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1

Stem Cell Transplantation for Auditory Nerve Replacement  

PubMed Central

The successful function of cochlear prostheses depends on activation of auditory nerve. The survival of auditory nerve neurons, however, can vary widely in candidates for cochlear implants and influence implant efficacy. Stem cells offer the potential for improving the function of cochlear prostheses and increasing the candidate pool by replacing lost auditory nerve. The first phase of studies for stem cell replacement of auditory nerve has examined the in vitro survival and differentiation as well as in vivo differentiation and survival of exogenous embryonic and tissue stem cells placed into scala tympani and/or modiolus. These studies are reviewed and new results on in vivo placement of B-5 mouse embryonic stem cells into scala tympani of the guinea pig cochleae with differentiation into a glutamatergic neuronal phenotype are presented. Research on the integration and connections of stem cell derived neurons in the cochlea is described. Finally, an alternative approach is considered, based on the use of endogenous progenitors rather than exogenous stem cells, with a review of promising findings that have identified stem cell-like progenitors in cochlear and vestibular tissues to provide the potential for auditory nerve replacement. PMID:18585449

Altschuler, Richard A.; O’Shea, K. Sue; Miller, Josef M.

2008-01-01

2

Stem cells to replace the optic nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods that exist now and that might be developed are suggested to replace retinal ganglion cells and their axons in the optic nerve, ultimately to re-establish functional vision in eyes blind from glaucoma.

H A Quigley; D S Iglesia; HA Quigley

2004-01-01

3

Hormonal replacement therapy after stem cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To evaluate HRT compliance and efficacy in the treatment of symptomatic ovarian failure in pre-menopausal women after stem cell transplantation (SCT) for malignancies. Methods: Thirty-one females were selected and prospectively followed in a university bone marrow transplantation unit and gynecologic outpatient clinic in a university teaching hospital. The patients received regular gynecological examinations, hormonal assessment every 6 months including plasma

Paola Piccioni; Paolo Scirpa; Ilenia D'Emilio; Federica Sora; Marilisa Scarciglia; Luca Laurenti; Silvia De Matteis; Simona Sica; Giuseppe Leone; Patrizia Chiusolo

4

Prospects for Replacement of Auditory Neurons by Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by degeneration of hair cells or auditory neurons. Spiral ganglion cells, the primary afferent neurons of the auditory system, are patterned during development and send out projections to hair cells and to the brainstem under the control of largely unknown guidance molecules. The neurons do not regenerate after loss and even damage to their projections tends to be permanent. The genesis of spiral ganglion neurons and their synapses forms a basis for regenerative approaches. In this review we critically present the current experimental findings on auditory neuron replacement. We discuss the latest advances with a focus on (a) exogenous stem cell transplantation into the cochlea for neural replacement, (b) expression of local guidance signals in the cochlea after loss of auditory neurons, (c) the possibility of neural replacement from an endogenous cell source, and (d) functional changes from cell engraftment. PMID:23370457

Shi, Fuxin; Edge, Albert S.B.

2013-01-01

5

Phenotypic Evolutionary Models in Stem Cell Biology: Replacement, Quiescence, and Variability  

E-print Network

Phenotypic Evolutionary Models in Stem Cell Biology: Replacement, Quiescence, and Variability Marc: Mangel M, Bonsall MB (2008) Phenotypic Evolutionary Models in Stem Cell Biology: Replacement, Quiescence]. Raff [7] noted that ``perhaps the greatest challenge in stem cell biology is to uncover the

Mangel, Marc

6

Mitochondrial Gene Replacement in Primate Offspring and Embryonic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are found in all eukaryotic cells and contain their own genome (mtDNA). Unlike the nuclear genome which is derived from both the egg and sperm at fertilization, the mtDNA in the embryo are derived almost exclusively from the egg, i.e. is of maternal origin. Mutations in mtDNA contribute to a diverse range of still incurable human diseases and disorders. To establish preclinical models for new therapeutic approaches, we demonstrate here that the mitochondrial genome can be efficiently replaced in mature nonhuman primate oocytes by spindle-chromosomal complex transfer from one egg to an enucleated, mitochondrial-replete egg. The reconstructed oocytes with the mitochondrial replacement were capable of supporting normal fertilization, embryo development and produced healthy offspring. Genetic analysis confirmed that nuclear DNA in the three infants born so far originated from the spindle donors while mtDNA came from the cytoplast donors. No contribution of spindle donor mtDNA was detected in offspring. Spindle replacement is shown here as an efficient protocol replacing the full complement of mitochondria in newly generated embryonic stem cell lines. This approach may offer a reproductive option to prevent mtDNA disease transmission in affected families. PMID:19710649

Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip; Ma, Hong; Clepper, Lisa; Woodward, Joy; Li, Ying; Ramsey, Cathy; Kolotushkina, Olena; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

2009-01-01

7

Find and replace: editing human genome in pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

Genetic manipulation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provides a powerful tool for modeling diseases and developing future medicine. Recently a number of independent genome-editing techniques were developed, including plasmid, bacterial artificial chromosome, adeno-associated virus vector, zinc finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effecter nuclease, and helper-dependent adenoviral vector. Gene editing has been successfully employed in different aspects of stem cell research such as gene correction, mutation knock-in, and establishment of reporter cell lines (Raya et al., 2009; Howden et al., 2011; Li et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011b; Papapetrou et al., 2011; Sebastiano et al., 2011; Soldner et al., 2011; Zou et al., 2011a). These techniques combined with the utility of hPSCs will significantly influence the area of regenerative medicine. PMID:22173708

Pan, Huize; Zhang, Weiqi; Zhang, Weizhou; Liu, Guang-Hui

2011-12-01

8

Adult subventricular zone neural stem cells as a potential source of dopaminergic replacement neurons  

PubMed Central

Clinical trials engrafting human fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue have demonstrated, in principle, that cell replacement therapy provides substantial long-lasting improvement of motor impairments generated by Parkinson's Disease (PD). The use of fetal tissue is not practical for widespread clinical implementation of this therapy, but stem cells are a promising alternative source for obtaining replacement cells. The ideal stem cell source has yet to be established and, in this review, we discuss the potential of neural stem cells in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) as an autologous source of replacement cells. We identify three key challenges for further developing this potential source of replacement cells: (1) improving survival of transplanted cells, (2) suppressing glial progenitor proliferation and survival, and (3) developing methods to efficiently produce dopaminergic neurons. Subventricular neural stem cells naturally produce a dopaminergic interneuron phenotype that has an apparent lack of vulnerability to PD-mediated degeneration. We also discuss whether olfactory bulb dopaminergic neurons derived from adult SVZ neural stem cells are a suitable source for cell replacement strategies. PMID:24574954

Cave, John W.; Wang, Meng; Baker, Harriet

2014-01-01

9

Stem cell-based organ replacements-airway and lung tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering requires the use of cells seeded onto scaffolds, often in conjunction with bioactive molecules, to regenerate or replace tissues. Significant advances have been made in recent years within the fields of stem cell biology and biomaterials, leading to some exciting developments in airway tissue engineering, including the first use of stem cell-based tissue-engineered tracheal replacements in humans. In addition, recent advances within the fields of scaffold biology and decellularization offer the potential to transplant patients without the use of immunosuppression. PMID:24994525

Fishman, Jonathan M; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin A

2014-06-01

10

Proteome-wide analysis of neural stem cell differentiation to facilitate transition to cell replacement therapies.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative diseases are devastating disorders and the demands on their treatment are set to rise in connection with higher disease incidence. Knowledge of the spatiotemporal profile of cellular protein expression during neural differentiation and definition of a set of markers highly specific for targeted neural populations is a key challenge. Intracellular proteins may be utilized as a readout for follow-up transplantation and cell surface proteins may facilitate isolation of the cell subpopulations, while secreted proteins could help unravel intercellular communication and immunomodulation. This review summarizes the potential of proteomics in revealing molecular mechanisms underlying neural differentiation of stem cells and presents novel candidate proteins of neural subpopulations, where understanding of their functionality may accelerate transition to cell replacement therapies. PMID:25363140

Zizkova, Martina; Sucha, Rita; Tyleckova, Jirina; Jarkovska, Karla; Mairychova, Katerina; Kotrcova, Eva; Marsala, Martin; Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Kovarova, Hana

2015-02-01

11

Patterning discrete stem cell culture environments via localized self-assembled monolayer replacement.  

PubMed

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold have become an important tool for probing cell-material interactions. Emerging studies in stem cell biology are particularly reliant on well-defined model substrates, and rapid, highly controllable fabrication methods may be necessary for characterizing the wide array of stem cell-material interactions. Therefore, this study describes a rapid method for creating SAM cell culture substrates with multiple discrete regions of controlled peptide identity and density. The approach uses a NaBH(4) solution to selectively remove regions of bioinert, hydroxyl-terminated oligo(ethylene glycol) alkanethiolate SAM and then locally replace them with mixed SAMs of hydroxyl- and carboxylic acid-terminated oligo(ethylene glycol) alkanethiolates. The cell adhesion peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro (RGDSP) was then covalently linked to carboxylic acid-terminated mixed SAM regions to create cell adhesive environments within a bioinert background. SAM preparation and peptide immobilization were characterized using polarization modulation-infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), as well as assays to monitor conjugation of a fluorescently labeled peptide. This "localized SAM replacement" method was achieved using an array of microchannels, which facilitated rapid and simple processing. Results indicate that immobilized RGDSP promoted spatially localized attachment of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) within specified regions, while maintaining a stable, bioinert background in serum-containing cell culture conditions for up to 14 days. Cell attachment to patterned regions presenting a range of cell adhesion peptide densities demonstrated that peptide identity and density strongly influence hMSC spreading and focal adhesion density. These substrates contain discrete, well-defined microenvironments for stem cell culture, which could ultimately enable high-throughput screening for the effects of immobilized signals on stem cell phenotype. PMID:19856996

Koepsel, Justin T; Murphy, William L

2009-11-01

12

Short stem shoulder replacement  

PubMed Central

Context: It is agreed that it is important to anatomically reproduce the proximal humeral anatomy when performing a prosthetic shoulder replacement. This can be difficult with a long stemmed prosthesis, in particular if there is little relationship of the metaphysis to the humeral shaft. The ‘short stem’ prosthesis can deal with this problem. Aims: A prospective study assessed the results of total shoulder arthroplasty using a short stem humeral prosthesis, a ceramic humeral head, and a pegged cemented polyethylene glenoid. Materials and methods: Patients with primary shoulder osteoarthritis were recruited into this prospective trial and pre-operatively had the ASES, Constant, SPADI, and DASH scores recorded. The patients were clinically reviewed at the two weeks, eight weeks, one year, and two year mark with completion of a data form. Radiological evaluation was at the eight week, one year and two year follow-up. At the one and two year follow-up the satisfaction rating, the range of passive and active motion, Constant, ASES, SPADI, DASH and pain results were recorded and analysed with SPPS 20. Results: During the study period 97 short stem, ceramic head total shoulder replacements were carried out. At the time of follow-up 12 were two years from operation and 38 one year from operation. Active elevation was overall mean 160 degrees. Constant scores were 76 at 1 year, and 86 at 2 years, ASES 88 and 93, and satisfaction 96% and 98% respectively at one and 2 year follow up. There were no problems during insertion of the humeral prosthesis, or any radiolucent lines or movement of the prosthesis on later radiographs. Conclusion: The short stem prosthesis had no complications, and on follow up radiographs good bone fixation. These fairly short term clinical results were overall good. PMID:25258497

Bell, Simon N.; Coghlan, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

13

Arthritic Periosteal Tissue From Joint Replacement Surgery: A Novel, Autologous Source of Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The overarching aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of using periosteal tissue from the femoral neck of arthritic hip joints, usually discarded in the normal course of hip replacement surgery, as an autologous source of stem cells. In addition, the study aims to characterize intrinsic differences between periosteum-derived cell (PDC) populations, isolated via either enzymatic digestion or a migration assay, including their proliferative capacity, surface marker expression, and multipotency, relative to commercially available human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured under identical conditions. Commercial BMSCs and PDCs were characterized in vitro, using a growth assay, flow cytometry, as well as assay of Oil Red O, alizarin red, and Safranin O/Fast Green staining after respective culture in adipo-, osteo-, and chondrogenic media. Based on these outcome measures, PDCs exhibited proliferation rate, morphology, surface receptor expression, and multipotency similar to those of BMSCs. No significant correlation was observed between outcome measures and donor age or diagnosis (osteoarthritis [OA] and rheumatoid arthritis [RA], respectively), a profound finding given recent rheumatological studies indicating that OA and RA share not only common biomarkers and molecular mechanisms but also common pathophysiology, ultimately resulting in the need for joint replacement. Furthermore, PDCs isolated via enzymatic digestion and migration assay showed subtle differences in surface marker expression but otherwise no significant differences in proliferation or multipotency; the observed differences in surface marker expression may indicate potential effects of isolation method on the population of cells isolated and/or the behavior of the respective isolated cell populations. This study demonstrates, for the first time to our knowledge, the feasibility of using arthritic tissue resected during hip replacement as a source of autologous stem cells. In sum, periosteum tissue that is resected with the femoral neck in replacing the hip represents an unprecedented and, to date, unstudied source of stem cells from OA and RA patients. Follow-up studies will determine the degree to which this new, autologous source of stem cells can be banked for future use. PMID:24477075

Chang, Hana; Docheva, Denitsa; Knothe, Ulf R.

2014-01-01

14

Stem Cells  

MedlinePLUS

Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

15

Directing Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into a Neurosensory Lineage for Auditory Neuron Replacement  

PubMed Central

Abstract Emerging therapies for sensorineural hearing loss include replacing damaged auditory neurons (ANs) using stem cells. Ultimately, it is important that these replacement cells can be patient-matched to avoid immunorejection. As human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be obtained directly from the patient, they offer an opportunity to generate patient-matched neurons for transplantation. Here, we used an established neural induction protocol to differentiate two hiPSC lines (iPS1 and iPS2) and one human embryonic stem cell line (hESC; H9) toward a neurosensory lineage in vitro. Immunocytochemistry and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the expression of key markers involved in AN development at defined time points of differentiation. The hiPSC- and hESC-derived neurosensory progenitors expressed the dorsal hindbrain marker (PAX7), otic placodal marker (PAX2), proneurosensory marker (SOX2), ganglion neuronal markers (NEUROD1, BRN3A, ISLET1, ßIII-tubulin, Neurofilament kDa 160), and sensory AN markers (GATA3 and VGLUT1) over the time course examined. The hiPSC- and hESC-derived neurosensory progenitors had the highest expression levels of the sensory neural markers at 35 days in vitro. Furthermore, the neurons generated from this assay were found to be electrically active. While all cell lines analyzed produced functional neurosensory-like progenitors, variabilities in the levels of marker expression were observed between hiPSC lines and within samples of the same cell line, when compared with the hESC controls. Overall, these findings indicate that this neural assay was capable of differentiating hiPSCs toward a neurosensory lineage but emphasize the need for improving the consistency in the differentiation of hiPSCs into the required lineages. PMID:25126480

Gunewardene, Niliksha; Bergen, Nicole Van; Crombie, Duncan; Needham, Karina; Dottori, Mirella

2014-01-01

16

Autologous adipose stem cells and polylactide discs in the replacement of the rabbit temporomandibular joint disc.  

PubMed

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc lacks functional replacement after discectomy. We investigated tissue-engineered bilayer polylactide (PLA) discs and autologous adipose stem cells (ASCs) as a potential replacement for the TMJ disc. These ASC discs were pre-cultured either in control or in differentiation medium, including transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 for one week. Prior to implantation, expression of fibrocartilaginous genes was measured by qRT-PCR. The control and differentiated ASC discs were implanted, respectively, in the right and left TMJs of rabbits for six (n = 5) and 12 months (n = 5). Thereafter, the excised TMJ areas were examined with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and histology. No signs of infection, inflammation or foreign body reactions were detected at histology, whereas chronic arthrosis and considerable condylar hypertrophy were observed in all operated joints at CBCT. The left condyle treated with the differentiated ASC discs appeared consistently smoother and more sclerotic than the right condyle. The ASC disc replacement resulted in dislocation and morphological changes in the rabbit TMJ. The ASC discs pre-treated with TGF-?1 enhanced the condylar integrity. While adverse tissue reactions were not shown, the authors suggest that with improved attachment and design, the PLA disc and biomaterial itself would hold potential for TMJ disc replacement. PMID:23720535

Ahtiainen, Katja; Mauno, Jari; Ellä, Ville; Hagström, Jaana; Lindqvist, Christian; Miettinen, Susanna; Ylikomi, Timo; Kellomäki, Minna; Seppänen, Riitta

2013-08-01

17

Multi-kilobase homozygous targeted gene replacement in human induced pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

Sequence-specific nucleases such as TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 system have so far been used to disrupt, correct or insert transgenes at precise locations in mammalian genomes. We demonstrate efficient 'knock-in' targeted replacement of multi-kilobase genes in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Using a model system replacing endogenous human genes with their mouse counterpart, we performed a comprehensive study of targeting vector design parameters for homologous recombination. A 2.7 kilobase (kb) homozygous gene replacement was achieved in up to 11% of iPSC without selection. The optimal homology arm length was around 2 kb, with homology length being especially critical on the arm not adjacent to the cut site. Homologous sequence inside the cut sites was detrimental to targeting efficiency, consistent with a synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) mechanism. Using two nuclease sites, we observed a high degree of gene excisions and inversions, which sometimes occurred more frequently than indel mutations. While homozygous deletions of 86 kb were achieved with up to 8% frequency, deletion frequencies were not solely a function of nuclease activity and deletion size. Our results analyzing the optimal parameters for targeting vector design will inform future gene targeting efforts involving multi-kilobase gene segments, particularly in human iPSC. PMID:25414332

Byrne, Susan M; Ortiz, Luis; Mali, Prashant; Aach, John; Church, George M

2014-11-20

18

Current applications of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue replacement in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery  

PubMed Central

Cellular therapy utilizing adult mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) may very well revolutionize the treatment of a variety of head and neck diseases through the restoration of normal structure and function. Transplanting allogeneic or autologous MSCs into damaged tissues can serve multiple regenerative functions through their self-renewal, differentiation capacity, immune modulation and secretion of bioactive molecules. Further, trophic factors expressed by MSCs have been shown to influence their microenvironment through the promotion of extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis and wound healing needed to regenerate or replace injured tissues. Although clinical applications of MSC based therapies in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery are still in their infancy, efforts are being made to understand and exploit MSCs for tissue repair as well as engineering strategies. In this review, we highlight pre clinical and clinical investigations employing MSC based therapies for the reconstruction of bone, cartilage, soft tissue and vocal fold defects. PMID:23671810

King, Suzanne N; Hanson, Summer E; Hematti, Peiman; Thibeault, Susan L

2012-01-01

19

Cell Stem Cell Molecular Analysis of Stem Cells and Their  

E-print Network

homeostasis and regeneration, but also the utility of studies in planarians to broadly inform stem cellCell Stem Cell Article Molecular Analysis of Stem Cells and Their Descendants during Cell Turnover@neuro.utah.edu DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2008.07.002 SUMMARY In adult planarians, the replacement of cells lost

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

20

Adult Bone Marrow Neural Crest Stem Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Not Able to Replace Lost Neurons in Acute MPTP-Lesioned Mice  

PubMed Central

Adult bone marrow stroma contains multipotent stem cells (BMSC) that are a mixed population of mesenchymal and neural-crest derived stem cells. Both cells are endowed with in vitro multi-lineage differentiation abilities, then constituting an attractive and easy-available source of material for cell therapy in neurological disorders. Whereas the in vivo integration and differentiation of BMSC in neurons into the central nervous system is currently matter of debate, we report here that once injected into the striatum of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice, pure populations of either bone marrow neural crest stem cells (NCSC) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) survived only transiently into the lesioned brain. Moreover, they do not migrate through the brain tissue, neither modify their initial phenotype, while no recovery of the dopaminergic system integrity was observed. Consequently, we tend to conclude that MSC/NCSC are not able to replace lost neurons in acute MPTP-lesioned dopaminergic system through a suitable integration and/or differentiation process. Altogether with recent data, it appears that neuroprotective, neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory features characterizing BMSC are of greater interest as regards CNS lesions management. PMID:23741377

Neirinckx, Virginie; Marquet, Alice; Coste, Cécile

2013-01-01

21

Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... What Is a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant? A blood and marrow stem cell transplant replaces ... replace the missing white blood cells. Types of Transplants The two main types of stem cell transplants ...

22

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is to replace diseased, damaged, or absent hematopoietic stem\\u000a cells (HSCs) with healthy HSCs. In general, allogeneic transplants are used when the hematopoietic stem cells are diseased\\u000a (e.g., leukemia), damaged (e.g., sickle cell disease), or absent (e.g., severe immunodeficiency disease). Autologous transplants\\u000a are used to provide stem cell rescue after higher doses

Robbie Norville; Deborah Tomlinson

23

Programmed cell death and stem cell differentiation are responsible for midgut replacement in Heliothis virescens during prepupal instar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed midgut development during the fifth larval instar in the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens. In prepupae, the midgut formed during larval instars undergoes a complete renewal process. This drastic remodeling of the\\u000a alimentary canal involves the destruction of the old cells by programmed cell-death mechanisms (autophagy and apoptosis).\\u000a Massive proliferation and differentiation of regenerative stem cells take place

Gianluca Tettamanti; Annalisa Grimaldi; Morena Casartelli; Elena Ambrosetti; Benedetta Ponti; Terenzio Congiu; Roberto Ferrarese; Maria Luisa Rivas-Pena; Francesco Pennacchio; Magda de Eguileor

2007-01-01

24

Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell States, Fates,  

E-print Network

and Stem Cell Research, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden 4Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, LundCell Stem Cell Review Stem Cell States, Fates, and the Rules of Attraction Tariq Enver,1 Martin

Peterson, Carsten

25

Large-Scale Hematopoietic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Provides Granulocytes or Macrophages for Cell Replacement Therapies  

PubMed Central

Summary Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is capable of supporting the proliferation of a broad range of hematopoietic cell types, whereas granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage CSF (M-CSF) represent critical cytokines in myeloid differentiation. When this was investigated in a pluripotent-stem-cell-based hematopoietic differentiation model, IL-3/G-CSF or IL-3/M-CSF exposure resulted in the continuous generation of myeloid cells from an intermediate myeloid-cell-forming complex containing CD34+ clonogenic progenitor cells for more than 2 months. Whereas IL-3/G-CSF directed differentiation toward CD45+CD11b+CD15+CD16+CD66b+ granulocytic cells of various differentiation stages up to a segmented morphology displaying the capacity of cytokine-directed migration, respiratory burst response, and neutrophil-extracellular-trap formation, exposure to IL-3/M-CSF resulted in CD45+CD11b+CD14+CD163+CD68+ monocyte/macrophage-type cells capable of phagocytosis and cytokine secretion. Hence, we show here that myeloid specification of human pluripotent stem cells by IL-3/G-CSF or IL-3/M-CSF allows for prolonged and large-scale production of myeloid cells, and thus is suited for cell-fate and disease-modeling studies as well as gene- and cell-therapy applications.

Lachmann, Nico; Ackermann, Mania; Frenzel, Eileen; Liebhaber, Steffi; Brennig, Sebastian; Happle, Christine; Hoffmann, Dirk; Klimenkova, Olga; Lüttge, Doreen; Buchegger, Theresa; Kühnel, Mark Philipp; Schambach, Axel; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Figueiredo, Constanca; Hansen, Gesine; Skokowa, Julia; Moritz, Thomas

2015-01-01

26

Large-scale hematopoietic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells provides granulocytes or macrophages for cell replacement therapies.  

PubMed

Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is capable of supporting the proliferation of a broad range of hematopoietic cell types, whereas granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage CSF (M-CSF) represent critical cytokines in myeloid differentiation. When this was investigated in a pluripotent-stem-cell-based hematopoietic differentiation model, IL-3/G-CSF or IL-3/M-CSF exposure resulted in the continuous generation of myeloid cells from an intermediate myeloid-cell-forming complex containing CD34(+) clonogenic progenitor cells for more than 2 months. Whereas IL-3/G-CSF directed differentiation toward CD45(+)CD11b(+)CD15(+)CD16(+)CD66b(+) granulocytic cells of various differentiation stages up to a segmented morphology displaying the capacity of cytokine-directed migration, respiratory burst response, and neutrophil-extracellular-trap formation, exposure to IL-3/M-CSF resulted in CD45(+)CD11b(+)CD14(+)CD163(+)CD68(+) monocyte/macrophage-type cells capable of phagocytosis and cytokine secretion. Hence, we show here that myeloid specification of human pluripotent stem cells by IL-3/G-CSF or IL-3/M-CSF allows for prolonged and large-scale production of myeloid cells, and thus is suited for cell-fate and disease-modeling studies as well as gene- and cell-therapy applications. PMID:25680479

Lachmann, Nico; Ackermann, Mania; Frenzel, Eileen; Liebhaber, Steffi; Brennig, Sebastian; Happle, Christine; Hoffmann, Dirk; Klimenkova, Olga; Lüttge, Doreen; Buchegger, Theresa; Kühnel, Mark Philipp; Schambach, Axel; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Figueiredo, Constanca; Hansen, Gesine; Skokowa, Julia; Moritz, Thomas

2015-02-10

27

It is hoped that stem cells will provide an inexhaustible source of neu-rons and glia for therapies aimed at cell replacement or neuroprotection  

E-print Network

-221 84 Lund, Sweden. 3 Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, LundIt is hoped that stem cells will provide an inexhaustible source of neu- rons and glia. 1). Embryonic stem (ES) cells, and stem cells from the fetal or adult central nervous system (CNS

Cai, Long

28

Activities of daily living in patients with Hunter syndrome: Impact of enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis II; MPS II) using a newly designed ADL questionnaire. We applied the questionnaire to evaluate clinical phenotypes and therapeutic efficacies of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We also explored early signs and symptoms to make early diagnosis feasible. We devised a new ADL questionnaire with three domains: "movement," "movement with cognition," and "cognition." Each domain has four subcategories rated on a 5-point scale based on level of assistance. We also scored signs and symptoms unique to MPS by 12 subcategories (five points per category), providing 60 points in total. The questionnaire was first administered to 138 healthy Japanese controls (0.33-50years), and successively, to 74 Japanese patients with Hunter syndrome (4-49years). The patient cohort consisted of 51 severe and 23 attenuated phenotypes; 20 patients treated with HSCT, 23 patients treated early with ERT (?8years), 25 patients treated late with ERT (>8years), and 4 untreated patients. Among 18 severe phenotypic patients treated by HSCT, 10 were designated as early HSCT (?5years), while 8 were designated as late HSCT (>5years). Scores from patients with severe phenotypes were lower than controls and attenuated phenotypes in all categories. Among patients with severe phenotypes, there was a trend that HSCT provides a higher ADL score than early ERT, and there was a significant difference in ADL scores between late ERT and HSCT groups. Early ERT and early HSCT provided a higher score than late ERT and late HSCT, respectively. In conclusion, we have evaluated the feasibility of a new questionnaire in control population and patients with Hunter syndrome, leading to a novel evaluation method for clinical phenotypes and therapeutic efficacy. Early treatment with HSCT provides a better consequence in ADL of patients. PMID:25468646

Tanjuakio, Julian; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Patel, Pravin; Yasuda, Eriko; Kubaski, Francyne; Tanaka, Akemi; Yabe, Hiromasa; Mason, Robert W; Montaño, Adriana M; Orii, Kenji E; Orii, Koji O; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

2015-02-01

29

The different extent of B and T cell immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapies in SCID patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency.  

PubMed

The lack of adenosine deaminase (ADA) leads to the accumulation of toxic metabolites, resulting in SCID. If the disease is left untreated, it is likely to have a fatal outcome in early infancy. Because hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and enzyme replacement therapy with pegylated bovine ADA (PEG-ADA) are both provided in our hospital, we undertook a retrospective longitudinal comparative study of the extent of lymphocyte recovery in two groups of treated ADA-SCID children. Together with classical immunological parameters, we quantified the output of the new B and T cells from the production sites using the ?-deleting recombination excision circle and TCR excision circle assay, and we monitored T cell repertoire diversification. We found that immune reconstitution was different following the two treatments. The stable production of ?-deleting recombination excision circle(+) lymphocytes sustained an increase in B cell number in HSCT-treated patients, whereas in PEG-ADA-treated patients, it was accompanied by a significant and progressive decrease in circulating CD19(+) lymphocytes, which never reached the levels observed in age-matched children. The mobilization of TCR excision circle(+) cells, though lower than in controls, was stable with time after HSCT treatment, leading to a constant peripheral T cell number and to the diversification of the T cell repertoire; however, it was compromised in children receiving prolonged PEG-ADA therapy, whose T cells showed progressively narrowing T cell repertoires. PMID:21057082

Serana, Federico; Sottini, Alessandra; Chiarini, Marco; Zanotti, Cinzia; Ghidini, Claudia; Lanfranchi, Arnalda; Notarangelo, Lucia Dora; Caimi, Luigi; Imberti, Luisa

2010-12-15

30

Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To fully understand the biological meaning of the term stem cell (SC) it is useful to clarify the derivation of the root staminal, even though modern research published in English-speaking journals never seem to use the term staminal. While there are\\u000a no doubts that the term SC originated in the context of two major embryological questions, the continuity of the

Manuela Monti; Carlo Alberto Redi

31

Stem cells, cancer, and cancer stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell biology has come of age. Unequivocal proof that stem cells exist in the haematopoietic system has given way to the prospective isolation of several tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells, the initial delineation of their properties and expressed genetic programmes, and the beginnings of their utility in regenerative medicine. Perhaps the most important and useful property of stem cells

Tannishtha Reya; Sean J. Morrison; Michael F. Clarke; Irving L. Weissman

2001-01-01

32

Stem Cell Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every living thing is made up of cells — including the human body. ... can become new cells like this. Blood Stem Cells When you hear about stem cell transplants, they ...

33

Defined-size embryoid bodies formed in the presence of serum replacement increases the efficiency of the cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

The pluripotent nature of embryonic stem (ES) cells makes them powerful tools in cell replacement therapy for severe degenerative diseases, such as heart failure. However, the development of strategies to increase the efficiency of cardiomyocyte (CMC) differentiation is still needed to produce a sufficient amount of cells for clinical applications. This paper evaluates the impact of the size and the aggregation of embryoid bodies (EBs) on the efficiency of ES cell differentiation into CMCs. ES cells were generated from RAP inbred mice. These cells expressed pluripotency markers and induced teratomas when injected into syngeneic mice, which made them suitable for differentiation into CMCs. We found that the EBs that were formed as a result of in vitro ES cell aggregation generated contractile tissue in direct correlation with the initial number of ES cells. Furthermore, the presence of knock-out serum replacement (KO-SR) during ES cell aggregation resulted in less compacted EBs and increased cell differentiation into CMCs compared to the presence of foetal bovine serum. In conclusion, cardiac differentiation of ES cells is dependent on the size and the degree of compaction of EBs, and the presence of KO-SR during initiation of EBs may lead to improved cardiogenic differentiation of ES cells. PMID:23107982

Preda, M B; Burlacu, A; Simionescu, M

2013-02-01

34

The therapeutic potential of neural stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence shows that transplantation of neural stem\\/precursor cells may protect the central nervous system from inflammatory damage through a 'bystander' mechanism that is alternative to cell replacement. This novel mechanism, which might improve the success of transplantation procedures, is exerted by undifferentiated neural stem cells, the functional characteristics of which are regulated by important stem cell regulators released by

Gianvito Martino; Stefano Pluchino

2006-01-01

35

Cardiomyocytes from Human Embryonic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminal heart failure is characterized by a significant loss of cardiac myocytes. Stem cells represent a possibility for replacing these lostmyocytes but the question of which stem cells are most ideally suited for cell transplantation therapies is still being addressed. Here, we consider human embryonic stem cells (HESC), derived from human embryos in this context. We review the methods used

R. Passier; C. Denning; C. Mummery

36

Stem Cells and Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... U.S. policy? More FAQs Links to related resources Stem Cell Research Center for Regenerative Medicine NIH Stem Cell Unit ... Help My Medical Condition? The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) —ISSCR has developed information to help you ...

37

Stemming vision loss with stem cells.  

PubMed

Dramatic advances in the field of stem cell research have raised the possibility of using these cells to treat a variety of diseases. The eye is an excellent target organ for such cell-based therapeutics due to its ready accessibility, the prevalence of vasculo- and neurodegenerative diseases affecting vision, and the availability of animal models to demonstrate proof of concept. In fact, stem cell therapies have already been applied to the treatment of disease affecting the ocular surface, leading to preservation of vision. Diseases in the back of the eye, such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and inherited retinal degenerations, present greater challenges, but rapidly emerging stem cell technologies hold the promise of autologous grafts to stabilize vision loss through cellular replacement or paracrine rescue effects. PMID:20811157

Marchetti, Valentina; Krohne, Tim U; Friedlander, David F; Friedlander, Martin

2010-09-01

38

Stemming vision loss with stem cells  

PubMed Central

Dramatic advances in the field of stem cell research have raised the possibility of using these cells to treat a variety of diseases. The eye is an excellent target organ for such cell-based therapeutics due to its ready accessibility, the prevalence of vasculo- and neurodegenerative diseases affecting vision, and the availability of animal models to demonstrate proof of concept. In fact, stem cell therapies have already been applied to the treatment of disease affecting the ocular surface, leading to preservation of vision. Diseases in the back of the eye, such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and inherited retinal degenerations, present greater challenges, but rapidly emerging stem cell technologies hold the promise of autologous grafts to stabilize vision loss through cellular replacement or paracrine rescue effects. PMID:20811157

Marchetti, Valentina; Krohne, Tim U.; Friedlander, David F.; Friedlander, Martin

2010-01-01

39

Epithelial Cells Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Keywords Epithelial Cells Keratins Stem Cells » Prof. Thomas M. Magin Epithelia protect the body, altered cell adhesion and signal- ling. As no molecular therapy for these conditions is available, one that the co-chaperone CHIP can remove mutant aggregated keratins in a cell culture model of EBS, leading

Schüler, Axel

40

Are hypomethylating agents replacing induction-type chemotherapy before allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome?  

PubMed

Cytoreductive treatment before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) with the objective of reducing the incidence of disease relapse post-transplant in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a matter of debate. The achievement of complete remission (CR) before allo-SCT improves post-transplantation outcome, although it is not clear whether this reflects the selection of patients with more responsive disease or is related to a reduction in disease burden. Higher CR rates in patients with MDS are obtained with induction chemotherapy (ICT) than with hypomethylating agents (HMAs), although HMAs may be active in patients with complex karyotypes in whom ICT almost invariably fails. Furthermore, HMAs have a good toxicity profile compared with ICT and may therefore be considered especially in older patients and in patients with comorbidities. However, all interventions aimed at reducing disease burden before allo-SCT expose patients to the risk of complications, which may prevent them from undergoing transplantation. Therefore, up-front allo-SCT is an option, particularly for patients with life-threatening cytopenias. In this review we discuss the main pretransplant therapeutic approaches and propose a decision-model based on clinical considerations. However, only prospective randomized trials can address the issue definitively. PMID:24972253

Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Deeg, Joachim

2014-12-01

41

Can low-dose preemptive valganciclovir replace standard intravenous ganciclovir treatment in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation?  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the efficacy and safety of standard intravenous ganciclovir (GCV) with low-dose oral valganciclovir (VGC) in preemptive treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in patients who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Fifty-nine adult ASCT patients with asymptomatic 68 CMV reactivations were included. For preemptive CMV treatment, VGC (900 mg/day) in 44 reactivations or GCV (5 mg/kg twice daily during the first week and once daily afterwards) in 24 CMV reactivations were administered for 21 days. Two consecutive negative results for PCR and/or CMV antigenemia were considered as treatment success. All patients with CMV reactivations were on immunosuppressive treatment. While no positivity was identified in any of the patients who received GCV on day 21, low-titer CMV positivity was noted in three of the patients in the VGC group (P = 0·264). In all three patients, VGC was continued at same dose and no positivity result was detected after 2-3 weeks. Low-grade neutropenia and high grade thrombocytopenia were significantly higher in the GCV group than in the VGC group (P = 0·018 and P = 0·04 respectively). Preemptive strategy of oral low-dose VGC appears preferable to the prevention of CMV disease in ASCT. These results require confirmation in prospective larger clinical studies. PMID:24070136

Kaynar, Leylagül; Metan, Gökhan; Gökahmeto?lu, Selma; Kurnaz, Fatih; Mumcuo?lu, Haluk; Öztürk, Ahmet; ??vg?n, Serdar; Pala, Ci?dem; Y?ld?z, Orhan; Eser, Bülent; Ünal, Ali; Çetin, Mustafa

2013-10-01

42

Cell Stem Cell Brief Report  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Brief Report Reprogramming of T Cells from Human Peripheral Blood Yuin-Han Loh,1,2,5,9,10,* 1Stem Cell Transplantation Program, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA 2Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 3

Church, George M.

43

Pluripotent stem cells and their niches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of stem cells to self-renew and to replace mature cells is fundamental to ontogeny and tissue regeneration. Stem\\u000a cells of the adult organism can be categorized as mono-, bi-, or multipotent, based on the number of mature cell types to\\u000a which they can give rise. In contrast, pluripotent stem cells of the early embryo have the ability to

M. William Lensch; Laurence Daheron; Thorsten M. Schlaeger

2006-01-01

44

Can Somatic Stem Cells Regenerate Myocardial Tissue?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic stem cells can be obtained from various sources and their differentiation potential is not restricted only to the\\u000a differentiated cell phenotypes of the source tissue. Therefore, somatic stem cells offer a great promise for cell replacement\\u000a therapy in diseased hearts. Yet, much confusion has been created concerning the use of somatic stem cells. Different methods\\u000a have been used to

Marie Jose Goumans; Anke Smits; Piet van Vliet; Simone Post; Rutger J. Hassink; Pieter Stella; Pieter A. Doevendans

45

Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics What is a Stem Cell?  

E-print Network

Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics What is a Stem Cell? Stem cells are the starting point from to line blood vessels. All of these highly specialized cells have to grow from unspecialized stem cells. Stem cells produce new cells by dividing. In the right conditions, these new cells can then continue

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

46

Cell replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Replacement of the insulin-producing pancreatic islet beta cells represents the ultimate treatment for type 1 diabetes. Recent advances in islet transplantation underscore the urgent need for developing alternatives to human tissue donors, which are scarce. Two possible approaches are the expansion of differentiated beta cells by reversible immortalization and the generation of insulin-producing cells from embryonic or adult stem cells. It is possible that new insights into endocrine pancreas development will ultimately lead to manipulation of progenitor-cell fate towards the beta-cell phenotype of insulin production, storage and regulated secretion. Both allogeneic and autologous surrogate beta cells are likely to require protection from recurring autoimmunity. This protection might take the form of tolerization, cell encapsulation, or cell engineering with immunoprotective genes. If successful, these approaches could lead to widespread cell replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes. PMID:12114113

Efrat, Shimon

2002-07-01

47

Embryonic stem cells. Stem cell programs.  

PubMed

The availability of human embryonic stem cell lines provides an important tool for scientists to explore the fundamental mechanisms that regulate differentiation into specific cell types. When more is known about the mechanisms that govern these processes, human embryonic stem cells may be clinically useful in generating cell types that have been damaged or depleted by a variety of human diseases. The NIH is actively pursuing a variety of initiatives to promote this developing research field, while continuing and expanding its long-standing investment in adult stem cells and research. PMID:12738840

Zerhouni, Elias

2003-05-01

48

Cell Stem Cell Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical  

E-print Network

, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA 5Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana StateCell Stem Cell Review Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical Interactions with the Extracellular.06.016 A diverse array of environmental factors contributes to the overall control of stem cell activity

Chen, Christopher S.

49

Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell Epigenetics: Looking Forward  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Voices Stem Cell Epigenetics: Looking Forward Epigenetics in Adult SCs The integrity of tissues is maintained by adult stem cells during adulthood. How- ever, recent work indicates that tissues often contain more than one population of stem cells that are located at distinct niches and display

Sander, Maike

50

Stem Cell Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... U.S. policy? More FAQs Links to related resources Stem Cell Research Center for Regenerative Medicine NIH Stem Cell Unit ... of scientific research, and the potential use of stem cells in research and in treating disease. The primer includes information ...

51

Understanding Embryonic Stem Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This indexed webcast video along with synchronized lecture slides is from Howard Hughes Medical Institute's 2006 Holiday LecturesPotent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration. Douglas A. Melton presents an introduction to stem cells, as well as answers to questions about the role of stem cells in the human body. This video requires RealPlayer 10.

Douglas A. Melton, Ph.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute; )

2008-04-10

52

Cardiomyocytes from Human Embryonic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminal heart failure is characterized by a significant loss of cardiac myocytes. Stem cells represent a possibility for\\u000a replacing these lostmyocytes but the question of which stem cells are most ideally suited for cell transplantation therapies\\u000a is still being addressed. Here, we consider human embryonic stem cells (HESC), derived from human embryos in this context.We\\u000a review the methods used to

R. Passier; C. Denning; C. Mummery

53

Stem cells in tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of producing 'spare parts' of the body for replacement of damaged or lost organs lies at the core of the varied biotechnological practices referred to generally as tissue engineering. Use of postnatal stem cells has the potential to significantly alter the perspective of tissue engineering. Successful long-term restoration of continuously self-renewing tissues such as skin, for example, depends

Paolo Bianco; Pamela Gehron Robey

2001-01-01

54

Differentiation Potential of Adult Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells are a subcategory of cells designated as “precursor” cells. Precursor cells provide the cellular building blocks\\u000a to maintain the tissues and organs of the body throughout the life-span of an individual. Precursor cells also provide the\\u000a cellular building blocks for tissue replacement and repair following injury. There are three basic categories of precursor\\u000a cells: lineage-uncommitted pluripotent stem cells;

Henry E. Young; Asa C. Black

55

Short stems in total hip replacement: current status and future.  

PubMed

Short stem hip implants have been introduced as a bone preserving surgery for younger and more active people undergoing hip arthroplasty. Although many short stems are now available, clinical results and long-term survival are controversial. The aim of this paper is to describe the features of the short stems and to analyse their clinical results and long-term survival. The short-stem implants reproduce a stress distribution at the level of the proximal femur more similar to the physiological femur limiting the stress-shielding that occur with conventional cementless stems. Though short stems are an alternative to conventional stems, their use is not yet justified despite the promising short and mid-term survival results. Higher incidence of complications, such as periprosthetic fractures and malpositioning of the stem, and the lack of long-term results do not allow to predict what role in the future short stems in total hip replacement may have. PMID:24970038

Castelli, Claudio C; Rizzi, Luigi

2014-01-01

56

Stem torsion in total hip replacement  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The clinical results of THR may be improved by correct femoral torsion. We evaluated the stem position by postoperative CT examination in 60 patients. Methods 60 patients requiring total hip arthroplasty were prospectively enrolled in this study. Minimally invasive THR was performed (anterior approach) in a lateral decubitus position and each patient underwent a postoperative CT examination. The position of the stem was evaluated by an independent external institution. Results Stem torsion ranged from –19° retrotorsion to 33° antetorsion. Normal antetorsion (i.e 10–15° according to Tönnis) was present in 5 of 60 patients, so the prevalence of abnormal stem antetorsion was 92% (95% CI: 82–97). We found a stem antetorsion outside the range of 0–25° in 21 of 60 hips. Women had a higher mean stem antetorsion (8.0° (SD 11)) than men (1.5° (SD 10)). Interpretation Postoperative stem antetorsion shows a high variability and is gender-related. We suggest precise assessment of stem antetorsion intraoperatively by means of computer navigation, preparing the femur first. In abnormal stem antetorsion, the cup position can be adjusted using a combined anteversion concept; alternatively, modular femoral components or stems with retroverted or anteverted necks (“retrostem”) could be used. PMID:20919811

2010-01-01

57

Stem Cell 101 What is a stem cell?  

E-print Network

and stem cells found in the skin generally form skin. However, some research suggests that certain adultStem Cell 101 What is a stem cell? A stem cell is a parent cell in the body that has two specific into all types of tissue in the body ­ this is called differentiation. Where are stem cells found

Minnesota, University of

58

Stem Cells News Update: A Personal Perspective  

PubMed Central

This article is a follow-up to a previous Commentary published in 2011. It updates some of the events mentioned in that Commentary and continues with more interesting and exciting news on stem cell research and the emerging field of Regenerative Medicine. Some of the news includes: 1) the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka; 2) the cloning of human embryonic stem cells; 3) the continued search for truly pluripotent adult stem cells via in vitro and in vivo protocols; 4) the breakthrough in organ replacements; 5) the global stem cell race; 6) the global stem cell cryo-preservation business; 7) the worldwide stem cell donor registries, and 8) the issue of government regulation on stem cell therapy. PMID:24778557

Wong, SC

2013-01-01

59

Stem Cell Transplants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transplanting embryonic stem cells from embryo into adult as a means of rejuvenating diseased cells, tissues, and organs poses ethical and moral challenges. In recent years, stem cell-derived nerve and glandular tissue has been transplanted into the brains and pancreas of Parkinson's disease and diabetes patients, respectively, with mixed results. This chapter provides background information on stem cell research, the future treatment of Parkinson's disease, and the controversy surrounding this sensitive issue.

Irwin Slesnick

2004-01-01

60

Stem cells and reproduction  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To review the latest developments in reproductive tract stem cell biology. Recent findings In 2004, two studies indicated that ovaries contain stem cells which form oocytes in adults and that can be cultured in vitro into mature oocytes. A live birth after orthotopic transplantation of cyropreserved ovarian tissue in a woman whose ovaries were damaged by chemotherapy demonstrates the clinical potential of these cells. In the same year, another study provided novel evidence of endometrial regeneration by stem cells in women who received bone marrow transplants. This finding has potential for the use in treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the cause of endometriosis, which may have its origin in ectopic transdifferentiation of stem cells. Several recent studies have demonstrated that fetal cells enter the maternal circulation and generate microchimerism in the mother. The uterus is a dynamic organ permeable to fetal stem cells, capable of transdifferentiation and an end organ in which bone marrow stem cells may differentiate. Finally stem cell transformation can be an underlying cause of ovarian cancer. Summary Whereas we are just beginning to understand stem cells, the potential implications of stem cells to reproductive biology and medicine are apparent. PMID:20305558

Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S.

2011-01-01

61

Stress and stem cells  

PubMed Central

The unique properties and functions of stem cells make them particularly susceptible to stresses and also lead to their regulation by stress. Stem cell division must respond to the demand to replenish cells during normal tissue turnover as well as in response to damage. Oxidative stress, mechanical stress, growth factors, and cytokines signal stem cell division and differentiation. Many of the conserved pathways regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are also stress-response pathways. The long life span and division potential of stem cells create a propensity for transformation (cancer) and specific stress responses such as apoptosis and senescence act as antitumor mechanisms. Quiescence regulated by CDK inhibitors and a hypoxic niche regulated by FOXO transcription factor function to reduce stress for several types of stem cells to facilitate long-term maintenance. Aging is a particularly relevant stress for stem cells, because repeated demands on stem cell function over the life span can have cumulative cell-autonomous effects including epigenetic dysregulation, mutations, and telomere erosion. In addition, aging of the organism impairs function of the stem cell niche and systemic signals, including chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:23799624

Tower, John

2013-01-01

62

Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress  

E-print Network

, 2009), low cell numbers in single UCB units have limited the suitability of UCB transplan- tationCell Stem Cell Clinical Progress Rapid Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Automated, Toronto, ON M5S 3E1, Canada 4Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John J. Hopkins

Zandstra, Peter W.

63

Embryonic Stem Cell Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Course-in-a-Box" from Bio-Link is a good starting point for instructors to develop a course on embryonic stem cells. If a full course on stem cells is not appropriate for a particular curriculum "individual lectures and activity modules are well-suited for integration into existing bioscience or biotechnology courses." Materials include laboratory protocols for both mouse and human embryonic stem cells, lectures, activities, and assessments. A free login is required to access the materials.

64

Bioreactors Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Keywords Bioreactors Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine Tissue Engineering Pharmacology » Prof. M.; yeZhelyev, M.; eMMrich, F.; o'regan, r.; bader, a. Quantum dots for human mesenchymal stem cells in situ tracheal regeneration: the bionic tissue engineered transplantation approach. J Cell Mol Med. Jul

Schüler, Axel

65

Stem Cell Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Stem Cell Resources website is "to provide timely, reliable, high-quality and scientifically credible stem cell information for the educational community worldwide." The website is a division of Bioscience Network which publishes online science education materials. On the site, visitors will find a stem cell image library, a multimedia area, and a special section titled "For Educators". In the "For Educators" area, visitors will find links to a primer on stem cells and links to educational resources on stem cells from curriculum to case studies to lesson plans from such trusted sources as the Australian Stem Cell Centre and the National Institutes of Health. Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes videos that show how embryonic stem cell lines are made, along with other animations and graphics on the topic. Additionally, the site's "SCR Library" area includes the link to the Stem Cell Image Library, which provides dozens of photos of stem cells taken from researchers at the University of Cambridge and other institutions.

66

Intraoperative Stem Cell Therapy  

PubMed Central

Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the potential regenerative mechanisms and the roles of different cell populations in the regeneration process are discussed. Although intraoperative stem cell therapies have been shown to be safe and effective for several indications, there are still critical challenges to be tackled prior to adoption into the standard surgical armamentarium. PMID:22809140

Coelho, Mónica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

67

Cell Stem Cell Short Article  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Short Article High Mitochondrial Priming Sensitizes hESCs to DNA of Pediatric Newborn Medicine 4Department of Medicine, Division of Genetics Brigham & Women's Hospital, BostonDivision of Newborn Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA 7Harvard Stem Cell

Lahav, Galit

68

Cell Stem Cell Dear Student: Stem Cell Scientists' Advice  

E-print Network

a career in stem cell research?'' ``Besides lending great worth to a scholar's life, leaving spiritual prog or restrict certain types of stem cell research raised profound questions about the field's sustainability. In academia, stem cell research has quickly become institutionalized. Research universities seized the opportu

69

Stem Cell Differentiation Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game uses a modified Uno deck to review concepts related to stem cell research and diabetes. Specifically, it covers material in the "Pulse-Chase Primer," "Pancreatic Beta Cells," and "Microarrays and Stem Cells" activities from the same resource which may or may not be necessary to complete prior to this activity (depending on learner's prior knowledge). Learners accumulate points and answer questions about stem cells, development, and microarrays so that they can be the first to differentiate into a pancreatic beta (?) cell. This activity is recommended for learners studying Biology at the High School (honors, IB and AP) or Undergraduate level.

Mary Colvard

2010-01-01

70

Therapeutics of stem cells in periodontal regeneration  

PubMed Central

The structure and composition of the periodontium are affected in many acquired and heritable diseases, and the most significant among these is periodontal disease. Periodontal regeneration is considered to be organically promising but clinically capricious. The principal requirements for tissue engineering are the incorporation of appropriate numbers of responsive progenitor cells and the presence of bioactive levels of regulatory signals within an appropriate extracellular matrix or carrier construct. Stem cell therapy is a treatment that uses stem cells, or cells that come from stem cells, to replace or to repair a patient's cells or tissues that are damaged. And, recent progress in stem cell research and in tissue engineering promises novel prospects for tissue regeneration in dental practice in the future, with regeneration of a functional and living tooth as one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for the replacement of a diseased or damaged tooth. PMID:22470232

Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

2011-01-01

71

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

More than 25,000 hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) are performed each year for the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, immune-deficiency illnesses, congenital metabolic defects, hemoglobinopathies, and myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative syndromes. Before transplantation, patients receive intensive myeloablative chemoradiotherapy followed by stem cell “rescue.” Autologous HSCT is performed using the patient’s own hematopoietic stem cells, which are harvested before transplantation and reinfused after myeloablation. Allogeneic HSCT uses human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched stem cells derived from a donor. Survival after allogeneic transplantation depends on donor–recipient matching, the graft-versus-host response, and the development of a graft versus leukemia effect. This article reviews the biology of stem cells, clinical efficacy of HSCT, transplantation procedures, and potential complications. PMID:24198516

Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Tuthill, Mark

2010-01-01

72

Prostate cancer stem cells  

PubMed Central

Despite the discovery over 60 years ago by Huggins and Hodges 1 that prostate cancers respond to androgen deprivation therapy, hormone-refractory prostate cancer remains a major clinical challenge. There is now mounting evidence that solid tumours originate from undifferentiated stem cell-like cells coexisting within a heterogeneous tumour mass that drive tumour formation, maintain tumour homeostasis and initiate metastases. This review focuses upon current evidence for prostate cancer stem cells, addressing the identification and properties of both normal and transformed prostate stem cells. PMID:19040209

Lang, SH; Frame, FM; Collins, AT

2009-01-01

73

Autophagy in stem cells  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process by which cytoplasmic components are sequestered in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis as well as remodeling during normal development, and dysfunctions in autophagy have been associated with a variety of pathologies including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and neurodegenerative disease. Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cells in the body, which are important in development, tissue renewal and a range of disease processes. Therefore, it is predicted that autophagy would be crucial for the quality control mechanisms and maintenance of cellular homeostasis in various stem cells given their relatively long life in the organisms. In contrast to the extensive body of knowledge available for somatic cells, the role of autophagy in the maintenance and function of stem cells is only beginning to be revealed as a result of recent studies. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of autophagy in embryonic stem cells, several tissue stem cells (particularly hematopoietic stem cells), as well as a number of cancer stem cells. We discuss how recent studies of different knockout mice models have defined the roles of various autophagy genes and related pathways in the regulation of the maintenance, expansion and differentiation of various stem cells. We also highlight the many unanswered questions that will help to drive further research at the intersection of autophagy and stem cell biology in the near future. PMID:23486312

Guan, Jun-Lin; Simon, Anna Katharina; Prescott, Mark; Menendez, Javier A.; Liu, Fei; Wang, Fen; Wang, Chenran; Wolvetang, Ernst; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Zhang, Jue

2013-01-01

74

Stem Cell Task Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides an overview of the activities of an NIH task force established to move the stem cell research agenda forward. The section titled Scientific Research may be of particular interest to researchers in this area. It provides links to the Web sites of stem cell-related research at a number of NIH institutes, as well as an extensive information index, a FAQs page about stem cell research, information on funding opportunities, and much more.

75

Prostate cancer stem cells  

PubMed Central

The Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) hypothesis postulates that a minute subpopulation of cells is accountable for cancer initiation and progression. Unlike the stochastic and clonal evolution models, the CSC theory proposes that tumours are hierarchical and only the rare subset of cells at the top of the 'stemness hierarchy tree’ are adequately ‘equipped’ biologically to initiate and drive tumourigenesis. CSCs have been implicated in various solid malignancies including prostate cancer (PCa), where their existence seems to provide an explanation for the failure of tumour eradicating therapies. As CSCs are thought to share many properties with normal stem cells, understanding normal stem cells should shed light on the pathomechanisms of cancer and, importantly, on potential therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing data on CSCs in PCa, their putative phenotypic markers, potential role in tumour biology and relevance to therapy. PMID:24578892

Abel, Paul

2011-01-01

76

SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

77

Stem cell plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central dogma in stem cell biology has been that cells isolated from a particular tissue can renew and differentiate into lineages of the tissue it resides in. Several studies have challenged this idea by demonstrating that tissue specific cell have considerable plasticity and can cross-lineage restriction boundary and give rise to cell types of other lineages. However, the lack

Uma Lakshmipathy; Catherine Verfaillie

2005-01-01

78

Stem cells and solid cancers.  

PubMed

Recently, there have been significant advances in our knowledge of stem cells found in tissues that can develop solid tumours. In particular, novel stem cell markers have been identified for the first time identifying multipotential cells: a required characteristic of a stem cell. The scarcity of cancer stem cells has been questioned. Current dogma states that they are rare, but novel research has suggested that this may not be the case. Here, we review the latest literature on stem cells, particularly cancer stem cells within solid tumours. We discuss current thinking on how stem cells develop into cancer stem cells and how they protect themselves from doing so and do they express unique markers that can be used to detect stem cells. We attempt to put into perspective these latest advances in stem cell biology and their potential for cancer therapy. PMID:19499244

McDonald, Stuart A C; Graham, Trevor A; Schier, Stefanie; Wright, Nicholas A; Alison, Malcolm R

2009-07-01

79

LESSON PLAN Stem Cell Discussion  

E-print Network

of stem cell research · research the current research situation · debate the future of stem cell of the ethical, moral and social implications of stem cell research. Photocopy these pages and distribute to students to read. · Make a list of advantages and disadvantages of using embryonic stem cells in research

Rambaut, Andrew

80

Information on Stem Cell Research  

MedlinePLUS

Information on Stem Cell Research Research @ NINDS Stem Cell Highlights Submit a hESC line for NIH review (9/21/09) NIH Opens Website ... found here: Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells NINDS Stem Cell Research on Campus The Intramural Research Program of NINDS ...

81

Hematopoietic stem cell donation.  

PubMed

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is now an important treatment for numerous diseases. Donation of hematopoietic stem cells, either through bone marrow (BM) harvesting or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection, is a well-established and generally accepted procedure. The BM is aspirated from the posterior iliac crest under spinal or general anesthesia, and common side effects include fatigue and local pain. PBSC collection requires 4-6 days of G-CSF injections and leukapheresis 1-2 times. Common side effects of these procedures include bone pain, fatigue, and headache. The side effects of BM and PBSC collections are mostly transient and well tolerated. Severe adverse events are uncommon in healthy donors. At present, there is no definitive evidence to show that the stem cell donation increases the risk of marrow failure or cancer development. Nevertheless, all donors must be carefully evaluated and fully informed before donation. Donors must be able to provide informed consent without being coerced or pressured. Donors and graft products must be examined for potential agents to avoid transmitting infections and other diseases that may jeopardize donor's health during stem cell collection or recipient's well being after transplantation. Understanding the potential physical and psychological complications of stem cell donation and factors that may increase risks is very important to ensure that transplantation physicians maintain positive attitude in conducting this benevolent practice. PMID:23420184

Chen, Shu-Huey; Wang, Tso-Fu; Yang, Kuo-Liang

2013-04-01

82

Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course  

E-print Network

Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course Ceské Budjovice November 2013 #12;Pluripotent (stem;1981 Lines of pluripotent cells were established for the first time from mouse embryo ­ Embryonic Stem Cells (Martin & Evans) Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC) ­ step from cancerous pluripotent cells of teratocarcinomas

South Bohemia, University of

83

Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course  

E-print Network

Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course Ceské Budjovice January 2013 #12;Pluripotent (stem;1981 Lines of pluripotent cells were established for the first time from mouse embryo ­ Embryonic Stem Cells (Martin & Evans) Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC) ­ step from cancerous pluripotent cells of teratocarcinomas

South Bohemia, University of

84

Differentiation and Plasticity of Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stem cells are defined as undifferentiated cells that have the capacity to self-renew and to differentiate into various mature\\u000a cells at a single cell level [118]. Stem cells support normal embryogenesis and postnatal life. Stem cells serve to renew\\u000a tissue throughout an individual’s postnatal life by replacing the cells that are lost owing to everyday wear and tear in our

Yao-Hua Song; Lukas Prantl; Eckhard Alt

85

[Stem cells and cancer].  

PubMed

Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are universally recognized as the most effective anti-cancer therapies. Despite significant advances directed towards elucidating molecular mechanisms and developing clinical trials, cancer still remains a major public health issue. Cancer stem cells are a subpopulation of the cells that form the tumor. The discovery of these human cancer cells opens a perspective for understanding tumor recurrence, drug resistance and metastasis; and opens up new research directions on how cancer cells are capable of switching from dormancy to malignancy. Therapeutic alternatives emerge from a better understanding of the biology and the environment of tumor stem cells. The present paper aims to summarize the characteristics and properties of cancer stem cells, the ongoing research, as well as the best strategies for prevention and control of the mechanisms of tumor recurrence. PMID:25558756

Arvelo, Francisco; Cotte, Carlos; Sojo, Felipe

2014-12-01

86

Melanoma stem cells.  

PubMed

The cancer stem cell concept significantly broadens our understanding of melanoma biology. However, this concept should be regarded as an integral part of a holistic cancer model that also includes the genetic evolution of tumor cells and the variability of cell phenotypes within a dynamic tumor microenvironment. The biologic complexity and methodological difficulties in identifying cancer stem cells and their biomarkers are currently impeding the direct translation of experimental findings into clinical practice. Nevertheless, it is these methodological shortcomings that provide a new perspective on the phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of melanoma with important consequences for future therapies. The development of new combination treatment strategies, particularly with regard to overcoming treatment resistance, could significantly benefit from targeted elimination of cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties. PMID:25631128

Roesch, Alexander

2015-02-01

87

The advantages of hair follicle pluripotent stem cells over embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multipotent adult stem cells have many potential therapeutic applications. Our recent findings suggest that hair follicles are a promising source of easily accessible multipotent stem cells. Stem cells in the hair follicle area express the neural stem cell marker nestin, suggesting that hair-follicle stem cells and neural stem cells have common features. Nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can form neurons

Yasuyuki Amoh; Kensei Katsuoka; Robert M. Hoffman

2010-01-01

88

Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

In recent years, stem cell-based approaches have attracted more attention from scientists and clinicians due to their possible therapeutical effect on stroke. Animal studies have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), neural stem cells (NSCs), and mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) might be due to cell replacement, neuroprotection, endogenous neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and modulation on inflammation and immune response. Although several clinical studies have shown the high efficiency and safety of stem cell in stroke management, mainly MSCs, some issues regarding to cell homing, survival, tracking, safety, and optimal cell transplantation protocol, such as cell dose and time window, should be addressed. Undoubtably, stem cell-based gene therapy represents a novel potential therapeutic strategy for stroke in future. PMID:24719869

Hao, Lei; Zou, Zhongmin; Tian, Hong; Zhang, Yubo; Zhou, Huchuan; Liu, Lei

2014-01-01

89

Stem cell population asymmetry can reduce rate of replicative aging  

E-print Network

Cycling tissues such as the intestinal epithelium, germ line, and hair follicles, require a constant flux of differentiated cells. These tissues are maintained by a population of stem cells, which generate differentiated progenies and self-renew. Asymmetric division of each stem cell into one stem cell and one differentiated cell can accomplish both tasks. However, in mammalian cycling tissues, some stem cells divide symmetrically into two differentiated cells and are replaced by a neighbor that divides symmetrically into two stem cells. Besides this heterogeneity in fate (population asymmetry), stem cells also exhibit heterogenous proliferation-rates; in the long run, however, all stem cells proliferate at the same average rate (equipotency). We construct and simulate a mathematical model based on these experimental observations. We show that the complex steady-state dynamics of population-asymmetric stem cells reduces the rate of replicative aging of the tissue --potentially lowering the incidence of somati...

Hormoz, Sahand

2013-01-01

90

Stem Cell Research  

SciTech Connect

We have identified a population of primitive cells in normal human post-natal bone marrow that can, at the single cell level, differentiate in many ways and also proliferate extensively. These cells can differentiate in vitro into most mesodermal cell types (for example, bone cells, and others), as well as cells into cells of the nervous system. The finding that stem cells exist in post-natal tissues with previously unknown proliferation and differentiation potential opens up the possibility of using them to treat a host of degenerative, traumatic or congenital diseases.

Catherine Verfaillie

2009-01-23

91

Bromodeoxyuridine Specifically Labels the Regenerative Stem Cells of Planarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The singular regenerative abilities of planarians require a population of stem cells known as neoblasts. In response to wounding, or during the course of cell turnover, neoblasts are signaled to divide and\\/or differentiate, thereby replacing lost cell types. The study of these pluripotent stem cells and their role in planarian regeneration has been severely hampered by the reported inability of

Phillip A. Newmark; Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

2000-01-01

92

Fifth Annual Stem Cell Summit.  

PubMed

The Fifth Annual Stem Cell Summit, held in New York, included topics covering new commercial developments in the research field of stem cell-based therapies. This conference report highlights selected presentations on embryonic and adult stem cells, stem cell-based therapies for the treatment of orthopedic and cardiovascular indications and inflammatory diseases, as well as technologies for processing and storing stem cells. Investigational therapies discussed include placental expanded (PLX) cells (Pluristem Therapeutics Inc), StemEx (Gamida-Teva Joint Venture/Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd) and remestemcel-L (Osiris Therapeutics Inc/Genzyme Corp/JCR Pharmaceuticals Co Ltd/ Mochida Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). PMID:20373251

Knowlton, Daniel

2010-04-01

93

The potential of umbilical cord blood multipotent stem cells for nonhematopoietic tissue and cell regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells have been isolated from human embryos, fetal tissue, umbilical cord blood (UCB), and also from ''adult'' sources. Adult stem cells are found in many tissues of the body and are capable of maintaining, generating, and replacing terminally differentiated cells. A source of pluripotent stem cells has been recently identified in UCB that can also differentiate across tissue lineage

Carmella Van De Ven; Daniel Collins; M. Brigid Bradley; Erin Morris; Mitchell S. Cairo; St. Paul

94

Controversies over stem cell research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much interest and effort has focused on the therapeutic potential of stem cell technology to treat presently intractable diseases. However, this scientific promise has been accompanied by important issues, including ethical hurdles, political policies and dilemmas concerning cell-source selection (embryonic versus adult stem cells). Although the contribution of stem cells to medical research seems enormous, many countries now face complex

Gorka Orive; Rosa M. Hernández; Alicia R. Gascón; Manoli Igartua; José Luis Pedraz

2003-01-01

95

Laser biomodulation on stem cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.

Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Li, Xue-Feng; Tan, Li-Ling; Liu, Songhao

2001-08-01

96

From stem cells to germ cells and from germ cells to stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germline and somatic stem cells are distinct types of stem cells that are dedicated to reproduction and somatic tissue regeneration, respectively. Germline stem cells (GSCs), which can self-renew and generate gametes, are unique stem cells in that they are solely dedicated to transmit genetic information from generation to generation. We developed a strategy for the establishment of germline stem cell

Gerald Wulf; Ingrid E. Ehrmann; David Elliott; Ulrich Zechner; Thomas Haaf; Andreas Meinhardt; Hans W. Michelmann; Gerlad Hasenfuss; Kaomei Guan

97

Stem cells today: B1. Bone marrow stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is the second in a series of four devoted to the analysis of recent studies on stem cells. The first considered embryo stem cells (ES). This review covers bone marrow stem cells. They are analysed initially in a historical perspective, and then in relation to foundation studies in the later 20th century before a detailed analysis is presented

RG Edwards

2004-01-01

98

Cell Stem Cell The Systematic Production  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Review The Systematic Production of Cells for Cell Therapies Daniel C. Kirouac1 10.1016/j.stem.2008.09.001 Stem cells have emerged as the starting material of choice for bioprocesses to produce cells and tissues to treat degenerative, genetic, and immunological disease

Zandstra, Peter W.

99

Apoptosis, Stem Cells, and Tissue Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Most metazoans have at least some ability to regenerate damaged cells and tissues, although the regenerative capacity varies depending on the species, organ, or developmental stage. Cell replacement and regeneration occur in two contexts: renewal of spent cells during tissue homeostasis (homeostatic growth), and in response to external injury, wounding, or amputation (epimorphic regeneration). Model organisms that display remarkable regenerative capacity include amphibians, planarians, Hydra, and the vertebrate liver. In addition, several mammalian organs—including the skin, gut, kidney, muscle, and even the human nervous system—have some ability to replace spent or damaged cells. Although the regenerative response is complex, it typically involves the induction of new cell proliferation through formation of a blastema, followed by cell specification, differentiation, and patterning. Stem cells and undifferentiated progenitor cells play an important role in both tissue homeostasis and tissue regeneration. Stem cells are typically quiescent or passing slowly through the cell cycle in adult tissues, but they can be activated in response to cell loss and wounding. A series of studies, mostly performed in Drosophila as well as in Hydra, Xenopus, and mouse, has revealed an unexpected role of apoptotic caspases in the production of mitogenic signals that stimulate the proliferation of stem and progenitor cells to aid in tissue regeneration. This Review summarizes some of the key findings and discusses links to stem cell biology and cancer. PMID:20978240

Bergmann, Andreas; Steller, Hermann

2010-01-01

100

Human motor neuron generation from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a group of neurological disorders that selectively affect motor neurons. There are currently\\u000a no cures or efficacious treatments for these diseases. In recent years, significant developments in stem cell research have\\u000a been applied to MNDs, particularly regarding neuroprotection and cell replacement. However, a consistent source of motor neurons\\u000a for cell replacement is required. Human embryonic

M. Nizzardo; C. Simone; M. Falcone; F. Locatelli; G. Riboldi; G. P. Comi; S. Corti

2010-01-01

101

Stem Cells and Female Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Several recent findings in stem cell biology have resulted in new opportunities for the treatment of reproductive disease. Endometrial regeneration can be driven by bone marrow derived stem cells. This finding has potential implications for the treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the etiology of endometriosis. The ovaries have been shown to contain stem cells that form oocytes in adults and can be cultured in vitro to develop mature oocytes. Stem cells from the fetus have been demonstrated to lead to microchimerism in the mother and implicated in several maternal diseases. Additionally the placenta may be another source of hematopoietic stem cell. Finally endometrial derived stem cells have been demonstrated to differentiate into non-reproductive tissues. While we are just beginning to understand stem cells and many key questions remain, the potential advantages of stem cells in reproductive biology and medicine are apparent. PMID:19208782

Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S.

2011-01-01

102

Stem Cell Interaction with Topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The growth and differentiation of stem cells are regulated by biochemical and biophysical cues in the extracellular microenvironment.\\u000a Increasing evidences have shown that substrate topography, one of the biophysical properties of the microenvironment, can\\u000a affect stem cell fate, such as the maintenance of embryonic stem cells and the differentiation of adult and embryonic stem\\u000a cells. The underlying mechanism of how

Benjamin K. K. Teo; Soneela Ankam; Evelyn K. F. Yim

103

Embryonic Stem Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioEd Online is an "educational resource for educators, students, and parents" from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The "Hot Topics" section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are "receiving national attention." The controversy surrounding embryonic stem cells, and coverage it receives in news and research publications in the United States and around the world definitely warrants a closer look at this issue. This "Hot Topic" compiled by Joseph Marx, PhD, Nancy Moreno, PhD, and Deanne Erdmann, MS, contains a brief discussion of the stem cell debate, and includes references and links for further reading. Related news articles can be found as well. Be sure to check out the related slide sets for both embryonic stem cells and stem cells. These slide shows are an excellent resource to use in the classroom. Just add the slides you wish to use to your tray and then view or download your slide tray for an instant visual resource.

Erdmann, Deanne; Marx, Joseph; Moreno, Nancy

2006-07-20

104

Biomaterials as Stem Cell Niche: Cardiovascular Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A tissue-specific stem cell niche functions to direct either self-renewal or differentiation. The niche comprises all local\\u000a cues that can be sensed by the cell including soluble and insoluble signals, physical forces and cell–cell contacts. Approximating\\u000a the stem cell niche through the utilization of biomaterials may give rise to a greater understanding of the biology of the\\u000a stem cell niche

Ge Zhang; Laura J. Suggs

105

Materials as stem cell regulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.

Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

2014-06-01

106

Materials as stem cell regulators  

PubMed Central

The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:24845994

Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

2014-01-01

107

Microarrays and Stem Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use microarray technology to determine which genes are turned on and off at various points in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells on their way to becoming pancreatic β cells. An introductory PowerPoint, reading, video clip and an animation provide learners with background information needed to interpret the results of a paper microarray simulation. Learners will position cDNA strips on mini-microarrays to discover which genes are expressing, to what degree they are expressing, and which are not. They use these findings to trace the differentiation of embryonic stem cells that give rise to pancreatic β cells and other cell types. The role of growth factors and proximity of other cell types is central to learners understanding how researchers may direct the ultimate fate of stem cells. The value of this in treating diabetes is also discussed. This activity is recommended for learners studying Biology at the High School (honors, IB and AP) or Undergraduate level.

Colvard, Mary

2010-01-01

108

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without  

E-print Network

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without irradiation Claudia Waskow1,2, Vikas Madan2, Susanne Bartels2,4, Ce´line Costa2, Rosel Blasig3 & Hans-Reimer Rodewald2 Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC. These obstacles prevent in vivo analysis of histoincompatible mutant stem cells and of HSC functions in non

Cai, Long

109

Stem Cells and Leukaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies performed at RCRM have shown that hematopoietic and immune systems’ reconstitution after irradiation depends greatly\\u000a on the functional abilities of the stem cells. Subset analysis and expression of CD34+ antigens on bone marrow and peripheral\\u000a blood cells were studied in Chernobyl accident clean-up workers including patients with leukemia and myelodysplasia and patients\\u000a exposed to the natural levels of irradiation.

Volodymyr Bebeshko; Dimitry Bazyka

110

Melanoma Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The hypothesis that tumor initiation and growth are driven by a subpopulation of malignant cells, that is, cancer stem cells\\u000a (CSCs), has received considerable attention. The CSC concept predicts that the design of novel therapies that ablate CSCs\\u000a or target CSC-specific protumorigenic signaling pathways might result in more durable therapeutic responses in cancer patients\\u000a than those achieved by therapeutic approaches

Tobias Schatton; Markus H. Frank

111

Cell Stem Cell Alternative Induced Pluripotent  

E-print Network

-disease- relevant area of stem cell research. We agree that criteria and standards are important to allow for crossCell Stem Cell Letter Alternative Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Characterization Criteria Cell Facility, SickKids Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada 2

Zandstra, Peter W.

112

Cell Stem Cell The Transcriptional Landscape  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Resource The Transcriptional Landscape of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Ontogeny Shannon Stem Cell Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA 2Department of Hematology, St. Jude Children's Research Cell Transplantation Program and Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA 9Dana Farber Cancer

Collins, James J.

113

Advances in Stem Cell Mobilization  

PubMed Central

Use of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)–mobilized peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) has largely replaced bone marrow (BM) as a source of stem cells for both autologous and allogeneic cell transplantation. With G-CSF alone, up to 35% of patients are unable to mobilize sufficient numbers of CD34 cells/kg to ensure successful and consistent multi-lineage engraftment and sustained hematopoietic recovery. To this end, research is ongoing to identify new agents or combinations which will lead to the most effective and efficient stem cell mobilization strategies, especially in those patients who are at risk for mobilization failure. We describe both established agents and novel strategies at various stages of development. The latter include but are not limited to drugs that target the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, S1P agonists, VCAM/VLA-4 inhibitors, parathyroid hormone, proteosome inhibitors, Gro?, and agents that stabilize HIF. While none of the novel agents have yet gained an established role in HPC mobilization in clinical practice, many early studies exploring these new pathways show promising results and warrant further investigation. PMID:24476957

Hopman, Rusudan K.; DiPersio, John F.

2014-01-01

114

Current state of stem cell research for the treatment of Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current findings suggest that multipotent stem cells may be suitable for cell replacement therapies in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells isolated from the inner cell mass of the preimplantation blastocyst, which give rise to all cells in the organism. Similarly, multipotent stem cells are also able to regenerate, but are believed to have

M. Gerlach; H. Braak; A. Hartmann; W. H. Jost; P. Odin; J. Priller; J. Schwarz

2002-01-01

115

Normal Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells: The Niche Matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists have tried for decades to understand cancer development in the context of therapeutic strategies. The realization that cancers may rely on ''cancer stem cells'' that share the self-renewal feature of normal stem cells has changed the perspective with regard to new approaches for treating the disease. In this review, we propose that one of the differences between normal stem

Linheng Li; William B. Neaves

116

Progress and prospects in stem cell therapy  

PubMed Central

In the past few years, progress being made in stem cell studies has incontestably led to the hope of developing cell replacement based therapy for diseases deficient in effective treatment by conventional ways. The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are of great interest of cell therapy research because of their unrestricted self-renewal and differentiation potentials. Proof of principle studies have successfully demonstrated that iPSCs technology would substantially benefit clinical studies in various areas, including neurological disorders, hematologic diseases, cardiac diseases, liver diseases and etc. On top of this, latest advances of gene editing technologies have vigorously endorsed the possibility of obtaining disease-free autologous cells from patient specific iPSCs. Here in this review, we summarize current progress of stem cell therapy research with special enthusiasm in iPSCs studies. In addition, we compare current gene editing technologies and discuss their potential implications in clinic application in the future. PMID:23736002

Xu, Xiu-ling; Yi, Fei; Pan, Hui-ze; Duan, Shun-lei; Ding, Zhi-chao; Yuan, Guo-hong; Qu, Jing; Zhang, Hai-chen; Liu, Guang-hui

2013-01-01

117

Adult skeletal muscle stem cells.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscles in vertebrates have a phenomenal regenerative capacity. A muscle that has been crushed can regenerate fully both structurally and functionally within a month. Remarkably, efficient regeneration continues to occur following repeated injuries. Thousands of muscle precursor cells are needed to accomplish regeneration following acute injury. The differentiated muscle cells, the multinucleated contractile myofibers, are terminally withdrawn from mitosis. The source of the regenerative precursors is the skeletal muscle stem cells-the mononucleated cells closely associated with myofibers, which are known as satellite cells. Satellite cells are mitotically quiescent or slow-cycling, committed to myogenesis, but undifferentiated. Disruption of the niche after muscle damage results in their exit from quiescence and progression towards commitment. They eventually arrest proliferation, differentiate, and fuse to damaged myofibers or make de novo myofibers. Satellite cells are one of the well-studied adult tissue-specific stem cells and have served as an excellent model for investigating adult stem cells. They have also emerged as an important standard in the field of ageing and stem cells. Several recent reviews have highlighted the importance of these cells as a model to understand stem cell biology. This chapter begins with the discovery of satellite cells as skeletal muscle stem cells and their developmental origin. We discuss transcription factors and signalling cues governing stem cell function of satellite cells and heterogeneity in the satellite cell pool. Apart from satellite cells, a number of other stem cells have been shown to make muscle and are being considered as candidate stem cells for amelioration of muscle degenerative diseases. We discuss these "offbeat" muscle stem cells and their status as adult skeletal muscle stem cells vis-a-vis satellite cells. The ageing context is highlighted in the concluding section. PMID:25344672

Sambasivan, Ramkumar; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

2015-01-01

118

``Stemness'': Transcriptional Profiling of Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcriptional profiles of mouse embryonic, neural, and hematopoietic stem cells were compared to define a genetic program for stem cells. A total of 216 genes are enriched in all three types of stem cells, and several of these genes are clustered in the genome. When compared to differentiated cell types, stem cells express a significantly higher number of genes

Miguel Ramalho-Santos; Soonsang Yoon; Yumi Matsuzaki; Richard C. Mulligan; Douglas A. Melton

2002-01-01

119

Cord-blood mesenchymal stem cells and tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cord-blood-derived stem cells have proven clinically useful for numerous disease states, as have mesenchymal stem cells (MCSs)\\u000a derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue. The recent identification of MSCs in cord-blood heralds cord-blood as an untapped\\u000a resource for nonhematopoietic stem cell-based therapeutic strategies for the replacement of injured or disease connective\\u000a tissue. This review discusses the potential for tissue engineering

Curtis L. Cetrulo

2006-01-01

120

Measuring stem cell circadian rhythm.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that occur within a 24-h time cycle. Sleep is a prime example of a circadian rhythm and with it melatonin production. Stem cell systems also demonstrate circadian rhythms. This is particularly the case for the proliferating cells within the system. In fact, all proliferating cell populations exhibit their own circadian rhythm, which has important implications for disease and the treatment of disease. Stem cell chronobiology is particularly important because the treatment of cancer can be significantly affected by the time of day a drug is administered. This protocol provides a basis for measuring hematopoietic stem cell circadian rhythm for future stem cell chronotherapeutic applications. PMID:25388388

Hrushesky, William; Rich, Ivan N

2015-01-01

121

Stem cells in the eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the adult organism, all tissue renewal and regeneration depends ultimately on somatic stem cells, and the eye is no exception. The importance of limbal stem cells in the maintenance of the corneal epithelium has long been recognised, and such cells are now used clinically for repair of a severely damaged cornea. The slow cycling nature of lens epithelial cells

Mike Boulton; Julie Albon

2004-01-01

122

Control of Stemness by Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of stem cells, scientists have invested tremendous effort in establishing in vitro culture conditions in order to maintain the self-renewal and efficient proliferative capabilities of stem cells by manipulating a va- riety of growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is one of the most common growth factors used to expand stem cells, including human embryonic stem (hES)

Noriko Gotoh

2009-01-01

123

Mimicking Stem Cell Niches to Increase Stem Cell Expansion  

PubMed Central

Summary Niches regulate lineage-specific stem cell self-renewal vs. differentiation in vivo and are comprised of supportive cells and extracellular matrix components arranged in a 3-dimensional topography of controlled stiffness in the presence of oxygen and growth factor gradients. Mimicking stem cell niches in a defined manner will facilitate production of the large numbers of stem cells needed to realize the promise of regenerative medicine and gene therapy. Progress has been made in mimicking components of the niche. Immobilizing cell-associated Notch ligands increased the self-renewal of hematopoietic (blood) stem cells. Culture on a fibrous scaffold that mimics basement membrane texture increased the expansion of hematopoietic and embryonic stem cells. Finally, researchers have created intricate patterns of cell-binding domains and complex oxygen gradients. PMID:18725291

Dellatore, Shara M.; Garcia, A. Sofia; Miller, William M.

2008-01-01

124

Nuclear receptor regulation of stemness and stem cell differentiation  

PubMed Central

Stem cells include a diverse number of toti-, pluri-, and multi-potent cells that play important roles in cellular genesis and differentiation, tissue development, and organogenesis. Genetic regulation involving various transcription factors results in the self-renewal and differentiation properties of stem cells. The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily is composed of 48 ligand-activated transcription factors involved in diverse physiological functions such as metabolism, development, and reproduction. Increasing evidence shows that certain NRs function in regulating stemness or differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells and tissue-specific adult stem cells. Here, we review the role of the NR superfamily in various aspects of stem cell biology, including their regulation of stemness, forward- and trans-differentiation events; reprogramming of terminally differentiated cells; and interspecies differences. These studies provide insights into the therapeutic potential of the NR superfamily in stem cell therapy and in treating stem cell-associated diseases (e.g., cancer stem cell). PMID:19696553

Jeong, Yangsik

2009-01-01

125

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY: Orienting Stem Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into a variety of different cell types. However, it is not clear what determines the path taken by any particular stem cell. Discussing recent work with stem cells from the fruit fly testis (Yamashita et al.), Wallenfang and Matunis explain in their Perspective that, at least in the case of these stem cells, the trick is the asymmetric arrangement of the mitotic spindle during cell division. This asymmetric arrangement ensures that as the stem cell divides, one daughter cell remains in the environmental niche of the testis and continues to self-renew, whereas the other daughter cell is edged out of the niche and begins to differentiate.

Matthew R. Wallenfang (University of Pennsylvania; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology)

2003-09-12

126

Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells  

SciTech Connect

The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications.

Matikainen, Tiina [Program of Developmental and Reproductive Biology, Biomedicum Helsinki and Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Laine, Jarmo [Stem Cell and Transplantation Services, Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Kivihaantie 7, FIN 00310, Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: jarmo.laine@bts.redcoss.fi

2005-09-01

127

Stem-cell-based Tissue Engineering of Murine Teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teeth develop from reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme cells and epithelium, where the epithelium provides the instructive information for initiation. Based on these initial tissue interactions, we have replaced the mesenchyme cells with mesenchyme created by aggregation of cultured non-dental stem cells in mice. Recombinations between non-dental cell-derived mesenchyme and embryonic oral epithelium stimulate an odontogenic response in the stem cells.

A. Ohazama; S. A. C. Modino; I. Miletich; P. T. Sharpe

2004-01-01

128

Genomics and proteomics in stem cell research: the road ahead  

PubMed Central

Stem cell research has been widely studied over the last few years and has attracted increasing attention from researchers in all fields of medicine due to its potential to treat many previously incurable diseases by replacing damaged cells or tissues. As illustrated by hematopoietic stem research, understanding stem cell differentiation at molecular levels is essential for both basic research and for clinical applications of stem cells. Although multiple integrative analyses, such as genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, are required to understand stem cell biology, proteomics has a unique position in stem cell research. For example, several major breakthroughs in HSC research were due to the identification of proteins such as colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) and cell-surface CD molecules. In 2007, the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) and the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) launched the joint Proteome Biology of Stem Cells Initiative. A systematic proteomics approach to understanding stem cell differentiation will shed new light on stem cell biology and accelerate clinical applications of stem cells. PMID:21190000

Ahn, Sung-Min; Simpson, Richard

2010-01-01

129

Modeling Stem Cell Induction Processes  

E-print Network

Technology for converting human cells to pluripotent stem cell using induction processes has the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine. However, the production of these so called iPS cells is still quite inefficient ...

Grácio, Filipe

130

Special stem cells for bone.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotential in vitro, but their endogenous properties are poorly defined. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Park et al. (2012) report that an MSC-like, osteolineage-directed Mx1+ population generates new osteoblasts at sites of bone damage, suggesting its potential for skeletal repair and regeneration. PMID:22385649

Zaidi, Mone; Sun, Li; Blair, Harry C

2012-03-01

131

Endodermal Stem Cell Populations Derived from Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The generation of functional endodermal lineages, such as hepatocytes and pancreatic endocrine cells, from pluripotent stem cells remains a challenge. One strategy to enhance the purity, yield and maturity of endodermal derivatives is to expand endoderm committed stem or progenitor cell populations derived from pluripotent stem cells prior to final differentiation. Recent studies have shown that this is in fact a viable option both for expanding pure populations of endodermal cells as well as for generating more mature derivative tissues, as highlighted in the case of pancreatic beta cells. PMID:23452824

Cheng, Xin; Tyaboonchai, Amita; Gadue, Paul

2014-01-01

132

The Emerging Cell Biology of Thyroid Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Context: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the property of self-renewal and give rise to highly specialized cells under appropriate local conditions. The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine holds great promise for the treatment of many diseases, including those of the thyroid gland. Evidence Acquisition: This review focuses on the progress that has been made in thyroid stem cell research including an overview of cellular and molecular events (most of which were drawn from the period 1990–2011) and discusses the remaining problems encountered in their differentiation. Evidence Synthesis: Protocols for the in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells, based on normal developmental processes, have generated thyroid-like cells but without full thyrocyte function. However, agents have been identified, including activin A, insulin, and IGF-I, which are able to stimulate the generation of thyroid-like cells in vitro. In addition, thyroid stem/progenitor cells have been identified within the normal thyroid gland and within thyroid cancers. Conclusions: Advances in thyroid stem cell biology are providing not only insight into thyroid development but may offer therapeutic potential in thyroid cancer and future thyroid cell replacement therapy. PMID:21778219

Latif, Rauf; Minsky, Noga C.; Ma, Risheng

2011-01-01

133

Mechanotransduction: Tuning Stem Cells Fate  

PubMed Central

It is a general concern that the success of regenerative medicine-based applications is based on the ability to recapitulate the molecular events that allow stem cells to repair the damaged tissue/organ. To this end biomaterials are designed to display properties that, in a precise and physiological-like fashion, could drive stem cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. The rationale is that stem cells are highly sensitive to forces and that they may convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. In this review, we describe novelties on stem cells and biomaterials interactions with more focus on the implication of the mechanical stimulation named mechanotransduction. PMID:24956164

D'Angelo, Francesco; Tiribuzi, Roberto; Armentano, Ilaria; Kenny, Josè Maria; Martino, Sabata; Orlacchio, Aldo

2011-01-01

134

Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has recently released the Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry in response to the President's announcement on August 9, 2001 to allow federal funds for stem cell research. The site lists the eleven laboratories or companies that meet the specific criteria for approved stem cell lines and explains the criteria themselves. The NIH gives the number of actual lines for each entity, the NIC and providers code for each, as well as contact information. The Website also provides links to those seeking additional information about NIH stem cell information, grants and funding opportunities, technology transfer issues, and further facts about the NIH.

2001-01-01

135

Stem Cell Basics About this document  

E-print Network

that are the focus of scientific research, and the potential use of stem cells in research and in treating disease1 Stem Cell Basics About this document This primer on stem cells is intended for anyone who wishes to learn more about the biological properties of stem cells, the important questions about stem cells

Bandettini, Peter A.

136

Background Information 1. What are stem cells?  

E-print Network

Background Information 1. What are stem cells? 2. What might stem cell research achieve? 3. Why we need to continue research using embryonic stem cells? 4. Time taken for discoveries 5. Examples of stem cell therapies in clinical trials 6. Patentability of human embryonic stem cell therapies 7. Creation

Rambaut, Andrew

137

Stem cells in gastroenterology and hepatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract and liver depends on stem cells with properties of longevity, self-renewal and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential esophageal, gastric, intestinal, colonic, hepatic and pancreatic stem cells provides hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. Embryonic stem cells and induced

Michael Quante; Timothy C. Wang

2009-01-01

138

Cell Stem Cell Endogenous Bone Marrow MSCs  

E-print Network

). The existence of multipotent bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), or skeletal/mesenchymal stem cells (SSCs of cultured cells (Sacchetti et al., 2007). Similar multipotent MSCs can be isolated from mouse bone marrowCell Stem Cell Article Endogenous Bone Marrow MSCs Are Dynamic, Fate-Restricted Participants

Mootha, Vamsi K.

139

Cell Stem Cell Dietary and Metabolic Control  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Review Dietary and Metabolic Control of Stem Cell Function in Physiology and Cancer cell function, and cancer initiation are interconnected. Here we will explore the emerging effects cells may respond to shifts in organismal physiology to orchestrate tissue remodeling and some cancers

Sabatini, David M.

140

Isolation and Propagation of Neural Crest Stem Cells from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells via Cranial Neurospheres.  

PubMed

The developmental fate of the multipotent neural crest (NC) is determined along with the neural axis in which NC cells are generated. Only the cranial NC can differentiate into mesectodermal derivatives such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vivo. Here, we attempted to selectively differentiate mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into cranial NC stem cells and propagate them to explore their developmental potential to differentiate into mesectodermal derivatives. Using aggregation cultures in feeder- and serum-free neural induction medium (NIM) without serum replacement and l-glutamine, we obtained NIM neurospheres composed of neuroepithelium. The NIM neurospheres expressed the rostral markers Otx1 and Otx2, but not nonrostral markers Hoxb4, Hoxb9, Lbx1, and TH, which characterize cranial neurospheres. Subsequently, AP2?, Sox9, p75, Snail, Slug, and Twist-positive NC cells were differentiated in 4-day adhesion cultures of cranial neurospheres. In addition, sphere clusters in adhesion cultures were differentiated into osteoblasts, while migrating cells were not. By taking advantage of the sphere-formation capability, we isolated and propagated NC stem cells from the sphere clusters and confirmed their multipotency. NC stem cells expressed NC and stem cell markers, and they maintained differentiation potency in the NC derivatives. These results show that cranial NC stem cells were obtained reproducibly and efficiently without special inducing factors, gene transfection, or fluorescence-activated cell sorting selection. PMID:25141025

Minamino, Yuki; Ohnishi, Yuichi; Kakudo, Kenji; Nozaki, Masami

2015-01-15

141

Harvard Stem Cell Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) was formed in 2004 to "draw Harvard's resources together by establishing a cooperative community of scientists and practitioners, by developing new ways to fund and support research, and by promoting opportunities for open communication and education." Their website features videos of HSCI scientists speaking about their selected disease programs. Visitors can click on a video as it appears, or they can wait for one of the next videos in the rotation. To read about the disease programs, visitors can click on the "Research" tab near the top of the page, and then select the "Research Programs" link to read about the different programs and the lead researcher. Research programs include the "Blood Disease Program", "Cancer Program", "Cardiovascular Disease Program", "Kidney Disease Program", "Nervous System Diseases Program", and the "Translational Research Program". The "Resources" tab near the top of the page has video of a great series of education sessions that are held quarterly by HSCI, and which address the medical, religious, economic, and public policy concerns that stem cell research presents. There are eight sessions to watch, and each runs longer than an hour, so each topic is covered in exquisite detail.

2009-11-09

142

Harvard Stem Cell Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) was formed in 2004 to "draw Harvard's resources together by establishing a cooperative community of scientists and practitioners, by developing new ways to fund and support research, and by promoting opportunities for open communication and education." Their website features videos of HSCI scientists speaking about their selected disease programs. Visitors can click on a video as it appears, or they can wait for one of the next videos in the rotation. To read about the disease programs, visitors can click on the "Research" tab near the top of the page, and then select the "Research Programs" link to read about the different programs and the lead researcher. Research programs include the "Blood Disease Program", "Cancer Program", "Cardiovascular Disease Program", "Kidney Disease Program", "Nervous System Diseases Program", and the "Translational Research Program". The "Resources" tab near the top of the page has video of a great series of education sessions that are held quarterly by HSCI, and which address the medical, religious, economic, and public policy concerns that stem cell research presents. There are eight sessions to watch, and each runs longer than an hour, so each topic is covered in exquisite detail.

143

Immunobiology of mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from almost all tissues and effectively expanded in vitro. Although their true in situ properties and biological functions remain to be elucidated, these in vitro expanded cells have been shown to possess potential to differentiate into specific cell lineages. It is speculated that MSCs in situ have important roles in tissue cellular homeostasis by replacing dead or dysfunctional cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that in vitro expanded MSCs of various origins have great capacity to modulate immune responses and change the progression of different inflammatory diseases. As tissue injuries are often accompanied by inflammation, inflammatory factors may provide cues to mobilize MSCs to tissue sites with damage. Before carrying out tissue repair functions, MSCs first prepare the microenvironment by modulating inflammatory processes and releasing various growth factors in response to the inflammation status. In this review, we focus on the crosstalk between MSCs and immune responses and their potential clinical applications, especially in inflammatory diseases. PMID:24185619

Ma, S; Xie, N; Li, W; Yuan, B; Shi, Y; Wang, Y

2014-01-01

144

Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

145

Stem cells for spine surgery.  

PubMed

In the past few years, stem cells have become the focus of research by regenerative medicine professionals and tissue engineers. Embryonic stem cells, although capable of differentiating into cell lineages of all three germ layers, are limited in their utilization due to ethical issues. In contrast, the autologous harvest and subsequent transplantation of adult stem cells from bone marrow, adipose tissue or blood have been experimentally utilized in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases ranging from myocardial infarction to Alzheimer's disease. The physiologic consequences of stem cell transplantation and its impact on functional recovery have been studied in countless animal models and select clinical trials. Unfortunately, the bench to bedside translation of this research has been slow. Nonetheless, stem cell therapy has received the attention of spinal surgeons due to its potential benefits in the treatment of neural damage, muscle trauma, disk degeneration and its potential contribution to bone fusion. PMID:25621119

Schroeder, Joshua; Kueper, Janina; Leon, Kaplan; Liebergall, Meir

2015-01-26

146

Stem cells for spine surgery  

PubMed Central

In the past few years, stem cells have become the focus of research by regenerative medicine professionals and tissue engineers. Embryonic stem cells, although capable of differentiating into cell lineages of all three germ layers, are limited in their utilization due to ethical issues. In contrast, the autologous harvest and subsequent transplantation of adult stem cells from bone marrow, adipose tissue or blood have been experimentally utilized in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases ranging from myocardial infarction to Alzheimer’s disease. The physiologic consequences of stem cell transplantation and its impact on functional recovery have been studied in countless animal models and select clinical trials. Unfortunately, the bench to bedside translation of this research has been slow. Nonetheless, stem cell therapy has received the attention of spinal surgeons due to its potential benefits in the treatment of neural damage, muscle trauma, disk degeneration and its potential contribution to bone fusion. PMID:25621119

Schroeder, Joshua; Kueper, Janina; Leon, Kaplan; Liebergall, Meir

2015-01-01

147

Regulating the leukaemia stem cell.  

PubMed

Leukaemia stem cells (LSCs) are responsible for sustaining and propagating malignant disease, and, as such, are promising targets for therapy. Studies of human LSCs have served an important role in defining the major tenets of the cancer stem cell model, which centre on the frequencies of cancer stem cells, their potential hierarchical organisation and their degree of maturation. LSCs in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) have recently been studied using mouse syngeneic models of leukaemia induced by MLL oncogenes. These studies have revealed that LSCs are more analogous to progenitor cells and employ embryonic stem cell-like genetic programmes for their maintenance, prompting a refinement of the original cancer stem cell model with important implications for design of therapies to selectively target LSCs. PMID:19959097

Cleary, Michael L

2009-12-01

148

Bioprinting for stem cell research.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been growing interest in applying bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized biomolecules can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cells of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics. PMID:23260439

Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

2013-01-01

149

Cell Stem Cell CNS-Resident Glial Progenitor/Stem Cells  

E-print Network

to this rule and provides a striking example of stem/precursor cell-mediated regeneration. RemyelinationCell Stem Cell Article CNS-Resident Glial Progenitor/Stem Cells Produce Schwann Cells as well. Richardson,3,4,* and Robin J.M. Franklin1,* 1MRC Cambridge Centre for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative

Richardson, William D.

150

Cell Stem Cell Sic Transit Gloria  

E-print Network

, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK 4Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QRCell Stem Cell Review Sic Transit Gloria: Farewell to the Epidermal Transit Amplifying Cell? Philip H. Jones,1,* Benjamin D. Simons,2 and Fiona M. Watt3,4 1MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research

Simons, Ben

151

Federal Policy on Stem Cell Research  

MedlinePLUS

... U.S. policy? More FAQs Links to related resources Stem Cell Research Center for Regenerative Medicine NIH Stem Cell Unit ... of Health (NIH) can support and conduct human stem cell research. The HHS Secretary, through the NIH Director, is ...

152

What's It Like to Donate Stem Cells?  

MedlinePLUS

... learn more What’s it like to donate stem cells? People usually volunteer to donate stem cells for ... autologous transplant. If you want to donate stem cells for someone else People who want to donate ...

153

FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims  

MedlinePLUS

... Biologics Articulos en Espanol FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Search the Consumer Updates Section Researchers hope ... forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

154

Mesenchymal stem cells in immunoregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesenchymal stem cells are present within the bone marrow cavity and serve as a reservoir for the continuous renewal of various mesenchymal tissues. Recent studies suggest that mesenchymal stem cells modulate immune reactions in vitro and escape from immune surveillance in vivo. We provide herein a discussion of issues including the current research progress on the in vitro interactions of

Xi Chen; Marilyn Ann Armstrong; Gang Li

2006-01-01

155

Generating Cartilage Repair from Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The treatment of degeneration and injury of articular cartilage has been very challenging for scientists and surgeons. As an avascular and hypocellular tissue, cartilage has a very limited capacity for self-repair. Chondrocytes are the only cell type in cartilage, in which they are surrounded by the extracellular matrix that they secrete and assemble. Autologous chondrocyte implantation for cartilage defects has achieved good results, but the limited resources and complexity of the procedure have hindered wider application. Stem cells form an alternative to chondrocytes as a source of chondrogenic cells due to their ability to proliferate extensively while retaining the potential for differentiation. Adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells have been differentiated into chondrocytes, but the limitations in their proliferative ability and the heterogeneous cell population hinder their adoption as a prime alternative source for generating chondrocytes. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are attractive as candidates for cell replacement therapy because of their unlimited self-renewal and ability for differentiation into mesodermal derivatives as well as other lineages. In this review, we focus on current protocols for chondrogenic differentiation of ESCs, in particular the chemically defined culture system developed in our lab that could potentially be adapted for clinical application. PMID:23957872

Cheng, Aixin; Hardingham, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

156

Cell replacement therapy: Lessons from teleost fish.  

PubMed

Many disorders of the CNS are characterized by a massive loss of neurons. A promising therapeutic strategy to cure such conditions is based on the activation of endogenous stem cells. Implementation of this strategy will benefit from a better understanding of stem cell dynamics and the local CNS microenvironment in regeneration-competent vertebrate model systems. Using a spinal cord injury paradigm in zebrafish larvae, Briona and Dorsky (2014) have provided evidence for the existence of two distinct neural stem cell populations. One population has the characteristics of radial glia and expresses the homeobox transcription factor Dbx. The other lacks Dbx but expresses Olig2. These results are placed in the context of other studies that also support the notion of heterogeneity of adult stem cells in the CNS. The implication that differences among stem cell populations, in combination with specific factors from the local cellular microenvironment, might have a decisive impact on the fate choices of the new cells, is discussed. Reviewed evidence suggests that rather few modifications in the signaling pathways involved in the control of stem cell behavior have led, in the course of evolution, to the pronounced differences between mammals and regeneration-competent organisms. As a consequence, rather minor pharmacological manipulations may be sufficient to reactivate the hidden neurogenic potential of the mammalian CNS, and thus make it available for therapeutic applications. PMID:25448008

Zupanc, Günther K H; Sîrbulescu, Ruxandra F

2015-01-01

157

Neural Regeneration and Cell Replacement: a view from the eye  

PubMed Central

Neuronal degenerations in the retina are leading causes of blindness. Like most other areas of the CNS, the neurons of the mammalian retina are not replaced following degeneration. However, in non-mammalian vertebrates, endogenous repair processes restore neurons very efficiently, even after complete loss of the retina. We describe the phenomenon of retinal regeneration in non-mammalian vertebrates and attempts made in recent years to stimulate similar regenerative processes in the mammalian retina. In addition, we review the various strategies employed to replace lost neurons in the retina and the recent use of stem cell technologies to address problems of retinal repair. PMID:18522847

Lamba, Deepak; Karl, Mike; Reh, Thomas

2009-01-01

158

What can pluripotent stem cells teach us about neurodegenerative diseases?  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases represent a growing public health challenge. Current medications treat symptoms, but none halt or retard neurodegeneration. The recent advent of pluripotent cell biology has opened new avenues for neurodegenerative disease research. The greatest potential for induced pluripotent cells derived from affected individuals is likely to be their utility for modeling and understanding the mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative processes, and for searching for new treatments, including cell replacement therapies. However, much work remains to be done before pluripotent cells can be used for preclinical and clinical applications. Here we discuss the challenges of generating specific neural cell subtypes from pluripotent stem cells, the use of pluripotent stem cells to model both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms of neurodegeneration, whether adult-onset neurodegeneration can be emulated in short-term cultures and the hurdles of cell replacement therapy. Progress in these four areas will substantially accelerate effective application of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:20581816

Wichterle, Hynek; Przedborski, Serge

2011-01-01

159

Stem cell mechanics: Auxetic nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclei of naive mouse embryonic stem cells that are transitioning towards differentiation expand when the cells are stretched and contract when they are compressed. What drives this auxetic phenotype is, however, unclear.

Wang, Ning

2014-06-01

160

Stem cell therapy for osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Current osteoporosis treatments are predominantly bone-resorbing drugs that are associated with several side effects. The use of stem cells for tissue regeneration has raised great hope in various fields of medicine, including musculoskeletal disorders. Stem cell therapy for osteoporosis could potentially reduce the susceptibility of fractures and augment lost mineral density by either increasing the numbers or restoring the function of resident stem cells that can proliferate and differentiate into bone-forming cells. Such osteoporosis therapies can be carried out by exogenous introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), typically procured from bone marrow, adipose, and umbilical cord blood tissues or through treatments with drugs or small molecules that recruit endogenous stem cells to osteoporotic sites. The main hurdle with cell-based osteoporosis therapy is the uncertainty of stem cell fate and biodistribution following cell transplantation. Therefore, future advancements will focus on long-term engraftment and differentiation of stem cells at desired bone sites for tangible clinical outcome. PMID:24407712

Antebi, Ben; Pelled, Gadi; Gazit, Dan

2014-03-01

161

STEM CELL NICHE: Structure and Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult tissue-specific stem cells have the capacity to self-renew and generate functional differentiated cells that replenish lost cells throughout an organism's lifetime. Studies on stem cells from di- verse systems have shown that stem cell function is controlled by extracellular cues from the niche and by intrinsic genetic programs within the stem cell. Here, we review the remarkable progress re-

Linheng Li; Ting Xie

2005-01-01

162

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) requires the harvest of an adequate number of stem cells (SC) from a histocompatible donor and their infusion into a patient following a conditioning regimen. During the past 35 years, the role of HSCT has changed from an experimental procedure for terminally ill patients to a curative treatment. In 2003, 1170 procedures were registered in Italy (Italian Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation). The main reported indications were as follows: leukemia, lymphoproliferative diseases, myelodysplasia, and nonmalignant diseases such as thalassemia and severe aplastic anemia. Important changes have been observed in the last 5 years: the shift from bone marrow to peripheral blood as the SC source, the increasing number of alternative donors such as unrelated, partially matched family donors and cord blood SC, and the new extra-hematological indications including solid tumors. Moreover, the development of nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens have allowed physicians to perform HSCT in patients with advanced age or important comorbidities. In contrast, the availability of the Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (STI-571) for treatment of patients affected by chronic myelogenous leukemia, which was formerly the main indication for HSCT, has produced a dramatic decrease in the number of transplantations in this setting. HSCT performed in the early phases of disease and in young patients offers more than a 50% cure rate. The transplant-related mortality still represents the greatest obstacle, ranging from 20%-30%, despite the less toxic conditioning regimens, high-resolution HLA typing, and better supportive care. GvHD and infections remain the main causes of morbidity. As regards relapses, they correlate with disease status at the time of transplantation. Promising results have been recently obtained with haploidentical and with cord blood SC transplantation also in adult patients. PMID:16182779

Bosi, A; Bartolozzi, B; Guidi, S

2005-01-01

163

Do Pluripotent Stem Cells Exist in Adult Mice as Very Small Embryonic Stem Cells?  

PubMed Central

Summary Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) isolated from bone marrow (BM) have been reported to be pluripotent. Given their nonembryonic source, they could replace blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cells in research and medicine. However, their multiple-germ-layer potential has been incompletely studied. Here, we show that we cannot find VSELs in mouse BM with any of the reported stem cell potentials, specifically for hematopoiesis. We found that: (1) most events within the “VSEL” flow-cytometry gate had little DNA and the cells corresponding to these events (2) could not form spheres, (3) did not express Oct4, and (4) could not differentiate into blood cells. These results provide a failure to confirm the existence of pluripotent VSELs. PMID:24052953

Miyanishi, Masanori; Mori, Yasuo; Seita, Jun; Chen, James Y.; Karten, Seth; Chan, Charles K.F.; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Weissman, Irving L.

2013-01-01

164

Stem cell therapy for osteonecrosis of the femoral head.  

PubMed

Aseptic non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a painful disorder of the hip that can lead to femoral head collapse and the need for total hip replacement. As osteonecrosis may be a disease of mesenchymal cells or bone cells, the possibility has been raised that bone marrow containing osteogenic precursors implanted into the necrotic lesion could be of benefit in this condition. Indeed, bone marrow contains adult stem cells, such as haematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and multipotent stem cells, that might have osteogenic properties. The efficacy of bone marrow implantation into the osteonecrotic zone was studied in two prospective trials. This treatment avoided the progression of the disease to the stage of the subchondral fracture (stage III) and reduced the need for total hip replacement. The mechanisms involved might include improved osteogenesis and angiogenesis. This new therapeutic approach should modify the treatment of early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head. PMID:15934823

Gangji, Valérie; Toungouz, Michel; Hauzeur, Jean-Philippe

2005-04-01

165

GPCRs in Stem Cell Function  

PubMed Central

Many tissues of the body cannot only repair themselves, but also self-renew, a property mainly due to stem cells and the various mechanisms that regulate their behavior. Stem cell biology is a relatively new field. While advances are slowly being realized, stem cells possess huge potential to ameliorate disease and counteract the aging process, causing its speculation as the next panacea. Amidst public pressure to advance rapidly to clinical trials, there is a need to understand the biology of stem cells and to support basic research programs. Without a proper comprehension of how cells and tissues are maintained during the adult life span, clinical trials are bound to fail. This review will cover the basic biology of stem cells, the various types of stem cells, their potential function, and the advantages and disadvantages to their use in medicine. We will next cover the role of G-protein coupled receptors in the regulation of stem cells and their potential in future clinical applications. PMID:23415095

DOZE, VAN A.; PEREZ, DIANNE M.

2013-01-01

166

Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) isolation, characterization, and differentiation.  

PubMed

Dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) have been proposed as an alternative to pluripotent stem cells to study multilineage differentiation in vitro and for therapeutic application. Standard culture media for isolation and expansion of stem cells includes animal sera or animal-derived matrix components (e.g., Matrigel(®)). However, animal-derived reagents raise significant concerns with respect to the translational ability of these cells due to the possibility of infection and/or severe immune reaction. For these reasons clinical grade substitutes to animal components are needed in order for stem cells to reach their full therapeutic potential. In this chapter we detail a method for isolation and proliferation of DPSC in a chemically defined medium containing a low percentage of human serum. We demonstrate that in this defined culture medium a 1.25 % human serum component sufficiently replaces fetal bovine serum. This method allows for isolation of a morphologically and phenotypically uniform population of DPSCs from dental pulp tissue. DPSCs represent a rapidly proliferating cell population that readily differentiates into the osteoblastic, neuronal, myocytic, and hepatocytic lineages. This multilineage capacity of these DPSCs suggests that they may have a more broad therapeutic application than lineage-restricted adult stem cell populations such as mesenchymal stem cells. Further the culture protocol presented here makes these cells more amenable to human application than current expansion techniques for other pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cell lines or induced pluripotent stem cells). PMID:25173163

Ferro, Federico; Spelat, Renza; Baheney, Chelsea S

2014-01-01

167

Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture  

SciTech Connect

Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

Wei, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany) [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China); Li, Yuan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China)] [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China); Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)] [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kaufmann, Andreas M. [Clinic for Gynecology CCM/CBF, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)] [Clinic for Gynecology CCM/CBF, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Albers, Andreas E., E-mail: andreas.albers@charite.de [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

2011-04-15

168

Stem cell therapy without the cells.  

PubMed

As an example of the burgeoning importance of stem cell therapy, this past month the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) has approved $70 million to create a new network of stem cell clinical trial centers. Much work in the last decade has been devoted to developing the use of autologous and allogeneic adult stem cell transplants to treat a number of conditions, including heart attack, dementia, wounds, and immune system-related diseases. The standard model teaches us that adult stem cells exists throughout most of the body and provide a means to regenerate and repair most tissues through replication and differentiation. Although we have often witnessed the medical cart placed in front of the scientific horse in the development of stem cell therapies outside of academic circles, great strides have been made, such as the use of purified stem cells(1) instead of whole bone marrow transplants in cancer patients, where physicians avoid re-injecting the patients with their own cancer cells.(2) We most often think of stem cell therapy acting to regenerate tissue through replication and then differentiation, but recent studies point to the dramatic effects adult stem cells exert in the repair of various tissues through the release of paracrine and autocrine substances, and not simply through differentiation. Indeed, up to 80% of the therapeutic effect of adult stem cells has been shown to be through paracrine mediated actions.(3) That is, the collected types of molecules released by the stem cells, called the secretome, or stem cell released molecules (SRM), number in the 100s, including proteins, microRNA, growth factors, antioxidants, proteasomes, and exosomes, and target a multitude of biological pathways through paracrine actions. The composition of the different molecule types in SRM is state dependent, and varies with cell type and conditions such as age and environment. PMID:24567776

Maguire, Greg

2013-11-01

169

Stem cell therapy without the cells  

PubMed Central

As an example of the burgeoning importance of stem cell therapy, this past month the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) has approved $70 million to create a new network of stem cell clinical trial centers. Much work in the last decade has been devoted to developing the use of autologous and allogeneic adult stem cell transplants to treat a number of conditions, including heart attack, dementia, wounds, and immune system-related diseases. The standard model teaches us that adult stem cells exists throughout most of the body and provide a means to regenerate and repair most tissues through replication and differentiation. Although we have often witnessed the medical cart placed in front of the scientific horse in the development of stem cell therapies outside of academic circles, great strides have been made, such as the use of purified stem cells1 instead of whole bone marrow transplants in cancer patients, where physicians avoid re-injecting the patients with their own cancer cells.2 We most often think of stem cell therapy acting to regenerate tissue through replication and then differentiation, but recent studies point to the dramatic effects adult stem cells exert in the repair of various tissues through the release of paracrine and autocrine substances, and not simply through differentiation. Indeed, up to 80% of the therapeutic effect of adult stem cells has been shown to be through paracrine mediated actions.3 That is, the collected types of molecules released by the stem cells, called the secretome, or stem cell released molecules (SRM), number in the 100s, including proteins, microRNA, growth factors, antioxidants, proteasomes, and exosomes, and target a multitude of biological pathways through paracrine actions. The composition of the different molecule types in SRM is state dependent, and varies with cell type and conditions such as age and environment. PMID:24567776

Maguire, Greg

2013-01-01

170

Microbioreactors for Stem Cell Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During tissue development and regeneration, stem cells respond to the entire milieu of their environment, through dynamic interactions with the surrounding cells, extracellular matrix, and cascades of molecular and physical regulatory factors. A new generation of culture systems is emerging to offer some of the biological fidelity of a whole organism within highly controllable in vitro settings and provide the cultured cells with the combinations of factors they normally encounter in vivo. There is a growing notion that such "biomimetic" systems are essential for unlocking the full potential of stem cells - for tissue regeneration as well as biological research. In this chapter, we discuss the biological principles for designing biologically inspired culture systems for stem cell research and focus on the control of stem cell microenvironment through surface patterning, microfluidics, and electrical stimulation.

Freytes, Donald O.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

171

Molecular Pathways: Stem Cell Quiescence  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cells are maintained in a quiescent state, but are able to exit quiescence and rapidly expand and differentiate in response to stress. The quiescent state appears to be necessary for preserving self-renewal of stem cells and a critical factor in resistance of cancer stem cells (CSC) to chemotherapy and targeted therapies. Limited knowledge of quiescence mechanisms has prevented significant advance in targeting of drug resistant quiescent CSC populations in the clinic. Thus improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms of quiescence in adult stem cells is critical for development of molecularly targeted therapies against quiescent CSC in different cancers. Recent studies have provided a better understanding of intrinsic and extrinsic regulatory mechanisms that control stem cell quiescence. It is now appreciated that the p53 gene plays a critical role in regulating stem cell quiescence. Other intrinsic regulatory mechanisms include the FoxO,, HIF-1? and NFATc1 transcription factors, and signaling through ATM and mTOR. Extrinsic microenvironmental regulatory mechanisms include Angiopoietin-1, TGF-?, BMP, TPO, N-Cadherin and integrin adhesion receptors, Wnt/?-catenin signaling and osteopontin. In this article, we review current advances in understanding normal stem cell quiescence, their significance for CSC quiescence and drug resistance, and the potential clinical applications of these findings. PMID:21593194

Li, Ling; Bhatia, Ravi

2011-01-01

172

Stem cells-the hidden treasure: A strategic review  

PubMed Central

In today's scenario, medical and dental professionals face a mammoth task while treating perplexing medical situations like organ failure or tissue loss. Though, different strategies exist to replace them, but ideal one is the same natural tissue or organ. In this aspect, stem cells have emerged in a promising way to provide an ideal replacement. There are different types of stem cells starting from the embryonic stage referred to as human embryonic stem cells to adult stem cells. Though in dentistry stem cell research is lagging as compared to the medical field but still a lot progress has been achieved in recent years. The stem cells have been isolated from dental pulp, human exfoliated deciduous teeth, and apical papilla and so on. These stem cells have provided exciting results like dentin-pulp regeneration, periodontal regeneration but ambiguity still prevails. As a result, much has to be further researched before its clinical application becomes a reality. Hence, these stem cells opened a new avenue in the field of regenerative dentistry. PMID:24130574

Chopra, Hitesh; Hans, Manoj Kumar; Shetty, Shashit

2013-01-01

173

Sources of Stem Cells for Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Topic Donor matching for allogeneic transplant Sources of stem cells for transplant There are 3 possible sources of ... cord blood transplants are being actively studied. Which stem cell source is best? All 3 sources of stem ...

174

UCLA stem cell scientists discover new airway stem cell:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at UCLA have identified a new stem cell that participates in the repair of the large airways of the lungs, which play a vital role in protecting the body from infectious agents and toxins in the environment.

175

Planarian Regeneration and Stem Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A mini-documentary discussing the remarkable regenerative capabilities of the planarian, and how HHMI researcher Alejandro Snchez Alvarado uses them to study the biology of stem cells. This presentation is also featured on the DVD Potent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration, available for free from HHMI. This video is 11 minutes and 46 seconds in length, and available for download in Quicktime (114 MB) and Windows Media (156 MB) formats. All Stem Cell videos are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/video.html.

Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2007-03-31

176

Cell Stem Cell Stage-Specific Differences in the  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Article Stage-Specific Differences in the Requirements for Germline Stem CellDepartment of Biochemistry, Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Washington tissues in the animal kingdom depend on stem cell populations. Embryonic stem cells are considered

Hay, Bruce A.

177

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Aging: Wrinkles In Stem Cell Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) continuously replenish the blood and immune systems. Their activity must be sustained throughout\\u000a life to support optimal immune responses. It has been thought that stem cells may be somewhat protected from age because of\\u000a their perpetual requirement to replenish the blood, however studies over the past 10 years have revealed dramatic changes\\u000a in HSC function and phenotype

S. M. Chambers; M. A. Goodell

2007-01-01

178

Human embryonic stem cells express an immunogenic nonhuman sialic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human embryonic stem cells (HESC) can potentially generate every body cell type, making them excellent candidates for cell- and tissue-replacement therapies. HESC are typically cultured with animal-derived 'serum replacements' on mouse feeder layers. Both of these are sources of the nonhuman sialic acid Neu5Gc, against which many humans have circulating antibodies. Both HESC and derived embryoid bodies metabolically incorporate substantial

Maria J Martin; Alysson Muotri; Fred Gage; Ajit Varki

2005-01-01

179

Combination stem cell therapy for heart failure  

E-print Network

stem cells prolongs the survival of a semiallogeneic heart transplantstem cells: isolation, characterization, and differentiation. Cell Transplantstem cells from human umbilical cord blood. Cell Transplant

2010-01-01

180

Stem cells, neural progenitors, and engineered stem cells.  

PubMed

Human pluripotent stem cellsHuman pluripotent stem cells (hPSCshPSCs ) have the unique potential to form every cell type in the body. This potential provides opportunities for generating humanhuman progenitorsprogenitors and other differentiated cell types for understanding human developmenthuman development and for use in cell type-specific therapiestherapies . Equally important is the ability to engineer stem cellsstem cells and their derived progenitors to mimic specific diseasedisease models. This chapter will focus on the propagationpropagation and characterization of human neural progenitorshuman neural progenitors (hNPshNPs ) derived from hPSCs with a particular focus on engineering hNPs to generate in vitroin vitro disease modelsdisease models for human neuro-mitochondrial disordersneuro-mitochondrial disorders . We will discuss the methodologies for culturing and characterizing hPSCs and hNPs; and protocols for engineering hNPs by using a novel mitochondrial transfectionmitochondrial transfection technology. PMID:25431071

Rao, Raj R; Iyer, Shilpa

2015-01-01

181

BMP signaling and stem cell regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells play an essential role in cellular specialization and pattern formation during embryogenesis and in tissue regeneration in adults. This is mainly due to a stem cell's ability to replenish itself (self-renewal) and, at the same time, produce differentiated progeny. Realization of these special stem cell features has changed the prospective of the field. However, regulation of stem cell

Jiwang Zhang; Linheng Li

2005-01-01

182

Stem Cell Research: Elephants in the Room  

Microsoft Academic Search

hen groups of stem cell researchers meet or when stem cell researchers publish their data and interpre- tations in scientific journals, a small cluster of important issues loom over the discussions yet often go unremarked. These issues influence much of the nature, direction, and funding of stem cell investigations, particularly those in- volving adult stem cells. The unmentionable issues are

NEIL D. THEISE

2003-01-01

183

Cell Stem Cell Molecular Pathway and Cell State Responsible  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Article Molecular Pathway and Cell State Responsible for Dissociation-Induced Apoptosis in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Masatoshi Ohgushi,1,2 Michiru Matsumura,1,2 Mototsugu Eiraku,1 Sasai1,2,* 1Organogenesis and Neurogenesis Group 2Division of Human Stem Cell Technology 3Laboratory

South Bohemia, University of

184

Immunotargeting of cancer stem cells  

PubMed Central

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a distinctive population of tumour cells that control tumour initiation, progression, and maintenance. Their influence is great enough to risk the statement that successful therapeutic strategy must target CSCs in order to eradicate the disease. Because cancer stem cells are highly resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy, new tools to fight against cancer have to be developed. Expression of antigens such as ALDH, CD44, EpCAM, or CD133, which distinguish CSCs from normal cells, together with CSC immunogenicity and relatively low toxicity of immunotherapies, makes immune targeting of CSCs a promising approach for cancer treatment. This review will present immunotherapeutic approaches using dendritic cells, T cells, pluripotent stem cells, and monoclonal antibodies to target and eliminate CSCs. PMID:25691822

G?bka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Jankowski, Jakub; Mackiewicz, Andrzej

2015-01-01

185

Stem Cells Promises to Keep?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Samantha and her husband Brad have two children, conceived with the help of in vitro fertilization treatments. After viewing a TV program on stem cells and their potential medical uses, Samantha is convinced that they should donate the remaining frozen embryos they have to medical research, an idea Brad strongly objects to. The case teaches about stem cells and their medical applications as well as the ethical dilemmas posed by their use.

Yaich, Lauren E.

2002-01-01

186

The stem cell debate CNN  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As most of our readers no doubt know, President Bush made a determination on federal funding for embryonic stem cell research in August 2001, agreeing to release federal funds for research involving already existing stem cell lines. Information on this contentious topic is available at CNN's in-depth special, which features articles, analysis, video clips, and message boards devoted to the many aspects of the debate.

2001-01-01

187

Cell Stem Cell Wnts as Self-Renewal Factors  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Previews Wnts as Self-Renewal Factors: Mammary Stem Cells and Beyond Esther M, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada 2Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell.clevers@hubrecht.eu DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.05.004 Adult stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine, yet

Verheyen, Esther M.

188

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS or INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS? A DNA INTEGRITY PERSPECTIVE  

E-print Network

1 EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS or INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS? A DNA INTEGRITY PERSPECTIVE Qiang Bai Gene Therapy 2013;13(2):93-8" #12;2 ABSTRACT Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are two types of pluripotent stem cells that hold great promise for biomedical research

Boyer, Edmond

189

Curr Gene Ther . Author manuscript Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells? A DNA integrity  

E-print Network

Curr Gene Ther . Author manuscript Page /1 7 Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cellsPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are two types of pluripotent stem cells that hold great promise for biomedical ; Embryonic Stem Cells ; cytology ; immunology ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Genomic Instability ; Humans ; Induced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

Columbia Stem Cell Initiative Tapping the potential of stem cells for human health  

E-print Network

Faculty Positions in Stem Cell Research at Columbia University Medical Center The Columbia Stem Cell of stem cells for human health. Their research covers all aspects of stem cell research, from basic Professor and Associate Professor level. Applicants' research may focus directly on stem cell biology

Adams, Mark

191

Generation of Isogenic Pluripotent Stem Cells Differing Exclusively at Two Early Onset Parkinson Point Mutations  

E-print Network

Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells provide a unique tool for the study of human disease, as well as a promising source for cell replacement therapies. One crucial limitation ...

Soldner, Frank

192

Stem cells in veterinary medicine.  

PubMed

The stem cell field in veterinary medicine continues to evolve rapidly both experimentally and clinically. Stem cells are most commonly used in clinical veterinary medicine in therapeutic applications for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries in horses and dogs. New technologies of assisted reproduction are being developed to apply the properties of spermatogonial stem cells to preserve endangered animal species. The same methods can be used to generate transgenic animals for production of pharmaceuticals or for use as biomedical models. Small and large animal species serve as valuable models for preclinical evaluation of stem cell applications in human beings and in veterinary patients in areas such as spinal cord injury and myocardial infarction. However, these applications have not been implemented in the clinical treatment of veterinary patients. Reviews on the use of animal models for stem cell research have been published recently. Therefore, in this review, animal model research will be reviewed only in the context of supporting the current clinical application of stem cells in veterinary medicine. PMID:21371354

Fortier, Lisa A; Travis, Alexander J

2011-01-01

193

Types of Stem Cell Transplants for Treating Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... of stem cells for transplant Types of stem cell transplants for treating cancer In a typical stem ... from your identical twin or triplet Autologous stem cell transplants These stem cells come from you alone. ...

194

Future Research in Adipose Stem Cell Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Adipose stem cells have a bright prospect in regenerative medicine for tissue\\/organ engineering. However, some hurdles may\\u000a hinder the progress of adipose stem cell engineering. Therefore this chapter highlights the advances in adipose stem cell\\u000a researches, and focuses on prospective researches that are needed to overcome the hurdles in adipose stem cell engineering,\\u000a i.e., to identify the various stem cells

Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan

195

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Long-Term, Stable Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem  

E-print Network

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Long-Term, Stable Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors Grafted into the Adult Mammalian Neostriatum IGOR NASONKIN Words. Cellular therapy · Embryonic stem cells · Neural differentiation · Neural induction · Neural stem

Ryugo, David K.

196

Biomaterials for stem cell differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise of cellular therapy lies in the repair of damaged organs and tissues in vivo as well as generating tissue constructs in vitro for subsequent transplantation. Unfortunately, the lack of available donor cell sources limits its ultimate clinical applicability. Stem cells are a natural choice for cell therapy due to their pluripotent nature and self-renewal capacity. Creating reserves of

Eileen Dawson; Gazell Mapili; Kathryn Erickson; Sabia Taqvi; Krishnendu Roy

2008-01-01

197

Cell Stem Cell Wnt Proteins Are Self-Renewal Factors  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Article Wnt Proteins Are Self-Renewal Factors for Mammary Stem Cells and Promote.03.020 SUMMARY Adult stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to generate specialized cells. Self the organ develops postnatally, arises from stem cells, and is readily generated from transplanted cells. We

Bejerano, Gill

198

Adult stem cell-based apexogenesis  

PubMed Central

Generally, the dental pulp needs to be removed when it is infected, and root canal therapy (RCT) is usually required in which infected dental pulp is replaced with inorganic materials (paste and gutta percha). This treatment approach ultimately brings about a dead tooth. However, pulp vitality is extremely important to the tooth itself, since it provides nutrition and acts as a biosensor to detect the potential pathogenic stimuli. Despite the reported clinical success rate, RCT-treated teeth are destined to be devitalized, brittle and susceptible to postoperative fracture. Recently, the advances and achievements in the field of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have inspired novel biological approaches to apexogenesis in young patients suffering from pulpitis or periapical periodontitis. This review mainly focuses on the benchtop and clinical regeneration of root apex mediated by adult stem cells. Moreover, current strategies for infected pulp therapy are also discussed here. PMID:25332909

Li, Yao; Shu, Li-Hong; Yan, Ming; Dai, Wen-Yong; Li, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Dong; Yu, Jin-Hua

2014-01-01

199

Adult stem cell-based apexogenesis.  

PubMed

Generally, the dental pulp needs to be removed when it is infected, and root canal therapy (RCT) is usually required in which infected dental pulp is replaced with inorganic materials (paste and gutta percha). This treatment approach ultimately brings about a dead tooth. However, pulp vitality is extremely important to the tooth itself, since it provides nutrition and acts as a biosensor to detect the potential pathogenic stimuli. Despite the reported clinical success rate, RCT-treated teeth are destined to be devitalized, brittle and susceptible to postoperative fracture. Recently, the advances and achievements in the field of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have inspired novel biological approaches to apexogenesis in young patients suffering from pulpitis or periapical periodontitis. This review mainly focuses on the benchtop and clinical regeneration of root apex mediated by adult stem cells. Moreover, current strategies for infected pulp therapy are also discussed here. PMID:25332909

Li, Yao; Shu, Li-Hong; Yan, Ming; Dai, Wen-Yong; Li, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Dong; Yu, Jin-Hua

2014-06-26

200

Ferreting out stem cells from their niches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that many tissues have regenerative capabilities. The challenge has been to find the stem cells or progenitors that are responsible for tissue renewal and repair. The revolution in technological advances that permit sophisticated spatial, temporal and kinetic analyses of stem cells has allowed stem cell hunters to ferret out where stem

Valerie Horsley; Elaine Fuchs

2011-01-01

201

Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors  

PubMed Central

Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “niches”, to impact stem cell fate decision. The niche factors include the regulatory factors such as oxygen, extracellular matrix (synthetic and decellularized), paracrine/autocrine signaling and physical forces (i.e., mechanical force, electrical force and flow shear). The use of novel bioreactors with precise control and recapitulation of niche factors through modulating reactor operation parameters can enable efficient stem cell expansion and differentiation. Recently, the development of microfluidic devices and microbioreactors also provides powerful tools to manipulate the stem cell microenvironment by adjusting flow rate and cytokine gradients. In general, bioreactor engineering can be used to better modulate stem cell niches critical for stem cell expansion, differentiation and applications as novel cell-based biomedicines. This paper reviews important factors that can be more precisely controlled in bioreactors and their effects on stem cell engineering. PMID:24179601

Liu, Meimei; Liu, Ning; Zang, Ru; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

2013-01-01

202

Concise Review: Stem Cell Therapies for Neuropathic Pain  

PubMed Central

Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that is heterogeneous in nature and has different causes. Different from and more burdensome than nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain more severely affects people's quality of life. Understanding the various mechanisms of the onset and progression of neuropathic pain is important in the development of an effective treatment. Research is being done to replace current pharmacological treatments with cellular therapies that will have longer lasting effects. Stem cells present an exciting potential therapy for neuropathic pain. In this review, we describe the neuroprotective effects of stem cells along with special emphasis on the current translational research using stem cells to treat neuropathic pain. PMID:23572051

Fortino, Veronica R.; Pelaez, Daniel

2013-01-01

203

Sustained Levels of FGF2 Maintain Undifferentiated Stem Cell Cultures with Biweekly Feeding  

PubMed Central

An essential aspect of stem cell culture is the successful maintenance of the undifferentiated state. Many types of stem cells are FGF2 dependent, and pluripotent stem cells are maintained by replacing FGF2-containing media daily, while tissue-specific stem cells are typically fed every 3rd day. Frequent feeding, however, results in significant variation in growth factor levels due to FGF2 instability, which limits effective maintenance due to spontaneous differentiation. We report that stabilization of FGF2 levels using controlled release PLGA microspheres improves expression of stem cell markers, increases stem cell numbers and decreases spontaneous differentiation. The controlled release FGF2 additive reduces the frequency of media changes needed to maintain stem cell cultures, so that human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can be maintained successfully with biweekly feedings. PMID:23437109

Lotz, Steven; Goderie, Susan; Tokas, Nicolas; Hirsch, Sarah E.; Ahmad, Faizzan; Corneo, Barbara; Le, Sheila; Banerjee, Akhilesh; Kane, Ravi S.; Stern, Jeffrey H.; Temple, Sally; Fasano, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

204

Endometrial stem cell transplantation in MPTP- exposed primates: an alternative cell source for treatment of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Cell-replacement therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to slow down or replace neuronal loss. Compared to other stem cell types, endometrium-derived stem cells (EDSCs) are an attractive source of stem cells for cellular therapies because of their ease of collection and vast differentiation potential. Here we demonstrate that endometrium-derived stem cells may be transplanted into an MPTP exposed monkey model of PD. After injection into the striatum, endometrium-derived stem cells engrafted, exhibited neuron-like morphology, expressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and increased the numbers of TH positive cells on the transplanted side and dopamine metabolite concentrations in vivo. Our results suggest that endometrium-derived stem cells may provide a therapeutic benefit in the primate model of PD and may be used in stem cell based therapies. PMID:25283241

Wolff, Erin F; Mutlu, Levent; Massasa, Efi E; Elsworth, John D; Eugene Redmond, D; Taylor, Hugh S

2015-01-01

205

Endometrial stem cell transplantation in MPTP- exposed primates: an alternative cell source for treatment of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Cell-replacement therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to slow down or replace neuronal loss. Compared to other stem cell types, endometrium-derived stem cells (EDSCs) are an attractive source of stem cells for cellular therapies because of their ease of collection and vast differentiation potential. Here we demonstrate that endometrium-derived stem cells may be transplanted into an MPTP exposed monkey model of PD. After injection into the striatum, endometrium-derived stem cells engrafted, exhibited neuron-like morphology, expressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and increased the numbers of TH positive cells on the transplanted side and dopamine metabolite concentrations in vivo. Our results suggest that endometrium-derived stem cells may provide a therapeutic benefit in the primate model of PD and may be used in stem cell based therapies. PMID:25283241

Wolff, Erin F; Mutlu, Levent; Massasa, Efi E; Elsworth, John D; Eugene Redmond, D; Taylor, Hugh S

2015-01-01

206

MICROFLUIDIC CONTROL OF STEM CELL DIFFUSIBLE SIGNALING  

E-print Network

MICROFLUIDIC CONTROL OF STEM CELL DIFFUSIBLE SIGNALING Katarina Blagovi, Lily Y. Kim, Alison M cell differentiation. KEYWORDS: Embryonic stem cells, microfluidic perfusion, diffusible signaling; they secrete molecules to which they respond. Microfluidics offers a potential solution to this challenge

Voldman, Joel

207

Control of the Embryonic Stem Cell State  

E-print Network

Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine. These cells can be propagated in culture in an undifferentiated state but can be induced to differentiate into specialized ...

Young, Richard A.

208

Stem cell differentiation: Sticky mechanical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical cues from the extracellular environment influence the lineage commitment of stem cells. Now, experiments on human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on photodegradable hydrogels show that the cells' fate can also be determined by past physical environments.

Eyckmans, Jeroen; Chen, Christopher S.

2014-06-01

209

Stem cells' exodus: a journey to immortality.  

PubMed

Stem cell niches provide a regulatory microenvironment that retains stem cells and promotes self-renewal. Recently in Developmental Cell, Rinkevich et al. (2013) showed that cell islands (CIs) of Botryllus schlosseri, a colonial chordate, provide niches for maintaining cycling stem cells that migrate from degenerated CIs to newly formed buds. PMID:23369706

Zhou, Yi; Lewallen, Michelle; Xie, Ting

2013-01-28

210

Patenting Human Genes and Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell lines and genetically modified single cell organisms have been considered patentable subjects for the last two decades. However, despite the technical patentability of genes and stem cell lines, social and legal controversy concerning their 'ownership' has surrounded stem cell research in recent years. Some granted patents on stem cells with extremely broad claims are casting a shadow over the

Enca Martin-Rendon; Derek J. Blake

2007-01-01

211

Stem Cells for Periodontal Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Periodontal regeneration is considered to be biologically possible but clinically unpredictable. In periodontitis, inflammation manifests clinically as loss of supporting periodontal tissues and regeneration of damaged tissue is the main goal of treatment. For decades, periodontists have sought to repair the damage through a variety of surgical procedures, and use of grafting materials and growth factors, and of barrier membranes. Reports have emerged that demonstrate which populations of adult stem cells reside in the periodontal ligaments of humans and other animals. This opens the way for new cell-based therapies for periodontal regeneration. This review provides an overview of adult human stem cells and their potential use in periodontal regeneration. PMID:24265588

Pejcic, A; Kojovic, D; Mirkovic, D; Minic, I

212

Stem cells for periodontal regeneration.  

PubMed

Periodontal regeneration is considered to be biologically possible but clinically unpredictable. In periodontitis, inflammation manifests clinically as loss of supporting periodontal tissues and regeneration of damaged tissue is the main goal of treatment. For decades, periodontists have sought to repair the damage through a variety of surgical procedures, and use of grafting materials and growth factors, and of barrier membranes. Reports have emerged that demonstrate which populations of adult stem cells reside in the periodontal ligaments of humans and other animals. This opens the way for new cell-based therapies for periodontal regeneration. This review provides an overview of adult human stem cells and their potential use in periodontal regeneration. PMID:24265588

Pejcic, A; Kojovic, D; Mirkovic, D; Minic, I

2013-06-01

213

Cell Stem Cell An Expanded Oct4 Interaction Network: Implications  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Resource An Expanded Oct4 Interaction Network: Implications for Stem Cell Biology is key in embryonic stem cell identity and reprogramming. Insight into its part- ners should illuminate set of Oct4-binding proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells. We find that Oct4 asso- ciates

Babu, M. Madan

214

Multipotent somatic stem cells contribute to the stem cell niche in the Drosophila testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments, or niches, that have an important role in regulating stem cell behaviour. Therefore, tight control of niche number, size and function is necessary to ensure the proper balance between stem cells and progenitor cells available for tissue homeostasis and wound repair. The stem cell niche in the Drosophila male gonad is located at

Justin Voog; Cecilia D'Alterio; D. Leanne Jones

2008-01-01

215

Mammary Stem Cells and Breast Cancer—Role of Notch Signalling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult stem cells are found in numerous tissues of the body and play a role in tissue development, replacement and repair.\\u000a Evidence shows that breast stem cells are multipotent and can self renew, which are key characteristics of stem cells, and\\u000a a single cell enriched with cell surface markers has the ability to grow a fully functional mammary gland in

Gillian Farnie; Robert B. Clarke

2007-01-01

216

Stem cell aging in the Drosophila ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence suggests that with time human stem cells may become defective or depleted, thereby contributing to aging\\u000a and aging-related diseases. Drosophila provides a convenient model system in which to study stem cell aging. The adult Drosophila ovary contains two types of stem cells: the germ-line stem cells give rise to the oocyte and its supporting nurse cells,\\u000a while the

Morris Waskar; Yishi Li; John Tower

2005-01-01

217

*Institute for Stem Cell Research, GSF --National  

E-print Network

*Institute for Stem Cell Research, GSF -- National Research Center for Environment and Health neural stem cells. THE CELL BIOLOGY OF NEUROGENESIS Magdalena Götz* and Wieland B. Huttner Abstract | During the development of the mammalian central nervous system, neural stem cells and their derivative

Cai, Long

218

Analysis of neuronal differentiation from stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-content analysis (HCA) based on automated image acquisition, image processing and analysis, and bioinformatics has a power to enhance discovery research using stem cells. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are difficult to study because of the specialized conditions that affect growth rate, death and differentiation. HCA with optimized cell culture conditions provides a valuable tool for stem cell research. HCA

Michael Anhalt; Douglas E. Hughes; Suk J. Hong

2000-01-01

219

Science: Embryos and Stem Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's quite easy to stay abreast of all the developments within the world of embryos and stem cell research with this handy site created and maintained by staff members at the Guardian newspaper. On their page, visitors can read news reports from the frontlines of scientific research in these areas, and also check out the latest posts from the weblogs they maintain on these matters. Further down the page, visitors will find a selection of specialized reports on both stem cell research and the manipulation and transformation of embryos. Visitors can also sign up to receive an RSS feed and even learn about related subjects, including genetics and biotechnology.

2008-06-04

220

DNA methylation in stem cell renewal and multipotency.  

PubMed

Owing to their potential for differentiation into multiple cell types, multipotent stem cells extracted from many adult tissues are an attractive stem cell resource for the replacement of damaged tissues in regenerative medicine. The requirements for cellular differentiation of an adult stem cell are a loss of proliferation potential and a gain of cell-type identity. These processes could be restricted by epigenetic modifications that prevent the risks of lineage-unrelated gene expression or the undifferentiated features of stem cells in adult somatic cells. In this review, we focus on the role of DNA methylation in controlling the transcriptional activity of genes important for self-renewal, the dynamism of CpG methylation of tissue-specific genes during several differentiation programs, and whether the multilineage potential of adult stem cells could be imposed early in the original precursor stem cells through CpG methylation. Additionally, we draw attention to the role of DNA methylation in adult stem cell differentiation by reviewing the reports on spontaneous differentiation after treatment with demethylating agents and by considering the evidence provided by reprogramming of somatic cells into undifferentiated cells (that is, somatic nuclear transfer or generation of induced pluripotent cells). It is clear from the evidence that DNA methylation is necessary for controlling stem cell proliferation and differentiation, but their exact contribution in each lineage program is still unclear. As a consequence, in a clinical setting, caution should be exerted before employing adult stem cells or their derivatives in regenerative medicine and appropriate tests should be applied to ensure the integrity of the genome and epigenome. PMID:22041459

Berdasco, María; Esteller, Manel

2011-01-01

221

Cell replacement and visual restoration by retinal sheet transplants.  

PubMed

Retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) affect millions of people. Replacing lost cells with new cells that connect with the still functional part of the host retina might repair a degenerating retina and restore eyesight to an unknown extent. A unique model, subretinal transplantation of freshly dissected sheets of fetal-derived retinal progenitor cells, combined with its retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), has demonstrated successful results in both animals and humans. Most other approaches are restricted to rescue endogenous retinal cells of the recipient in earlier disease stages by a 'nursing' role of the implanted cells and are not aimed at neural retinal cell replacement. Sheet transplants restore lost visual responses in several retinal degeneration models in the superior colliculus (SC) corresponding to the location of the transplant in the retina. They do not simply preserve visual performance - they increase visual responsiveness to light. Restoration of visual responses in the SC can be directly traced to neural cells in the transplant, demonstrating that synaptic connections between transplant and host contribute to the visual improvement. Transplant processes invade the inner plexiform layer of the host retina and form synapses with presumable host cells. In a Phase II trial of RP and ARMD patients, transplants of retina together with its RPE improved visual acuity. In summary, retinal progenitor sheet transplantation provides an excellent model to answer questions about how to repair and restore function of a degenerating retina. Supply of fetal donor tissue will always be limited but the model can set a standard and provide an informative base for optimal cell replacement therapies such as embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived therapy. PMID:22771454

Seiler, Magdalene J; Aramant, Robert B

2012-11-01

222

Hematopoietic stem cells: an overview.  

PubMed

Considerable efforts have been made in recent years in understanding the mechanisms that govern hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) origin, development, differentiation, self-renewal, aging, trafficking, plasticity and transdifferentiation. Hematopoiesis occurs in sequential waves in distinct anatomical locations during development and these shifts in location are accompanied by changes in the functional status of the stem cells and reflect the changing needs of the developing organism. HSCs make a choice of either self-renewal or committing to differentiation. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation is considered to be critical to the maintenance of stem cell numbers. It is still under debate if HSC can rejuvenate infinitely or if they do not possess ''true" self-renewal and undergo replicative senescence such as any other somatic cell. Gene therapy applications that target HSCs offer a great potential for the treatment of hematologic and immunologic diseases. However, the clinical success has been limited by many factors. This review is intended to summarize the recent advances made in the human HSC field, and will review the hematopoietic stem cell from definition through development to clinical applications. PMID:25457002

Mosaad, Youssef Mohamed

2014-12-01

223

III. Stem Cells and Their Asymmetric Cell Divisions Stem cells to synapses: regulation of self-renewal and differentiation in  

E-print Network

III. Stem Cells and Their Asymmetric Cell Divisions Stem cells to synapses: regulation of self fates is a key step in the therapeutic use of stem cells to repair tissues after damage or disease. We are investigating the genetic networks that regulate neural stem cells in Drosophila. Stem cells can divide

Kazama, Hokto

224

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Signals Regulate Neural Stem Cell Fate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural stem cells (NSCs) differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes depending on their location within the\\u000a central nervous system (CNS). The cellular and molecular cues mediating end-stage cell fate choices are not completely understood.\\u000a The retention of multipotent NSCs in the adult CNS raises the possibility that selective recruitment of their progeny to specific\\u000a lineages may facilitate repair in a

Lianhua Bai; Arnold Caplan; Donald Lennon; Robert H. Miller

2007-01-01

225

Stem Cell Properties of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we characterized the self-renewal capability, multi-lineage differentiation capacity, and clonogenic efficiency of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). DPSCs were capable of forming ectopic dentin and associated pulp tissue in vivo. Stromal-like cells were reestablished in culture from primary DPSC transplants and re-transplanted into immunocompromised mice to generate a dentin-pulp-like tissue, demonstrating their self-renewal capability. DPSCs were

S. Gronthos; J. Brahim; W. Li; L. W. Fisher; N. Cherman; A. Boyde; P. DenBesten; P. Gehron Robey; S. Shi

2002-01-01

226

Cancer Stem Cells Found in Pancreatic Tumors  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have detected cancer stem cells in tumors from patients with pancreatic cancer. Experiments in mice suggest that these cancer stem cells may help explain the aggressive growth and spread of pancreatic tumors seen in patients.

227

Getting the right stuff: Controlling neural stem cell state and fate in vivo and in vitro with biomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell therapy holds great promises in medical treatment by, e.g., replacing lost cells, re-constitute healthy cell populations and also in the use of stem cells as vehicles for factor and gene delivery. Embryonic stem cells have rightfully attracted a large interest due to their proven capacity of differentiating into any cell type in the embryo in vivo. Tissue-specific stem

Ana I Teixeira; Joshua K Duckworth; Ola Hermanson

2007-01-01

228

Stem cells in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which were first identified in acute myeloid leukemia and subsequently in a large array of solid tumors, play important roles in cancer initiation, dissemination and recurrence. CSCs are often transformed tissue-specific stem cells or de-differentiated transit amplifying progenitor cells. Several populations of multipotent gastric stem cells (GSCs) that reside in the stomach have been determined to regulate physiological tissue renewal and injury repair. These populations include the Villin+ and Lgr5+ GSCs in the antrum, the Troy+ chief cells in the corpus, and the Sox2+ GSCs that are found in both the antrum and the corpus. The disruption of tumor suppressors in Villin+ or Lgr5+ GSCs leads to GC in mouse models. In addition to residing GSCs, bone marrow-derived cells can initiate GC in a mouse model of chronic Helicobacter infection. Furthermore, expression of the cell surface markers CD133 or CD44 defines gastric CSCs in mouse models and in human primary GC tissues and cell lines. Targeted elimination of CSCs effectively reduces tumor size and grade in mouse models. In summary, the recent identification of normal GSCs and gastric CSCs has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular and cellular etiology of GC and will aid in the development of effective therapies to treat patients. PMID:25574084

Zhao, Yue; Feng, Fei; Zhou, Yong-Ning

2015-01-01

229

Stem cells and tooth tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion that teeth contain stem cells is based on the well-known repairing ability of dentin after injury. Dental stem\\u000a cells have been isolated according to their anatomical locations, colony-forming ability, expression of stem cell markers,\\u000a and regeneration of pulp\\/dentin structures in vivo. These dental-derived stem cells are currently under increasing investigation\\u000a as sources for tooth regeneration and repair. Further

Amanda H.-H. Yen; Paul T. Sharpe

2008-01-01

230

Notch signalling in cancer stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new theory about the development of solid tumours is emerging from the idea that solid tumours, like normal adult tissues,\\u000a contain stem cells (called cancer stem cells) and arise from them. Genetic mutations encoding for proteins involved in critical\\u000a signalling pathways for stem cells such as BMP, Notch, Hedgehog and Wnt would allow stem cells to undergo uncontrolled proliferation

Victoria Bolós; Moisés Blanco; Vanessa Medina; Guadalupe Aparicio; Silvia Díaz-Prado; Enrique Grande

2009-01-01

231

Cell Stem Cell Prediction and Testing of Novel Transcriptional  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Article Prediction and Testing of Novel Transcriptional Networks Regulating Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Commitment Emily Walker,1 Minako Ohishi,1 Ryan E. Davey,1 Wen Zhang,2.stanford@utoronto.ca DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2007.04.002 SUMMARY Stem cell fate is governed by the integration of intrinsic

Zandstra, Peter W.

232

Stem Cells: Golden Opportunities with Ethical Baggage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stems cells are defined as those cells which can divide to produce a daughter like themselves (self-renewal) as well as a daughter that will give rise to specific differentiated cells. Stem cells in the body may be unipotent, like spermatogenic stem cells (which are responsible for the continuing production of spermatozoa), or they can be multipotent, like neural or hemopoietic stem cells, which give rise respectively to all the varied cell types in the nervous system or in the blood and immune system. Given the possibility of directed differentiation of stem cells, these multipotent somatic stem cell lines may prove to be of significant clinical value. This article discusses the potential as well as the ethical issues associated with the use of stem cells.

Anne McLaren (Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute;)

2000-06-09

233

Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell  

E-print Network

Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development Müller stem cells for development of cell based therapies to treat end stage glaucoma' This research aims of Stem Cell Based Therapies to treat Retinal Diseases, Endogenous Regeneration of the human Retina Stem

Saunders, Mark

234

College Students' Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before…

Concannon, James P.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Halverson, Kristy; Freyermuth, Sharyn

2010-01-01

235

hy are stem cells so valuable in research? One reason stem cells have generated  

E-print Network

W hy are stem cells so valuable in research? One reason stem cells have generated excitement in science is their versatility. Like little Swiss Army knives, stem cells provide the basic tools of stem cells -- embryonic, induced pluripotent, fetal and adult -- can all be used in different ways

236

Bio-engineering of stem/progenitor cells Blood stem cell products  

E-print Network

Bio-engineering of stem/progenitor cells Blood stem cell products: Toward sustainable benchmarks expansion of umbilical cord blood (UCB) derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) should stem cell derived products that fulfill our current best known criteria of clinical relevance

Zandstra, Peter W.

237

Stem Cell Reports Quality Metrics for Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes  

E-print Network

Stem Cell Reports Article Quality Metrics for Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes Sean P. Sheehy,1, provided the original author and source are credited. SUMMARY Advances in stem cell manufacturing methods have made it possible to produce stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes at industrial scales for in vitro

238

Salivary Gland Cancer Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nör, Jacques E.

2013-01-01

239

How Embryonic Stem Cell Lines are Made  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use of embryonic stem cells in research has been hotly debated for several years. This animation presents the basics on how stem cell lines are established. This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents how embryonic stem cell lines are made through a series of illustrations of the processes involved.

240

Leading Edge Stem Cell Trafficking in Tissue  

E-print Network

that achieving targeted trafficking of stem cells will be critical for effective tissue regeneration fromLeading Edge Review Stem Cell Trafficking in Tissue Development, Growth, and Disease Diana J. Laird, USA 4Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 5

von Andrian, Ulrich H.

241

Epigenetic regulation of aging stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of adult tissue-specific stem cells declines with age, which may contribute to the physiological decline in tissue homeostasis and the increased risk of neoplasm during aging. Old stem cells can be ‘rejuvenated’ by environmental stimuli in some cases, raising the possibility that a subset of age-dependent stem cell changes is regulated by reversible mechanisms. Epigenetic regulators are good

E A Pollina; A Brunet

2011-01-01

242

Setting FIRES to Stem Cell Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this lesson is to present the basic scientific knowledge about stem cells, the promise of stem cell research to medicine, and the ethical considerations and arguments involved. One of the challenges of discussing stem cell research is that the field is constantly evolving and the most current information changes almost daily. Few…

Miller, Roxanne Grietz

2005-01-01

243

--Taking STem Cell SCienCe from  

E-print Network

associate professor of biomedical engineering and stem cell researcher, says that basic research the frontiers of biomedical engineering and stem cell research: associate professor Treena livingston arinzeh Medicine, dedi- cated to creating technologies to translate basic stem cell research into practical

Bieber, Michael

244

Restoring the cornea from limbal stem cells  

PubMed Central

“…in light of the result that ABCB5 helps to amplify a PAX6-positive limbal stem cell population … it will now be important to test whether ABCB5 selection could also enhance the conversion of skin epithelial stem cells to corneal epithelial stem cells.” PMID:25562345

Frank, Markus H; Frank, Natasha Y

2015-01-01

245

Epithelial stem cells, wound healing and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that tissue repair depends on stem cells and that chronic wounds predispose to tumour formation. However, the association between stem cells, wound healing and cancer is poorly understood. Lineage tracing has now shown how stem cells are mobilized to repair skin wounds and how they contribute to skin tumour development. The signalling pathways, including WNT and

Esther N. Arwert; Esther Hoste; Fiona M. Watt

2012-01-01

246

Substrate Modulus Directs Neural Stem Cell Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although biochemical signals that modulate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation were extensively studied, only recently were the mechanical properties of a stem cell's microenvironment shown to regulate its behavior. It would be desirable to have independent control over biochemical and mechanical cues, to analyze their relative and combined effects on stem-cell function. We developed a synthetic, interfacial hydrogel culture system,

Krishanu Saha; Albert J. Keung; Elizabeth F. Irwin; Yang Li; Lauren Little; David V. Schaffer; Kevin E. Healy

2008-01-01

247

Extinction models for cancer stem cell therapy  

PubMed Central

Cells with stem cell-like properties are now viewed as initiating and sustaining many cancers. This suggests that cancer can be cured by driving these cancer stem cells to extinction. The problem with this strategy is that ordinary stem cells are apt to be killed in the process. This paper sets bounds on the killing differential (difference between death rates of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells) that must exist for the survival of an adequate number of normal stem cells. Our main tools are birth–death Markov chains in continuous time. In this framework, we investigate the extinction times of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells. Application of extreme value theory from mathematical statistics yields an accurate asymptotic distribution and corresponding moments for both extinction times. We compare these distributions for the two cell populations as a function of the killing rates. Perhaps a more telling comparison involves the number of normal stem cells NH at the extinction time of the cancer stem cells. Conditioning on the asymptotic time to extinction of the cancer stem cells allows us to calculate the asymptotic mean and variance of NH. The full distribution of NH can be retrieved by the finite Fourier transform and, in some parameter regimes, by an eigenfunction expansion. Finally, we discuss the impact of quiescence (the resting state) on stem cell dynamics. Quiescence can act as a sanctuary for cancer stem cells and imperils the proposed therapy. We approach the complication of quiescence via multitype branching process models and stochastic simulation. Improvements to the ?-leaping method of stochastic simulation make it a versatile tool in this context. We conclude that the proposed therapy must target quiescent cancer stem cells as well as actively dividing cancer stem cells. The current cancer models demonstrate the virtue of attacking the same quantitative questions from a variety of modeling, mathematical, and computational perspectives. PMID:22001354

Sehl, Mary; Zhou, Hua; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Lange, Kenneth L.

2012-01-01

248

Epidermal homeostasis: a balancing act of stem cells in the skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin epidermis and its array of appendages undergo ongoing renewal by a process called homeostasis. Stem cells in the epidermis have a crucial role in maintaining tissue homeostasis by providing new cells to replace those that are constantly lost during tissue turnover or following injury. Different resident skin stem cell pools contribute to the maintenance and repair of the

Cédric Blanpain; Elaine Fuchs

2009-01-01

249

Tumor Stem Cells and Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The last decade has seen the emergence of a shift in paradigm in the therapeutic strategies to target cancer. This is based\\u000a on the existence of a small reservoir of cells within the tumor mass that exhibits the capacity for self-renewal, as well\\u000a as undergo differentiation to give rise to phenotypically heterogeneous progeny with limited proliferative potential. These\\u000a stem-like cells

Jaclyn Y. Hung

250

Microbioreactors for Stem Cell Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During tissue development and regeneration, stem cells respond to the entire milieu of their environment, through dynamic\\u000a interactions with the surrounding cells, extracellular matrix, and cascades of molecular and physical regulatory factors.\\u000a A new generation of culture systems is emerging to offer some of the biological fidelity of a whole organism within highly\\u000a controllable in vitro settings and provide the

Donald O. Freytes; Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic

2011-01-01

251

Retinal stem cells and potential cell transplantation treatments.  

PubMed

The retina, histologically composed of ten delicate layers, is responsible for light perception and relaying electrochemical signals to the secondary neurons and visual cortex. Retinal disease is one of the leading clinical causes of severe vision loss, including age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt's disease, and retinitis pigmentosa. As a result of the discovery of various somatic stem cells, advances in exploring the identities of embryonic stem cells, and the development of induced pluripotent stem cells, cell transplantation treatment for retinal diseases is currently attracting much attention. The sources of stem cells for retinal regeneration include endogenous retinal stem cells (e.g., neuronal stem cells, Müller cells, and retinal stem cells from the ciliary marginal zone) and exogenous stem cells (e.g., bone mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells). The success of cell transplantation treatment depends mainly on the cell source, the timing of cell harvesting, the protocol of cell induction/transplantation, and the microenvironment of the recipient's retina. This review summarizes the different sources of stem cells for regeneration treatment in retinal diseases and surveys the more recent achievements in animal studies and clinical trials. Future directions and challenges in stem cell transplantation are also discussed. PMID:25238708

Lin, Tai-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Chien; Chien, Ke-Hung; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Peng, Chi-Hsien; Chen, Shih-Jen

2014-11-01

252

Dormancy in the stem cell niche.  

PubMed

Tissues characterized by constant turnover contain post-mitotic, terminally differentiated cells originating from highly proliferative progenitors, which in turn derive from a relatively small population of stem cells. At the population level, self-renewal and differentiation are the possible outcomes of stem cell proliferation; overall, however, stem cells are quiescent if compared with their direct progeny. The recent discovery of a particularly quiescent, or dormant, subpopulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) raises a number of fundamental questions. As stem cell fate is influenced by the signals integrated by the stem cell niche, will dormant HSCs reside in specific dormant niches? Is the mechanism of dormancy common to multiple regenerating tissues or specific to the hematopoietic system? If cancer is maintained by a few cancer stem cells, do they also contain a subpopulation of dormant cells, and could this be exploited for therapeutic purposes? PMID:22429750

Sottocornola, Roberta; Lo Celso, Cristina

2012-01-01

253

Dormancy in the stem cell niche  

PubMed Central

Tissues characterized by constant turnover contain post-mitotic, terminally differentiated cells originating from highly proliferative progenitors, which in turn derive from a relatively small population of stem cells. At the population level, self-renewal and differentiation are the possible outcomes of stem cell proliferation; overall, however, stem cells are quiescent if compared with their direct progeny. The recent discovery of a particularly quiescent, or dormant, subpopulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) raises a number of fundamental questions. As stem cell fate is influenced by the signals integrated by the stem cell niche, will dormant HSCs reside in specific dormant niches? Is the mechanism of dormancy common to multiple regenerating tissues or specific to the hematopoietic system? If cancer is maintained by a few cancer stem cells, do they also contain a subpopulation of dormant cells, and could this be exploited for therapeutic purposes? PMID:22429750

2012-01-01

254

Bipolar hip replacement in sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   A retrospective study is presented of 26 uncemented bipolar hip replacements for avascular necrosis of the femoral head due\\u000a to sickle cell disease which were carried out between 1987 and 1992. All patients were treated according to a protocol. The\\u000a average follow up was 4.6 years (range 2.1 to 7 years). After operation, the average Harris hip score improved

B. K. S. Sanjay; P. G. Moreau

1996-01-01

255

Stem Cell Biology and it Application to Biotechnology  

E-print Network

don't want them (causing mutations) #12;Stem Cell Research · Stem cell field is still in its infancy · Human embryonic stem cell research is a decade old, adult stem cell research has 30-year head start of this field? #12;Importance of Stem Cell Research · Stem cells allow us to study how organisms grow

Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

256

Microengineered synthetic cellular microenvironment for stem cells  

PubMed Central

Stem cells possess the ability of self-renewal and differentiation into specific cell types. Therefore, stem cells have great potentials in fundamental biology studies and clinical applications. The most urgent desire for stem cell research is to generate appropriate artificial stem cell culture system, which can mimic the dynamic complexity and precise regulation of the in vivo biochemical and biomechanical signals, to regulate and direct stem cell behaviors. Precise control and regulation of the biochemical and biomechanical stimuli to stem cells have been successfully achieved using emerging micro/nanoengineering techniques. This review provides insights into how these micro/nanoengineering approaches, particularly microcontact printing and elastomeric micropost array, are applied to create dynamic and complex environment for stem cells culture. PMID:22639443

Sun, Yubing; Weng, Shinuo

2014-01-01

257

Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Myocardial Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult bone marrow consists of several populations of stem cells that are the focus of investigations into their potential\\u000a to regenerate nonhematopoietic tissues. According to this hypothesis, bone marrow stem cells display a plasticity not previously\\u000a recognized. Although data supporting bone marrow stem cell plasticity is extensive, many researchers dispute this concept.\\u000a One of the most controversial aspects of stem

Donald Orlic; Richard O. Cannon III

258

TISSUE-SPECIFIC STEM CELLS Stem Cell Shape Regulates a Chondrogenic Versus Myogenic Fate  

E-print Network

(hMSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into many cell types. Chondro- genesisTISSUE-SPECIFIC STEM CELLS Stem Cell Shape Regulates a Chondrogenic Versus Myogenic Fate Through Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Key Words. Mesenchymal stem cells · Cell

Chen, Christopher S.

259

Saving Superman: Ethics and Stem Cell Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case explores the political and ethical issues associated with stem cell research. Students read the case describing Christopher Reeve’s accident and injuries and his advocacy for stem cell research along with background readings on stem cells and the ethics of stem cell research. They are then assigned to one of four stakeholder groups and asked to develop a position on whether or not the U.S. Senate should expand stem cell research with a focus on the ethics underlying the issue.  They present their positions in class in a simulated public hearing.

Doug M. Post

2006-01-01

260

Transcription factors for dental stem cell differentiation.  

PubMed

Dental stem cells are excellent for oral and craniofacial tissue engineering. A profound knowledge about molecular processes in dental stem cells is necessary to create treatment approaches in oral medicine. Transcription factors regulate gene expression and provide decisive information for cellular functions. In recent years, the authors have investigated transcriptomes in dental stem cells before and after osteogenic differentiation. The present paper reports on the potential role of selected transcription factors, including ZBTB16, TP53, and SP1, in dental stem cell differentiation. This review discusses putative molecular processes in dental stem cells and summarizes the current knowledge. PMID:24278957

Viale-Bouroncle, Sandra; Felthaus, Oliver; Schmalz, Gottfried; Reichert, Torsten E; Morsczeck, Christian

2013-01-01

261

Stem Cells. Author manuscript Derivation and cloning of a novel rhesus embryonic stem cell line stably  

E-print Network

Stem Cells. Author manuscript Page /1 13 Derivation and cloning of a novel rhesus embryonic stem,FR * Correspondence should be adressed to: Colette Dehay Abstract Embryonic stem cells (ESC Line ; Embryonic Stem Cells ; cytology ; enzymology ; physiology ; virology ; Genes, Reporter ; Green

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

262

Stem cells: Boon to dentistry and medicine.  

PubMed

Stem cell research has received considerable attention since the discovery that adult stem cells have the capacity to form many different tissue types. Stem cells are a booming field for the research and have been extensively studied in the field of medicine, as well as dentistry. Their application in oncology has been a boon to many of the patients. Dental stem cells have been novel approach to treat diseases like periodontitis, dental caries and many more. Their potential uses in dentistry have provided a new generation of treatments for dental diseases and stem cells have become the focus in dental research. This review highlights about the biology, sources and potential applications of stem cells in dentistry with emphasis on a dentist's role in enabling both medical and dental applications using stem cells from teeth. PMID:23946728

Shilpa, P S; Kaul, Rachna; Sultana, Nishat; Bhat, Suraksha

2013-03-01

263

Regenerative Endodontics in light of the stem cell paradigm  

PubMed Central

Stem cells play a critical role in development and in tissue regeneration. The dental pulp contains a small sub-population of stem cells that are involved in the response of the pulp to caries progression. Specifically, stem cells replace odontoblasts that have undergone cell death as a consequence of the cariogenic challenge. Stem cells also secrete factors that have the potential to enhance pulp vascularization and provide the oxygen and nutrients required for the dentinogenic response that is typically observed in teeth with deep caries. However, the same angiogenic factors that are required for dentin regeneration may ultimately contribute to the demise of the pulp by enhancing vascular permeability and interstitial pressure. Recent studies focused on the biology of dental pulp stem cells revealed that the multipotency and angiogenic capacity of these cells could be exploited therapeutically in dental pulp tissue engineering. Collectively, these findings suggest new treatment paradigms in the field of Endodontics. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential impact of dental pulp stem cells to Regenerative Endodontics. PMID:21726222

Rosa, Vinicius; Botero, Tatiana M.; Nör, Jacques E.

2013-01-01

264

Cancer Stem Cells Converted from Pluripotent Stem Cells and the Cancerous Niche  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, the cancer stem cells are considered to be significantly responsible for growth, metastasis, invasion and recurrence of all cancer. Cancer stem cells are typically characterized by continuous proliferation and self-renewal as well as by differentiation potential, while stem cells are considered to differentiate into tissue- specific phenotype of mature cells under the influence of micro-environment. Cancer stem cells should be traced to the stem cells under the influence of a micro-environment, which induces malignant tumors. In this review, we propose this micro-environment as a ‘cancerous niche’ and discuss its importance on the formation and maintenance of cancer stem cells with the recent experimental results to establish cancer stem cell models from induced pluripotent stem cells. These models of cancer stem cell will provide the great advantages in cancer research and its therapeutic applications in the future. PMID:25075155

Kasai, T; Chen, L; Mizutani, AZ; Kudoh, T; Murakami, H; Fu, L; Seno, M

2014-01-01

265

The window technique for the removal of broken femoral stems in total hip replacement.  

PubMed

Removal of broken femoral stems continues to be a difficult technical procedure in hip replacement surgery, despite the development of metal drilling devices and special extractors placed into the drill hole. The window technique for the removal of broken femoral stems is technically easier than the metal drilling technique and does not require sophisticated instrumentation. This technique is also useful as a back-up procedure when metal drilling procedures fail. PMID:3769290

Moreland, J R; Marder, R; Anspach, W E

1986-11-01

266

The Game of Life: Stem Cell Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a game that models what happens as stem cells differentiate into different cell types. As learners play, they'll discover that a wide variety of cells can arise as different "cell fate decisions" are made along a stem cell's developmental path.

Julie Yu

2007-01-01

267

Stem Cells, Science, and Public Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These are interesting days in the scientific, social, and political debates about human embryonic stem cell research. Pluripotent stem cells--cells that can, in principle, give rise to the body's full range of cell types--were previously derivable only from human embryos that were destroyed in the process. Now, a variety of somatic cell types can…

Hurlbut, J. Benjamin; Robert, Jason Scott

2012-01-01

268

Understanding cancer stem cell heterogeneity and plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneity is an omnipresent feature of mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. It has been recently realized that even mouse and human embryonic stem cells under the best culture conditions are heterogeneous containing pluripotent as well as partially committed cells. Somatic stem cells in adult organs are also heterogeneous, containing many subpopulations of self-renewing cells with distinct regenerative capacity.

Dean G Tang

2012-01-01

269

A new notch for lung stem cells.  

PubMed

Homeostasis and repair of different lung compartments require the selective activation of specific progenitor/stem cells and their regulated differentiation to yield cell types that fulfill specialized regional functions. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Pardo-Saganta et al. (2015) identify Notch signaling as a determinant of basal cell heterogeneity and fate decisions in pseudostratified airways. PMID:25658364

Carraro, Gianni; Stripp, Barry R

2015-02-01

270

Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesion of stem cells - like most cells - is not just a membrane phenomenon. Most tissue cells need to adhere to a ``solid'' for viability, and over the last decade it has become increasingly clear that the physical ``elasticity'' of that solid is literally ``felt'' by cells. Here we show that Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) specify lineage and commit

Dennis Discher

2010-01-01

271

Contribution of Stem Cells to Kidney Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current explanation for development of chronic renal injury is the imbalance between injurious mechanism and regenerative repair. The possibility that stem cells contribute to the repair of glomerular and tubular damage is of great interest for basic and translational research. Endogenous bone marrow-derived stem cells have been implicated in the repair of renal tissue, although the lineage of stem

Benedetta Bussolati; Peter Viktor Hauser; Raquel Carvalhosa; Giovanni Camussi

2009-01-01

272

Generalized Potential of Adult Neural Stem Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation of chimeric chick and mouse embryos and give rise to cells of all germ layers. This demonstrates that an adult neural stem cell has a very broad developmental capacity and may potentially be used to generate a variety of cell types for transplantation in different diseases.

Clarke, Diana L.; Johansson, Clas B.; Wilbertz, Johannes; Veress, Biborka; Nilsson, Erik; Karlström, Helena; Lendahl, Urban; Frisén, Jonas

2000-06-01

273

NIH Stem Cell Research Guidelines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A hot topic of recent news has been the lifting of the ban, put in place by the NIH in January 1999, on research using human pluripotent stem cells derived from human embryos and fetal tissue. The ban was lifted on August 25, 2000 with the strong endorsement of President Clinton. Now, the National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Research Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells is available online in HTML format. According to the site, "The NIH received approximately 50,000 comments from members of Congress, patient advocacy groups, scientific societies, religious organizations, and private citizens. This Notice presents the final Guidelines together with NIH's response to the substantive public comments that addressed provisions of the Guidelines." (For more on the NIH guidelines, see the August 25, 2000 Scout Report).

274

Assessing stem cell research productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honour Index (HoI), a method to evaluate research performance within different research fields, was derived from the impact\\u000a factor (IF). It can be used to rate and compare different categories of journals. HoI was used in this study to determine\\u000a the scientific productivity of stem cell research in the Asian Four Dragons (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan)\\u000a from

Y. S. Ho; C. H. Chiu; T. M. Tseng; W. T. Chiu

2003-01-01

275

J Cell Biochem . Author manuscript Optimizing stem cell culture  

E-print Network

cell culture is widely used in basic research for studying stem cell biology, but also owingJ Cell Biochem . Author manuscript Page /1 7 Optimizing stem cell culture Boudewijn Van Der Sanden * Correspondence should be adressed to: Didier Wion Abstract Stem cells always

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

Reconstitution of Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis by Murine Embryonic Stem Cells Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the

Shuxian Jiang; Byeong-Chel Lee; Yigong Fu; Shalom Avraham; Bing Lim; Hava Karsenty Avraham

2010-01-01

277

Leukaemia stem cells and the evolution of cancer-stem-cell research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many cancers seem to depend on a small population of 'cancer stem cells' for their continued growth and propagation. The leukaemia stem cell (LSC) was the first such cell to be described. The origins of these cells are controversial, and their biology — like that of their normal-tissue counterpart, the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) — is still not fully elucidated.

Brian J. P. Huntly; D. Gary Gilliland

2005-01-01

278

Intestinal stem cells and celiac disease  

PubMed Central

Stem cells (SCs) are the key to tissue genesis and regeneration. Given their central role in homeostasis, dysfunctions of the SC compartment play a pivotal role in the development of cancers, degenerative disorders, chronic inflammatory pathologies and organ failure. The gastrointestinal tract is constantly exposed to harsh mechanical and chemical conditions and most of the epithelial cells are replaced every 3 to 5 d. According to the so-called Unitarian hypothesis, this renewal is driven by a common intestinal stem cell (ISC) residing within the crypt base at the origin of the crypt-to-villus hierarchical migratory pattern. Celiac disease (CD) can be defined as a chronic immune-mediated disease that is triggered and maintained by dietary proteins (gluten) in genetically predisposed individuals. Many advances have been achieved over the last years in understanding of the pathogenic interactions among genetic, immunological and environmental factors in CD, with a particular emphasis on intestinal barrier and gut microbiota. Conversely, little is known about ISC modulation and deregulation in active celiac disease and upon a gluten-free diet. Nonetheless, bone marrow-derived SC transplantation has become an option for celiac patients with complicated or refractory disease. This manuscript summarizes the “state of the art” regarding CD and ISCs, their niche and potential role in the development and treatment of the disease. PMID:24772248

Piscaglia, Anna Chiara

2014-01-01

279

n induced pluripotent stem cell, or IPS cell, is a stem cell that has been created from an  

E-print Network

that they are the same. It is essential for science to explore the full spectrum of research options to bring stem cell research to clinical fruition as soon as possible. What are IPS cells? Stem Cell & Regenerative MedicineA n induced pluripotent stem cell, or IPS cell, is a stem cell that has been created from an adult

280

Three-dimensional scaffold containing EGF incorporated biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles for stem cell based tissue engineering applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell-based tissue engineering holds much hope for the development of multifunctional tissues to replace diseased organs.\\u000a The attachment and survival of stem cells on a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold must be enhanced for faster progression of\\u000a stem cell based tissue engineering. This study evaluate the stability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in 3D porous scaffolds\\u000a composed of a collagen and

Sivasami Pulavendran; Gurunathen Thiyagarajan

2011-01-01

281

Combination stem cell therapy for heart failure  

PubMed Central

Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) that are not eligible for transplantation have limited therapeutic options. Stem cell therapy such as autologous bone marrow, mobilized peripheral blood, or purified cells thereof has been used clinically since 2001. To date over 1000 patients have received cellular therapy as part of randomized trials, with the general consensus being that a moderate but statistically significant benefit occurs. Therefore, one of the important next steps in the field is optimization. In this paper we discuss three ways to approach this issue: a) increasing stem cell migration to the heart; b) augmenting stem cell activity; and c) combining existing stem cell therapies to recapitulate a "therapeutic niche". We conclude by describing a case report of a heart failure patient treated with a combination stem cell protocol in an attempt to augment beneficial aspects of cord blood CD34 cells and mesenchymal-like stem cells. PMID:20398245

2010-01-01

282

Combination stem cell therapy for heart failure.  

PubMed

Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) that are not eligible for transplantation have limited therapeutic options. Stem cell therapy such as autologous bone marrow, mobilized peripheral blood, or purified cells thereof has been used clinically since 2001. To date over 1000 patients have received cellular therapy as part of randomized trials, with the general consensus being that a moderate but statistically significant benefit occurs. Therefore, one of the important next steps in the field is optimization. In this paper we discuss three ways to approach this issue: a) increasing stem cell migration to the heart; b) augmenting stem cell activity; and c) combining existing stem cell therapies to recapitulate a "therapeutic niche". We conclude by describing a case report of a heart failure patient treated with a combination stem cell protocol in an attempt to augment beneficial aspects of cord blood CD34 cells and mesenchymal-like stem cells. PMID:20398245

Ichim, Thomas E; Solano, Fabio; Lara, Fabian; Rodriguez, Jorge Paz; Cristea, Octav; Minev, Boris; Ramos, Famela; Woods, Erik J; Murphy, Michael P; Alexandrescu, Doru T; Patel, Amit N; Riordan, Neil H

2010-01-01

283

Cellular Mechanisms of Somatic Stem Cell Aging  

PubMed Central

Tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity rely on rare populations of somatic stem cells endowed with the potential to self-renew and differentiate. During aging, many tissues show a decline in regenerative potential coupled with a loss of stem cell function. Cells including somatic stem cells have evolved a series of checks and balances to sense and repair cellular damage to maximize tissue function. However, during aging the mechanisms that protect normal cell function begin to fail. In this review, we will discuss how common cellular mechanisms that maintain tissue fidelity and organismal lifespan impact somatic stem cell function. We will highlight context-dependent changes and commonalities that define aging, by focusing on three age-sensitive stem cell compartments: blood, neural, and muscle. Understanding the interaction between extrinsic regulators and intrinsic effectors that operate within different stem cell compartments is likely to have important implications for identifying strategies to improve health span and treat age-related degenerative diseases. PMID:24439814

Jung, Yunjoon

2014-01-01

284

[Principles of treatment in ocular burns regarding the ocular surface and limbal stem cells].  

PubMed

The term ocular surface emphasizes the functional interdependence of the nonkeratinizing epithelium of cornea and conjunctiva. The limbal stem cells are responsible for replacement of corneal epithelium following ocular surface injuries. Over the past decades important advances in the management of chemical injury have occurred based on the application of theories on ocular surface and limbal stem cells. PMID:16245740

Potop, V; Dumitrache, Marieta

2005-01-01

285

Neutral competition of stem cells is skewed by proliferative changes downstream of Hh and Hpo  

PubMed Central

Neutral competition, an emerging feature of stem cell homeostasis, posits that individual stem cells can be lost and replaced by their neighbors stochastically, resulting in chance dominance of a clone at the niche. A single stem cell with an oncogenic mutation could bias this process and clonally spread the mutation throughout the stem cell pool. The Drosophila testis provides an ideal system for testing this model. The niche supports two stem cell populations that compete for niche occupancy. Here, we show that cyst stem cells (CySCs) conform to the paradigm of neutral competition and that clonal deregulation of either the Hedgehog (Hh) or Hippo (Hpo) pathway allows a single CySC to colonize the niche. We find that the driving force behind such behavior is accelerated proliferation. Our results demonstrate that a single stem cell colonizes its niche through oncogenic mutation by co-opting an underlying homeostatic process. PMID:25092766

Amoyel, Marc; Simons, Benjamin D; Bach, Erika A

2014-01-01

286

Stem cells and the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, stem cells have been heralded as potential therapeutic agents to address a large number of degenerative diseases. Yet, in order to rationally utilize these cells as effective therapeutic agents, and\\/or improve treatment of stem-cell-associated malignancies such as leukemias and carcinomas, a better understanding of the basic biological properties of stem cells needs to be acquired. A major

Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

2007-01-01

287

Embryonic stem cell markers expression in cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factors Oct4 and Sox2 are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells. In conjunction with Klf4 and c-Myc, their over-expression can induce pluripotency in both mouse and human somatic cells, indicating that these factors are key regulators of the signaling network necessary for ES cell pluripotency. Self-renewal is a hallmark of stem cells and cancer and stemness programming

Matthieu Schoenhals; Alboukadel Kassambara; John De Vos; Dirk Hose; Jérôme Moreaux; Bernard Klein

2009-01-01

288

Transdifferentiation of Stem Cells: A Critical View  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recently a large amount of new data on the plasticity of stem cells of various lineages have emerged, providing new perspectives\\u000a especially for the therapeutic application of adult stem cells. Previously unknown possibilities of cell differentiation beyond\\u000a the known commitment of a given stem cell have been described using keywords such as “blood to liver,” or “bone to brain.”\\u000a Controversies

Ina Gruh; Ulrich Martin

2009-01-01

289

Pluripotency of male germline stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical issues and public concerns regarding the use of embryonic stem (ES) cells in human therapy have motivated considerable\\u000a research into the generation of pluripotent stem cell lines from non-embryonic sources. Numerous reports have shown that pluripotent\\u000a cells can be generated and derived from germline stem cells (GSCs) in mouse and human testes during in vitro cultivation. The gene

Sungtae Kim; Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte

290

Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)] [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)] [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)] [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)] [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

2011-10-28

291

MPSS profiling of human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pooled human embryonic stem cells (hESC) cell lines were profiled to obtain a comprehensive list of genes common to undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. RESULTS: Pooled hESC lines were profiled to obtain a comprehensive list of genes common to human ES cells. Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) of approximately three million signature tags (signatures) identified close to eleven thousand

Ralph Brandenberger; Irina Khrebtukova; R Scott Thies; Takumi Miura; Cai Jingli; Raj Puri; Tom Vasicek; Jane Lebkowski; Mahendra Rao

2004-01-01

292

Culture and differentiation of embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Techniques are described for the culture of murine embryonic stem cells in the absence of heterologous feeder cells and for the induction of differentiation programs. The regulatory factor differentiation inhibiting activity\\/ leukaemia inhibitory factor (DIA\\/LIF) is produced at high concentration by transient expression in Cos cells and is used to suppress stem cell differentiation by addition to the culture

Austin G. Smith

1991-01-01

293

Adult stem cells for cardiac tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell therapy and tissue engineering attract increasing attention as a potential approach for cardiac repair. Adult stem cells from autologous origin are a practically safe and appealing source for cell-based regenerative therapies that may hold realistic clinical potential. A plethora of interesting concepts have been introduced aiming at regenerating ischemic myocardium through adult stem cell-based bioartificial cardiac tissue supplements. Yet,

Eliana C. Martinez; Theo Kofidis

2011-01-01

294

Harnessing the potential of lung stem cells for regenerative medicine.  

PubMed

In response to recurrent exposure to environmental insults such as allergens, pollution, irritants, smoke and viral/bacterial infection, the epithelium of the lung is continually damaged. Homeostasis of the lung requires a balance between immune regulation and promotion of tissue regeneration, which requires the co-ordinated proliferation and differentiation of stem and progenitor cells. In this review we reflect on the current understanding of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells and advocate a model hierarchy in which self-renewing multipotent lung epithelial stem cells give rise to lineage restricted progenitor cells that repopulate airway and alveolar epithelial cell lineages during homeostasis and repair. We also discuss the role of mesenchymal progenitor cells in maintaining the structural integrity of the lung and propose a model in which mesenchymal cells act as the quintessential architects of lung regeneration by providing molecular signals, such as FGF-10, to regulate the fate and specificity of epithelial stem and progenitor cells. Moreover, we discuss the current status and future prospects for translating lung stem cell therapies to the clinic to replace, repair, or regenerate diseased lung tissue. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. PMID:25450456

McQualter, Jonathan L; Anthony, Desiree; Bozinovski, Steven; Prêle, Cecilia M; Laurent, Geoffrey J

2014-11-01

295

TOPICAL REVIEW Stem cells in bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have

Jeong Min Seong; Byung-Chul Kim; Jae-Hong Park; Il Keun Kwon; Anathathios Mantalaris; Yu-Shik Hwang

2010-01-01

296

Cell Stem Cell Generation of Multipotent Lung and Airway  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Article Generation of Multipotent Lung and Airway Progenitors from Mouse ESCs Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA 6Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, 7 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 7Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Holyoke Center, 1350 Massachusetts

Mootha, Vamsi K.

297

Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, cells  

E-print Network

Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, cells Sinisa Hrvatina , Charles W. O , David K. Giffordb , and Douglas A. Meltona,e,1 a Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard Stem Cell Institute and e Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138

Gifford, David K.

298

Stem cell research and cell transplantation for myocardial regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Several human organs are not capable of functional regeneration following a tissue defect and react with scar formation. In stem cell transplantation, undifferentiated or partly differentiated precursor cells are applied to defective tissue for therapeutic regeneration. After promising preclinical investigations, the transplantation of autologous stem cells for myocardial infarction treatment is being transferred to clinical use. Mesenchymal stem cells

Matthias Siepe; Claudia Heilmann; Patrick von Samson; Philippe Menasché; Friedhelm Beyersdorf

2005-01-01

299

Cell Stem Cell Limited Acquisition of Chromosomal Aberrations  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Letters Limited Acquisition of Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Adult Mesenchymal 4Emory University Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA 5Section of Hematology, Stem Cell Acquisition of Lineage- Specific Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Adult Stem Cells,'' Ben-David and colleagues

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

Cell Stem Cell The Adult Mouse and Human Pancreas Contain  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Article The Adult Mouse and Human Pancreas Contain Rare Multipotent Stem Cells.smukler@utoronto.ca DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2011.01.015 SUMMARY The search for putative precursor cells within the pancreas has been the focus of extensive research. Previously, we identified rare pancreas-derived mul- tipotent

301

CellNet: Network Biology Applied to Stem Cell Engineering  

E-print Network

,9,* 1Stem Cell Transplantation Program, Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Manton CenterResource CellNet: Network Biology Applied to Stem Cell Engineering Patrick Cahan,1,2,3,8 Hu Li,4, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA 3Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 4

302

Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization therapy accelerates recovery of renal function independent of stem cell contribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute renal failure and tubular cell loss as a result of ischemia constitute major challenges in renal pathophysiology. Increasing evidence suggests important roles for bone marrow stem cells in the regeneration of renal tissue after injury. This study investigated whether the enhanced availability of hematopoietic stem cells, induced by stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, to the injured kidney

Geurt Stokman; Jaklien C. Leemans; Nike Claessen; Jan J. Weening; Sandrine Florquin

2005-01-01

303

Stem Cells . Author manuscript Human mesenchymal stem cells reprogram adult cardiomyocytes toward a  

E-print Network

Stem Cells . Author manuscript Page /1 15 Human mesenchymal stem cells reprogram adult cardiomyocytes toward a progenitor-like state through partial cell fusion and mitochondria transfer Adrien-Marie Rodriguez Abstract Because stem cells are often found to improve repair

Boyer, Edmond

304

Cell Stem Cell The Use of Fresh Embryos in Stem Cell Research  

E-print Network

of poor quality, can provide sources of human embryonic stem cell lines. We consider why some donate to augment the availability and diversity of the pool of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines ever since developed new hESC lines on feeder cells not subject to contamination by animal viruses in order to avoid

305

Stem Cell Therapy for Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions whose incidence is reaching epidemic proportions, afflicting approximately 1 in 166 children. Autistic disorder, or autism is the most common form of ASD. Although several neurophysiological alterations have been associated with autism, immune abnormalities and neural hypoperfusion appear to be broadly consistent. These appear to be causative since correlation of altered inflammatory responses, and hypoperfusion with symptology is reported. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are in late phases of clinical development for treatment of graft versus host disease and Crohn's Disease, two conditions of immune dysregulation. Cord blood CD34+ cells are known to be potent angiogenic stimulators, having demonstrated positive effects in not only peripheral ischemia, but also in models of cerebral ischemia. Additionally, anecdotal clinical cases have reported responses in autistic children receiving cord blood CD34+ cells. We propose the combined use of MSC and cord blood CD34+cells may be useful in the treatment of autism. PMID:17597540

Ichim, Thomas E; Solano, Fabio; Glenn, Eduardo; Morales, Frank; Smith, Leonard; Zabrecky, George; Riordan, Neil H

2007-01-01

306

Mammary stem cells have myoepithelial cell properties.  

PubMed

Contractile myoepithelial cells dominate the basal layer of the mammary epithelium and are considered to be differentiated cells. However, we observe that up to 54% of single basal cells can form colonies when seeded into adherent culture in the presence of agents that disrupt actin-myosin interactions, and on average, 65% of the single-cell-derived basal colonies can repopulate a mammary gland when transplanted in vivo. This indicates that a high proportion of basal myoepithelial cells can give rise to a mammary repopulating unit (MRU). We demonstrate that myoepithelial cells, flow-sorted using two independent myoepithelial-specific reporter strategies, have MRU capacity. Using an inducible lineage-tracing approach we follow the progeny of myoepithelial cells that express ?-smooth muscle actin and show that they function as long-lived lineage-restricted stem cells in the virgin state and during pregnancy. PMID:25173976

Prater, Michael D; Petit, Valérie; Alasdair Russell, I; Giraddi, Rajshekhar R; Shehata, Mona; Menon, Suraj; Schulte, Reiner; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rath, Nicola; Olson, Michael F; Metzger, Daniel; Faraldo, Marisa M; Deugnier, Marie-Ange; Glukhova, Marina A; Stingl, John

2014-10-01

307

Stem cells in the light of evolution  

PubMed Central

All organisms depend on stem cells for their survival. As a result, stem cells may be a prerequisite for the evolution of specific characteristics in organisms that include regeneration, multicellularity and coloniality. Stem cells have attracted the attention of biologists and medical scientists for a long time. These provide materials for regenerative medicine. We review in this paper, the link between modern stem cell research and early studies in ancient organisms. It also outlines details on stem cells in the light of evolution with an emphasis on their regeneration potential, coloniality and multicellularity. The information provided might be of use to molecular biologists, medical scientists and developmental biologists who are engaged in integrated research involving the stem cells. PMID:22825600

Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

2012-01-01

308

Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells  

SciTech Connect

In most adult tissues there reside pools of stem and progenitor cells inside specialized microenvironments referred to as niches. The niche protects the stem cells from inappropriate expansion and directs their critical functions. Thus guided, stem cells are able to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout the ebb and flow of metabolic and physical demands encountered over a lifetime. Indeed, a pool of stem cells maintains mammary gland structure throughout development, and responds to the physiological demands associated with pregnancy. This review discusses how stem cells were identified in both human and mouse mammary glands; each requiring different techniques that were determined by differing biological needs and ethical constraints. These studies together create a robust portrait of mammary gland biology and identify the location of the stem cell niche, elucidate a developmental hierarchy, and suggest how the niche might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

LaBarge, Mark A; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

2007-06-01

309

[Bioethical challenges of stem cell tourism].  

PubMed

Stem cells have drawn extraordinary attention from scientists and the general public due to their potential to generate effective therapies for incurable diseases. At the same time, the production of embryonic stem cells involves a serious ethical issue concerning the destruction of human embryos. Although adult stem cells and induced pluripotential cells do not pose this ethical objection, there are other bioethical challenges common to all types of stem cells related particularly to the clinical use of stem cells. Their clinical use should be based on clinical trials, and in special situations, medical innovation, both of which have particular ethical dimensions. The media has raised unfounded expectations in patients and the public about the real clinical benefits of stem cells. At the same time, the number of unregulated clinics is increasing around the world, making direct offers through Internet of unproven stem cell therapies that attract desperate patients that have not found solutions in standard medicine. This is what is called stem cells tourism. This article reviews this situation, its consequences and the need for international cooperation to establish effective regulations to prevent the exploitation of patients and to endanger the prestige of legitimate stem cell research. PMID:24448860

Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Erices, Alejandro; Santos, Manuel J

2013-08-01

310

Embryonic Stem Cell Patents and Human Dignity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity.\\u000a After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human\\u000a embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells\\u000a do not. Since patents

David B. Resnik

2007-01-01

311

Stem cell therapy for neonatal brain injury.  

PubMed

This article introduces the basic concepts of modeling neonatal brain injury and provides background information regarding each of the commonly used types of stem cells. It summarizes the findings of preclinical research testing the therapeutic potential of stem cells in animal models of neonatal brain injury, reports briefly on the status of clinical trials, and discusses the important ongoing issues that need to be addressed before stem cell therapy is used to repair the injured brain. PMID:24524451

Fleiss, Bobbi; Guillot, Pascale V; Titomanlio, Luigi; Baud, Olivier; Hagberg, Henrik; Gressens, Pierre

2014-03-01

312

Oxidants, Metabolism and Stem Cell Biology  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cells persist throughout the lifetime of the organism and may therefore require specific mechanisms to limit the effects of chronic oxidative stress. Recently, several instructive genetic mouse models have demonstrated the unique susceptibility of stem cells to perturbations in metabolic or redox homeostasis. These results have implications not only for stem cell biology but also suggest a mechanistic link between intracellular oxidants and the decline in regenerative function that occurs as a normal consequence of aging. PMID:22041454

Liu, Jie; Cao, Liu; Finkel, Toren

2013-01-01

313

Cell patterning technology for controlling the stem cell microenvironment  

E-print Network

Embryonic stem cells serve as powerful models for the study of development and disease and hold enormous potential for future therapeutics. Yet, over two decades after mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) were first isolated, ...

Rosenthal, Adam D. (Adam David), 1978-

2007-01-01

314

TISSUE-SPECIFIC STEM CELLS Regenerative Effects of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells in  

E-print Network

healing · CXCR4 · Bone morphogenic protein 2 · Stem cell niche ABSTRACT Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have- and dose-dependent and, it is exclusively CXCR4-dependent. MSC improved the fracture healing affecting

Miga, Michael I.

315

Generation of ovine induced pluripotent stem cells   

E-print Network

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells derived from the early embryo and are able to differentiate into cells belonging to the three germ layers. They are a valuable tool in research and for clinical use, but ...

Sartori, Chiara

2012-06-30

316

Mesenchymal stem cells: Stem cell therapy perspectives for type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent non-haematopoietic progenitor cells that are being explored as a promising new treatment for tissue regeneration. Although their immunomodulatory properties are not yet completely understood, their low immunogenic potential together with their effects on immune response make them a promising therapeutic tool for severe refractory autoimmune diseases. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. While insulin replacement represents the current therapy for type 1 diabetes, its metabolic control remains difficult, as exogenous insulin cannot exactly mimic the physiology of insulin secretion. Pancreatic or islet transplantation can provide exogenous insulin independence, but is limited by its intrinsic complications and the scarcity of organ donors. In this context, stem cell therapy, based on the generation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) derived from MSCs, represents an attractive possibility. In this review, we provide a brief characterization of MSC immunomodulatory effects, and present the current experimental evidence for the potential therapeutic efficacy of MSC transplantation in diabetes. PMID:19230736

Vija, L; Farge, D; Gautier, J-F; Vexiau, P; Dumitrache, C; Bourgarit, A; Verrecchia, F; Larghero, J

2009-04-01

317

Identification of Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging evidence has suggested that the capability of a tumor to grow and propagate is dependent on a small subset of cells within a tumor, termed cancer stem cells. Although data have been provided to support this theory in human blood, brain, and breast cancers, the identity of pancreatic cancer stem cells has not been determined. Using a xenograft model

Chenwei Li; David G. Heidt; Piero Dalerba; Charles F. Burant; Lanjing Zhang; Volkan Adsay; Max Wicha; Michael F. Clarke; Diane M. Simeone

318

Microfabricated platform for studying stem cell fates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platformsthatallowparallel,quantitativeanalysis of single cells will be integral to realizing the potential of postgenomic biology. In stem cell biology, the study of clonal stem cells in multiwell formats is currently both inefficient and time-consuming. Thus, to investigate low- frequency events of interest, large sample sizes must be interrogated. We report a simple, versatile, and efficient micropatterned arraying system conducive to the

Vicki I. Chin; Philippe Taupin; Sandeep Sanga; John Scheel; Fred H. Gage; Sangeeta N. Bhatia

2004-01-01

319

Stem Cells and Tissue-Engineered Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in tissue engineering of skin are needed for clinical applications (as in wound healing and gene therapy) for cutaneous and systemic diseases. In this paper we review the use of epidermal stem cells as a source of cells to improve tissue-engineered skin. We discuss the importance and limitations of epidermal stem cell isolation using biomarkers, in quest of a

A. Charruyer; R. Ghadially

2009-01-01

320

Stem cell pathologies and neurological disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of stem and progenitor cells in the adult human brain suggests a putative and persistent role in reparative behaviors following neurological injury and neurological disease. Too few stem\\/progenitor cells (as in the case of Parkinson's disease) or too many of these cells (as in the case of Huntington's disease and glioma) could contribute to and even signal brain

Dennis A Steindler; Michael S Okun; Björn Scheffler

2012-01-01

321

Plant stem cells as innovation in cosmetics.  

PubMed

The stem cells thanks to their ability of unlimited division number or transformation into different cell types creating organs, are responsible for regeneration processes. Depending on the organism in which the stem cells exists, they divide to the plant or animal ones. The later group includes the stem cells existing in both embryo's and adult human's organs. It includes, among others, epidermal stem cells, located in the hair follicle relieves and also in its basal layers, and responsible for permanent regeneration of the epidermis. Temporary science looks for method suitable for stimulation of the epidermis stem cells, amongst the other by delivery of e.g., growth factors for proliferation that decrease with the age. One of the methods is the use of the plant cell culture technology, including a number of methods that should ensure growth of plant cells, issues or organs in the environment with the microorganism-free medium. It uses abilities of the different plant cells to dedifferentiation into stem cells and coming back to the pluripotent status. The extracts obtained this way from the plant stem cells are currently used for production of both common or professional care cosmetics. This work describes exactly impact of the plant stem cell extract, coming from one type of the common apple tree (Uttwiler Spätlauber) to human skin as one of the first plant sorts, which are used in cosmetology and esthetic dermatology. PMID:25362798

Moru?, Martyna; Baran, Monika; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena; Skotnicka-Graca, Urszula

2014-01-01

322

Preconditioning Stem Cells for In Vivo Delivery  

PubMed Central

Abstract Stem cells have emerged as promising tools for the treatment of incurable neural and heart diseases and tissue damage. However, the survival of transplanted stem cells is reported to be low, reducing their therapeutic effects. The major causes of poor survival of stem cells in vivo are linked to anoikis, potential immune rejection, and oxidative damage mediating apoptosis. This review investigates novel methods and potential molecular mechanisms for stem cell preconditioning in vitro to increase their retention after transplantation in damaged tissues. Microenvironmental preconditioning (e.g., hypoxia, heat shock, and exposure to oxidative stress), aggregate formation, and hydrogel encapsulation have been revealed as promising strategies to reduce cell apoptosis in vivo while maintaining biological functions of the cells. Moreover, this review seeks to identify methods of optimizing cell dose preparation to enhance stem cell survival and therapeutic function after transplantation. PMID:25126478

Sart, Sébastien; Ma, Teng

2014-01-01

323

Pituitary stem cells: where do we stand?  

PubMed

Some 5 years ago, the stem cells of the adult pituitary gland were discovered. Subsequent in-depth characterization revealed expression of several stemness markers and embryo-typical factors. Now, the quest is open to decipher their role in the gland. When and how pituitary stem cells differentiate to contribute to the mature hormone-producing cell populations is not known. New research models support their involvement in cell regeneration after injury in the gland, and suggest a possible role in pituitary tumor formation. From their expression phenotype, pituitary stem cells seem to re-use embryonic developmental programs during the creation of new hormonal cells. Here, we will review the latest progression in the domain of pituitary stem cells, including the uncovering of some new molecular flavors and of the first potential functions. Eventually, we will speculate on their differentiation programs towards hormonal cells, with a particular focus on gonadotropes. PMID:23994027

Vankelecom, Hugo; Chen, Jianghai

2014-03-25

324

Induced pluripotent stem cells from goat fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful model for genetic engineering, studying developmental biology, and modeling disease. To date, ESCs have been established from the mouse (Evans and Kaufman, 1981, Nature 292:154-156), non-human primates (Thomson et al., , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 92:7844-7848), humans (Thomson et al., 1998, Science 282:1145-1147), and rats (Buehr et al., , Cell 135:1287-1298); however, the derivation of ESCs from domesticated ungulates such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs have not been successful. Alternatively, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells with several combinations of genes encoding transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG). To date, iPSCs have been isolated from various species, but only limited information is available regarding goat iPSCs (Ren et al., 2011, Cell Res 21:849-853). The objectives of this study were to generate goat iPSCs from fetal goat primary ear fibroblasts using lentiviral transduction of four human transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The goat iPSCs were successfully generated by co-culture with mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts using medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and human basic fibroblast growth factor. The goat iPSCs colonies are flat, compact, and closely resemble human iPSCs. They have a normal karyotype; stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and NANOG; express endogenous pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, and NANOG); and can spontaneously differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24123501

Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Gu, Chenghao; Wang, Ziyu; Dong, Fulu; Wang, Feng

2013-12-01

325

International stem cell research; networking and collaboration.  

PubMed

Stem cell research has obtained more attention during the last decade because of its strong potential as a new tool to cure many chronic diseases. In addition, stem cell knowledge is an important basis for understanding pathophysiology at the cellular level and developing disease models for experimental research. There are different limitations on resources, budget, policy and regulation among countries. As a result, each country has particular advantages and disadvantages in stem cell research. This result in the establishment of international networks and collaborations to coordinate and promote stem cell research aimed at medical applications. PMID:16579016

Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Wacharaprechanont, Teera; Tannirandorn, Yuen; Virutamasen, Pramuan

2006-02-01

326

Checkpoints of Melanocyte Stem Cell Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The bulge region of the adult hair follicle contains the niches for both epithelial and melanocyte stem cells. Recent evidence suggests that the development of melanocyte stem cells is controlled by a complex network of transcription factors, including Pax3, Sox10, and Mitf, and of regulatory extracellular cues such as Wnt. However, additional players are likely to be involved. It will be intriguing to identify these signals and to elucidate whether and how neighboring epithelial stem cells influence the balance between melanocyte stem cell maintenance and differentiation.

Lukas Sommer (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.; Institute of Cell Biology REV)

2005-08-23

327

Breaking ground on translational stem cell research.  

PubMed

Sponsored by the New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF), the "Fourth Annual Translational Stem Cell Research Conference: Breaking Ground" convened October 13-14, 2009 at The Rockefeller University in New York City to discuss translational stem cell research. Attracting over 400 scientists, patient advocates, and stem cell research supporters from fifteen countries, the two-day conference featured an afternoon of panel discussions, intended for a broad audience, followed by a second day of scientific talks and poster presentations. This report summarizes both days of this exciting conference. PMID:20233361

Hall, Zach W; Kahler, David; Manganiello, Michael; Egli, Dieter; James, Daylon; Marolt, Darja; Marlot, Darja; Fasano, Christopher; Ichida, Justin; Noggle, Scott; Solomon, Susan L; McKeon, David; Smith, Kristin; Marshall, Caroline

2010-03-01

328

Chemical genetics and its potential in cardiac stem cell therapy  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade or so, intensive research in cardiac stem cell biology has led to significant discoveries towards a potential therapy for cardiovascular disease; the main cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. The major goal within the field of cardiovascular regenerative medicine is to replace lost or damaged cardiac muscle and coronaries following ischaemic disease. At present, de novo cardiomyocytes can be generated either in vitro, for cell transplantation or disease modelling using directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells, or in vivo via direct reprogramming of resident adult cardiac fibroblast or ectopic stimulation of resident cardiac stem or progenitor cells. A major bottleneck with all of these approaches is the low efficiency of cardiomyocyte differentiation alongside their relative functional immaturity. Chemical genetics, and the application of phenotypic screening with small molecule libraries, represent a means to enhance understanding of the molecular pathways controlling cardiovascular cell differentiation and, moreover, offer the potential for discovery of new drugs to invoke heart repair and regeneration. Here, we review the potential of chemical genetics in cardiac stem cell therapy, highlighting not only the major contributions to the field so far, but also the future challenges. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Regenerative Medicine and Pharmacology: A Look to the Future. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-2 PMID:22385148

Vieira, Joaquim M; Riley, Paul R

2013-01-01

329

Adult stem cell and mesenchymal progenitor theories of aging  

PubMed Central

Advances in medical science and technology allow people live longer lives, which results in age-related problems. Humans cannot avoid the various aged-related alterations of aging; in other words, humans cannot remain young at molecular and cellular levels. In 1956, Harman proposed the “free radical theory of aging” to explain the molecular mechanisms of aging. Telomere length, and accumulation of DNA or mitochondrial damage are also considered to be mechanisms of aging. On the other hand, stem cells are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis by replacing parenchymal cells; therefore, the stem cell theory of aging is also used to explain the progress of aging. Importantly, the stem cell theory of aging is likely related to other theories. In addition, recent studies have started to reveal the essential roles of tissue-resident mesenchymal progenitors/stem cells/stromal cells in maintaining tissue homeostasis, and some evidence of their fundamental roles in the progression of aging has been presented. In this review, we discuss how stem cell and other theories connect to explain the progress of aging. In addition, we consider the mesenchymal progenitor theory of aging to describing the process of aging. PMID:25364718

Fukada, So-ichiro; Ma, Yuran; Uezumi, Akiyoshi

2014-01-01

330

Uncemented Total Hip Replacement Stem Loosening after Long Term Compressive Stress Application: A Simulated FEA Study of Cortical Bone Remodeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to predict with the use of FEA, the differing predisposition to cortical bone resorption and subsequent distal migration of an un-cemented femoral hip replacement stem subjected to long term biomechanical high compressive stresses, while varying the load angles, the material properties of the stem, and the stem length. A two-dimensional hip model was constructed

Duk-Young Jung; Sadami Tsutsumi; Ryusuke Nakai; Ken Ikeuchi; Ron Sekel

2004-01-01

331

Heterogeneity in cancer stem cells.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are heterogeneous populations and their phenotypes are unstable. A number of intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms contribute to CSC phenotypic variation. The existence of various CSC subpopulations which would lead to a rapid relapse after primary treatments might pose a problem for CSC targeted therapeutics. In order to develop more effective approaches to cancer therapeutics, more CSC-related surface markers or targeting molecules, as well as some novel targeting strategies should be explored. This review summarized the origin and performance of heterogeneity in CSCs and discussed their therapeutic implications. PMID:25444897

Wang, Anxin; Chen, Lisha; Li, Chunlin; Zhu, Yimin

2015-02-01

332

Twisting chromatin in stem cells  

PubMed Central

Nature (2013); doi:10.1038/nature12420; published online 07242013 How transcriptional output is orchestrated in mammalian genomes is an area of intense research. The structural organization within the nucleus and the physical association between regulatory elements are considered critical components in this regulation. Recent work published in Nature (de Wit et al, 2013) applied the Circular Chromosome Conformation Capture (4C) method at high resolution in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), revealing that PSCs uniquely shape their genome around binding sites for pluripotency factors. PMID:23921555

Ginno, Paul; Schübeler, Dirk

2013-01-01

333

Implication of femoral stem on performance of articular surface replacement (ASR) XL total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Taper junctions of large diameter metal-on-metal femoral heads and femoral stems were described as metal ion generator due to accelerated wear and corrosion. However, literature about the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) total hip arthroplasty (THA) invariably deals with stems manufactured by DePuy Orthopedics (Warsaw, IN, USA). Nothing is known whether different stems with common 12/14 mm tapers affect failure rate or ion release. 99 ASR THA (88 patients) implanted with CoxaFit or ARGE Geradschaft stems (K-Implant, Hannover, Germany) were retrospectively analyzed. After a mean follow-up of 3.5 years revision rate was 24.5%, mostly due to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). CT scan revealed component loosening in 10.3% and pseudotumoral lesions in 12.6%. Elevated ion concentrations (>7 ?g/l) were found in 38.6%. PMID:25108735

Cip, Johannes; von Strempel, Archibald; Bach, Christian; Luegmair, Matthias; Benesch, Thomas; Martin, Arno

2014-11-01

334

Melanocyte Stem Cells: As an Excellent Model to Study Stem Cell Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying stem cell regulation is of great importance for their clinical applications\\u000a in regenerative medicine and cancer therapy. The function of stem cells is maintained by their specialized microenvironment,\\u000a referred as the niche. Despite intensive studies of the stem cell niche, the molecular basis of stem cell regulation by the\\u000a niche has still remained elusive. Since

Masatake Osawa; Kiyotaka Hasegawa; Mariko Moriyama; Shin-Ichi Nishikawa

335

RETINOIDS REGULATE STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION  

PubMed Central

Retinoids are ubiquitous signaling molecules that influence nearly every cell type, exert profound effects on development, and complement cancer chemotherapeutic regimens. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) and other active retinoids are generated from vitamin A (retinol), but key aspects of the signaling pathways required to produce active retinoids remain unclear. Retinoids generated by one cell type can affect nearby cells, so retinoids also function in intercellular communication. RA induces differentiation primarily by binding to RARs, transcription factors that associate with RXRs and bind RAREs in the nucleus. Binding of RA: (1) initiates changes in interactions of RAR/RXRs with co-repressor and co-activator proteins, activating transcription of primary target genes; (2) alters interactions with proteins that induce epigenetic changes; (3) induces transcription of genes encoding transcription factors and signaling proteins that further modify gene expression (e.g., FOX03A, Hoxa1, Sox9, TRAIL, UBE2D3); and (4) results in alterations in estrogen receptor? signaling. Proteins that bind at or near RAREs include Sin3a, N-CoR1, PRAME, Trim24, NRIP1, Ajuba, Zfp423, and MN1/TEL. Interactions among retinoids, RARs/RXRs, and these proteins explain in part the powerful effects of retinoids on stem cell differentiation. Studies of this retinol signaling cascade enhance our ability to understand and regulate stem cell differentiation for therapeutic and scientific purposes. In cancer chemotherapeutic regimens retinoids can promote tumor cell differentiation and/or induce proteins that sensitize tumors to drug combinations. Mechanistic studies of retinoid signaling continue to suggest novel drug targets and will improve therapeutic strategies for cancer and other diseases, such as immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:20836077

Gudas, Lorraine J.; Wagner, John A.

2012-01-01

336

New perspectives in human stem cell therapeutic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but

Alan Trounson

2009-01-01

337

Lineage tracing quantification reveals symmetric stem cell division in Drosophila male germline stem cells  

PubMed Central

Summary In the homeostatic state, adult stem cells divide either symmetrically to increase the stem cell number to compensate stem cell loss, or asymmetrically to maintain the population while producing differentiated cells. We have investigated the mode of stem cell division in the testes of Drosophila melanogaster by lineage tracing and confirm the presence of symmetric stem cell division in this system. We found that the rate of symmetric division is limited to 1-2% of total germline stem cell (GSC) divisions, but it increases with expression of a cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, or a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, Moesin, which may modulate adhesiveness of germ cells to the stem cell niche. Our results indicate that the decision regarding asymmetric vs. symmetric division is a dynamically regulated process that contributes to tissue homeostasis, responding to the needs of the tissue. PMID:24465278

Salzmann, Viktoria; Inaba, Mayu; Cheng, Jun; Yamashita, Yukiko M.

2014-01-01

338

Hybridization of testis-derived stem cells with somatic cells and embryonic stem cells in mice.  

PubMed

Somatic cell hybridization is widely used to study the control of gene regulation and the stability of differentiated states. In contrast, the application of this method to germ cells has been limited in part because of an inability to culture germ cells. In this study, we produced germ cell hybrids using germ-line stem (GS) cells and multipotent germ-line stem (mGS) cells. While GS cells are enriched for spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) activity, mGS cells are similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells and originally derived from GS cells. Hybrids were successfully obtained between GS cells and ES cells, between GS cells and mGS cells, and between mGS cells and thymocytes. All exhibited ES cell markers and a behavior similar to ES cells, formed teratomas, and differentiated into somatic cell tissues. However, none of the hybrid cells were able to reconstitute spermatogenesis after microinjection into seminiferous tubules. Analyses of the DNA methylation patterns of imprinted genes also showed that mGS cells do not possess a DNA demethylation ability, which was found in embryonic germ cells derived from primordial germ cells. However, mGS cells reactivated the X chromosome and induced Pou5f1 expression in female thymocytes in a manner similar to ES cells. These data show that mGS cells possess ES-like reprogramming potential, which predominates over-SSC activity. PMID:22441799

Takehashi, Masanori; Tada, Masako; Kanatsu-Shinohara, Mito; Morimoto, Hiroko; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Tada, Takashi; Shinohara, Takashi

2012-06-01

339

Aging of hematopoietic stem cells is regulated by the stem cell niche  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult stem cells provide the basis for regeneration of aging tissue. Their dual ability for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation is controlled by direct interaction with a specific microenvironment – the so called “stem cell niche”. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) reside in the bone marrow. It is still under debate if HSC can rejuvenate infinitively or if they do not possess

Wolfgang Wagner; Patrick Horn; Simone Bork; Anthony D. Ho

2008-01-01

340

Nonclinical safety strategies for stem cell therapies  

SciTech Connect

Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology, especially the development of the induced pluripotent stem cell techniques, have generated tremendous enthusiasm and efforts to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapies are being considered for the treatment of degenerative diseases, inflammatory conditions, cancer and repair of damaged tissue. The safety of a stem cell therapy depends on many factors including the type of cell therapy, the differentiation status and proliferation capacity of the cells, the route of administration, the intended clinical location, long term survival of the product and/or engraftment, the need for repeated administration, the disease to be treated and the age of the population. Understanding the product profile of the intended therapy is crucial to the development of the nonclinical safety study design.

Sharpe, Michaela E., E-mail: michaela_sharpe@yahoo.com [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom); Morton, Daniel [Exploratory Drug Safety, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, 02140 (United States)] [Exploratory Drug Safety, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, 02140 (United States); Rossi, Annamaria [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom)] [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom)

2012-08-01

341

Abstract--Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are important to stem cell therapy and tissue engineering due to their  

E-print Network

Abstract--Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are important to stem cell therapy and tissue engineering on MSC. I. INTRODUCTION esenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are important to stem cell therapy and tissue studied types of stem cells nowadays. The pluripotency of MSCs includes osteogenesis, chondrogenesis

Coenen, Frans

342

The potential of stem cells for the restoration of auditory function in humans  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss is one of the most common disabilities, affecting approximately 10% of the population. Hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons are usually damaged in most cases of hearing loss. Currently, there is virtually no biological approach to replace damaged hearing cells. Recent developments in stem cell technology provide new opportunities for the treatment of deafness. Two major strategies have been investigated: differentiation of endogenous stem cells into new hair cells; and introduction of exogenous cells into the inner ear to substitute injured hearing neurons. Although there is still a learning curve in stem cell-based replacement, the probability exists to utilize personalized stem cells to eventually provide a novel intervention for patients with deafness in future clinical research trials. PMID:23627825

Hu, Zhengqing; Ulfendahl, Mats

2013-01-01

343

Isolation and directed differentiation of neural crest stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate neural crest development depends on pluripotent, migratory precursor cells. Although avian and murine neural crest stem (NCS) cells have been identified, the isolation of human NCS cells has remained elusive. Here we report the derivation of NCS cells from human embryonic stem cells at the neural rosette stage. We show that NCS cells plated at clonal density give rise

Gabsang Lee; Hyesoo Kim; Yechiel Elkabetz; George Al Shamy; Georgia Panagiotakos; Tiziano Barberi; Viviane Tabar; Lorenz Studer

2007-01-01

344

Enhancing spontaneous stem cell healing (Review).  

PubMed

Adult stem cells are distributed throughout the human body and are responsible to a great extent for the body's ability to maintain and heal itself. Accumulating data since the 1990s regarding stem cells have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of stem cells are not restricted to their ability to differentiate and are more likely due to their ability to release a multitude of molecules. Recent studies indicated that ?80% of the therapeutic benefit of adult stem cells is manifested by the stem cell released molecules (SRM) rather than the differentiation of the stem cells into mature tissue. Stem cells may release potent combinations of factors that modulate the molecular composition of the cellular milieu to evoke a multitude of responses from neighboring cells. A multitude of pathways are involved in cellular and tissue function and, when the body is in a state of disease or trauma, a multitude of pathways are involved in the underlying mechanisms of that disease or trauma. Therefore, stem cells represent a natural systems-based biological factory for the production and release of a multitude of molecules that interact with the system of biomolecular circuits underlying disease or tissue damage. Currently, efforts are aimed at defining, stimulating, enhancing and harnessing SRM mechanisms, in order to develop systems-based methods for tissue regeneration, develop drugs/biologics or other therapeutics and enhance the release of SRM into the body for natural healing through proper dietary, exercise and other lifestyle strategies. PMID:24649089

Maguire, Greg; Friedman, Peter

2014-03-01

345

Pituitary stem cells drop their mask.  

PubMed

The pituitary gland represents the organism's endocrine hub, integrating central and peripheral inputs to generate the appropriate hormonal signals that govern key physiological processes. To meet the changing endocrine demands, the gland has to flexibly remodel its hormone-producing cell compartment. Mechanisms underlying pituitary cellular plasticity, as well as homeostatic turnover, are poorly understood. Similar to other tissues, resident stem cells may participate in the generation of newborn cells. Although in the past recurrently postulated to exist, pituitary stem cells remained obscure until the quest recently regained momentum, resulting in a surge of studies that designated very strong candidates for the stem/progenitor cell position. The cells identified express stem cell-associated markers and signaling factors, as well as transcriptional regulators that play essential roles during pituitary embryogenesis. They exhibit the stem cell properties of multilineage differentiation and prominent efflux capacity ("side population" phenotype), and display a topographical pattern reminiscent of niche-like configurations. Yet, the stem cell tenet of long-term self-renewal remains to be unequivocally demonstrated. Taken together, pituitary stem cells commence to drop their mask. While their "face gradually becomes visible, the "character" they play in the pituitary awaits further disclosure. The aim of this review is to highlight the recent progress in pituitary stem/progenitor cell identification by sketching the historical context, describing the new findings with inclusion of critical and cautionary reflections, proposing a tentative stem/progenitor cell model, and pointing out remaining gaps and challenges. The recent acceleration in pituitary stem cell research may announce an exciting era in this endocrine field. PMID:22023621

Vankelecom, Hugo

2012-01-01

346

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Somatic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows trans-acting factors present in the mammalian oocyte to reprogram somatic cell nuclei to an undifferentiated state. We show that four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28) are sufficient to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells that exhibit the essential characteristics of embryonic stem (ES) cells. These induced pluripotent human stem cells have normal

Junying Yu; Maxim A. Vodyanik; Kim Smuga-Otto; Jessica Antosiewicz-Bourget; Jennifer L. Frane; Shulan Tian; Jeff Nie; Gudrun A. Jonsdottir; Victor Ruotti; Ron Stewart; Igor I. Slukvin; James A. Thomson

2007-01-01

347

Mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac cell therapy.  

PubMed

Despite refinements of medical and surgical therapies, heart failure remains a fatal disease. Myocardial infarction is the most common cause of heart failure, and only palliative measures are available to relieve symptoms and prolong the patient's life span. Because mammalian cardiomyocytes irreversibly exit the cell cycle at about the time of birth, the heart has traditionally been considered to lack any regenerative capacity. This paradigm, however, is currently shifting, and the cellular composition of the myocardium is being targeted by various regeneration strategies. Adult progenitor and stem cell treatment of diseased human myocardium has been carried out for more than 10 years (Menasche et al., 2001; Stamm et al., 2003), and it has become clear that, in humans, the regenerative capacity of hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells, despite potent proangiogenic effects, is limited (Stamm et al., 2009). More recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and related cell types are being evaluated in preclinical models of heart disease as well as in clinical trials (see Published Clinical Trials, below). MSCs have the capacity to self-renew and to differentiate into lineages that normally originate from the embryonic mesenchyme (connective tissues, blood vessels, blood-related organs) (Caplan, 1991; Prockop, 1997; Pittenger et al., 1999). The current definition of MSCs includes plastic adherence in cell culture, specific surface antigen expression (CD105(+)/CD90(+)/CD73(+), CD34(-)/CD45(-)/CD11b(-) or CD14(-)/CD19(-) or CD79?(-)/HLA-DR1(-)), and multilineage in vitro differentiation potential (osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic) (Dominici et al., 2006 ). If those criteria are not met completely, the term "mesenchymal stromal cells" should be used for marrow-derived adherent cells, or other terms for MSC-like cells of different origin. For the purpose of this review, MSCs and related cells are discussed in general, and cell type-specific properties are indicated when appropriate. We first summarize the preclinical data on MSCs in models of heart disease, and then appraise the clinical experience with MSCs for cardiac cell therapy. PMID:21062128

Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Kurtz, Andreas; Stamm, Christof

2011-01-01

348

Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo  

PubMed Central

Summary Cellular plasticity contributes to the regenerative capacity of plants, invertebrates, teleost fishes, and amphibians. In vertebrates, differentiated cells are known to revert into replicating progenitors, but these cells do not persist as stable stem cells. We now present evidence that differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. Following the ablation of airway stem cells, we observed a surprising increase in the proliferation of committed secretory cells. Subsequent lineage tracing demonstrated that the luminal secretory cells had dedifferentiated into basal stem cells. Dedifferentiated cells were morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells and they functioned as well as their endogenous counterparts to repair epithelial injury. Indeed, single secretory cells clonally dedifferentiated into multipotent stem cells when they were cultured ex vivo without basal stem cells. In contrast, direct contact with a single basal stem cell was sufficient to prevent secretory cell dedifferentiation. In analogy to classical descriptions of amphibian nuclear reprogramming, the propensity of committed cells to dedifferentiate was inversely correlated to their state of maturity. This capacity of committed cells to dedifferentiate into stem cells may play a more general role in the regeneration of many tissues and in multiple disease states, notably cancer. PMID:24196716

Tata, Purushothama Rao; Mou, Hongmei; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Zhao, Rui; Prabhu, Mythili; Prabhu, Mythili; Law, Brandon M.; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Cho, Josalyn L.; Breton, Sylvie; Sahay, Amar; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

2014-01-01

349

Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo.  

PubMed

Cellular plasticity contributes to the regenerative capacity of plants, invertebrates, teleost fishes and amphibians. In vertebrates, differentiated cells are known to revert into replicating progenitors, but these cells do not persist as stable stem cells. Here we present evidence that differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. After the ablation of airway stem cells, we observed a surprising increase in the proliferation of committed secretory cells. Subsequent lineage tracing demonstrated that the luminal secretory cells had dedifferentiated into basal stem cells. Dedifferentiated cells were morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells and they functioned as well as their endogenous counterparts in repairing epithelial injury. Single secretory cells clonally dedifferentiated into multipotent stem cells when they were cultured ex vivo without basal stem cells. By contrast, direct contact with a single basal stem cell was sufficient to prevent secretory cell dedifferentiation. In analogy to classical descriptions of amphibian nuclear reprogramming, the propensity of committed cells to dedifferentiate is inversely correlated to their state of maturity. This capacity of committed cells to dedifferentiate into stem cells may have a more general role in the regeneration of many tissues and in multiple disease states, notably cancer. PMID:24196716

Tata, Purushothama Rao; Mou, Hongmei; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Zhao, Rui; Prabhu, Mythili; Law, Brandon M; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Cho, Josalyn L; Breton, Sylvie; Sahay, Amar; Medoff, Benjamin D; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

2013-11-14

350

A Voltage-Sensitive Dye-Based Assay for the Identification of Differentiated Neurons Derived from Embryonic Neural Stem Cell Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPluripotent and multipotent stem cells hold great therapeutical promise for the replacement of degenerated tissue in neurological diseases. To fulfill that promise we have to understand the mechanisms underlying the differentiation of multipotent cells into specific types of neurons. Embryonic stem cell (ESC) and embryonic neural stem cell (NSC) cultures provide a valuable tool to study the processes of neural

Richardson N. Leão; Amilcar Reis; Amanda Emirandetti; Michalina Lewicka; Ola Hermanson; André Fisahn; Wei-Chun Chin

2010-01-01

351

Kidney tubular epithelium is restored without replacement with bone marrow–derived cells during repair after ischemic injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney tubular epithelium is restored without replacement with bone marrow–derived cells during repair after ischemic injury. The kidney has the ability to restore the structural and functional integrity of the proximal tubule, which undergoes extensive epithelial cell death after prolonged exposure to ischemia. In order to study the role that adult bone marrow–derived stem cells might play in kidney remodeling

JEREMY S DUFFIELD; JOSEPH V BONVENTRE

2005-01-01

352

Human mesenchymal stem cells support unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cells and suppress T-cell activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to interact with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and immune cells, and represent potential cellular therapy to enhance allogeneic hematopoietic engraftment and prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We investigated the role of human MSCs in NOD-SCID mice repopulation by unrelated human hematopoietic cells and studied the immune interactions between human MSCs and unrelated donor

B Maitra; E Szekely; K Gjini; M J Laughlin; J Dennis; S E Haynesworth; O N Koç

2004-01-01

353

Chemically Induced Specification of Retinal Ganglion Cells From Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is the primary pathological change for many retinal degenerative diseases. Although there is currently no effective treatment for this group of diseases, cell transplantation to replace lost RGCs holds great potential. However, for the development of cell replacement therapy, better understanding of the molecular details involved in differentiating stem cells into RGCs is essential. In this study, a novel, stepwise chemical protocol is described for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells into functional RGCs. Briefly, stem cells were differentiated into neural rosettes, which were then cultured with the Notch inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT). The expression of neural and RGC markers (BRN3A, BRN3B, ATOH7/Math5, ?-synuclein, Islet-1, and THY-1) was examined. Approximately 30% of the cell population obtained expressed the neuronal marker TUJ1 as well the RGC markers. Moreover, the differentiated RGCs generated action potentials and exhibited both spontaneous and evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents, indicating that functional and mature RGCs were generated. In combination, these data demonstrate that a single chemical (DAPT) can induce PAX6/RX-positive stem cells to undergo differentiation into functional RGCs. PMID:24493857

Riazifar, Hamidreza; Jia, Yousheng; Chen, Jing; Lynch, Gary

2014-01-01

354

In Appreciation of Stem Cell Research Doners..............................................................1 Glossary ..........................................................................................................................4  

E-print Network

#12;#12;In Appreciation of Stem Cell Research Doners ..........................................................................................................................4 Stem Cell Research at the Weizmann Institute of Science assistance of our many generous friends worldwide who have contributed to stem cell research over the years

Shapiro, Ehud

355

Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues From the Director: Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease Past Issues / Summer ... Zerhouni, NIH Director, described the need for expanding stem cell research. Recently, he spoke about stem cell research with ...

356

3 CFR - Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Presidential Documents Other...July 30, 2009 Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Memorandum for the Heads of...responsible, scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic...

2010-01-01

357

Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays  

E-print Network

Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays CONNIEEAVES,CINDYMILLER,JOHANNE CASHMAN Columbia, Canada Key Words.Hematopoietic stem cells Transplantation Cord blood. Expansion Growthfactors murine hematopoietic stem cells to be quantitated. Measurements of murine CRU have shown

Zandstra, Peter W.

358

Spatial Organization of Embryonic Stem Cell Responsiveness to Autocrine Gp130 Ligands Reveals an Autoregulatory Stem  

E-print Network

Spatial Organization of Embryonic Stem Cell Responsiveness to Autocrine Gp130 Ligands Reveals, Ontario, Canada Key Words. Autocrine signaling · Embryonic stem cell · Niche · Self-renewal · Stem cell-location-independent processes control- ling cell fate by analyzing the spatial organization of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) using

Zandstra, Peter W.

359

Tissue engineering with mesenchymal stem cells - The possibilities of using stem cells in place of tissue-specific cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities of using stem cells in place of tissue-specific cells. This article focuses on tissue engineering therapies and presents the potential use of autologous stem cells in place of allogeneic or xenogeneic tissue-specific cells, with an emphasis on adult mesenchymal stem cells. Scaffolds, synthetic extracellular matrices to support cell growth and tissue development, are covered with respect to specific

C. K. Kuo; R. S. Tuan

2003-01-01

360

Stem Cell Research and Health Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stem cells are being touted as the greatest discovery for the potential treatment of a myriad of diseases in the new millennium, but there is still much research to be done before it will be known whether they can live up to this description. There is also an ethical debate over the production of one of the most valuable types of stem cell: the…

Eve, David J.; Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.; Klasko, Stephen K.; Sanberg, Paul R.

2008-01-01

361

Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor  

MedlinePLUS

... 536 views 49:19 Play next Play now Stem Cells and the Future of Medicine - Research on Aging - Duration: 59:01. by University of California Television (UCTV) 55,993 views 59:01 Play next Play now Stem Cells: Growing New Parts - Duration: 1:26:50. by ...

362

International Society for Stem Cell Research  

MedlinePLUS

... Member Spotlight. Read more The International Society for Stem Cell Research Announces the 2015 Recipients of the McEwen Award ... Awards 20 January, 2015 The International Society for Stem Cell Research is excited to announce the society’s 2015 award ...

363

Engineering stem cells for future medicine.  

PubMed

Despite their great potential in regenerative medicine applications, stem cells (especially pluripotent ones) currently show a limited clinical success, partly due to a lack of biological knowledge, but also due to a lack of specific and advanced technological instruments able to overcome the current boundaries of stem cell functional maturation and safe/effective therapeutic delivery. This paper aims at describing recent insights, current limitations, and future horizons related to therapeutic stem cells, by analyzing the potential of different bioengineering disciplines in bringing stem cells toward a safe clinical use. First, we clarify how and why stem cells should be properly engineered and which could be in a near future the challenges and the benefits connected with this process. Second, we identify different routes toward stem cell differentiation and functional maturation, relying on chemical, mechanical, topographical, and direct/indirect physical stimulation. Third, we highlight how multiscale modeling could strongly support and optimize stem cell engineering. Finally, we focus on future robotic tools that could provide an added value to the extent of translating basic biological knowledge into clinical applications, by developing ad hoc enabling technologies for stem cell delivery and control. PMID:23380842

Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna

2013-03-01

364

Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have become one of the most studied stem cells, especially toward the healing of diseased and damaged tissues and organs. MSCs can be readily isolated from a number of adult tissues by means of minimally invasive approaches. MSCs are capable of self?replication to many passages and, therefore, can potentially be expanded to sufficient numbers for tissue

Nicholas W. Marion; Jeremy J. Mao

2006-01-01

365

Epithelial Stem Cells and Tissue Engineered Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal mucosa has an amazing regenerative capacity, enabling rapid restoration of its physiological functions following injury. The ability to do this resides with the epithelial stem cells located within glandular invaginations in the mucosal surface. Recent advances toward the isolation and characterization of epithelial stem cells has paved the way for exploring novel therapeutic approaches for gastrointestinal disease. Possible

Richard M. Day

2006-01-01

366

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repair of diseased or damaged cartilage remains one of the most challenging problems of musculoskeletal medicine. Tissue engineering advances in cartilage repair have utilized autologous and allogenic chondrocyte and cartilage grafts, biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, stem cells, and genetic engineering. The mesenchymal stem cell has specifically attracted much attention because of its accessibility, potential for differentiation, and manipulability to

Andrew J. Leo; Daniel A. Grande

2006-01-01

367

Cancer stem cells: mirage or reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The similarities and differences between normal tissue stem cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been the source of much contention, with some recent studies calling into question the very existence of CSCs. An examination of the literature indicates, however, that the CSC model rests on firm experimental foundations and that differences in the observed frequencies of CSCs within tumors

Piyush B Gupta; Christine L Chaffer; Robert A Weinberg

2009-01-01

368

Matrix Elasticity Directs Stem Cell Lineage Specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Microenvironments appear important in stem cell lineage specification but can be difficult to adequately characterize or control with soft tis- sues. Naive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) areshownheretospecifylineageandcommitto phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to tissue- level elasticity. Soft matrices that mimic brain are neurogenic, stiffer matricesthat mimicmus- cle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. During

Adam J. Engler; Shamik Sen; H. Lee Sweeney; Dennis E. Discher

2006-01-01

369

Scientists Create Tiny Stomachs from Stem Cells  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Scientists Create Tiny Stomachs From Stem Cells Feat may help researchers learn more about causes ... Preidt Wednesday, October 29, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Stem Cells Stomach Disorders WEDNESDAY, Oct. 29, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

370

Engraftment syndrome following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During neutrophil recovery following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a constellation of symptoms and signs including fever, erythrodermatous skin rash, and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema often occur. These clinical findings have usually been referred to as engraftment syndrome, or, reflecting the manifestations of increased capillary permeability, capillary leak syndrome. While described most often following autologous stem cell transplantation, a similar clinical syndrome

TR Spitzer

2001-01-01

371

Minireview: ?-Cell Replacement Therapy for Diabetes in the 21st Century: Manipulation of Cell Fate by Directed Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ?-cell failure underlies type 1 diabetes; it also contributes in an essential way to type 2 diabetes. ?-Cell replacement is an important component of any cure for diabetes. The current options of islet and pancreas transplantation are not satisfactory as definitive forms of therapy. Here, we review strategies for induced de novo pancreatic ?-cell formation, which depend on the targeted differentiation of cells into pancreatic ?-cells. With this objective in mind, one can manipulate the fate of three different types of cells: 1) from terminally differentiated cells, e.g. exocrine pancreatic cells, into ?-cells; 2) from multipotent adult stem cells, e.g. hepatic oval cells, into pancreatic islets; and 3) from pluripotent stem cells, e.g. embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, into ?-cells. We will examine the pros and cons of each strategy as well as the hurdles that must be overcome before these approaches to generate new ?-cells will be ready for clinical application. PMID:20219891

Yechoor, Vijay; Chan, Lawrence

2010-01-01

372

Personalized cardiac regeneration by stem cells–Hype or hope?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac diseases are the leading cause of death and reach epidemic proportions with aging. Advanced heart disease results\\u000a from an abrupt or progressive loss of contractile cardiomyocytes. Following percutaneous coronary intervention and revascularization\\u000a regenerative medicine aims at effectively repair damaged tissue and replacement of lost cardiomyocytes. However, mixed results\\u000a were obtained from trials using bone marrow-derived stem cells. Benefits were

Ulrich Marc Becher; Vedat Tiyerili; Dirk Skowasch; Georg Nickenig; Nikos Werner

2011-01-01

373

Insights & Perspectives Characterization of stem cells and  

E-print Network

Insights & Perspectives Characterization of stem cells and cancer cells on the basis of gene cell-cell interaction explains mutational robustness of differentiated cells and suggests how cancer cells emerge Kunihiko KanekoÃ? Here I present and discuss a model that, among other things, appears able

Kaneko, Kunihiko

374

Tissue engineering: strategies, stem cells and scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering scaffolds are designed to influence the physical, chemical and biological environment surrounding a cell population. In this review we focus on our own work and introduce a range of strategies and materials used for tissue engineering, including the sources of cells suitable for tissue engineering: embryonic stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Furthermore, we emphasize the developments in custom scaffold design and manufacture, highlighting laser sintering, supercritical carbon dioxide processing, growth factor incorporation and zoning, plasma modification of scaffold surfaces, and novel multi-use temperature-sensitive injectable materials. PMID:18422523

Howard, Daniel; Buttery, Lee D; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Roberts, Scott J

2008-01-01

375

Impact of Retrotransposons in Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Retrotransposons, which constitute approximately 40% of the human genome, have the capacity to ‘jump’ across the genome. Their mobility contributes to oncogenesis, evolution, and genomic plasticity of the host genome. Induced pluripotent stem cells as well as embryonic stem cells are more susceptible than differentiated cells to genomic aberrations including insertion, deletion and duplication. Recent studies have revealed specific behaviors of retrotransposons in pluripotent cells. Here, we review recent progress in understanding retrotransposons and provide a perspective on the relationship between retrotransposons and genomic variation in pluripotent stem cells. PMID:23135636

Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Chung, Leeyup; Park, In-Hyun

2012-01-01

376

How Stem Cells Speak with Host Immune Cells in Inflammatory Brain Diseases  

PubMed Central

Advances in stem cell biology have raised great expectations that diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) may be ameliorated by the development of non-hematopoietic stem cell medicines. Yet, the application of adult stem cells as CNS therapeutics is challenging and the interpretation of some of the outcomes ambiguous. In fact, the initial idea that stem cell transplants work only via structural cell replacement has been challenged by the observation of consistent cellular signaling between the graft and the host. Cellular signaling is the foundation of coordinated actions and flexible responses, and arises via networks of exchanging and interacting molecules that transmit patterns of information between cells. Sustained stem cell graft-to-host communication leads to remarkable trophic effects on endogenous brain cells and beneficial modulatory actions on innate and adaptive immune responses in vivo, ultimately promoting the healing of the injured CNS. Among a number of adult stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are being extensively investigated for their ability to signal to the immune system upon transplantation in experimental CNS diseases. Here, we focus on the main cellular signaling pathways that grafted MSCs and NPCs use to establish a therapeutically relevant cross talk with host immune cells, while examining the role of inflammation in regulating some of the bidirectionality of these communications. We propose that the identification of the players involved in stem cell signaling might contribute to the development of innovative, high clinical impact therapeutics for inflammatory CNS diseases. PMID:23633288

Pluchino, Stefano; Cossetti, Chiara

2014-01-01

377

Enabling stem cell therapies through synthetic stem cell–niche engineering  

PubMed Central

Enabling stem cell–targeted therapies requires an understanding of how to create local microenvironments (niches) that stimulate endogenous stem cells or serve as a platform to receive and guide the integration of transplanted stem cells and their derivatives. In vivo, the stem cell niche is a complex and dynamic unit. Although components of the in vivo niche continue to be described for many stem cell systems, how these components interact to modulate stem cell fate is only beginning to be understood. Using the HSC niche as a model, we discuss here microscale engineering strategies capable of systematically examining and reconstructing individual niche components. Synthetic stem cell–niche engineering may form a new foundation for regenerative therapies. PMID:20051637

Peerani, Raheem; Zandstra, Peter W.

2010-01-01

378

Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells  

PubMed Central

Until recently, the complexity of adipose tissue and its physiological role was not well appreciated. This changed with the discovery of adipokines such as leptin. The cellular composition of adipose tissue is heterogeneous and changes as a function of diabetes and disease states such as diabetes. Tissue engineers view adipose tissue as a rich source of adult stromal/stem cells isolated by collagenase digestion. In vitro and in vivo studies have documented that adipose stromal/stem cells are multipotent, with the ability to differentiate along the adipocyte, chondrocyte, osteoblast and other lineage pathways. The adipose stromal/stem cells secrete a wide range of cytokines and growth factors with potential paracrine actions. Furthermore, adipose stromal/stem cells exert immunomodulatory functions when added to mixed lymphocyte reactions, suggesting that they can be transplanted allogeneically. This review article focuses on these mechanisms of adipose stromal/stem cell action and their potential utility as cellular therapeutics. PMID:23538753

Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Bunnell, Bruce A.; Frazier, Trivia; Rowan, Brian; Shah, Forum; Thomas-Porch, Caasy; Wu, Xiying

2013-01-01

379

Two Updates on Stem Cell Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a recent press briefing, stem cell research pioneers James Thomson and John Gearhart announced that, despite political obstacles and limited funding, stem cell research is progressing and clinical trials on human beings should begin within the next five years. The Why Files chronicles the first five years of embryonic stem cell research, covering the science, the politics, and the ethical issues behind this contentious topic (and a closer look at the both the promise and doubt in adult stem cells). The second website -- from CBS News -- covers the press briefing held by Thomson and Gearhart, and offers two interactive features on stem cell research and human cloning, as well as links to related CBS News stories.

380

Application of Stem Cells in Orthopedics  

PubMed Central

Stem cell research plays an important role in orthopedic regenerative medicine today. Current literature provides us with promising results from animal research in the fields of bone, tendon, and cartilage repair. While early clinical results are already published for bone and cartilage repair, the data about tendon repair is limited to animal studies. The success of these techniques remains inconsistent in all three mentioned areas. This may be due to different application techniques varying from simple mesenchymal stem cell injection up to complex tissue engineering. However, the ideal carrier for the stem cells still remains controversial. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of current basic research and clinical data concerning stem cell research in bone, tendon, and cartilage repair. Furthermore, a focus is set on different stem cell application techniques in tendon reconstruction, cartilage repair, and filling of bone defects. PMID:22550505

Schmitt, Andreas; van Griensven, Martijn; Imhoff, Andreas B.; Buchmann, Stefan

2012-01-01

381

Concise Review: Chemical Approaches for Modulating Lineage-Specific Stem Cells and Progenitors  

PubMed Central

Generation and manipulation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vitro and/or in vivo are critical for the development of stem cell-based clinical therapeutics. Lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells have many advantageous qualities, including being able to efficiently engraft and differentiate into desirable cell types in vivo after transplantation, and they are much less tumorigenic than pluripotent cells. Generation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells can be achieved by directed differentiation from pluripotent stem cells or lineage conversion from easily obtained somatic cells. Small molecules can be very helpful in these processes since they offer several important benefits. For example, the risk of tumorigenesis is greatly reduced when small molecules are used to replace integrated transcription factors, which are widely used in cell fate conversion. Furthermore, small molecules are relatively easy to apply, optimize, and manufacture, and they can more readily be developed into conventional pharmaceuticals. Alternatively, small molecules can be used to expand or selectively control the differentiation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells for desirable therapeutics purposes in vitro or in vivo. Here we summarize recent progress in the use of small molecules for the expansion and generation of desirable lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vitro and for selectively controlling cell fate of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vivo, thereby facilitating stem cell-based clinical applications. PMID:23580542

Xu, Tao; Zhang, Mingliang; Laurent, Timothy; Xie, Min

2013-01-01

382

Stem cell function during plant vascular development  

PubMed Central

The plant vascular system, composed of xylem and phloem, evolved to connect plant organs and transport various molecules between them. During the post-embryonic growth, these conductive tissues constitutively form from cells that are derived from a lateral meristem, commonly called procambium and cambium. Procambium/cambium contains pluripotent stem cells and provides a microenvironment that maintains the stem cell population. Because vascular plants continue to form new tissues and organs throughout their life cycle, the formation and maintenance of stem cells are crucial for plant growth and development. In this decade, there has been considerable progress in understanding the molecular control of the organization and maintenance of stem cells in vascular plants. Noticeable advance has been made in elucidating the role of transcription factors and major plant hormones in stem cell maintenance and vascular tissue differentiation. These studies suggest the shared regulatory mechanisms among various types of plant stem cell pools. In this review, we focus on two aspects of stem cell function in the vascular cambium, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. PMID:23169537

Miyashima, Shunsuke; Sebastian, Jose; Lee, Ji-Young; Helariutta, Yka

2013-01-01

383

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Generation, Characterization, and Differentiation-Methods and Protocols.  

PubMed

Reprogramming fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) remains a promising technique for cell replacement therapy. Diverse populations of somatic cells have been examined for their reprogramming potential. Recently, ocular ciliary body epithelial cells (CECs) have been reprogrammed with high reprogramming efficiency and single transcription factor reprogramming, making them an exciting candidate for cellular reprogramming strategies. PMID:25403469

Graversen, Veronica Kon; Chavala, Sai H

2014-11-18

384

T cell regeneration in pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed and\\/or insufficient T cell recovery post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) leads to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. We evaluated thymic function and its association with T cell regeneration post HSCT and identified factors involved in the process among pediatric stem cell transplant recipients. T cell regeneration in 66 pediatric patients was prospectively followed by naive T

H Olkinuora; K Talvensaari; T Kaartinen; S Siitonen; U Saarinen-Pihkala; J Partanen; K Vettenranta

2007-01-01

385

SIRT1 Synchs Satellite Cell Metabolism with Stem Cell Fate.  

PubMed

Metabolic reprogramming of muscle stem cells modulates myogenic cell fate. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Ryall et al. (2015) show that SIRT1, a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, acts as an epigenetic regulator that connects changes in satellite cell metabolism with changes in the transcriptional machinery toward myogenic commitment. PMID:25658362

Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

2015-02-01

386

Intestinal myofibroblasts: targets for stem cell therapy.  

PubMed

The subepithelial intestinal myofibroblast is an important cell orchestrating many diverse functions in the intestine and is involved in growth and repair, tumorigenesis, inflammation, and fibrosis. The myofibroblast is but one of several ?-smooth muscle actin-positive (?-SMA(+)) mesenchymal cells present within the intestinal lamina propria, including vascular pericytes, bone marrow-derived stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells or hematopoietic stem cells), muscularis mucosae, and the lymphatic pericytes (colon) and organized smooth muscle (small intestine) associated with the lymphatic lacteals. These other mesenchymal cells perform many of the functions previously attributed to subepithelial myofibroblasts. This review discusses the definition of a myofibroblast and reconsiders whether the ?-SMA(+) subepithelial cells in the intestine are myofibroblasts or other types of mesenchymal cells, i.e., pericytes. Current information about specific, or not so specific, molecular markers of lamina propria mesenchymal cells is reviewed, as well as the origins of intestinal myofibroblasts and pericytes in the intestinal lamina propria and their replenishment after injury. Current concepts and research on stem cell therapy for intestinal inflammation are summarized. Information about the stem cell origin of intestinal stromal cells may inform future stem cell therapies to treat human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PMID:21252048

Mifflin, R C; Pinchuk, I V; Saada, J I; Powell, D W

2011-05-01

387

Intestinal myofibroblasts: targets for stem cell therapy  

PubMed Central

The subepithelial intestinal myofibroblast is an important cell orchestrating many diverse functions in the intestine and is involved in growth and repair, tumorigenesis, inflammation, and fibrosis. The myofibroblast is but one of several ?-smooth muscle actin-positive (?-SMA+) mesenchymal cells present within the intestinal lamina propria, including vascular pericytes, bone marrow-derived stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells or hematopoietic stem cells), muscularis mucosae, and the lymphatic pericytes (colon) and organized smooth muscle (small intestine) associated with the lymphatic lacteals. These other mesenchymal cells perform many of the functions previously attributed to subepithelial myofibroblasts. This review discusses the definition of a myofibroblast and reconsiders whether the ?-SMA+ subepithelial cells in the intestine are myofibroblasts or other types of mesenchymal cells, i.e., pericytes. Current information about specific, or not so specific, molecular markers of lamina propria mesenchymal cells is reviewed, as well as the origins of intestinal myofibroblasts and pericytes in the intestinal lamina propria and their replenishment after injury. Current concepts and research on stem cell therapy for intestinal inflammation are summarized. Information about the stem cell origin of intestinal stromal cells may inform future stem cell therapies to treat human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PMID:21252048

Mifflin, R. C.; Pinchuk, I. V.; Saada, J. I.

2011-01-01

388

Hematopoietic cell differentiation from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells  

PubMed Central

Pluripotent stem cells, both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, are undifferentiated cells that can self-renew and potentially differentiate into all hematopoietic lineages, such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), hematopoietic progenitor cells and mature hematopoietic cells in the presence of a suitable culture system. Establishment of pluripotent stem cells provides a comprehensive model to study early hematopoietic development and has emerged as a powerful research tool to explore regenerative medicine. Nowadays, HSC transplantation and hematopoietic cell transfusion have successfully cured some patients, especially in malignant hematological diseases. Owing to a shortage of donors and a limited number of the cells, hematopoietic cell induction from pluripotent stem cells has been regarded as an alternative source of HSCs and mature hematopoietic cells for intended therapeutic purposes. Pluripotent stem cells are therefore extensively utilized to facilitate better understanding in hematopoietic development by recapitulating embryonic development in vivo, in which efficient strategies can be easily designed and deployed for the generation of hematopoietic lineages in vitro. We hereby review the current progress of hematopoietic cell induction from embryonic stem/induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:23796405

2013-01-01

389

Pluripotent stem cells induced from adult neural stem cells by reprogramming with two factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reprogramming of somatic cells is a valuable tool to understand the mechanisms of regaining pluripotency and further opens up the possibility of generating patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. Reprogramming of mouse and human somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells, designated as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, has been possible with the expression of the transcription factor quartet Oct4 (also known as

Jeong Beom Kim; Holm Zaehres; Guangming Wu; Luca Gentile; Kinarm Ko; Vittorio Sebastiano; Marcos J. Araúzo-Bravo; David Ruau; Dong Wook Han; Martin Zenke; Hans R. Schöler

2008-01-01

390

Human Neural Stem Cells for Biopharmaceutical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural stem cells, cells which have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into three neural lineages, hold great\\u000a potential for many applications in biomedical research, cellular therapy and drug discovery. However, the use of neural stem\\u000a cells for these applications has been hampered by the lack of availability of stable, pure cell lines. In this review we describe\\u000a the

Lilian Hook; Norma Fulton; Gregor Russell; Timothy Allsopp

391

Basics of Stem and Progenitor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter will define key terms and introduce important basic information about the fundamental building blocks of the\\u000a entire text: the stem and progenitor cells. After a brief discussion of terminology central to the field, we will explore\\u000a the various stem and progenitor cells including bone marrow-derived cell populations, specific niche-derived cell populations,\\u000a as well as special situations such as

Matthew T. Harting

392

Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the past decade, increasing evidence has suggested that stem cells play a crucial role not only in the generation of\\u000a complex multicellular organisms but also in the development and progression of malignant diseases. It has now been shown that\\u000a many tumors harbor a subset of distinct cancer cells that bear stem cell characteristics and, therefore, these cells are termed

Jorge Dorado; Alicia G. Serrano; Christopher Heeschen

393

2011 Annual Report Institute for Stem Cell Biology  

E-print Network

and Cancer iPS Cells and Skin Diseases Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Research Embryonic and iPS Cells stem cell science through collaboration across every area of scientific research. We have succeeded of these researchers are working on creating tissue- specific stem cells from pluripotent stem cells. Central to our

Quake, Stephen R.

394

Mechanisms regulating epidermal stem cells  

PubMed Central

The skin epidermis contains different appendages such as the hair follicle and the sebaceous glands. Recent studies demonstrated that several types of stem cells (SCs) exist in different niches within the epidermis and maintain discrete epidermal compartments, but the exact contribution of each SC populations under physiological conditions is still unclear. In addition, the precise mechanisms controlling the balance between proliferation and differentiation of epidermal SC still remain elusive. Recent studies provide new insights into these important questions by showing the contribution of hair follicle SC to the sebaceous lineage and the importance of chromatin modifications and micro-RNAs (miRs) in regulating epidermal SCs renewal and differentiation. In this review, we will discuss the importance of these papers to our understanding of the mechanisms that control epidermal SC functions. PMID:22433839

Beck, Benjamin; Blanpain, Cédric

2012-01-01

395

The Effect of Laser Irradiation on Adipose Derived Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two fundamental types of stem cells: Embryonic Stem cells and Adult Stem cells. Adult Stem cells have a more restricted potential and can usually differentiate into a few different cell types. In the body these cells facilitate the replacement or repair of damaged or diseased cells in organs. Low intensity laser irradiation was shown to increase stem cell migration and stimulate proliferation and it is thought that treatment of these cells with laser irradiation may increase the stem cell harvest and have a positive effect on the viability and proliferation. Our research is aimed at determining the effect of laser irradiation on differentiation of Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) into different cell types using a diode laser with a wavelength of 636 nm and at 5 J/cm2. Confirmation of stem cell characteristics and well as subsequent differentiation were assessed using Western blot analysis and cellular morphology supported by fluorescent live cell imaging. Functionality of subsequent differentiated cells was confirmed by measuring adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and cell viability.

Abrahamse, H.; de Villiers, J.; Mvula, B.

2009-06-01

396

Epigenetic regulation in adult stem cells and cancers  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate to distinct cell types. Multiple signaling pathways have been shown to play essential roles as extrinsic cues in maintaining adult stem cell identity and activity. Recent studies also show dynamic regulation by epigenetic mechanisms as intrinsic factors in multiple adult stem cell lineages. Emerging evidence demonstrates intimate crosstalk between these two mechanisms. Misregulation of adult stem cell activity could lead to tumorigenesis, and it has been proposed that cancer stem cells may be responsible for tumor growth and metastasis. However, it is unclear whether cancer stem cells share commonalities with normal adult stem cells. In this review, we will focus on recent discoveries of epigenetic regulation in multiple adult stem cell lineages. We will also discuss how epigenetic mechanisms regulate cancer stem cell activity and probe the common and different features between cancer stem cells and normal adult stem cells. PMID:24172544

2013-01-01

397

The hypoxic microenvironment maintains glioblastoma stem cells and promotes reprogramming towards a cancer stem cell phenotype.  

PubMed

Glioblastomas are highly lethal cancers that contain cellular hierarchies with self-renewing cancer stem cells that can propagate tumors in secondary transplant assays. The potential significance of cancer stem cells in cancer biology has been demonstrated by studies showing contributions to therapeutic resistance, angiogenesis and tumor dispersal. We recently reported that physiologic oxygen levels differentially induce hypoxia inducible factor-2alpha (HIF2alpha) levels in cancer stem cells. HIF1alpha functioned in proliferation and survival of all cancer cells but also was activated in normal neural progenitors suggesting a potentially restricted therapeutic index while HIF2alpha was essential in only in cancer stem cells and was not expressed by normal neural progenitors demonstrating HIF2alpha is a cancer stem cell specific target. We now extend these studies to examine the role of hypoxia in regulating tumor cell plasticity. We find that hypoxia promotes the self-renewal capability of the stem and non-stem population as well as promoting a more stem-like phenotype in the non-stem population with increased neurosphere formation as well as upregulation of important stem cell factors, such as OCT4, NANOG and c-MYC. The importance of HIF2alpha was further supported as forced expression of non-degradable HIF2alpha induced a cancer stem cell marker and augmented the tumorigenic potential of the non-stem population. This novel finding may indicate a specific role of HIF2alpha in promoting glioma tumorigenesis. The unexpected plasticity of the non-stem glioma population and the stem-like phenotype emphasizes the importance of developing therapeutic strategies targeting the microenvironmental influence on the tumor in addition to cancer stem cells. PMID:19770585

Heddleston, John M; Li, Zhizhong; McLendon, Roger E; Hjelmeland, Anita B; Rich, Jeremy N

2009-10-15

398

Engineering microenvironments to control stem cell fate and function  

E-print Network

), StemBook, ed. The Stem Cell Research Community, StemBook, doi/10.3824/stembook.1.5.1, httpEngineering microenvironments to control stem cell fate and function Shawdee Eshghi and David V . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2. Sequential factors to program stem cell differentiation

Schaffer, David V.

399

Stem cell applications in military medicine  

PubMed Central

There are many similarities between health issues affecting military and civilian patient populations, with the exception of the relatively small but vital segment of active soldiers who experience high-energy blast injuries during combat. A rising incidence of major injuries from explosive devices in recent campaigns has further complicated treatment and recovery, highlighting the need for tissue regenerative options and intensifying interest in the possible role of stem cells for military medicine. In this review we outline the array of tissue-specific injuries typically seen in modern combat - as well as address a few complications unique to soldiers - and discuss the state of current stem cell research in addressing each area. Embryonic, induced-pluripotent and adult stem cell sources are defined, along with advantages and disadvantages unique to each cell type. More detailed stem cell sources are described in the context of each tissue of interest, including neural, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and sensory tissues, with brief discussion of their potential role in regenerative medicine moving forward. Additional commentary is given to military stem cell applications aside from regenerative medicine, such as blood pharming, immunomodulation and drug screening, with an overview of stem cell banking and the unique opportunity provided by the military and civilian overlap of stem cell research. PMID:22011454

2011-01-01

400

Time to Reconsider Stem Cell Induction Strategies  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in stem cell research suggest that it may be time to reconsider the current focus of stem cell induction strategies. During the previous five years, approximately, the induction of pluripotency in somatic cells, i.e., the generation of so-called ‘induced pluripotent stem cells’ (iPSCs), has become the focus of ongoing research in many stem cell laboratories, because this technology promises to overcome limitations (both technical and ethical) seen in the production and use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A rapidly increasing number of publications suggest, however, that it is now possible to choose instead other, alternative ways of generating stem and progenitor cells bypassing pluripotency. These new strategies may offer important advantages with respect to ethics, as well as to safety considerations. The present communication discusses why these strategies may provide possibilities for an escape from the dilemma presented by pluripotent stem cells (self-organization potential, cloning by tetraploid complementation, patenting problems and tumor formation risk). PMID:24710555

Denker, Hans-Werner

2012-01-01

401

Biomaterials and Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Organ failure and tissue loss are challenging health issues due to widespread injury, the lack of organs for transplantation, and limitations of conventional artificial implants. The field of tissue engineering aims to provide alternative living substitutes that restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Areas covered in this review In this paper, a wide range of porous scaffolds are reviewed, with an emphasis on phase separation techniques that generate advantageous nanofibrous 3D scaffolds for stem cell-based tissue engineering applications. In addition, methods for presentation and delivery of bioactive molecules to mimic the properties of stem cell niche are summarized. Recent progress in using these bio-instructive scaffolds to support stem cell differentiation and tissue regeneration is also presented. What the reader will gain Stem cells have great clinical potential because of their capability to differentiate into multiple cell types. Biomaterials have served as artificial extracellular environments to regulate stem cell behavior. Biomaterials with various physical, mechanical, and chemical properties can be designed to control stem cell development for regeneration. Take home message The research at the interface of stem cell biology and biomaterials has made and will continue to make exciting advances in tissue engineering. PMID:23327471

Zhang, Zhanpeng; Gupte, Melanie J.; Ma, Peter X.

2013-01-01

402

Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are an exciting advancement in the field of nanotechnology. They expand the possibilities of noninvasive analysis and have many useful properties, making them potential candidates for numerous novel applications. Notably, they have been shown that they can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and are capable of conjugation with various cell types, including stem cells. In-depth research has been undertaken to establish these benefits, so that a deeper level of understanding of stem cell migratory pathways and differentiation, tumor migration, and improved drug delivery can be achieved. Stem cells have the ability to treat and cure many debilitating diseases with limited side effects, but a main problem that arises is in the noninvasive tracking and analysis of these stem cells. Recently, researchers have acknowledged the use of SPIONs for this purpose and have set out to establish suitable protocols for coating and attachment, so as to bring MRI tracking of SPION-labeled stem cells into common practice. This review paper explains the manner in which SPIONs are produced, conjugated, and tracked using MRI, as well as a discussion on their limitations. A concise summary of recently researched magnetic particle coatings is provided, and the effects of SPIONs on stem cells are evaluated, while animal and human studies investigating the role of SPIONs in stem cell tracking will be explored. PMID:24729700

Bull, Elizabeth; Madani, Seyed Yazdan; Sheth, Roosey; Seifalian, Amelia; Green, Mark; Seifalian, Alexander M

2014-01-01

403

Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are an exciting advancement in the field of nanotechnology. They expand the possibilities of noninvasive analysis and have many useful properties, making them potential candidates for numerous novel applications. Notably, they have been shown that they can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and are capable of conjugation with various cell types, including stem cells. In-depth research has been undertaken to establish these benefits, so that a deeper level of understanding of stem cell migratory pathways and differentiation, tumor migration, and improved drug delivery can be achieved. Stem cells have the ability to treat and cure many debilitating diseases with limited side effects, but a main problem that arises is in the noninvasive tracking and analysis of these stem cells. Recently, researchers have acknowledged the use of SPIONs for this purpose and have set out to establish suitable protocols for coating and attachment, so as to bring MRI tracking of SPION-labeled stem cells into common practice. This review paper explains the manner in which SPIONs are produced, conjugated, and tracked using MRI, as well as a discussion on their limitations. A concise summary of recently researched magnetic particle coatings is provided, and the effects of SPIONs on stem cells are evaluated, while animal and human studies investigating the role of SPIONs in stem cell tracking will be explored. PMID:24729700

Bull, Elizabeth; Madani, Seyed Yazdan; Sheth, Roosey; Seifalian, Amelia; Green, Mark; Seifalian, Alexander M

2014-01-01

404

Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, ? cells  

E-print Network

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic ? cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in ...

Hrvatin, Sinisa

405

Neural Stem Cells Injected into the Sound-Damaged Cochlea Migrate Throughout the Cochlea and Express Markers of Hair Cells, Supporting Cells, and Spiral Ganglion Cells  

PubMed Central

Most cases of hearing loss are caused by the death or dysfunction of one of the many cochlear cell types. We examined whether cells from a neural stem cell line could replace cochlear cell types lost after exposure to intense noise. For this purpose, we transplanted a clonal stem cell line into the scala tympani of sound damaged mice and guinea pigs. Utilizing morphological, protein expression and genetic criteria, stem cells were found with characteristics of both neural tissues (satellite, spiral ganglion and Schwann cells) and cells of the organ of Corti (hair cells, supporting cells). Additionally, noise-exposed, stem cell-injected animals exhibited a small but significant increase in the number of satellite cells and Type I spiral ganglion neurons compared to non-injected noise-exposed animals. These results indicate that cells of this neural stem cell line migrate from the scala tympani to Rosenthal's canal and the organ of Corti. Moreover, it suggests that cells of this neural stem cell line may derive some information needed from the microenvironment of the cochlea to differentiate into replacement cells in the cochlea. PMID:17659854

Corliss, Deborah A.; Gray, Brianna; Anderson, Julia K.; Bobbin, Richard P.; Snyder, Evan Y.; Cotanche, Douglas A.

2007-01-01

406

Transformation of intestinal stem cells into gastric stem cells on loss of transcription factor Cdx2  

PubMed Central

The endodermal lining of the adult gastro-intestinal tract harbours stem cells that are responsible for the day-to-day regeneration of the epithelium. Stem cells residing in the pyloric glands of the stomach and in the small intestinal crypts differ in their differentiation programme and in the gene repertoire that they express. Both types of stem cells have been shown to grow from single cells into 3D structures (organoids) in vitro. We show that single adult Lgr5-positive stem cells, isolated from small intestinal organoids, require Cdx2 to maintain their intestinal identity and are converted cell-autonomously into pyloric stem cells in the absence of this transcription factor. Clonal descendants of Cdx2null small intestinal stem cells enter the gastric differentiation program instead of producing intestinal derivatives. We show that the intestinal genetic programme is critically dependent on the single transcription factor encoding gene Cdx2. PMID:25500896

Simmini, Salvatore; Bialecka, Monika; Huch, Meritxell; Kester, Lennart; van de Wetering, Marc; Sato, Toshiro; Beck, Felix; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Clevers, Hans; Deschamps, Jacqueline

2014-01-01

407

Haematopoietic stem cell gene therapy to treat autoimmune disease.  

PubMed

Autoimmune diseases affect approximately 6% of the population and are characterised by a pathogenic immune response that targets self-antigens. Well known diseases of this nature include type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Treatment is often restricted to replacement therapy or immunosuppressive regimes and to date there are no cures. The strategy of utilising autologous or allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation to treat autoimmunity and induce immunological tolerance has been trailed with various levels of success. A major issue is disease relapse as the autoimmune response is reinitiated. Cells of the immune system originate from bone marrow and have a central role in the induction of immunological tolerance. The ability to isolate and genetically manipulate bone marrow haematopoietic stem cells therefore makes these cells a suitable vehicle for driving ectopic expression of defined autoantigens and induction of immunological tolerance. PMID:18220873

Alderuccio, Frank; Siatskas, Christopher; Chan, James; Field, Judith; Murphy, Kim; Nasa, Zeyad; Toh, Ban-Hock

2006-09-01

408

www.cell-research.com | Cell Research Wnt signaling and stem cell control  

E-print Network

www.cell-research.com | Cell Research Roel Nusse 523 npg REVIEW Wnt signaling and stem cell control types of stem cells and may act as a niche factor to maintain stem cells in a self-renewing state proliferation and differentiation. Isolated Wnt proteins are active on a variety of stem cells, including neural

Bejerano, Gill

409

Seeing Stem Cells at Work In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Stem cell based-therapies are novel therapeutic strategies that hold key for developing new treatments for diseases conditions with very few or no cures. Although there has been an increase in the number of clinical trials involving stem cell-based therapies in the last few years, the long-term risks and benefits of these therapies are still unknown. Detailed in vivo studies are needed to monitor the fate of transplanted cells, including their distribution, differentiation, and longevity over time. Advancements in non-invasive cellular imaging techniques to track engrafted cells in real-time present a powerful tool for determining the efficacy of stem cell-based therapies. In this review, we describe the latest approaches to stem cell labeling and tracking using different imaging modalities. PMID:23975604

Srivastava, Amit K.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

2013-01-01

410

Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells in Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few topics in cardiovascular research have generated as much promise and controversy as that of using stem cells or progenitor\\u000a cells to improve cardiovascular function. The first section of this chapter will discuss general principles of stem and progenitor\\u000a cell biology and therapy. The second section will illustrate these principles with specific stem and progenitor cell types\\u000a used or proposed

Jalees Rehman; Keith L. March

411

The Hair Follicle Stem Cell as the Paradigm Multipotent Adult Stem Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our laboratory has discovered that the hair follicle is an abundant, easily accessible source of actively growing multipotent\\u000a adult stem cells that can form non-follicular cell types. We observed that nestin, a protein marker for neural stem cells,\\u000a is also expressed in follicle stem cells and their immediate, differentiated progeny. The green fluorescent protein (GFP),\\u000a whose expression is driven by

Robert M. Hoffman

412

Adult stem cells and cancer stem cells: tie in or tear apart?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell research is one of the new frontiers of medical science. Because of the unique self-renewable ability and powerful\\u000a potential to differentiate, stem cells can be viewed as the mother of all cells in the body and have been investigated as\\u000a a possible tool for reversing the degeneration and damage on organs. Recently, successful isolating cancerous stem cells from

Bin-Bin Liu; Lun-Xiu Qin; Yin-Kun Liu

2005-01-01

413

Cancerous stem cells: deviant stem cells with cancer-causing misbehavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells maintain homeostasis in adult tissues via self-renewal and generation of terminally differentiated cells. Alterations\\u000a in this intricate balance can result in disease. It has become increasingly evident that cancer can be initiated at the level\\u000a of stem cells. Therefore, understanding what causes stem cells to become cancerous may lead to new therapeutic approaches.\\u000a Multiple signaling pathways ultimately affect

Julie M Chandler; Eric Lagasse

2010-01-01

414

Embryonic Stem Cells and the Cardiovascular System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos. These\\u000a cells are capable of self-renewal and can differentiate into many cell types. In vivo, human ES cells injected into immune-deficient\\u000a mice yield teratomas with ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal cell derivatives. In vitro, spontaneous aggregation of human\\u000a ES cells results in the formation

Neta Lavon; Nissim Benvenisty

415

Embryonic stem cells: Understanding their history, cell biology and signalling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem cells offer enormous potential as a source of a variety of differentiated cells for cell therapy, drug discovery and toxicology screening. With the creation of human embryonic stem cell lines we now have a resource with the potential to differentiate into every tissue of the body. To fully harness this resource it is necessary to understand their biology.

Ruairi Friel; Sjaak van der Sar; Patrick J. Mee

2005-01-01

416

Stem cell patterning in the single cell microchip platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the way to open the mysteries of life in genome, single cell platform becomes one crucial tool to explore the electrochemical and electrophysiologic behavior of single cells such as stem cell for tissue engineering. As the pilot study of such a platform, we have successfully implemented stem cell patterning on an array of electrodes in the gold-silicon wafer by

Ching-Hsing Luo; Tsung-Min Hsieh; Ji-Fu Lin; I-Chung Chun; Mao-Tsun Lin; Ching-Ting Lee

2006-01-01

417

Embryonic Stem Cell Virus, a Recombinant Murine Retrovirus with Expression in Embryonic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of Moloney murine leukemia virus and vectors derived from it is restricted in undifferentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma and embryonal stem (ES) cells. We have developed a retroviral vector, the murine embryonic stem cell virus (MESV), that is active in embryonal carcinoma and ES cells. MESV was derived from a retroviral mutant [PCC4-cell-passaged myeloproliferative sarcoma virus (PCMV)] expressed in

Manuel Grez; Ercan Akgun; Frank Hilberg; Wolfram Ostertag

1990-01-01

418

Células madre y células troncoembrionarias: Diferencias biológicas Stem cells and embryonic stem cells: Biological differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stem cells have been classifi ed in three types according to their natural niche of origin, aptitude and differen- tial function: totipotential, pluripotential and multipotential; the fi rst, called embryonic stem cells (ES) originate from the morulae; the second, come from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst (ICM); and the third, known as multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC)

Dolly Macías Riveros; Juan Carlos Vázquez Chagoyán; Rogelio Alonso Morales; Marco Cajero Juárez

419

Embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell: an epigenetic perspective  

E-print Network

REVIEW Embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell: an epigenetic perspective Gaoyang cells (ESCs), have specialized epigenetic landscapes, which are impor- tant for pluripotency maintenance of somatic cell epigenetic status into an ESC-like state. Accumulating evidence indicates that epigenetic

Zhang, Yi

420

Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization: updated conceptual renditions  

PubMed Central

Despite its specific clinical relevance, the field of hematopoietic stem cell mobilization has received broad attention, owing mainly to the belief that pharmacologic stem cell mobilization might provide clues as to how stem cells are retained in their natural environment, the bone marrow ‘niche’. Inherent to this knowledge is also the desire to optimally engineer stem cells to interact with their target niche (such as after transplantation), or to lure malignant stem cells out of their protective niches (in order to kill them), and in general to decipher the niche’s structural components and its organization. Whereas, with the exception of the recent addition of CXCR4 antagonists to the armamentarium for mobilization of patients refractory to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor alone, clinical stem cell mobilization has not changed significantly over the last decade or so, much effort has been made trying to explain the complex mechanism(s) by which hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells leave the marrow. This brief review will report some of the more recent advances about mobilization, with an attempt to reconcile some of the seemingly inconsistent data in mobilization and to interject some commonalities among different mobilization regimes. PMID:22951944

Bonig, H; Papayannopoulou, T

2013-01-01

421

Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging  

PubMed Central

Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan. PMID:24757526

Boyette, Lisa B.; Tuan, Rocky S.

2014-01-01

422

2981DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS RESEARCH ARTICLE INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

2981DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS RESEARCH ARTICLE INTRODUCTION Neurons must be generated the balance between self-renewing neural stem cells and their differentiated progeny. Stem cells can divide, neuroepithelial cells initially divide symmetrically to expand the stem cell pool. Later in development

Brand, Andrea

423

Applications Proposing Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Reviewer Guidance  

E-print Network

embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or research involving certain uses of human induced pluripotent stem cells. Refer to the NIH web resource for stem cell research (http://stemcells.nih.gov/) for general and updated: · Specify a cell line(s) from the NIH Stem Cell Registry that will be used in the proposed research

Rau, Don C.

424

RESEARCH Open Access Mesenchymal stem cells generate a CD4+  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Mesenchymal stem cells generate a CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cell. Stem Cell Research & Therapy 2013, 4:65 http://stemcellres.com/content/4/3/65 #12;Introduction * Abstract Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult, multipotent, stem cells

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

425

Mesenchymal stem cell responses to mechanical stimuli  

PubMed Central

Summary Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to replace or restore the function of damaged tissues and offer much promise in the successful application of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. Optimising culture conditions for the pre-differentiation of MSCs is a key goal for the research community, and this has included a number of different approaches, one of which is the use of mechanical stimuli. Mesenchymal tissues are subjected to mechanical stimuli in vivo and terminally differentiated cells from the mesenchymal lineage respond to mechanical stimulation in vivo and in vitro. MSCs have also been shown to be highly mechanosensitive and this may present an ideal method for controlling MSC differentiation. Here we present an overview of the response of MSCs to various mechanical stimuli, focusing on their differentiation towards the mesenchymal tissue lineages including bone, cartilage, tendon/ligament, muscle and adipose tissue. More research is needed to elucidate the complex interactions between biochemically and mechanically stimulated differentiation pathways. PMID:23738294

Delaine-Smith, Robin M.; Reilly, Gwendolen C.

2012-01-01

426

Epigenetic Identity in Cancer Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Growing evidence supports the existence of a subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell characteristics within tumors. As\\u000a occurs with normal embryogenesis, epigenetic changes define the balance between pluripotency and differentiation in cancer\\u000a stem cells (CSCs). The basis and implications of this novel concept are discussed, together with the evidence supporting a\\u000a role for epigenetic mechanisms in the induction of

Maria Ouzounova; Hector Hernandez-Vargas; Zdenko Herceg

427

Germline Stem Cells: Origin and Destiny  

PubMed Central

Germline stem cells are key to genome transmission to future generations. Over recent years, there have been numerous insights into the regulatory mechanisms that govern both germ cell specification and the maintenance of the germline in adults. Complex regulatory interactions with both the niche and the environment modulate germline stem cell function. This perspective highlights some examples of this regulation to illustrate the diversity and complexity of the mechanisms involved. PMID:22704513

Lehmann, Ruth

2012-01-01

428

Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into gonad and adrenal steroidogenic cells  

PubMed Central

Hormone replacement therapy is necessary for patients with adrenal and gonadal failure. Steroid hormone treatment is also employed in aging people for sex hormone deficiency. These patients undergo such therapies, which have associated risks, for their entire life. Stem cells represent an innovative tool for tissue regeneration and the possibility of solving these problems. Among various stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to differentiate into steroidogenic cells both in vivo and in vitro. In particular, they can effectively be differentiated into steroidogenic cells by expressing nuclear receptor 5A subfamily proteins (steroidogenic factor-1 and liver receptor homolog-1) with the aid of cAMP. This approach will provide a source of cells for future regenerative medicine for the treatment of diseases caused by steroidogenesis deficiencies. It can also represent a useful tool for studying the molecular mechanisms of steroidogenesis and its related diseases. PMID:24772247

Yazawa, Takashi; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Kaoru; Umezawa, Akihiro; Taniguchi, Takanobu

2014-01-01

429

Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25025713

Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

2014-07-12

430

TOPICAL REVIEW: Stem cells engineering for cell-based therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stem cells carry the promise to cure a broad range of diseases and injuries, from diabetes, heart and muscular diseases, to neurological diseases, disorders and injuries. Significant progresses have been made in stem cell research over the past decade; the derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from human tissues, the development of cloning technology by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and the confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain and that neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS), including that of humans. Despite these advances, there may be decades before stem cell research will translate into therapy. Stem cell research is also subject to ethical and political debates, controversies and legislation, which slow its progress. Cell engineering has proven successful in bringing genetic research to therapy. In this review, I will review, in two examples, how investigators are applying cell engineering to stem cell biology to circumvent stem cells' ethical and political constraints and bolster stem cell research and therapy.

Taupin, Philippe

2007-09-01

431

Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into retinal progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from fetal umbilical cord. Cells were cultured in serum-free neural stem cell-conditioned medium or neural stem cell-conditioned medium supplemented with Dkk-1, a Wnt/? catenin pathway antagonist, and LeftyA, a Nodal signaling pathway antagonist to induce differentiation into retinal progenitor cells. Inverted microscopy showed that after induction, the spindle-shaped or fibroblast-like Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells changed into bulbous cells with numerous processes. Immunofluorescent cytochemical ing and reverse-transcription PCR showed positive expression of retinal progenitor cell markers, Pax6 and Rx, as well as weakly down-regulated nestin expression. These results demonstrate that Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells are capable of differentiating into retinal progenitor cells in vitro. PMID:25206475

Hu, Ying; Liang, Jun; Cui, Hongping; Wang, Xinmei; Rong, Hua; Shao, Bin; Cui, Hao

2013-01-01

432

Stem cell origin of myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are common hematologic disorders that are characterized by decreased blood counts due to ineffective hematopoiesis. MDS is considered a 'preleukemic' disorder linked to a significantly elevated risk of developing an overt acute leukemia. Cytopenias can be observed in all three myeloid lineages suggesting the involvement of multipotent, immature hematopoietic cells in the pathophysiology of this disease. Recent studies using murine models of MDS as well as primary patient-derived bone marrow samples have provided direct evidence that the most immature, self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), as well as lineage-committed progenitor cells, are critically altered in patients with MDS. Besides significant changes in the number and distribution of stem as well as immature progenitor cells, genetic and epigenetic aberrations have been identified, which confer functional changes to these aberrant stem cells, impairing their ability to proliferate and differentiate. Most importantly, aberrant stem cells can persist and further expand after treatment, even upon transient achievement of clinical complete remission, pointing to a critical role of these cells in disease relapse. Ongoing preclinical and clinical studies are particularly focusing on the precise molecular and functional characterization of aberrant MDS stem cells in response to therapy, with the goal to develop stem cell-targeted strategies for therapy and disease monitoring that will allow for achievement of longer-lasting remissions in MDS. PMID:24336326

Elias, H K; Schinke, C; Bhattacharyya, S; Will, B; Verma, A; Steidl, U

2014-10-30

433

Polyester ?-assay chip for stem cell studies  

PubMed Central

The application of microfluidic technologies to stem cell research is of great interest to biologists and bioengineers. This is chiefly due to the intricate ability to control the cellular environment, the reduction of reagent volume, experimentation time and cost, and the high-throughput screening capabilities of microscale devices. Despite this importance, a simple-to-use microfluidic platform for studying the effects of growth factors on stem cell differentiation has not yet emerged. With this consideration, we have designed and characterized a microfluidic device that is easy to fabricate and operate, yet contains several functional elements. Our device is a simple polyester-based microfluidic chip capable of simultaneously screening multiple independent stem cell culture conditions. Generated by laser ablation and stacking of multiple layers of polyester film, this device integrates a 10?×?10 microwell array for cell culture with a continuous perfusion system and a non-linear concentration gradient generator. We performed numerical calculations to predict the gradient formation and calculate the shear stress acting on the cells inside the device. The device operation was validated by culturing murine embryonic stem cells inside the microwells for 5 days. Furthermore, we showed the ability to maintain the pluripotency of stem cell aggregates in response to concentrations of leukemia inhibitory factor ranging from 0 to ?1000 U/ml. Given its simplicity, fast manufacturing method, scalability, and the cell-compatible nature of the device, it may be a useful platform for long-term stem cell culture and studies. PMID:24278097

Piraino, Francesco; Selimovi?, Šeila; Adamo, Marco; Pero, Alessandro; Manoucheri, Sam; Bok Kim, Sang; Demarchi, Danilo; Khademhosseini, Ali

2012-01-01

434

Isolation and Culture of Epithelial Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

In the skin, epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle contribute not only to the generation of a new hair follicle with each hair cycle, but also to the repair of the epidermis during wound healing. When these stem cells are isolated and expanded in culture, they can give rise to hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and epidermis when combined with dermis and grafted back onto Nude mice. In this chapter, we provide a method for isolating hair follicle epithelial stem cells from the skin of adult mice using immunofluorescent labeling to allow for the specific purification of epithelial stem cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Notably, this method relies exclusively on cell surface markers, making it suitable for use with any strain of mouse and at various stages of the hair cycle. We also provide a detailed protocol for culturing epithelial stem cells isolated by FACS, allowing for analysis using a wide variety of culture assays. Additionally, we provide notes on using cultured cells for specific applications, such as viral manipulation and grafting. These techniques should be useful for directly evaluating stem cell function in normal mice and in mice with skin defects. PMID:19089359

Nowak, Jonathan A.; Fuchs, Elaine

2009-01-01

435

Isolation and Enrichment of Stem Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stem cells have the potential to revolutionize tissue regeneration and engineering. Both general types of stem cells, those with pluripotent differentiation potential as well as those with multipotent differentiation potential, are of equal interest. They are important tools to further understanding of general cellular processes, to refine industrial applications for drug target discovery and predictive toxicology, and to gain more insights into their potential for tissue regeneration. This chapter provides an overview of existing sorting technologies and protocols, outlines the phenotypic characteristics of a number of different stem cells, and summarizes their potential clinical applications.

Bosio, Andreas; Huppert, Volker; Donath, Susan; Hennemann, Petra; Malchow, Michaela; Heinlein, Uwe A. O.

436

Stem Cell Research and Health Education  

PubMed Central

Stem cells are being touted as the greatest discovery for the potential treatment of a myriad of diseases in the new millennium, but there is still much research to be done before it will be known whether they can live up to this description. There is also an ethical debate over the production of one of the most valuable types of stem cell: the embryonic form. Consequently, there is public confusion over the benefits currently being derived from the use of stem cells and what can potentially be expected from their use in the future. The health educator’s role is to give an unbiased account of the current state of stem cell research. This paper provides the groundwork by discussing the types of cells currently identified, their potential use, and some of the political and ethical pitfalls resulting from such use. PMID:19672471

Eve, David J.; Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.; Klasko, Stephen K.; Sanberg, Paul R.

2009-01-01

437

Inflammation and Stem Cells in Gastrointestinal Carcinogenesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chronic inflammation-induced carcinogenesis is a commonly accepted entity and is frequently seen within the gastrointestinal tract, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Alterations in specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are known to be responsible for malignant transformation. Nevertheless, the inflammatory microenvironment classically affects tumor promotion in its role as an altered stem cell niche and can also affect tumor initiation and tumor progression. The origin of the tumor cells is often attributed to stem cells, a unique subpopulation within tumors that possess the ability to initiate tumor growth and sustain self-renewal, as well as is largely responsible for their metastatic potential. Here, we review the link between inflammation and gastrointestinal carcinogenesis and the relationship between stem cells and cancer stem cells.

Michael Quante (Columbia University Medical Center)

2008-12-01

438

Endothelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. We describe here the differentiation steps of human embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells forming vascular-like structures. The human embryonic-derived endothelial cells were isolated by using platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) antibodies,

Shulamit Levenberg; Justin S. Golub; Michal Amit; Joseph Itskovitz-Eldor; Robert Langer

2002-01-01

439

Neural progenitors from human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The derivation of neural progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (ES) cells is of value both in the study of early human neurogenesis and in the creation of an unlimited source of donor cells for neural transplantation therapy. Here we report the generation of enriched and expandable preparations of proliferating neural progenitors from human ES cells. The neural progenitors could

Pavel Itsykson; Tikva Turetsky; Martin F. Pera; Etti Reinhartz; Anna Itzik; Tamir Ben-Hur; Benjamin E. Reubinoff

2001-01-01

440

Molecular control of embryonic stem cell identity  

E-print Network

Embryonic Stem (ES) cells are the in vitro derivatives of the inner cell mass of a developing embryo, and exhibit the property of pluripotency, which is the ability of a cell to give rise to all cell lineages of an organism. ...

Mathur, Divya, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

441

Neural progenitors from human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The derivation of neural progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (ES) cells is of value both in the study of early human neurogenesis and in the creation of an unlimited source of donor cells for neural transplantation therapy. Here we report the generation of enriched and expandable preparations of proliferating neural prog- enitors from human ES cells. The neural progenitors

Benjamin E. Reubinoff; Pavel Itsykson; Tikva Turetsky; Martin F. Pera; Etti Reinhartz; Anna Itzik; Tamir Ben-Hur

2000-01-01

442

Effect of isolation methodology on stem cell properties and multilineage differentiation potential of human dental pulp stem cells.  

PubMed

Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are an attractive alternative mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) source because of their isolation simplicity compared with the more invasive methods associated with harvesting other MSC sources. However, the isolation method to be favored for obtaining DPSC cultures remains under discussion. This study compares the stem cell properties and multilineage differentiation potential of DPSCs obtained by the two most widely adapted isolation procedures. DPSCs were isolated either by enzymatic digestion of the pulp tissue (DPSC-EZ) or by the explant method (DPSC-OG), while keeping the culture media constant throughout all experiments and in both isolation methods. Assessment of the stem cell properties of DPSC-EZ and DPSC-OG showed no significant differences between the two groups with regard to proliferation rate and colony formation. Phenotype analysis indicated that DPSC-EZ and DPSC-OG were positive for CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD117 and CD146 expression without any significant differences. The multilineage differentiation potential of both stem cell types was confirmed by using standard immuno(histo/cyto)chemical staining together with an in-depth ultrastructural analysis by means of transmission electron microscopy. Our results indicate that both DPSC-EZ and DPSC-OG could be successfully differentiated into adipogenic, chrondrogenic and osteogenic cell types, although the adipogenic differentiation of both stem cell populations was incomplete. The data suggest that both the enzymatic digestion and outgrowth method can be applied to obtain a suitable autologous DPSC resource for tissue replacement therapies of both bone and cartilage. PMID:23715720

Hilkens, P; Gervois, P; Fanton, Y; Vanormelingen, J; Martens, W; Struys, T; Politis, C; Lambrichts, I; Bronckaers, A

2013-07-01

443

Neuro-glial differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow (BM) is a rich source of stem cells and may represent a valid alternative to neural or embryonic cells in replacing autologous damaged tissues for neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of the present study is to identify human adult BM progenitor cells capable of neuro-glial differentiation and to develop effective protocols of trans-differentiation to surmount the hematopoietic commitment in

P. Bossolasco; L. Cova; C. Calzarossa; S. G. Rimoldi; C. Borsotti; G. Lambertenghi Deliliers; V. Silani; D. Soligo; E. Polli

2005-01-01

444

Different requirements for conserved post-transcriptional regulators in planarian regeneration and stem cell maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planarian regeneration depends on the presence and precise regulation of pluripotent adult somatic stem cells named neoblasts, which differentiate to replace cells of any missing tissue. A characteristic feature of neoblasts is the presence of large perinuclear nonmembranous organelles named “chromatoid bodies”, which are comparable to ribonucleoprotein structures found in germ cells of organisms across different phyla. In order to

Labib Rouhana; Norito Shibata; Osamu Nishimura; Kiyokazu Agata

2010-01-01

445

Stem cell systems and regeneration in planaria.  

PubMed

Planarians are members of the Platyhelminthes (flatworms). These animals have evolved a remarkable stem cell system. A single pluripotent adult stem cell type ("neoblast") gives rise to the entire range of cell types and organs in the planarian body plan, including a brain, digestive-, excretory-, sensory- and reproductive systems. Neoblasts are abundantly present throughout the mesenchyme and divide continuously. The resulting stream of progenitors and turnover of differentiated cells drive the rapid self-renewal of the entire animal within a matter of weeks. Planarians grow and literally de-grow ("shrink") by the food supply-dependent adjustment of organismal turnover rates, scaling body plan proportions over as much as a 50-fold size range. Their dynamic body architecture further allows astonishing regenerative abilities, including the regeneration of complete and perfectly proportioned animals even from tiny tissue remnants. Planarians as an experimental system, therefore, provide unique opportunities for addressing a spectrum of current problems in stem cell research, including the evolutionary conservation of pluripotency, the dynamic organization of differentiation lineages and the mechanisms underlying organismal stem cell homeostasis. The first part of this review focuses on the molecular biology of neoblasts as pluripotent stem cells. The second part examines the fascinating mechanistic and conceptual challenges posed by a stem cell system that epitomizes a universal design principle of biological systems: the dynamic steady state. PMID:23138344

Rink, Jochen C

2013-03-01

446

Mobilization of Stem Cells\\/Progenitor Cells by Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A number of publications have provided evidence that exercise and physical activity are linked to the activation, mobilization,\\u000a and differentiation of various types of stem cells. Exercise may improve organ regeneration and function. This review characterizes\\u000a different stem and progenitor cells and their sources and summarizes mechanisms by which exercise contributes to stem-cell-induced\\u000a regeneration and adaptation in different tissues. The

Patrick Wahl; Wilhelm Bloch

447

Stem Cell Mediation of Functional Recovery after Stroke in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Background Regenerative strategies of stem cell grafting have been demonstrated to be effective in animal models of stroke. In those studies, the effectiveness of stem cells promoting functional recovery was assessed by behavioral testing. These behavioral studies do, however, not provide access to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the observed functional outcome improvement. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to address the underlying mechanisms of stem cell mediated functional improvement, this functional improvement after stroke in the rat was investigated for six months after stroke by use of fMRI, somatosensory evoked potentials by electrophysiology, and sensorimotor behavior testing. Stem cells were grafted ipsilateral to the ischemic lesion. Rigorous exclusion of spontaneous recovery as confounding factor permitted to observe graft-related functional improvement beginning after 7 weeks and continuously increasing during the 6-month observation period. The major findings were i) functional improvement causally related to the stem cells grafting; ii) tissue replacement can be excluded as dominant factor for stem cell mediated functional improvement; iii) functional improvement occurs by exclusive restitution of the function in the original representation field, without clear contributions from reorganization processes, and iv) stem cells were not detectable any longer after six months. Conclusions/Significance A delayed functional improvement due to stem cell implantation has been documented by electrophysiology, fMRI and behavioral testing. This functional improvement occurred without cells acting as a tissue replacement for the necrotic tissue after the ischemic event. Combination of disappearance of grafted cells after six months on histological sections with persistent functional recovery was interpreted as paracrine effects by the grafted stem cells being the dominant mechanism of cell activity underlying the observed functional restitution of the original activation sites. Future studies will have to investigate whether the stem cell mediated improvement reactivates the original representation target field by using original connectivity pathways or by generating/activating new ones for the stimulus. PMID:20877642

Wiedermann, Dirk; Hoehn, Mathias

2010-01-01

448

Two on Stem Cells from National Institutes of Health: Update on Existing Human Embryonic Stem Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In response to President Bush's August 9 address, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has released online their statement on use of existing human embryonic stem cells. It includes a list of the ten laboratories worldwide that have existing stem cell lines, as reported to NIH. The Update also covers the derivation and characterization of human embryonic stem cells, how NIH is implementing the President's plan, and technology transfer issues relevant to NIH-funded investigators.

2001-01-01

449

Characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines by the International Stem Cell Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Stem Cell Initiative characterized 59 human embryonic stem cell lines from 17 laboratories worldwide. Despite diverse genotypes and different techniques used for derivation and maintenance, all lines exhibited similar expression patterns for several markers of human embryonic stem cells. They expressed the glycolipid antigens SSEA3 and SSEA4, the keratan sulfate antigens TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, GCTM2 and GCT343, and the

Oluseun Adewumi; Behrouz Aflatoonian; Lars Ahrlund-Richter; Michal Amit; Gemma Beighton; Paul A Bello; Nissim Benvenisty; Lorraine S Berry; Simon Bevan; Barak Blum; Justin Brooking; Kevin G Chen; Andre B H Choo; Gary A Churchill; Marie Corbel; Ivan Damjanov; Jon S Draper; Petr Dvorak; Katarina Emanuelsson; Roland A Fleck; Angela Ford; Karin Gertow; Marina Gertsenstein; Paul J Gokhale; Rebecca S Hamilton; Ales Hampl; Lyn E Healy; Outi Hovatta; Johan Hyllner; Marta P Imreh; Joseph Itskovitz-Eldor; Jamie Jackson; Jacqueline L Johnson; Mark Jones; Kehkooi Kee; Benjamin L King; Barbara B Knowles; Majlinda Lako; Franck Lebrin; Barbara S Mallon; Daisy Manning; Yoav Mayshar; Ronald D G Mckay; Anna E Michalska; Milla Mikkola; Masha Mileikovsky; Stephen L Minger; Harry D Moore; Christine L Mummery; Andras Nagy; Norio Nakatsuji; Carmel M O'Brien; Steve K W Oh; Cia Olsson; Timo Otonkoski; Kye-Yoon Park; Robert Passier; Hema Patel; Minal Patel; Roger Pedersen; Martin F Pera; Marian S Piekarczyk; Renee A Reijo Pera; Benjamin E Reubinoff; Allan J Robins; Janet Rossant; Peter Rugg-Gunn; Thomas C Schulz; Henrik Semb; Eric S Sherrer; Henrike Siemen; Glyn N Stacey; Miodrag Stojkovic; Hirofumi Suemori; Jin Szatkiewicz; Tikva Turetsky; Timo Tuuri; Steineke van den Brink; Kristina Vintersten; Sanna Vuoristo; Dorien Ward; Thomas A Weaver; Lesley A Young; Weidong Zhang; Peter W Andrews

2007-01-01

450

The sixth annual translational stem cell research conference of the New York Stem Cell Foundation.  

PubMed

The New York Stem Cell Foundation's "Sixth Annual Translational Stem Cell Research Conference" convened on October 11-12, 2011 at the Rockefeller University in New York City. Over 450 scientists, patient advocates, and stem cell research supporters from 14 countries registered for the conference. In addition to poster and platform presentations, the conference featured panels entitled "Road to the Clinic" and "The Future of Regenerative Medicine." PMID:22458653

Marshall, Caroline; Hua, Haiqing; Shang, Linshan; Ding, Bi-Sen; Zito, Giovanni; de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Wang, George Kai; Douvaras, Panagiotis; Sproul, Andrew A; Paull, Daniel; Fossati, Valentina; Nestor, Michael W; McKeon, David; Smith, Kristin A; Solomon, Susan L

2012-05-01

451

The New York Stem Cell Foundation: Fifth Annual Translational Stem Cell Research Conference.  

PubMed

The New York Stem Cell Foundation's "Fifth Annual Translational Stem Cell Research Conference" convened on October 12-13, 2010 at the Rockefeller University in New York City. The conference attracted over 400 scientists, patient advocates, and stem cell research supporters from 16 countries. In addition to poster and platform presentations, the conference featured panels entitled "Road to the Clinic" and "Regulatory Roadblocks." PMID:21615750

Marshall, Caroline; Wang, George Kai; Cimetta, Elisa; Talchai, Chutima; Egli, Dieter; Shim, Jae-won; Martin, Ian; Ahmad, Faizzan; Sproul, Andrew; Chen, Ting; Fossati, Valentina; McKeon, David; Smith, Kristin; Solomon, Susan L

2011-05-01

452

Epidermal stem cell fate: what can we learn from embryonic stem cells?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its constant renewal and high propensity for repair, the epidermis is, together with the gut and the hematopoietic\\u000a system, a tissue of choice to explore stem cell biology. Previous research over many years has revealed the complexity of\\u000a the epidermis: the heterogeneity of the stem cell compartment, with its rare, slowly cycling, multipotent, hair-follicle,\\u000a “bulge” stem cells and

Daniel Aberdam

2008-01-01

453

Immunological characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells and multipotent adult progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Somatic, also termed adult, stem cells are highly attractive biomedical cell candidates because of their extensive replication potential and functional multilineage differentiation capacity. They can be used for drug and toxicity screenings in preclinical studies, as in vitro model to study differentiation or for regenerative medicine to aid in the repair of tissues or replace tissues that are lost upon disease, injury or ageing. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are two types of adult stem cells derived from bone marrow that are currently being used clinically for tissue regeneration and for their immunomodulatory and trophic effects. This review will give an overview of the phenotypic and functional differences between human MAPCs and MSCs, with a strong emphasis on their immunological characteristics. Finally, we will discuss the clinical studies in which MSCs and MAPCs are already used. PMID:23295415

Jacobs, Sandra A; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Van Gool, Stefaan W

2013-01-01

454

Role of liver stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Liver cancer is an aggressive disease with a high mortality rate. Management of liver cancer is strongly dependent on the tumor stage and underlying liver disease. Unfortunately, most cases are discovered when the cancer is already advanced, missing the opportunity for surgical resection. Thus, an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for liver cancer initiation and progression will facilitate the detection of more reliable tumor markers and the development of new small molecules for targeted therapy of liver cancer. Recently, there is increasing evidence for the “cancer stem cell hypothesis”, which postulates that liver cancer originates from the malignant transformation of liver stem/progenitor cells (liver cancer stem cells). This cancer stem cell model has important significance for understanding the basic biology of liver cancer and has profound importance for the development of new strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the role of liver stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis. Our review of the literature shows that identification of the cellular origin and the signaling pathways involved is challenging issues in liver cancer with pivotal implications in therapeutic perspectives. Although the dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes/cholangiocytes in hepatocarcinogenesis cannot be excluded, neoplastic transformation of a stem cell subpopulation more easily explains hepatocarcinogenesis. Elimination of liver cancer stem cells in liver cancer could result in the degeneration of downstream cells, which makes them potential targets for liver cancer therapies. Therefore, liver stem cells could represent a new target for therapeutic approaches to liver cancer in the near future. PMID:25426254

Xu, Lei-Bo; Liu, Chao

2014-01-01

455

Role of liver stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Liver cancer is an aggressive disease with a high mortality rate. Management of liver cancer is strongly dependent on the tumor stage and underlying liver disease. Unfortunately, most cases are discovered when the cancer is already advanced, missing the opportunity for surgical resection. Thus, an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for liver cancer initiation and progression will facilitate the detection of more reliable tumor markers and the development of new small molecules for targeted therapy of liver cancer. Recently, there is increasing evidence for the "cancer stem cell hypothesis", which postulates that liver cancer originates from the malignant transformation of liver stem/progenitor cells (liver cancer stem cells). This cancer stem cell model has important significance for understanding the basic biology of liver cancer and has profound importance for the development of new strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the role of liver stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis. Our review of the literature shows that identification of the cellular origin and the signaling pathways involved is challenging issues in liver cancer with pivotal implications in therapeutic perspectives. Although the dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes/cholangiocytes in hepatocarcinogenesis cannot be excluded, neoplastic transformation of a stem cell subpopulation more easily explains hepatocarcinogenesis. Elimination of liver cancer stem cells in liver cancer could result in the degeneration of downstream cells, which makes them potential targets for liver cancer therapies. Therefore, liver stem cells could represent a new target for therapeutic approaches to liver cancer in the near future. PMID:25426254

Xu, Lei-Bo; Liu, Chao

2014-11-26

456

Regulation of breast cancer stem cell features  

PubMed Central

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are rare, tumour-initiating cells that exhibit stem cell properties: capacity of self-renewal, pluripotency, highly tumorigenic potential, and resistance to therapy. Cancer stem cells have been characterised and isolated from many cancers, including breast cancer. Developmental pathways, such as the Wnt/?-catenin, Notch/?-secretase/Jagged, Shh (sonic hedgehog), and BMP signalling pathways, which direct proliferation and differentiation of normal stem cells, have emerged as major signalling pathways that contribute to the self-renewal of stem and/or progenitor cells in a variety of organs and cancers. Deregulation of these signalling pathways is frequently linked to an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and breast CSCs often possess properties of cells that have undergone the EMT process. Signalling networks mediated by microRNAs and EMT-inducing transcription factors tie the EMT process to regulatory networks that maintain “stemness”. Recent studies have elucidated epigenetic mechanisms that control pluripotency and stemness, which allows an assessment on how embryonic and normal tissue stem cells are deregulated during cancerogenesis to give rise to CSCs. Epigenetic-based mechanisms are reversible, and the possibility of “resetting” the abnormal cancer epigenome by applying pharmacological compounds targeting epigenetic enzymes is a promising new therapeutic strategy. Chemoresistance of CSCs is frequently driven by various mechanisms, including aberrant expression/activity of ABC transporters, aldehyde dehydrogenase and anti-oncogenic proteins (i.e. BCL2, B-cell lymphoma-2), enhanced DNA damage response, activation of pro-survival signalling pathways, and epigenetic deregulations. Despite controversy surrounding the CSC hypothesis, there is substantial evidence for their role in cancer, and a number of drugs intended to specifically target CSCs have entered clinical trials.

Kaminska, Bozena

2015-01-01

457

Stem cells and cancer in the aerodigestive tract.  

PubMed

Recently, there have been significant advances in our knowledge of stem cells found in epithelial tissues. In particular, novel stem cell markers have been identified that for the first time identify multipotential cells; a required characteristic of a stem cell. The scarcity of cancer stem cells has been questioned. Current dogma states that they are rare, but novel research has suggested that this may not be the case. Here I review the latest literature on stem cells, particularly so-called cancer stem cells present in tumours of the respiratory tract and colorectum. I discuss current thinking on how stem cells develop into cancer stem cells, how they protect themselves from doing so, and whether cancer stem cells express unique markers that can be used to detect them. Finally, I attempt to put into perspective these latest advances in cancer stem cell biology from the viewpoint of perhaps more effective cancer therapies. PMID:19775616

Alison, Malcolm R

2009-09-01

458

Stemming the Degeneration: IVD Stem Cells and Stem Cell Regenerative Therapy for Degenerative Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

The intervertebral disc (IVD) is immensely important for the integrity of vertebral column function. The highly specialized IVD functions to confer flexibility and tensile strength to the spine and endures various types of biomechanical force. Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a prevalent musculoskeletal disorder and is the major cause of low back pain and includes the more severe degenerative lumbar scoliosis, disc herniation and spinal stenosis. DDD is a multifactorial disorder whereby an imbalance of anabolic and catabolic factors, or alterations to cellular composition, or biophysical stimuli and genetic background can all play a role in its genesis. However, our comprehension of IVD formation and the