played a seminal role, has led to a stunningly successful framework for describing strongly-correlated nuclear dynamics both in finite and infinite systems. We review how the early, germinal idea conceived with the soft-pion theorems in the pre-QCD era has evolved into a highly predictive theoretical framework for nuclear physics, aptly assessed by Steven Weinberg: "it (chiral effective field theory) allows one to show in a fairly convincing way that what they (nuclear physicists) have been doing all along... is the correct first step in a consistent approximation scheme". Our review recounts both how the theory presently fares in confronting Nature and how one can understand its extremely intricate workings in terms of the multifaceted aspects of chiral symmetry, namely, chiral perturbation theory, skyrmions, Landau Fermi-liquid theory, the Cheshire cat phenomenon, and hidden local and mended symmetries.

  1. Is there a magnetic field that can enforce almost uniform rotation in a stellar radiative zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassoul, Jean-Louis; Tassoul, Monique

    1989-10-01

    Using methods proposed by Mestel et al. (1988), a large set of low-viscosity numerical models was developed to verify the prediction of these authors that, unless the magnetic field is extremely weak, the influence of the Lorentz force becomes so strong that only very slight differential rotation will be possible. Present results clearly show either the gradual appearance or the maintenance (depending on the initial conditions) of differential rotation over a time of the order of the Alfven time t(A). The conflicting roles of the viscous and magnetic forces are discussed. It is emphasized that uniform rotation can only be achieved with some kind of viscous action; purely magnetic action cannot do the job.

  2. Measurement of diffusion length and surface recombination velocity in Interdigitated Back Contact (IBC) and Front Surface Field (FSF) solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinden, Pierre; Van de Wiele, Fernand

    1985-03-01

    A method is proposed for measuring the diffusion length and surface recombination velocity of Interdigitated Back Contact (IBC) solar cells by means of a simple linear regression on experimental quantum efficiency values versus the inverse of the absorption coefficient. This method is extended to the case of Front Surface Field (FSF) solar cells. Under certain conditions, the real or the effective surface recombination velocity may be measured.

  3. A hybrid experimental-numerical technique for determining 3D velocity fields from planar 2D PIV data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, A.; Sigurdson, M.; Mezić, I.; Meinhart, C. D.

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of 3D, three component velocity fields is central to the understanding and development of effective microfluidic devices for lab-on-chip mixing applications. In this paper we present a hybrid experimental-numerical method for the generation of 3D flow information from 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental data and finite element simulations of an alternating current electrothermal (ACET) micromixer. A numerical least-squares optimization algorithm is applied to a theory-based 3D multiphysics simulation in conjunction with 2D PIV data to generate an improved estimation of the steady state velocity field. This 3D velocity field can be used to assess mixing phenomena more accurately than would be possible through simulation alone. Our technique can also be used to estimate uncertain quantities in experimental situations by fitting the gathered field data to a simulated physical model. The optimization algorithm reduced the root-mean-squared difference between the experimental and simulated velocity fields in the target region by more than a factor of 4, resulting in an average error less than 12% of the average velocity magnitude.

  4. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-07-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  5. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-03-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  6. Surface deformation and tectonic setting of Taiwan inferred from a GPS velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Annemarie G.; Spakman, Wim; Nyst, Marleen C. J.

    2003-10-01

    We have determined the present-day surface deformation of Taiwan by computing the velocity gradient field and fault slip from 143 GPS velocity vectors. In southern Taiwan the derived strain and rotation rates and fault slips are indicative of lateral extrusion toward the south. In northern Taiwan we infer the onset of gravitational collapse which is induced by the on-land extension of the Okinawa Trough. In the eastern Central Range the observed inverted NW-SE extension is consistent with geological observations and high heat flow measurements. This could be the result of exhumation of crustal material. The model further shows a significant decrease in slip rate northward along the Longitudinal Valley fault at 23.7°N. The northern Coastal Range shows high strain rates and two oppositely rotating blocks. By combining the surface deformation model with seismicity data and seismic tomography we are able to propose a coherent model for the present-day tectonic activity. Both seismicity and tomography show further evidence for active, southward propagating exhumation of a crustal slice in the eastern Central Range. Offshore east Taiwan we deduce strong evidence of a southward propagating crustal tear fault, accommodating most of the Philippine Sea Plate-Eurasian Plate convergence. The tear is the crustal response to incipient northwestward subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate. Thus the Ryukyu Trench is bending southward becoming almost perpendicular to the convergence direction, while subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate continues. In this setting a sudden rapid southward propagation of the afore mentioned tear is conceivable.

  7. Experimental study of stratified jet by simultaneous measurements of velocity and density fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Duo; Chen, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Stratified flows with small density difference commonly exist in geophysical and engineering applications, which often involve interaction of turbulence and buoyancy effect. A combined particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) system is developed to measure the velocity and density fields in a dense jet discharged horizontally into a tank filled with light fluid. The illumination of PIV particles and excitation of PLIF dye are achieved by a dual-head pulsed Nd:YAG laser and two CCD cameras with a set of optical filters. The procedure for matching refractive indexes of two fluids and calibration of the combined system are presented, as well as a quantitative analysis of the measurement uncertainties. The flow structures and mixing dynamics within the central vertical plane are studied by examining the averaged parameters, turbulent kinetic energy budget, and modeling of momentum flux and buoyancy flux. At downstream, profiles of velocity and density display strong asymmetry with respect to its center. This is attributed to the fact that stable stratification reduces mixing and unstable stratification enhances mixing. In stable stratification region, most of turbulence production is consumed by mean-flow convection, whereas in unstable stratification region, turbulence production is nearly balanced by viscous dissipation. Experimental data also indicate that at downstream locations, mixing length model performs better in mixing zone of stable stratification regions, whereas in other regions, eddy viscosity/diffusivity models with static model coefficients represent effectively momentum and buoyancy flux terms. The measured turbulent Prandtl number displays strong spatial variation in the stratified jet.

  8. Three-dimensional simulation of the motion of a single particle under a simulated turbulent velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Casas, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    A 3D Lagrangian particle tracking model is coupled to a 3D channel velocity field to simulate the saltation motion of a single sediment particle moving in saltation mode. The turbulent field is a high-resolution three dimensional velocity field that reproduces a by-pass transition to turbulence on a flat plate due to free-stream turbulence passing above de plate. In order to reduce computational costs, a decoupled approached is used, i.e., the turbulent flow is simulated independently from the tracking model, and then used to feed the 3D Lagrangian particle model. The simulations are carried using the point-particle approach. The particle tracking model contains three sub-models, namely, particle free-flight, a post-collision velocity and bed representation sub-models. The free-flight sub-model considers the action of the following forces: submerged weight, non-linear drag, lift, virtual mass, Magnus and Basset forces. The model also includes the effect of particle angular velocity. The post-collision velocities are obtained by applying conservation of angular and linear momentum. The complete model was validated with experimental results from literature within the sand range. Results for particle velocity time series and distribution of particle turbulent intensities are presented.

  9. Binary systems, star clusters and the Galactic-field population. Applied stellar dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroupa, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    This book contains the results of recent theoretical work on the evolution of primordial binary systems in young star clusters, their effect on the evolution of their host clusters, implications for the distribution of young stars in the Milky Way, and the formation of bound star clusters. This work shows that if the Galactic-field binary population is a dynamically evolved version of the Taurus-Auriga pre-main sequence population, then most stars form in clusters with typically a few hundred binaries within a radius of about 0.5-1 pc. The results also suggest that the population I primordial binary-star orbital-parameter distribution functions may be universal, much like the initial mass function. Most solar-like planetary systems can survive in such clusters. The work presented here also establishes that most observed triple and quadruple systems must be primordial, but that α Cen A/B-Proxima Cen-like systems can form in clusters through dynamical capture. Precise N-body calculations using Aarseth's N-body codes of clusters containing up to 104 stars are used to create an extensive young-cluster library. These data demonstrate that the primordial binary systems are disrupted on a crossing-time scale, and that the truncation of the surviving period distribution measures the maximum concentration the cluster ever experienced. The N-body calculations demonstrate that Galactic star clusters form readily as nuclei of expanding OB associations despite a star-formation efficiency of typically 30 per cent and gas-expulsion over a time-span shorter than the cluster crossing time.

  10. Magnetic and Velocity Field of Sunspots in the Photosphere and Upper Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Jayant

    2014-03-01

    Sunspots, the dark blemishes on the solar surface have been widely studied for the past 400 years. Sunspots are the most readily identifiable manifestation of magnetic field concentrations on the solar surface. Interaction of the sunspot magnetic field with the plasma makes them one of the most interesting objects for research in solar physics. This thesis presents a study of the photospheric and upper chromospheric velocity and magnetic field structure of sunspots by analyzing spectro-polarimetric observations. These observations comprise different spectral lines obtained with two ground based telescopes and a space borne telescope. The lower brightness of sunspots on the solar surface is due to the presence of strong magnetic fields (up to 4 kG in the umbra), which makes the overturning convection inefficient. Convection is the main heat transport mechanism in the quiet Sun. The Penumbra, the annular part around the umbra has a brightness of about 75% of that in the quiet Sun. At the same time it has an average magnetic field strength of around 1.5 kG. The brightness of penumbrae has been an enigma for solar physicists for a long time. Theoretical models like the gappy penumbra model and the convective roll model as well as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations suggest that the heat transport in penumbrae is based on the presence of overturning convection. Direct observational evidence for the presence of convective flows in penumbral filaments was missing so far. In Chapter 3 we present observations of a penumbra in the C i 5380 Å spectral line formed in the deep photosphere. These high spatial resolution observations (0. '' 14) are obtained with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST). Doppler map clearly shows the presence of several dark downflow lanes at the edges of the penumbral filaments which surround the bright upflows at the center of the filaments, supporting overturning convection as a mechanism of heat transport in penumbrae. Chapter 4 analyses the

  11. Stellar Dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Paul

    This chapter steps finally away from the sun and towards the stars, the idea being to apply the physical insight gained so far to see how much of stellar magnetism can be understood in terms of dynamo action. Dynamo action in the convective core of massive main-sequence stars is first considered and shown viable. For intermediate-mass main-sequence stars the fossil field hypothesis will carry the day, although possible dynamo alternatives are also briefly discussed. The extension of the solar dynamo models investigated in Chap. 3 (10.1007/978-3-642-32093-4_3) to other solar-type stars will first take us through an important detour in first having to understand rotational evolution in response to angular momentum loss in a magnetized wind. Dynamo action in fully convective stars comes next, and the chapter closes with an overview of the situation for pre- and post-main-sequence stars and compact objects, leading finally to the magnetic fields of galaxies and beyond.

  12. DEPENDENCE OF THE TURBULENT VELOCITY FIELD ON GAS DENSITY IN L1551

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Atsushi; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kawabe, Ryohei E-mail: kitamura@isas.jaxa.j

    2010-08-01

    We have carried out mapping observations of the entire L1551 molecular cloud with about 2 pc x 2 pc size in the {sup 12}CO(1-0) line with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope at the high effective resolution of 22'' (corresponding to 0.017 pc at the distance of 160 pc), and analyzed the {sup 12}CO data together with the {sup 13}CO(1-0) and C{sup 18}O(1-0) data from the Nobeyama Radio Observatory database. We derived the new non-thermal line width-size relations, {sigma}{sub NT} {proportional_to} L {sup {gamma}}, for the three molecular lines, corrected for the effect of optical depth and the line-of-sight integration. To investigate the characteristic of the intrinsic turbulence, the effects of the outflows were removed. The derived relations are ({sigma}{sub NT}/km s{sup -1}) = (0.18 {+-} 0.010)(L/pc){sup 0.45{+-}0.095}, (0.20 {+-} 0.020)(L/pc){sup 0.48{+-}0.091}, and (0.22 {+-} 0.050) (L/pc){sup 0.54{+-}0.21} for the {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O lines, respectively, suggesting that the line width-size relation of the turbulence very weakly depends on our observed molecular lines, i.e., the relation does not change between the density ranges of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} and 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}. In addition, the relations indicate that incompressible turbulence is dominant at the scales smaller than 0.6 pc in L1551. The power spectrum indices converted from the relations, however, seem to be larger than that of the Kolmogorov spectrum for incompressible flow. The disagreement could be explained by the anisotropy in the turbulent velocity field in L1551, as expected in MHD turbulence. Actually, the autocorrelation functions of the centroid velocity fluctuations show larger correlation along the direction of the magnetic field measured for the whole Taurus cloud, which is consistent with the results of numerical simulations for incompressible MHD flow.

  13. Fundamental Parameters and Spectral Energy Distributions of Young and Field Age Objects with Masses Spanning the Stellar to Planetary Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippazzo, Joe; Rice, Emily L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Godfrey, Paige A.; BDNYC

    2016-01-01

    The physical and atmospheric properties of ultracool dwarfs are deeply entangled due to the degenerate effects of mass, age, metallicity, clouds and dust, activity, rotation, and possibly even formation mechanism on observed spectra. Accurate determination of fundamental parameters for a wide diversity of objects at the low end of the IMF is thus crucial to testing stellar and planetary formation theories. To determine these quantities, we constructed and flux calibrated nearly-complete spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 221 M, L, T, and Y dwarfs using published parallaxes and 0.3-40 μm spectra and photometry. From these homogeneous SEDs, we calculated bolometric luminosity (Lbol), effective temperature (Teff), mass, surface gravity, radius, spectral indexes, synthetic photometry, and bolometric corrections (BCs) for each object. We used these results to derive Lbol, Teff, and BC polynomial relations across the entire very-low-mass star/brown dwarf/planetary mass regime. We use a subsample of objects with age constraints based on nearby young moving group membership, companionship with a young star, or spectral signatures of low surface gravity to define new age-sensitive diagnostics and characterize the reddening of young substellar atmospheres as a redistribution of flux from the near-infrared into the mid-infrared. Consequently we find the SED flux pivots at Ks band, making BCKs as a function of spectral type a tight and age independent relationship. We find that young L dwarfs are systematically 300 K cooler than field age objects of the same spectral type and up to 600 K cooler than field age objects of the same absolute H magnitude. Finally, we present preliminary comparisons of these empirical results to best fit parameters from four different model atmosphere grids via Markov-Chain Monte Carlo analysis in order to create prescriptions for the reliable and efficient characterization of new ultracool dwarfs.

  14. Velocity and Vorticity Fields of a Turbulent Plume under different experimental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulka, A. M.; Gonzalez-Nieto, P. L.; Redondo, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    The geophysical and practical importance and the applications of turbulent plumes as generators of strong dispersion processes are clearly recognized. In geophysics and astrophysics, it is usual to model as a jet or plume the generation mechanism of turbulent mixing as a part of a dispersion process [1-3]. An interesting geophysical problem is the study of volcanic plumes [2], which are columns of hot volcanic ash and gas emitted into the atmosphere during an explosive volcanic eruption. Another interesting like-plume phenomenon can be observed where a stream, usually a river, empties into a lake, sea or ocean, generating a river plume [3,4]. Turbulent plumes are fluid motions whose primary source of kinetic energy and momentum flux is due to body forces that arise from density inhomogeneities. The plume boundary acts as an interface across which ambient fluid is entrained, and the plume boundary moves at the velocity of the plume fluid. The difference between the plume-fluid radial velocity and the total fluid velocity quantifies in a natural way the purely horizontal entrainment flux of ambient fluid into the plume across the phase boundary at the plume edge [5,6]. We show some results of research on a single turbulent plume as well as on the structure of the interaction between different plumes and jets, We measure and compare velocity and vorticity fields occurring in different experimental configurations (Parametrized by the Atwood number and the initial potential energy as well as the Plume-Jet length scale). This work is based on experiments that have been performed in GFD laboratories (IPD and UPC) using visualizations methods (LIF,PIV) and advanced multiscaling techniques. We calculate velocity and vorticity PDFs and the evolution of the structure of stratified decaying, with DigFlow and Imacalc programs (Matulka 2010)[7], where video sequence processing provides a range of global and local descriptor features designed specifically for analysing fluid

  15. The distribution of spectral index of magnetic field and ion velocity in Pi2 frequency band in BBFs: THEMIS statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Du, A. M.; Volwerk, M.; Wang, G. Q.

    2016-09-01

    A statistical study of the THEMIS FGM and ESA data is performed on turbulence of magnetic field and velocity for 218 selected 12 min intervals in BBFs. The spectral index α in the frequency range of 0.005-0.06 Hz are Gaussian distributions. The peaks indexes of total ion velocity Vi and parallel velocity V‖ are 1.95 and 2.07 nearly the spectral index of intermittent low frequency turbulence with large amplitude. However, most probable α of perpendicular velocity V⊥ is about 1.75. It is a little bigger than 5/3 of Kolmogorov (1941). The peak indexes of total magnetic field BT is 1.70 similar to V⊥. Compression magnetic field B‖ are 1.85 which is smaller than 2 and bigger than 5/3 of Kolmogorov (1941). The most probable spectral index of shear B⊥ is about 1.44 which is close to 3/2 of Kraichnan (1965). Max V⊥ have little effect on the power magnitude of VT and V‖ but is positively correlated to spectral index of V⊥. The spectral power of BT, B‖ and B⊥ increase with max perpendicular velocity but spectral indexes of them are negatively correlated to V⊥. The spectral index and the spectral power of magnetic field over the frequency interval 0.005-0.06 Hz is very different from that over 0.08-1 Hz.

  16. A theory of the high-mode phenomenon for stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.

    1995-09-01

    It is shown that besides the ion orbit loss mechanism, which occurs in a region a {minus} {var_epsilon}{sub t}{rho}{sub p} < r < a, the collisionless drift-orbit transport flux can also drive the poloidal {rvec E} {times} {rvec B} velocity in a region r < a {minus} {var_epsilon}{sub t}{rho}{sub p} in stellarators. Here, r is the minor radius, a is the plasma radius, {var_epsilon}{sub t} is the toroidal amplitude of the magnetic field spectrum, {rvec E} is the electric field, {rvec B} is the magnetic field, and {rho}{sub p} is the poloidal ion gyroradius. The transport-fluxdriven {rvec E} {times} {rvec B} velocity can be triggered most efficiently by an increase of the ion temperature gradient. The theory is applied to the high-mode (H-mode) phenomenon observed in stellarators.

  17. The Dependence of Stellar Mass and Angular Momentum Losses on Latitude and the Interaction of Active Region and Dipolar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garraffo, Cecilia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer

    2015-11-01

    Rotation evolution of late-type stars is dominated by magnetic braking and the underlying factors that control this angular momentum loss are important for the study of stellar spin-down. In this work, we study angular momentum loss as a function of two different aspects of magnetic activity using a calibrated Alfvén wave-driven magnetohydrodynamic wind model: the strengths of magnetic spots and their distribution in latitude. By driving the model using solar and modified solar surface magnetograms, we show that the topology of the field arising from the net interaction of both small-scale and large-scale field is important for spin-down rates and that angular momentum loss is not a simple function of large scale magnetic field strength. We find that changing the latitude of magnetic spots can modify mass and angular momentum loss rates by a factor of two. The general effect that causes these differences is the closing down of large-scale open field at mid- and high-latitudes by the addition of the small-scale field. These effects might give rise to modulation of mass and angular momentum loss through stellar cycles, and present a problem for ab initio attempts to predict stellar spin-down based on wind models. For all the magnetogram cases considered here, from dipoles to various spotted distributions, we find that angular momentum loss is dominated by the mass loss at mid-latitudes. The spin-down torque applied by magnetized winds therefore acts at specific latitudes and is not evenly distributed over the stellar surface, though this aspect is unlikely to be important for understanding spin-down and surface flows on stars.

  18. Virgo cluster and field dwarf ellipticals in 3D - I. On the variety of stellar kinematic and line-strength properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryś, Agnieszka; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; van de Ven, Glenn

    2013-02-01

    We present the first large-scale stellar kinematic and line-strength maps for dwarf elliptical galaxies (nine in the Virgo cluster and three in the field environment) obtained with the SAURON (Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae) integral-field unit. No two galaxies in our sample are alike: we see that the level of rotation is not tied to flattening (we have, e.g., round rotators and flattened non-rotators); we observe kinematic twists in one Virgo and one field object; we discover large-scale kinematically decoupled components in two field galaxies; we see varying gradients in line-strength maps, from nearly flat to strongly peaked in the centre. The great variety of morphological, kinematic and stellar population parameters seen in our data points to a formation scenario in which properties are shaped stochastically. A combined effect of ram-pressure stripping and galaxy harassment is the most probable explanation. We show the need for a comprehensive analysis of kinematic, dynamical and stellar population properties which will enable us to place dwarf ellipticals and processes that govern their evolution in the wider context of galaxy formation.

  19. Event Detection and Visualization of Ocean Eddies based on SSH and Velocity Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Daisuke; Araki, Fumiaki; Inoue, Yumi; Sasaki, Hideharu

    2016-04-01

    Numerical studies of ocean eddies have been progressed using high-resolution ocean general circulation models. In order to understand ocean eddies from simulation results with large amount of information volume, it is necessary to visualize not only distribution of eddies of each time step, but also events or phenomena of eddies. However, previous methods cannot precisely detect eddies, especially, during the events such as eddies' amalgamation, bifurcation. In the present study, we propose a new approach of eddy's detection, tracking and event visualization based on sea surface height (SSH) and velocity field. The proposed method detects eddies region as well as streams and currents region, and classifies detected eddies into several types. By tracking the time-varying change of classified eddies, it is possible to detect not only eddies event such as amalgamation and bifurcation but also the interaction between eddy and ocean current. As a result of visualizing detected eddies and events, we succeeded in creating the movie which enables us to intuitively understand the region of interest.

  20. Micro-PIT/V --- Simultaneous temperature and velocity fields in microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottebaum, Tait

    2008-11-01

    The use of encapsulated thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC) for the simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity fields in microfluidic devices has been demonstrated. Implementation of TLC thermometry at the micro-scale is significantly different than at the macro-scale due to the constraints on imaging and illumination configurations and the proximity of the measurements to interfaces and surfaces from which light will scatter. Unlike in micro-PIV, wavelength filtering (such as with fluorescent particles) cannot be used to remove undesired reflections, because the temperature information is carried by the particle color. Therefore, circular polarization filtering is used, exploiting the circular dichroism of TLC. Micro-PIT/V will enable new investigations into the physics of microfluidic devices involving temperature gradients, such as thermocapillary actuated devices and many ``lab-on-a-chip'' applications involving temperature sensitive chemical and biological processes. In addition, the design of operational devices can be improved by applying micro-PIT/V to the characterization of prototypes.

  1. The spanwise lift distribution on a wing from flow-field velocity surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orloff, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    The application of the incompressible three-dimensional momentum integral equation to a finite wing is reviewed. The objective is to interpret the resulting equations in a way that suggests an alternate experimental method for determining the span-wise distribution of lift. Consideration is given to constraints that must be placed on the character of the vortex wake of the wing to provide the familiar relationship between lift and bound vorticity. A novel technique is then presented for obtaining, from behind the wing, the spanwise lift distribution from velocity surveys that are made over only a short distance above and below the wing trailing edge. The necessary formalism is developed to use these measured values to obtain the actual span loading by using an equivalent single horseshoe vortex model to account for the unmeasured portion of the downward (or upward) momentum. The results of a numerical simulation are presented for a typical loading distribution. The technique is then verified experimentally using laser velocimeter data for the flow field around a model wing.

  2. Lattice Boltzmann model for the correct convection-diffusion equation with divergence-free velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying

    2015-03-01

    A lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for the convection-diffusion equation (CDE) with divergence-free velocity field is proposed, and the Chapman-Enskog analysis shows that the CDE can be recovered correctly. In the present model, the convection term is treated as a source term in the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) rather than being directly recovered by LBE; thus the CDE is intrinsically solved as a pure diffusion equation with a corresponding source term. To avoid the adoption of a nonlocal finite-difference scheme for computing the convection term, a local scheme is developed based on the Chapman-Enskog analysis. Most importantly, by properly specifying the discrete source term in the moment space, the local scheme can reach the same order (ɛ2) at which the CDE is recovered by a LB model. Numerical tests, including a one-dimensional periodic problem, diffusion of a Gaussian hill, diffusion of a rectangular pulse, and natural convection in a square cavity, are carried out to verify the present model. Numerical results are satisfactorily consistent with analytical solutions or previous numerical results, and show higher accuracy due to the correct recovery of CDE.

  3. Measurements of the velocity fields by PIV method round about titling gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistrová, Ivana; Zubík, Pavel

    2012-04-01

    The article deals with problems of using of measurement method Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measure velocity fields in the flowing water in front, above and behind drowned titling weir gate. The aim was to obtain information about the distribution of speed in the area of interest for the verification or calibration of the numerical model. Experiments were carried out in inclinable channel connected to the hydraulic circuit with a pump and storage tank at the Water Management Research Laboratory (LVV) of Institute of Water Structures at the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Brno University of Technology. Hydraulic inclinable channel has cross-section with dimensions of 0.4×0.4m and length of 12.5m. The measured area has cross-section approximately 0.2m wide and 0.4m high and its length is 1m. The results of physical modelling allowed a comparison of experimental data with numerical simulation results of this type of flow in the commercial software ANSYS CFX-12.0.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity fields in convective air flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeling, Daniel; Bosbach, Johannes; Wagner, Claus

    2014-03-01

    Thermal convective air flows are of great relevance in fundamental studies and technical applications such as heat exchangers or indoor ventilation. Since these kinds of flow are driven by temperature gradients, simultaneous measurements of instantaneous velocity and temperature fields are highly desirable. A possible solution is the combination of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle image thermography (PIT) using thermochromic liquid crystals (TLCs) as tracer particles. While combined PIV and PIT is already state of the art for measurements in liquids, this is not yet the case for gas flows. In this study we address the adaptation of the measuring technique to gaseous fluids with respect to the generation of the tracer particles, the particle illumination and the image filtering process. Results of the simultaneous PIV/PIT stemming from application to a fluid system with continuous air exchange are presented. The measurements were conducted in a cuboidal convection sample with air in- and outlet at a Rayleigh number Ra ≈ 9.0 × 107. They prove the feasibility of the method by providing absolute and relative temperature accuracies of σT = 0.19 K and σΔT = 0.06 K, respectively. Further open issues that have to be addressed in order to mature the technique are identified.

  5. Stellar winds driven by Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. W.; Olbert, S.

    1973-01-01

    Models of stellar winds were considered in which the dynamic expansion of a corona is driven by Alfven waves propagating outward along radial magnetic field lines. In the presence of Alfven waves, a coronal expansion can exist for a broad range of reference conditions which would, in the absence of waves, lead to static configurations. Wind models in which the acceleration mechanism is due to Alfven waves alone and exhibit lower mass fluxes and higher energies per particle are compared to wind models in which the acceleration is due to thermal processes. For example, winds driven by Alfven waves exhibit streaming velocities at infinity which may vary between the escape velocity at the coronal base and the geometrical mean of the escape velocity and the speed of light. Upper and lower limits were derived for the allowed energy fluxes and mass fluxes associated with these winds.

  6. Settling Velocity Specific SOC Distribution along Hillslopes - A field investigation in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Hu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The net effects of soil erosion by water, as a sink or source of atmospheric CO2, are decisively affected by the spatial re-distribution and stability of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC). The deposition position of eroded SOC, into terrestrial or aquatic systems, is actually decided by the transport distances of soil fractions where the SOC is stored. In theory, the transport distances of aggregated soil fractions are related to their settling velocities under given layer conditions. Yet, little field investigation has been conducted to examine the actual movement of eroded soil fractions along hillslopes, let alone the re-distribution pattern of functional SOC fractions. Eroding sandy soils and sediment were sampled after a series of rainfall events from different topographic positions along a slope on a freshly seeded cropland in Jutland, Denmark. All the soil samples from difference topographic positions along the slope were fractionated into five settling classes using a settling tube apparatus. The SOC content, 13C signature, and C:N ratios of all settling fractions were measured. Our results show that: 1) the spatial distribution of soil settling classes along the slope clearly shows a coarsening effect at the deposition area immediately below the eroding slope, followed by a fining trend on the deposition area at the slope tail. This proves the validity of the conceptual model in Starr et al. 2000 to predict SOC redistribution patterns along eroding hillslopes. 2) The isotopically enriched 13C on the slope back suggests greater decomposition rates possibly experienced by eroded SOC during transport, while the pronounced respiration rates at the slope tail indicate a great potential of CO2 emissions after deposition. Overall, our results illustrate that immediate deposition of fast settling soil fractions, and the thus induced preferential deposition of SOC at foot slope and potential CO2 emissions during transport, must be appropriately accounted for in

  7. Ionized gas kinematics of galaxies in the CALIFA survey. I. Velocity fields, kinematic parameters of the dominant component, and presence of kinematically distinct gaseous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lorenzo, B.; Márquez, I.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Masegosa, J.; Husemann, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Sánchez, S. F.; Walcher, J.; Mast, D.; García-Benito, R.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; van de Ven, G.; Spekkens, K.; Holmes, L.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; del Olmo, A.; Ziegler, B.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Papaderos, P.; Gomes, J. M.; Marino, R. A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Bekeraitė, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Bomans, D.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Ionized gas kinematics provide important clues to the dynamical structure of galaxies and hold constraints to the processes driving their evolution. Aims: The motivation of this work is to provide an overall characterization of the kinematic behavior of the ionized gas of the galaxies included in the Calar Alto Legacy Integral field Area (CALIFA), offering kinematic clues to potential users of the CALIFA survey for including kinematical criteria in their selection of targets for specific studies. From the first 200 galaxies observed by CALIFA survey in its two configurations, we present the two-dimensional kinematic view of the 177 galaxies satisfaying a gas content/detection threshold. Methods: After removing the stellar contribution, we used the cross-correlation technique to obtain the radial velocity of the dominant gaseous component for each spectrum in the CALIFA data cubes for different emission lines (namely, [O ii] λλ3726,3729, [O iii] λλ4959,5007, Hα+[N ii] λλ6548,6584, and [SII]λλ6716,6730). The main kinematic parameters measured on the plane of the sky were directly derived from the radial velocities with no assumptions on the internal prevailing motions. Evidence of the presence of several gaseous components with different kinematics were detected by using [O iii] λλ4959,5007 emission line profiles. Results: At the velocity resolution of CALIFA, most objects in the sample show regular velocity fields, although the ionized-gas kinematics are rarely consistent with simple coplanar circular motions. Thirty-five percent of the objects present evidence of a displacement between the photometric and kinematic centers larger than the original spaxel radii. Only 17% of the objects in the sample exhibit kinematic lopsidedness when comparing receding and approaching sides of the velocity fields, but most of them are interacting galaxies exhibiting nuclear activity (AGN or LINER). Early-type (E+S0) galaxies in the sample present clear

  8. Impact of velocity correlation and distribution on transport in fractured media: Field evidence and theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Peter K.; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Dentz, Marco; Bour, Olivier; Juanes, Ruben

    2015-02-01

    Flow and transport through fractured geologic media often leads to anomalous (non-Fickian) transport behavior, the origin of which remains a matter of debate: whether it arises from variability in fracture permeability (velocity distribution), connectedness in the flow paths through fractures (velocity correlation), or interaction between fractures and matrix. Here we show that this uncertainty of distribution- versus correlation-controlled transport can be resolved by combining convergent and push-pull tracer tests because flow reversibility is strongly dependent on velocity correlation, whereas late-time scaling of breakthrough curves is mainly controlled by velocity distribution. We build on this insight, and propose a Lagrangian statistical model that takes the form of a continuous time random walk (CTRW) with correlated particle velocities. In this framework, velocity distribution and velocity correlation are quantified by a Markov process of particle transition times that is characterized by a distribution function and a transition probability. Our transport model accurately captures the anomalous behavior in the breakthrough curves for both push-pull and convergent flow geometries, with the same set of parameters. Thus, the proposed correlated CTRW modeling approach provides a simple yet powerful framework for characterizing the impact of velocity distribution and correlation on transport in fractured media.

  9. Receptive field size, chemical and thermal responses, and fiber conduction velocity of rat chorda tympani geniculate ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yusuke; Bradley, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    Afferent chorda tympani (CT) fibers innervating taste and somatosensory receptors in fungiform papillae have neuron cell bodies in the geniculate ganglion (GG). The GG/CT fibers branch in the tongue to innervate taste buds in several fungiform papillae. To investigate receptive field characteristics of GG/CT neurons, we recorded extracellular responses from GG cells to application of chemical and thermal stimuli. Receptive field size was mapped by electrical stimulation of individual fungiform papillae. Response latency to electrical stimulation was used to determine fiber conduction velocity. Responses of GG neurons to lingual application of stimuli representing four taste qualities, and water at 4°C, were used to classify neuron response properties. Neurons classified as SALT, responding only to NaCl and NH4Cl, had a mean receptive field size of six papillae. Neurons classified as OTHER responded to salts and other chemical stimuli and had smaller mean receptive fields of four papillae. Neurons that responded to salts and cold stimuli, classified as SALT/THERMAL, and neurons responding to salts, other chemical stimuli and cold, classified as OTHER/THERMAL, had mean receptive field sizes of six and five papillae, respectively. Neurons responding only to cold stimuli, categorized as THERMAL, had receptive fields of one to two papillae located at the tongue tip. Based on conduction velocity most of the neurons were classified as C fibers. Neurons with large receptive fields had higher conduction velocities than neurons with small receptive fields. These results demonstrate that GG neurons can be distinguished by receptive field size, response properties and afferent fiber conduction velocity derived from convergent input of multiple taste organs. PMID:27030734

  10. H0, q0 and the local velocity field. [Hubble and deceleration constants in Big Bang expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandage, A.; Tammann, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to find a systematic deviation from linearity for distances that are under the control of the Virgo cluster, and to determine the value of the mean random motion about the systematic flow, in order to improve the measurement of the Hubble and the deceleration constants. The velocity-distance relation for large and intermediate distances is studied, and type I supernovae are calibrated relatively as distance indicators and absolutely to obtain a new value for the Hubble constant. Methods of determining the deceleration constant are assessed, including determination from direct measurement, mean luminosity density, virgocentric motion, and the time scale test. The very local velocity field is investigated, and a solution is preferred with a random peculiar radial velocity of very nearby field galaxies of 90-100 km/s, and a Virgocentric motion of the local group of 220 km/s, leading to an underlying expansion rate of 55, in satisfactory agreement with the global value.

  11. Simultaneous planar measurements of soot structure and velocity fields in a turbulent lifted jet flame at 3 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, M.; Boxx, I.; Geigle, K. P.; Meier, W.

    2011-05-01

    We describe a newly developed combustion diagnostic for the simultaneous planar imaging of soot structure and velocity fields in a highly sooting, lifted turbulent jet flame at 3000 frames per second, or two orders of magnitude faster than "conventional" laser imaging systems. This diagnostic uses short pulse duration (8 ns), frequency-doubled, diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers to excite laser-induced incandescence (LII) at 3 kHz, which is then imaged onto a high framerate CMOS camera. A second (dual-cavity) DPSS laser and CMOS camera form the basis of a particle image velocity (PIV) system used to acquire 2-component velocity field in the flame. The LII response curve (measured in a laminar propane diffusion flame) is presented and the combined diagnostics then applied in a heavily sooting lifted turbulent jet flame. The potential challenges and rewards of application of this combined imaging technique at high speeds are discussed.

  12. Study of flow field of burning particles in a pyrotechnic flame based on particle image and particle velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, R.; Xu, H. Q.; Li, Y.; Zhu, C. G.

    2014-11-01

    Studying the burning particles in the pyrotechnic flame is important to acquire the decomposition mechanism and spectral radiance of pyrotechnics. The high speed video (HSV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used in this paper to analyze the flow field and velocity of burning particles in the flame of pyrotechnics. The binary image was obtained through gray scale treatment and adaptive threshold segmentation from HSV and PIV data, by which the coordinate of each particle was marked. On the basis, the movement trajectory of each particle during combustion was pursued by the most recent guidelines algorithm of cancroids matching. Through the method proposed in this study, the velocity variation of each particle was obtained, the approximate distribution of particle quantity at each zone was visualized and the mathematical model of pyrotechnic particle velocity flow field was established.

  13. A search for stellar remnants of supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesen, R. A.; Kirshner, R. P.; Winkler, P. F., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The slitless spectra of the stars in the central regions of six galactic supernova remnants Cas A, Kepler, Tycho, SN 1006, RCW 86, and the Cygnus Loop were obtained with the prime focus transmission gratings at the 4M telescopes on Kitt Peak and Cerro Tololo. It was found that no stellar remnant with an unusually blue or peculiar spectrum is present in any of the remnants down to the limit of m sub pg of 18.5. Except for the Cygnus Loop, the area searched in each remnant is large enough that objects with transverse velocities of 1000 km/s would be well within the field. The results are also compared with a computation of emission from gas near a neutron star and with the unpulsed emission from the Crab pulsar; in both cases upper limits were set which place constraints on a possible condensed stellar remnant.

  14. High S/N Echelle spectroscopy in young stellar groups. II. Rotational velocities of early-type stars in SCO OB2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. G. A.; Verschueren, W.

    1997-03-01

    We investigate the rotational velocities of early-type stars in the Sco OB2 association. We measure v.sin(i) for 156 established and probable members of the association. The measurements are performed with three different techniques, which are in increasing order of expected v.sin(i): 1) converting the widths of spectral lines directly to v.sin(i), 2) comparing artificially broadened spectra of low v.sin(i) stars to the target spectrum, 3) comparing the HeI λ4026 line profile to theoretical models. The sample is extended with literature data for 47 established members of Sco OB2. Analysis of the v.sin(i) distributions shows that there are no significant differences between the subgroups of Sco OB2. We find that members of the binary population of Sco OB2 on the whole rotate more slowly than the single stars. In addition, we find that the B7-B9 single star members rotate significantly faster than their B0-B6 counterparts. We test various hypotheses for the distribution of v.sin(i) in the association. The results show that we cannot clearly exclude any form of random distribution of the direction and/or magnitude of the intrinsic rotational velocity vector. We also investigate the effects of rotation on colours in the Walraven photometric system. We show that positions of B7-B9 single dwarfs above the main sequence are a consequence of rotation. This establishes the influence of rotation on the Walraven colours, due primarily to surface gravity effects.

  15. Two-dimensional surface velocity field across the Asal Rift (Afar Depression) from 11 years of InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomic, J.; Peltzer, G.; Doubre, C.

    2010-12-01

    We analyze two-dimensional surface velocity maps of the 200x400 km2 region covering the Asal Rift located at the western tip of the Aden Ridge, using the 1997-2008 archive of InSAR data from the RADARSAT satellite. The large phase signal due to turbulent tropospheric conditions over the Afar region is mostly removed from the 11-year average line of sight (LOS) velocity maps, revealing a clear deformation signal across the rift. Assuming the horizontal velocity to be parallel to the direction predicted by the Arabia/Somalia rotation pole (Vigny et al., 2007), we compute the fields of the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity from the ascending and descending line of sight (LOS) velocity maps. The horizontal velocity field shows the divergence between the Arabia and Somalia plates concentrated along the Asal rift, and veering toward the south-west, into the Derella-Gaggade basin system. The Asal rift shoulders open at a rate of ~15 mm/yr, while the horizontal velocity decreases away from the rift down to the plate motion rate of ~11-12 mm/yr. The vertical velocity field shows a ~60 km wide zone of doming centered over the rift associated with shoulder uplift and subsidence of the rift inner floor. The differential movement between the shoulders and the rift floor is accommodated by two main antithetic faults: the south-dipping Fault γ well developed in the topography and the recent north-dipping Fault E with a small topographic scarp. We explain the observed velocity field with 2D-forward and 3D-inverse models combining dislocations of rectangular elements in an elastic half-space. The forward model allows us to estimate the overall geometry and rates of an inflating body at 5 km depth (represented by a combination of a dike and a horizontal sill) and creep on two faults. The least-squares inverse model shows an inflating body located under the Fieale volcano expanding at 2 106 m3/yr. Faults bordering the rift show down-dip and opening motion especially

  16. Measurement of Correlation Between Flow Density, Velocity, and Density*velocity(sup 2) with Far Field Noise in High Speed Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; Seasholtz, Richard G.; Elam, Kristie A.

    2002-01-01

    To locate noise sources in high-speed jets, the sound pressure fluctuations p', measured at far field locations, were correlated with each of radial velocity v, density rho, and phov(exp 2) fluctuations measured from various points in jet plumes. The experiments follow the cause-and-effect method of sound source identification, where correlation is related to the first, and correlation to the second source terms of Lighthill's equation. Three fully expanded, unheated plumes of Mach number 0.95, 1.4 and 1.8 were studied for this purpose. The velocity and density fluctuations were measured simultaneously using a recently developed, non-intrusive, point measurement technique based on molecular Rayleigh scattering. It was observed that along the jet centerline the density fluctuation spectra S(sub rho) have different shapes than the radial velocity spectra S(sub v), while data obtained from the peripheral shear layer show similarity between the two spectra. Density fluctuations in the jet showed significantly higher correlation, than either rhov(sub 2) or v fluctuations. It is found that a single point correlation from the peak sound emitting region at the end of the potential core can account for nearly 10% of all noise at 30 to the jet axis. The correlation, representing the effectiveness of a longitudinal quadrupole in generating noise 90 to the jet axis, is found to be zero within experimental uncertainty. In contrast rhov(exp 2) fluctuations were better correlated with sound pressure fluctuation at the 30 location. The strongest source of sound is found to lie at the centerline and beyond the end of potential core.

  17. Velocity profiles, Reynolds stresses and bed roughness from an autonomous field deployed Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profiler in a mixed sediment tidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Boyle, Louise; Thorne, Peter; Cooke, Richard; Cohbed Team

    2014-05-01

    Estuaries are among some of the most important global landscapes in terms of population density, ecology and economy. Understanding the dynamics of these natural mixed sediment environments is of particular interest amid growing concerns over sea level rise, climate variations and estuarine response to these changes. Many predictors exist for bed form formation and sand transport in sandy coastal zones; however less work has been published on mixed sediments. This paper details a field study which forms part of the COHBED project aiming to increase understanding of bed forms in a biotic mixed sediment estuarine environment. The study was carried out in the Dee Estuary, in the eastern Irish Sea between England and Wales from the 21st May to 4th June 2013. A state of the art instrumentation frame, known as SEDbed, was deployed at three sites of differing sediment properties and biological makeup within the intertidal zone of the estuary. The SEDbed deployment consisted of a suite of optical and acoustic instrumentation, including an Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profiler (ADVP), Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and a three dimensional acoustic ripple profiler, 3D-ARP. Supplementary field samples and measurements were recorded alongside the frame during each deployment. This paper focuses on the use of new technological developments for the investigation of sediment dynamics. The hydrodynamics at each of the deployment sites are presented including centimetre resolution velocity profiles in the near bed region of the water column, obtained from the ADVP, which is presently the only autonomous field deployed coherent Doppler profiler . Based on these high resolution profiles variations in frictional velocity, bed shear stress and roughness length are calculated. Comparisons are made with theoretical models and with Reynolds stress values obtained from ADV data at a single point within the ADVP profile and from ADVP data itself. Predictions of bed roughness at each

  18. Velocity field measurements in the near wake of a parachute canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desabrais, Kenneth J.

    The velocity field in the wake of a small scale flexible parachute canopy was measured using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry. The experiments were performed in a water tunnel with the Reynolds number ranging from 3.0--6.0 x 104. Both a fully inflated canopy and the inflation phase were investigated in a constant freestream (i.e. an infinite mass condition). The fully inflated canopy experienced a cyclic "breathing" which corresponded to the shedding of a vortex ring from the canopy. The normalized breathing frequency had a value of 0.56 +/- 0.03. The investigation of the canopy inflation showed that during the early stages of the inflation, the boundary layer on the canopy surface remains attached to the canopy while the canopy diameter increases substantially. The boundary layer begins to separate near the apex region when the diameter is ˜68% of the fully inflated diameter. The separation point then progresses upstream from the canopy apex region toward the canopy skirt. During this time period, the force rapidly increases to its maximum value while the separation point of the boundary layer moves upstream towards the skirt. The force then declines rapidly and the separated boundary layer rolls-up into a large vortex ring near the canopy skirt. At the same time, the canopy is drawn into an over-expanded state after which the cyclic breathing initiates. The unsteady potential force was estimated from the rate of change of the canopy volume. It contributed no more than 10% of the peak opening force and was only significant during the early stages of inflation. The majority of the opening force was the result of the time rate of change of the fluid impulse. It accounts for approximately 60% of the peak opening force. This result shows that the formation of the viscous wake is the primary factor in the peak drag force of the canopy.

  19. Velocity field near the jet orifice of a round jet in a crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fearn, R. L.; Benson, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    Experimentally determined velocities at selected locations near the jet orifice are presented and analyzed for a round jet in crossflow. Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of four and eight were studied experimentally for a round subsonic jet of air exhausting perpendicularly through a flat plate into a subsonic crosswind of the same temperature. Velocity measurements were made in cross sections to the jet plume located from one to four jet diameters from the orifice. Jet centerline and vortex properties are presented and utilized to extend the results of a previous study into the region close to the jet orifice.

  20. Search for auroral belt E-parallel fields with high-velocity barium ion injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Ledley, B. G.; Miller, M. L.; Marionni, P. A.; Pongratz, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    In April 1984, four high-velocity shaped-charge Ba(+) injections were conducted from two sounding rockets at 770-975 km over northern Alaska under conditions of active auroral and magnetic disturbance. Spatial ionization (brightness) profiles of high-velocity Ba(+) clouds from photometric scans following each release were found to be consistent with the 28-sec theoretical time constant for Ba photoionization determined by Carlsten (1975). These observations therefore revealed no evidence of anomalous fast ionization predicted by the Alfven critical velocity hypothesis.

  1. Two New Long-period Giant Planets from the McDonald Observatory Planet Search and Two Stars with Long-period Radial Velocity Signals Related to Stellar Activity Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endl, Michael; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Robertson, Paul; Meschiari, Stefano; Ramirez, Ivan; Shetrone, Matthew; Gullikson, Kevin; Johnson, Marshall C.; Wittenmyer, Robert; Horner, Jonathan; Ciardi, David R.; Horch, Elliott; Simon, Attila E.; Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark; Caldwell, Caroline; Castanheira, Barbara G.

    2016-02-01

    We report the detection of two new long-period giant planets orbiting the stars HD 95872 and HD 162004 ({\\psi }1 Dra B) by the McDonald Observatory planet search. The planet HD 95872b has a minimum mass of 4.6 {M}{{Jup}} and an orbital semimajor axis of 5.2 AU. The giant planet {\\psi }1 Dra Bb has a minimum mass of 1.5 {M}{{Jup}} and an orbital semimajor axis of 4.4 AU. Both of these planets qualify as Jupiter analogs. These results are based on over one and a half decades of precise radial velocity (RV) measurements collected by our program using the McDonald Observatory Tull Coude spectrograph at the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope. In the case of {\\psi }1 Dra B we also detect a long-term nonlinear trend in our data that indicates the presence of an additional giant planet, similar to the Jupiter-Saturn pair. The primary of the binary star system, {\\psi }1 Dra A, exhibits a very large amplitude RV variation due to another stellar companion. We detect this additional member using speckle imaging. We also report two cases—HD 10086 and HD 102870 (β Virginis)—of significant RV variation consistent with the presence of a planet, but that are probably caused by stellar activity, rather than reflexive Keplerian motion. These two cases stress the importance of monitoring the magnetic activity level of a target star, as long-term activity cycles can mimic the presence of a Jupiter-analog planet.

  2. Stellar chromospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Developments in the understanding and use of chromospheric diagnostics are discussed with emphasis on the following aspects: (1) trends emerging from semiempirical models of single stars; (2) the validity of claims that theoretical models of chromospheres are becoming realistic; (3) the correlation between the widths of Ca 2 H and K line emission cores and stellar absolute luminosity extending over 15 magnitudes (Wilson-Bappu relation); and (4) the existence of systematic flow patterns in stellar chromospheres.

  3. A nonextensive view of the stellar braking indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, D. B.; Cavalcante, F. J.; Soares, B. B.; Silva, J. R. P.

    2015-08-01

    The present work is based on the effects of the magnetic braking for the angular-mometum loss evolution and, consequently, the relationship between stellar rotation and age. In general, this loss rate denoted by {d}J/{d}t depends on the angular velocity Ω in the form {d}J/ {d}t\\proptoΩq , where q is a parameter from nonextensive statistical mechanics. In the context of the stellar rotation, this parameter is directly related to the braking index. For q equal to unity, the scenario of the saturation of the magnetic field is recovered. Such an approach was proposed and investigated by de Freitas and De Medeiros for unsaturated field stars. We propose a new nonextensive approach for the stellar rotational evolution based on the Reiners and Mohanty model. We developed a nonextensive version of Reiners and Mohanty torque, and compare it with the model proposed in de Freitas and De Medeiros, by using a sample of velocity v\\sin i for ∼16000 field F- and G- stars. As a result, we show that the Kawaler and Reiners-Mohanty models exhibit strong discrepancies in relation to the domain of validity of the entropic index q. These discrepancies are mainly due to sensitivity on the stellar radius. Our results also showed that the modified Kawaler prescription is consistent in a wider mass ranges, while the Reiners and Mohanty model is restricted to masses less than from G6 stars.

  4. Correlation of throwing velocity to the results of lower-body field tests in male college baseball players.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Graeme; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

    2013-04-01

    Baseball-specific athleticism, potential, and performance have been difficult to predict. Increased muscle strength and power can increase throwing velocity but the majority of research has focused on the upper body. The present study sought to determine if bilateral or unilateral lower-body field testing correlates with throwing velocity. Baseball throwing velocity scores were correlated to the following tests: medicine ball (MB) scoop toss and squat throw, bilateral and unilateral vertical jumps, single and triple broad jumps, hop and stop in both directions, lateral to medial jumps, 10- and 60-yd sprints, and both left and right single-leg 10-yd hop for speed in 42 college baseball players. A multiple regression analysis (forward method), assessing the relationship between shuffle and stretch throwing velocities and lower-body field test results determined that right-handed throwing velocity from the stretch position was most strongly predicted by lateral to medial jump right (LMJR) and body weight (BW; R = 0.322), whereas lateral to medial jump left (LMJL; R = 0.688) predicted left stretch throw. Right-handed shuffle throw was most strongly predicted by LMJR and MB scoop (R = 0.338), whereas LMJL, BW, and LMJR all contributed to left-handed shuffle throw (R = 0.982). Overall, this study found that lateral to medial jumps were consistently correlated with high throwing velocity in each of the throwing techniques, in both left-handed and right-handed throwers. This is the first study to correlate throwing velocity with a unilateral jump in the frontal plane, mimicking the action of the throwing stride. PMID:22706576

  5. Retrieving 3D Velocity Fields of Glaciers from X-band SAR Data and Comparison with GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnússon, E.; Nagler, T.; Hetzenecker, M.; Palsson, F.; Scharrer, K.; Floricioiu, D.; Berthier, E.; Gudmundsson, S.; Rott, H.

    2013-12-01

    We present 3D velocity fields obtained from time series of TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X images acquired over the ablation area of the Breidamerkurjökull outlet glacier of Vatnjökull Ice Cap (Iceland) in 2008-2012. Coherent and incoherent offset tracking is applied to repeat pass X-Band data to obtain ice displacement in cross and along track direction. Three methods are tested and compared to extract fields of the 3D ice velocity. First, the conventional surface parallel approach, which we consider as an approximation for deriving the horizontal motion rate, but does not reveal a realistic vertical motion. Second, the combination of offset tracking results from almost simultaneous observations from ascending and descending orbits measuring the glacier motion in four different directions, allowing calculation of the 3D velocity fields without any additional approximations. Third, deriving full 3D velocity fields by using the horizontal flow direction, derived from the ascending-descending combination, as constrain on offset tracking results from a single pair of SAR images. The latter two methods reveal a measurement of the vertical ice motion plus ablation, hence equivalent to the vertical motion component measured by GPS station fixed on a platform laying on the ice surface. The results from all methods are compared with such GPS measurements recorded by permanent stations on the glacier in 2008-2012 and the errors of the different methods are calculated. Additionally, we approximate the contribution of these 3D flow fields to elevation changes (emergence/submergence velocity plus net balance) and compare it with elevation changes from surface DEMs obtained in 2008 (SPIRIT), 2010 (airborne LIDAR) and 2012 (TanDEM-X).

  6. A GNSS-derived Velocity Field of the Southern Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stangl, Günter; Mitterschiffthaler, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    GNSS stations of Albania, Bulgaria, FYROM and Greece are combined between 2006 and 2014 to a velocity filed. This area covers a part of the transition zone between the Eurasian and Nubian Plate. Even not yet totally reprocessed within IGb08, the lateral components are at the precision of 1 mm/year. The density of stations allows to separate regions with abrupt changes of velocities coinciding with major faults already known from seismology and geology.

  7. Velocity and scalar fields of turbulent premixed flame in stagnation flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, P.; Law, C. K.; Cheng, R. K.; Shepherd, I. G.

    1988-08-01

    Detailed experimental measurements of the scalar and velocity statistics of premixed methane/air flames stabilized by a stagnation plant are reported. Conditioned and unconditioned velocity of two components and the reaction progress variables are measured by using a two-component laser Doppler velocimetry techniques and Mie scattering techniques, respectively. Experimental conditions cover equivalence ratios of 0.9 and 1.0, incident turbulence intensities of 0.3 to 0.45 m/s, and global stretch rates of 100 to 150 sec sup minus 1. The experimental results are analyzed in the context of the Bray-Moss-Libby flamelet model of these flames. The results indicate that there is no turbulence production within the turbulent flame brush and the second and third order turbulent transport terms are reduced to functions of the difference between the conditioned mean velocity. The result of normalization of these relative velocities by the respective velocity increase across laminar flames suggest that the mean unconditioned velocity profiles are self-similar.

  8. Stellar Activity and CMEs: Important Factors of Planetary Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodachenko, Maxim L.

    CME activity of the Sun is known to be an important impacting factor for the magnetospheres, atmospheres, and surfaces of solar system planets. Following an idea of a solar-stellar analogy, CME phenomena are expected on other stars as well. The main planetary impact factors of the stellar CMEs include the associated interplanetary shocks, plasma density and velocity disturbances, energetic particles accelerated in the shock regions, as well as distortions of the magnetic field direction and modulus. All these factors should be properly taken into account during the study of evolutionary processes on exoplanets and their atmospheric and plasma environments. The planetary impact of the stellar CME activity may vary depending on stellar age, stellar spectral type and the orbital distance of a planet. Because of the relatively short range of propagation of the majority of CMEs, they affect most strongly the magnetospheres and atmospheres of close-orbit ( < 0.1 AU) exoplanets. In this chapter we discuss an issue of the stellar CME activity in the context of several actual problems of modern exoplanetology, including planetary atmosphere mass loss, planet survival at close orbits, and definition of a criterion for habitability.

  9. High Domain Wall Velocity at Zero Magnetic Field Induced by Low Current Densities in Spin Valve Nanostripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzini, Stefania; Uhlíř, Vojtěch; Vogel, Jan; Rougemaille, Nicolas; Laribi, Sana; Cros, Vincent; Jiménez, Erika; Camarero, Julio; Tieg, Carsten; Bonet, Edgar; Bonfim, Marlio; Mattana, Richard; Deranlot, Cyrile; Petroff, Frédéric; Ulysse, Christian; Faini, Giancarlo; Fert, Albert

    2009-02-01

    Current-induced magnetic domain wall motion at zero magnetic field is observed in the permalloy layer of a spin-valve-based nanostripe using photoemission electron microscopy. The domain wall movement is hampered by pinning sites, but in between them high domain wall velocities (exceeding 150 m/s) are obtained for current densities well below 1012 A/m2, suggesting that these trilayer systems are promising for applications in domain wall devices in case of well controlled pinning positions. Vertical spin currents in these structures provide a potential explanation for the increase in domain wall velocity at low current densities.

  10. Bonnsai: a Bayesian tool for comparing stars with stellar evolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Langer, N.; de Koter, A.; Brott, I.; Izzard, R. G.; Lau, H. H. B.

    2014-10-01

    Powerful telescopes equipped with multi-fibre or integral field spectrographs combined with detailed models of stellar atmospheres and automated fitting techniques allow for the analysis of large number of stars. These datasets contain a wealth of information that require new analysis techniques to bridge the gap between observations and stellar evolution models. To that end, we develop Bonnsai (BONN Stellar Astrophysics Interface), a Bayesian statistical method, that is capable of comparing all available observables simultaneously to stellar models while taking observed uncertainties and prior knowledge such as initial mass functions and distributions of stellar rotational velocities into account. Bonnsai can be used to (1) determine probability distributions of fundamental stellar parameters such as initial masses and stellar ages from complex datasets; (2) predict stellar parameters that were not yet observationally determined; and (3) test stellar models to further advance our understanding of stellar evolution. An important aspect of Bonnsai is that it singles out stars that cannot be reproduced by stellar models through χ2 hypothesis tests and posterior predictive checks. Bonnsai can be used with any set of stellar models and currently supports massive main-sequence single star models of Milky Way and Large and Small Magellanic Cloud composition. We apply our new method to mock stars to demonstrate its functionality and capabilities. In a first application, we use Bonnsai to test the stellar models of Brott et al. (2011, A&A, 530, A115) by comparing the stellar ages inferred for the primary and secondary stars of eclipsing Milky Way binaries of which the components range in mass between 4.5 and 28 M⊙. Ages are determined from dynamical masses and radii that are known to better than 3%. We show that the stellar models must include rotation because stellar radii can be increased by several percent via centrifugal forces. We find that the average age

  11. Caught in the Act: Gas and Stellar Velocity Dispersions in a Fast Quenching Compact Star-Forming Galaxy at z~1.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Dekel, Avishai; Pacifici, Camilla; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Toloba, Elisa; Koo, David C.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Inoue, Shigeki; Guo, Yicheng; Liu, Fengshan; Primack, Joel R.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brammer, Gabriel; Cava, Antonio; Cardiel, Nicolas; Ceverino, Daniel; Eliche, Carmen; Fang, Jerome J.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Livermore, Rachael C.; McGrath, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    We present Keck I MOSFIRE spectroscopy in the Y and H bands of GDN-8231, a massive, compact, star-forming galaxy at a redshift of z ˜ 1.7. Its spectrum reveals both Hα and [N ii] emission lines and strong Balmer absorption lines. The Hα and Spitzer MIPS 24 μm fluxes are both weak, thus indicating a low star-formation rate of SFR ≲ 5{--}10 {M}⊙ yr-1. This, added to a relatively young age of ˜700 Myr measured from the absorption lines, provides the first direct evidence for a distant galaxy being caught in the act of rapidly shutting down its star formation. Such quenching allows GDN-8231 to become a compact, quiescent galaxy, similar to three other galaxies in our sample, by z ˜ 1.5. Moreover, the color profile of GDN-8231 shows a bluer center, consistent with the predictions of recent simulations for an early phase of inside-out quenching. Its line-of-sight velocity dispersion for the gas, {σ }{{{LOS}}}{{gas}} = 127 ± 32 km s-1, is nearly 40% smaller than that of its stars, {σ }{{{LOS}}}\\star = 215 ± 35 km s-1. High-resolution hydro-simulations of galaxies explain such apparently colder gas kinematics of up to a factor of ˜1.5 with rotating disks being viewed at different inclinations and/or centrally concentrated star-forming regions. A clear prediction is that their compact, quiescent descendants preserve some remnant rotation from their star-forming progenitors.

  12. Remarks on the regularity criteria of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics system in terms of two velocity field components

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2014-03-15

    We study the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics system and obtain its regularity criteria in terms of only two velocity vector field components eliminating the condition on the third component completely. The proof consists of a new decomposition of the four nonlinear terms of the system and estimating a component of the magnetic vector field in terms of the same component of the velocity vector field. This result may be seen as a component reduction result of many previous works [C. He and Z. Xin, “On the regularity of weak solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic equations,” J. Differ. Equ. 213(2), 234–254 (2005); Y. Zhou, “Remarks on regularities for the 3D MHD equations,” Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. 12(5), 881–886 (2005)].

  13. Mathematical model for prediction of currents, magnetic fields, melt velocities, melt topography and current efficiency in Hall-Heroult cells

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.W.; Zundelevich, Y.; Sharma, D.

    1981-06-01

    The magnetic fields, current densities, metal and electrolyte velocities, current efficiencies and topography of the electrolyte-metal interface within the Hall-Heroult cell used to produce aluminum have been predicted from first principles. The computation of current densities was carried out by solving Ohms law enabling the calculation of magnetic field vectors from the Biot-Savart law. The cross product of the current densities and magnetic fields then yielded the electromagnetic stirring forces acting on the molten metal and electrolyte. By employing a turbulence model and the time averaged Navier-Stokes equations, velocities within these two liquids could be calculated. The solution of the fluid flow equations yielded the pressure distribution within both electrolyte and metal, permitting the calculation of the shape of the interface betweeen these two liquids.

  14. Initial mass functions from ultraviolet stellar photometry: A comparison of Lucke and Hodge OB associations near 30 Doradus with the nearby field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Jesse K.; Isensee, Joan E.; Cornett, Robert H.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1994-01-01

    UV stellar photometry is presented for 1563 stars within a 40 minutes circular field in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), excluding the 10 min x 10 min field centered on R136 investigated earlier by Hill et al. (1993). Magnitudes are computed from images obtained by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) in bands centered at 1615 A and 2558 A. Stellar masses and extinctions are estimated for the stars in associations using the evolutionary models of Schaerer et al. (1993), assuming the age is 4 Myr and that the local LMC extinction follows the Fitzpatrick (1985) 30 Dor extinction curve. The estimated slope of the initial mass function (IMF) for massive stars (greater than 15 solar mass) within the Lucke and Hodge (LH) associations is Gamma = -1.08 +/- 0.2. Initial masses and extinctions for stars not within LH associations are estimated assuming that the stellar age is either 4 Myr or half the stellar lifetime, whichever is larger. The estimated slope of the IMF for massive stars not within LH associations is Gamma = -1.74 +/- 0.3 (assuming continuous star formation), compared with Gamma = -1.35, and Gamma = -1.7 +/- 0.5, obtained for the Galaxy by Salpeter (1955) and Scalo (1986), respectively, and Gamma = -1.6 obtained for massive stars in the Galaxy by Garmany, Conti, & Chiosi (1982). The shallower slope of the association IMF suggests that not only is the star formation rate higher in associations, but that the local conditions favor the formation of higher mass stars there. We make no corrections for binaries or incompleteness.

  15. Developing Improved Water Velocity and Flux Estimation from AUVs - Results From Recent ASTEP Field Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, J. C.; Yoerger, D. R.; Camilli, R.; German, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Water velocity measurements are crucial to quantifying fluxes and better understanding water as a fundamental transport mechanism for marine chemical and biological processes. The importance of flux to understanding these processes makes it a crucial component of astrobiological exploration to moons possessing large bodies of water, such as Europa. Present technology allows us to obtain submerged water velocity measurements from stationary platforms; rarer are measurements from submerged vehicles which possess the ability to autonomously survey tens of kilometers over extended periods. Improving this capability would also allow us to obtain co-registered water velocity and other sensor data (e.g., mass spectrometers, temperature, oxygen, etc) and significantly enhance our ability to estimate fluxes. We report results from 4 recent expeditions in which we measured water velocities from autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to help quantify flux in three different oceanographic contexts: hydrothermal vent plumes; an oil spill cruise responding to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout; and two expeditions investigating naturally occurring methane seeps. On all of these cruises, we directly measured the water velocities with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on the AUV. Vehicle motion was corrected for using bottom-lock Doppler tracks when available and, in the absence of bottom-lock, estimates of vehicle velocity based on dynamic models. In addition, on the methane seep cruises, we explored the potential of using acoustic mapping sonars, such as multi-beam and sub-bottom profiling systems, to localize plumes and indirectly quantify flux. Data obtained on these expeditions enhanced our scientific investigations and provides data for future development of algorithms for autonomously processing, identifying, and classifying water velocity and flux measurements. Such technology will be crucial in future astrobiology missions where highly constrained

  16. Laboratory and Modeling Studies of Velocity-Changing Collisions, Spin-Changing Collisions, and Magnetic Fields on Sodium Guidestars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostinski, Natalie; Dimitrova, Ivana; Happer, William

    2010-03-01

    Lasers used to produce sodium guidestars can cause optical pumping of Na atoms, but only interact with atoms that possess resonant Doppler shift. The number density of atmospheric constituents (e.g., Na, N2, O, O2) is so low, that there is minimal collision broadening of the optical absorption lines and distinct velocity groups can be excited. A goal of our work is modeling and laboratory studies of the correlations between the atomic spin polarization and the atomic velocity along the pumping beam. We believe this will aid in understanding the various mechanisms (collision processes, geomagnetic field) that can influence guidestar signal strength. This work should lead to a better understanding of the relative importance of strong and weak velocity-changing collisions.

  17. Effect of Gas Velocity on the Dust Sediment Layer in the Coupled Field of Corona Plasma and Cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mingshan; Ma, Chaochen; Li, Minghua; S, N. Danish

    2006-09-01

    A dust sediment layer was found on the outer tube wall when the ESCP (electrostatic centrifugal precipitator) trapped diesel particulates or ganister sand. The Compton back scatter method was used to measure the sediment thickness during the experiment. The effect of the inlet gas velocity on the dust sediment layer was investigated. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) was used to measure the velocity field between the inner barb tube wall and the outer tube wall. Experiments showed that the thickness of the sediment increased with time, and the sediment layer at the lower end was much thicker than that at the upper end. The agglomeration on the outer tube wall could be removed when the inlet gas velocity was increased to a certain value.

  18. Energetics of a Kerr blackhole in electromagnetic fields Role of the relative angular velocity of charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, S.; Dhurandhar, S. V.; Dadhich, N.

    1985-06-01

    The authors consider a rotating black hole in an external dipole magnetic field. By defining the relative angular velocity parameter Ω they analyse the various contributions due to electromagnetic fields and rotation to the effective potential. It turns out that the magnetic field contribution is in general related to Ω. An interesting case of prescribing the orbit for a locally nonrotating observer (LNRO) by a particle of appropriate charge and angular momentum parameters is considered. For such an orbit Ω = 0, stationarity is built in and is ensured by the Lorentz force in contrast to the usual LNRO orbit where it has to be maintained by externally providing proper outward radial acceleration.

  19. Inference of the angular velocity of plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere from the sweepback of magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, Krishan K.; Kivelson, Margaret G.

    1993-01-01

    The averaged angular velocity of plasma from magnetic observations is evaluated using plasma outflow rate as a parameter. New techniques are developed to calculate the normal and azimuthal components of the magnetic field in and near to the plasma sheet in a plasma sheet coordinate system. The revised field components differ substantially from the quantities used in previous analyses. With the revised field values, it appears that during the Voyager 2 flyby for an outflow rate of 2.5 x 10 exp 29 amu/s, the observed magnetic torque may be sufficient to keep the plasma in corotation to radial distances of 50 Rj in the postmidnight quadrant.

  20. An Improved Method for the Estimation and Visualization of Velocity Fields from Gastric High-Resolution Electrical Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; O'Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Pullan, Andrew J; Cheng, Leo K

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution (HR) electrical mapping is an important clinical research tool for understanding normal and abnormal gastric electrophysiology. Analyzing velocities of gastric electrical activity in a reliable and accurate manner can provide additional valuable information for quantitatively and qualitatively comparing features across and within subjects, particularly during gastric dysrhythmias. In this study we compared three methods of estimating velocities from HR recordings to determine which method was the most reliable for use with gastric HR electrical mapping. The three methods were i) Simple finite difference ii) Smoothed finite difference and a iii) Polynomial based method. With synthetic data, the accuracy of the simple finite difference method resulted in velocity errors almost twice that of the smoothed finite difference and the polynomial based method, in the presence of activation time error up to 0.5s. With three synthetic cases under various noise types and levels, the smoothed finite difference resulted in average speed error of 3.2% and an average angle error of 2.0° and the polynomial based method had an average speed error of 3.3% and an average angle error of 1.7°. With experimental gastric slow wave recordings performed in pigs, the three methods estimated similar velocities (6.3-7.3 mm/s), but the smoothed finite difference method had a lower standard deviation in its velocity estimate than the simple finite difference and the polynomial based method, leading it to be the method of choice for velocity estimation in gastric slow wave propagation. An improved method for visualizing velocity fields is also presented. PMID:22207635

  1. Laser-induced fluorescence technique for velocity field measurements in subsonic gas flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiller, B.; Mcdaniel, J. C.; Rea, E. C., Jr.; Hanson, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical technique is reported for multiple-point velocity measurements in subsonic flows. The technique is based on the detection of fluorescence from a Doppler-shifted absorption line of seeded iodine molecules excited at a laser frequency fixed in the wing of the line. Counterpropagating laser sheets are used to illuminate the flow, in the present case a nitrogen round jet, thereby eliminating the need for an unshifted reference signal. The fluorescence is detected simultaneously at 10,000 points in a plane of the flow using a 100 x 100 element photodiode-array camera. The velocity at each point is computed from four successive camera frames, each recorded with a different beam direction. The measured mean velocities between 5 and 50 m/sec agree well with data from the literature.

  2. Chromospheric activity and stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kippenhahn, R.

    1973-01-01

    A study of stellar chromospheres based on the internal structure of particular stars is presented. Used are complex flow diagrams of the linkage paths between mass loss, angular momentum loss, magnetic field from the turbulent dynamo and its relations to differential rotations and the convection zone, and stellar evolution.

  3. The Radial Velocity Method for the Detection of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzes, Artie P.

    The radial velocity (RV) method has provided the foundation for the research field of exoplanets. It created the field by discovering the first exoplanets and then blazed a trail by detecting over 1000 exoplanets in orbit around other stars. The method also plays a vital role in transit searches by providing the planetary mass needed to calculate the bulk density of the exoplanet. The RV method requires a wide range of techniques: novel instrumentation for making precise RV measurements, clever techniques for extracting the periodic signals due to planets from the RV data, tools for assessing their statistical significance, and programs for calculating the Keplerian orbital parameters. Finally, RV measurements have become so precise that the measurement error is now dominated by the intrinsic stellar noise. New tools have to be developed to extract planetary signals from RV variability originating from the star. In these series of lectures I will cover (1) basic instrumentation for stellar radial velocity methods, (2) methods for achieving high radial velocity precision, (3) finding periodic signals in radial velocity data, (4) Keplerian orbits, (5) sources of errors for radial velocity measurements, and (6) dealing with the contribution of stellar noise to the radial velocity measurement.

  4. Combining deterministic and stochastic velocity fields in the analysis of deep crustal seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, Steven Paul

    Standard crustal seismic modeling obtains deterministic velocity models which ignore the effects of wavelength-scale heterogeneity, known to exist within the Earth's crust. Stochastic velocity models are a means to include wavelength-scale heterogeneity in the modeling. These models are defined by statistical parameters obtained from geologic maps of exposed crystalline rock, and are thus tied to actual geologic structures. Combining both deterministic and stochastic velocity models into a single model allows a realistic full wavefield (2-D) to be computed. By comparing these simulations to recorded seismic data, the effects of wavelength-scale heterogeneity can be investigated. Combined deterministic and stochastic velocity models are created for two datasets, the 1992 RISC seismic experiment in southeastern California and the 1986 PASSCAL seismic experiment in northern Nevada. The RISC experiment was located in the transition zone between the Salton Trough and the southern Basin and Range province. A high-velocity body previously identified beneath the Salton Trough is constrained to pinch out beneath the Chocolate Mountains to the northeast. The lateral extent of this body is evidence for the ephemeral nature of rifting loci as a continent is initially rifted. Stochastic modeling of wavelength-scale structures above this body indicate that little more than 5% mafic intrusion into a more felsic continental crust is responsible for the observed reflectivity. Modeling of the wide-angle RISC data indicates that coda waves following PmP are initially dominated by diffusion of energy out of the near-surface basin as the wavefield reverberates within this low-velocity layer. At later times, this coda consists of scattered body waves and P to S conversions. Surface waves do not play a significant role in this coda. Modeling of the PASSCAL dataset indicates that a high-gradient crust-mantle transition zone or a rough Moho interface is necessary to reduce precritical Pm

  5. Dynamic Electric Field Maps of Point Charge Moving with Constant Velocity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefimenko, Oleg D.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic field maps and contour curves provide a new way of depicting and analyzing the electric field of uniformly moving point charges. Presents an alternative way of graphically representing the electricity field of a uniformly moving point charge. (CCM)

  6. Depression storage and infiltration effects on overland flow depth-velocity-friction at desert conditions: field plot results and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, M. J.; Ares, J. O.

    2012-09-01

    Water infiltration and overland flow are relevant in considering water partition among plant life forms, the sustainability of vegetation and the design of sustainable hydrological models and management. In arid and semi-arid regions, these processes present characteristic trends imposed by the prevailing physical conditions of the upper soil as evolved under water-limited climate. A set of plot-scale field experiments at the semi-arid Patagonian Monte (Argentina) were performed in order to estimate the effect of depression storage areas and infiltration rates on depths, velocities and friction of overland flows. The micro-relief of undisturbed field plots was characterized at z-scale 1 mm through close-range stereo-photogrammetry and geo-statistical tools. The overland flow areas produced by controlled water inflows were video-recorded and the flow velocities were measured with image processing software. Antecedent and post-inflow moisture were measured, and texture, bulk density and physical properties of the upper soil were estimated based on soil core analyses. Field data were used to calibrate a physically-based, mass balanced, time explicit model of infiltration and overland flows. Modelling results reproduced the time series of observed flow areas, velocities and infiltration depths. Estimates of hydrodynamic parameters of overland flow (Reynolds-Froude numbers) are informed. To our knowledge, the study here presented is novel in combining several aspects that previous studies do not address simultaneously: (1) overland flow and infiltration parameters were obtained in undisturbed field conditions; (2) field measurements of overland flow movement were coupled to a detailed analysis of soil microtopography at 1 mm depth scale; (3) the effect of depression storage areas in infiltration rates and depth-velocity friction of overland flows is addressed. Relevance of the results to other similar desert areas is justified by the accompanying biogeography analysis

  7. Upgrading the Solar-Stellar Connection: News about activity in Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Testa, P.; Borgniet, S.; Brun, A. S.; Cegla, H. M.; Garraffo, C.; Kowalski, A.; Shapiro, A.; Shkolnik, E.; Spada, F.; Vidotto, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this splinter session, ten speakers presented results on solar and stellar activity and how the two fields are connected. This was followed by a lively discussion and supplemented by short, one-minute highlight talks. The talks presented new theoretical and observational results on mass accretion on the Sun, the activity rate of flare stars, the evolution of the stellar magnetic field on time scales of a single cycle and over the lifetime of a star, and two different approaches to model the radial-velocity jitter in cool stars that is due to the granulation on the surface. Talks and discussion showed how much the interpretation of stellar activity data relies on the sun and how the large number of objects available in stellar studies can extend the parameter range of activity models.

  8. Stellar Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is one of NASA's "Vision Missions" - concepts for future, space-based, strategic missions that could enormously increase our capabilities for observing the Cosmos. SI is designed as a UV/Optical Interferometer which will enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and, via asteroseismology, stellar interiors and of the Universe in general. The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes by transforming point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. SI, with a characteristic angular resolution of 0.1 milli-arcseconds at 2000 Angstroms, represents an advance in image detail of several hundred times over that provided by the Hubble Space Telescope. The Stellar Imager will zoom in on what today-with few exceptions - we only know as point sources, revealing processes never before seen, thus providing a tool as fundamental to astrophysics as the microscope is to the study of life on Earth. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. It's prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives, in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. Stellar Imager is included as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005) and as such is a candidate mission for the 2025-2030 timeframe. An artist's drawing of the current "baseline" concept for SI is presented.

  9. Contemporary crustal vertical velocity field in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau inferred from precise leveling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, M.; Wang, Q.; Shen, Z.; Cui, D.; Li, Y.; Ji, L.

    2012-12-01

    The precise leveling data observed between 1970 and 2011 around the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau are collected, and used to acquire the present crustal vertical velocity field of this region. All the height differences between the adjacent two benchmarks are plotted over time, so the instable benchmarks caused by earthquake events or ground water drawing could be removed. In order to mitigate the accumulated systematic errors along the leveling route, the vertical rates of 9 GPS sites within this region are as a priori constraints. The velocity field result shows that the most regions of the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau are in the status of uplift, especially Gonggashan uplifts at a rate of 5.7±0.8 mm/a, and the uplift rate of the west Qinling is up to 6.4±1.5 mm/a. The vertical velo