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1

Locally induced neural stem cells\\/pluripotent stem cells for in vivo cell replacement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural stem cells hold the key to innovative new treatments for age-associated degeneration and traumatic injury to the brain and spinal cord. We hypothesized that the in vivo induced pluripotent stem cells or neural stem cells through \\

Ti-Fei Yuan; Oscar Arias-Carrión

2008-01-01

2

Prospects for replacement of auditory neurons by stem cells.  

PubMed

Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by degeneration of hair cells or auditory neurons. Spiral ganglion cells, the primary afferent neurons of the auditory system, are patterned during development and send out projections to hair cells and to the brainstem under the control of largely unknown guidance molecules. The neurons do not regenerate after loss and even damage to their projections tends to be permanent. The genesis of spiral ganglion neurons and their synapses forms a basis for regenerative approaches. In this review we critically present the current experimental findings on auditory neuron replacement. We discuss the latest advances with a focus on (a) exogenous stem cell transplantation into the cochlea for neural replacement, (b) expression of local guidance signals in the cochlea after loss of auditory neurons, (c) the possibility of neural replacement from an endogenous cell source, and (d) functional changes from cell engraftment. PMID:23370457

Shi, Fuxin; Edge, Albert S B

2013-03-01

3

Stem cells in brain diseases: From cell replacement to disease modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurological diseases are recognized as one of the most significant burdens of the modern society. Therefore, a new therapeutic\\u000a approach applicable to nervous system represents priority of today’s medicine. A rapid development of stem cell technology\\u000a in the last two decades introduced a possibility to regenerate disease-affected nervous tissue. In this vein, stem cells are\\u000a envisioned as a replacement for

Nina Kosi; Dinko Mitre?i?

2011-01-01

4

Stem cell therapy. Use of differentiated pluripotent stem cells as replacement therapy for treating disease.  

PubMed

Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) directed to various cell fates holds promise as source material for treating numerous disorders. The availability of precisely differentiated PSC-derived cells will dramatically affect blood component and hematopoietic stem cell therapies and should facilitate treatment of diabetes, some forms of liver disease and neurologic disorders, retinal diseases, and possibly heart disease. Although an unlimited supply of specific cell types is needed, other barriers must be overcome. This review of the state of cell therapies highlights important challenges. Successful cell transplantation will require optimizing the best cell type and site for engraftment, overcoming limitations to cell migration and tissue integration, and occasionally needing to control immunologic reactivity, as well as a number of other challenges. Collaboration among scientists, clinicians, and industry is critical for generating new stem cell-based therapies. PMID:25146295

Fox, Ira J; Daley, George Q; Goldman, Steven A; Huard, Johnny; Kamp, Timothy J; Trucco, Massimo

2014-08-22

5

Adult subventricular zone neural stem cells as a potential source of dopaminergic replacement neurons  

PubMed Central

Clinical trials engrafting human fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue have demonstrated, in principle, that cell replacement therapy provides substantial long-lasting improvement of motor impairments generated by Parkinson's Disease (PD). The use of fetal tissue is not practical for widespread clinical implementation of this therapy, but stem cells are a promising alternative source for obtaining replacement cells. The ideal stem cell source has yet to be established and, in this review, we discuss the potential of neural stem cells in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) as an autologous source of replacement cells. We identify three key challenges for further developing this potential source of replacement cells: (1) improving survival of transplanted cells, (2) suppressing glial progenitor proliferation and survival, and (3) developing methods to efficiently produce dopaminergic neurons. Subventricular neural stem cells naturally produce a dopaminergic interneuron phenotype that has an apparent lack of vulnerability to PD-mediated degeneration. We also discuss whether olfactory bulb dopaminergic neurons derived from adult SVZ neural stem cells are a suitable source for cell replacement strategies. PMID:24574954

Cave, John W.; Wang, Meng; Baker, Harriet

2014-01-01

6

Characterization of Spermatogonial Stem Cells Lacking Intercellular Bridges and Genetic Replacement of a Mutation in Spermatogonial Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells have a potential of gene therapy for regenerative medicine. Among various stem cells, spermatogonial stem cells have a unique characteristic in which neighboring cells can be connected by intercellular bridges. However, the roles of intercellular bridges for stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and proliferation remain to be elucidated. Here, we show not only the characteristics of testis-expressed gene 14

Naoki Iwamori; Tokuko Iwamori; Martin M. Matzuk

2012-01-01

7

Stem cell transplantation via the cochlear lateral wall for replacement of degenerated spiral ganglion neurons.  

PubMed

Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are poorly regenerated in the mammalian inner ear. Because of this, stem cell transplantation has been used to replace injured SGNs, and several studies have addressed this approach. However, the difficulty of delivering stem cells into the cochlea and encouraging their migration to Rosenthal's canal (RC), where the SGNs are located, severely restricts this therapeutic strategy. In this study, we attempted to establish a new stem cell transplantation route into the cochlea via the cochlear lateral wall (CLW). First, we tested the precision of this route by injecting Fluorogold into the CLW and next assessed its safety by mock surgeries. Then, using a degenerated SGN animal model, we transplanted neural stem cells (NSCs), derived from the olfactory bulb of C57BL/6-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice, via the CLW route and examined the cells' distribution in the cochlea. We found the CLW transplantation route is precise and safe. In addition, NSCs migrated into RC with a high efficiency and differentiated into neurons in a degenerated SGN rat model after the CLW transplantation. This result revealed that the basilar membrane (BM) may have crevices permitting the migration of NSCs. The result of this study demonstrates a novel route for cell transplantation to the inner ear, which is important for the replacement of degenerated SGNs and may contribute to the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:23403006

Zhang, Peng-Zhi; He, Ya; Jiang, Xing-Wang; Chen, Fu-Quan; Chen, Yang; Shi, Li; Chen, Jun; Chen, Xin; Li, Xu; Xue, Tao; Wang, Yafei; Mi, Wen-Juan; Qiu, Jian-Hua

2013-04-01

8

Differential rates of replacement of human dermal dendritic cells and macrophages during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

Animal models of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been used to analyze the turnover of bone marrow–derived cells and to demonstrate the critical role of recipient antigen-presenting cells (APC) in graft versus host disease (GVHD). In humans, the phenotype and lineage relationships of myeloid-derived tissue APC remain incompletely understood. It has also been proposed that the risk of acute GVHD, which extends over many months, is related to the protracted survival of certain recipient APC. Human dermis contains three principal subsets of CD45+HLA-DR+ cells: CD1a+CD14? DC, CD1a?CD14+ DC, and CD1a?CD14+FXIIIa+ macrophages. In vitro, each subset has characteristic properties. After transplantation, both CD1a+ and CD14+ DC are rapidly depleted and replaced by donor cells, but recipient macrophages can be found in GVHD lesions and may persist for many months. Macrophages isolated from normal dermis secrete proinflammatory cytokines. Although they stimulate little proliferation of naive or memory CD4+ T cells, macrophages induce cytokine expression in memory CD4+ T cells and activation and proliferation of CD8+ T cells. These observations suggest that dermal macrophages and DC are from distinct lineages and that persistent recipient macrophages, although unlikely to initiate alloreactivity, may contribute to GVHD by sustaining the responses of previously activated T cells. PMID:19171766

Haniffa, Muzlifah; Ginhoux, Florent; Wang, Xiao-Nong; Bigley, Venetia; Abel, Michal; Dimmick, Ian; Bullock, Sarah; Grisotto, Marcos; Booth, Trevor; Taub, Peter; Hilkens, Catharien; Merad, Miriam

2009-01-01

9

Short stem shoulder replacement  

PubMed Central

Context: It is agreed that it is important to anatomically reproduce the proximal humeral anatomy when performing a prosthetic shoulder replacement. This can be difficult with a long stemmed prosthesis, in particular if there is little relationship of the metaphysis to the humeral shaft. The ‘short stem’ prosthesis can deal with this problem. Aims: A prospective study assessed the results of total shoulder arthroplasty using a short stem humeral prosthesis, a ceramic humeral head, and a pegged cemented polyethylene glenoid. Materials and methods: Patients with primary shoulder osteoarthritis were recruited into this prospective trial and pre-operatively had the ASES, Constant, SPADI, and DASH scores recorded. The patients were clinically reviewed at the two weeks, eight weeks, one year, and two year mark with completion of a data form. Radiological evaluation was at the eight week, one year and two year follow-up. At the one and two year follow-up the satisfaction rating, the range of passive and active motion, Constant, ASES, SPADI, DASH and pain results were recorded and analysed with SPPS 20. Results: During the study period 97 short stem, ceramic head total shoulder replacements were carried out. At the time of follow-up 12 were two years from operation and 38 one year from operation. Active elevation was overall mean 160 degrees. Constant scores were 76 at 1 year, and 86 at 2 years, ASES 88 and 93, and satisfaction 96% and 98% respectively at one and 2 year follow up. There were no problems during insertion of the humeral prosthesis, or any radiolucent lines or movement of the prosthesis on later radiographs. Conclusion: The short stem prosthesis had no complications, and on follow up radiographs good bone fixation. These fairly short term clinical results were overall good. PMID:25258497

Bell, Simon N.; Coghlan, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

10

Target frequency and integration pattern for insertion and replacement vectors in embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Gene targeting has been used to direct mutations into specific chromosomal loci in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. The altered locus can be studied in vivo with chimeras and, if the mutated cells contribute to the germ line, in their offspring. Although homologous recombination is the basis for the widely used gene targeting techniques, to date, the mechanism of homologous recombination between a vector and the chromosomal target in mammalian cells is essentially unknown. Here we look at the nature of gene targeting in ES cells by comparing an insertion vector with replacement vectors that target hprt. We found that the insertion vector targeted up to ninefold more frequently than a replacement vector with the same length of homologous sequence. We also observed that the majority of clones targeted with replacement vectors did not recombine as predicted. Analysis of the recombinant structures showed that the external heterologous sequences were often incorporated into the target locus. This observation can be explained by either single reciprocal recombination (vector insertion) of a recircularized vector or double reciprocal recombination/gene conversion (gene replacement) of a vector concatemer. Thus, single reciprocal recombination of an insertion vector occurs 92-fold more frequently than double reciprocal recombination of a replacement vector with crossover junctions on both the long and short arms. PMID:1875936

Hasty, P; Rivera-Pérez, J; Chang, C; Bradley, A

1991-09-01

11

Stem Cells  

MedlinePLUS

Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

12

Directing Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into a Neurosensory Lineage for Auditory Neuron Replacement  

PubMed Central

Abstract Emerging therapies for sensorineural hearing loss include replacing damaged auditory neurons (ANs) using stem cells. Ultimately, it is important that these replacement cells can be patient-matched to avoid immunorejection. As human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be obtained directly from the patient, they offer an opportunity to generate patient-matched neurons for transplantation. Here, we used an established neural induction protocol to differentiate two hiPSC lines (iPS1 and iPS2) and one human embryonic stem cell line (hESC; H9) toward a neurosensory lineage in vitro. Immunocytochemistry and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the expression of key markers involved in AN development at defined time points of differentiation. The hiPSC- and hESC-derived neurosensory progenitors expressed the dorsal hindbrain marker (PAX7), otic placodal marker (PAX2), proneurosensory marker (SOX2), ganglion neuronal markers (NEUROD1, BRN3A, ISLET1, ßIII-tubulin, Neurofilament kDa 160), and sensory AN markers (GATA3 and VGLUT1) over the time course examined. The hiPSC- and hESC-derived neurosensory progenitors had the highest expression levels of the sensory neural markers at 35 days in vitro. Furthermore, the neurons generated from this assay were found to be electrically active. While all cell lines analyzed produced functional neurosensory-like progenitors, variabilities in the levels of marker expression were observed between hiPSC lines and within samples of the same cell line, when compared with the hESC controls. Overall, these findings indicate that this neural assay was capable of differentiating hiPSCs toward a neurosensory lineage but emphasize the need for improving the consistency in the differentiation of hiPSCs into the required lineages. PMID:25126480

Gunewardene, Niliksha; Bergen, Nicole Van; Crombie, Duncan; Needham, Karina; Dottori, Mirella

2014-01-01

13

Directing human induced pluripotent stem cells into a neurosensory lineage for auditory neuron replacement.  

PubMed

Emerging therapies for sensorineural hearing loss include replacing damaged auditory neurons (ANs) using stem cells. Ultimately, it is important that these replacement cells can be patient-matched to avoid immunorejection. As human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be obtained directly from the patient, they offer an opportunity to generate patient-matched neurons for transplantation. Here, we used an established neural induction protocol to differentiate two hiPSC lines (iPS1 and iPS2) and one human embryonic stem cell line (hESC; H9) toward a neurosensory lineage in vitro. Immunocytochemistry and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the expression of key markers involved in AN development at defined time points of differentiation. The hiPSC- and hESC-derived neurosensory progenitors expressed the dorsal hindbrain marker (PAX7), otic placodal marker (PAX2), proneurosensory marker (SOX2), ganglion neuronal markers (NEUROD1, BRN3A, ISLET1, ßIII-tubulin, Neurofilament kDa 160), and sensory AN markers (GATA3 and VGLUT1) over the time course examined. The hiPSC- and hESC-derived neurosensory progenitors had the highest expression levels of the sensory neural markers at 35 days in vitro. Furthermore, the neurons generated from this assay were found to be electrically active. While all cell lines analyzed produced functional neurosensory-like progenitors, variabilities in the levels of marker expression were observed between hiPSC lines and within samples of the same cell line, when compared with the hESC controls. Overall, these findings indicate that this neural assay was capable of differentiating hiPSCs toward a neurosensory lineage but emphasize the need for improving the consistency in the differentiation of hiPSCs into the required lineages. PMID:25126480

Gunewardene, Niliksha; Bergen, Nicole Van; Crombie, Duncan; Needham, Karina; Dottori, Mirella; Nayagam, Bryony A

2014-08-01

14

Phenotypic Evolutionary Models in Stem Cell Biology: Replacement, Quiescence, and Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic evolutionary models have been used with great success in many areas of biology, but thus far have not been applied to the study of stem cells except for investigations of cancer. We develop a framework that allows such modeling techniques to be applied to stem cells more generally. The fundamental modeling structure is the stochastic kinetics of stem cells

Marc Mangel; Michael B. Bonsall; Mark Rees

2008-01-01

15

Human umbilical cord blood serum can replace fetal bovine serum in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to differentiate into different cell types has opened up the possibility of using these cells clinically to treat a variety of disorders. In this study we describe the use of human umbilical cord blood serum (CBS) as a replacement for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for culturing MSC from different sources. MSC from human

P. Shetty; K. Bharucha; V. Tanavde

2007-01-01

16

Current applications of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue replacement in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery  

PubMed Central

Cellular therapy utilizing adult mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) may very well revolutionize the treatment of a variety of head and neck diseases through the restoration of normal structure and function. Transplanting allogeneic or autologous MSCs into damaged tissues can serve multiple regenerative functions through their self-renewal, differentiation capacity, immune modulation and secretion of bioactive molecules. Further, trophic factors expressed by MSCs have been shown to influence their microenvironment through the promotion of extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis and wound healing needed to regenerate or replace injured tissues. Although clinical applications of MSC based therapies in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery are still in their infancy, efforts are being made to understand and exploit MSCs for tissue repair as well as engineering strategies. In this review, we highlight pre clinical and clinical investigations employing MSC based therapies for the reconstruction of bone, cartilage, soft tissue and vocal fold defects. PMID:23671810

King, Suzanne N; Hanson, Summer E; Hematti, Peiman; Thibeault, Susan L

2012-01-01

17

Establishment of Alternative Culture Method for Spermatogonial Stem Cells Using Knockout Serum Replacement  

PubMed Central

Since spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are capable of both self-renewal and differentiation to daughter cells for subsequent spermatogenesis, the development of an efficient in vitro culture system is essential for studies related to spermatogenesis. Although the currently available system is serum-free and contains only chemically-defined components, it highly relies upon bovine serum albumin (BSA), a component with batch-to-batch quality variations similar to those of fetal bovine serum. Thus, we searched for an alternative BSA-free culture system that preserved the properties of SSCs. In this study, we utilized Knockout Serum Replacement (KSR) in the SSC culture medium, as a substitute for BSA. The results demonstrated that KSR supported the continuous growth of SSCs in vitro and the SSC activity in vivo without BSA, in a feeder-cell combination with mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The addition of BSA to KSR further facilitated cell cycle progression, whereas a transplantation assay revealed that the addition of BSA did not affect the number of SSCs in vivo. The combination of KSR with BSA also allowed the elimination of GFRA1 and FGF2, and the reduction of the GDNF concentration from 20 ng/ml to 5 ng/ml, while maintaining the growth rate and the expression of SSC markers. Furthermore, KSR was also useful with SSCs from non-DBA/2 strains, such as C57BL/6 and ICR. These results suggested that KSR is an effective substitute for BSA for long-term in vitro cultures of SSCs. Therefore, this method is practical for various studies related to SSCs, including spermatogenesis and germ stem cell biology. PMID:24204931

Aoshima, Keisuke; Baba, Ai; Makino, Yoshinori; Okada, Yuki

2013-01-01

18

Use of double-replacement gene targeting to replace the murine alpha-lactalbumin gene with its human counterpart in embryonic stem cells and mice.  

PubMed

The mouse alpha-lactalbumin gene has been replaced with the human gene by two consecutive rounds of gene targeting in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT)-deficient feeder-independent murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. One mouse alpha-lactalbumin allele was first replaced by an HPRT minigene which was in turn replaced by human alpha-lactalbumin. The end result is a clean exchange of defined DNA fragments with no other DNA remaining at the target locus. Targeted ES cells at each stage remained capable of contributing efficiently to the germ line of chimeric animals. Double replacement using HPRT-deficient ES cells and the HPRT selection system is therefore a powerful and flexible method of targeting specific alterations to animal genes. A typical strategy for future use would be to generate a null mutation which could then be used to produce multiple second-step alterations at the same locus. PMID:8289781

Stacey, A; Schnieke, A; McWhir, J; Cooper, J; Colman, A; Melton, D W

1994-02-01

19

Human Adult Dental Pulp Stem Cells Enhance Poststroke Functional Recovery Through Non-Neural Replacement Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), derived from third molar teeth, are multipotent and have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under inductive conditions both in vitro and following transplantation into the avian embryo. In this study, we demonstrate that the intracerebral transplantation of human DPSCs 24 hours following focal cerebral ischemia in a rodent model resulted in significant improvement in forelimb sensorimotor function at 4 weeks post-treatment. At this time, 2.3 ± 0.7% of engrafted cells had survived in the poststroke brain and demonstrated targeted migration toward the stroke lesion. In the peri-infarct striatum, transplanted DPSCs differentiated into astrocytes in preference to neurons. Our data suggest that the dominant mechanism of action underlying DPSC treatment that resulted in enhanced functional recovery is unlikely to be due to neural replacement. Functional improvement is more likely to be mediated through DPSC-dependent paracrine effects. This study provides preclinical evidence for the future use of human DPSCs in cell therapy to improve outcome in stroke patients. PMID:23197777

Leong, Wai Khay; Henshall, Tanya L.; Arthur, Agnes; Kremer, Karlea L.; Lewis, Martin D.; Helps, Stephen C.; Field, John; Hamilton-Bruce, Monica A.; Warming, Scott; Manavis, Jim; Vink, Robert; Gronthos, Stan

2012-01-01

20

Human Neural Stem Cell Replacement Therapy for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis by Spinal Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Mutation in the ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase (SOD1) causes an inherited form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Mutant synthesis in motor neurons drives disease onset and early disease progression. Previous experimental studies have shown that spinal grafting of human fetal spinal neural stem cells (hNSCs) into the lumbar spinal cord of SOD1G93A rats leads to a moderate therapeutical effect as evidenced by local ?-motoneuron sparing and extension of lifespan. The aim of the present study was to analyze the degree of therapeutical effect of hNSCs once grafted into the lumbar spinal ventral horn in presymptomatic immunosuppressed SOD1G93A rats and to assess the presence and functional integrity of the descending motor system in symptomatic SOD1G93A animals. Methods/Principal Findings Presymptomatic SOD1G93A rats (60–65 days old) received spinal lumbar injections of hNSCs. After cell grafting, disease onset, disease progression and lifespan were analyzed. In separate symptomatic SOD1G93A rats, the presence and functional conductivity of descending motor tracts (corticospinal and rubrospinal) was analyzed by spinal surface recording electrodes after electrical stimulation of the motor cortex. Silver impregnation of lumbar spinal cord sections and descending motor axon counting in plastic spinal cord sections were used to validate morphologically the integrity of descending motor tracts. Grafting of hNSCs into the lumbar spinal cord of SOD1G93A rats protected ?-motoneurons in the vicinity of grafted cells, provided transient functional improvement, but offered no protection to ?-motoneuron pools distant from grafted lumbar segments. Analysis of motor-evoked potentials recorded from the thoracic spinal cord of symptomatic SOD1G93A rats showed a near complete loss of descending motor tract conduction, corresponding to a significant (50–65%) loss of large caliber descending motor axons. Conclusions/Significance These data demonstrate that in order to achieve a more clinically-adequate treatment, cell-replacement/gene therapy strategies will likely require both spinal and supraspinal targets. PMID:22916141

Hefferan, Michael P.; Galik, Jan; Kakinohana, Osamu; Sekerkova, Gabriela; Santucci, Camila; Marsala, Silvia; Navarro, Roman; Hruska-Plochan, Marian; Johe, Karl; Feldman, Eva; Cleveland, Don W.; Marsala, Martin

2012-01-01

21

Generation of cells for cell replacement therapy: Specification of neural precursors in vivo and in neural stem cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell replacement therapy of neurodegenerative disorders aims to substitute the degenerating cells with new functional neurons. Clinical trails with patients suffering from Parkinson's or Huntington's disease have provided proof-of-principle that neural precursors taken from the developing human brain can survive upon grafting to the diseased brain and provide long-lasting symptomatic relief. However, further development of this type of therapy critically

Josephine Hebsgaard

22

Stem Cell Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... Center Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Information Frequently Asked Questions What are stem cells? ... policy? More FAQs Links to related resources Stem Cell Research Center for Regenerative Medicine NIH Stem Cell ...

23

Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell States, Fates,  

E-print Network

and Stem Cell Research, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden 4Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, LundCell Stem Cell Review Stem Cell States, Fates, and the Rules of Attraction Tariq Enver,1 Martin

Peterson, Carsten

24

Stem Cells and Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Can Stem Cells Help my Medical Condition? Stem Cell Information Frequently Asked Questions What are stem cells? ... policy? More FAQs Links to related resources Stem Cell Research Center for Regenerative Medicine NIH Stem Cell ...

25

Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course  

E-print Network

Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course Ceské Budjovice January 2013 #12;Pluripotent (stem) cells (Embryonic, Adult, Induced,...?) Promise for biomedicine ·Replacement therapy ·Drug development(s) of differentiation ·Symmetric/asymmetric division ? ? ? ? #12;Where can we find the origins of stem cell research

South Bohemia, University of

26

Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course  

E-print Network

Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course Ceské Budjovice November 2013 #12;Pluripotent (stem) cells (Embryonic, Adult, Induced,...?) Promise for biomedicine ·Replacement therapy ·Drug development(s) of differentiation ·Symmetric/asymmetric division ? ? ? ? #12;Where can we find the origins of stem cell research

South Bohemia, University of

27

Stem cell and precursor cell therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies for cell replacement therapy have been guided by the success in the hematopoietic stem cell field. In this review,\\u000a we discuss the basis of this success and examine whether this stem cell transplant model can be replicated in other systems\\u000a where stem cell therapy is being evaluated. We conclude that identifying the most primitive stem cell and using it

Jingli Cai; Mahendra S. Rao

2002-01-01

28

Immune Responses to Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The demonstrated capacity and potential of pluripotent stem cells to repair the damaged tissues holds great promise in development\\u000a of novel cell replacement therapeutics for treating various chronic and degenerative diseases. However, previous reports show\\u000a that stem cell therapy, in autologous and allogeneic settings, triggers immune responses to stem cells as shown by lymphocyte\\u000a infiltration and inflammation. Therefore, an important

Xiao-Feng Yang; Hong Wang

29

It is hoped that stem cells will provide an inexhaustible source of neu-rons and glia for therapies aimed at cell replacement or neuroprotection  

E-print Network

application. The develop- ment of stem-cell therapies will require a detailed knowledge of dis- ease pathology neurological disorders for which stem-cell- based therapy has raised particular interest. We describe the ways the progression of the disease. To be clinically competitive, a stem-cell-based therapy must lead to long

Cai, Long

30

Notch pathway activation can replace the requirement for Wnt4 and Wnt9b in mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition of nephron stem cells  

PubMed Central

The primary excretory organ in vertebrates is the kidney, which is responsible for blood filtration, solute homeostasis and pH balance. These functions are carried out by specialized epithelial cells organized into tubules called nephrons. Each of these cell types arise during embryonic development from a mesenchymal stem cell pool through a process of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) that requires sequential action of specific Wnt signals. Induction by Wnt9b directs cells to exit the stem cell niche and express Wnt4, which is both necessary and sufficient for the formation of epithelia. Without either factor, MET fails, nephrons do not form and newborn mice die owing to kidney failure. Ectopic Notch activation in stem cells induces mass differentiation and exhaustion of the stem cell pool. To investigate whether this reflected an interaction between Notch and Wnt, we employed a novel gene manipulation strategy in cultured embryonic kidneys. We show that Notch activation is capable of inducing MET in the absence of both Wnt4 and Wnt9b. Following MET, the presence of Notch directs cells primarily to the proximal tubule fate. Only nephron stem cells have the ability to undergo MET in response to Wnt or Notch, as activation in the closely related stromal mesenchyme has no inductive effect. These data demonstrate that stem cells for renal epithelia are uniquely poised to undergo MET, and that Notch activation can replace key inductive Wnt signals in this process. After MET, Notch provides an instructive signal directing cells towards the proximal tubule lineage at the expense of other renal epithelial fates. PMID:21852398

Boyle, Scott C.; Kim, Mijin; Valerius, M. Todd; McMahon, Andrew P.; Kopan, Raphael

2011-01-01

31

Stem Cells Branch Out  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heals all manner of ailments, unlimited quantities, tailor-made for you. ⦠No, it's not an advertisement for snake oil but may represent the promise of stem cellsâÂÂcells that have the potential to produce various cell types that make up the body and might therefore provide replacements for tissues damaged by age, trauma, or disease. But the work raises numerous questions as well: Can such promise be true? What is the ethical cost of such developments? Who will fund the necessary R&D? This article introduces a special issue on stem cells.

Pamela Hines (AAAS;); Beverly Purnell (AAAS;); Jean Marx (AAAS;)

2000-02-25

32

Stem Cell Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every living thing is made up of cells — including the human body. ... can become new cells like this. Blood Stem Cells When you hear about stem cell transplants, they ...

33

Conditional deletion of STAT5 in adult mouse hematopoietic stem cells causes loss of quiescence and permits efficient nonablative stem cell replacement  

PubMed Central

Currently, there is a major need in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation to develop reduced-intensity regimens that do not cause DNA damage and associated toxicities and that allow a wider range of patients to receive therapy. Cytokine receptor signals through c-Kit and c-Mpl can modulate HSC quiescence and engraftment, but the intracellular signals and transcription factors that mediate these effects during transplantation have not been defined. Here we show that loss of one allele of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) in nonablated adult mutant mice permitted engraftment with wild-type HSC. Conditional deletion of STAT5 using Mx1-Cre caused maximal reduction in STAT5 mRNA (> 97%) and rapidly decreased quiescence-associated c-Mpl downstream targets (Tie-2, p57), increased HSC cycling, and gradually reduced survival and depleted the long-term HSC pool. Host deletion of STAT5 was persistent and permitted efficient donor long-term HSC engraftment in primary and secondary hosts in the absence of ablative conditioning. Overall, these studies establish proof of principle for targeting of STAT5 as novel transplantation conditioning and demonstrate, for the first time, that STAT5, a mitogenic factor in most cell types, including hematopoietic progenitors, is a key transcriptional regulator that maintains quiescence of HSC during steady-state hematopoiesis. PMID:19258595

Wang, Zhengqi; Li, Geqiang; Tse, William

2009-01-01

34

Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from neural stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human somatic cells by expression of defined transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4, Nanog and Lin28) is a powerful tool for conducting basic research and investigating the potential of these cells for replacement therapies. In our laboratory, iPS cells have been generated from adult mouse neural stem cells (NSCs)

Jeong Beom Kim; Holm Zaehres; Marcos J Araúzo-Bravo; Hans R Schöler

2009-01-01

35

Expansion of human pluripotent stem cells with synthetic oolymer PMVE-alt-MA  

E-print Network

Prospects for stem cell-based therapy. Cell 132, Couture,stem cell state may lead to advancement in cell replacement therapies.stem cells (hPSCs) promises to treat degenerative diseases with cell replacement therapies.

Chu, Wai Keung

2011-01-01

36

Stemming vision loss with stem cells  

PubMed Central

Dramatic advances in the field of stem cell research have raised the possibility of using these cells to treat a variety of diseases. The eye is an excellent target organ for such cell-based therapeutics due to its ready accessibility, the prevalence of vasculo- and neurodegenerative diseases affecting vision, and the availability of animal models to demonstrate proof of concept. In fact, stem cell therapies have already been applied to the treatment of disease affecting the ocular surface, leading to preservation of vision. Diseases in the back of the eye, such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and inherited retinal degenerations, present greater challenges, but rapidly emerging stem cell technologies hold the promise of autologous grafts to stabilize vision loss through cellular replacement or paracrine rescue effects. PMID:20811157

Marchetti, Valentina; Krohne, Tim U.; Friedlander, David F.; Friedlander, Martin

2010-01-01

37

Epithelial Cells Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Keywords Epithelial Cells Keratins Stem Cells » Prof. Thomas M. Magin Epithelia protect the body, altered cell adhesion and signal- ling. As no molecular therapy for these conditions is available, one that the co-chaperone CHIP can remove mutant aggregated keratins in a cell culture model of EBS, leading

SchĂĽler, Axel

38

Dental Pulp Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postnatal stem cells have been isolated from a variety of tissues. These stem cells are thought to possess great therapeutic potential for repairing damaged and\\/or defective tissues. Clinically, hematopoietic stem cells have been successfully used for decades in the treatment of various diseases and disorders. However, the therapeutic potential of other postnatal stem cell populations has yet to be realized,

He Liu; Stan Gronthos; Songtao Shi

2006-01-01

39

Stem cells in urology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem

Tamer Aboushwareb; Anthony Atala

2008-01-01

40

Toward ‘SMART’ stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell research is at the heart of regenerative medicine, which holds great promise for the treatment of many devastating disorders. However, in addition to hurdles posed by well-publicized ethical issues, this emerging field presents many biological challenges. What is a stem cell? How are embryonic stem cells different from adult stem cells? What are the physiological bases for therapeutically

T Cheng

2008-01-01

41

Stem Cell Image Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Stem Cell Resources website is "to provide timely, reliable, high-quality and scientifically credible stem cell information for the educational community worldwide." This section of their site, the Stem Cell Image Library, presents a collection of microscope images of stem cells in various phases.

2012-11-13

42

Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress Rapid Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Automated implementations of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their deriva- tives further increase interest in strategies the marked improvements that control of feed- back signaling can offer primary stem cell culture

Zandstra, Peter W.

43

Stem cells supporting other stem cells  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cell therapies are increasingly prevalent for the treatment of damaged or diseased tissues, but most of the improvements observed to date are attributed to the ability of stem cells to produce paracrine factors that have a trophic effect on existing tissue cells, improving their functional capacity. It is now clear that this ability to produce trophic factors is a normal and necessary function for some stem cell populations. In vivo adult stem cells are thought to self-renew due to local signals from the microenvironment where they live, the niche. Several niches have now been identified which harbor multiple stem cell populations. In three of these niches – the Drosophila testis, the bulge of the mammalian hair follicle, and the mammalian bone marrow – one type of stem cell has been found to produce factors that contribute to the maintenance of a second stem cell population in the shared niche. In this review, I will examine the architecture of these three niches and discuss the molecular signals involved. Together, these examples establish a new paradigm for stem cell behavior, that stem cells can promote the maintenance of other stem cells. PMID:24348512

Leatherman, Judith

2013-01-01

44

Stem Cell Biobanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term\\u000a storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific\\u000a clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed\\u000a through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment.

Silvana Bardelli

2010-01-01

45

Umbilical Cord Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue\\u000a types (1–3). Generally, stem cells are categorized as one of three types: embryonic stem cells (ES), embryonic germ cells (EG), or adult\\u000a stem cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastula (Fig. 1). They

Kathy E. Mitchell

46

Stem cell culture engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells have the capacity for self renewal and undergo multilineage differentiation. Stem cells isolated from both blastocysts and adult tissues represent valuable sources of cells for applications in cell therapy, drug screening and tissue engineering. While expanding stem cells in culture, it is critical to maintain their self?renewal and differentiation capacity. In generating particular cell types for specific applications,

Gargi Seth; Catherine M. Verfaillie

2005-01-01

47

Cell Stem Cell Perspective  

E-print Network

, genetic vari- ations in iPSCs may originate from the heterogeneous genetic makeup of source cell novo variations (Figure 1B). Third, like ESCs, prolonged culturing of iPSCs may introduce or select in in vitro cultured PSCs, including iPSCs and ESCs. One comprehensive study by the International Stem Cell

Zhang, Yi

48

Stem cells, retinal ganglion cells and glaucoma.  

PubMed

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) represent an essential neuronal cell type for vision. These cells receive inputs from light-sensing photoreceptors via retinal interneurons and then relay these signals to the brain for further processing. RGC diseases that result in cell death, e.g. glaucoma, often lead to permanent damage since mammalian nerves do not regenerate. Stem cell differentiation can generate cells needed for replacement or can be used to generate cells capable of secreting protective factors to promote survival. In addition, stem cell-derived cells can be used in drug screening research. Here, we discuss the current state of stem cell research potential for interference in glaucoma and other optic nerve diseases with a focus on stem cell differentiation to RGCs. PMID:24732765

Sluch, Valentin M; Zack, Donald J

2014-01-01

49

Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Somatic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can differentiate to generate more specialized cell types responsible for tissue-specific\\u000a function. During development, the differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells leads to the production of specialized\\u000a somatic cells that are ultimately responsible for the structure and function of all adult tissues and organs. “Naturally”\\u000a pluripotent cells exist only at the earliest stages of

Kah Yong Tan; Francis S. Kim; Amy J. Wagers; Shane R. Mayack

50

Can low-dose preemptive valganciclovir replace standard intravenous ganciclovir treatment in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation?  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the efficacy and safety of standard intravenous ganciclovir (GCV) with low-dose oral valganciclovir (VGC) in preemptive treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in patients who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Fifty-nine adult ASCT patients with asymptomatic 68 CMV reactivations were included. For preemptive CMV treatment, VGC (900 mg/day) in 44 reactivations or GCV (5 mg/kg twice daily during the first week and once daily afterwards) in 24 CMV reactivations were administered for 21 days. Two consecutive negative results for PCR and/or CMV antigenemia were considered as treatment success. All patients with CMV reactivations were on immunosuppressive treatment. While no positivity was identified in any of the patients who received GCV on day 21, low-titer CMV positivity was noted in three of the patients in the VGC group (P = 0·264). In all three patients, VGC was continued at same dose and no positivity result was detected after 2-3 weeks. Low-grade neutropenia and high grade thrombocytopenia were significantly higher in the GCV group than in the VGC group (P = 0·018 and P = 0·04 respectively). Preemptive strategy of oral low-dose VGC appears preferable to the prevention of CMV disease in ASCT. These results require confirmation in prospective larger clinical studies. PMID:24070136

Kaynar, Leylagül; Metan, Gökhan; Gökahmeto?lu, Selma; Kurnaz, Fatih; Mumcuo?lu, Haluk; Öztürk, Ahmet; ??vg?n, Serdar; Pala, Ci?dem; Y?ld?z, Orhan; Eser, Bülent; Ünal, Ali; Çetin, Mustafa

2013-10-01

51

Cell Stem Cell Brief Report  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Brief Report Reprogramming of T Cells from Human Peripheral Blood Yuin-Han Loh,1,2,5,9,10,* 1Stem Cell Transplantation Program, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA 2Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 3

Church, George M.

52

Cell Fusion and Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Differentiation, self-renewal and the ability to readily undergo cell fusion are properties of adult and embryonic stem cells.\\u000a Spontaneous fusion between stem cells, and fusion of stem cells with various differentiated cell types, has been observed\\u000a in many in vitro and in vivo contexts. Stem cell fusion is implicated in many crucial functions during normal development\\u000a and is increasingly being

Alain Silk; Anne E. Powell; Paige S. Davies; Melissa H. Wong

53

Pluripotent stem cells and their niches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of stem cells to self-renew and to replace mature cells is fundamental to ontogeny and tissue regeneration. Stem\\u000a cells of the adult organism can be categorized as mono-, bi-, or multipotent, based on the number of mature cell types to\\u000a which they can give rise. In contrast, pluripotent stem cells of the early embryo have the ability to

M. William Lensch; Laurence Daheron; Thorsten M. Schlaeger

2006-01-01

54

Cancer stem cells - normal stem cells \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence has accumulated that cancer develops from a population of quiescent tissue committed\\/pluripotent stem cells (TCSC\\/PSC) or cells developmentally closely related to them that are distributed in various organs. To support this notio n, stem cells (SC) are long lived cells and thus may become the subject of accumulating mutations that are crucial for initiation\\/progression of cancer. More important, they

Mariusz Z. Ratajczak

2005-01-01

55

Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of

Yan Wei; Yuan Li; Chao Chen; Katharina Stoelzel; Andreas M. Kaufmann; Andreas E. Albers

2011-01-01

56

Stem cells: science, policy, and ethics  

PubMed Central

Human embryonic stem cells offer the promise of a new regenerative medicine in which damaged adult cells can be replaced with new cells. Research is needed to determine the most viable stem cell lines and reliable ways to promote the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into specific cell types (neurons, muscle cells, etc.). To create new cell lines, it is necessary to destroy preimplantation blastocysts. This has led to an intense debate that threatens to limit embryonic stem cell research. The profound ethical issues raised call for informed, dispassionate debate. PMID:15545983

Fischbach, Gerald D.; Fischbach, Ruth L.

2004-01-01

57

Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell Epigenetics: Looking Forward  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Voices Stem Cell Epigenetics: Looking Forward Epigenetics in Adult SCs The integrity of tissues is maintained by adult stem cells during adulthood. How- ever, recent work indicates that tissues often contain more than one population of stem cells that are located at distinct niches and display

Sander, Maike

58

Cell Stem Cell Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical  

E-print Network

, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA 5Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana StateCell Stem Cell Review Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical Interactions with the Extracellular.06.016 A diverse array of environmental factors contributes to the overall control of stem cell activity

Chen, Christopher S.

59

Artificial Stem Cell Niches  

PubMed Central

Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability to reproduce themselves (self-renew) and specialize (differentiate), yielding a plethora of daughter cells that maintain and regenerate tissues. In contrast to their embryonic counterparts, adult stem cells retain their unique functions only if they are in intimate contact with an instructive microenvironment, termed stem cell niche. In these niches, stem cells integrate a complex array of molecular signals that, in concert with induced cell-intrinsic regulatory networks, control their function and balance their numbers in response to physiologic demands. This progress report provides a perspective on how advanced materials technologies could be used (i) to engineer and systematically analyze specific aspects of functional stem cells niches in a controlled fashion in vitro and (ii) to target stem cell niches in vivo. Such “artificial niches” constitute potent tools for elucidating stem cell regulatory mechanisms with the capacity to directly impact the development of novel therapeutic strategies for tissue regeneration. PMID:20882496

Lutolf, Matthias P.; Blau, Helen M.

2011-01-01

60

Gene therapy: can neural stem cells deliver?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural stem cells are a self-renewing population that generates the neurons and glia of the developing brain. They can be isolated, proliferated, genetically manipulated and differentiated in vitro and reintroduced into a developing, adult or pathologically altered CNS. Neural stem cells have been considered for use in cell replacement therapies in various neurodegenerative diseases, and an unexpected and potentially valuable

Evan Y. Snyder; Jeanne F. Loring; Franz-Josef Müller

2006-01-01

61

Stem Cells and Calcium Signaling  

PubMed Central

The increasing interest in stem cell research is linked to the promise of developing treatments for many lifethreatening, debilitating diseases, and for cell replacement therapies. However, performing these therapeutic innovations with safety will only be possible when an accurate knowledge about the molecular signals that promote the desired cell fate is reached. Among these signals are transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i. Acting as an intracellular messenger, Ca2+ has a key role in cell signaling pathways in various differentiation stages of stem cells. The aim of this chapter is to present a broad overview of various moments in which Ca2+-mediated signaling is essential for the maintenance of stem cells and for promoting their development and differentiation, also focusing on their therapeutic potential. PMID:22453975

Tonelli, Fernanda M.P.; Santos, Anderson K.; Gomes, Dawidson A.; da Silva, Saulo L.; Gomes, Katia N.; Ladeira, Luiz O.

2014-01-01

62

Stem Cell 101 What is a stem cell?  

E-print Network

and stem cells found in the skin generally form skin. However, some research suggests that certain adultStem Cell 101 What is a stem cell? A stem cell is a parent cell in the body that has two specific into all types of tissue in the body ­ this is called differentiation. Where are stem cells found

Minnesota, University of

63

History and perspective of stem cell research.  

PubMed

Several types of stem cell have been discovered from germ cells, the embryo, fetus and adult. Each of these has promised to revolutionize the future of regenerative medicine through the provision of cell-replacement therapies to treat a variety of debilitating diseases. Stem cell research is politically charged, receives considerable media coverage, raises many ethical and religious debates and generates a great deal of public interest. The tremendous versatility of embryonic stem cells versus the unprecedented reports describing adult stem cell plasticity have ignited debates as to the choice of one cell type over another for future application. However, the biology of these mysterious cells have yet to be understood and a lot more basic research is needed before new therapies using stem-cell-differentiated derivatives can be applied. Stem cell research opens-up the new field of 'cell-based therapies' and, as such, several safety measures have also to be evaluated. PMID:15582541

Bongso, Ariff; Richards, Mark

2004-12-01

64

Stem Cell Transplants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transplanting embryonic stem cells from embryo into adult as a means of rejuvenating diseased cells, tissues, and organs poses ethical and moral challenges. In recent years, stem cell-derived nerve and glandular tissue has been transplanted into the brains and pancreas of Parkinson's disease and diabetes patients, respectively, with mixed results. This chapter provides background information on stem cell research, the future treatment of Parkinson's disease, and the controversy surrounding this sensitive issue.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

65

Skeletal muscle stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells responsible for the post-natal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on the basic biology of the satellite cell with emphasis on its role in muscle repair and parallels between embryonic myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Recent advances have altered the long-standing view of the satellite cell as a committed myogenic stem

Jennifer CJ Chen; David J Goldhamer

2003-01-01

66

Short stems in total hip replacement: current status and future.  

PubMed

Short stem hip implants have been introduced as a bone preserving surgery for younger and more active people undergoing hip arthroplasty. Although many short stems are now available, clinical results and long-term survival are controversial. The aim of this paper is to describe the features of the short stems and to analyse their clinical results and long-term survival. The short-stem implants reproduce a stress distribution at the level of the proximal femur more similar to the physiological femur limiting the stress-shielding that occur with conventional cementless stems. Though short stems are an alternative to conventional stems, their use is not yet justified despite the promising short and mid-term survival results. Higher incidence of complications, such as periprosthetic fractures and malpositioning of the stem, and the lack of long-term results do not allow to predict what role in the future short stems in total hip replacement may have. PMID:24970038

Castelli, Claudio C; Rizzi, Luigi

2014-01-01

67

Stem cells and reproduction  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To review the latest developments in reproductive tract stem cell biology. Recent findings In 2004, two studies indicated that ovaries contain stem cells which form oocytes in adults and that can be cultured in vitro into mature oocytes. A live birth after orthotopic transplantation of cyropreserved ovarian tissue in a woman whose ovaries were damaged by chemotherapy demonstrates the clinical potential of these cells. In the same year, another study provided novel evidence of endometrial regeneration by stem cells in women who received bone marrow transplants. This finding has potential for the use in treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the cause of endometriosis, which may have its origin in ectopic transdifferentiation of stem cells. Several recent studies have demonstrated that fetal cells enter the maternal circulation and generate microchimerism in the mother. The uterus is a dynamic organ permeable to fetal stem cells, capable of transdifferentiation and an end organ in which bone marrow stem cells may differentiate. Finally stem cell transformation can be an underlying cause of ovarian cancer. Summary Whereas we are just beginning to understand stem cells, the potential implications of stem cells to reproductive biology and medicine are apparent. PMID:20305558

Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S.

2011-01-01

68

Stem cells news update: a personal perspective.  

PubMed

This article is a follow-up to a previous Commentary published in 2011. It updates some of the events mentioned in that Commentary and continues with more interesting and exciting news on stem cell research and the emerging field of Regenerative Medicine. Some of the news includes: 1) the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka; 2) the cloning of human embryonic stem cells; 3) the continued search for truly pluripotent adult stem cells via in vitro and in vivo protocols; 4) the breakthrough in organ replacements; 5) the global stem cell race; 6) the global stem cell cryo-preservation business; 7) the worldwide stem cell donor registries, and 8) the issue of government regulation on stem cell therapy. PMID:24778557

Wong, Sc

2013-12-01

69

Stem Cells News Update: A Personal Perspective  

PubMed Central

This article is a follow-up to a previous Commentary published in 2011. It updates some of the events mentioned in that Commentary and continues with more interesting and exciting news on stem cell research and the emerging field of Regenerative Medicine. Some of the news includes: 1) the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka; 2) the cloning of human embryonic stem cells; 3) the continued search for truly pluripotent adult stem cells via in vitro and in vivo protocols; 4) the breakthrough in organ replacements; 5) the global stem cell race; 6) the global stem cell cryo-preservation business; 7) the worldwide stem cell donor registries, and 8) the issue of government regulation on stem cell therapy. PMID:24778557

Wong, SC

2013-01-01

70

Bioreactors Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Keywords Bioreactors Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine Tissue Engineering Pharmacology » Prof. M.; yeZhelyev, M.; eMMrich, F.; o'regan, r.; bader, a. Quantum dots for human mesenchymal stem cells and mechanical forces mediated to the cells by the matrix. The in vivo extracellular matrix constitutes

SchĂĽler, Axel

71

Stem Cell Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Stem Cell Resources website is "to provide timely, reliable, high-quality and scientifically credible stem cell information for the educational community worldwide." The website is a division of Bioscience Network which publishes online science education materials. On the site, visitors will find a stem cell image library, a multimedia area, and a special section titled "For Educators". In the "For Educators" area, visitors will find links to a primer on stem cells and links to educational resources on stem cells from curriculum to case studies to lesson plans from such trusted sources as the Australian Stem Cell Centre and the National Institutes of Health. Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes videos that show how embryonic stem cell lines are made, along with other animations and graphics on the topic. Additionally, the site's "SCR Library" area includes the link to the Stem Cell Image Library, which provides dozens of photos of stem cells taken from researchers at the University of Cambridge and other institutions.

72

Intraoperative Stem Cell Therapy  

PubMed Central

Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the potential regenerative mechanisms and the roles of different cell populations in the regeneration process are discussed. Although intraoperative stem cell therapies have been shown to be safe and effective for several indications, there are still critical challenges to be tackled prior to adoption into the standard surgical armamentarium. PMID:22809140

Coelho, Monica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

73

"Mesenchymal" stem cells.  

PubMed

Two opposing descriptions of so-called mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exist at this time. One sees MSCs as the postnatal, self-renewing, and multipotent stem cells for the skeleton. This cell coincides with a specific type of bone marrow perivascular cell. In skeletal physiology, this skeletal stem cell is pivotal to the growth and lifelong turnover of bone and to its native regeneration capacity. In hematopoietic physiology, its role as a key player in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells in their niche and in regulating the hematopoietic microenvironment is emerging. In the alternative description, MSCs are ubiquitous in connective tissues and are defined by in vitro characteristics and by their use in therapy, which rests on their ability to modulate the function of host tissues rather than on stem cell properties. Here, I discuss how the two views developed, conceptually and experimentally, and attempt to clarify the confusion arising from their collision. PMID:25150008

Bianco, Paolo

2014-10-11

74

Stem cells and nuclear reprogramming.  

PubMed

Derivation of human embryonic stem (ES) cells from preimplantation embryos ten years ago raised great hopes that they may be an excellent source of cells for cell replacement therapy. However, serious ethical concerns and the risk of immune rejection of allotransplanted cells have hindered the translation of ES cell-based therapies into the clinic. In an attempt to circumvent these barriers, a number of methods have been developed for converting adult somatic cells into a pluripotent state from which ethically acceptable patient-specific mature cells of interest could be derived. These efforts, backed by advances in elucidating the molecular basis of pluripotency, have culminated in successful reprogramming of fibroblasts into ES cell-like cells, termed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, by ectopic expression of only a handful of "stemness" factors. iPS cells possess morphological, molecular and developmental features of conventional blastocyst-derived ES cells and have the potential to serve as a source of therapeutic cells for customized tissue repair, gene therapy, drug discovery, toxicological testing and for studying the molecular basis of human disease. The goal of this review is to provide the current state-of-the-art in this very exciting and dynamic field and to discuss barriers that remain to be removed before the therapeutic potential of iPS cells can be fully realized. PMID:18465442

Saric, Tomo; Hescheler, Juergen

2008-01-01

75

Stem cells in dermatology*  

PubMed Central

Preclinical and clinical research have shown that stem cell therapy could be a promising therapeutic option for many diseases in which current medical treatments do not achieve satisfying results or cure. This article describes stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications in dermatology today. PMID:24770506

Ogliari, Karolyn Sassi; Marinowic, Daniel; Brum, Dario Eduardo; Loth, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

76

Stem cells and brain cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing body of research is showing that cancers might contain their own stem cells. In fact, cancer cells, like stem cells, can proliferate indefinitely through a deregulated cellular self-renewal capacity. This raises the possibility that some features of tumor cells may be due to cancer stem cells. Stem cell-like cancer cells were isolated from several solid tumors. Now, evidence

U Galderisi; M Cipollaro; A Giordano

2006-01-01

77

Cell Stem Cell Dear Student: Stem Cell Scientists' Advice  

E-print Network

a career in stem cell research?'' ``Besides lending great worth to a scholar's life, leaving spiritual prog or restrict certain types of stem cell research raised profound questions about the field's sustainability. In academia, stem cell research has quickly become institutionalized. Research universities seized the opportu

78

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

More than 25,000 hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) are performed each year for the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, immune-deficiency illnesses, congenital metabolic defects, hemoglobinopathies, and myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative syndromes. Before transplantation, patients receive intensive myeloablative chemoradiotherapy followed by stem cell “rescue.” Autologous HSCT is performed using the patient’s own hematopoietic stem cells, which are harvested before transplantation and reinfused after myeloablation. Allogeneic HSCT uses human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched stem cells derived from a donor. Survival after allogeneic transplantation depends on donor–recipient matching, the graft-versus-host response, and the development of a graft versus leukemia effect. This article reviews the biology of stem cells, clinical efficacy of HSCT, transplantation procedures, and potential complications. PMID:24198516

Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Tuthill, Mark

2010-01-01

79

Autophagy in stem cells  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process by which cytoplasmic components are sequestered in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis as well as remodeling during normal development, and dysfunctions in autophagy have been associated with a variety of pathologies including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and neurodegenerative disease. Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cells in the body, which are important in development, tissue renewal and a range of disease processes. Therefore, it is predicted that autophagy would be crucial for the quality control mechanisms and maintenance of cellular homeostasis in various stem cells given their relatively long life in the organisms. In contrast to the extensive body of knowledge available for somatic cells, the role of autophagy in the maintenance and function of stem cells is only beginning to be revealed as a result of recent studies. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of autophagy in embryonic stem cells, several tissue stem cells (particularly hematopoietic stem cells), as well as a number of cancer stem cells. We discuss how recent studies of different knockout mice models have defined the roles of various autophagy genes and related pathways in the regulation of the maintenance, expansion and differentiation of various stem cells. We also highlight the many unanswered questions that will help to drive further research at the intersection of autophagy and stem cell biology in the near future. PMID:23486312

Guan, Jun-Lin; Simon, Anna Katharina; Prescott, Mark; Menendez, Javier A.; Liu, Fei; Wang, Fen; Wang, Chenran; Wolvetang, Ernst; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Zhang, Jue

2013-01-01

80

Human embryonic stem cells and respect for life  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this essay is to stimulate academic discussion about the ethical justification of using human primordial stem cells for tissue transplantation, cell replacement, and gene therapy. There are intriguing alternatives to using embryos obtained from elective abortions and in vitro fertilisation to reconstitute damaged or dysfunctional human organs. These include the expansion and transplantation of latent adult progenitor cells. Key Words: Primordial stem cell research • embryonic stem cells • pluripotent stem cells • embryo research PMID:10860206

Meyer, J.

2000-01-01

81

The Neural Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neural stem cells represent a heterogeneous population of mitotically active, self-renewing and multipotent cells of both\\u000a the developing and the adult central nervous system (CNS) showing complex patterns of gene expression that may vary in both\\u000a space and time. Endogenous stem cells residing within CNS germinal niches might concur to nervous system repair owing to their\\u000a ability to drive neurogenesis

Stefano Pluchino; Marco Bacigaluppi; Elena Brini; Erica Butti; Chiara Cossetti; Melania Cusimano; Lucia Zanotti; Gianvito Martino

82

Stem Cell Task Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides an overview of the activities of an NIH task force established to move the stem cell research agenda forward. The section titled Scientific Research may be of particular interest to researchers in this area. It provides links to the Web sites of stem cell-related research at a number of NIH institutes, as well as an extensive information index, a FAQs page about stem cell research, information on funding opportunities, and much more.

83

Skeletal muscle stem cells  

PubMed Central

Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells responsible for the post-natal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on the basic biology of the satellite cell with emphasis on its role in muscle repair and parallels between embryonic myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Recent advances have altered the long-standing view of the satellite cell as a committed myogenic stem cell derived directly from the fetal myoblast. The experimental basis for this evolving perspective will be highlighted as will the relationship between the satellite cell and other newly discovered muscle stem cell populations. Finally, advances and prospects for cell-based therapies for muscular dystrophies will be addressed. PMID:14614776

Chen, Jennifer CJ; Goldhamer, David J

2003-01-01

84

Clonal interrogation of stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual stem cells are functionally defined by their self-renewal and differentiation potential. Methods for clonal analysis are essential for understanding stem cells, particularly given the increasing evidence for stem-cell heterogeneity. Stem cells reside within complex microenvironments, making single-cell analysis particularly challenging. Furthermore, simultaneous molecular and functional characterization of single stem cells is not trivial. Here we explore clonal assays applied

Kristin Hope; Mickie Bhatia

2011-01-01

85

Promises of stem cell therapy for retinal degenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of stem cell technology, stem cell-based therapy for retinal degeneration has been proposed to restore\\u000a the visual function. Many animal studies and some clinical trials have shown encouraging results of stem cell-based therapy\\u000a in retinal degenerative diseases. While stem cell-based therapy is a promising strategy to replace damaged retinal cells and\\u000a ultimately cure retinal degeneration, there are

Ian Yat-Hin Wong; Ming-Wai Poon; Rosita Tsz-Wai Pang; Qizhou Lian; David Wong

86

Information on Stem Cell Research  

MedlinePLUS

Information on Stem Cell Research Research @ NINDS Stem Cell Highlights Submit a hESC line for NIH review (9/21/09) NIH Opens Website ... here: Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells NINDS Stem Cell Research on Campus The Intramural Research Program of ...

87

LESSON PLAN Stem Cell Discussion  

E-print Network

of stem cell research · research the current research situation · debate the future of stem cell of the ethical, moral and social implications of stem cell research. Photocopy these pages and distribute to students to read. · Make a list of advantages and disadvantages of using embryonic stem cells in research

Rambaut, Andrew

88

Haute Culture: Tailoring stem cells  

E-print Network

Biology, Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University Massachusetts General Hospital Fernando Camargo, PhD Assistant Professor of Stem Cell Regenerative Biology, Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University Children's Hospital Boston Stem Cell Program #12

Chou, James

89

Germline Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Sperm and egg production requires a robust stem cell system that balances self-renewal with differentiation. Self-renewal at the expense of differentiation can cause tumorigenesis, whereas differentiation at the expense of self-renewal can cause germ cell depletion and infertility. In most organisms, and sometimes in both sexes, germline stem cells (GSCs) often reside in a defined anatomical niche. Factors within the niche regulate a balance between GSC self-renewal and differentiation. Asymmetric division of the germline stem cell to form daughter cells with alternative fates is common. The exception to both these tendencies is the mammalian testis where there does not appear to be an obvious anatomical niche and where GSC homeostasis is likely accomplished by a stochastic balance of self-renewal and differentiation and not by regulated asymmetric cell division. Despite these apparent differences, GSCs in all organisms share many common mechanisms, although not necessarily molecules, to guarantee survival of the germline. PMID:21791699

Spradling, Allan; Fuller, Margaret T.; Braun, Robert E.; Yoshida, Shosei

2011-01-01

90

Brain tumour stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dogma that the genesis of new cells is a negligible event in the adult mammalian brain has long influenced our perception and understanding of the origin and development of CNS tumours. The discovery that new neurons and glia are produced throughout life from neural stem cells provides new possibilities for the candidate cells of origin of CNS neoplasias. The

Rossella Galli; Brent A. Reynolds; Angelo L. Vescovi

2006-01-01

91

Potential of stem-cell-based therapies for heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of stem cells to generate replacement cells for damaged heart muscle, valves, vessels and conduction cells holds great potential. Recent identification of multipotent progenitor cells in the heart and improved understanding of developmental processes relevant to pluripotent embryonic stem cells may facilitate the generation of specific types of cell that can be used to treat human heart disease.

Deepak Srivastava; Kathryn N. Ivey

2006-01-01

92

Liver stem cells: from preface to advancements.  

PubMed

Liver is a major metabolic organ of the body and is known to comprise of two epithelial cell lineages, namely, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes which are known to originate from hepatoblasts during fetal developing stages. Upon acute injury, the hepatocytes and cholangiocytes undergo cellular division to compensate the loss, however, chronic damage may suppress this proliferative ability and as a consequence hepatic and extra-hepatic stem cells may contribute for liver regeneration. Facultative liver stem cells (oval cells) may emerge, proliferate and contribute in replacing damaged hepatic cells. Similarly, bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells are also known for contributing in liver regeneration having their ability of self renewal and differentiation. However, a closer look is still required to bridge the existing knowledge gaps between functionality and limitations. Thereby, we have discussed the detailed mechanistic insights of both hepatic and extra-hepatic stem cells including, stem/progenitor cells, adult/fetal hepatocytes, oval cells, bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells. We have also focused on few in vitro and in vivo studies elucidating therapeutic applications and challenges related to the liver stem cells. We believe that such conversations may provide invaluable contribution for realistic advancement in the state of therapeutic stem-cell transplantation. PMID:24090240

Rehman, Kanwal; Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Zahra, Nureen; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid

2014-01-01

93

Cell Stem Cell Short Article  

E-print Network

-renewal and reprogramming. INTRODUCTION The transcription factors OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 are master regulators the requirement of OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG in stem cell function (De Los Angeles et al., 2012), discrepancies

Collins, James J.

94

The advantages of hair follicle pluripotent stem cells over embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multipotent adult stem cells have many potential therapeutic applications. Our recent findings suggest that hair follicles are a promising source of easily accessible multipotent stem cells. Stem cells in the hair follicle area express the neural stem cell marker nestin, suggesting that hair-follicle stem cells and neural stem cells have common features. Nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can form neurons

Yasuyuki Amoh; Kensei Katsuoka; Robert M. Hoffman

2010-01-01

95

From Stem Cells to Viable Autologous Semilunar Heart Valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—An estimated 275 000 patients undergo heart valve replacement each year. However, existing solutions for valve replacement are complicated by the morbidity associated with lifelong anticoagulation of mechanical valves and the limited durability of bioprostheses. Recent advances in tissue engineering and our understanding of stem cell biology may provide a lifelong solution to these problems. Methods and Results—Mesenchymal stem cells

Fraser W. H. Sutherland; Tjorvi E. Perry; Ying Yu; Megan C. Sherwood; Elena Rabkin; Yutaka Masuda; G. Alejandra Garcia; Dawn L. McLellan; George C. Engelmayr; Michael S. Sacks; Frederick J. Schoen; John E. Mayer

2009-01-01

96

Stem Cell Research  

SciTech Connect

We have identified a population of primitive cells in normal human post-natal bone marrow that can, at the single cell level, differentiate in many ways and also proliferate extensively. These cells can differentiate in vitro into most mesodermal cell types (for example, bone cells, and others), as well as cells into cells of the nervous system. The finding that stem cells exist in post-natal tissues with previously unknown proliferation and differentiation potential opens up the possibility of using them to treat a host of degenerative, traumatic or congenital diseases.

Verfaillie, Catherine (University of Minnesota) [University of Minnesota

2002-01-23

97

Update on stem cell \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in humans results in true biological chimeras. Whilst circulating haematopoietic\\u000a cells become donor genotype after transplantation, other cells believed to remain recipient in origin. It was only recently\\u000a realized that bone marrow-derived cells may also contribute to non-haematopoietic tissues, suggesting a level of plasticity\\u000a not previously expected. New concepts in ontogenesis and developmental potential of

A. Spyridonidis

2010-01-01

98

Brain cancer stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancers comprise heterogeneous cells, ranging from highly proliferative immature precursors to more differentiated cell lineages.\\u000a In the last decade, several groups have demonstrated the existence of cancer stem cells in both nonsolid solid tumors, including\\u000a some of the brain: glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), medulloblastoma, and ependymoma. These cells, like their normal counterpart\\u000a in homologous tissues, are multipotent, undifferentiated, self-sustaining, yet transformed

Sara G. M. Piccirillo; Elena Binda; Roberta Fiocco; Angelo L. Vescovi; Khalid Shah

2009-01-01

99

Stem cell therapy and the retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal degeneration culminating in photoreceptor loss is the leading cause of untreatable blindness in the developed world. In this review, we consider how photoreceptors might be replaced by transplantation and how stem cells might be optimised for use as donor cells in future clinical strategies for retinal repair. We discuss the current advances in human and animal models of retinal

R E MacLaren; R A Pearson

2007-01-01

100

A natural stem cell therapy? How novel findings and biotechnology clarify the ethics of stem cell research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural replacement of damaged cells by stem cells occurs actively and often in adult tissues, especially rapidly dividing cells such as blood cells. An exciting case in Boston, however, posits a kind of natural stem cell therapy provided to a mother by her fetus—long after the fetus is born. Because there is a profound lack of medical intervention, this

P Patel

2006-01-01

101

Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. What Is a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant? A blood and marrow stem cell transplant ... the missing white blood cells. Types of Stem Cell Transplants The two main types of stem cell ...

102

State of the Art in Stem Cell Research: Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, and Transdifferentiation  

PubMed Central

Stem cells divide by asymmetric division and display different degrees of potency, or ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types. Owing to their unique regenerative capacity, stem cells have generated great enthusiasm worldwide and represent an invaluable tool with unprecedented potential for biomedical research and therapeutic applications. Stem cells play a central role in the understanding of molecular mechanisms regulating tissue development and regeneration in normal and pathological conditions and open large possibilities for the discovery of innovative pharmaceuticals to treat the most devastating diseases of our time. Not least, their intrinsic characteristics allow the engineering of functional tissues for replacement therapies that promise to revolutionize the medical practice in the near future. In this paper, the authors present the characteristics of pluripotent stem cells and new developments of transdifferentiation technologies and explore some of the biomedical applications that this emerging technology is expected to empower. PMID:24089646

de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Marolt, Darja

2012-01-01

103

Stem Cells in Intraepithelial Neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tumours are thought to contain a subpopulation of self-renewing stem cells, the so-called cancer stem cells, which maintain the tumour. Moreover, tumours themselves are thought to arise from organ-specific stem cells. In epithelia, transformation of these cells leads to spread of a mutated stem cell clone through the epithelial sheet, leading to the development of a pre-invasive lesion. Barrett’s oesophagus

Nicholas A. Wright

104

Laser biomodulation on stem cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.

Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Li, Xue-Feng; Tan, Li-Ling; Liu, Songhao

2001-08-01

105

Stem cell therapy for the spinal cord.  

PubMed

Injury and disease of the spinal cord are generally met with a poor prognosis. This poor prognosis is due not only to the characteristics of the diseases but also to our poor ability to deliver therapeutics to the spinal cord. The spinal cord is extremely sensitive to direct manipulation, and delivery of therapeutics has proven a challenge for both scientists and physicians. Recent advances in stem cell technologies have opened up a new avenue for the treatment of spinal cord disease and injury. Stem cells have proven beneficial in rodent models of spinal cord disease and injury. In these animal models, stem cells have been shown to produce their effect by the dual action of cell replacement and the trophic support of the factors secreted by these cells. In this review we look at the main clinical trials involving stem cell transplant into the spinal cord, focusing on motor neuron diseases and spinal cord injury. We will also discuss the major hurdles in optimizing stem cell delivery methods into the spinal cord. We shall examine current techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging guidance and cell labeling and will look at the current research striving to improve these techniques. With all caveats and future research taken into account, this is a very exciting time for stem cell transplant into the spinal cord. We are only beginning to realize the huge potential of stem cells in a central nervous system setting to provide cell replacement and trophic support. Many more trials will need to be undertaken before we can fully exploit the attributes of stem cells. PMID:22776143

Donnelly, Eleanor M; Lamanna, Jason; Boulis, Nicholas M

2012-01-01

106

Stem cell therapy for the spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Injury and disease of the spinal cord are generally met with a poor prognosis. This poor prognosis is due not only to the characteristics of the diseases but also to our poor ability to deliver therapeutics to the spinal cord. The spinal cord is extremely sensitive to direct manipulation, and delivery of therapeutics has proven a challenge for both scientists and physicians. Recent advances in stem cell technologies have opened up a new avenue for the treatment of spinal cord disease and injury. Stem cells have proven beneficial in rodent models of spinal cord disease and injury. In these animal models, stem cells have been shown to produce their effect by the dual action of cell replacement and the trophic support of the factors secreted by these cells. In this review we look at the main clinical trials involving stem cell transplant into the spinal cord, focusing on motor neuron diseases and spinal cord injury. We will also discuss the major hurdles in optimizing stem cell delivery methods into the spinal cord. We shall examine current techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging guidance and cell labeling and will look at the current research striving to improve these techniques. With all caveats and future research taken into account, this is a very exciting time for stem cell transplant into the spinal cord. We are only beginning to realize the huge potential of stem cells in a central nervous system setting to provide cell replacement and trophic support. Many more trials will need to be undertaken before we can fully exploit the attributes of stem cells. PMID:22776143

2012-01-01

107

Bromodeoxyuridine Specifically Labels the Regenerative Stem Cells of Planarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The singular regenerative abilities of planarians require a population of stem cells known as neoblasts. In response to wounding, or during the course of cell turnover, neoblasts are signaled to divide and\\/or differentiate, thereby replacing lost cell types. The study of these pluripotent stem cells and their role in planarian regeneration has been severely hampered by the reported inability of

Phillip A. Newmark; Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

2000-01-01

108

From stem cells to germ cells and from germ cells to stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germline and somatic stem cells are distinct types of stem cells that are dedicated to reproduction and somatic tissue regeneration, respectively. Germline stem cells (GSCs), which can self-renew and generate gametes, are unique stem cells in that they are solely dedicated to transmit genetic information from generation to generation. We developed a strategy for the establishment of germline stem cell

Gerald Wulf; Ingrid E. Ehrmann; David Elliott; Ulrich Zechner; Thomas Haaf; Andreas Meinhardt; Hans W. Michelmann; Gerlad Hasenfuss; Kaomei Guan

109

Stem Cells and Female Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Several recent findings in stem cell biology have resulted in new opportunities for the treatment of reproductive disease. Endometrial regeneration can be driven by bone marrow derived stem cells. This finding has potential implications for the treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the etiology of endometriosis. The ovaries have been shown to contain stem cells that form oocytes in adults and can be cultured in vitro to develop mature oocytes. Stem cells from the fetus have been demonstrated to lead to microchimerism in the mother and implicated in several maternal diseases. Additionally the placenta may be another source of hematopoietic stem cell. Finally endometrial derived stem cells have been demonstrated to differentiate into non-reproductive tissues. While we are just beginning to understand stem cells and many key questions remain, the potential advantages of stem cells in reproductive biology and medicine are apparent. PMID:19208782

Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S.

2011-01-01

110

Stem Cell Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case lays out the controversies surrounding stem cell research, looking specifically at therapeutic cloning and how the embryos produced in this process are produced solely to be destroyed. Thus, the dilemma of whether it is ethical to take one life to save another and the dilemma surrounding human cloning. This case may be used to portray problems in the

R. Freeman; Will Truslow; Pia Ahmad; Bidham Pamar

111

Embryonic Stem Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioEd Online is an "educational resource for educators, students, and parents" from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The "Hot Topics" section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are "receiving national attention." The controversy surrounding embryonic stem cells, and coverage it receives in news and research publications in the United States and around the world definitely warrants a closer look at this issue. This "Hot Topic" compiled by Joseph Marx, PhD, Nancy Moreno, PhD, and Deanne Erdmann, MS, contains a brief discussion of the stem cell debate, and includes references and links for further reading. Related news articles can be found as well. Be sure to check out the related slide sets for both embryonic stem cells and stem cells. These slide shows are an excellent resource to use in the classroom. Just add the slides you wish to use to your tray and then view or download your slide tray for an instant visual resource.

Erdmann, Deanne; Marx, Joseph; Moreno, Nancy

2006-07-20

112

Inflammation and cancer stem cells.  

PubMed

Cancer stem cells are becoming recognised as being responsible for metastasis and treatment resistance. The complex cellular and molecular network that regulates cancer stem cells and the role that inflammation plays in cancer progression are slowly being elucidated. Cytokines, secreted by tumour associated immune cells, activate the necessary pathways required by cancer stem cells to facilitate cancer stem cells progressing through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migrating to distant sites. Once in situ, these cancer stem cells can secrete their own attractants, thus providing an environment whereby these cells can continue to propagate the tumour in a secondary niche. PMID:23941828

Shigdar, Sarah; Li, Yong; Bhattacharya, Santanu; O'Connor, Michael; Pu, Chunwen; Lin, Jia; Wang, Tao; Xiang, Dongxi; Kong, Lingxue; Wei, Ming Q; Zhu, Yimin; Zhou, Shufeng; Duan, Wei

2014-04-10

113

Cell Stem Cell The Systematic Production  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Review The Systematic Production of Cells for Cell Therapies Daniel C. Kirouac1 10.1016/j.stem.2008.09.001 Stem cells have emerged as the starting material of choice for bioprocesses to produce cells and tissues to treat degenerative, genetic, and immunological disease

Zandstra, Peter W.

114

Role of Gap Junctions in Embryonic and Somatic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells provide an invaluable tool to develop cell replacement therapies for a range of serious disorders caused by cell\\u000a damage or degeneration. Much research in the field is focused on the identification of signals that either maintain stem cell\\u000a pluripotency or direct their differentiation. Understanding how stem cells communicate within their microenvironment is essential\\u000a to achieve their therapeutic potentials.

Raymond C. B. Wong; Martin F. Pera; Alice Pébay

2008-01-01

115

Biomaterials as Stem Cell Niche: Cardiovascular Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A tissue-specific stem cell niche functions to direct either self-renewal or differentiation. The niche comprises all local\\u000a cues that can be sensed by the cell including soluble and insoluble signals, physical forces and cell–cell contacts. Approximating\\u000a the stem cell niche through the utilization of biomaterials may give rise to a greater understanding of the biology of the\\u000a stem cell niche

Ge Zhang; Laura J. Suggs

116

Materials as stem cell regulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.

Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

2014-06-01

117

Materials as stem cell regulators  

PubMed Central

The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:24845994

Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

2014-01-01

118

Melanoma Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The hypothesis that tumor initiation and growth are driven by a subpopulation of malignant cells, that is, cancer stem cells\\u000a (CSCs), has received considerable attention. The CSC concept predicts that the design of novel therapies that ablate CSCs\\u000a or target CSC-specific protumorigenic signaling pathways might result in more durable therapeutic responses in cancer patients\\u000a than those achieved by therapeutic approaches

Tobias Schatton; Markus H. Frank

119

Apoptosis, Stem Cells, and Tissue Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Most metazoans have at least some ability to regenerate damaged cells and tissues, although the regenerative capacity varies depending on the species, organ, or developmental stage. Cell replacement and regeneration occur in two contexts: renewal of spent cells during tissue homeostasis (homeostatic growth), and in response to external injury, wounding, or amputation (epimorphic regeneration). Model organisms that display remarkable regenerative capacity include amphibians, planarians, Hydra, and the vertebrate liver. In addition, several mammalian organs—including the skin, gut, kidney, muscle, and even the human nervous system—have some ability to replace spent or damaged cells. Although the regenerative response is complex, it typically involves the induction of new cell proliferation through formation of a blastema, followed by cell specification, differentiation, and patterning. Stem cells and undifferentiated progenitor cells play an important role in both tissue homeostasis and tissue regeneration. Stem cells are typically quiescent or passing slowly through the cell cycle in adult tissues, but they can be activated in response to cell loss and wounding. A series of studies, mostly performed in Drosophila as well as in Hydra, Xenopus, and mouse, has revealed an unexpected role of apoptotic caspases in the production of mitogenic signals that stimulate the proliferation of stem and progenitor cells to aid in tissue regeneration. This Review summarizes some of the key findings and discusses links to stem cell biology and cancer. PMID:20978240

Bergmann, Andreas; Steller, Hermann

2010-01-01

120

Defining Vascular Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exist in most adult tissues and have been located near or within blood vessels. Although “perivascular” has been commonly used to describe such locations, increasing evidence points at the vessel wall as the exact location. Thus, “vascular stem cells (VSCs)” is recommended as a more accurate term for MSCs. Furthermore, 2 cell populations, namely pericytes and adventitial progenitor cells (APCs), are the likely VSCs. The pericyte evidence relies on the so-called pericyte-specific markers, but none of these markers is pericyte specific. In addition, pericytes appear to be too functionally diverse and sophisticated to have a large differentiation capacity. On the other hand, APCs are more naďve functionally and, therefore, more akin to being VSCs. In vitro, these cells spontaneously differentiate into pericytes, and can be induced to differentiate into vascular cells (endothelial and smooth muscle cells) and mesenchymal cells (eg, bone, cartilage, and fat). In vivo, indirect evidence also points to their ability to differentiate into mesenchymal cells of their native tissue (eg, fat). Moreover, they possess a large paracrine capacity and, therefore, can help maintain tissue homeostasis by encouraging the replication and differentiation of mesenchymal cells locally. These proposed in vivo functions are areas of interest for future research on VSCs. PMID:23330734

Lue, Tom F.

2013-01-01

121

Melanocytes, melanocyte stem cells, and melanoma stem cells  

PubMed Central

Melanocyte stem cells differ greatly from melanoma stem cells; the former provide pigmented cells during normal tissue homeostasis and repair, while the latter play an active role in a lethal form of cancer. These two cell types share several features and can be studied by similar methods. Aspects held in common by both melanocyte stem cells and melanoma stem cells include their expression of shared biochemical markers, a system of similar molecular signals necessary for their maintenance, and a requirement for an ideal niche microenvironment for providing these factors. This review provides a perspective of both these cell types and discusses potential models of stem cell growth and propagation. Recent findings provide a strong foundation for the development of new therapeutics directed at isolating and manipulating melanocyte stem cells for tissue engineering or at targeting and eradicating melanoma specifically, while sparing non-tumor cells. PMID:23438380

Lang, Deborah; Mascarenhas, Joseph B.; Shea, Christopher R.

2012-01-01

122

Cell Stem Cell Alternative Induced Pluripotent  

E-print Network

-disease- relevant area of stem cell research. We agree that criteria and standards are important to allow for crossCell Stem Cell Letter Alternative Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Characterization Criteria Cell Facility, SickKids Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada 2

Zandstra, Peter W.

123

Human Embryonic Stem-Cell Research: Science and Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike any other type of cell, embryonic stem cells have the capacity to develop into any type of tissue in the body. This potential has ignited interest in the scientific community because the ability to produce replacement tissue such as muscle, bone and nervous tissue would revolutionize medicine. However, this research is extremely controversial because embryonic stem cells are taken

Shirley Wright

1999-01-01

124

The allure of stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal muscle disease for which an effective treatment is urgently needed. The use of stem cells to produce normal muscle cells to replace the missing dystrophin protein has attracted much attention. Claims of success using stem cell treatment in animal models of human muscle diseases require careful evaluation and are not necessarily easily extrapolated

Miranda D. Grounds; Kay E. Davies

2007-01-01

125

Harnessing the therapeutic potential of myogenic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential clinical use of stem cells for cell transplantation therapies to replace defective genes in myopathies is an\\u000a area of intense investigation. Precursor cells derived from non-muscle tissue with myogenic potential have been identified\\u000a in many tissues, including bone marrow and dermis, although the status of these putative stem cells requires clarification.\\u000a The incorporation of circulating bone-marrow derived stem

Jason D. White; Miranda D. Grounds

2003-01-01

126

Stem Cell Transplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) began in humans in the late 1950s and since that time more than 800,000 people have\\u000a been treated with this procedure. To date 150,000 patients are living 5 years or more post transplant, with this number expanding\\u000a rapidly [1]. As advances have been made in refining HSCT and making it more accessible, a larger proportion

Jean C. Yi; Karen L. Syrjala

127

Developmental Cell Sox2+ Stem Cells Contribute  

E-print Network

as a marker for the dental epithelial stem cells will facilitate further studies on their lineage segregationDevelopmental Cell Article Sox2+ Stem Cells Contribute to All Epithelial Lineages of the Tooth via and Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University and Harvard Medical School, 7 Divinity

Klein, Ophir

128

Prostate epithelial stem and progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

The classic androgen ablation and replacement experiment demonstrates that prostate epithelia possess extensive regenerative capacities and implies the existence of the prostate stem/progenitor cells. These cells may serve as the cells of origin for prostate cancer and their intrinsic property may dictate the clinical behaviors of the resulting diseases. Therefore, detailed characterization of these cells will potentially benefit disease prevention, diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we describe several major in vitro and in vivo approaches that have been employed in the studies of the prostate stem cell activities, summarize the major progress that has been made during the last two decades regarding the identity of prostate stem/progenitor cells and their niches, and discuss some remaining outstanding questions in the field. PMID:25374923

Kwon, Oh-Joon; Xin, Li

2014-01-01

129

The future for stem cell research.  

PubMed

Stem cells have offered much hope by promising to greatly extend the numbers and range of patients who could benefit from transplants, and to provide cell replacement therapy to treat debilitating diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. The issue of stem cell research is politically charged, prompting biologists to begin engaging in ethical debates, and generating in the general public an unusually high level of interest in this aspect of biology. But excitement notwithstanding, there is a long way to go in basic research before new therapies will be established, and now the pressure is on for scientists and clinicians to deliver. PMID:11689952

Lovell-Badge, R

2001-11-01

130

Background Information 1. What are stem cells?  

E-print Network

Background Information 1. What are stem cells? 2. What might stem cell research achieve? 3. Why we need to continue research using embryonic stem cells? 4. Time taken for discoveries 5. Examples of stem of Embryonic cell lines 8. Fertility Research using human embryos and blastocysts 1. What are stem cells? Stem

Rambaut, Andrew

131

``Stemness'': Transcriptional Profiling of Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcriptional profiles of mouse embryonic, neural, and hematopoietic stem cells were compared to define a genetic program for stem cells. A total of 216 genes are enriched in all three types of stem cells, and several of these genes are clustered in the genome. When compared to differentiated cell types, stem cells express a significantly higher number of genes

Miguel Ramalho-Santos; Soonsang Yoon; Yumi Matsuzaki; Richard C. Mulligan; Douglas A. Melton

2002-01-01

132

Human embryonic stem cell research: ethical and legal issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of human embryonic stem cells to replace damaged cells and tissues promises future hope for the treatment of many diseases. However, many countries now face complex ethical and legal questions as a result of the research needed to develop these cell-replacement therapies. The challenge that must be met is how to permit research on human embryonic tissue to

John A. Robertson

2001-01-01

133

Cell Stem Cell Adult SVZ Stem Cells Lie in a Vascular  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Article Adult SVZ Stem Cells Lie in a Vascular Niche: A Quantitative Analysis Susan K. Goderie,1 Badrinath Roysam,3 and Sally Temple1,2,* 1New York Neural Stem Cell Institute within stem cell niches. Here, we examine whether neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult subventricular

Lin, Gang

134

Control of Stemness by Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of stem cells, scientists have invested tremendous effort in establishing in vitro culture conditions in order to maintain the self-renewal and efficient proliferative capabilities of stem cells by manipulating a va- riety of growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is one of the most common growth factors used to expand stem cells, including human embryonic stem (hES)

Noriko Gotoh

2009-01-01

135

Stem cell transplantation; Iranian experience.  

PubMed

From March 1991 through 31st December 2007, 2042 patients underwent stem cell transplantation at the Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. These transplantations included 1405 allogeneic stem cell transplantation, 624 autologous stem cell transplantation, and 13 syngeneic stem cell transplantation. Stem cell transplantation was performed for various diseases including acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphoblastic leukemia, thalassemia major, sickle cell thalassemia, sickle cell disease, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, severe aplastic anemia, plasma cell leukemia, Niemann-Pick disease, Fanconi anemia, severe combine immunodeficiency, congenital neutropenia, leukocyte adhesion deficiencies, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, osteopetrosis, histiocytosis X, Hurler syndrome, amyloidosis, systemic sclerosis, breast cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, testicular cancer, germ cell tumors, neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, ovarian cancer, Wilms' tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, pancreatoblastoma, and multiple sclerosis. We had 105 cellular therapies for postmyocardial infarction, multiple sclerosis, cirrhosis, head of femur necrosis, and renal cell carcinoma. About 30 patients were retransplanted in this center. About 74.9% of the patients (1530 of 2042) remained alive between one to 168 months after stem cell transplantation. Nearly 25.1% (512 of 2042) of our patients died after stem cell transplantation. The causes of deaths were relapse, infections, hemorrhagic cystitis, graft versus host disease, and others. PMID:19111033

Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Alimogaddam, Kamran; Jahani, Mohammad; Mousavi, Seied Asadollah; Mousavi, Seyed Asadollah; Iravani, Masood; Bahar, Babak; Khodabandeh, Ali; Khatami, Farnaz; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Jalali, Arash

2009-01-01

136

Stem cell research and transplantation: Science leading ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most exciting developments in the biological sciences in the past decade has been the discovery and characterization of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The interest to transplanters is the potential applications of stem cells in regenerative medicine (RM), which may involve tissue engineering, genetic engineering, and other techniques to repair, replace, or regenerate failing tissues and organs.

A. S. Daar; A. Bhatt; E. Court; P. A. Singer

2004-01-01

137

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY: Orienting Stem Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into a variety of different cell types. However, it is not clear what determines the path taken by any particular stem cell. Discussing recent work with stem cells from the fruit fly testis (Yamashita et al.), Wallenfang and Matunis explain in their Perspective that, at least in the case of these stem cells, the trick is the asymmetric arrangement of the mitotic spindle during cell division. This asymmetric arrangement ensures that as the stem cell divides, one daughter cell remains in the environmental niche of the testis and continues to self-renew, whereas the other daughter cell is edged out of the niche and begins to differentiate.

Matthew R. Wallenfang (University of Pennsylvania;Department of Cell and Developmental Biology); Erika Matunis (The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions;Department of Cell Biology)

2003-09-12

138

Stem cells in veterinary medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stem cell field in veterinary medicine continues to evolve rapidly both experimentally and clinically. Stem cells are\\u000a most commonly used in clinical veterinary medicine in therapeutic applications for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries\\u000a in horses and dogs. New technologies of assisted reproduction are being developed to apply the properties of spermatogonial\\u000a stem cells to preserve endangered animal species. The

Lisa A Fortier; Alexander J Travis

2011-01-01

139

Stem cells: Implications for urology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells are characterized by their potential immortality and are capable of self-renewal and differentiation. Stem cells\\u000a are proposed to provide the potential to cure degenerative diseases and to give important clues regarding human development\\u000a and aging. However, stem cell research has evoked enthusiasm and passionate debate regarding the ethics of their use in medicine\\u000a and reproduction. In this article,

Kirk C. Lo; Shannon Whirledge; Dolores J. Lamb

2005-01-01

140

Stem Cell Glycolipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycolipids are compounds containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety.\\u000a Because of their expression patterns and the intracellular localization patterns, glycolipids, including stage-specific embryonic\\u000a antigens (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, and possibly SSEA-1) and gangliosides (e.g., GD3, GD2, and A2B5 antigens), have been used as marker\\u000a molecules of stem cells. In this review, I will

Makoto Yanagisawa

141

Modeling Stem Cell Induction Processes  

E-print Network

Technology for converting human cells to pluripotent stem cell using induction processes has the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine. However, the production of these so called iPS cells is still quite inefficient ...

Grácio, Filipe

142

Stem cells and brain cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most devastating CNS pathologies is brain cancer. The undifferentiated character of brain tumor cells and recent reports of cancer stem cells prompt questions regarding the involvement of normal stem\\/progenitor cells in brain tumor biology, their potential contribution to the tumor itself, and whether they are the cause or the consequence of tumor initiation and progression. The cancer

Elena I. Fomchenko; Eric C. Holland

2005-01-01

143

Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has recently released the Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry in response to the President's announcement on August 9, 2001 to allow federal funds for stem cell research. The site lists the eleven laboratories or companies that meet the specific criteria for approved stem cell lines and explains the criteria themselves. The NIH gives the number of actual lines for each entity, the NIC and providers code for each, as well as contact information. The Website also provides links to those seeking additional information about NIH stem cell information, grants and funding opportunities, technology transfer issues, and further facts about the NIH.

2001-01-01

144

Mechanotransduction: Tuning Stem Cells Fate  

PubMed Central

It is a general concern that the success of regenerative medicine-based applications is based on the ability to recapitulate the molecular events that allow stem cells to repair the damaged tissue/organ. To this end biomaterials are designed to display properties that, in a precise and physiological-like fashion, could drive stem cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. The rationale is that stem cells are highly sensitive to forces and that they may convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. In this review, we describe novelties on stem cells and biomaterials interactions with more focus on the implication of the mechanical stimulation named mechanotransduction. PMID:24956164

D'Angelo, Francesco; Tiribuzi, Roberto; Armentano, Ilaria; Kenny, Jose Maria; Martino, Sabata; Orlacchio, Aldo

2011-01-01

145

Cell Stem Cell, Volume 5 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell, Volume 5 Supplemental Data Phosphorylation Dynamics during Early Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Dennis Van Hoof, Javier Muñoz, Stefan R. Braam, Martijn W.H. Pinkse, Rune labeling of the cells with the heavy stable isotopes. In Solution Digestion Harvested cells were washed

146

Stem Cell Basics About this document  

E-print Network

that are the focus of scientific research, and the potential use of stem cells in research and in treating disease1 Stem Cell Basics About this document This primer on stem cells is intended for anyone who wishes to learn more about the biological properties of stem cells, the important questions about stem cells

Bandettini, Peter A.

147

Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells  

SciTech Connect

The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications.

Matikainen, Tiina [Program of Developmental and Reproductive Biology, Biomedicum Helsinki and Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Laine, Jarmo [Stem Cell and Transplantation Services, Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Kivihaantie 7, FIN 00310, Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: jarmo.laine@bts.redcoss.fi

2005-09-01

148

APOBEC3G-Augmented Stem Cell Therapy to Modulate HIV Replication: A Computational Study  

E-print Network

APOBEC3G-Augmented Stem Cell Therapy to Modulate HIV Replication: A Computational Study Iraj. Stem cell therapy to replace a patient's immune cells with cells that are more HIV. Our model suggests that stem cell therapy resulting in a high fraction of APOBEC3G-overexpressing CD4

Levin, Judith G.

149

Stem-cell-based Tissue Engineering of Murine Teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teeth develop from reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme cells and epithelium, where the epithelium provides the instructive information for initiation. Based on these initial tissue interactions, we have replaced the mesenchyme cells with mesenchyme created by aggregation of cultured non-dental stem cells in mice. Recombinations between non-dental cell-derived mesenchyme and embryonic oral epithelium stimulate an odontogenic response in the stem cells.

A. Ohazama; S. A. C. Modino; I. Miletich; P. T. Sharpe

2004-01-01

150

Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

151

Regulating the leukemia stem cell  

PubMed Central

Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are responsible for sustaining and propagating malignant disease, and, as such, are promising targets for therapy. Studies of human LSCs have served an important role in defining the major tenets of the cancer stem cell model, which center on the frequencies of cancer stem cells, their potential hierarchical organization, and their degree of maturation. LSCs in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have recently been studied using mouse syngeneic models of leukemia induced by MLL oncogenes. These studies have revealed that LSCs are more analogous to progenitor cells and employ embryonic stem cell-like genetic programs for their maintenance, prompting a refinement of the original cancer stem cell model with important implications for design of therapies to selectively target LSCs. PMID:19959097

Cleary, Michael L.

2009-01-01

152

Bioprinting for stem cell research  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been a growing interest to apply bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized proteins can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cell of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics. PMID:23260439

Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

2012-01-01

153

Stem Cells behind the Barrier  

PubMed Central

Epidermal stem cells sustain the adult skin for a lifetime through self-renewal and the production of committed progenitors. These stem cells generate progeny that will undergo terminal differentiation leading to the development of a protective epidermal barrier. Whereas the molecular mechanisms that govern epidermal barrier repair and renewal have been extensively studied, pathways controlling stem cell differentiation remain poorly understood. Asymmetric cell divisions, small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs), chromatin remodeling complexes, and multiple differentiation factors tightly control the balance of stem and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, and disruption of this balance leads to skin diseases. In this review, we summarize and discuss current advances in our understanding of the mechanisms regulating epidermal stem and progenitor cell differentiation, and explore new relationships for maintenance of skin barrier function. PMID:23812084

Cangkrama, Michael; Ting, Stephen B.; Darido, Charbel

2013-01-01

154

Stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology.  

PubMed

Multiple populations of stem cells have been indicated to potentially participate in regeneration of injured organs. Especially, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and recently inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS) receive a marked attention from scientists and clinicians for regenerative medicine because of their high proliferative and differentiation capacities. Despite that ESC and iPS cells are expected to give rise into multiple regenerative applications when their side effects are overcame during appropriate preparation procedures, in fact their most recent application of human ESC may, however, reside in their use as a tool in drug development and disease modeling. This review focuses on the applications of stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology. We discuss possible relevance of pluripotent cell stem populations in developing physiological models for any human tissue cell type useful for pharmacological, metabolic and toxicity evaluation necessary in the earliest steps of drug development. The present models applied for preclinical drug testing consist of primary cells or immortalized cell lines that show limitations in terms of accessibility or relevance to their in vivo counterparts. The availability of renewable human cells with functional similarities to their in vivo counterparts is the first landmark for a new generation of cell-based assays. We discuss the approaches for using stem cells as valuable physiological targets of drug activity which may increase the strength of target validation and efficacy potentially resulting in introducing new safer remedies into clinical trials and the marketplace. Moreover, we discuss the possible applications of stem cells for elucidating mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The knowledge about the mechanisms governing the development and progression of multitude disorders which would come from the cellular models established based on stem cells, may give rise to new therapeutical strategies for such diseases. All together, the applications of various cell types derived from patient specific pluripotent stem cells may lead to targeted drug and cellular therapies for certain individuals. PMID:21902635

Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Józkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Józef

2011-11-01

155

International stem cell research considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislative bodies in the international arena and in individual countries are actively engaged in developing policies regarding the establishment, distribution and use of human embryonic stem cells. Present and anticipated policies concerning research on human adult and embryonic stem cells of possible medical importance reflect the wide spectrum of popular views that range from complete rejection to enthusiastic support. Since

Heiner Westphal

2002-01-01

156

Cell Stem Cell Sic Transit Gloria  

E-print Network

, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK 4Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QRCell Stem Cell Review Sic Transit Gloria: Farewell to the Epidermal Transit Amplifying Cell? Philip H. Jones,1,* Benjamin D. Simons,2 and Fiona M. Watt3,4 1MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research

Simons, Ben

157

Cell Stem Cell Induction of Multipotential Hematopoietic  

E-print Network

patients with hematologic diseases, including Fanconi anemia (Mu¨ ller et al., 2012), sickle cell anemiaCell Stem Cell Article Induction of Multipotential Hematopoietic Progenitors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells via Respecification of Lineage-Restricted Precursors Sergei Doulatov,1,2 Linda T. Vo,1

Collins, James J.

158

[Plasticity of tissue stem cells].  

PubMed

In the early stages of embryonic development, cells have the capability of dividing indefinitely and then differentiating into any type of cell in the body. Recent studies have revealed that much of this remarkable developmental potential of stem cells is retained by small populations of cells within most tissues in the adult. Intercellular signals that control the proliferation, differentiation and survival of tissue stem cells in their niches are being identified and include a diverse array of morphogens, cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules. Adult tissue stem cells, moreover, can also differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve stem cells into blood cells. Currently, we can only speculate about the mechanisms involved in such dramatic changes in cell fate. For example, the emergence of, say, hematopoietic stem cells from brain neurospheres could involve either transdifferentiation (brain-->blood) or dedifferentiation (brain-->pluripotent cells), or by the actions of rare, but residual pluripotent stem cells. This issue is central to understanding the molecular basis of commitment and lies at the heart of debates about plasticity and the reversibility of developmental restriction. PMID:12053651

Uher, Ferenc; Vas, Virág

2002-05-01

159

FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims  

MedlinePLUS

... Biologics Articulos en Espanol FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Search the Consumer Updates Section Researchers hope ... forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

160

What's It Like to Donate Stem Cells?  

MedlinePLUS

... learn more What’s it like to donate stem cells? People usually volunteer to donate stem cells for ... autologous transplant. If you want to donate stem cells for someone else People who want to donate ...

161

Stem cell therapy for osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Current osteoporosis treatments are predominantly bone-resorbing drugs that are associated with several side effects. The use of stem cells for tissue regeneration has raised great hope in various fields of medicine, including musculoskeletal disorders. Stem cell therapy for osteoporosis could potentially reduce the susceptibility of fractures and augment lost mineral density by either increasing the numbers or restoring the function of resident stem cells that can proliferate and differentiate into bone-forming cells. Such osteoporosis therapies can be carried out by exogenous introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), typically procured from bone marrow, adipose, and umbilical cord blood tissues or through treatments with drugs or small molecules that recruit endogenous stem cells to osteoporotic sites. The main hurdle with cell-based osteoporosis therapy is the uncertainty of stem cell fate and biodistribution following cell transplantation. Therefore, future advancements will focus on long-term engraftment and differentiation of stem cells at desired bone sites for tangible clinical outcome. PMID:24407712

Antebi, Ben; Pelled, Gadi; Gazit, Dan

2014-03-01

162

Generating cartilage repair from pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

The treatment of degeneration and injury of articular cartilage has been very challenging for scientists and surgeons. As an avascular and hypocellular tissue, cartilage has a very limited capacity for self-repair. Chondrocytes are the only cell type in cartilage, in which they are surrounded by the extracellular matrix that they secrete and assemble. Autologous chondrocyte implantation for cartilage defects has achieved good results, but the limited resources and complexity of the procedure have hindered wider application. Stem cells form an alternative to chondrocytes as a source of chondrogenic cells due to their ability to proliferate extensively while retaining the potential for differentiation. Adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells have been differentiated into chondrocytes, but the limitations in their proliferative ability and the heterogeneous cell population hinder their adoption as a prime alternative source for generating chondrocytes. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are attractive as candidates for cell replacement therapy because of their unlimited self-renewal and ability for differentiation into mesodermal derivatives as well as other lineages. In this review, we focus on current protocols for chondrogenic differentiation of ESCs, in particular the chemically defined culture system developed in our lab that could potentially be adapted for clinical application. PMID:23957872

Cheng, Aixin; Hardingham, Timothy E; Kimber, Susan J

2014-08-01

163

Generating Cartilage Repair from Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The treatment of degeneration and injury of articular cartilage has been very challenging for scientists and surgeons. As an avascular and hypocellular tissue, cartilage has a very limited capacity for self-repair. Chondrocytes are the only cell type in cartilage, in which they are surrounded by the extracellular matrix that they secrete and assemble. Autologous chondrocyte implantation for cartilage defects has achieved good results, but the limited resources and complexity of the procedure have hindered wider application. Stem cells form an alternative to chondrocytes as a source of chondrogenic cells due to their ability to proliferate extensively while retaining the potential for differentiation. Adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells have been differentiated into chondrocytes, but the limitations in their proliferative ability and the heterogeneous cell population hinder their adoption as a prime alternative source for generating chondrocytes. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are attractive as candidates for cell replacement therapy because of their unlimited self-renewal and ability for differentiation into mesodermal derivatives as well as other lineages. In this review, we focus on current protocols for chondrogenic differentiation of ESCs, in particular the chemically defined culture system developed in our lab that could potentially be adapted for clinical application. PMID:23957872

Cheng, Aixin; Hardingham, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

164

Stem Cells and the Stem Cell Niche in the Breast: An Integrated Hormonal and Developmental Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammary gland is a unique organ in that it undergoes most of its development after birth under the control of systemic\\u000a hormones. Whereas in most other organs stem cells divide in response to local stimuli, to replace lost cells, in the mammary\\u000a gland large numbers of cells need to be generated at specific times during puberty, estrous cycles and

Cathrin Brisken; Stephan Duss

2007-01-01

165

Investigation of growth factors and cytokines that suppress adult stem cell asymmetric cell kinetics  

E-print Network

Adult stem cells are potentially useful in many biomedical applications that can save lives and increase the quality of a patient's life, such as tissue engineering, cell replacement, and gene therapy. However, these ...

Ganz, Michal

2005-01-01

166

Targeting Leukemia Stem Cells and Stem Cell Pathways in ALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Growing evidence suggests that haematological malignancies are ­sustained by a critical population of leukemia-initiating\\u000a cells or leukemia stem cells. These cellular populations are likely to be the critical target for eradication of leukemia\\u000a and most likely form the reservoir for relapse and disease resistance. Leukemia stem cells (LSC) have been demonstrated in\\u000a Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), although their origins, identity

Clare Pridans; Brian J. P. Huntly

167

Cancer stem cells and “stemness” genes in neuro-oncology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main properties of stem cells include long-term self-renewal and the capacity to give rise to one or more types of differentiated progeny. Recently, much evidence was provided that leukemia and tumor maintenance and growth are sustained by a small proportion of cells exhibiting stem cell properties. In neural tumors, stem cells have been detected in glioblastoma, medulloblastoma and ependymoma.

Silvia K. Nicolis

2007-01-01

168

NATURE GENETICS | VOLUME 37 | NUMBER 11 | NOVEMBER 2005 1201 Mice in the world of stem cell biology  

E-print Network

stem cells as a source for cell replacement therapy Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were first. The potential for stem cell therapy extends to many disorders,includ- ing myocardial infarction4,ParkinsonNATURE GENETICS | VOLUME 37 | NUMBER 11 | NOVEMBER 2005 1201 Mice in the world of stem cell biology

Cai, Long

169

Metabolic circuits in neural stem cells.  

PubMed

Metabolic activity indicative of cellular demand is emerging as a key player in cell fate decision. Numerous studies have demonstrated that diverse metabolic pathways have a critical role in the control of the proliferation, differentiation and quiescence of stem cells. The identification of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and the characterization of their development and fate decision process have provided insight into the regenerative potential of the adult brain. As a result, the potential of NSPCs in cell replacement therapies for neurological diseases is rapidly growing. The aim of this review is to discuss the recent findings on the crosstalk among key regulators of NSPC development and the metabolic regulation crucial for the function and cell fate decisions of NSPCs. Fundamental understanding of the metabolic circuits in NSPCs may help to provide novel approaches for reactivating neurogenesis to treat degenerative brain conditions and cognitive decline. PMID:25037158

Kim, Do-Yeon; Rhee, Inmoo; Paik, Jihye

2014-11-01

170

GPCRs in Stem Cell Function  

PubMed Central

Many tissues of the body cannot only repair themselves, but also self-renew, a property mainly due to stem cells and the various mechanisms that regulate their behavior. Stem cell biology is a relatively new field. While advances are slowly being realized, stem cells possess huge potential to ameliorate disease and counteract the aging process, causing its speculation as the next panacea. Amidst public pressure to advance rapidly to clinical trials, there is a need to understand the biology of stem cells and to support basic research programs. Without a proper comprehension of how cells and tissues are maintained during the adult life span, clinical trials are bound to fail. This review will cover the basic biology of stem cells, the various types of stem cells, their potential function, and the advantages and disadvantages to their use in medicine. We will next cover the role of G-protein coupled receptors in the regulation of stem cells and their potential in future clinical applications. PMID:23415095

DOZE, VAN A.; PEREZ, DIANNE M.

2013-01-01

171

STEM CELLS, CELL TRANSPLANTATION AND LIVER REPOPULATION  

PubMed Central

Liver transplantation is currently the only therapeutic option for patients with end-stage chronic liver disease and for severe acute liver failure. Because of limited donor availability, attention has been focused on the possibility to restore liver mass and function through cell transplantation. Stem cells are a promising source for liver repopulation after cell transplantation, but whether or not the adult mammalian liver contains hepatic stem cells is highly controversial. Part of the problem is that proliferation of mature adult hepatocytes is sufficient to regenerate the liver after two-thirds partial hepatectomy or acute toxic liver injury and participation of stem cells is not required. However, under conditions in which hepatocyte proliferation is blocked, undifferentiated epithelial cells in the periportal areas, called “oval cells”, proliferate, differentiate into hepatocytes and restore liver mass. These cells are referred to as facultative liver stem cells, but they do not repopulate the normal liver after their transplantation. In contrast, epithelial cells isolated from the early fetal liver can effectively repopulate the normal liver, but they are already traversing the hepatic lineage and may not be true stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate along the hepatic lineage in culture, but at present these cells are inefficient in repopulating the liver. This review will characterize these various cell types and compare the properties of these cells and the conditions under which they do or do not repopulate the liver following their transplantation. PMID:18187050

Oertel, Michael; Shafritz, David A.

2008-01-01

172

p53 in stem cells  

PubMed Central

p53 is well known as a “guardian of the genome” for differentiated cells, in which it induces cell cycle arrest and cell death after DNA damage and thus contributes to the maintenance of genomic stability. In addition to this tumor suppressor function for differentiated cells, p53 also plays an important role in stem cells. In this cell type, p53 not only ensures genomic integrity after genotoxic insults but also controls their proliferation and differentiation. Additionally, p53 provides an effective barrier for the generation of pluripotent stem cell-like cells from terminally differentiated cells. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge about p53 activities in embryonic, adult and induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:21949570

Solozobova, Valeriya; Blattner, Christine

2011-01-01

173

Stem cell therapy without the cells  

PubMed Central

As an example of the burgeoning importance of stem cell therapy, this past month the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) has approved $70 million to create a new network of stem cell clinical trial centers. Much work in the last decade has been devoted to developing the use of autologous and allogeneic adult stem cell transplants to treat a number of conditions, including heart attack, dementia, wounds, and immune system-related diseases. The standard model teaches us that adult stem cells exists throughout most of the body and provide a means to regenerate and repair most tissues through replication and differentiation. Although we have often witnessed the medical cart placed in front of the scientific horse in the development of stem cell therapies outside of academic circles, great strides have been made, such as the use of purified stem cells1 instead of whole bone marrow transplants in cancer patients, where physicians avoid re-injecting the patients with their own cancer cells.2 We most often think of stem cell therapy acting to regenerate tissue through replication and then differentiation, but recent studies point to the dramatic effects adult stem cells exert in the repair of various tissues through the release of paracrine and autocrine substances, and not simply through differentiation. Indeed, up to 80% of the therapeutic effect of adult stem cells has been shown to be through paracrine mediated actions.3 That is, the collected types of molecules released by the stem cells, called the secretome, or stem cell released molecules (SRM), number in the 100s, including proteins, microRNA, growth factors, antioxidants, proteasomes, and exosomes, and target a multitude of biological pathways through paracrine actions. The composition of the different molecule types in SRM is state dependent, and varies with cell type and conditions such as age and environment. PMID:24567776

Maguire, Greg

2013-01-01

174

Pluripotent human stem cells for the treatment of retinal disease.  

PubMed

Despite advancements made in our understanding of ocular biology, therapeutic options for many debilitating retinal diseases remain limited. Stem cell-based therapies are a potential avenue for treatment of retinal disease, and this mini-review will focus on current research in this area. Cellular therapies to replace retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and/or photoreceptors to treat age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Stargardt's macular dystrophy, and retinitis pigmentosa are currently being developed. Over the past decade, significant advancements have been made using different types of human stem cells with varying capacities to differentiate into these target retinal cell types. We review and evaluate pluripotent stem cells, both human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, as well as protocols for differentiation of ocular cells, and culture and transplant techniques that might be used to deliver cells to patients. PMID:21520078

Rowland, Teisha J; Buchholz, David E; Clegg, Dennis O

2012-02-01

175

UCLA stem cell scientists discover new airway stem cell:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at UCLA have identified a new stem cell that participates in the repair of the large airways of the lungs, which play a vital role in protecting the body from infectious agents and toxins in the environment.

176

Asymmetric stem cell division: precision for robustness.  

PubMed

Asymmetric cell division (ACD) produces two daughter cells with distinct fates or characteristics. Many adult stem cells use ACD as a means of maintaining stem cell number and thus tissue homeostasis. Here, we review recent progress on ACD, discussing conservation between stem and non-stem cell systems, molecular mechanisms, and the biological meaning of ACD. PMID:23040475

Inaba, Mayu; Yamashita, Yukiko M

2012-10-01

177

28. Embryonic and adult stem cell therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells are characterized by the ability to remain undifferentiated and to self-renew. Embryonic stem cells derived from blastocysts are pluripotent (able to differentiate into many cell types). Adult stem cells, which were traditionally thought to be monopotent multipotent, or tissue restricted, have recently also been shown to have pluripotent properties. Adult bone marrow stem cells have been shown to

Carl T. Henningson; Marisha A. Stanislaus; Alan M. Gewirtz

2003-01-01

178

Stem cells, dot-com.  

PubMed

Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of suspect goods and services has burgeoned because of the Internet. Despite very limited approval for use, DTC stem cell-marketed "treatments" have emerged for an array of conditions, creating global public health and safety risks. However, it remains unclear whether such use of stem cells is subject to drugs or biologics regulations. To address this gap, regulatory agencies should be given clear authority, and the international community should create a framework for appropriate stem cell use. In addition, consumer protection laws should be used to scrutinize providers. PMID:22972840

Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim K

2012-09-12

179

Nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation and cell therapy for malignant and non-malignant diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditioning prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation was originally designed as a myeloablative conditioning, designed to eliminate malignant or genetically abnormal cells and then use the transplant procedure for rescue of the patients or to replace missing bone marrow products. However, allografts can induce effective graft vs. malignancy effects and can also eliminate undesirable hematopoietic stem cells in patients

I. B. Resnick; M. Y. Shapira; S. Slavin

2005-01-01

180

Sources of Stem Cells for Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Donor matching for allogeneic transplant Sources of stem cells for transplant There are 3 possible sources of ... blood transplants are being actively studied. Which stem cell source is best? All 3 sources of stem ...

181

Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections As a stem ... Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because ...

182

Developmental biology and the redirection or replacement of cells.  

PubMed Central

The aim of developmental biology is to understand how an egg converts itself into a complete organism through the processes of cell differentiation, morphogenesis and size regulation. The principles that have emerged over recent decades include the constancy of the genome in nearly all cells of an individual, the existence of stem cells in many organs and the overwhelming importance of signalling between cells for the determination of their fate. These and other characteristics of development are discussed here in relation to the prospect of achieving cell and tissue correction or replacement with the help of nuclear transplantation and signalling factors. Nuclear transplantation offers a one-step procedure for generating multipotent embryo cells from the cells of an adult tissue such as skin. It should be possible to proliferate the resulting cells as can be done for mouse embryonic stem cells. Embryo cells can be made to differentiate in many directions by exposing them to various agents or to different concentrations of a single factor such as the transforming growth factor beta class signalling molecule activin. The possibility of a cancerous condition being acquired during these experimental manipulations can be guarded against by transfecting cells with a conditional suicide gene. Thus it may be possible to generate replacement cells or tissues from an adult human for transplantation back to the original donor, without the disadvantage of any genetic incompatibility. PMID:10670017

Gurdon, J

1999-01-01

183

Dental stem cells--characteristics and potential.  

PubMed

Soft dental tissues have been identified as easily accessible sources of multipotent postnatal stem cells. Dental stem cells are mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) capable of differentiating into at least three distinct cell lineages: osteo/odontogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic. They express various markers including those specific for MSC, embryonic stem cells and neural cells. Five different types of dental stem cells have been isolated from mature and immature teeth: dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament stem cells, stem cells from apical papilla and dental follicle progenitor cells. Dental stem cells may be used in dental tissue engineering including dental, enamel and periodontal tissue regeneration. They could also be used as a promising tool in potential treatment of neurodegenerative, ischemic and immune diseases. PMID:24446280

Bojic, Sanja; Volarevic, Vladislav; Ljujic, Biljana; Stojkovic, Miodrag

2014-06-01

184

Paving the road for lung stem cell biology: bronchioalveolar stem cells and other putative distal lung stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

New discoveries in stem cell biology are making the biology of solid tissues increasingly complex. Important seminal studies demonstrating the presence of damage-resistant cell populations together with new isolation and characterization techniques suggest that stem cells exist in the adult lung. More detailed in vivo molecular and cellular characterization of bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs), other putative lung stem and progenitor

Carla F. Kim

2007-01-01

185

Inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer promote directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells into functional neurons.  

PubMed

Intact spiral ganglion neurons are required for cochlear implantation or conventional hearing amplification as an intervention for sensorineural hearing loss. Treatment strategies to replace the loss of spiral ganglion neurons are needed. Recent reports have suggested that amniotic fluid-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into neuron-like cells in response to cytokines and are not tumorigenic. Amniotic fluid stem cells represent a potential resource for cellular therapy of neural deafness due to spiral ganglion pathology. However, the directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells is undetermined in the absence of cytokines and the consequence of inner ear supporting cells from the mouse cochlea organ of Corti on the differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells remains to be defined. In an effort to circumvent these limitations, we investigated the effect of inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer on amniotic fluid stem cells differentiation in vitro. An inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer direct contact system was established to induce differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells. Our results showed that inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer successfully promoted directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells into neurons with characteristics of functionality. Furthermore, we showed that Wnt signaling may play an essential role in triggering neurogenesis. These findings indicate the potential use of inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer as a nerve-regenerative scaffold. A reliable and effective amniotic fluid stem cell differentiation support structure provided by inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer should contribute to efforts to translate cell-based strategies to the clinic. PMID:25124154

Zong, Ling; Chen, Kaitian; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Di; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Xuemei; Jiang, Hongyan

2014-10-01

186

Application of Stem Cell Technology in Dental Regenerative Medicine  

PubMed Central

Significance In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the isolation and characterization of dental tissue-derived stem cells and address the potential of these cell types for use in regenerative cell transplantation therapy. Recent Advances Looking forward, platforms for the delivery of stem cells via scaffolds and the use of growth factors and cytokines for enhancing dental stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are discussed. Critical Issues We aim to understand the developmental origins of dental tissues in an effort to elucidate the molecular pathways governing the genesis of somatic dental stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of several dental stem cells are discussed, including the developmental stage and specific locations from which these cells can be purified. In particular, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth may act as a very practical and easily accessibly reservoir for autologous stem cells and hold the most value in stem cell therapy. Dental pulp stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells should also be considered for their triple lineage differentiation ability and relative ease of isolation. Further, we address the potentials and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cells as a cell source in dental regenerative. Future Directions From an economical and a practical standpoint, dental stem cell therapy would be most easily applied in the prevention of periodontal ligament detachment and bone atrophy, as well as in the regeneration of dentin-pulp complex. In contrast, cell-based tooth replacement due to decay or other oral pathology seems, at the current time, an untenable approach. PMID:24527351

Feng, Ruoxue; Lengner, Chistopher

2013-01-01

187

(vii) Current developments in short stem femoral implants for hip replacement surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone-saving hip arthroplasty using metaphyseal stems is gaining importance because the number of young patients is on the increase and hip resurfacing is not always indicated. This article outlines the recent developments in short stem hip replacement following the concept of conservative hip implants. The individual decision for use of a particular type of implant remains crucial because a stem

Wolfram H. Kluge

2009-01-01

188

Cell Stem Cell Stage-Specific Differences in the  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Article Stage-Specific Differences in the Requirements for Germline Stem CellDepartment of Biochemistry, Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Washington tissues in the animal kingdom depend on stem cell populations. Embryonic stem cells are considered

Hay, Bruce A.

189

Framework bolsters stem cell progress.  

PubMed

With many of the leading science nations still stuck in debates on the use of embryonic stem cells, Britain, with a regulatory framework in place, is well-positioned to take the lead. Michael Gross reports. PMID:15296763

Gross, Michael

2004-08-10

190

Renal Stem Cells and Kidney Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Significant advances have been made in stem cell research over the past decade. A number of non-hematopoietic sources of stem\\u000a cells (or progenitor cells) have been identified including endothelial stem cells and neural stem cells. These discoveries\\u000a have been a major step towards the potential regeneration of organs for clinical applications using stem cells. The worldwide\\u000a shortage of donor kidneys

Takashi Yokoo; Akira Fukui; Kei Matsumoto; Tetsuya Kawamura

191

Stem Cells Promises to Keep?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Samantha and her husband Brad have two children, conceived with the help of in vitro fertilization treatments. After viewing a TV program on stem cells and their potential medical uses, Samantha is convinced that they should donate the remaining frozen embryos they have to medical research, an idea Brad strongly objects to. The case teaches about stem cells and their medical applications as well as the ethical dilemmas posed by their use.

Yaich, Lauren E.

2002-01-01

192

The stem cell debate CNN  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As most of our readers no doubt know, President Bush made a determination on federal funding for embryonic stem cell research in August 2001, agreeing to release federal funds for research involving already existing stem cell lines. Information on this contentious topic is available at CNN's in-depth special, which features articles, analysis, video clips, and message boards devoted to the many aspects of the debate.

2001-01-01

193

Two-photon imaging of stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of human and animal stem cells (rat and human adult pancreatic stem cells, salivary gland stem cells, dental pulpa stem cells) have been investigated by femtosecond laser 5D two-photon microscopy. Autofluorescence and second harmonic generation have been imaged with submicron spatial resolution, 270 ps temporal resolution, and 10 nm spectral resolution. In particular, NADH and flavoprotein fluorescence was

A. Uchugonova; E. Gorjup; I. Riemann; D. Sauer; K. König

2008-01-01

194

A medium hyperglycosylated podocalyxin enables noninvasive and quantitative detection of tumorigenic human pluripotent stem cells  

PubMed Central

While human pluripotent stem cells are attractive sources for cell-replacement therapies, a major concern remains regarding their tumorigenic potential. Thus, safety assessment of human pluripotent stem cell-based products in terms of tumorigenicity is critical. Previously we have identified a pluripotent stem cell-specific lectin probe rBC2LCN recognizing hyperglycosylated podocalyxin as a cell surface ligand. Here we demonstrate that hyperglycosylated podocalyxin is secreted from human pluripotent stem cells into cell culture supernatants. We establish a sandwich assay system, named the GlycoStem test, targeting the soluble hyperglycosylated podocalyxin using rBC2LCN. The GlycoStem test is sufficiently sensitive and quantitative to detect residual human pluripotent stem cells. This work provides a proof of concept for the noninvasive and quantitative detection of tumorigenic human pluripotent stem cells using cell culture supernatants. The developed method should increase the safety of human pluripotent stem cell-based cell therapies. PMID:24518842

Tateno, Hiroaki; Onuma, Yasuko; Ito, Yuzuru; Hiemori, Keiko; Aiki, Yasuhiko; Shimizu, Madoka; Higuchi, Kumiko; Fukuda, Masakazu; Warashina, Masaki; Honda, Susumu; Asashima, Makoto; Hirabayashi, Jun

2014-01-01

195

Cell Stem Cell Molecular Pathway and Cell State Responsible  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Article Molecular Pathway and Cell State Responsible for Dissociation-Induced Apoptosis in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Masatoshi Ohgushi,1,2 Michiru Matsumura,1,2 Mototsugu Eiraku,1 Sasai1,2,* 1Organogenesis and Neurogenesis Group 2Division of Human Stem Cell Technology 3Laboratory

South Bohemia, University of

196

Human embryonic stem cells express an immunogenic nonhuman sialic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human embryonic stem cells (HESC) can potentially generate every body cell type, making them excellent candidates for cell- and tissue-replacement therapies. HESC are typically cultured with animal-derived 'serum replacements' on mouse feeder layers. Both of these are sources of the nonhuman sialic acid Neu5Gc, against which many humans have circulating antibodies. Both HESC and derived embryoid bodies metabolically incorporate substantial

Maria J Martin; Alysson Muotri; Fred Gage; Ajit Varki

2005-01-01

197

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS or INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS? A DNA INTEGRITY PERSPECTIVE  

E-print Network

1 EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS or INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS? A DNA INTEGRITY PERSPECTIVE Qiang Bai Gene Therapy 2013;13(2):93-8" #12;2 ABSTRACT Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are two types of pluripotent stem cells that hold great promise for biomedical research

Boyer, Edmond

198

Columbia Stem Cell Initiative Tapping the potential of stem cells for human health  

E-print Network

Faculty Positions in Stem Cell Research at Columbia University Medical Center The Columbia Stem Cell of stem cells for human health. Their research covers all aspects of stem cell research, from basic Professor and Associate Professor level. Applicants' research may focus directly on stem cell biology

Adams, Mark

199

Curr Gene Ther . Author manuscript Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells? A DNA integrity  

E-print Network

Curr Gene Ther . Author manuscript Page /1 7 Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cellsPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are two types of pluripotent stem cells that hold great promise for biomedical ; Embryonic Stem Cells ; cytology ; immunology ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Genomic Instability ; Humans ; Induced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

200

Cell Stem Cell CNS-Resident Glial Progenitor/Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Article CNS-Resident Glial Progenitor/Stem Cells Produce Schwann Cells as well. Richardson,3,4,* and Robin J.M. Franklin1,* 1MRC Cambridge Centre for Stem Cell Biology and RegenerativeResearch Department of Cell and Developmental Biology 5Research Department of Neuroscience, Physiology

Richardson, William D.

201

Are cancer stem cells radioresistant?  

PubMed Central

Based on findings that cancer cell clonogens exhibit stem cell features, it has been suggested that cancer stem-like cells are relatively radioresistant owing to different intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including quiescence, activated radiation response mechanisms (e.g., enhanced DNA repair, upregulated cell cycle control mechanisms and increased free-radical scavengers) and a surrounding microenvironment that enhances cell survival mechanisms (e.g., hypoxia and interaction with stromal elements). However, these radiosensitivity features are probably dynamic in nature and come into play at different times during the course of chemo/radiotherapy. Therefore, different molecularly targeted radiosensitization strategies may be needed at different stages of therapy. This article describes potential sensitization approaches based on the dynamics and changing properties of cancer stem-like cells during therapy. PMID:21062156

Hittelman, Walter N; Liao, Yong; Wang, Li; Milas, Luka

2011-01-01

202

Recent highlights on bone stem cells: a report from Bone Stem Cells 2009, and not only….  

PubMed

The use of stem cells has opened new prospects for the treatment of orthopaedic conditions characterized by large bone defects. However, many issues still exist to which answers are needed before routine, large-scale application becomes possible. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC), which are clonogenic, multipotential precursors present in the bone marrow stroma, are generally employed for bone regeneration. Stem cells with multilineage differentiation similar to MSC have also been demonstrated in adipose tissue, peripheral blood, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid. Each source presents its own advantages and drawbacks. Unfortunately, no unique surface antigen is expressed by MSC, and this hampers simple MSC enrichment from heterogeneous populations. MSC are identified through a combination of physical, morphological and functional assays. Different in vitro and in vivo models have been described for the research on bone stem cells. These models should predict the in vivo bone healing capacity of MSC and if the induced osteogenesis is similar to the physiological one. Although stem cells offer an exciting possibility of a renewable source of cells and tissues for replacement, orthopaedic applications often represent case reports whereas controlled randomized trials are still lacking. Further biological aspects of bone stem cells should be elucidated and a general consensus on the best models, protocols and proper use of scaffolds and growth factors should be achieved. PMID:20874718

Cenni, Elisabetta; Perut, Francesca; Baglěo, Serena Rubina; Fiorentini, Elisa; Baldini, Nicola

2010-11-01

203

Cell Stem Cell Wnts as Self-Renewal Factors  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Previews Wnts as Self-Renewal Factors: Mammary Stem Cells and Beyond Esther M, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada 2Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell.clevers@hubrecht.eu DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.05.004 Adult stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine, yet

Verheyen, Esther M.

204

Gene and Stem Cell Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene and stem cell therapy are being developed as novel treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF). In gene therapy, the therapeutic nucleic acid is delivered to terminally differentiated epithelial cells in the airways. While technically less demanding, this approach has the drawback that therapy must be continually re-administered because of target cell turnover. Direct airway administration is also faced with powerful

A. Boyd

2006-01-01

205

Stem Cells of Mammalian Brain: Biology of the Stem Cells in vivoand in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells are totipotent cells of the blastocyst (embryonal stem cells) and multipotent germinative cells of ento-, ecto-, and mesoderm that give rise to all tissues during embryogenesis. The stem cells have high proliferation activity and an unlimited capacity for self-production by symmetrical mitosis. Asymmetrical mitosis of the stem cells generates daughter cells (“progenitor cells”) with unlimited proliferation potential. During

I. V. Viktorov

2001-01-01

206

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Long-Term, Stable Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem  

E-print Network

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Long-Term, Stable Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors Grafted into the Adult Mammalian Neostriatum IGOR NASONKIN Words. Cellular therapy · Embryonic stem cells · Neural differentiation · Neural induction · Neural stem

Ryugo, David K.

207

Types of Stem Cell Transplants for Treating Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... of stem cells for transplant Types of stem cell transplants for treating cancer In a typical stem ... from your identical twin or triplet Autologous stem cell transplants These stem cells come from you alone. ...

208

25 YEARS OF EPIDERMAL STEM CELLS  

PubMed Central

This is a chronicle of concepts in the field of epidermal stem cell biology and a historic look at their development over time. The last 25 years have seen the evolution of epidermal stem cell science, from first fundamental studies to a sophisticated science. The study of epithelial stem cell biology was aided by the ability to visualize the distribution of stem cells and their progeny through lineage analysis studies. The excellent progress we have made in understanding epidermal stem cell biology is discussed in this article. The challenges we still face in understanding epidermal stem cell include defining molecular markers for stem and progenitor subpopulations, determining the locations and contributions of the different stem cell niches, and mapping regulatory pathways of epidermal stem cell proliferation and differentiation. However, our rapidly evolving understanding of epidermal stem cells has many potential uses that promise to translate into improved patient therapy. PMID:22205306

Ghadially, Ruby

2012-01-01

209

Storage of Adipose Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are becoming the cells of choice for an increasing number of clinical trials, and they\\u000a promise to be in the next decade the preferential cell type used in cell therapies. Here we describe how they can be isolated\\u000a from adipose tissue, prepared for storage, and eventually conserved in liquid nitrogen, waiting for future cell therapy applications.

Giorgio Bronz; Gianni Soldati

210

Adult stem cell-based apexogenesis  

PubMed Central

Generally, the dental pulp needs to be removed when it is infected, and root canal therapy (RCT) is usually required in which infected dental pulp is replaced with inorganic materials (paste and gutta percha). This treatment approach ultimately brings about a dead tooth. However, pulp vitality is extremely important to the tooth itself, since it provides nutrition and acts as a biosensor to detect the potential pathogenic stimuli. Despite the reported clinical success rate, RCT-treated teeth are destined to be devitalized, brittle and susceptible to postoperative fracture. Recently, the advances and achievements in the field of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have inspired novel biological approaches to apexogenesis in young patients suffering from pulpitis or periapical periodontitis. This review mainly focuses on the benchtop and clinical regeneration of root apex mediated by adult stem cells. Moreover, current strategies for infected pulp therapy are also discussed here. PMID:25332909

Li, Yao; Shu, Li-Hong; Yan, Ming; Dai, Wen-Yong; Li, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Dong; Yu, Jin-Hua

2014-01-01

211

Reconstructing the stem cell debate.  

PubMed

Human embryonic stem cells have been a major topic in science, medicine, and religion since their discovery in 1998. However, due to the complex discourse and rhetoric of scientific language, debate has remained within the professional realm via "expert bioethics." Using the tenets of pragmatism, the author examines the need to move the debate to society as a whole and disentangle the stem cell debate from the ideologies of the human cloning and abortion debates. Opening this issue to a societal debate will advance societal growth, resulting in informed decisions on moral issues, funding, or regulation associated with hES cell research. PMID:12755109

Sitko, Bradley J

2002-01-01

212

Retroviral Expression in Embryonic Stem Cells and Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Achieving long-term retroviral expression in primary cells has been problematic. De novo DNA methylation of infecting proviruses has been proposed as a major cause of this transcriptional repression. Here we report the development of a mouse stem cell virus (MSCV) long terminal repeat-based retroviral vector that is expressed in both embryonic stem (ES) cells and hematopoietic stem (HS) cells. Infected HS cells and their differentiated descendants maintained long-term and stable retroviral expression after serial adoptive transfers. In addition, retrovirally infected ES cells showed detectable expression level of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Moreover, GFP expression of integrated proviruses was maintained after in vitro differentiation of infected ES cells. Long-term passage of infected ES cells resulted in methylation-mediated silencing, while short-term expression was methylation independent. Tissues of transgenic animals, which we derived from ES cells carrying the MSCV-based provirus, did not express GFP. However, treatment with the demethylating agent 5-azadeoxycytidine reactivated the silent provirus, demonstrating that DNA methylation is involved in the maintenance of retroviral repression. Our results indicate that retroviral expression in ES cells is repressed by methylation-dependent as well as methylation-independent mechanisms. PMID:11003639

Cherry, Sara R.; Biniszkiewicz, D.; van Parijs, L.; Baltimore, D.; Jaenisch, R.

2000-01-01

213

Stem-cell ecology and stem cells in motion  

PubMed Central

This review highlights major scientific developments over the past 50 years or so in concepts related to stem-cell ecology and to stem cells in motion. Many thorough and eloquent reviews have been presented in the last 5 years updating progress in these issues. Some paradigms have been challenged, others validated, or new ones brought to light. In the present review, we will confine our remarks to the historical development of progress. In doing so, we will refrain from a detailed analysis of controversial data, emphasizing instead widely accepted views and some challenging novel ones. PMID:18398055

Scadden, David T.

2008-01-01

214

Stem cell differentiation: Sticky mechanical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical cues from the extracellular environment influence the lineage commitment of stem cells. Now, experiments on human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on photodegradable hydrogels show that the cells' fate can also be determined by past physical environments.

Eyckmans, Jeroen; Chen, Christopher S.

2014-06-01

215

Enabling Stem Cell Research and Development  

E-print Network

to an optimal global solution for stem cell R&D. Relying onstem cell materials in existence, in order to identify where new solutionssolutions. Membership may be defined simply as institutions that are “engaged in stem cell

Saha, Krishanu; Graff, Gregory; Winickoff, David

2007-01-01

216

Control of the Embryonic Stem Cell State  

E-print Network

Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine. These cells can be propagated in culture in an undifferentiated state but can be induced to differentiate into specialized ...

Young, Richard A.

217

Sustained Levels of FGF2 Maintain Undifferentiated Stem Cell Cultures with Biweekly Feeding  

PubMed Central

An essential aspect of stem cell culture is the successful maintenance of the undifferentiated state. Many types of stem cells are FGF2 dependent, and pluripotent stem cells are maintained by replacing FGF2-containing media daily, while tissue-specific stem cells are typically fed every 3rd day. Frequent feeding, however, results in significant variation in growth factor levels due to FGF2 instability, which limits effective maintenance due to spontaneous differentiation. We report that stabilization of FGF2 levels using controlled release PLGA microspheres improves expression of stem cell markers, increases stem cell numbers and decreases spontaneous differentiation. The controlled release FGF2 additive reduces the frequency of media changes needed to maintain stem cell cultures, so that human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can be maintained successfully with biweekly feedings. PMID:23437109

Lotz, Steven; Goderie, Susan; Tokas, Nicolas; Hirsch, Sarah E.; Ahmad, Faizzan; Corneo, Barbara; Le, Sheila; Banerjee, Akhilesh; Kane, Ravi S.; Stern, Jeffrey H.; Temple, Sally; Fasano, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

218

Human stem cell ethics: beyond the embryo.  

PubMed

Human embryonic stem cell research has elicited powerful debates about the morality of destroying human embryos. However, there are important ethical issues related to stem cell research that are unrelated to embryo destruction. These include particular issues involving different types of cells used, the procurement of such cells, in vivo use of stem cells, intellectual property, and conflicts of interest. PMID:18522846

Sugarman, Jeremy

2008-06-01

219

Patenting Human Genes and Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell lines and genetically modified single cell organisms have been considered patentable subjects for the last two decades. However, despite the technical patentability of genes and stem cell lines, social and legal controversy concerning their 'ownership' has surrounded stem cell research in recent years. Some granted patents on stem cells with extremely broad claims are casting a shadow over the

Enca Martin-Rendon; Derek J. Blake

2007-01-01

220

Stem Cell Reports CRIPTO/GRP78 Signaling Maintains Fetal and Adult Mammary Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Stem Cell Reports Report CRIPTO/GRP78 Signaling Maintains Fetal and Adult Mammary Stem Cells Ex cell behavior. Here, we identify CRIPTO and its cell- surface receptor GRP78 as regulators of stem cell differentiation and reduces self-renewal of mammary stem cell-enriched populations cultured ex vivo. By contrast

Wahl, Geoffrey M.

221

Ethical sourcing of human embryonic stem cells--rational solutions?  

PubMed

At the heart of the extensive ethical and regulatory debates that have surrounded human embryonic stem cells is the human pre-implantation embryo. Advances in the understanding of cellular reprogramming, both by cell nuclear replacement and by potential new protocols, should lead to methods that circumvent the use of a practicably viable embryo. PMID:16025098

Evans, Martin

2005-08-01

222

Human embryonic stem cells and respect for life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this essay is to stimulate academic discussion about the ethical justification of using human primordial stem cells for tissue transplantation, cell replacement, and gene therapy. There are intriguing alternatives to using embryos obtained from elective abortions and in vitro fertilisation to reconstitute damaged or dysfunctional human organs. These include the expansion and transplantation of latent adult progenitor

John R Meyer

2000-01-01

223

Ethical sourcing of human embryonic stem cells — rational solutions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the heart of the extensive ethical and regulatory debates that have surrounded human embryonic stem cells is the human pre-implantation embryo. Advances in the understanding of cellular reprogramming, both by cell nuclear replacement and by potential new protocols, should lead to methods that circumvent the use of a practicably viable embryo.

Martin Evans

2005-01-01

224

Conversion of adult mouse unipotent germline stem cells into pluripotent stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germline stem cells (GSCs), often called spermatogonial stem cells, are unipotent stem cells that can give rise only to gametes. Under defined culture conditions, unipotent GSCs can be converted into pluripotent stem cells, termed as germline-derived pluripotent stem (gPS) cells. gPS cells can be differentiated into cells forming all three germ layers and germ cells. In this study, we describe

Kinarm Ko; Marcos J Araúzo-Bravo; Julee Kim; Martin Stehling; Hans R Schöler

2010-01-01

225

Stem Cell Transplantation for Neuroprotection in Stroke  

PubMed Central

Stem cell-based therapies for stroke have expanded substantially over the last decade. The diversity of embryonic and adult tissue sources provides researchers with the ability to harvest an ample supply of stem cells. However, the optimal conditions of stem cell use are still being determined. Along this line of the need for optimization studies, we discuss studies that demonstrate effective dose, timing, and route of stem cells. We recognize that stem cell derivations also provide uniquely individual difficulties and limitations in their therapeutic applications. This review will outline the current knowledge, including benefits and challenges, of the many current sources of stem cells for stroke therapy. PMID:24147217

Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Dailey, Travis; Tajiri, Naoki; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V.

2013-01-01

226

A comparison study in the proteomic signatures of multipotent germline stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and germline stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germline stem (GS) cells can only differentiate into germline cells, while multipotent germ stem (mGS) cells, like embryonic stem (ES) cells, can differentiate into various somatic cells and tissues. The proteomic profiles in GS and mGS cells were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Ten down-regulated and 16 up-regulated proteins were differentially expressed in mGS cells in comparison to GS cells,

Hajime Kurosaki; Yasuhiro Kazuki; Masaharu Hiratsuka; Toshiaki Inoue; Yasuhisa Matsui; Chi Chiu Wang; Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara; Takashi Shinohara; Tosifusa Toda; Mitsuo Oshimura

2007-01-01

227

Science: Embryos and Stem Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's quite easy to stay abreast of all the developments within the world of embryos and stem cell research with this handy site created and maintained by staff members at the Guardian newspaper. On their page, visitors can read news reports from the frontlines of scientific research in these areas, and also check out the latest posts from the weblogs they maintain on these matters. Further down the page, visitors will find a selection of specialized reports on both stem cell research and the manipulation and transformation of embryos. Visitors can also sign up to receive an RSS feed and even learn about related subjects, including genetics and biotechnology.

2008-06-04

228

Notions about human stem cells. [Stem cell proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise characterization of the structure of hemopoiesis in man and its quantitation is required for an understanding of hemopoietic regulation and its response to toxic agents, during and after chemotherapy and radiotherapy, in the course of various diseases, and in individuals exposed to agents known to be or which may be toxic to the bone marrow. Knowledge of stem cell

E. P. Cronkite; L. E. Feinendegen

1975-01-01

229

Epithelial stem cells in teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many tissues and organs maintain a process known as homeostasis, in which cells are replenished as they die as a result of\\u000a apoptosis or injury. The continuously growing mouse incisors are an excellent model for studying the molecular mechanisms\\u000a of cell homeostasis, renewal, and repair. We elucidated these mechanisms in mouse incisors by detecting adult stem cells and\\u000a analyzing the

H. Harada; T. Mitsuyasu; T. Toyono; K. Toyoshima

2002-01-01

230

Pulp tissue from primary teeth: new source of stem cells  

PubMed Central

SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth) represent a population of postnatal stem cells capable of extensive proliferation and multipotential differentiation. Primary teeth may be an ideal source of postnatal stem cells to regenerate tooth structures and bone, and possibly to treat neural tissue injury or degenerative diseases. SHED are highly proliferative cells derived from an accessible tissue source, and therefore hold potential for providing enough cells for clinical applications. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about dental pulp stem cells and discuss tissue engineering approaches that use SHED to replace irreversibly inflamed or necrotic pulps with a healthy and functionally competent tissue that is capable of forming new dentin. PMID:21625731

TELLES, Paloma Dias; MACHADO, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; SAKAI, Vivien Thiemy; NÖR, Jacques Eduardo

2011-01-01

231

Head and Neck Cancer Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most cancers contain a small sub-population of cells that are endowed with self-renewal, multipotency, and a unique potential for tumor initiation. These properties are considered hallmarks of cancer stem cells. Here, we provide an overview of the field of cancer stem cells with a focus on head and neck cancers. Cancer stem cells are located in the invasive fronts of

S. Krishnamurthy; J. E. Nör

2012-01-01

232

Generalized Potential of Adult Neural Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation

Diana L. Clarke; Clas B. Johansson; Johannes Wilbertz; Biborka Veress; Erik Nilsson; Helena Karlström; Urban Lendahl; Jonas Frisén

2000-01-01

233

*Institute for Stem Cell Research, GSF --National  

E-print Network

*Institute for Stem Cell Research, GSF -- National Research Center for Environment and Health neural stem cells. THE CELL BIOLOGY OF NEUROGENESIS Magdalena Götz* and Wieland B. Huttner Abstract | During the development of the mammalian central nervous system, neural stem cells and their derivative

Cai, Long

234

Neural stem cell engineering: directed differentiation of adult and embryonic stem cells into neurons Matthew J. Robertson1  

E-print Network

Neural stem cell engineering: directed differentiation of adult and embryonic stem cells Adult and embryonic stem cells 5. Embryonic stem cells 5.1. Expanding and culturing embryonic stem cells potential of embryonic stem cells in animal models 5.5.1. ES cell-derived dopaminergic cells 5.5.2. ES cell

Schaffer, David V.

235

Recent Advances towards the Clinical Application of Stem Cells for Retinal Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Retinal degenerative diseases constitute a major cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Stem cell-based therapies offer hope for these patients at risk of or suffering from blindness due to the deterioration of the neural retina. Various sources of stem cells are currently being investigated, ranging from human embryonic stem cells to adult-derived induced pluripotent stem cells as well as human Müller stem cells, with the first clinical trials to investigate the safety and tolerability of human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium cells having recently commenced. This review aims to summarize the latest advances in the development of stem cell strategies for the replacement of retinal neurons and their supportive cells, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) affected by retinal degenerative conditions. Particular emphasis will be given to the advances in stem cell transplantation and the challenges associated with their translation into clinical practice. PMID:24710533

Becker, Silke; Jayaram, Hari; Limb, G. Astrid

2012-01-01

236

DNA methylation in stem cell renewal and multipotency  

PubMed Central

Owing to their potential for differentiation into multiple cell types, multipotent stem cells extracted from many adult tissues are an attractive stem cell resource for the replacement of damaged tissues in regenerative medicine. The requirements for cellular differentiation of an adult stem cell are a loss of proliferation potential and a gain of cell-type identity. These processes could be restricted by epigenetic modifications that prevent the risks of lineage-unrelated gene expression or the undifferentiated features of stem cells in adult somatic cells. In this review, we focus on the role of DNA methylation in controlling the transcriptional activity of genes important for self-renewal, the dynamism of CpG methylation of tissue-specific genes during several differentiation programs, and whether the multilineage potential of adult stem cells could be imposed early in the original precursor stem cells through CpG methylation. Additionally, we draw attention to the role of DNA methylation in adult stem cell differentiation by reviewing the reports on spontaneous differentiation after treatment with demethylating agents and by considering the evidence provided by reprogramming of somatic cells into undifferentiated cells (that is, somatic nuclear transfer or generation of induced pluripotent cells). It is clear from the evidence that DNA methylation is necessary for controlling stem cell proliferation and differentiation, but their exact contribution in each lineage program is still unclear. As a consequence, in a clinical setting, caution should be exerted before employing adult stem cells or their derivatives in regenerative medicine and appropriate tests should be applied to ensure the integrity of the genome and epigenome. PMID:22041459

2011-01-01

237

Stem Cell Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

... there is a risk of a child's body rejecting the donated cells. Sometimes, despite the donor being ... so that there’s less chance of the body rejecting the new cells. One type of conditioning therapy ...

238

Dyskeratosis congenita and limbal stem cell deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the latest developments in the field of molecular hematology, we herein discuss the reported cases that have presented dyskeratosis congenita as one of the inherited stem cell diseases causing limbal stem cell deficiency.

Deniz Aslan; Rustu Fikret Akata

2010-01-01

239

Iatrogenic Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although little has been written about iatrogenic limbal stem cell deficiency, patients with this disorder are probably more common than the literature might suggest. It is important to recognize this disorder as a limbal deficiency, since standard medical therapies will not address its etiology. The sequelae of this condition include stromal scarring and significant loss of vision. Fortunately, phacoemulsification has

Gary S. Schwartz; Edward J. Holland

240

Steady advance of stem cell therapies: report from the 2011 World Stem Cell Summit, Pasadena, California, October 3-5.  

PubMed

Stem cell research and related therapies (including regenerative medicine and cellular therapies) could have a significant near-term impact on worldwide public health and aging. One reason is the industry's strong linkage between policy, science, industry, and patient advocacy, as was clear in the attendance and programming at the 7(th) annual World Stem Cell Summit held in Pasadena, California, October 3-5, 2011. A special conference session sponsored by the SENS Foundation discussed how stem cell therapies are being used to extend healthy life span. Stem cells are useful not only in cell-replacement therapies, but also in disease modeling, drug discovery, and drug toxicity screening. Stem cell therapies are currently being applied to over 50 diseases, including heart, lung, neurodegenerative, and eye disease, cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Dozens of companies are developing therapeutic solutions that are in different stages of clinical use and clinical trials. Some high-profile therapies include Dendreon's Provenge for prostate cancer, Geron's first-ever embryonic stem cell trials for spinal cord injury, Fibrocell's laViv cellular therapy for wrinkles, and well-established commercial skin substitutes (Organogenesis' Apligraf and Advanced BioHealing's Dermagraft). Stem cell policy issues under consideration include medical tourism, standards for large-scale stem cell manufacturing, and lingering ethical debates over the use of embryonic stem cells. Contemporary stem cell science advances include a focus on techniques for the direct reprogramming of cells from one lineage to another without returning to pluripotency as an intermediary step, improved means of generating and characterizing induced pluripotent cells, and progress in approaches to neurodegenerative disease. PMID:22175514

Swan, Melanie

2011-12-01

241

Perspectives on human stem cell research.  

PubMed

Human stem cell research draws not only scientists' but the public's attention. Human stem cell research is considered to be able to identify the mechanism of human development and change the paradigm of medical practices. However, there are heated ethical and legal debates about human stem cell research. The core issue is that of human dignity and human life. Some prefer human adult stem cell research or iPS cell research, others hES cell research. We do not need to exclude any type of stem cell research because each has its own merits and issues, and they can facilitate the scientific revolution when working together. PMID:19384875

Jung, Kyu Won

2009-09-01

242

Cell reprogramming for the creation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells by defined factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), characterized by being able to differentiate into various types of cells, are generally regarded\\u000a as the most promising sources for cell replacement therapies. However, as typical PSCs, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are still\\u000a far away from human clinics so far due to ethical issues and immune rejection response. One way to avoid such problems is\\u000a to

Huiqun Yin; Heng Wang; Hongguo Cao; Yunhai Zhang; Yong Tao; Xiaorong Zhang

2009-01-01

243

III. Stem Cells and Their Asymmetric Cell Divisions Stem cells to synapses: regulation of self-renewal and differentiation in  

E-print Network

III. Stem Cells and Their Asymmetric Cell Divisions Stem cells to synapses: regulation of self fates is a key step in the therapeutic use of stem cells to repair tissues after damage or disease. We are investigating the genetic networks that regulate neural stem cells in Drosophila. Stem cells can divide

Kazama, Hokto

244

Salivary Gland Cancer Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nor, Jacques E.

2013-01-01

245

Stem cells and tooth tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion that teeth contain stem cells is based on the well-known repairing ability of dentin after injury. Dental stem\\u000a cells have been isolated according to their anatomical locations, colony-forming ability, expression of stem cell markers,\\u000a and regeneration of pulp\\/dentin structures in vivo. These dental-derived stem cells are currently under increasing investigation\\u000a as sources for tooth regeneration and repair. Further

Amanda H.-H. Yen; Paul T. Sharpe

2008-01-01

246

New therapeutics targeting colon cancer stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent identification of tumor-initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) stem cells in the pathogenesis of CRC has provided a\\u000a potential target for novel therapeutics. Many details about CRC stem cells, however, remain poorly understood. Several potential\\u000a markers of CRC stem cells have been proposed, including CD133, CD44, and, recently, Lgr5. Attention also has been drawn to\\u000a control of stem cell self-renewal,

Arun Thenappan; Ying Li; Kirti Shetty; Lynt Johnson; E. P. Reddy; Lopa Mishra

2009-01-01

247

Epidermal Stem Cells and Their Epigenetic Regulation  

PubMed Central

Stem cells play an essential role in embryonic development, cell differentiation and tissue regeneration. Tissue homeostasis in adults is maintained by adult stem cells resident in the niches of different tissues. As one kind of adult stem cell, epidermal stem cells have the potential to generate diversified types of progeny cells in the skin. Although its biology is still largely unclarified, epidermal stem cells are widely used in stem cell research and regenerative medicine given its easy accessibility and pluripotency. Despite the same genome, cells within an organism have different fates due to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In this review, we will briefly discuss the current understanding of epigenetic modulation in epidermal stem cells. PMID:23999591

Shen, Qi; Jin, Hongchuan; Wang, Xian

2013-01-01

248

Cardiac Stem and Progenitor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the early days of cardiovascular biology, it has been believed that mammalian adult cardiomyocytes exit from the cell\\u000a cycle soon after birth, with the total number of cardiomyocytes being pre-determined. Recently, the identification of resident\\u000a cardiac stem\\/progenitor cells by several independent laboratories has challenged this long-held paradigm and has provoked\\u000a an exponential increase in the number of investigations. As

Ronglih Liao; Regina L. Sohn

249

Tumor Stem Cells and Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The last decade has seen the emergence of a shift in paradigm in the therapeutic strategies to target cancer. This is based\\u000a on the existence of a small reservoir of cells within the tumor mass that exhibits the capacity for self-renewal, as well\\u000a as undergo differentiation to give rise to phenotypically heterogeneous progeny with limited proliferative potential. These\\u000a stem-like cells

Jaclyn Y. Hung

250

Stem cell therapy and gene transfer for regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The committed stem and progenitor cells have been recently isolated from various adult tissues, including hematopoietic stem cell, neural stem cell, mesenchymal stem cell and endothelial progenitor cell. These adult stem cells have several advantages as compared with embryonic stem cells as their practical therapeutic application for tissue regeneration. In this review, we discuss the promising gene therapy application of

T Asahara; C Kalka; J M Isner

2000-01-01

251

Stem Cell Reports Quality Metrics for Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes  

E-print Network

Stem Cell Reports Article Quality Metrics for Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes Sean P. Sheehy,1, provided the original author and source are credited. SUMMARY Advances in stem cell manufacturing methods have made it possible to produce stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes at industrial scales for in vitro

252

Stem Cell Rev . Author manuscript Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: a systematic reappraisal  

E-print Network

Stem Cell Rev . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: a systematic (acronym for Adult mesenchymal stem cells engineering for connective tissue disorders. From the bench Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) biological properties and repair capacity. Part of Genostem activity has been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

College Students' Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before…

Concannon, James P.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Halverson, Kristy; Freyermuth, Sharyn

2010-01-01

254

College Students' Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before and after instruction. Two goals of the

James P. Concannon; Marcelle A. Siegel; Kristy Halverson; Sharyn Freyermuth

2010-01-01

255

Bio-engineering of stem/progenitor cells Blood stem cell products  

E-print Network

Bio-engineering of stem/progenitor cells Blood stem cell products: Toward sustainable benchmarks expansion of umbilical cord blood (UCB) derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) should stem cell derived products that fulfill our current best known criteria of clinical relevance

Zandstra, Peter W.

256

Results of Curing Some Diseases by Stem Cell Transplantation at Stem Cell R&D Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell therapy in curing dangerous diseases usually is main target of many researches about stem cells. In the world, researching and applying stem cells to cure diseases got some great achievements while there is a few in Viet Nam. In recently years, Laboratory of Stem cell R&D, University of Science, VNU HCM city carried out some researches about pre-

Phan Kim Ngoc; Pham Van Phuc; Viet Nam

2010-01-01

257

College Students’ Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors’ conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before and after instruction. Two goals of the

James P. Concannon; Marcelle A. Siegel; Kristy Halverson; Sharyn Freyermuth

2010-01-01

258

Media presentation and public understanding of stem cells and stem cell research in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a research project which examined media coverage and audience perceptions of stem cells and stem cell research in Hungary, using focus groups and a media analysis. A background study was also conducted on the Hungarian legal, social and political situation linked to stem cell research, treatment and storage. Our data show how stem cell research\\/treatments were

Lilla Vicsek; Júlia Gergely

2011-01-01

259

Epigenetic regulation of aging stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of adult tissue-specific stem cells declines with age, which may contribute to the physiological decline in tissue homeostasis and the increased risk of neoplasm during aging. Old stem cells can be ‘rejuvenated’ by environmental stimuli in some cases, raising the possibility that a subset of age-dependent stem cell changes is regulated by reversible mechanisms. Epigenetic regulators are good

E A Pollina; A Brunet

2011-01-01

260

--Taking STem Cell SCienCe from  

E-print Network

associate professor of biomedical engineering and stem cell researcher, says that basic research the frontiers of biomedical engineering and stem cell research: associate professor Treena livingston arinzeh Medicine, dedi- cated to creating technologies to translate basic stem cell research into practical

Bieber, Michael

261

Cell Stem Cell Prediction and Testing of Novel Transcriptional  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Article Prediction and Testing of Novel Transcriptional Networks Regulating Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Commitment Emily Walker,1 Minako Ohishi,1 Ryan E. Davey,1 Wen Zhang,2.stanford@utoronto.ca DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2007.04.002 SUMMARY Stem cell fate is governed by the integration of intrinsic

Zandstra, Peter W.

262

Tumorigenesis in cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are an attractive source for potential cell-replacement therapy. However, transplantation of differentiated products harbors the risk of teratoma formation, presenting a serious health risk. Thus, we characterized Nanog-expressing (undifferentiated) cells remaining after induction of differentiation by cytological examination. To induce differentiation of iPS cells, we generated embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from iPS cells carrying a Nanog–green fluorescent protein(GFP) reporter and then injected GFP-positive and GFP negative EBs into nude mice. GFP-positive EB transplantation resulted in the formation of immature teratoma grade 3, but no tumors were induced by GFP-negative EB. GFP positive cells revealed significantly lower cytoplasmic area and higher nucleus/cytoplasm ratio than those of GFP negative cells. Our results suggest that morphological analysis might be a useful method for distinguishing between tumorigenic and nontumorigenic iPS cells. PMID:24122447

Nishimori, Makoto; Yakushiji, Hiromasa; Mori, Michihiro; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Ohno, Setsuyo; Miyake, Yasuyuki; Sakaguchi, Takuya; Ueda, Masatsugu; Ohno, Eiji

2014-01-01

263

The stem cell secretome and its role in brain repair  

PubMed Central

Compelling evidence exists that non-haematopoietic stem cells, including mesenchymal (MSCs) and neural/progenitor stem cells (NPCs), exert a substantial beneficial and therapeutic effect after transplantation in experimental central nervous system (CNS) disease models through the secretion of immune modulatory or neurotrophic paracrine factors. This paracrine hypothesis has inspired an alternative outlook on the use of stem cells in regenerative neurology. In this paradigm, significant repair of the injured brain may be achieved by injecting the biologics secreted by stem cells (secretome), rather than implanting stem cells themselves for direct cell replacement. The stem cell secretome (SCS) includes cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, and has gained increasing attention in recent years because of its multiple implications for the repair, restoration or regeneration of injured tissues. Thanks to recent improvements in SCS profiling and manipulation, investigators are now inspired to harness the SCS as a novel alternative therapeutic option that might ensure more efficient outcomes than current stem cell-based therapies for CNS repair. This review discusses the most recent identification of MSC- and NPC-secreted factors, including those that are trafficked within extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs), and reflects on their potential effects on brain repair. It also examines some of the most convincing advances in molecular profiling that have enabled mapping of the SCS. PMID:23827856

Drago, Denise; Cossetti, Chiara; Iraci, Nunzio; Gaude, Edoardo; Musco, Giovanna; Bachi, Angela; Pluchino, Stefano

2014-01-01

264

ADULT STEM CELLS AND THEIR NICHES  

PubMed Central

Stem cells participate in dynamic physiologic systems that dictate the outcome of developmental events and organismal stress, Since these cells are fundamental to tissue maintenance and repair, the signals they receive play a critical role in the integrity of the organism. Much work has focused on stem cell identification and the molecular pathways involved in their regulation. Yet, we understand little about how these pathways achieve physiologically responsive stem cell functions. This chapter will review the state of our understanding of stem cells in the context of their microenvironment regarding the relation between stem cell niche dysfunction, carcinogenesis and aging. PMID:21222205

Ferraro, Francesca; Celso, Cristina Lo; Scadden, David

2014-01-01

265

Stem Cells for Neurovascular Repair in Stroke  

PubMed Central

Stem cells exert therapeutic effects against ischemic stroke via transplantation of exogenous stem cells or stimulation of endogenous stem cells within the neurogenic niches of subventricular zone and subgranular zone, or recruited from the bone marrow through peripheral circulation. In this paper, we review the different sources of stem cells that have been tested in animal models of stroke. In addition, we discuss specific mechanisms of action, in particular neurovascular repair by endothelial progenitor cells, as key translational research for advancing the clinical applications of stem cells for ischemic stroke. PMID:24077523

Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Dailey, Travis; Tajiri, Naoki; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kim, Dae Won; Pabon, Mibel; Acosta, Sandra; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V

2013-01-01

266

Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Cardiac Repair  

PubMed Central

The muscle lost after a myocardial infarction is replaced with non-contractile scar tissue, often initiating heart failure. Whole-organ cardiac transplantation is the only currently available clinical means of replacing the lost muscle, but this option is limited by the inadequate supply of donor hearts. Thus, cell-based cardiac repair has attracted considerable interest as an alternative means of ameliorating cardiac injury. Because of their tremendous capacity for expansion and unquestioned cardiac potential, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an attractive candidate cell source for obtaining cardiomyocytes and other useful mesenchymal cell types for such therapies. hESC-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) exhibit a committed cardiac phenotype and robust proliferative capacity, and recent testing in rodent infarct models indicates that they can partially remuscularize injured hearts and improve contractile function. Although the latter successes give good reason for optimism, considerable challenges remain to the successful application of hESCs to cardiac repair, including the need for preparations of high cardiac purity, improved methods of delivery, and approaches to overcome immune rejection and other causes of graft cell death. This review will describe the phenotype of hESC-CMs and preclinical experience with these cells and will consider strategies to overcoming the aforementioned challenges. PMID:18657407

Zhu, Wei-Zhong; Hauch, Kip; Xu, Chunhui; Laflamme, Michael A.

2008-01-01

267

Muscle stem cells at a glance  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Muscle stem cells facilitate the long-term regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. This self-renewing population of satellite cells has only recently been defined through genetic and transplantation experiments. Although muscle stem cells remain in a dormant quiescent state in uninjured muscle, they are poised to activate and produce committed progeny. Unlike committed myogenic progenitor cells, the self-renewal capacity gives muscle stem cells the ability to engraft as satellite cells and capitulate long-term regeneration. Similar to other adult stem cells, understanding the molecular regulation of muscle stem cells has significant implications towards the development of pharmacological or cell-based therapies for muscle disorders. This Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster will review satellite cell characteristics and therapeutic potential, and provide an overview of the muscle stem cell hallmarks: quiescence, self-renewal and commitment. PMID:25300792

Wang, Yu Xin; Dumont, Nicolas A.; Rudnicki, Michael A.

2014-01-01

268

Insights & Perspectives Characterization of stem cells and  

E-print Network

Insights & Perspectives Characterization of stem cells and cancer cells on the basis of gene; robustness; stem cell Introduction Robustness and plasticity are essential features of all biological systems cell-cell interaction explains mutational robustness of differentiated cells and suggests how cancer

Kaneko, Kunihiko

269

A stem cell for stem cells in murine haematopoiesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature erythrocytes and granulocytes have limited lifespans, do not replicate and must therefore be replenished constantly. They are derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) which are capable of self-renewal1. The numbers and properties of PSCs can be inferred in part from studies of their progeny. Such studies have depended largely on highly artificial experimental systems, involving such procedures as X-ray

D. I. Burton; J. D. Ansell; R. A. Gray; H. S. Micklem

1982-01-01

270

Polarity in Stem Cell Division: Asymmetric Stem Cell Division in Tissue Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Many adult stem cells divide asymmetrically to balance self-renewal and differentiation, thereby maintaining tissue homeostasis. Asymmetric stem cell divisions depend on asymmetric cell architecture (i.e., cell polarity) within the cell and/or the cellular environment. In particular, as residents of the tissues they sustain, stem cells are inevitably placed in the context of the tissue architecture. Indeed, many stem cells are polarized within their microenvironment, or the stem cell niche, and their asymmetric division relies on their relationship with the microenvironment. Here, we review asymmetric stem cell divisions in the context of the stem cell niche with a focus on Drosophila germ line stem cells, where the nature of niche-dependent asymmetric stem cell division is well characterized. PMID:20182603

Yamashita, Yukiko M.; Yuan, Hebao; Cheng, Jun; Hunt, Alan J.

2010-01-01

271

Stem cell therapy for voiding and erectile dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Voiding dysfunction comprises a variety of disorders, including stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder, and affects millions of men and women worldwide. Erectile dysfunction (ED) also decreases quality of life for millions of men, as well as for their partners. Advanced age and diabetes are common comorbidities that can exacerbate and negatively impact upon the development of these disorders. Therapies that target the pathophysiology of these conditions to halt progression are not currently available. However, stem cell therapy could fill this therapeutic void. Stem cells can reduce inflammation, prevent fibrosis, promote angiogenesis, recruit endogenous progenitor cells, and differentiate to replace damaged cells. Adult multipotent stem cell therapy, in particular, has shown promise in case reports and preclinical animal studies. Stem cells have also enabled advances in urological tissue engineering by facilitating ex vivo construction of bladder wall and urethral tissue (using a patient's own cells) prior to transplantation. More recent studies have focused on bioactive factor secretion and homing of stem cells. In the future, clinicians are likely to utilize allogeneic stem cell sources, intravenous systemic delivery, and ex vivo cell enhancement to treat voiding dysfunction and ED. PMID:22710667

Vaegler, Martin; Lenis, Andrew T; Daum, Lisa; Renninger, M; Bastian, Amend; Stenzl, Arnulf; Damaser, Margot S; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich

2013-01-01

272

Encapsulated stem cells for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Stem cells have inherent tumor?trophic migratory properties and can serve as vehicles for delivering effective, targeted therapy to isolated tumors and metastatic disease, making them promising anti?cancer agents. Encapsulation of therapeutically engineered stem cells in hydrogels has been utilized to provide a physical barrier to protect the cells from hostile extrinsic factors and significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy of transplanted stem cells in different models of cancer. This review aims to discuss the potential of different stem cell types for cancer therapy, various engineered stem cell based therapies for cancer, stem cell encapsulation process and provide an in depth overview of current applications of therapeutic stem cell encapsulation in the highly malignant brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), as well as the prospects for their clinical translation. PMID:23507920

Shah, Khalid

2013-01-01

273

Encapsulated stem cells for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Stem cells have inherent tumor?trophic migratory properties and can serve as vehicles for delivering effective, targeted therapy to isolated tumors and metastatic disease, making them promising anti?cancer agents. Encapsulation of therapeutically engineered stem cells in hydrogels has been utilized to provide a physical barrier to protect the cells from hostile extrinsic factors and significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy of transplanted stem cells in different models of cancer. This review aims to discuss the potential of different stem cell types for cancer therapy, various engineered stem cell based therapies for cancer, stem cell encapsulation process and provide an in depth overview of current applications of therapeutic stem cell encapsulation in the highly malignant brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), as well as the prospects for their clinical translation. PMID:23507920

2013-01-01

274

Endometrial stem cells in regenerative medicine  

PubMed Central

First described in 2004, endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) are adult stem cells isolated from the endometrial tissue. EnSCs comprise of a population of epithelial stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and side population stem cells. When secreted in the menstrual blood, they are termed menstrual stem cells or endometrial regenerative cells. Mounting evidence suggests that EnSCs can be utilized in regenerative medicine. EnSCs can be used as immuno-modulatory agents to attenuate inflammation, are implicated in angiogenesis and vascularization during tissue regeneration, and can also be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. Furthermore, EnSCs can be used in tissue engineering applications and there are several clinical trials currently in place to ascertain the therapeutic potential of EnSCs. This review highlights the progress made in EnSC research, describing their mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal potentials both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25097665

2014-01-01

275

Stem cells in diabetes: what has been achieved.  

PubMed

Beta-cell replacement therapy via islet transplantation has received renewed interest due to the recent improved success. In order to make such a therapy available to more than a few of the thousands of patients with diabetes, new sources of insulin-producing cells must be readily available. The most promising sources are stem cells, with efforts of deriving new beta-cells from both embryonic and adult stem cells. Several groups have reported generating insulin-producing cells from mouse embryonic stem cells. The strategies in the first two acclaimed reports were very different. One strategy, used by Soria's group, is gene trapping in which an introduced antibiotic resistance under the control of the insulin promoter allowed the selection of insulin-expressing cells that had spontaneously differentiated within embryoid bodies. Another strategy, used by McKay's group, manipulated culture conditions in a multistep protocol used for generating neural cells but with changed final conditions. Since these reports, there have been modifications of the protocols in efforts to improve the yields and maturity of the resulting cells. While it is unclear if the insulin-producing cells in any of these studies are truly mature beta-cells, these studies show the clear potential of embryonic stem cells and support optimism that similar results will be possible with human embryonic stem cells. We know that new beta-cells are generated throughout adult life, but the identity of adult pancreatic stem cells has been elusive. The potential for expansion and differentiation of pluripotent adult stem cells, whether from bone marrow or as non-pancreas tissue resident SP cells, is being explored but has not yet yielded insulin-producing tissue. In contrast, insulin-producing cells have been generated in vitro from adult pancreatic tissues. We have been examining the hypothesis that the functional source for new beta-cells in the adult pancreas are mature duct epithelial cells that have regressed or lost their mature phenotype after replication. Others have isolated putative stem cells from islets and ducts. For adult cells the issue of expansion as well as of differentiation is a question. The field of generating new beta-cells from stem cells, either embryonic or adult, is still in its infancy. Each new report has been met with a mixture of excitement and skepticism. With continued efforts and rigorous assessments, hopefully the potential of generating enough new beta-cells from stem cells will be realized. PMID:14671389

Bonner-Weir, Susan

2003-01-01

276

Challenges for heart disease stem cell therapy  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. The use of stem cells to improve recovery of the injured heart after myocardial infarction (MI) is an important emerging therapeutic strategy. However, recent reviews of clinical trials of stem cell therapy for MI and ischemic heart disease recovery report that less than half of the trials found only small improvements in cardiac function. In clinical trials, bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood cells were used as the source of stem cells delivered by intracoronary infusion. Some trials administered only a stem cell mobilizing agent that recruits endogenous sources of stem cells. Important challenges to improve the effectiveness of stem cell therapy for CVD include: (1) improved identification, recruitment, and expansion of autologous stem cells; (2) identification of mobilizing and homing agents that increase recruitment; and (3) development of strategies to improve stem cell survival and engraftment of both endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. This review is an overview of stem cell therapy for CVD and discusses the challenges these three areas present for maximum optimization of the efficacy of stem cell therapy for heart disease, and new strategies in progress. PMID:22399855

Hoover-Plow, Jane; Gong, Yanqing

2012-01-01

277

Saving Superman: Ethics and Stem Cell Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case explores the political and ethical issues associated with stem cell research. Students read the case describing Christopher Reeve’s accident and injuries and his advocacy for stem cell research along with background readings on stem cells and the ethics of stem cell research. They are then assigned to one of four stakeholder groups and asked to develop a position on whether or not the U.S. Senate should expand stem cell research with a focus on the ethics underlying the issue.  They present their positions in class in a simulated public hearing.

Post, Doug M.; Knutson, Doug

2006-01-01

278

Embryonic stem cell patents and human dignity.  

PubMed

This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity. After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells do not. Since patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells may still threaten human dignity by encouraging people to treat embryos as property, patent agencies should carefully monitor and control these patents to ensure that patents are not inadvertently awarded on embryos or totipotent stem cells. PMID:17922198

Resnik, David B

2007-09-01

279

Stem cells and diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting 2–5% of the population. Transplantation of isolated islets of Langerhans from donor pancreata could be a cure for diabetes; however, such an approach is limited by the scarcity of the transplantation material and the long-term side effects of immunosuppressive therapy. These problems may be overcome by using a renewable source of cells, such

G Berná; T León-Quinto; R Enseńat-Waser; E Montanya; F Martín; B Soria

2001-01-01

280

Stem cells and repair of lung injuries  

PubMed Central

Fueled by the promise of regenerative medicine, currently there is unprecedented interest in stem cells. Furthermore, there have been revolutionary, but somewhat controversial, advances in our understanding of stem cell biology. Stem cells likely play key roles in the repair of diverse lung injuries. However, due to very low rates of cellular proliferation in vivo in the normal steady state, cellular and architectural complexity of the respiratory tract, and the lack of an intensive research effort, lung stem cells remain poorly understood compared to those in other major organ systems. In the present review, we concisely explore the conceptual framework of stem cell biology and recent advances pertinent to the lungs. We illustrate lung diseases in which manipulation of stem cells may be physiologically significant and highlight the challenges facing stem cell-related therapy in the lung. PMID:15285789

Neuringer, Isabel P; Randell, Scott H

2004-01-01

281

Learning about Cancer by Studying Stem Cells  

MedlinePLUS

... About Cancer by Studying Stem Cells Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Learning About Cancer by Studying Stem ... Once Upon a Stem Cell This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

282

In Pursuit of Prostate Cancer Stem Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently, various human tumors have been shown to contain cancer stem cells. These cells, although rare, appear to be the only cells that can regenerate tumor and mediate metastasis. Therefore, these rare cancer stem cells may be the only cells that actua...

L. Patrawala

2007-01-01

283

The Game of Life: Stem Cell Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a game that models what happens as stem cells differentiate into different cell types. As learners play, they'll discover that a wide variety of cells can arise as different "cell fate decisions" are made along a stem cell's developmental path.

Yu, Julie

2007-01-01

284

Stem Cells, Science, and Public Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These are interesting days in the scientific, social, and political debates about human embryonic stem cell research. Pluripotent stem cells--cells that can, in principle, give rise to the body's full range of cell types--were previously derivable only from human embryos that were destroyed in the process. Now, a variety of somatic cell types can…

Hurlbut, J. Benjamin; Robert, Jason Scott

2012-01-01

285

Craniofacial Tissue Engineering by Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Craniofacial tissue engineering promises the regeneration or de novo formation of dental, oral, and craniofacial structures lost to congenital anomalies, trauma, and diseases. Virtually all craniofacial structures are derivatives of mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are the offspring of mesenchymal cells following asymmetrical division, and reside in various craniofacial structures in the adult. Cells with characteristics of adult stem cells

J. J. Mao; W. V. Giannobile; J. A. Helms; S. J. Hollister; P. H. Krebsbach; M. T. Longaker; S. Shi

2006-01-01

286

Cancer Stem Cells Converted from Pluripotent Stem Cells and the Cancerous Niche  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, the cancer stem cells are considered to be significantly responsible for growth, metastasis, invasion and recurrence of all cancer. Cancer stem cells are typically characterized by continuous proliferation and self-renewal as well as by differentiation potential, while stem cells are considered to differentiate into tissue- specific phenotype of mature cells under the influence of micro-environment. Cancer stem cells should be traced to the stem cells under the influence of a micro-environment, which induces malignant tumors. In this review, we propose this micro-environment as a ‘cancerous niche’ and discuss its importance on the formation and maintenance of cancer stem cells with the recent experimental results to establish cancer stem cell models from induced pluripotent stem cells. These models of cancer stem cell will provide the great advantages in cancer research and its therapeutic applications in the future. PMID:25075155

Kasai, T; Chen, L; Mizutani, AZ; Kudoh, T; Murakami, H; Fu, L; Seno, M

2014-01-01

287

STEM CELLS FOR TOOTH ENGINEERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tooth development results from sequential and reciprocal interactions between the oral epithelium and the underlying neural crest-derived mesenchyme. The generation of dental structures and\\/or entire teeth in the laboratory depends upon the manipulation of stem cells and requires a synergy of all cellular and molecular events that finally lead to the formation of tooth-specific hard tissues, dentin and enamel. Although

G. Bluteau; H. U. Luder; C. De Bari; T. A. Mitsiadis; Aberdeen AB

2008-01-01

288

Elimination of Cancer Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The acceptance of the Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) concept has revolutionized all aspects of our understanding of cancer biology,\\u000a from the cellular origin of cancer to its growth and expansion, shedding new light into the interrelations of all the cellular\\u000a components of the tumour and their role in its progression. From the therapeutic point of view, the existence of CSCs

A. Sagrera; J. Pérez-Losada; M. Pérez-Caro; R. Jiménez; I. Sánchez-García; C. Cobaleda

289

[Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) in medical research].  

PubMed

Pluripotent stem cells are capable of differentiating into cells of any tissue. The fact that iPS cell lines can be produced from skin cells or blood cells and directed to differentiate into a desired direction makes it possible to investigate e.g. myocardial or nerve cells having a disease-associated genotype. This will enable the development of experimental models of disease mechanisms and also apply them to drug screening, which may allow the development of novel types of treatment. In the future it may become possible to replace injured cells of a patient with autologous iPS cell derived transplants. PMID:24822328

Weltner, Jere; Trokovic, Ras; Otonkoski, Timo

2014-01-01

290

Generalized Potential of Adult Neural Stem Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation of chimeric chick and mouse embryos and give rise to cells of all germ layers. This demonstrates that an adult neural stem cell has a very broad developmental capacity and may potentially be used to generate a variety of cell types for transplantation in different diseases.

Clarke, Diana L.; Johansson, Clas B.; Wilbertz, Johannes; Veress, Biborka; Nilsson, Erik; Karlström, Helena; Lendahl, Urban; Frisén, Jonas

2000-06-01

291

Stem cell tracking with optically active nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Stem-cell-based therapies hold promise and potential to address many unmet clinical needs. Cell tracking with modern imaging modalities offers insight into the underlying biological process of the stem-cell-based therapies, with the goal to reveal cell survival, migration, homing, engraftment, differentiation, and functions. Adaptability, sensitivity, resolution, and non-invasiveness have contributed to the longstanding use of optical imaging for stem cell tracking and analysis. To identify transplanted stem cells from the host tissue, optically active probes are usually used to label stem cells before the administration. In comparison to the traditional fluorescent probes like fluorescent proteins and dyes, nanoparticle-based probes are advantageous in terms of the photo-stabilities and minimal changes to the cell phenotype. The main focus here is to overview the recent development of optically active nanoparticles for stem cells tracking. The related optical imaging modalities include fluorescence imaging, photoacoustic imaging, Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy imaging. PMID:23638335

Gao, Yu; Cui, Yan; Chan, Jerry KY; Xu, Chenjie

2013-01-01

292

Review Stem cells used for cardiovascular tissue engineering §  

E-print Network

Stem cell research and tissue engineering have become leading fields in basic research worldwide. Especially in cardiovascular medicine, initial reports on the potential of using stem cells to recover cardiac function and replace organ subunits such as heart valves seemed to offer the promise of widespread clinical use in the near future. However, the broad application of this new therapy failed due to safety and efficacy concerns. Due in part to the initial reports, major basic research efforts were undertaken to explore the specific cell types in greater detail and identify their mechanisms of supporting function, resulting in remarkable new findings in stem cell biology. For example, the notion of resident human cardiac stem cells has disproved the earlier supposition that the human heart is a finitely differentiated organ without the intrinsic potential for regeneration. Furthermore, new technologies emerged to produce pluripotent cells without the ethical and immunological drawbacks of embryonic stem cells (for instance by nuclear transfer). Other autologous cell sources are presently under investigation in myocardial tissue engineering. For tissue engineering of heart valves and small calibre vessels, the use of autologous endothelial (precursor) cells may be the optimal means of seeding a biological or artificial scaffold. It is important that ongoing basic and clinical research in cardiovascular surgery might explore the potential of different cell types either using tissue engineering constructs or in cell transplantation approaches.

Matthias Siepe A; Payam Akhyari B; Artur Lichtenberg B; Christian Schlensak A; Friedhelm Beyersdorf A

2008-01-01

293

Stem cells in the nervous system.  

PubMed

Given their capacity to regenerate cells lost through injury or disease, stem cells offer new vistas into possible treatments for degenerative diseases and their underlying causes. As such, stem cell biology is emerging as a driving force behind many studies in regenerative medicine. This review focuses on the current understanding of the applications of stem cells in treating ailments of the human brain, with an emphasis on neurodegenerative diseases. Two types of neural stem cells are discussed: endogenous neural stem cells residing within the adult brain and pluripotent stem cells capable of forming neural cells in culture. Endogenous neural stem cells give rise to neurons throughout life, but they are restricted to specialized regions in the brain. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms regulating these cells is key in determining their therapeutic potential as well as finding mechanisms to activate dormant stem cells outside these specialized microdomains. In parallel, patient-derived stem cells can be used to generate neural cells in culture, providing new tools for disease modeling, drug testing, and cell-based therapies. Turning these technologies into viable treatments will require the integration of basic science with clinical skills in rehabilitation. PMID:24800720

Maldonado-Soto, Angel R; Oakley, Derek H; Wichterle, Hynek; Stein, Joel; Doetsch, Fiona K; Henderson, Christopher E

2014-11-01

294

J Cell Biochem . Author manuscript Optimizing stem cell culture  

E-print Network

cell culture is widely used in basic research for studying stem cell biology, but also owingJ Cell Biochem . Author manuscript Page /1 7 Optimizing stem cell culture Boudewijn Van Der Sanden * Correspondence should be adressed to: Didier Wion Abstract Stem cells always

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

Intestinal stem cells and celiac disease  

PubMed Central

Stem cells (SCs) are the key to tissue genesis and regeneration. Given their central role in homeostasis, dysfunctions of the SC compartment play a pivotal role in the development of cancers, degenerative disorders, chronic inflammatory pathologies and organ failure. The gastrointestinal tract is constantly exposed to harsh mechanical and chemical conditions and most of the epithelial cells are replaced every 3 to 5 d. According to the so-called Unitarian hypothesis, this renewal is driven by a common intestinal stem cell (ISC) residing within the crypt base at the origin of the crypt-to-villus hierarchical migratory pattern. Celiac disease (CD) can be defined as a chronic immune-mediated disease that is triggered and maintained by dietary proteins (gluten) in genetically predisposed individuals. Many advances have been achieved over the last years in understanding of the pathogenic interactions among genetic, immunological and environmental factors in CD, with a particular emphasis on intestinal barrier and gut microbiota. Conversely, little is known about ISC modulation and deregulation in active celiac disease and upon a gluten-free diet. Nonetheless, bone marrow-derived SC transplantation has become an option for celiac patients with complicated or refractory disease. This manuscript summarizes the “state of the art” regarding CD and ISCs, their niche and potential role in the development and treatment of the disease. PMID:24772248

Piscaglia, Anna Chiara

2014-01-01

296

Stem cell therapy in ischemic heart disease.  

PubMed

Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death in the Western world. The high impact of its main sequelae, acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure (CHF), on the quality of life of patients and the cost of health care drives the search for new therapies. The recent finding that stem cells contribute to neovascularization and possibly improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction makes stem cell therapy the most highly active research area in cardiology. Although the concept of stem cell therapy may revolutionize heart failure treatment, several obstacles need to be addressed. To name a few: 1) Which patient population should be considered for stem cell therapy? 2) What type of stem cell should be used? 3) What is the best route for cell delivery? 4) What is the optimum number of cells that should be used to achieve functional effects? 5) Is stem cell therapy safer and more effective than conventional therapies? The published studies vary significantly in design, making it difficult to draw conclusions on the efficacy of this treatment. For example, different models of ischemia, species of donors and recipients, techniques of cell delivery, cell types, cell numbers and timing of the experiments have been used. However, these studies highlight the landmark concept that stem cell therapy may play a major role in treating cardiovascular diseases in the near future. It should be noted that stem cell therapy is not limited to the treatment of ischemic cardiac disease. Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, peripheral vascular disease, and aging may be treated by stem cells. Stem cells could be used as vehicle for gene therapy and eliminate the use of viral vectors. Finally, stem cell therapy may be combined with pharmacological, surgical, and interventional therapy to improve outcome. Here we attempt a systematic overview of the science of stem cells and their effects when transplanted into ischemic myocardium. PMID:14647535

Sunkomat, Julia N E; Gaballa, Mohamed A

2003-01-01

297

Cell Stem Cell Phosphorylation Dynamics during Early  

E-print Network

levels of the `stemness' markers OCT4, SOX2, SSEA-3, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81 in the hepatic-like cell , peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha; RXR , retinoid X receptor alpha; SOX2, SRY-box containing

298

n induced pluripotent stem cell, or IPS cell, is a stem cell that has been created from an  

E-print Network

that they are the same. It is essential for science to explore the full spectrum of research options to bring stem cell research to clinical fruition as soon as possible. What are IPS cells? Stem Cell & Regenerative MedicineA n induced pluripotent stem cell, or IPS cell, is a stem cell that has been created from an adult

299

PEDF & Stem Cells: Niche vs. Nurture.  

PubMed

Anti-angiogenic pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional 50kD secreted glycoprotein emerging as a key factor in stem cell renewal. Characteristics of the stem cell niche can be highly dependent on location, access to the vasculature, oxygen tension and neighboring cells. In the neural stem cell (NSC) niche, specifically the subventricular zone, PEDF actively participates in the self renewal process and promotes stemness by upregulating Notch signaling effectors Hes1 and Hes5. The local vascular endothelial cells and ependymal cells are the likely sources of PEDF for the NSC while mesenchymal and retinal stem cells can actually produce PEDF. The opposing actions of PEDF and VEGF on various cells are recapitulated in the NSC niche. Intraventricular injection of PEDF promotes stem cell renewal, while injection of VEGF prompts differentiation and neurogenesis in the subventricular zone. Enhancing the expression of PEDF in stem cells has promising therapeutic implications. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing PEDF effectively inhibited pathologic angiogenesis in the murine eye and these same cells suppressed hepatocellular carcinoma growth. As a protein with bioactivities in nearly all normal organ systems, it is likely that PEDF will continue to gain visibility as an essential component in the development and delivery of novel stem cell-based therapies to combat disease. PMID:23517628

Fitchev, Philip; Chung, Chuhan; Plunkett, Beth A; Brendler, Charles B; Crawford, Susan E

2014-01-01

300

The mitochondrial contribution to stem cell biology.  

PubMed

The distribution and functions of mitochondria in stem cells have not been examined, yet the contributions of these organelles to stem cell viability and differentiation must be vitally important in view of their critical roles in all other cell types. A key role for mitochondria in stem cells is indicated by reports that they translocate in the oocyte during fertilisation to cluster around the pronuclei and can remain in a perinuclear pattern during embryo development. This clustering appears to be essential for normal embryonic development. Because embryonic stem cells are derived from fertilised oocytes, and eventually can differentiate into 'adult' stem cells, it was hypothesised that mitochondrial perinuclear clustering persists through preimplantation embryo development into the stem cells, and that this localisation is indicative of stem cell pluripotency. Further, it was predicted that mitochondrial activity, as measured by respiration and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, would correlate with the degree of perinuclear clustering. It was also predicted that these morphological and metabolic measurements could serve as indicators of 'stemness.' This article reviews the distribution and metabolism of mitochondria in a model stem cell line and how this information is related to passage number, differentiation and/or senescence. In addition, it describes mitochondrial DNA deletions in oocytes and embryos that could adversely affect stem cell performance. PMID:17147931

Bavister, Barry D

2006-01-01

301

Dental pulp stem cells in regenerative dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration\\u000a of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to\\u000a the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span\\u000a from Alzheimer’s disease to

Luciano Casagrande; Mabel M. Cordeiro; Silvia A. Nör; Jacques E. Nör

2011-01-01

302

Pluripotency of male germline stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical issues and public concerns regarding the use of embryonic stem (ES) cells in human therapy have motivated considerable\\u000a research into the generation of pluripotent stem cell lines from non-embryonic sources. Numerous reports have shown that pluripotent\\u000a cells can be generated and derived from germline stem cells (GSCs) in mouse and human testes during in vitro cultivation. The gene

Sungtae Kim; Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte

303

Transdifferentiation of Stem Cells: A Critical View  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recently a large amount of new data on the plasticity of stem cells of various lineages have emerged, providing new perspectives\\u000a especially for the therapeutic application of adult stem cells. Previously unknown possibilities of cell differentiation beyond\\u000a the known commitment of a given stem cell have been described using keywords such as “blood to liver,” or “bone to brain.”\\u000a Controversies

Ina Gruh; Ulrich Martin

2009-01-01

304

Human Embryonic Stem Cells — Realising the Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Murine embryonic stem (mES) cells are permanent tissue culture cell lines isolated from explanted blastocysts. mES cells share\\u000a an unusual set of properties with the stem cells of germ cell tumours (EC cells). Both cell types can be cultured under conditions\\u000a in which they cycle indefinitely, or in which they terminally differentiate into a variety of specialised cells. When undifferentiated

Jim McWhir; Alison Thomson; Virginie Sottile

305

Nervous activity in a stem cell niche.  

PubMed

In this issue of Cell, report a new regulatory axis for the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells that links these cells to the nervous system and bone in an unanticipated way. The new findings suggest that the nervous system, which has the inherent ability to integrate information from throughout the organism, may govern the local relationship between stem cells and their niches. PMID:16439198

Larsson, Jonas; Scadden, David

2006-01-27

306

MICROFLUIDIC CONTROL OF STEM CELL DIFFUSIBLE SIGNALING  

E-print Network

MICROFLUIDIC CONTROL OF STEM CELL DIFFUSIBLE SIGNALING Katarina Blagovi, Lily Y. Kim, Alison M cell differentiation. KEYWORDS: Embryonic stem cells, microfluidic perfusion, diffusible signaling that microfluidics could indeed alter diffusible signaling in perfused cell cultures [1, 2], to date no group has

Voldman, Joel

307

Limbal Stem Cells in Health and Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells are present in all self-reviewing tissues and have unique properties. The ocular surface is made up of two distinct types of epithelial cells, constituting the conjunctival and the corneal epithelia. These epithelia are stratified, squamous and non-keratinized. Although anatomically continuous with each other at the corneoscleral limbus, the two cell phenotypes represent quite distinct subpopulations. The stem cells

Virender S. Sangwan

2001-01-01

308

Culture and differentiation of embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Techniques are described for the culture of murine embryonic stem cells in the absence of heterologous feeder cells and for the induction of differentiation programs. The regulatory factor differentiation inhibiting activity\\/ leukaemia inhibitory factor (DIA\\/LIF) is produced at high concentration by transient expression in Cos cells and is used to suppress stem cell differentiation by addition to the culture

Austin G. Smith

1991-01-01

309

Pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells: From basic research to applications  

PubMed Central

Basic research on pluripotent stem cells is designed to enhance understanding of embryogenesis, whereas applied research is designed to develop novel therapies and prevent diseases. Attainment of these goals has been enhanced by the establishment of embryonic stem cell lines, the technological development of genomic reprogramming to generate induced-pluripotent stem cells, and improvements in vitro techniques to manipulate stem cells. This review summarizes the techniques required to generate neural cells from pluripotent stem cells. In particular, this review describes current research applications of a simple neural differentiation method, the neural stem sphere method, which we developed.

Otsu, Masahiro; Nakayama, Takashi; Inoue, Nobuo

2014-01-01

310

Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)] [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)] [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)] [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)] [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

2011-10-28

311

Label Retaining Cells and Cutaneous Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a comprehensive review on label retaining cells (LRC) in epidermal development and homeostasis. The precise in vivo\\u000a identification and location of epidermal stem cells is a crucial issue in cutaneous biology. We discuss here the following\\u000a problems: (1) Identification and location of LRC in the interfollicular epithelium and hair follicle; (2) The proliferative\\u000a potential of LRC and their

Vasily V. Terskikh; Andrey V. Vasiliev; Ekaterina A. Vorotelyak

312

Stem cell therapy for autism.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions whose incidence is reaching epidemic proportions, afflicting approximately 1 in 166 children. Autistic disorder, or autism is the most common form of ASD. Although several neurophysiological alterations have been associated with autism, immune abnormalities and neural hypoperfusion appear to be broadly consistent. These appear to be causative since correlation of altered inflammatory responses, and hypoperfusion with symptology is reported. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are in late phases of clinical development for treatment of graft versus host disease and Crohn's Disease, two conditions of immune dysregulation. Cord blood CD34+ cells are known to be potent angiogenic stimulators, having demonstrated positive effects in not only peripheral ischemia, but also in models of cerebral ischemia. Additionally, anecdotal clinical cases have reported responses in autistic children receiving cord blood CD34+ cells. We propose the combined use of MSC and cord blood CD34+cells may be useful in the treatment of autism. PMID:17597540

Ichim, Thomas E; Solano, Fabio; Glenn, Eduardo; Morales, Frank; Smith, Leonard; Zabrecky, George; Riordan, Neil H

2007-01-01

313

Stem Cell Therapy for Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions whose incidence is reaching epidemic proportions, afflicting approximately 1 in 166 children. Autistic disorder, or autism is the most common form of ASD. Although several neurophysiological alterations have been associated with autism, immune abnormalities and neural hypoperfusion appear to be broadly consistent. These appear to be causative since correlation of altered inflammatory responses, and hypoperfusion with symptology is reported. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are in late phases of clinical development for treatment of graft versus host disease and Crohn's Disease, two conditions of immune dysregulation. Cord blood CD34+ cells are known to be potent angiogenic stimulators, having demonstrated positive effects in not only peripheral ischemia, but also in models of cerebral ischemia. Additionally, anecdotal clinical cases have reported responses in autistic children receiving cord blood CD34+ cells. We propose the combined use of MSC and cord blood CD34+cells may be useful in the treatment of autism. PMID:17597540

Ichim, Thomas E; Solano, Fabio; Glenn, Eduardo; Morales, Frank; Smith, Leonard; Zabrecky, George; Riordan, Neil H

2007-01-01

314

Cancer, stem cells, and oncolytic viruses.  

PubMed

Cells with stem cell-like attributes, such as self-renewal and pluripotency, have been isolated from hematological malignancies and from several solid tumor types. Tumor-initiating cells, also referred to as cancer stem cells, are thought to be responsible for the initiation and growth of tumors. Like their normal counterparts, putative cancer stem cells show remarkable resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Their capacity for surviving apparently curative treatment can result in tumor relapse. Novel approaches that target tumor-initiating cells in addition to differentiated malignant cells, which constitute the bulk of the tumor, are required for improved survival of patients with metastatic tumors. Oncolytic viruses enter cells through infection and may therefore be resistant to defense mechanisms exhibited by cancer stem cells. Oncolytic adenoviruses can be engineered to attack tumor stem cells, recognized by linage-specific cell surface markers, dysfunctional stem cell-signaling pathways, or upregulated oncogenic genes. Normal stem cells may possess innate resistance to adenoviruses, as most humans have sustained numerous infections with various wild-type serotypes. This review focuses on current literature in support of cancer stem cells and discusses the possibility of using oncolytic virotherapy for killing these tumor-initiating cells. PMID:18608120

Ribacka, Camilla; Pesonen, Sari; Hemminki, Akseli

2008-01-01

315

TOPICAL REVIEW Stem cells in bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have

Jeong Min Seong; Byung-Chul Kim; Jae-Hong Park; Il Keun Kwon; Anathathios Mantalaris; Yu-Shik Hwang

2010-01-01

316

Establishment of a Mesenchymal Stem Cell Bank  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cells have generated great amount of interest amongst the scientific community for their potential therapeutic applications for unmet medical needs. We have demonstrated the plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the umbilical cord matrix. Their immunological profile makes it even more interesting. We have demonstrated that the umbilical cord is an inexhaustible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Being a very rich source, instead of discarding this tissue, we worked on banking these cells for regenerative medicine application for future use. The present paper gives a detailed account of our experience in the establishment of a mesenchymal stem cell bank at our facility. PMID:21826152

Cooper, Khushnuma; Viswanathan, Chandra

2011-01-01

317

Are human dental papilla-derived stem cell and human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantations suitable for treatment of Parkinson's disease??  

PubMed Central

Transplantation of neural stem cells has been reported as a possible approach for replacing impaired dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we tested the efficacy of early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells and human brain-derived neural stem cells in rat models of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease. Rats received a unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into right medial forebrain bundle, followed 3 weeks later by injections of PBS, early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells, or human brain-derived neural stem cells into the ipsilateral striatum. All of the rats in the human dental papilla-derived stem cell group died from tumor formation at around 2 weeks following cell transplantation. Postmortem examinations revealed homogeneous malignant tumors in the striatum of the human dental papilla-derived stem cell group. Stepping tests revealed that human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantation did not improve motor dysfunction. In apomorphine-induced rotation tests, neither the human brain-derived neural stem cell group nor the control groups (PBS injection) demonstrated significant changes. Glucose metabolism in the lesioned side of striatum was reduced by human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantation. [18F]-FP-CIT PET scans in the striatum did not demonstrate a significant increase in the human brain-derived neural stem cell group. Tyrosine hydroxylase (dopaminergic neuronal marker) staining and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (A9 dopaminergic neuronal marker) were positive in the lesioned side of striatum in the human brain-derived neural stem cell group. The use of early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells confirmed its tendency to form tumors. Human brain-derived neural stem cells could be partially differentiated into dopaminergic neurons, but they did not secrete dopamine.

Yoon, Hyung Ho; Min, Joongkee; Shin, Nari; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Mo; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Hwang, Onyou; Jeon, Sang Ryong

2013-01-01

318

Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization therapy accelerates recovery of renal function independent of stem cell contribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute renal failure and tubular cell loss as a result of ischemia constitute major challenges in renal pathophysiology. Increasing evidence suggests important roles for bone marrow stem cells in the regeneration of renal tissue after injury. This study investigated whether the enhanced availability of hematopoietic stem cells, induced by stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, to the injured kidney

Geurt Stokman; Jaklien C. Leemans; Nike Claessen; Jan J. Weening; Sandrine Florquin

2005-01-01

319

Derivation, characterization and retinal differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

Millions of people world over suffer visual disability due to retinal dystrophies which can be age-related or a genetic disorder resulting in gradual degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and photoreceptors. Therefore, cell replacement therapy offers a great promise in treating such diseases. Since the adult retina does not harbour any stem cells, alternative stem cell sources like the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a great promise for generating different cell types of the retina. Here, we report the derivation of four iPSC lines from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) using a cocktail of recombinant retroviruses carrying the genes for Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc. The iPS clone MEF-4F3 was further characterized for stemness marker expression and stable reprogramming by immunocytochemistry, FACS and RT-PCR analysis. Methylation analysis of the nanog promoter confirmed the reprogrammed epigenetic state. Pluripotency was confirmed by embryoid body (EB) formation and lineage-specific marker expression. Also, upon retinal differentiation, patches of pigmented cells with typical cobble-stone phenotype similar to RPE cells are generated within 6 weeks and they expressed ZO-1 (tight junction protein), RPE65 and bestrophin (mature RPE markers) and showed phagocytic activity by the uptake of fluorescent latex beads. PMID:23385820

Mekala, Subba Rao; Vauhini, Vasundhara; Nagarajan, Usha; Maddileti, Savitri; Gaddipati, Subhash; Mariappan, Indumathi

2013-03-01

320

Neutral competition of stem cells is skewed by proliferative changes downstream of Hh and Hpo.  

PubMed

Neutral competition, an emerging feature of stem cell homeostasis, posits that individual stem cells can be lost and replaced by their neighbors stochastically, resulting in chance dominance of a clone at the niche. A single stem cell with an oncogenic mutation could bias this process and clonally spread the mutation throughout the stem cell pool. The Drosophila testis provides an ideal system for testing this model. The niche supports two stem cell populations that compete for niche occupancy. Here, we show that cyst stem cells (CySCs) conform to the paradigm of neutral competition and that clonal deregulation of either the Hedgehog (Hh) or Hippo (Hpo) pathway allows a single CySC to colonize the niche. We find that the driving force behind such behavior is accelerated proliferation. Our results demonstrate that a single stem cell colonizes its niche through oncogenic mutation by co-opting an underlying homeostatic process. PMID:25092766

Amoyel, Marc; Simons, Benjamin D; Bach, Erika A

2014-10-16

321

In vitro expansion of human adipose-derived stem cells in a spinner culture system using human extracellular matrix powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell therapy requires large numbers of stem cells to replace damaged tissues, but only limited numbers of stem cells\\u000a can be harvested from a single patient. To obtain large quantities of stem cells with differentiation potential, we explored\\u000a a spinner culture system using human extracellular matrix (hECM) powders. The hECM was extracted from adipose tissue and fabricated\\u000a into powders.

Ji Suk Choi; Beob Soo Kim; Jae Dong Kim; Young Chan Choi; Eun Kyu Lee; Hee Young Lee; Yong Woo Cho

322

Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, cells  

E-print Network

Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, cells Sinisa Hrvatina , Charles W. O , David K. Giffordb , and Douglas A. Meltona,e,1 a Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard Stem Cell Institute and e Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138

Gifford, David K.

323

Cell Stem Cell The Adult Mouse and Human Pancreas Contain  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Article The Adult Mouse and Human Pancreas Contain Rare Multipotent Stem Cells.smukler@utoronto.ca DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2011.01.015 SUMMARY The search for putative precursor cells within the pancreas has been the focus of extensive research. Previously, we identified rare pancreas-derived mul- tipotent

324

Stem cell research and cell transplantation for myocardial regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Several human organs are not capable of functional regeneration following a tissue defect and react with scar formation. In stem cell transplantation, undifferentiated or partly differentiated precursor cells are applied to defective tissue for therapeutic regeneration. After promising preclinical investigations, the transplantation of autologous stem cells for myocardial infarction treatment is being transferred to clinical use. Mesenchymal stem cells

Matthias Siepe; Claudia Heilmann; Patrick von Samson; Philippe Menasché; Friedhelm Beyersdorf

2005-01-01

325

TOPICAL REVIEW: Stem cells engineering for cell-based therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells carry the promise to cure a broad range of diseases and injuries, from diabetes, heart and muscular diseases, to neurological diseases, disorders and injuries. Significant progresses have been made in stem cell research over the past decade; the derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from human tissues, the development of cloning technology by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

Philippe Taupin

2007-01-01

326

Cell Stem Cell Developmental Stage and Time Dictate the Fate  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Article Developmental Stage and Time Dictate the Fate of Wnt/b-Catenin-Responsive Stem Cells in the Mammary Gland Rene´ e van Amerongen,1,2,* Angela N. Bowman,1 and Roel Nusse1,* 1 a role for stem cells. Yet their origin, identity, and behavior in the intact tissue remain unknown

Bejerano, Gill

327

Cell Stem Cell Limited Acquisition of Chromosomal Aberrations  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Letters Limited Acquisition of Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Adult Mesenchymal 4Emory University Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA 5Section of Hematology, Stem Cell Acquisition of Lineage- Specific Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Adult Stem Cells,'' Ben-David and colleagues

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

328

Mammary stem cells have myoepithelial cell properties.  

PubMed

Contractile myoepithelial cells dominate the basal layer of the mammary epithelium and are considered to be differentiated cells. However, we observe that up to 54% of single basal cells can form colonies when seeded into adherent culture in the presence of agents that disrupt actin-myosin interactions, and on average, 65% of the single-cell-derived basal colonies can repopulate a mammary gland when transplanted in vivo. This indicates that a high proportion of basal myoepithelial cells can give rise to a mammary repopulating unit (MRU). We demonstrate that myoepithelial cells, flow-sorted using two independent myoepithelial-specific reporter strategies, have MRU capacity. Using an inducible lineage-tracing approach we follow the progeny of myoepithelial cells that express ?-smooth muscle actin and show that they function as long-lived lineage-restricted stem cells in the virgin state and during pregnancy. PMID:25173976

Prater, Michael D; Petit, Valérie; Alasdair Russell, I; Giraddi, Rajshekhar R; Shehata, Mona; Menon, Suraj; Schulte, Reiner; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rath, Nicola; Olson, Michael F; Metzger, Daniel; Faraldo, Marisa M; Deugnier, Marie-Ange; Glukhova, Marina A; Stingl, John

2014-10-01

329

Diabetes and embryonic stem cells: a guide to the ethical debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell research, if successful, could provide a means of replacing damaged tissue in patients with diabetes. Controversially, the best stem cells for research and possible therapies seem to be those harvested from embryos, cloned or otherwise. As a result the morality of undertaking such research is hotly contested with vocal champions both for and against this work. To help

Deborah Kirklin

2002-01-01

330

Application of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Experimental Nephrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advancement in developmental biology has led to the discovery of immature mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow and several established organs. The therapeutic potentials of such stem cells for treating serious diseases constitute a major rationale for every research effort, and clinical trials for replacing some damaged tissues such as cartilage are currently under way. Although the feasibility of

Takahito Ito; Akira Suzuki; Masaru Okabe; Enyu Imai; Masatsugu Hori

2001-01-01

331

Two-photon imaging of stem cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of human and animal stem cells (rat and human adult pancreatic stem cells, salivary gland stem cells, dental pulpa stem cells) have been investigated by femtosecond laser 5D two-photon microscopy. Autofluorescence and second harmonic generation have been imaged with submicron spatial resolution, 270 ps temporal resolution, and 10 nm spectral resolution. In particular, NADH and flavoprotein fluorescence was detected in stem cells. Major emission peaks at 460nm and 530nm with typical mean fluorescence lifetimes of 1.8 ns and 2.0 ns, respectively, were measured using time-correlated single photon counting and spectral imaging. Differentiated stem cells produced the extracellular matrix protein collagen which was detected by SHG signals at 435 nm.

Uchugonova, A.; Gorjup, E.; Riemann, I.; Sauer, D.; König, K.

2008-02-01

332

Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure is one of the most important cardiovascular health problems throughout the world and has high mortality, and\\u000a there is a need to develop more effective therapeutic strategies to replace such specialized treatment as mechanical circulatory\\u000a support and cardiac transplantation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent plastic-adherent cells obtained from bone\\u000a marrow, adipose tissue, and other tissues and can

Shunsuke Ohnishi; Hajime Ohgushi; Soichiro Kitamura; Noritoshi Nagaya

2007-01-01

333

Telomeres, stem cells, and hematology  

PubMed Central

Telomeres are highly dynamic structures that adjust the cellular response to stress and growth stimulation based on previous cell divisions. This critical function is accomplished by progressive telomere shortening and DNA damage responses activated by chromosome ends without sufficient telomere repeats. Repair of critically short telomeres by telomerase or recombination is limited in most somatic cells, and apoptosis or cellular senescence is triggered when too many uncapped telomeres accumulate. The chance of the latter increases as the average telomere length decreases. The average telomere length is set and maintained in cells of the germ line that typically express high levels of telomerase. In somatic cells, the telomere length typically declines with age, posing a barrier to tumor growth but also contributing to loss of cells with age. Loss of (stem) cells via telomere attrition provides strong selection for abnormal cells in which malignant progression is facilitated by genome instability resulting from uncapped telomeres. The critical role of telomeres in cell proliferation and aging is illustrated in patients with 50% of normal telomerase levels resulting from a mutation in one of the telomerase genes. Here, the role of telomeres and telomerase in human biology is reviewed from a personal historical perspective. PMID:18263784

2008-01-01

334

Hemopoietic stem cells: Sources and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classically hemopoietic stem cells to be used for transplantation or autologous reinfusion have been harvested from the bone\\u000a marrow which has remained the major source of stem cells for allogeneic transplantation. However, pluripotent stem cells also\\u000a circulate in peripheral blood under physiological conditions and can be “mobilized” to appearin very large numbers in peripheral blood by treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy,

Dae-Sik Hong; H. Joachim Deeg

1994-01-01

335

Towards predictive models of stem cell fate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative approaches are essential for the advancement of strategies to manipulate stem cells or their derivatives for\\u000a therapeutic applications. Predictive models of stem cell systems would provide the means to pose and validate non-intuitive\\u000a hypotheses and could thus serve as an important tool for discerning underlying regulatory mechanisms governing stem cell fate\\u000a decisions. In this paper we review the development

Sowmya Viswanathan; Peter W. Zandstra

2003-01-01

336

A glossary for stem-cell biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem-cell biology is in a phase of dynamic expansion and is forming connections with a broad range of basic and applied disciplines. The field is simultaneously exposed to public and political scrutiny. A common language in the stem-cell community is an important tool for coherent exposition to these diverse audiences, not least because certain terms in the stem-cell vocabulary are

Austin Smith

2006-01-01

337

Embryonic Stem Cell Patents and Human Dignity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity.\\u000a After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human\\u000a embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells\\u000a do not. Since patents

David B. Resnik

2007-01-01

338

Stem cell banking: between traceability and identifiability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell banks are increasingly seen as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational research.\\u000a Stem cell banks support transnational access to quality-controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines from different origins\\u000a and of varying grades. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, advances in regenerative medicine\\u000a are leading to the development of a

Bartha M Knoppers; Rosario Isasi

2010-01-01

339

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Nanog Regulates Proliferation During Early Fish Development  

E-print Network

in the neuronal lineage of established OE: neural stem cells, which express the transcription factor Sox2; Mash1, Neurogenesis, Olfactory epithelium, Nasal cavity, Stem cell, Apoptosis, Cre recombinase, Fgf8, Foxg1, Sox2, Pax

DeSalle, Rob

340

Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells  

E-print Network

Somatic cell nuclear transfer and transcription-factor-based reprogramming revert adult cells to an embryonic state, and yield pluripotent stem cells that can generate all tissues. Through different mechanisms and kinetics, ...

Kim, K.

341

Stem Cells, Phenotypic Inversion, and Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Stem cells possess the potential to cure a myriad of ailments ranging from congenital diseases to illnesses acquired through the physiological process of aging. In the adult, these cells are extremely rare and often difficult to isolate in numbers sufficient to apply to medical treatment. Ex vivo expansion of these cells will be required for most meaningful interventions. The discovery of stem/progenitor cell inversion offers a new avenue for obtaining sufficient numbers of stem cells. Adult progenitor cells are much more common than quiescent stem cells and can be isolated with minimal interventions; therefore, inversion of progenitors to stem cells may become a feasible approach for therapeutic purposes. Stem cells are known to possess few mitochondria, and mitochondrial biogenesis is required for stem cell differentiation. The microtubule cytoskeleton is a major regulator for mitochondrial biogenesis. Investigations in the area of controlling cell differentiation and inducing phenotypic inversion, possibly through manipulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, may contribute to stem cell-based therapies. PMID:19079683

Siggins, Robert W.; Zhang, Ping; Welsh, David; LeCapitaine, Nicole J.; Nelson, Steve

2008-01-01

342

Diet, Stem Cells, and Breast Cancer Prevention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer is considered to be initiated by mutations in a limited population of undifferentiated cells termed stem cells that 'sit' at the top of the mammary epithelial hierarchy. Over-expansion of the stem cell population leads to increased numbers o...

R. C. Simmen

2009-01-01

343

Stem Cells and Tissue-Engineered Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in tissue engineering of skin are needed for clinical applications (as in wound healing and gene therapy) for cutaneous and systemic diseases. In this paper we review the use of epidermal stem cells as a source of cells to improve tissue-engineered skin. We discuss the importance and limitations of epidermal stem cell isolation using biomarkers, in quest of a

A. Charruyer; R. Ghadially

2009-01-01

344

Agent-Oriented Stem Cell Computational Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stem cell ability of differentiation in different kinds of cells is crucial for therapeutic application. Stem cells can be used to find a cure for several diseases, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and others. The promise of the use of the capacity of computational power and the applicability of the recent techniques in computational and mathematic modeling in order to

Maíra A. de C. Gatti; Geisa M. Faustino; Diego Bispo; José Eurico Vasconcellos

345

Identification of Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging evidence has suggested that the capability of a tumor to grow and propagate is dependent on a small subset of cells within a tumor, termed cancer stem cells. Although data have been provided to support this theory in human blood, brain, and breast cancers, the identity of pancreatic cancer stem cells has not been determined. Using a xenograft model

Chenwei Li; David G. Heidt; Piero Dalerba; Charles F. Burant; Lanjing Zhang; Volkan Adsay; Max Wicha; Michael F. Clarke; Diane M. Simeone

346

Original Article Gastrointestinal Stem Cells and Cancer--  

E-print Network

of advances in the Introduction The cells that line the gastrointestinal tract are among the most rapidlyOriginal Article Gastrointestinal Stem Cells and Cancer-- Bridging the Molecular Gap S.J. Leedham Cancer is believed to be a disease involving stem cells. The digestive tract has a very high cancer

Dove, William

347

Wnt signalling in stem cells and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The canonical Wnt cascade has emerged as a critical regulator of stem cells. In many tissues, activation of Wnt signalling has also been associated with cancer. This has raised the possibility that the tightly regulated self-renewal mediated by Wnt signalling in stem and progenitor cells is subverted in cancer cells to allow malignant proliferation. Insights gained from understanding how the

Tannishtha Reya; Hans Clevers

2005-01-01

348

Microfabricated platform for studying stem cell fates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platformsthatallowparallel,quantitativeanalysis of single cells will be integral to realizing the potential of postgenomic biology. In stem cell biology, the study of clonal stem cells in multiwell formats is currently both inefficient and time-consuming. Thus, to investigate low- frequency events of interest, large sample sizes must be interrogated. We report a simple, versatile, and efficient micropatterned arraying system conducive to the

Vicki I. Chin; Philippe Taupin; Sandeep Sanga; John Scheel; Fred H. Gage; Sangeeta N. Bhatia

2004-01-01

349

Reporter Plasmid to Identify Cancer Stem Cells  

Cancer.gov

The NCI lentiviral plasmid can identify the putative cancer stem cell population through the expression of fluorescent or luminescent proteins and has the potential to advance new therapies. The key feature of the plasmid is a reporter system that only detects cells expressing the core stem cell transcription factors Sox2 and Oct4.

350

[Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and oral complications].  

PubMed

New haematopoietic stem cell transplantation procedures make the treatment available to patients who previously did not qualify, such as the elderly. In addition, the spectrum of oral complications associated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation has altered as a result of the recent developments. This article is a review of the main principles of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and provides information on oral complications which may develop, such as mucositis, infections, bleeding, graft-versus-host disease, xerostomia, hyposalivation, altered taste, secondary tumors, osteoporosis, osteonecrosis and growing and developing disturbancies. Finally, the role of dental care providers in cases of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is addressed. PMID:19585886

Raber-Durlacher, J E; von dem Borne, P A; Stokman, M A; Gortzak, R A Th

2009-06-01

351

Checkpoints of Melanocyte Stem Cell Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The bulge region of the adult hair follicle contains the niches for both epithelial and melanocyte stem cells. Recent evidence suggests that the development of melanocyte stem cells is controlled by a complex network of transcription factors, including Pax3, Sox10, and Mitf, and of regulatory extracellular cues such as Wnt. However, additional players are likely to be involved. It will be intriguing to identify these signals and to elucidate whether and how neighboring epithelial stem cells influence the balance between melanocyte stem cell maintenance and differentiation.

Lukas Sommer (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.;Institute of Cell Biology REV)

2005-08-23

352

Pituitary stem cells: where do we stand?  

PubMed

Some 5 years ago, the stem cells of the adult pituitary gland were discovered. Subsequent in-depth characterization revealed expression of several stemness markers and embryo-typical factors. Now, the quest is open to decipher their role in the gland. When and how pituitary stem cells differentiate to contribute to the mature hormone-producing cell populations is not known. New research models support their involvement in cell regeneration after injury in the gland, and suggest a possible role in pituitary tumor formation. From their expression phenotype, pituitary stem cells seem to re-use embryonic developmental programs during the creation of new hormonal cells. Here, we will review the latest progression in the domain of pituitary stem cells, including the uncovering of some new molecular flavors and of the first potential functions. Eventually, we will speculate on their differentiation programs towards hormonal cells, with a particular focus on gonadotropes. PMID:23994027

Vankelecom, Hugo; Chen, Jianghai

2014-03-25

353

Cell patterning technology for controlling the stem cell microenvironment  

E-print Network

Embryonic stem cells serve as powerful models for the study of development and disease and hold enormous potential for future therapeutics. Yet, over two decades after mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) were first isolated, ...

Rosenthal, Adam D. (Adam David), 1978-

2007-01-01

354

Cell Replacement Therapies for Nervous System Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The adult brain was thought to be a slowly decaying organ, a sophisticated but flawed machine condemned to inevitable decline. Today we know that the brain is more plastic than previously assumed, as most prominently demonstrated by the constitutive birth of new neurons that occurs in selected regions of the adult brain, even in humans. However, the overall modest capacity for endogenous repair of the central nervous system (CNS) has sparked interest in understanding the barriers to neuronal regeneration and in developing novel approaches to enable neuronal and circuit repair for therapeutic benefit in neurodegenerative disorders and traumatic injuries. Scientists recently assembled in Baeza, a picturesque town in the south of Spain, to discuss aspects of CNS regeneration. The picture that emerged shows how an integrated view of developmental and adult neurogenesis may inform the manipulation of neural progenitors, differentiated cells, and pluripotent stem cells for therapeutic benefit and foster new understanding of the inner limits of brain plasticity. PMID:21557508

Lopez-Bendito, Guillermina; Arlotta, Paola

2014-01-01

355

College Students’ Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors’ conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning.\\u000a This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer\\u000a 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before and after instruction.\\u000a Two goals of the

James P. Concannon; Marcelle A. Siegel; Kristy Halverson; Sharyn Freyermuth

2010-01-01

356

Melanocyte Stem Cells: As an Excellent Model to Study Stem Cell Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying stem cell regulation is of great importance for their clinical applications\\u000a in regenerative medicine and cancer therapy. The function of stem cells is maintained by their specialized microenvironment,\\u000a referred as the niche. Despite intensive studies of the stem cell niche, the molecular basis of stem cell regulation by the\\u000a niche has still remained elusive. Since

Masatake Osawa; Kiyotaka Hasegawa; Mariko Moriyama; Shin-Ichi Nishikawa

357

Stem Cell Clinics Online: The Direct-to-Consumer Portrayal of Stem Cell Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the immature state of stem cell medicine, patients are seeking and ac- cessing putative stem cell therapies in an ''early market'' in which direct-to-con- sumer advertising via the internet likely plays an important role. We analyzed stem cell clinic websites and appraised the relevant published clinical evidence of stem cell therapies to address three questions about the direct-to-consumer portrayal

Darren Lau; Ubaka Ogbogu; Benjamin Taylor; Tania Stafinski; Devidas Menon; Timothy Caulfield

358

Stem cell therapy for diabetes: do we need to make beta cells?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1 diabetes can now be ameliorated by islet trans- plantation, although this treatment is restricted by the insufficient supply of islet tissue. The need for an essen- tially limitless supply of a substitute for primary human islets of Langerhans has led to research into the suitability of stem\\/progenitor cells to generate insulin-producing cells to use in replacement therapies for

Christopher J Burns; Shanta J Persaud; Peter M Jones

2004-01-01

359

Ophthalmologic stem cell transplantation therapies  

PubMed Central

Vision loss is a major social issue, with more than 20 million people over the age of 18 years affected in the USA alone. Loss of vision is feared more than premature death or cardiovascular disease, according to a recent Society for Consumer Research group survey. The annual direct cost of medical care for the most prevalent eye disease, age-related macular degeneration, was estimated at US$255 billion in 2010 with an additional economic impact of US$88 billion due to lost productivity and the burden of family and community care for visual disability. With the blossoming of human stem cell research, regenerative treatments are now being developed that can help reduce this burden. Positive results from animal studies demonstrate that stem cell-based transplants can preserve and potentially improve vision. This has led to new clinical trials for several eye diseases that are yielding encouraging results. In the next few years, additional trials and longer-term results are anticipated to further develop ocular regenerative therapies, with the potential to revolutionize our approach to ophthalmic disease and damage. PMID:23210809

Blenkinsop, Timothy A; Corneo, Barbara; Temple, Sally; Stern, Jeffrey H

2013-01-01

360

Ex vivo expansion of limbal epithelial stem cells: amniotic membrane serving as a stem cell niche  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification, maintenance, and expansion of stem cells for subsequent transplantation has become a new strategy for treating many diseases in most medical subspecialties. The stem cells of the corneal epithelium are located in the limbal basal layer and are the ultimate source for constant corneal epithelial renewal. Like those in other tissues, limbal stem cells are supported by a unique

Martin Grueterich; Edgar M. Espana; Scheffer C. G. Tseng

2003-01-01

361

Adult stem cell and mesenchymal progenitor theories of aging  

PubMed Central

Advances in medical science and technology allow people live longer lives, which results in age-related problems. Humans cannot avoid the various aged-related alterations of aging; in other words, humans cannot remain young at molecular and cellular levels. In 1956, Harman proposed the “free radical theory of aging” to explain the molecular mechanisms of aging. Telomere length, and accumulation of DNA or mitochondrial damage are also considered to be mechanisms of aging. On the other hand, stem cells are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis by replacing parenchymal cells; therefore, the stem cell theory of aging is also used to explain the progress of aging. Importantly, the stem cell theory of aging is likely related to other theories. In addition, recent studies have started to reveal the essential roles of tissue-resident mesenchymal progenitors/stem cells/stromal cells in maintaining tissue homeostasis, and some evidence of their fundamental roles in the progression of aging has been presented. In this review, we discuss how stem cell and other theories connect to explain the progress of aging. In addition, we consider the mesenchymal progenitor theory of aging to describing the process of aging. PMID:25364718

Fukada, So-ichiro; Ma, Yuran; Uezumi, Akiyoshi

2014-01-01

362

Chemical genetics and its potential in cardiac stem cell therapy  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade or so, intensive research in cardiac stem cell biology has led to significant discoveries towards a potential therapy for cardiovascular disease; the main cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. The major goal within the field of cardiovascular regenerative medicine is to replace lost or damaged cardiac muscle and coronaries following ischaemic disease. At present, de novo cardiomyocytes can be generated either in vitro, for cell transplantation or disease modelling using directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells, or in vivo via direct reprogramming of resident adult cardiac fibroblast or ectopic stimulation of resident cardiac stem or progenitor cells. A major bottleneck with all of these approaches is the low efficiency of cardiomyocyte differentiation alongside their relative functional immaturity. Chemical genetics, and the application of phenotypic screening with small molecule libraries, represent a means to enhance understanding of the molecular pathways controlling cardiovascular cell differentiation and, moreover, offer the potential for discovery of new drugs to invoke heart repair and regeneration. Here, we review the potential of chemical genetics in cardiac stem cell therapy, highlighting not only the major contributions to the field so far, but also the future challenges. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Regenerative Medicine and Pharmacology: A Look to the Future. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-2 PMID:22385148

Vieira, Joaquim M; Riley, Paul R

2013-01-01

363

Nonclinical safety strategies for stem cell therapies  

SciTech Connect

Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology, especially the development of the induced pluripotent stem cell techniques, have generated tremendous enthusiasm and efforts to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapies are being considered for the treatment of degenerative diseases, inflammatory conditions, cancer and repair of damaged tissue. The safety of a stem cell therapy depends on many factors including the type of cell therapy, the differentiation status and proliferation capacity of the cells, the route of administration, the intended clinical location, long term survival of the product and/or engraftment, the need for repeated administration, the disease to be treated and the age of the population. Understanding the product profile of the intended therapy is crucial to the development of the nonclinical safety study design.

Sharpe, Michaela E., E-mail: michaela_sharpe@yahoo.com [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom); Morton, Daniel [Exploratory Drug Safety, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, 02140 (United States)] [Exploratory Drug Safety, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, 02140 (United States); Rossi, Annamaria [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom)] [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom)

2012-08-01

364

Target for cancer therapy: proliferating cells or stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor stem cells are quiescent and, therefore, resistant to therapy, yet harbor the capacity to replenish a tumor after therapy. Therefore, it is tempting to explain all therapeutic failures by the persistence of tumor stem cells. Yet, this explanation is relevant only to initial stages of stem-cell-dependent tumors (such as chronic myeloid leukemia) that, actually, are well controlled by therapy.

M V Blagosklonny

2006-01-01

365

Stem Cells: The International Journal of Cell Differentiation and Proliferation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers may be interested to know that the journal Stem Cells is offering full content for free during a trial period that has been extended until further notice (for at least three months). The forthcoming issue leads off with an editorial devoted to the new registry, "National Stem Cell Resource: Stem Cells Find a Niche," by Robert G. Hawley.

1983-01-01

366

Robotic cell culture system for stem cell assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on the advantages of a robotic time-lapsed microscopic imaging system for tracking stem cells in in vitro biological assays which measure stem cell activities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The unique aspects of the system include robotic movement of stem cell culture flasks which enables selection of a large number of regions of

Benjamin T. Schmidt; Joseph M. Feduska; Ashley M. Witt; Bridget M. Deasy

2008-01-01

367

Prostate cancer stem cell biology  

PubMed Central

The cancer stem cell (CSC) model provides insights into pathophysiology of cancers and their therapeutic response. The CSC model has been both controversial, yet provides a foundation to explore cancer biology. In this review, we provide an overview of CSC concepts, biology and potential therapeutic avenues. We then focus on prostate CSC including (1) their purported origin as either basal-derived or luminal-derived cells; (2) markers used for prostate CSC identification; (3) alterations of signaling pathways in prostate CSCs (4) involvement of prostate CSCs in metastasis of PCa and (5) microRNA-mediated regulation of prostate CSCs. Although definitive evidence for the identification and characterization of prostate CSCs still remains unclear, future directions pursuing therapeutic targets of CSCs may provide novel insights for the treatment of PCa. PMID:22402315

Yu, Chunyan; Yao, Zhi; Jiang, Yuan; Keller, Evan. T.

2012-01-01

368

Generation of thyroid follicular cells from pluripotent stem cells: potential for regenerative medicine.  

PubMed

Nearly 12% of the population in the United States will be afflicted with a thyroid related disorder during their lifetime. Common treatment approaches are tailored to the specific disorder and include surgery, radioactive iodine ablation, antithyroid drugs, thyroid hormone replacement, external beam radiation, and chemotherapy. Regenerative medicine endeavors to combat disease by replacing or regenerating damaged, diseased, or dysfunctional body parts. A series of achievements in pluripotent stem cell research have transformed regenerative medicine in many ways by demonstrating "repair" of a number of body parts in mice, of which, the thyroid has now been inducted into this special group. Seminal work in pluripotent cells, namely embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, have made possible their path to becoming key tools and biological building blocks for cell-based regenerative medicine to combat the gamut of human diseases, including those affecting the thyroid. PMID:24995001

Sewell, Will; Lin, Reigh-Yi

2014-01-01

369

Biology of stem cells: an overview  

PubMed Central

Stem cells are defined as precursor cells that have the capacity to self-renew and to generate multiple mature cell types. Only after collecting and culturing tissues is it possible to classify cells according to this operational concept. This difficulty in identifying stem cells in situ, without any manipulation, limits the understanding of their true nature. This review aims at presenting, to health professionals interested in this area, an overview on the biology of embryonic and adult stem cells, and their therapeutic potential. PMID:25028627

Chagastelles, Pedro C; Nardi, Nance B

2011-01-01

370

[Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation : Bone marrow and blood stem cells].  

PubMed

The number of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations is continuously increasing. On the one hand reduced intensity conditioning and improved supportive therapies allow for transplantations in patients with significant comorbidities and up to their eighth decade of life. Due to this development the number of complex and critically ill patients in need of intensive care is constantly growing. Recent developments in general critical care such as sepsis bundles and non-invasive ventilation contribute to a better outcome of these patients. However, treatment algorithms that identify patients potentially benefitting from intensive care but also reduce overtreatment of moribund patients represent a central multidisciplinary challenge not only for the treating transplant physician and intensivist. PMID:25323808

von Bergwelt-Baildon, M; Holtick, U; Hallek, M J; Scheid, C

2014-11-01

371

Role of liver stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Liver cancer is an aggressive disease with a high mortality rate. Management of liver cancer is strongly dependent on the tumor stage and underlying liver disease. Unfortunately, most cases are discovered when the cancer is already advanced, missing the opportunity for surgical resection. Thus, an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for liver cancer initiation and progression will facilitate the detection of more reliable tumor markers and the development of new small molecules for targeted therapy of liver cancer. Recently, there is increasing evidence for the “cancer stem cell hypothesis”, which postulates that liver cancer originates from the malignant transformation of liver stem/progenitor cells (liver cancer stem cells). This cancer stem cell model has important significance for understanding the basic biology of liver cancer and has profound importance for the development of new strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the role of liver stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis. Our review of the literature shows that identification of the cellular origin and the signaling pathways involved is challenging issues in liver cancer with pivotal implications in therapeutic perspectives. Although the dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes/cholangiocytes in hepatocarcinogenesis cannot be excluded, neoplastic transformation of a stem cell subpopulation more easily explains hepatocarcinogenesis. Elimination of liver cancer stem cells in liver cancer could result in the degeneration of downstream cells, which makes them potential targets for liver cancer therapies. Therefore, liver stem cells could represent a new target for therapeutic approaches to liver cancer in the near future.

Xu, Lei-Bo; Liu, Chao

2014-01-01

372

Enhancing spontaneous stem cell healing (Review)  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cells are distributed throughout the human body and are responsible to a great extent for the body’s ability to maintain and heal itself. Accumulating data since the 1990s regarding stem cells have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of stem cells are not restricted to their ability to differentiate and are more likely due to their ability to release a multitude of molecules. Recent studies indicated that ?80% of the therapeutic benefit of adult stem cells is manifested by the stem cell released molecules (SRM) rather than the differentiation of the stem cells into mature tissue. Stem cells may release potent combinations of factors that modulate the molecular composition of the cellular milieu to evoke a multitude of responses from neighboring cells. A multitude of pathways are involved in cellular and tissue function and, when the body is in a state of disease or trauma, a multitude of pathways are involved in the underlying mechanisms of that disease or trauma. Therefore, stem cells represent a natural systems-based biological factory for the production and release of a multitude of molecules that interact with the system of biomolecular circuits underlying disease or tissue damage. Currently, efforts are aimed at defining, stimulating, enhancing and harnessing SRM mechanisms, in order to develop systems-based methods for tissue regeneration, develop drugs/biologics or other therapeutics and enhance the release of SRM into the body for natural healing through proper dietary, exercise and other lifestyle strategies. PMID:24649089

MAGUIRE, GREG; FRIEDMAN, PETER

2014-01-01

373

Telomerase downregulation in cancer brain stem cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a minute sub-population of self-renewing, immortal cells, which can be responsible for chemoresistance\\u000a observed in the treatment of cancer. CSCs are similar to cancer cells requiring telomerase activity or alternative mechanisms\\u000a for their proliferation and regeneration. This study explored the correlation between CD133 (stem cell marker) and telomerase\\u000a expression using CD133+ cells isolated from the

Amal Shervington; Chen Lu; Rahima Patel; Leroy Shervington

2009-01-01

374

Metabolic regulation of stem cell function.  

PubMed

Stem cell function is regulated by intrinsic mechanisms, such as transcriptional and epigenetic regulators, as well as extrinsic mechanisms, such as short-range signals from the niche and long-range humoral signals. Interactions between these regulatory mechanisms and cellular metabolism are just beginning to be identified. In multiple systems, differentiation is accompanied by changes in glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation and the levels of reactive oxygen species. Indeed, metabolic pathways regulate proliferation and differentiation by regulating energy production and the generation of substrates for biosynthetic pathways. Some metabolic pathways appear to function differently in stem cells as compared with restricted progenitors and differentiated cells. They also appear to influence stem cell function by regulating signal transduction, epigenetic marks and oxidative stress. Studies to date illustrate the importance of metabolism in the regulation of stem cell function and suggest complex cross-regulation likely exists between metabolism and other stem cell regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24697828

Burgess, R J; Agathocleous, M; Morrison, S J

2014-07-01

375

Abstract--Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are important to stem cell therapy and tissue engineering due to their  

E-print Network

Abstract--Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are important to stem cell therapy and tissue engineering on MSC. I. INTRODUCTION esenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are important to stem cell therapy and tissue studied types of stem cells nowadays. The pluripotency of MSCs includes osteogenesis, chondrogenesis

Coenen, Frans

376

The immunosuppressive effect of embryonic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells on both primary and secondary alloimmune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, both embryonic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells have been demonstrated to have immunosuppressive effects. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether the embryonic stem cells and\\/or mesenchymal stem cells modulate both primary and secondary alloimmune responses. Both stem cells suppressed in vitro proliferation and cytokine production in primary alloimmune responses. They also suppressed in vitro proliferation

Kyu Hyun Han; Hee Gyung Kang; Hae Jin Gil; Eun Mi Lee; Curie Ahn; Jaeseok Yang

2010-01-01

377

Nanoparticles Based Stem Cell Tracking in Regenerative Medicine  

PubMed Central

Stem cell therapies offer great potentials in the treatment for a wide range of diseases and conditions. With so many stem cell replacement therapies going through clinical trials currently, there is a great need to understand the mechanisms behind a successful therapy, and one of the critical points of discovering them is to track stem cell migration, proliferation and differentiation in vivo. To be of most use tracking methods should ideally be non-invasive, high resolution and allow tracking in three dimensions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the ideal methods, but requires a suitable contrast agent to be loaded to the cells to be tracked, and one of the most wide-spread in stem cell tracking is a group of agents known as magnetic nanoparticles. This review will explore the current use of magnetic nanoparticles in developing and performing stem cell therapies, and will investigate their potential limitations and the future directions magnetic nanoparticle tracking is heading in. PMID:23946823

Edmundson, Matthew; Thanh, Nguyen TK; Song, Bing

2013-01-01

378

Stem cells: current challenges and future promise.  

PubMed

Stem cells have two remarkable properties. They can either renew themselves or they can differentiate into one or more adult cell types. Stem cells derived from a human embryo appear to have an unlimited capacity to self-renew in cell culture, and they are also able to differentiate into hundreds of adult cell types. Human embryonic stem cell lines offer a platform technology that has the potential to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine adult cell fate, generate cellular models for discovery of new drugs, and create populations of differentiated cells for novel transplantation therapies. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has identified some of the rate-limiting steps toward realizing this potential, and has forged funding initiatives to accelerate research progress. Given the remarkable potential, NIH support for research using stem cells is an important priority for the foreseeable future. PMID:17584855

Battey, James F

2007-12-01

379

Clonogenicity: Holoclones and Meroclones Contain Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

When primary cultures of normal cells are cloned, three types of colony grow, called holoclones, meroclones and paraclones. These colonies are believed to be derived from stem cells, transit-amplifying cells and differentiated cells respectively. More recently, this approach has been extended to cancer cell lines. However, we observed that meroclones from the prostate cancer cell line DU145 produce holoclones, a paradoxical observation as meroclones are thought to be derived from transit-amplifying cells. The purpose of this study was to confirm this observation and determine if both holoclones and meroclones from cancer cell lines contain stem cells. We demonstrated that both holoclones and meroclones can be serially passaged indefinitely, are highly proliferative, can self-renew to form spheres, are serially tumorigenic and express stem cell markers. This study demonstrates that the major difference between holoclones and meroclones derived from a cancer cell line is the proportion of stem cells within each colony, not the presence or absence of stem cells. These findings may reflect the properties of cancer as opposed to normal cells, perhaps indicating that the hierarchy of stem cells is more extensive in cancer. PMID:24587067

Beaver, Charlotte M.; Ahmed, Aamir; Masters, John R.

2014-01-01

380

Human mesenchymal stem cells support unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cells and suppress T-cell activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to interact with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and immune cells, and represent potential cellular therapy to enhance allogeneic hematopoietic engraftment and prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We investigated the role of human MSCs in NOD-SCID mice repopulation by unrelated human hematopoietic cells and studied the immune interactions between human MSCs and unrelated donor

B Maitra; E Szekely; K Gjini; M J Laughlin; J Dennis; S E Haynesworth; O N Koç

2004-01-01

381

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Somatic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows trans-acting factors present in the mammalian oocyte to reprogram somatic cell nuclei to an undifferentiated state. We show that four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28) are sufficient to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells that exhibit the essential characteristics of embryonic stem (ES) cells. These induced pluripotent human stem cells have normal

Junying Yu; Maxim A. Vodyanik; Kim Smuga-Otto; Jessica Antosiewicz-Bourget; Jennifer L. Frane; Shulan Tian; Jeff Nie; Gudrun A. Jonsdottir; Victor Ruotti; Ron Stewart; Igor I. Slukvin; James A. Thomson

2007-01-01

382

Synthetic Niches for Stem Cell Differentiation into T cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a T cell development from hematopoietic stem cells takes place in the thymus under precisely controlled intercellular signaling\\u000a between the stem cells and thymic stromal and epithelial cells. In vitro or ex vivo development of mature T cells from stem\\u000a cells faces two primary hurdles; one being the inability of culture conditions to provide a three dimensional thymic niche\\u000a with lineage-specific

Ankur Singh; Krishnendu Roy

383

Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo  

PubMed Central

Summary Cellular plasticity contributes to the regenerative capacity of plants, invertebrates, teleost fishes, and amphibians. In vertebrates, differentiated cells are known to revert into replicating progenitors, but these cells do not persist as stable stem cells. We now present evidence that differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. Following the ablation of airway stem cells, we observed a surprising increase in the proliferation of committed secretory cells. Subsequent lineage tracing demonstrated that the luminal secretory cells had dedifferentiated into basal stem cells. Dedifferentiated cells were morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells and they functioned as well as their endogenous counterparts to repair epithelial injury. Indeed, single secretory cells clonally dedifferentiated into multipotent stem cells when they were cultured ex vivo without basal stem cells. In contrast, direct contact with a single basal stem cell was sufficient to prevent secretory cell dedifferentiation. In analogy to classical descriptions of amphibian nuclear reprogramming, the propensity of committed cells to dedifferentiate was inversely correlated to their state of maturity. This capacity of committed cells to dedifferentiate into stem cells may play a more general role in the regeneration of many tissues and in multiple disease states, notably cancer. PMID:24196716

Tata, Purushothama Rao; Mou, Hongmei; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Zhao, Rui; Prabhu, Mythili; Prabhu, Mythili; Law, Brandon M.; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Cho, Josalyn L.; Breton, Sylvie; Sahay, Amar; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

2014-01-01

384

Convergence of normal stem cell and cancer stem cell developmental stage: Implication for differential therapies  

PubMed Central

Increased evidence shows that normal stem cells may contribute to cancer development and progression by acting as cancer-initiating cells through their interactions with abnormal environmental elements. We postulate that normal stem cells and cancer stem cells (CSC) possess similar mechanisms of self-renewal and differentiation. CSC can be the key to the elaboration of anti-cancer-based therapy. In this article, we focus on a controversial new theme relating to CSC. Tumorigenesis may have a critical stage characterized as a “therapeutic window”, which can be identified by association of molecular, biochemical and biological events. Identifying such a stage can allow the production of more effective therapies (e.g. manipulated stem cells) to treat several cancers. More importantly, confirming the existence of a similar therapeutic window during the conversion of normal stem cells to malignant CSC may lead to targeted therapy specifically against CSC. This conversion information may be derived from investigating the biological behaviour of both normal stem cells and cancerous stem cells. Currently, there is little knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern the initiation and maintenance of CSC. Studies on co-evolution and interdependence of cancer with normal tissues may lead to a useful treatment paradigm of cancer. The crosstalk between normal stem cells and cancer formation may converge developmental stages of different types of stem cells (e.g. normal stem cells, CSC and embryonic stem cells). The differential studies of the convergence may result in novel therapies for treating cancers. PMID:22007273

Li, Shengwen Calvin; Lee, Katherine L; Luo, Jane; Zhong, Jiang F; Loudon, William G

2011-01-01

385

Representations of stem cell clinics on twitter.  

PubMed

The practice of travelling abroad to receive unproven and unregulated stem cell treatments has become an increasingly problematic global phenomenon known as 'stem cell tourism'. In this paper, we examine representations of nine major clinics and providers of such treatments on the microblogging network Twitter. We collected and conducted a content analysis of Twitter posts (n?=?363) by these establishments and by other users mentioning them, focusing specifically on marketing claims about treatment procedures and outcomes, discussions of safety and efficacy of stem cell transplants, and specific representations of patients' experiences. Our analysis has shown that there were explicit claims or suggestions of benefits associated with unproven stem cell treatments in approximately one third of the tweets and that patients' experiences, whenever referenced, were presented as invariably positive and as testimonials about the efficacy of stem cell transplants. Furthermore, the results indicated that the tone of most tweets (60.2 %) was overwhelmingly positive and there were rarely critical discussions about significant health risks associated with unproven stem cell therapies. When placed in the context of past research on the problems associated with the marketing of unproven stem cell therapies, this analysis of representations on Twitter suggests that discussions in social media have also remained largely uncritical of the stem cell tourism phenomenon, with inaccurate representations of risks and benefits for patients. PMID:24970380

Kamenova, Kalina; Reshef, Amir; Caulfield, Timothy

2014-12-01

386

Matrix Elasticity Directs Stem Cell Lineage Specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Microenvironments appear important in stem cell lineage specification but can be difficult to adequately characterize or control with soft tis- sues. Naive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) areshownheretospecifylineageandcommitto phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to tissue- level elasticity. Soft matrices that mimic brain are neurogenic, stiffer matricesthat mimicmus- cle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. During

Adam J. Engler; Shamik Sen; H. Lee Sweeney; Dennis E. Discher

2006-01-01

387

Scientists Create Tiny Stomachs from Stem Cells  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Scientists Create Tiny Stomachs From Stem Cells Feat may help researchers learn more about causes ... Preidt Wednesday, October 29, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Stem Cells Stomach Disorders WEDNESDAY, Oct. 29, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

388

Mouse Mandible Contains Distinctive Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although human orofacial bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells showed differentiation traits distinctly different from those of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from long bone marrow (BMMSCs), mouse MSCs derived from orofacial bone have not been isolated due to technical difficulties, which in turn precludes the use of mouse models to study and cure orofacial diseases. In this study, we developed techniques

T. Yamaza; G. Ren; K. Akiyama; C. Chen; Y. Shi; S. Shi

2011-01-01

389

Stem cell banking: between traceability and identifiability  

PubMed Central

Stem cell banks are increasingly seen as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational research. Stem cell banks support transnational access to quality-controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines from different origins and of varying grades. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, advances in regenerative medicine are leading to the development of a bioeconomy, 'a world where biotechnology contributes to a significant share of economic output'. Consequently, stem cell banks are destined to constitute a pillar of the bioeconomy in many countries. While certain ethical and legal concerns are specific to the nature of stem cells, stem cell banking could do well to examine the approaches fostered by tissue banking generally. Indeed, the past decade has seen a move to simplify and harmonize biological tissue and data banking so as to foster international interoperability. In particular, the issues of consent and of traceability illustrate not only commonalities but the opportunity for stem cell banking to appreciate the lessons learned in biobanking generally. This paper analyzes convergence and divergence in issues surrounding policy harmonization, transnational sharing, informed consent, traceability and return of results in the context of stem cell banks. PMID:20923580

2010-01-01

390

Epithelial Stem Cells and Tissue Engineered Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal mucosa has an amazing regenerative capacity, enabling rapid restoration of its physiological functions following injury. The ability to do this resides with the epithelial stem cells located within glandular invaginations in the mucosal surface. Recent advances toward the isolation and characterization of epithelial stem cells has paved the way for exploring novel therapeutic approaches for gastrointestinal disease. Possible

Richard M. Day

2006-01-01

391

Adult stem cell therapy for the heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to summarize current data leading to and arising from recent clinical application of cellular therapy for acute myocardial infarct (heart attack) and congestive heart failure. We specifically focus on use of adult stem cells and compare and contrast bone marrow and adipose tissue; two different sources from which stem cells can be harvested in

John K Fraser; Ronda E Schreiber; Patricia A Zuk; Marc H Hedrick

2004-01-01

392

Spatial Organization of Embryonic Stem Cell Responsiveness to Autocrine Gp130 Ligands Reveals an Autoregulatory Stem  

E-print Network

Spatial Organization of Embryonic Stem Cell Responsiveness to Autocrine Gp130 Ligands Reveals, Ontario, Canada Key Words. Autocrine signaling · Embryonic stem cell · Niche · Self-renewal · Stem cell-location-independent processes control- ling cell fate by analyzing the spatial organization of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) using

Zandstra, Peter W.

393

Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays  

E-print Network

Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays CONNIEEAVES,CINDYMILLER,JOHANNE CASHMAN Columbia, Canada Key Words.Hematopoietic stem cells Transplantation Cord blood. Expansion Growthfactors murine hematopoietic stem cells to be quantitated. Measurements of murine CRU have shown

Zandstra, Peter W.

394

3 CFR - Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Presidential Documents Other...July 30, 2009 Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Memorandum for the Heads of...responsible, scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic...

2010-01-01

395

Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Issue Past Issues From the Director: Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease Past Issues / ... NIH Director, described the need for expanding stem cell research. Recently, he spoke about stem cell research ...

396

In Appreciation of Stem Cell Research Doners..............................................................1 Glossary ..........................................................................................................................4  

E-print Network

#12;#12;In Appreciation of Stem Cell Research Doners ..........................................................................................................................4 Stem Cell Research at the Weizmann Institute of Science assistance of our many generous friends worldwide who have contributed to stem cell research over the years

Shapiro, Ehud

397

Controlled, Scalable Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are of significant interest as a renewable source of therapeutically useful cells. ES cell aggregation is important for both human and mouse embryoid body (EB) formation and the subse- quent generation of ES cell derivatives. Aggregation between EBs (agglomeration), however, inhibits cell growth and differentiation in stirred or high-cell-den- sity static cultures. We demonstrate that the

STEPHEN M. DANG; SHARON GERECHT-NIR; JINNY CHEN; JOSEPH ITSKOVITZ-ELDOR; PETER W. ZANDSTRAa

2004-01-01

398

Application of Stem Cells in Orthopedics  

PubMed Central

Stem cell research plays an important role in orthopedic regenerative medicine today. Current literature provides us with promising results from animal research in the fields of bone, tendon, and cartilage repair. While early clinical results are already published for bone and cartilage repair, the data about tendon repair is limited to animal studies. The success of these techniques remains inconsistent in all three mentioned areas. This may be due to different application techniques varying from simple mesenchymal stem cell injection up to complex tissue engineering. However, the ideal carrier for the stem cells still remains controversial. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of current basic research and clinical data concerning stem cell research in bone, tendon, and cartilage repair. Furthermore, a focus is set on different stem cell application techniques in tendon reconstruction, cartilage repair, and filling of bone defects. PMID:22550505

Schmitt, Andreas; van Griensven, Martijn; Imhoff, Andreas B.; Buchmann, Stefan

2012-01-01

399

Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells  

PubMed Central

Until recently, the complexity of adipose tissue and its physiological role was not well appreciated. This changed with the discovery of adipokines such as leptin. The cellular composition of adipose tissue is heterogeneous and changes as a function of diabetes and disease states such as diabetes. Tissue engineers view adipose tissue as a rich source of adult stromal/stem cells isolated by collagenase digestion. In vitro and in vivo studies have documented that adipose stromal/stem cells are multipotent, with the ability to differentiate along the adipocyte, chondrocyte, osteoblast and other lineage pathways. The adipose stromal/stem cells secrete a wide range of cytokines and growth factors with potential paracrine actions. Furthermore, adipose stromal/stem cells exert immunomodulatory functions when added to mixed lymphocyte reactions, suggesting that they can be transplanted allogeneically. This review article focuses on these mechanisms of adipose stromal/stem cell action and their potential utility as cellular therapeutics. PMID:23538753

Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Bunnell, Bruce A.; Frazier, Trivia; Rowan, Brian; Shah, Forum; Thomas-Porch, Caasy; Wu, Xiying

2013-01-01

400

Extracellular, stem cells and regenerative ophthalmology.  

PubMed

Retinal degenerative diseases, including retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma, still lack effective medical treatments. The stem cell-based regenerative approach has been proposed to treat these degenerative diseases. The major challenge for regenerative ophthalmology is to produce enough desirable retinal neurons in vitro from various stem cell types. Extracellular matrix proteins are important for stem cell self-renewal and differentiation in various systems. They have also been used in combination with various growth factors to expand retinal stem cells and produce desirable retinal neuronal types. This review summarizes our current understanding of how extracellular matrix proteins regulate stem cell function and discusses their application in regenerative ophthalmology. PMID:25275901

Wang, Yifeng; Xie, Ting

2014-01-01

401

Stem cell sources for tooth regeneration: current status and future prospects  

PubMed Central

Stem cells are capable of renewing themselves through cell division and have the remarkable ability to differentiate into many different types of cells. They therefore have the potential to become a central tool in regenerative medicine. During the last decade, advances in tissue engineering and stem cell-based tooth regeneration have provided realistic and attractive means of replacing lost or damaged teeth. Investigation of embryonic and adult (tissue) stem cells as potential cell sources for tooth regeneration has led to many promising results. However, technical and ethical issues have hindered the availability of these cells for clinical application. The recent discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has provided the possibility to revolutionize the field of regenerative medicine (dentistry) by offering the option of autologous transplantation. In this article, we review the current progress in the field of stem cell-based tooth regeneration and discuss the possibility of using iPS cells for this purpose. PMID:24550845

Otsu, Keishi; Kumakami-Sakano, Mika; Fujiwara, Naoki; Kikuchi, Kazuko; Keller, Laetitia; Lesot, Hervé; Harada, Hidemitsu

2014-01-01

402

The neural stem cell lineage reveals novel relationships among spermatogonial germ stem cells and other pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

The embryonic stem cell (ESC) derived from the inner cell mass is viewed as the core pluripotent cell (PC) type from which all other cell types emanate. This familiar perspective derives from an embryological time line in which PCs are ordered according to their time of appearance. However, this schema does not take into account their potential for interconversion, thereby excluding this critical quality of PCs. The persistence of bona fide pluripotent adult stem cells has garnered increasing attention in recent years. Adult pluripotent spermatogonial germ stem cells (aSGSCs) arise from primordial germ cells (pGCs) that emerge from the epiblast during gastrulation. Adult definitive neural stem cells (dNSCs) arise clonally from pluripotent embryonic primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs), which can also be derived clonally from ESCs. To test for stem cell-type convertibility, we employed differentiation in the clonal lineage from ESCs to pNSCs to dNSCs, and revealed the relationships and lineage positioning among various PC populations, including spermatogonial germ cells (aSGSCs), epiblast-derived stem cells (Epi-SCs) and the bFGF, Activin, and BIO-derived stem cell (FAB-SC). Adult, murine aSGSCs assumed a 'pseudo-ESC' state in vitro, and then differentiated into dNSCs, but not pNSCs. Similarly, Epi-SCs and FAB-SCs only gave rise to dNSCs and not to pNSCs. The results of these experiments suggest a new pluripotency lineage model describing the relationship(s) among PCs that better reflects the transitions between these cell types in vitro. PMID:24192139

Teichert, Anouk-Martine; Pereira, Schreiber; Coles, Brenda; Chaddah, Radha; Runciman, Susan; Brokhman, Irina; van der Kooy, Derek

2014-04-01

403

Pluripotent Stem Cells and Gene Therapy  

PubMed Central

Human pluripotent stem cells represent an accessible cell source for novel cell-based clinical research and therapies. With the realization of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), it is possible to produce almost any desired cell type from any patient's cells. Current developments in gene modification methods have opened the possibility for creating genetically corrected human iPSCs for certain genetic diseases that could be used later in autologous transplantation. Promising preclinical studies have demonstrated correction of disease-causing mutations in a number of hematological, neuronal and muscular disorders. This review aims to summarize these recent advances with a focus on iPSC generation techniques, as well as gene modification methods. We will then further discuss some of the main obstacles remaining to be overcome before successful application of human pluripotent stem cell-based therapy arrives in the clinic and what the future of stem cell research may look like. PMID:23353080

Simara, Pavel; Motl, Jason A.; Kaufman, Dan S.

2013-01-01

404

Breast cancer stem cells and radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present studies explore the response of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC's) to radiation and the implications for clinical cancer treatment. Current cancer therapy eliminates bulky tumor mass but may fail to eradicate a critical tumor initiating cell population termed "cancer stem cells". These cells are potentially responsible for tumor formation, metastasis, and recurrence. Recently cancer stem cells have been prospectively identified in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The breast cancer stem cell has been identified by the surface markers CD44+/CD24 -(low). In vitro mammosphere cultures allow for the enrichment of the cancer stem cell population and were utilized in order to study differential characteristics of BCSC's. Initial studies found that BCSC's display increased radiation resistance as compared to other non-stem tumor cells. This resistance was accompanied by decreased H2AX phosphorylation, decreased reactive oxygen species formation, and increased phosphorylation of the checkpoint protein Chk1. These studies suggest differential DNA damage and repair within the BCSC population. Studies then examined the consequences of fractionated radiation on the BCSC population and found a two-fold increase in BCSC's following 5 x 3Gy. This observation begins to tie cancer stem cell self-renewal to the clinical stem cell phenomenon of accelerated repopulation. Accelerated repopulation is observed when treatment gaps increase between sequential fractions of radiotherapy and may be due to cancer stem cell symmetric self-renewal. The balance between asymmetric and symmetric stem cell division is vital for proper maintenance; deregulation is likely linked to cancer initiation and progression. The developmental Notch-1 pathway was found to regulate BCSC division. Over-expressing the constitutively active Notch-1-ICD in MCF7 cells produced an increase in the BCSC population. Additionally, radiation was observed to increase the expression of the Notch-1 ligand, Jagged-1, and this was complemented by radiation induced Notch-1 activation. Studies also linked hypoxia and BCSC renewal through Epo signaling. Treatment with rhEpo induced an increase in BCSC's, which again was due to rhEpo induced Jagged-1 expression and subsequent Notch-1 activation. This thesis suggests that radiation and rhEpo induce Jagged-1 expression in non-stem cells, which then induce Notch-1 activation in adjacent stem cells, and results in symmetric cancer stem cell self-renewal.

Phillips, Tiffany Marie

405

Enabling stem cell therapies through synthetic stem cell-niche engineering  

PubMed Central

Enabling stem cell–targeted therapies requires an understanding of how to create local microenvironments (niches) that stimulate endogenous stem cells or serve as a platform to receive and guide the integration of transplanted stem cells and their derivatives. In vivo, the stem cell niche is a complex and dynamic unit. Although components of the in vivo niche continue to be described for many stem cell systems, how these components interact to modulate stem cell fate is only beginning to be understood. Using the HSC niche as a model, we discuss here microscale engineering strategies capable of systematically examining and reconstructing individual niche components. Synthetic stem cell–niche engineering may form a new foundation for regenerative therapies. PMID:20051637

Peerani, Raheem; Zandstra, Peter W.

2010-01-01

406

HIV and Stem Cell Transplantation.  

PubMed

In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, the incidence of hematologic malignancies, including leukemia and lymphoma, is increased despite the use of successful antiretroviral therapy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is emerging as a safe and effective therapy for HIV-infected persons with hematologic malignancies. Management of these patients is complicated by drug-drug interactions involving antiretroviral therapy (ART) that may impact conditioning agent efficacy and metabolism of immunosuppressive medications and potentiate drug toxicities. As such, optimal strategies for ART remain controversial. We discuss recent advances, controversies, and future directions related to SCT in HIV-infected persons, including the investigation of allogeneic SCT as a strategy for HIV cure. PMID:25120135

Echenique, Ignacio A; Nelson, George E; Stosor, Valentina; Durand, Christine M

2014-09-01

407

The stem cell niche should be a key issue for cell therapy in regenerative medicine.  

PubMed

Recent advances in stem cell research have highlighted the role played by such cells and their environment (the stem cell niche) in tissue renewal and homeostasis. The control and regulation of stem cells and their niche are remaining challenges for cell therapy and regenerative medicine on several tissues and organs. These advances are important for both, the basic knowledge of stem cell regulation, and their practical translational applications into clinical medicine. This article is primarily concerned with the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and it reviews the current aspects of their own niche. We discuss on the need for a deeper understanding of the identity of this cell type and its microenvironment in order to improve the effectiveness of any cell therapy for regenerative medicine. Ex vivo reproduction of the conditions of the natural stem cell niche, when necessary, would provide success to tissue engineering. The first challenge of regenerative medicine is to find cells able to replace and/or repair the lost function of tissues and organs by disease or aging and the trophic and immunomodulatory effects recently found for MSCs open up for new opportunities. If MSCs are pericytes, as it has been proposed, perhaps it may explain the ubiquity of these cells and their possible role in miscellaneous repairs throughout the body opening for new chances for extensive tissue repair. PMID:21052872

Becerra, José; Santos-Ruiz, Leonor; Andrades, José A; Marí-Beffa, Manuel

2011-06-01

408

Bromodeoxyuridine specifically labels the regenerative stem cells of planarians  

E-print Network

The singular regenerative abilities of planarians require a population of stem cells known as neoblasts. In response to wounding, or during the course of cell turnover, neoblasts are signaled to divide and/or differentiate, thereby replacing lost cell types. The study of these pluripotent stem cells and their role in planarian regeneration has been severely hampered by the reported inability of planarians to incorporate exogenous DNA precursors; thus, very little is known about the mechanisms that control proliferation and differentiation of this stem cell population within the planarian. Here we show that planarians are, in fact, capable of incorporating the thymidine analogue bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), allowing neoblasts to be labeled specifically during the S phase of the cell cycle. We have used BrdU labeling to study the distribution of neoblasts in the intact animal, as well as to directly demonstrate the migration and differentiation of neoblasts. We have examined the proposal that a subset of neoblasts is arrested in the G2 phase of the cell cycle by double-labeling with BrdU and a mitosis-specific marker; we find that the median length of G2 (?6 h) is sufficient to account for the initial mitotic burst observed after feeding or amputation. Continuous BrdU-labeling experiments also suggest that there is not a large, slow-cycling population of neoblasts in the intact animal. The ability to label specifically the regenerative stem cells, combined with the recently described use of double-stranded RNA to inhibit gene expression in the planarian, should serve to reignite interest in the flatworm as an experimental model for studying the problems of metazoan regeneration and the control of stem cell proliferation. © 2000 Academic Press Key Words: planaria; regeneration; stem cells; neoblasts; flatworms; bromodeoxyuridine.

Phillip A. Newmark; Ro Sánchez Alvarado

2000-01-01

409

Basics of Stem and Progenitor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter will define key terms and introduce important basic information about the fundamental building blocks of the\\u000a entire text: the stem and progenitor cells. After a brief discussion of terminology central to the field, we will explore\\u000a the various stem and progenitor cells including bone marrow-derived cell populations, specific niche-derived cell populations,\\u000a as well as special situations such as

Matthew T. Harting

410

Regulation of the Spermatogonial Stem Cell Niche  

PubMed Central

Contents Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) reside within specialized microenvironments called ‘niches’, which are essential for their maintenance and self-renewal. In the mammalian testis, the main components of the niche include the Sertoli cell, the growth factors that this nursing cell produces, the basement membrane, and stimuli from the vascular network between the seminiferous tubules. This review focuses on signalling pathways maintaining SSCs self-renewal and differentiation and describes potential mechanisms of regulation of the spermatogonial stem cell niche. PMID:18638151

Kostereva, N; Hofmann, M-C

2010-01-01

411

Pluripotent stem cells induced from adult neural stem cells by reprogramming with two factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reprogramming of somatic cells is a valuable tool to understand the mechanisms of regaining pluripotency and further opens up the possibility of generating patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. Reprogramming of mouse and human somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells, designated as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, has been possible with the expression of the transcription factor quartet Oct4 (also known as

Jeong Beom Kim; Holm Zaehres; Guangming Wu; Luca Gentile; Kinarm Ko; Vittorio Sebastiano; Marcos J. Araúzo-Bravo; David Ruau; Dong Wook Han; Martin Zenke; Hans R. Schöler

2008-01-01

412

Chemically Induced Specification of Retinal Ganglion Cells From Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is the primary pathological change for many retinal degenerative diseases. Although there is currently no effective treatment for this group of diseases, cell transplantation to replace lost RGCs holds great potential. However, for the development of cell replacement therapy, better understanding of the molecular details involved in differentiating stem cells into RGCs is essential. In this study, a novel, stepwise chemical protocol is described for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells into functional RGCs. Briefly, stem cells were differentiated into neural rosettes, which were then cultured with the Notch inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT). The expression of neural and RGC markers (BRN3A, BRN3B, ATOH7/Math5, ?-synuclein, Islet-1, and THY-1) was examined. Approximately 30% of the cell population obtained expressed the neuronal marker TUJ1 as well the RGC markers. Moreover, the differentiated RGCs generated action potentials and exhibited both spontaneous and evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents, indicating that functional and mature RGCs were generated. In combination, these data demonstrate that a single chemical (DAPT) can induce PAX6/RX-positive stem cells to undergo differentiation into functional RGCs. PMID:24493857

Riazifar, Hamidreza; Jia, Yousheng; Chen, Jing; Lynch, Gary

2014-01-01

413

Immortalization of Human Neural Stem Cells with the c-Myc Mutant T58A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human neural stem cells (hNSC) represent an essential source of renewable brain cells for both experimental studies and cell replacement therapies. Their relatively slow rate of proliferation and physiological senescence in culture make their use cumbersome under some experimental and pre-clinical settings. The immortalization of hNSC with the v-myc gene (v-IhNSC) has been shown to generate stem cells endowed with

Lidia de Filippis; Daniela Ferrari; Laura Rota Nodari; Bruno Amati; Evan Snyder; Angelo Luigi Vescovi; Patrick Callaerts

2008-01-01

414

Stem cells and small molecule screening: haploid embryonic stem cells as a new tool  

PubMed Central

Stem cells can both self-renew and differentiate into various cell types under certain conditions, which makes them a good model for development and disease studies. Recently, chemical approaches have been widely applied in stem cell biology by promoting stem cell self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation and somatic cell reprogramming using specific small molecules. Conversely, stem cells and their derivatives also provide an efficient and robust platform for small molecule and drug screening. Here, we review the current research and applications of small molecules that modulate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation and improve reprogramming, as well as the applications that use stem cells as a tool for small molecule screening. Moreover, we introduce the recent advance in haploid embryonic stem cells research. Haploid embryonic stem cells maintain haploidy and stable growth over extensive passages, possess the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo, and contribute to the germlines of chimeras when injected into blastocysts. Androgenetic haploid stem cells can also be used in place of sperm to produce fertile progeny after intracytoplasmic injection into mature oocytes. Such characteristics demonstrate that haploid stem cells are a new approach for genetic studies at both the cellular and animal levels and that they are a valuable platform for future small molecule screening. PMID:23645011

Wu, Bi; Li, Wei; Wang, Liu; Liu, Zhong-hua; Zhao, Xiao-yang

2013-01-01

415

2011 Annual Report Institute for Stem Cell Biology  

E-print Network

and Cancer iPS Cells and Skin Diseases Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Research Embryonic and iPS Cells stem cell science through collaboration across every area of scientific research. We have succeeded of these researchers are working on creating tissue- specific stem cells from pluripotent stem cells. Central to our

Quake, Stephen R.

416

Embryonic stem cell application in drug discovery  

PubMed Central

Embryonic stem (ES) cells and their differentiated progeny offer tremendous potential for regenerative medicine, even in the field of drug discovery. There is an urgent need for clinically relevant assays that make use of ES cells because of their rich biological utility. Attention has been focused on small molecules that allow the precise manipulation of cells in vitro, which could allow researchers to obtain homogeneous cell types for cell-based therapies and discover drugs for stimulating the regeneration of endogenous cells. Such therapeutics can act on target cells or their niches in vivo to promote cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and homing. In the present paper, we reviewed the use of ES cell models for high-throughput/content drug screening and toxicity assessment. In addition, we examined the role of stem cells in large pharmaceutical companies' R&D and discussed a novel subject, nicheology, in stem cell-related research fields. PMID:21217770

Lou, Yi-jia; Liang, Xing-guang

2011-01-01

417

Stem cell-based composite tissue constructs for regenerative medicine.  

PubMed

A major task of contemporary medicine and dentistry is restoration of human tissues and organs lost to diseases and trauma. A decade-long intense effort in tissue engineering has provided the proof of concept for cell-based replacement of a number of individual tissues such as the skin, cartilage, and bone. Recent work in stem cell-based in vivo restoration of multiple tissue phenotypes by composite tissue constructs such as osteochondral and fibro-osseous grafts has demonstrated probable clues for bioengineered replacement of complex anatomical structures consisting of multiple cell lineages such as the synovial joint condyle, tendon-bone complex, bone-ligament junction, and the periodontium. Of greater significance is a tangible contribution by current attempts to restore the structure and function of multitissue structures using cell-based composite tissue constructs to the understanding of ultimate biological restoration of complex organs such as the kidney or liver. The present review focuses on recent advances in stem cell-based composite tissue constructs and attempts to outline challenges for the manipulation of stem cells in tailored biomaterials in alignment with approaches potentially utilizable in regenerative medicine of human tissues and organs. PMID:15929124

Rahaman, Mohamed N; Mao, Jeremy J

2005-08-01

418

Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are an exciting advancement in the field of nanotechnology. They expand the possibilities of noninvasive analysis and have many useful properties, making them potential candidates for numerous novel applications. Notably, they have been shown that they can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and are capable of conjugation with various cell types, including stem cells. In-depth research has been undertaken to establish these benefits, so that a deeper level of understanding of stem cell migratory pathways and differentiation, tumor migration, and improved drug delivery can be achieved. Stem cells have the ability to treat and cure many debilitating diseases with limited side effects, but a main problem that arises is in the noninvasive tracking and analysis of these stem cells. Recently, researchers have acknowledged the use of SPIONs for this purpose and have set out to establish suitable protocols for coating and attachment, so as to bring MRI tracking of SPION-labeled stem cells into common practice. This review paper explains the manner in which SPIONs are produced, conjugated, and tracked using MRI, as well as a discussion on their limitations. A concise summary of recently researched magnetic particle coatings is provided, and the effects of SPIONs on stem cells are evaluated, while animal and human studies investigating the role of SPIONs in stem cell tracking will be explored. PMID:24729700

Bull, Elizabeth; Madani, Seyed Yazdan; Sheth, Roosey; Seifalian, Amelia; Green, Mark; Seifalian, Alexander M

2014-01-01

419

Renal differentiation from adult spermatogonial stem cells.  

PubMed

There is considerable interest in the use of multi-potent stem cells in kidney tissue regeneration. We studied if spermatogonial stem cells have the ability to undergo kidney differentiation. Spermatogonial stem cell differentiation was induced using in vitro and ex vivo co-culture techniques. Conditioned media from human kidney fibroblasts induced the expression of epithelial and endothelial lineages in spermatogonial stem cells, consistent with nephrogenesis. Furthermore, we showed that these cells up-regulated renal tubular-specific markers alkaline phosphatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, renal epithelial sodium channel and sodium-glucose transporter-2 (p<0.05). GFP-labeled spermatogonial stem cells were engrafted into metanephric kidney organ cultures harvested from E12.5 mouse embryos. After 5 days of organ culture, focal anti-GFP staining was detectable in all inoculated kidneys demonstrating integration of spermatogonial stem cells into the developing kidney (p<0.01). Histological assessment showed early nephron-like architecture. In summary, we show that spermatogonial stem cells have the potential to generate renal tissue and lay the foundations for further investigations into a novel therapeutic approach for renal insufficiency. PMID:23991628

Heer, Rakesh; Hepburn, Anastasia C; Williamson, Stuart C; Kennedy, Amy; El-Sherif, Amira; Soomro, Naeem A; Brown, Colin D A; Robson, Craig N

2013-01-01

420

Time to Reconsider Stem Cell Induction Strategies  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in stem cell research suggest that it may be time to reconsider the current focus of stem cell induction strategies. During the previous five years, approximately, the induction of pluripotency in somatic cells, i.e., the generation of so-called ‘induced pluripotent stem cells’ (iPSCs), has become the focus of ongoing research in many stem cell laboratories, because this technology promises to overcome limitations (both technical and ethical) seen in the production and use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A rapidly increasing number of publications suggest, however, that it is now possible to choose instead other, alternative ways of generating stem and progenitor cells bypassing pluripotency. These new strategies may offer important advantages with respect to ethics, as well as to safety considerations. The present communication discusses why these strategies may provide possibilities for an escape from the dilemma presented by pluripotent stem cells (self-organization potential, cloning by tetraploid complementation, patenting problems and tumor formation risk). PMID:24710555

Denker, Hans-Werner

2012-01-01

421

Biomaterials and Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Organ failure and tissue loss are challenging health issues due to widespread injury, the lack of organs for transplantation, and limitations of conventional artificial implants. The field of tissue engineering aims to provide alternative living substitutes that restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Areas covered in this review In this paper, a wide range of porous scaffolds are reviewed, with an emphasis on phase separation techniques that generate advantageous nanofibrous 3D scaffolds for stem cell-based tissue engineering applications. In addition, methods for presentation and delivery of bioactive molecules to mimic the properties of stem cell niche are summarized. Recent progress in using these bio-instructive scaffolds to support stem cell differentiation and tissue regeneration is also presented. What the reader will gain Stem cells have great clinical potential because of their capability to differentiate into multiple cell types. Biomaterials have served as artificial extracellular environments to regulate stem cell behavior. Biomaterials with various physical, mechanical, and chemical properties can be designed to control stem cell development for regeneration. Take home message The research at the interface of stem cell biology and biomaterials has made and will continue to make exciting advances in tissue engineering. PMID:23327471

Zhang, Zhanpeng; Gupte, Melanie J.; Ma, Peter X.

2013-01-01

422

Stem cell applications in military medicine  

PubMed Central

There are many similarities between health issues affecting military and civilian patient populations, with the exception of the relatively small but vital segment of active soldiers who experience high-energy blast injuries during combat. A rising incidence of major injuries from explosive devices in recent campaigns has further complicated treatment and recovery, highlighting the need for tissue regenerative options and intensifying interest in the possible role of stem cells for military medicine. In this review we outline the array of tissue-specific injuries typically seen in modern combat - as well as address a few complications unique to soldiers - and discuss the state of current stem cell research in addressing each area. Embryonic, induced-pluripotent and adult stem cell sources are defined, along with advantages and disadvantages unique to each cell type. More detailed stem cell sources are described in the context of each tissue of interest, including neural, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and sensory tissues, with brief discussion of their potential role in regenerative medicine moving forward. Additional commentary is given to military stem cell applications aside from regenerative medicine, such as blood pharming, immunomodulation and drug screening, with an overview of stem cell banking and the unique opportunity provided by the military and civilian overlap of stem cell research. PMID:22011454

2011-01-01

423

Concise Review: Chemical Approaches for Modulating Lineage-Specific Stem Cells and Progenitors  

PubMed Central

Generation and manipulation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vitro and/or in vivo are critical for the development of stem cell-based clinical therapeutics. Lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells have many advantageous qualities, including being able to efficiently engraft and differentiate into desirable cell types in vivo after transplantation, and they are much less tumorigenic than pluripotent cells. Generation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells can be achieved by directed differentiation from pluripotent stem cells or lineage conversion from easily obtained somatic cells. Small molecules can be very helpful in these processes since they offer several important benefits. For example, the risk of tumorigenesis is greatly reduced when small molecules are used to replace integrated transcription factors, which are widely used in cell fate conversion. Furthermore, small molecules are relatively easy to apply, optimize, and manufacture, and they can more readily be developed into conventional pharmaceuticals. Alternatively, small molecules can be used to expand or selectively control the differentiation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells for desirable therapeutics purposes in vitro or in vivo. Here we summarize recent progress in the use of small molecules for the expansion and generation of desirable lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vitro and for selectively controlling cell fate of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vivo, thereby facilitating stem cell-based clinical applications. PMID:23580542

Xu, Tao; Zhang, Mingliang; Laurent, Timothy; Xie, Min

2013-01-01

424

Cancer stem cells, a fuzzy evolving concept  

PubMed Central

The cancer stem cells (CSC) hypothesis represents a pathological extrapolation of the physiological concept of embryonic and somatic stem cells. In its initial definition, it encompassed the hypothesis of a qualitatively distinct population of immortal cancer cells originating from somatic stem cells, which generate in xenotransplants by a deterministic irreversible process, the hierarchy of more differentiated finite lifespan derived cells, which constitute, themselves, the bulk of the cancer. These CSC would express specific biomarkers and gene expressions related to chemo- and radioresistance, stemness, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, etc. No convincing congruence of several of these properties in one cell population has been demonstrated. The concept has greatly evolved with time and with different authors (“the plasticity of cancer stem cells”), leading to a minimal definition of cells generating a hierarchy of derived cells. In this article these concepts are analyzed. It is proposed that stemness is a property, more or less reversible, a hallmark of some cells at some time in a cancer cell population, as immortality, dormancy, chemo- or radioresistance, epithelial–mesenchymal transition etc. These phenotypic properties represent the result of independent, linked, or more or less congruent, genetic, epigenetic, or signaling programs. PMID:24270846

Antoniou, Aline; Hebrant, Aline; Dom, Genevieve; Dumont, Jacques E; Maenhaut, Carine

2013-01-01

425

Understanding cancer stem cell heterogeneity and plasticity  

PubMed Central

Heterogeneity is an omnipresent feature of mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. It has been recently realized that even mouse and human embryonic stem cells under the best culture conditions are heterogeneous containing pluripotent as well as partially committed cells. Somatic stem cells in adult organs are also heterogeneous, containing many subpopulations of self-renewing cells with distinct regenerative capacity. The differentiated progeny of adult stem cells also retain significant developmental plasticity that can be induced by a wide variety of experimental approaches. Like normal stem cells, recent data suggest that cancer stem cells (CSCs) similarly display significant phenotypic and functional heterogeneity, and that the CSC progeny can manifest diverse plasticity. Here, I discuss CSC heterogeneity and plasticity in the context of tumor development and progression, and by comparing with normal stem cell development. Appreciation of cancer cell plasticity entails a revision to the earlier concept that only the tumorigenic subset in the tumor needs to be targeted. By understanding the interrelationship between CSCs and their differentiated progeny, we can hope to develop better therapeutic regimens that can prevent the emergence of tumor cell variants that are able to found a new tumor and distant metastases. PMID:22357481

Tang, Dean G

2012-01-01

426

Keratinocyte Stem Cell Assays: An Evolving Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the existence of epithelial stem cells in the skin has been known for some decades from cell kinetic studies performed in vivo, attempts to prospectively isolate these cells for further biological characterization have been made possible relatively recently facilitated by the availability of antibodies that detect cell surface markers on epidermal cells. Elegant gene marking studies in vivo have

Pritinder Kaur; Amy Li; Richard Redvers; Ivan Bertoncello

2004-01-01

427

Robust G2 pausing of adult stem cells in Hydra.  

PubMed

Hydra is a freshwater hydrozoan polyp that constantly renews its two tissue layers thanks to three distinct stem cell populations that cannot replace each other, epithelial ectodermal, epithelial endodermal, and multipotent interstitial. These adult stem cells, located in the central body column, exhibit different cycling paces, slow for the epithelial, fast for the interstitial. To monitor the changes in cell cycling in Hydra, we established a fast and efficient flow cytometry procedure, which we validated by confirming previous findings, as the Nocodazole-induced reversible arrest of cell cycling in G2/M, and the mitogenic signal provided by feeding. Then to dissect the cycling and differentiation behaviors of the interstitial stem cells, we used the AEP_cnnos1 and AEP_Icy1 transgenic lines that constitutively express GFP in this lineage. For the epithelial lineages we used the sf-1 strain that rapidly eliminates the fast cycling cells upon heat-shock and progressively becomes epithelial. This study evidences similar cycling patterns for the interstitial and epithelial stem cells, which all alternate between the G2 and S-phases traversing a minimal G1-phase. We also found interstitial progenitors with a shorter G2 that pause in G1/G0. At the animal extremities, most cells no longer cycle, the epithelial cells terminally differentiate in G2 and the interstitial progenitors in G1/G0. At the apical pole ~80% cells are post-mitotic differentiated cells, reflecting the higher density of neurons and nematocytes in this region. We discuss how the robust G2 pausing of stem cells, maintained over weeks of starvation, may contribute to regeneration. PMID:24703763

Buzgariu, Wanda; Crescenzi, Marco; Galliot, Brigitte

2014-01-01

428

Stem cells for spinal cord regeneration: Current status  

PubMed Central

Background: Nearly 11,000 cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) are reported in the United States annually. Current management options give a median survival time of 38 years; however, no rehabilitative measures are available. Stem cells have been under constant research given their ability to differentiate into neural cell lines replacing non functional tissue. Efforts have been made to establish new synapses and provide a conducive environment, by grafting cells from autologous and fetal sources; including embryonic or adult stem cells, Schwann cells, genetically modified fibroblasts, bone stromal cells, and olfactory ensheathing cells and combinations/ variants thereof. Methods: In order to discuss the underlying mechanism of SCI along with the previously mentioned sources of stem cells in context to SCI, a simple review of literature was conducted. An extensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed data base and online search engines and articles published in the last 15 years were considered along with some historical articles where a background was required. Results: Stem cell transplantation for SCI is at the forefront with animal and in vitro studies providing a solid platform to enable well-designed human studies. Olfactory ensheathing cells seem to be the most promising; whilst bone marrow stromal cells appear as strong candidates for an adjunctive role. Conclusion: The key strategy in developing the therapeutic basis of stem cell transplantation for spinal cord regeneration is to weed out the pseudo-science and opportunism. All the trials should be based on stringent scientific criteria and effort to bypass that should be strongly discouraged at the international level. PMID:21246060

Sobani, Zain A.; Quadri, Syed A.; Enam, S. Ather

2010-01-01

429

Engineering microenvironments to control stem cell fate and function  

E-print Network

), StemBook, ed. The Stem Cell Research Community, StemBook, doi/10.3824/stembook.1.5.1, httpEngineering microenvironments to control stem cell fate and function Shawdee Eshghi and David V . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2. Sequential factors to program stem cell differentiation

Schaffer, David V.

430

Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, ? cells  

E-print Network

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic ? cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in ...

Hrvatin, Sinisa

431

Allogenicity & immunogenicity in regenerative stem cell therapy  

PubMed Central

The development of regenerative medicine relies in part on the capacity of stem cells to differentiate into specialized cell types and reconstitute tissues and organs. The origin of the stem cells matters. While autologous cells were initially the preferred ones the need for “off the shelf” cells is becoming prevalent. These cells will be immediately available and they originate from young non diseased individuals. However their allogenicity can be viewed as a limitation to their use. Recent works including our own show that allogenicity of stem cell can be viewed as on one hand detrimental leading to their elimination and on the other hand beneficial through a paracrine effect that can induce a local tissue regenerative effect from endogenous stem cells. Also their immune modulatory capacity can be harnessed to favor regeneration. Therefore the immune phenotype of stem cells is an important criteria to be considered before their clinical use. Immuno monitoring of the consequences of their in vivo injection needs to be taken into account. Transplantation immunology knowledge will be instrumental to enable the development of safe personalized regenerative stem cell therapy. PMID:24434327

Charron, Dominique

2013-01-01

432

Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging  

PubMed Central

Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan. PMID:24757526

Boyette, Lisa B.; Tuan, Rocky S.

2014-01-01

433

Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization: updated conceptual renditions  

PubMed Central

Despite its specific clinical relevance, the field of hematopoietic stem cell mobilization has received broad attention, owing mainly to the belief that pharmacologic stem cell mobilization might provide clues as to how stem cells are retained in their natural environment, the bone marrow ‘niche’. Inherent to this knowledge is also the desire to optimally engineer stem cells to interact with their target niche (such as after transplantation), or to lure malignant stem cells out of their protective niches (in order to kill them), and in general to decipher the niche’s structural components and its organization. Whereas, with the exception of the recent addition of CXCR4 antagonists to the armamentarium for mobilization of patients refractory to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor alone, clinical stem cell mobilization has not changed significantly over the last decade or so, much effort has been made trying to explain the complex mechanism(s) by which hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells leave the marrow. This brief review will report some of the more recent advances about mobilization, with an attempt to reconcile some of the seemingly inconsistent data in mobilization and to interject some commonalities among different mobilization regimes. PMID:22951944

Bonig, H; Papayannopoulou, T

2013-01-01

434

Stem cell bioprocessing: fundamentals and principles.  

PubMed

In recent years, the potential of stem cell research for tissue engineering-based therapies and regenerative medicine clinical applications has become well established. In 2006, Chung pioneered the first entire organ transplant using adult stem cells and a scaffold for clinical evaluation. With this a new milestone was achieved, with seven patients with myelomeningocele receiving stem cell-derived bladder transplants resulting in substantial improvements in their quality of life. While a bladder is a relatively simple organ, the breakthrough highlights the incredible benefits that can be gained from the cross-disciplinary nature of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) that encompasses stem cell research and stem cell bioprocessing. Unquestionably, the development of bioprocess technologies for the transfer of the current laboratory-based practice of stem cell tissue culture to the clinic as therapeutics necessitates the application of engineering principles and practices to achieve control, reproducibility, automation, validation and safety of the process and the product. The successful translation will require contributions from fundamental research (from developmental biology to the 'omics' technologies and advances in immunology) and from existing industrial practice (biologics), especially on automation, quality assurance and regulation. The timely development, integration and execution of various components will be critical-failures of the past (such as in the commercialization of skin equivalents) on marketing, pricing, production and advertising should not be repeated. This review aims to address the principles required for successful stem cell bioprocessing so that they can be applied deftly to clinical applications. PMID:19033137

Placzek, Mark R; Chung, I-Ming; Macedo, Hugo M; Ismail, Siti; Mortera Blanco, Teresa; Lim, Mayasari; Cha, Jae Min; Fauzi, Iliana; Kang, Yunyi; Yeo, David C L; Ma, Chi Yip Joan; Polak, Julia M; Panoskaltsis, Nicki; Mantalaris, Athanasios

2009-03-01

435

The Paradoxical Dynamism of Marrow Stem Cells: Considerations of Stem Cells, Niches, and Microvesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marrow stem cell regulation represents a complex and flexible system. It has been assumed that the system was intrinsically\\u000a hierarchical in nature, but recent data has indicated that at the progenitor\\/stem cell level the system may represent a continuum\\u000a with reversible alterations in phenotype occurring as the stem cells transit cell cycle. Short and long-term engraftment,\\u000a in vivo and in

Peter J. Quesenberry; Jason M. Aliotta

2008-01-01

436

Cancerous stem cells: deviant stem cells with cancer-causing misbehavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells maintain homeostasis in adult tissues via self-renewal and generation of terminally differentiated cells. Alterations\\u000a in this intricate balance can result in disease. It has become increasingly evident that cancer can be initiated at the level\\u000a of stem cells. Therefore, understanding what causes stem cells to become cancerous may lead to new therapeutic approaches.\\u000a Multiple signaling pathways ultimately affect

Julie M Chandler; Eric Lagasse

2010-01-01

437

The Hair Follicle Stem Cell as the Paradigm Multipotent Adult Stem Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our laboratory has discovered that the hair follicle is an abundant, easily accessible source of actively growing multipotent\\u000a adult stem cells that can form non-follicular cell types. We observed that nestin, a protein marker for neural stem cells,\\u000a is also expressed in follicle stem cells and their immediate, differentiated progeny. The green fluorescent protein (GFP),\\u000a whose expression is driven by

Robert M. Hoffman

438

Adult stem cells and cancer stem cells: tie in or tear apart?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell research is one of the new frontiers of medical science. Because of the unique self-renewable ability and powerful\\u000a potential to differentiate, stem cells can be viewed as the mother of all cells in the body and have been investigated as\\u000a a possible tool for reversing the degeneration and damage on organs. Recently, successful isolating cancerous stem cells from

Bin-Bin Liu; Lun-Xiu Qin; Yin-Kun Liu

2005-01-01

439

Industrial Approaches to Adipose Stem Cells Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cell transplantation for tissue repair has evolved into a widely accepted procedure in a variety of research and clinical\\u000a fields. Experimental studies and clinical reports have demonstrated the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of adult stem cells\\u000a autologous transplantation. Over the last decade, the potential advantages of using adult adipose tissue-derived stem cells\\u000a have become clear to the industrial sector. The

Filippo Boriani; Robert Warr; Raimondo Ascione

440

Mechanisms of Immunomodulation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified in animals, especially in bone marrow. As stem cells, they have the ability\\u000a to differentiate into multiple cell types. This potential raises exciting therapeutic possibilities. A recent report described\\u000a the successful use of MSCs for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease; however, the scientific community has yet to define\\u000a the molecular mechanisms of immunomodulation

Katsutoshi Ozaki; Kazuya Sato; Iekuni Oh; Akiko Meguro; Raine Tatara; Kazuo Muroi; Keiya Ozawa

2007-01-01

441

Germline Stem Cells: Origin and Destiny  

PubMed Central

Germline stem cells are key to genome transmission to future generations. Over recent years, there have been numerous insights into the regulatory mechanisms that govern both germ cell specification and the maintenance of the germline in adults. Complex regulatory interactions with both the niche and the environment modulate germline stem cell function. This perspective highlights some examples of this regulation to illustrate the diversity and complexity of the mechanisms involved. PMID:22704513

Lehmann, Ruth

2012-01-01

442

Embryonic Stem Cell Virus, a Recombinant Murine Retrovirus with Expression in Embryonic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of Moloney murine leukemia virus and vectors derived from it is restricted in undifferentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma and embryonal stem (ES) cells. We have developed a retroviral vector, the murine embryonic stem cell virus (MESV), that is active in embryonal carcinoma and ES cells. MESV was derived from a retroviral mutant [PCC4-cell-passaged myeloproliferative sarcoma virus (PCMV)] expressed in

Manuel Grez; Ercan Akgun; Frank Hilberg; Wolfram Ostertag

1990-01-01

443

Stem cells today: A. Origin and potential of embryo stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of embryo stem cells began in 1963, initially using disaggregates of cleaving rabbit and mouse embryos. Their differentiation in vitro was modest, and usually curtailed at best to the formation of trophectoderm cells, which attached to plastic. Rabbit morulae and blastocysts adhered more readily, trophectoderm forming a sheet of cells which was overgrown by stem cells from inner

RG Edwards

2004-01-01

444

Stem Cells and Cell–Matrix Interactions in Lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stem cells have become the focus of many investigations owing to emerging data implicating their role in normal physiological\\u000a processes and as potential targets for the development of therapeutic interventions. The factors that control the functions\\u000a of stem cells related to migration, homing, and differentiation, among others, remain incompletely elucidated, but it is evident\\u000a that, like other cells, stem cells

Viranuj Sueblinvong; Jesse Roman

445

Interrogating functional integration between injected pluripotent stem cell-derived cells and surrogate  

E-print Network

The Heart and Stroke/Richard Lewar Centre of Excellence, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 Edited by Robert Nerem Biology, and f Human Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 1A1; b McEwen Centre are typically replaced by noncontractile fibrotic scars. Recent advances in stem cell biology have raised

Zandstra, Peter W.

446

Embryonic stem cells: Understanding their history, cell biology and signalling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem cells offer enormous potential as a source of a variety of differentiated cells for cell therapy, drug discovery and toxicology screening. With the creation of human embryonic stem cell lines we now have a resource with the potential to differentiate into every tissue of the body. To fully harness this resource it is necessary to understand their biology.

Ruairi Friel; Sjaak van der Sar; Patrick J. Mee

2005-01-01

447

The Effect of Laser Irradiation on Adipose Derived Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two fundamental types of stem cells: Embryonic Stem cells and Adult Stem cells. Adult Stem cells have a more restricted potential and can usually differentiate into a few different cell types. In the body these cells facilitate the replacement or repair of damaged or diseased cells in organs. Low intensity laser irradiation was shown to increase stem cell migration and stimulate proliferation and it is thought that treatment of these cells with laser irradiation may increase the stem cell harvest and have a positive effect on the viability and proliferation. Our research is aimed at determining the effect of laser irradiation on differentiation of Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) into different cell types using a diode laser with a wavelength of 636 nm and at 5 J/cm2. Confirmation of stem cell characteristics and well as subsequent differentiation were assessed using Western blot analysis and cellular morphology supported by fluorescent live cell imaging. Functionality of subsequent differentiated cells was confirmed by measuring adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and cell viability.

Abrahamse, H.; de Villiers, J.; Mvula, B.

2009-06-01

448

Stem cells: novel players in the treatment of erectile dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells are defined by their capacity for both self-renewal and directed differentiation; thus, they represent great promise for regenerative medicine. Historically, stem cells have been categorized as either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or adult stem cells (ASCs). It was previously believed that only ESCs hold the ability to differentiate into any cell type, whereas ASCs have the capacity to

Haiyang Zhang; Maarten Albersen; Xunbo Jin; Guiting Lin

2012-01-01