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Sample records for stem cell replacement

  1. Harveian Oration 2014: Stem cells and cell replacement prospects

    E-print Network

    Gurdon, John

    2015-04-01

    , Ronnfeldt H (eds), The germ-plasm: a theory of heredity. London: Walter Scott, 1892. 2 Briggs R, King TJ. Transplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frogs’ eggs. Proc Nat Acad Sci 1952;38:455–63. 3 Gurdon JB, Uehlinger V. ‘Fertile...

  2. Stem Cell Replacement Improves Expression of SMP30 in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Guo, Kequan; Taketani, Shigeru; Adachi, Yasushi; Ikehara, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that replacing bone marrow stem cells may improve hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetic mouse model. Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30) is an antioxidant protein that decreases with aging. However, it has not been clear whether SMP30 decreases in the livers of obese mice, and whether stem cell replacement would improve SMP30 expression in the liver. Bone marrow stem cells of db/db mice were replaced with the bone marrow stem cells of C57BL/6 mice. Plasma cytokine and insulin levels were measured, and glycogen content, expression of SMP30, and fibrosis in the liver were assessed. Our results showed that stem cell replacement increased the expression of SMP30 in the liver, resulting from decreased plasma inflammation cytokines and hyperinsulinemia in db/db mice. This is the first report that stem cell replacement increased the expression of SMP30 in the liver, and may help prevent fibrosis in the liver of db/db mice. PMID:26694363

  3. Stem Cells

    MedlinePLUS

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  4. Arthritic Periosteal Tissue From Joint Replacement Surgery: A Novel, Autologous Source of Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hana; Docheva, Denitsa; Knothe, Ulf R.

    2014-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of using periosteal tissue from the femoral neck of arthritic hip joints, usually discarded in the normal course of hip replacement surgery, as an autologous source of stem cells. In addition, the study aims to characterize intrinsic differences between periosteum-derived cell (PDC) populations, isolated via either enzymatic digestion or a migration assay, including their proliferative capacity, surface marker expression, and multipotency, relative to commercially available human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured under identical conditions. Commercial BMSCs and PDCs were characterized in vitro, using a growth assay, flow cytometry, as well as assay of Oil Red O, alizarin red, and Safranin O/Fast Green staining after respective culture in adipo-, osteo-, and chondrogenic media. Based on these outcome measures, PDCs exhibited proliferation rate, morphology, surface receptor expression, and multipotency similar to those of BMSCs. No significant correlation was observed between outcome measures and donor age or diagnosis (osteoarthritis [OA] and rheumatoid arthritis [RA], respectively), a profound finding given recent rheumatological studies indicating that OA and RA share not only common biomarkers and molecular mechanisms but also common pathophysiology, ultimately resulting in the need for joint replacement. Furthermore, PDCs isolated via enzymatic digestion and migration assay showed subtle differences in surface marker expression but otherwise no significant differences in proliferation or multipotency; the observed differences in surface marker expression may indicate potential effects of isolation method on the population of cells isolated and/or the behavior of the respective isolated cell populations. This study demonstrates, for the first time to our knowledge, the feasibility of using arthritic tissue resected during hip replacement as a source of autologous stem cells. In sum, periosteum tissue that is resected with the femoral neck in replacing the hip represents an unprecedented and, to date, unstudied source of stem cells from OA and RA patients. Follow-up studies will determine the degree to which this new, autologous source of stem cells can be banked for future use. PMID:24477075

  5. Niche displacement of human leukemic stem cells uniquely allows their competitive replacement with healthy HSPCs

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Allison L.; Campbell, Clinton J.V.; Hopkins, Claudia I.; Fiebig-Comyn, Aline; Russell, Jennifer; Ulemek, Jelena; Foley, Ronan; Leber, Brian; Xenocostas, Anargyros; Collins, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation (HSCT) is currently the leading strategy to manage acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, treatment-related morbidity limits the patient generalizability of HSCT use, and the survival of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) within protective areas of the bone marrow (BM) continues to lead to high relapse rates. Despite growing appreciation for the significance of the LSC microenvironment, it has remained unresolved whether LSCs preferentially situate within normal HSC niches or whether their niche requirements are more promiscuous. Here, we provide functional evidence that the spatial localization of phenotypically primitive human AML cells is restricted to niche elements shared with their normal counterparts, and that their intrinsic ability to initiate and retain occupancy of these niches can be rivaled by healthy hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). When challenged in competitive BM repopulation assays, primary human leukemia-initiating cells (L-ICs) can be consistently outperformed by HSPCs for BM niche occupancy in a cell dose-dependent manner that ultimately compromises long-term L-IC renewal and subsequent leukemia-initiating capacity. The effectiveness of this approach could be demonstrated using cytokine-induced mobilization of established leukemia from the BM that facilitated the replacement of BM niches with transplanted HSPCs. These findings identify a functional vulnerability of primitive leukemia cells, and suggest that clinical development of these novel transplantation techniques should focus on the dissociation of L-IC–niche interactions to improve competitive replacement with healthy HSPCs during HSCT toward increased survival of patients. PMID:25180064

  6. Directing human induced pluripotent stem cells into a neurosensory lineage for auditory neuron replacement.

    PubMed

    Gunewardene, Niliksha; Bergen, Nicole Van; Crombie, Duncan; Needham, Karina; Dottori, Mirella; Nayagam, Bryony A

    2014-08-01

    Emerging therapies for sensorineural hearing loss include replacing damaged auditory neurons (ANs) using stem cells. Ultimately, it is important that these replacement cells can be patient-matched to avoid immunorejection. As human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be obtained directly from the patient, they offer an opportunity to generate patient-matched neurons for transplantation. Here, we used an established neural induction protocol to differentiate two hiPSC lines (iPS1 and iPS2) and one human embryonic stem cell line (hESC; H9) toward a neurosensory lineage in vitro. Immunocytochemistry and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the expression of key markers involved in AN development at defined time points of differentiation. The hiPSC- and hESC-derived neurosensory progenitors expressed the dorsal hindbrain marker (PAX7), otic placodal marker (PAX2), proneurosensory marker (SOX2), ganglion neuronal markers (NEUROD1, BRN3A, ISLET1, ßIII-tubulin, Neurofilament kDa 160), and sensory AN markers (GATA3 and VGLUT1) over the time course examined. The hiPSC- and hESC-derived neurosensory progenitors had the highest expression levels of the sensory neural markers at 35 days in vitro. Furthermore, the neurons generated from this assay were found to be electrically active. While all cell lines analyzed produced functional neurosensory-like progenitors, variabilities in the levels of marker expression were observed between hiPSC lines and within samples of the same cell line, when compared with the hESC controls. Overall, these findings indicate that this neural assay was capable of differentiating hiPSCs toward a neurosensory lineage but emphasize the need for improving the consistency in the differentiation of hiPSCs into the required lineages. PMID:25126480

  7. Directing Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into a Neurosensory Lineage for Auditory Neuron Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Gunewardene, Niliksha; Bergen, Nicole Van; Crombie, Duncan; Needham, Karina; Dottori, Mirella

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Emerging therapies for sensorineural hearing loss include replacing damaged auditory neurons (ANs) using stem cells. Ultimately, it is important that these replacement cells can be patient-matched to avoid immunorejection. As human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be obtained directly from the patient, they offer an opportunity to generate patient-matched neurons for transplantation. Here, we used an established neural induction protocol to differentiate two hiPSC lines (iPS1 and iPS2) and one human embryonic stem cell line (hESC; H9) toward a neurosensory lineage in vitro. Immunocytochemistry and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the expression of key markers involved in AN development at defined time points of differentiation. The hiPSC- and hESC-derived neurosensory progenitors expressed the dorsal hindbrain marker (PAX7), otic placodal marker (PAX2), proneurosensory marker (SOX2), ganglion neuronal markers (NEUROD1, BRN3A, ISLET1, ßIII-tubulin, Neurofilament kDa 160), and sensory AN markers (GATA3 and VGLUT1) over the time course examined. The hiPSC- and hESC-derived neurosensory progenitors had the highest expression levels of the sensory neural markers at 35 days in vitro. Furthermore, the neurons generated from this assay were found to be electrically active. While all cell lines analyzed produced functional neurosensory-like progenitors, variabilities in the levels of marker expression were observed between hiPSC lines and within samples of the same cell line, when compared with the hESC controls. Overall, these findings indicate that this neural assay was capable of differentiating hiPSCs toward a neurosensory lineage but emphasize the need for improving the consistency in the differentiation of hiPSCs into the required lineages. PMID:25126480

  8. Multi-kilobase homozygous targeted gene replacement in human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Susan M.; Ortiz, Luis; Mali, Prashant; Aach, John; Church, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Sequence-specific nucleases such as TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 system have so far been used to disrupt, correct or insert transgenes at precise locations in mammalian genomes. We demonstrate efficient ‘knock-in’ targeted replacement of multi-kilobase genes in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Using a model system replacing endogenous human genes with their mouse counterpart, we performed a comprehensive study of targeting vector design parameters for homologous recombination. A 2.7 kilobase (kb) homozygous gene replacement was achieved in up to 11% of iPSC without selection. The optimal homology arm length was around 2 kb, with homology length being especially critical on the arm not adjacent to the cut site. Homologous sequence inside the cut sites was detrimental to targeting efficiency, consistent with a synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) mechanism. Using two nuclease sites, we observed a high degree of gene excisions and inversions, which sometimes occurred more frequently than indel mutations. While homozygous deletions of 86 kb were achieved with up to 8% frequency, deletion frequencies were not solely a function of nuclease activity and deletion size. Our results analyzing the optimal parameters for targeting vector design will inform future gene targeting efforts involving multi-kilobase gene segments, particularly in human iPSC. PMID:25414332

  9. Ionizing radiation leads to the replacement and de novo production of colonic Lgr5(+) stem cells.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Magae, Junji; Matsumoto, Hideki; Hoshi, Yuko; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2013-06-01

    Tissue stem cells have self-renewal capability throughout their whole life, which is high enough to lead to the accumulation of DNA damage in a stem cell pool. Whether radiation-induced damage accumulates in tissue stem cells remains unknown, but could be investigated if the fate of tissue stem cells could be followed after irradiation. To realize this goal, we used an Lgr5-dependent lineage tracing system that allows the conditional in vivo labeling of Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells and their progeny. We found that radiation induced loss of Lgr5(+) stem cells in the colon, but not in the duodenum. Interestingly, the loss of colonic Lgr5(+) cells was compensated by de novo production of Lgr5(+) cells, which increased after irradiation. These findings show that ionizing radiation effectively stimulates the turnover of colonic Lgr5(+) stem cells, implying that radiation-induced damage does not accumulate in the colonic Lgr5(+) stem cells by this mechanism. PMID:23627781

  10. Impact of enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with Morquio A syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Shimada, Tsutomu; Bober, Michael B; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Montaño, Adriana M; Giugliani, Roberto; Kubaski, Francyne; Yasuda, Eriko; Rodríguez-López, Alexander; Espejo-Mojica, Angela J; Sánchez, Oscar F; Mason, Robert W; Barrera, Luis A; Mackenzie, William G; Orii, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) can present with systemic skeletal dysplasia, leading to a need for multiple orthopedic surgical procedures, and often become wheelchair bound in their teenage years. Studies on patients with MPS IVA treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) showed a sharp reduction on urinary keratan sulfate, but only modest improvement based on a 6-minute walk test and no significant improvement on a 3-minute climb-up test and lung function test compared with the placebo group, at least in the short-term. Surgical remnants from ERT-treated patients did not show reduction of storage materials in chondrocytes. The impact of ERT on bone lesions in patients with MPS IVA remains limited. ERT seems to be enhanced in a mouse model of MPS IVA by a novel form of the enzyme tagged with a bone-targeting moiety. The tagged enzyme remained in the circulation much longer than untagged native enzyme and was delivered to and retained in bone. Three-month-old MPS IVA mice treated with 23 weekly infusions of tagged enzyme showed marked clearance of the storage materials in bone, bone marrow, and heart valves. When treatment was initiated at birth, reduction of storage materials in tissues was even greater. These findings indicate that specific targeting of the enzyme to bone at an early stage may improve efficacy of ERT for MPS IVA. Recombinant N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) (erGALNS) and in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (prGALNS) has been produced as an alternative to the conventional production in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Recombinant GALNS produced in microorganisms may help to reduce the high cost of ERT and the introduction of modifications to enhance targeting. Although only a limited number of patients with MPS IVA have been treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), beneficial effects have been reported. A wheelchair-bound patient with a severe form of MPS IVA was treated with HSCT at 15 years of age and followed up for 10 years. Radiographs showed that the figures of major and minor trochanter appeared. Loud snoring and apnea disappeared. In all, 1 year after bone marrow transplantation, bone mineral density at L2–L4 was increased from 0.372 g/cm2 to 0.548 g/cm2 and was maintained at a level of 0.48±0.054 for the following 9 years. Pulmonary vital capacity increased approximately 20% from a baseline of 1.08 L to around 1.31 L over the first 2 years and was maintained thereafter. Activity of daily living was improved similar to the normal control group. After bilateral osteotomies, a patient can walk over 400 m using hip–knee–ankle–foot orthoses. This long-term observation of a patient shows that this treatment can produce clinical improvements although bone deformity remained unchanged. In conclusion, ERT is a therapeutic option for MPS IVA patients, and there are some indications that HSCT may be an alternative to treat this disease. However, as neither seems to be a curative therapy, at least for the skeletal dysplasia in MPS IVA patients, new approaches are investigated to enhance efficacy and reduce costs to benefit MPS IVA patients. PMID:25897204

  11. Impact of enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with Morquio A syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Shimada, Tsutomu; Bober, Michael B; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Montaño, Adriana M; Giugliani, Roberto; Kubaski, Francyne; Yasuda, Eriko; Rodríguez-López, Alexander; Espejo-Mojica, Angela J; Sánchez, Oscar F; Mason, Robert W; Barrera, Luis A; Mackenzie, William G; Orii, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) can present with systemic skeletal dysplasia, leading to a need for multiple orthopedic surgical procedures, and often become wheelchair bound in their teenage years. Studies on patients with MPS IVA treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) showed a sharp reduction on urinary keratan sulfate, but only modest improvement based on a 6-minute walk test and no significant improvement on a 3-minute climb-up test and lung function test compared with the placebo group, at least in the short-term. Surgical remnants from ERT-treated patients did not show reduction of storage materials in chondrocytes. The impact of ERT on bone lesions in patients with MPS IVA remains limited. ERT seems to be enhanced in a mouse model of MPS IVA by a novel form of the enzyme tagged with a bone-targeting moiety. The tagged enzyme remained in the circulation much longer than untagged native enzyme and was delivered to and retained in bone. Three-month-old MPS IVA mice treated with 23 weekly infusions of tagged enzyme showed marked clearance of the storage materials in bone, bone marrow, and heart valves. When treatment was initiated at birth, reduction of storage materials in tissues was even greater. These findings indicate that specific targeting of the enzyme to bone at an early stage may improve efficacy of ERT for MPS IVA. Recombinant N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) (erGALNS) and in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (prGALNS) has been produced as an alternative to the conventional production in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Recombinant GALNS produced in microorganisms may help to reduce the high cost of ERT and the introduction of modifications to enhance targeting. Although only a limited number of patients with MPS IVA have been treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), beneficial effects have been reported. A wheelchair-bound patient with a severe form of MPS IVA was treated with HSCT at 15 years of age and followed up for 10 years. Radiographs showed that the figures of major and minor trochanter appeared. Loud snoring and apnea disappeared. In all, 1 year after bone marrow transplantation, bone mineral density at L2-L4 was increased from 0.372 g/cm(2) to 0.548 g/cm(2) and was maintained at a level of 0.48±0.054 for the following 9 years. Pulmonary vital capacity increased approximately 20% from a baseline of 1.08 L to around 1.31 L over the first 2 years and was maintained thereafter. Activity of daily living was improved similar to the normal control group. After bilateral osteotomies, a patient can walk over 400 m using hip-knee-ankle-foot orthoses. This long-term observation of a patient shows that this treatment can produce clinical improvements although bone deformity remained unchanged. In conclusion, ERT is a therapeutic option for MPS IVA patients, and there are some indications that HSCT may be an alternative to treat this disease. However, as neither seems to be a curative therapy, at least for the skeletal dysplasia in MPS IVA patients, new approaches are investigated to enhance efficacy and reduce costs to benefit MPS IVA patients. PMID:25897204

  12. Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell States, Fates,

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Carsten

    science from elucidating the causes of cancer to the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine. WhileCell Stem Cell Review Stem Cell States, Fates, and the Rules of Attraction Tariq Enver,1 Martin and Stem Cell Research, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033

  13. Engineered cartilaginous tubes for tracheal tissue replacement via self-assembly and fusion of human mesenchymal stem cell constructs.

    PubMed

    Dikina, Anna D; Strobel, Hannah A; Lai, Bradley P; Rolle, Marsha W; Alsberg, Eben

    2015-06-01

    There is a critical need to engineer a neotrachea because currently there are no long-term treatments for tracheal stenoses affecting large portions of the airway. In this work, a modular tracheal tissue replacement strategy was developed. High-cell density, scaffold-free human mesenchymal stem cell-derived cartilaginous rings and tubes were successfully generated through employment of custom designed culture wells and a ring-to-tube assembly system. Furthermore, incorporation of transforming growth factor-?1-delivering gelatin microspheres into the engineered tissues enhanced chondrogenesis with regard to tissue size and matrix production and distribution in the ring- and tube-shaped constructs, as well as luminal rigidity of the tubes. Importantly, all engineered tissues had similar or improved biomechanical properties compared to rat tracheas, which suggests they could be transplanted into a small animal model for airway defects. The modular, bottom up approach used to grow stem cell-based cartilaginous tubes in this report is a promising platform to engineer complex organs (e.g., trachea), with control over tissue size and geometry, and has the potential to be used to generate autologous tissue implants for human clinical applications. PMID:25818451

  14. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... General Information Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current Research Policy Glossary Site Map Stem Cell Basics This primer on stem cells is ...

  15. Replacing and safeguarding pancreatic ? cells for diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bruin, Jennifer E; Rezania, Alireza; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2015-12-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are a scalable source of pancreatic cells for transplantation into patients with diabetes. Here, we describe how the field is gaining momentum toward a ? cell replacement therapy. PMID:26631630

  16. Cell Stem Cell Molecular Analysis of Stem Cells and Their

    E-print Network

    Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    and Regeneration in the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea George T. Eisenhoffer,1 Hara Kang,1 and Alejandro Sa@neuro.utah.edu DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2008.07.002 SUMMARY In adult planarians, the replacement of cells lost homeostasis and regeneration, but also the utility of studies in planarians to broadly inform stem cell

  17. Stem Cells and Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Home General Information Can Stem Cells Help Me? Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current Research Policy Glossary Site Map Can Stem Cells Help Me? The International Society for Stem ...

  18. Recombinant messenger RNA technology and its application in cancer immunotherapy, transcript replacement therapies, pluripotent stem cell induction, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Vallazza, Britta; Petri, Sebastian; Poleganov, Marco A; Eberle, Florian; Kuhn, Andreas N; Sahin, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in using messenger RNA (mRNA) as a therapeutic means to tackle different diseases has enormously increased. This holds true not only for numerous preclinical studies, but mRNA has also entered the clinic to fight cancer. The advantages of using mRNA compared to DNA were recognized very early on, e.g., the lack of risk for genomic integration, or the expression of the encoded protein in the cytoplasm without the need to cross the nuclear membrane. However, it was generally assumed that mRNA is just not stable enough to give rise to sufficient expression of the encoded protein. Yet, an initially small group of mRNA aficionados could demonstrate that the stability of mRNA and the efficiency, by which the encoded protein is translated, can be significantly increased by selecting the right set of cis-acting structural elements (including the 5'-cap, 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions, poly(A)-tail, and modified building blocks). In parallel, significant advances in RNA packaging and delivery have been made, extending the potential for this molecule. This paved the way for further work to prove mRNA as a promising therapeutic for multiple diseases. Here, we review the developments to optimize mRNA regarding stability, translational efficiency, and immune-modulating properties to enhance its functionality and efficacy as a therapeutic. Furthermore, we summarize the current status of preclinical and clinical studies that use mRNA for cancer immunotherapy, for the expression of functional proteins as so-called transcript (or protein) replacement therapy, as well as for induction of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:26061157

  19. Prostate cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2012-06-01

    Stem cells have long been implicated in prostate gland formation. The prostate undergoes regression after androgen deprivation and regeneration after testosterone replacement. Regenerative studies suggest that these cells are found in the proximal ducts and basal layer of the prostate. Many characteristics of prostate cancer indicate that it originates from stem cells. For example, the putative androgen receptor-negative (AR(-)) status of prostate stem cells renders them inherently insensitive to androgen blockade therapy. The androgen-regulated gene fusion TMPRSS2-ERG could be used to clarify both the cells of origin and the evolution of prostate cancer cells. In this review, we show that the hypothesis that distinct subtypes of cancer result from abnormalities within specific cell types-the stem cell theory of cancer-may instigate a major paradigm shift in cancer research and therapy. Ultimately, the stem cell theory of cancers will affect how we practice clinical oncology: our diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy of prostate and other cancers. PMID:22421313

  20. Adult Stem Cells & Homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    ;The ISC Lineage Tracing #12;Does Cancer Originate in Stem Cells? (Barker et al, Nature, 2009 Lgr5-Cre Intestine Stem Cell #12;Bmi1+ Cells Can be Cancer Origin Bmi1-CreER, b-cat Exon3fl/+ Activate Wnt signalingAdult Stem Cells & Homeostasis Developmental Biology 2012-5-7 #12;Adult Stem Cells Adult stem

  1. Dynamic stem cell heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Teresa; Simons, Benjamin D

    2015-04-15

    Recent lineage-tracing studies based on inducible genetic labelling have emphasized a crucial role for stochasticity in the maintenance and regeneration of cycling adult tissues. These studies have revealed that stem cells are frequently lost through differentiation and that this is compensated for by the duplication of neighbours, leading to the consolidation of clonal diversity. Through the combination of long-term lineage-tracing assays with short-term in vivo live imaging, the cellular basis of this stochastic stem cell loss and replacement has begun to be resolved. With a focus on mammalian spermatogenesis, intestinal maintenance and the hair cycle, we review the role of dynamic heterogeneity in the regulation of adult stem cell populations. PMID:25852198

  2. Stem Cell Transplants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Teeth Myths About Acne Peer Pressure Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > Teens > Cancer Center > Treatment & Prevention > Stem ... it Take to Recover? Coping What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  3. STEM CELLS A CLOSER DIFFERENT KINDS OF STEM CELLS

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    STEM CELLS ­ A CLOSER LOOK John Sun Bio 118Q #12;DIFFERENT KINDS OF STEM CELLS Embryonic Stem Cells Adult Stem Cells From Bone Marrow: Mesenchymal stem cells Haematopoietic stem cells Endothelial stem cells Induced Pluripotent Cells Mammary, Testicular, Neural, Dental, Umbilical cord, etc

  4. Adult Stem Cells & Homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    (connective tissue, capillary) Matrix (produces cells forming the hair fibermelanocytes) Inner Root Sheath · Tissue models for studying adult stem cells · Experimental assays · Adult stem cell & Cancer · Adult stem in many organs/tissues · Adult stem cells self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis #12

  5. Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress Rapid Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Automated *Correspondence: peter.zandstra@utoronto.ca DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2012.01.003 SUMMARY Clinical hematopoietic implementations of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their deriva- tives further increase interest in strategies

  6. [Corneal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Samoil?, O

    2012-01-01

    Corneal stem cells are adult type stem cells located in the basal layer of the epithelium at the sclero-corneal limbus. Modern concepts regarding corneal stem cells are discussed, focusing on stem niche location, corneal healing mechanisms, methods to cultivate stem cells in vitro or genetic and structural characterization. Most of the research in this area was performed in the last decade. PMID:23713335

  7. Cell Stem Cell Brief Report

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    Cell Stem Cell Brief Report Reprogramming of T Cells from Human Peripheral Blood Yuin-Han Loh,1,2,5,9,10,* 1Stem Cell Transplantation Program, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA 2Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 3

  8. Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease?

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Ben; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Scott, Robert A.H.; Leadbeater, Wendy; Scheven, Ben A.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, based on more recent evidence, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the growth of new connections. Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs) and endogenous retinal stem cells may replace lost photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and restore vision in the diseased eye, whereas treatment of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) has so far been reliant on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Here, we review the properties of non-retinal-derived adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells (NSCs), MSC derived from bone marrow (BMSC), adipose tissues (ADSC) and dental pulp (DPSC), together with ESC/iPSC and discuss and compare their potential advantages as therapies designed to provide trophic support, repair and replacement of retinal neurons, RPE and glia in degenerative retinal diseases. We conclude that ESCs/iPSCs have the potential to replace lost retinal cells, whereas MSC may be a useful source of paracrine factors that protect RGC and stimulate regeneration of their axons in the optic nerve in degenerate eye disease. NSC may have potential as both a source of replacement cells and also as mediators of paracrine treatment. PMID:25752437

  9. Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics What is a Stem Cell?

    E-print Network

    Ullrich, Paul

    Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics What is a Stem Cell? Stem cells are the starting point from to line blood vessels. All of these highly specialized cells have to grow from unspecialized stem cells. Stem cells produce new cells by dividing. In the right conditions, these new cells can then continue

  10. Introduction of a point mutation into the mouse genome by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells using a replacement type vector with a selectable marker.

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, M; Japón, M A; Low, M J

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of small mutations instead of null alleles into the mouse genome has broad applications to the study of protein structure-function relationships and the creation of animal models of human genetic diseases. To test a simple mutational strategy we designed a targeting vector for the mouse proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene containing a single nucleotide insertion that converts the initial tyrosine codon of beta-endorphin 1-31 to a premature translational termination codon and introduces a unique Hpal endonuclease restriction site. The targeting vector also contains a neo cassette immediately 3' to the last POMC exon and a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase cassette to allow positive and negative selection. Homologous recombination occurred at a frequency of 1/30 clones of electroporated embryonic stem cells selected in G418 and gancyclovir. 10/11 clones identified initially by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy had the predicted structure without evidence of concatemer formation by Southern blot analysis. We used a combination of Hpa I digestion of PCR amplified fragments and direct nucleotide sequencing to further confirm that the point mutation was retained in 9/10 clones. The POMC gene was transcriptionally silent in embryonic stem cells and the targeted allele was not activated by the downstream phosphoglycerate kinase-1 promoter that transcribed the neo gene. Under the electroporation conditions used, we have demonstrated that a point mutation can be introduced with high efficiency and precision into the POMC gene using a replacement type vector containing a retained selectable marker without affecting expression of the allele in the embryonic stem cells. A similar strategy may be useful for a wide range of genes. Images PMID:8392702

  11. Pancreatic stem cells remain unresolved.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is caused by absolute (type 1) or relative (type 2) deficiency of insulin-secreting islet ? cells. An ideal treatment of diabetes would, therefore, be to replace the lost or deficient ? cells, by transplantation of donated islets or differentiated endocrine cells or by regeneration of endogenous islet cells. Due to their ability of unlimited proliferation and differentiation into all functional lineages in our body, including ? cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are ideally placed as cell sources for a diabetic transplantation therapy. Unfortunately, the inability to generate functional differentiated islet cells from pluripotent stem cells and the poor availability of donor islets have severely restricted the broad clinical use of the replacement therapy. Therefore, endogenous sources that can be directed to becoming insulin-secreting cells are actively sought after. In particular, any cell types in the developing or adult pancreas that may act as pancreatic stem cells (PSC) would provide an alternative renewable source for endogenous regeneration. In this review, we will summarize the latest progress and knowledge of such PSC, and discuss ways that facilitate the future development of this often controversial, but crucial research. PMID:25132582

  12. Cancer Stem Cell Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    Mission The Cancer Stem Cell Consortium is a self-assembled organization of intramural scientists at all levels of training with an interest in fundamental questions concerning stem cells, developmental biology, and cancer. We host scientific exchanges, w

  13. Double replacement: strategy for efficient introduction of subtle mutations into the murine Col1a-1 gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, H; Liu, X; Jaenisch, R

    1994-01-01

    A subtle mutation that rendered type I collagen resistant to mammalian collagenase has been introduced into the murine Col1a-1 (recently redesignated Cola-1) gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Initially, a "hit and run" procedure was used. Since two steps were required for introducing each mutation and more than one mutation was to be introduced in the same genomic region independently, we have developed a streamlined procedure that involves two sequential replacement-type homologous recombination events. In the first step, an internal deletion was introduced into the Col1a-1 locus along with the positive and negative selectable markers, neo and tk, to mark the region of interest. G418-resistant homologous recombinants were isolated and used in the second step in which the deleted Col1a-1 allele was replaced with a construct containing the desired mutation. Homologous recombinants containing the mutation were identified among the Tk- ES clones after selection with FIAU [1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil (called fialuridine)]. Approximately 10% of such clones contained the desired mutation. The double replacement procedure greatly reduces the time and amount of work required to introduce mutations independently into the same or closely linked regions. Once the homologous recombinants derived from the first step are established, the introduction of other mutations into the deleted region becomes a one-step procedure. For X number of introduced mutations, 2X selections are required with the "hit and run" approach, but only X + 1 are required with the double-replacement method. This innovative procedure could be very useful in studies of gene structure and function as well as gene expression and regulation. Images PMID:8146196

  14. Plant stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis. PMID:22404469

  15. Cell Stem Cell Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical

    E-print Network

    Chen, Christopher S.

    Cell Stem Cell Review Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical Interactions with the Extracellular, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA 5Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA *Correspondence: guilak@duke.edu DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2009

  16. Stem Cells and Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Fernanda M.P.; Santos, Anderson K.; Gomes, Dawidson A.; da Silva, Saulo L.; Gomes, Katia N.; Ladeira, Luiz O.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing interest in stem cell research is linked to the promise of developing treatments for many lifethreatening, debilitating diseases, and for cell replacement therapies. However, performing these therapeutic innovations with safety will only be possible when an accurate knowledge about the molecular signals that promote the desired cell fate is reached. Among these signals are transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i. Acting as an intracellular messenger, Ca2+ has a key role in cell signaling pathways in various differentiation stages of stem cells. The aim of this chapter is to present a broad overview of various moments in which Ca2+-mediated signaling is essential for the maintenance of stem cells and for promoting their development and differentiation, also focusing on their therapeutic potential. PMID:22453975

  17. Tumor stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kopper, László; Hajdú, Melinda

    2004-01-01

    Stem cells possess two basic characteristics: they are able to renew themselves and to develop into different cell types. The link between normal stem cells and tumor cells could be examined in three aspects: what are the differences and similarities in the control of self-renewal capacity between stem cells and tumor cells; whether tumor cells arise from stem cells; do tumorous stem cells exist? Since tumor cells also exhibit self-renewal capacity, it seems plausible that their regulation is similar to that of the stem cells. The infinite self-renewal ability (immortalization) is assured by several, so far only partly known, mechanisms. One of these is telomerase activity, another important regulatory step for survival is the inhibition of apoptosis. Other signal transduction pathways in stem cell regulation may also play certain roles in carcinogenesis: e.g. Notch, Sonic hedgehog (SHH), and Wnt signals. Existence of tumor stem cells was suggested since it is simpler to retain the self-renewal capacity than to reactivate the immortality program in an already differentiated cell. Moreover, stem cells live much longer than the differentiated ones, and so they are exposed for a long period of time to impairments, collecting gene errors leading to the breakdown of the regulation. However, it is still an open question whether all cells in the tumor possess the capacity that produces this tissue or not, that is: are there tumor stem cells or there are not. If tumor stem cells exist, they would be the main target for therapy: only these must be killed since the other tumor cells possess limited proliferative capacity, therefore limited life span. The only problem is that during tumor progression stem-like cells can develop continuously and the identification but mainly the prevention of their formation is still a great challenge. PMID:15188021

  18. Cell Stem Cell Protocol Review

    E-print Network

    : pasko.rakic@yale.edu DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2007.11.008 Adult neurogenesis research has made enormous the overall rigor of research on stem cell biology and related fields by allowing increased replication of findings between groups and across systems. Stem cell biology is one of the fastest growing research areas

  19. Embryonic stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Joydeep; Rao, Mahendra

    2007-10-01

    Stem cell therapies, particularly those using embryonic stem cells, offer a novel approach to treating disease. There is an ongoing effort to develop tools and reagents to assist in understanding stem cells at a research level. In addition to these research tools, making stem cell therapy a reality requires the development of tools that enable the translation of research into viable therapies. Three sets of tools are discussed in this article: tools enabling stem cell scale-up and manufacture to GMP standards, tools addressing the behavior of cells in animal models, and tools to assess transplanted cells in early clinical trials. The development of such tools will address many of the safety and efficacy questions that are likely to arise as stem cell therapies move from bench to bedside. PMID:17899490

  20. Stem Cells News Update: A Personal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wong, SC

    2013-01-01

    This article is a follow-up to a previous Commentary published in 2011. It updates some of the events mentioned in that Commentary and continues with more interesting and exciting news on stem cell research and the emerging field of Regenerative Medicine. Some of the news includes: 1) the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka; 2) the cloning of human embryonic stem cells; 3) the continued search for truly pluripotent adult stem cells via in vitro and in vivo protocols; 4) the breakthrough in organ replacements; 5) the global stem cell race; 6) the global stem cell cryo-preservation business; 7) the worldwide stem cell donor registries, and 8) the issue of government regulation on stem cell therapy. PMID:24778557

  1. Stem cells news update: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sc

    2013-12-01

    This article is a follow-up to a previous Commentary published in 2011. It updates some of the events mentioned in that Commentary and continues with more interesting and exciting news on stem cell research and the emerging field of Regenerative Medicine. Some of the news includes: 1) the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka; 2) the cloning of human embryonic stem cells; 3) the continued search for truly pluripotent adult stem cells via in vitro and in vivo protocols; 4) the breakthrough in organ replacements; 5) the global stem cell race; 6) the global stem cell cryo-preservation business; 7) the worldwide stem cell donor registries, and 8) the issue of government regulation on stem cell therapy. PMID:24778557

  2. Mammalian stem cells.

    PubMed

    Terskikh, Alexey V; Bryant, Peter J; Schwartz, Philip H

    2006-04-01

    Stem cells are quickly coming into focus of much biomedical research eventually aiming at the therapeutic applications for various disorders and trauma. It is important, however, to keep in mind the difference between the embryonic stem cells, somatic stem cells and somatic precursor cells when considering potential clinical applications. Here we provide the review of the current status of stem cell field and discuss the potential of therapeutic applications for blood and Immune system disorders, multiple sclerosis, hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and brain tumors. For the complimentary information about various stem cells and their properties we recommend consulting the National Institutes of Health stem cell resources (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics). PMID:16549543

  3. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cells Culture medium Differentiation Directed differentiation DNA Ectoderm Embryo Embryoid bodies Embryonic germ cells Embryonic stem cells ... blastocyst , an early, preimplantation stage of the developing embryo. Blastocyst —A preimplantation embryo consisting of a sphere ...

  4. Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell Epigenetics: Looking Forward

    E-print Network

    Sander, Maike

    Cell Stem Cell Voices Stem Cell Epigenetics: Looking Forward Epigenetics in Adult SCs The integrity in health and disease. For instance, which epigenetic factors determine when and how different stem cell for their multipotency during repair? Importantly, the tissue-specific disrup- tion of epigenetic factors often results

  5. Cell Stem Cell Short Article

    E-print Network

    Lahav, Galit

    Cell Stem Cell Short Article High Mitochondrial Priming Sensitizes hESCs to DNA of Pediatric Newborn Medicine 4Department of Medicine, Division of Genetics Brigham & Women's Hospital, BostonDivision of Newborn Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA 7Harvard Stem Cell

  6. [Hematopoietic stem cells].

    PubMed

    Coulombel, L; Pondarre, C; Bennaceur, A

    2000-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells, which share with other stem cells of adult tissues the ability to maintain constant the number and diversity of differentiated mature cells throughout adult life offer a fabulous system to analyze mechanisms controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Cytokines controlling the differentiation of intermediate progenitors into mature cells of the various lineages have been characterized and have been widely used, in vitro as in vivo, to increase the output of differentiated cells. In contrast, despite significant technological advances, molecular events associated with the stem cell decisions first to either self-renew or differentiate, and then to irreversibly commit to one of the lymphoid or of the myeloid pathways are still very badly understood. This is partly explained by the lack of reliable assays, particularly in humans, to assess stem cell activity, and by the difficulty to dissect the composition of molecular complexes regulating gene expression in these very rare cells. Despite these limitations, recent evidence suggests that there is some flexibility in the initial decisions of stem cells, and that extracellular factors may influence stem cell fate. If this is confirmed, it may then become possible to propose new therapeutic strategies based on the manipulation of stem cell properties. PMID:11268669

  7. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page Print this page Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to ... PBSC Donating bone marrow Donor experiences Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods ...

  8. Planarians, stem cells and

    E-print Network

    Skop, Ahna

    Planarians, stem cells and transcriptomics Presentation by Tony Cortez and Kelly Morgan http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n3/pdf/nrg759.pdf #12;What will be discussed? Planarians as model organisms Importance of stem cells Transcriptomics RNA interference RNA sequencing #12;What is a Planarian? Non-parasitic flatworm

  9. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Tuthill, Mark

    2010-01-01

    More than 25,000 hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) are performed each year for the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, immune-deficiency illnesses, congenital metabolic defects, hemoglobinopathies, and myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative syndromes. Before transplantation, patients receive intensive myeloablative chemoradiotherapy followed by stem cell “rescue.” Autologous HSCT is performed using the patient’s own hematopoietic stem cells, which are harvested before transplantation and reinfused after myeloablation. Allogeneic HSCT uses human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched stem cells derived from a donor. Survival after allogeneic transplantation depends on donor–recipient matching, the graft-versus-host response, and the development of a graft versus leukemia effect. This article reviews the biology of stem cells, clinical efficacy of HSCT, transplantation procedures, and potential complications. PMID:24198516

  10. Human embryonic stem cells and respect for life

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to stimulate academic discussion about the ethical justification of using human primordial stem cells for tissue transplantation, cell replacement, and gene therapy. There are intriguing alternatives to using embryos obtained from elective abortions and in vitro fertilisation to reconstitute damaged or dysfunctional human organs. These include the expansion and transplantation of latent adult progenitor cells. Key Words: Primordial stem cell research • embryonic stem cells • pluripotent stem cells • embryo research PMID:10860206

  11. Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course Ceské Budjovice November 2013 #12;Pluripotent (stem(s) of differentiation ·Symmetric/asymmetric division ? ? ? ? #12;Where can we find the origins of stem cell research;1981 Lines of pluripotent cells were established for the first time from mouse embryo ­ Embryonic Stem Cells

  12. SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

  13. Engineering Biomaterials for Stem Cell Culture through the Identification of Novel Peptides

    E-print Network

    Little, Lauren Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    stem/progenitor cells promotes functional recovery from spinal cord injury.various spinal cord injuries to be replaced via stem cellspinal cord injury mediated by a unique polymer scaffold seeded with neural stem cells.

  14. Cell Stem Cell The Systematic Production

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell Stem Cell Review The Systematic Production of Cells for Cell Therapies Daniel C. Kirouac1 10.1016/j.stem.2008.09.001 Stem cells have emerged as the starting material of choice. Translating the biological properties and potential of stem cells into therapies will require overcoming

  15. Cell Stem Cell Short Article

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    that the splicing factor SFRS2 is an OCT4 target gene required for pluripotency. SFRS2 regulates AS of the methylCell Stem Cell Short Article Alternative Splicing of MBD2 Supports Self-Renewal in Human_marto@dfci.harvard.edu (J.A.M.) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2014.04.002 SUMMARY Alternative RNA splicing (AS) regulates

  16. Towards Consistent Generation of Pancreatic Lineage Progenitors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Rostovskaya, Maria; Bredenkamp, Nicholas; Smith, Austin

    2015-09-28

    Human pluripotent stem cells can in principle be used as a source of any differentiated cell type for disease modelling, drug screening, toxicology testing, or cell replacement therapy. Type I diabetes is considered a major target for stem cell...

  17. Stem Cell Research

    SciTech Connect

    Verfaillie, Catherine

    2009-01-23

    We have identified a population of primitive cells in normal human post-natal bone marrow that can, at the single cell level, differentiate in many ways and also proliferate extensively. These cells can differentiate in vitro into most mesodermal cell types (for example, bone cells, and others), as well as cells into cells of the nervous system. The finding that stem cells exist in post-natal tissues with previously unknown proliferation and differentiation potential opens up the possibility of using them to treat a host of degenerative, traumatic or congenital diseases.

  18. Stem Cell Research

    SciTech Connect

    Verfaillie, Catherine

    2002-01-23

    We have identified a population of primitive cells in normal human post-natal bone marrow that can, at the single cell level, differentiate in many ways and also proliferate extensively. These cells can differentiate in vitro into most mesodermal cell types (for example, bone cells, and others), as well as cells into cells of the nervous system. The finding that stem cells exist in post-natal tissues with previously unknown proliferation and differentiation potential opens up the possibility of using them to treat a host of degenerative, traumatic or congenital diseases.

  19. Stem cells in microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huei-Wen; Lin, Chun-Che; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic techniques have been recently developed for cell-based assays. In microfluidic systems, the objective is for these microenvironments to mimic in vivo surroundings. With advantageous characteristics such as optical transparency and the capability for automating protocols, different types of cells can be cultured, screened, and monitored in real time to systematically investigate their morphology and functions under well-controlled microenvironments in response to various stimuli. Recently, the study of stem cells using microfluidic platforms has attracted considerable interest. Even though stem cells have been studied extensively using bench-top systems, an understanding of their behavior in in vivo-like microenvironments which stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation is still lacking. In this paper, recent cell studies using microfluidic systems are first introduced. The various miniature systems for cell culture, sorting and isolation, and stimulation are then systematically reviewed. The main focus of this review is on papers published in recent years studying stem cells by using microfluidic technology. This review aims to provide experts in microfluidics an overview of various microfluidic systems for stem cell research. PMID:21522491

  20. Leukemia stem cells.

    PubMed

    Testa, Ugo

    2011-03-01

    Leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) or leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are defined by their ability to form tumors after xenotransplantation in immunodeficient mice and appear to be rare in most human leukemias. In various leukemias, only small subpopulations of cells can transfer disease upon transplantation into immunocompromised NOD/SCID mice, and markers that distinguish the leukemogenic cancer cells from the bulk populations of non-leukemogenic cells have been identified. However, the phenotype of LICs is heterogeneous: it is variable for the different types of acute myeloid leukemias; cells with different membrane phenotype can act as LICs in each B-acute lymphoid leukemia; LICs change during the evolution of chronic myeloid leukemia from the chronic to the acute phase. There is a general consensus that the identification and characterization of leukemic stem cells might lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets and, through this way, to more effective treatments by focusing therapy on the most malignant cells. PMID:21107841

  1. Cell replacement therapy for central nervous system diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Danju; McKinnon, Randall D.

    2015-01-01

    The brain and spinal cord can not replace neurons or supporting glia that are lost through traumatic injury or disease. In pre-clinical studies, however, neural stem and progenitor cell transplants can promote functional recovery. Thus the central nervous system is repair competent but lacks endogenous stem cell resources. To make transplants clinically feasible, this field needs a source of histocompatible, ethically acceptable and non-tumorgenic cells. One strategy to generate patient-specific replacement cells is to reprogram autologous cells such as fibroblasts into pluripotent stem cells which can then be differentiated into the required cell grafts. However, the utility of pluripotent cell derived grafts is limited since they can retain founder cells with intrinsic neoplastic potential. A recent extension of this technology directly reprograms fibroblasts into the final graftable cells without an induced pluripotent stem cell intermediate, avoiding the pluripotent caveat. For both types of reprogramming the conversion efficiency is very low resulting in the need to amplify the cells in culture which can lead to chromosomal instability and neoplasia. Thus to make reprogramming biology clinically feasible, we must improve the efficiency. The ultimate source of replacement cells may reside in directly reprogramming accessible cells within the brain.

  2. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fatty tissue inside your bones. Bone marrow contains stem cells, which are immature cells that become blood ... marrow transplant . This is now often called a stem cell transplant. For this type of treatment, bone ...

  3. Stem cell population asymmetry can reduce rate of replicative aging

    E-print Network

    Hormoz, Sahand

    2013-01-01

    Cycling tissues such as the intestinal epithelium, germ line, and hair follicles, require a constant flux of differentiated cells. These tissues are maintained by a population of stem cells, which generate differentiated progenies and self-renew. Asymmetric division of each stem cell into one stem cell and one differentiated cell can accomplish both tasks. However, in mammalian cycling tissues, some stem cells divide symmetrically into two differentiated cells and are replaced by a neighbor that divides symmetrically into two stem cells. Besides this heterogeneity in fate (population asymmetry), stem cells also exhibit heterogenous proliferation-rates; in the long run, however, all stem cells proliferate at the same average rate (equipotency). We construct and simulate a mathematical model based on these experimental observations. We show that the complex steady-state dynamics of population-asymmetric stem cells reduces the rate of replicative aging of the tissue --potentially lowering the incidence of somati...

  4. Cell Stem Cell Alternative Induced Pluripotent

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell Stem Cell Letter Alternative Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Characterization Criteria, Canada 4Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA 5Samuel, Canada *Correspondence: jellis@sickkids.ca (J.E.), william.stanford@utoronto.ca (W.L.S.) DOI 10.1016/j.stem

  5. Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis is to systematically review limbal stem cell transplantation (LSCT) for the treatment of patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). This evidence-based analysis reviews LSCT as a primary treatment for nonpterygium LSCD conditions, and LSCT as an adjuvant therapy to excision for the treatment of pterygium. Background Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population The outer surface of the eye is covered by 2 distinct cell layers: the corneal epithelial layer that overlies the cornea, and the conjunctival epithelial layer that overlies the sclera. These cell types are separated by a transitional zone known as the limbus. The corneal epithelial cells are renewed every 3 to 10 days by a population of stem cells located in the limbus. Nonpterygium Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency When the limbal stem cells are depleted or destroyed, LSCD develops. In LSCD, the conjunctival epithelium migrates onto the cornea (a process called conjunctivalization), resulting in a thickened, irregular, unstable corneal surface that is prone to defects, ulceration, corneal scarring, vascularization, and opacity. Patients experience symptoms including severe irritation, discomfort, photophobia, tearing, blepharospasm, chronic inflammation and redness, and severely decreased vision. Depending on the degree of limbal stem cell loss, LSCD may be total (diffuse) or partial (local). In total LSCD, the limbal stem cell population is completed destroyed and conjunctival epithelium covers the entire cornea. In partial LSCD, some areas of the limbus are unharmed, and the corresponding areas on the cornea maintain phenotypically normal corneal epithelium. Confirmation of the presence of conjunctivalization is necessary for LSCD diagnosis as the other characteristics and symptoms are nonspecific and indicate a variety of diseases. The definitive test for LSCD is impression cytology, which detects the presence of conjunctival epithelium and its goblet cells on the cornea. However, in the opinion of a corneal expert, diagnosis is often based on clinical assessment, and in the expert’s opinion, it is unclear whether impression cytology is more accurate and reliable than clinical assessment, especially for patients with severe LSCD. The incidence of LSCD is not well understood. A variety of underlying disorders are associated with LSCD including chemical or thermal injuries, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, multiple surgeries or cryotherapies, contact lens wear, extensive microbial infection, advanced ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, and aniridia. In addition, some LSCD cases are idiopathic. These conditions are uncommon (e.g., the prevalence of aniridia ranges from 1 in 40,000 to 1 in 100,000 people). Pterygium Pterygium is a wing-shaped fibrovascular tissue growth from the conjunctiva onto the cornea. Pterygium is the result of partial LSCD caused by localized ultraviolet damage to limbal stem cells. As the pterygium invades the cornea, it may cause irregular astigmatism, loss of visual acuity, chronic irritation, recurrent inflammation, double vision, and impaired ocular motility. Pterygium occurs worldwide. Incidence and prevalence rates are highest in the “pterygium belt,” which ranges from 30 degrees north to 30 degrees south of the equator, and lower prevalence rates are found at latitudes greater than 40 degrees. The prevalence of pterygium for Caucasians residing in urban, temperate climates is estimated at 1.2%. Existing Treatments Other Than Technology Being Reviewed Nonpterygium Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency In total LSCD, a patient’s limbal stem cells are completely depleted, so any successful treatment must include new stem cells. Autologous oral mucosal epithelium transplantation has been proposed as an alternative to LSCT. However, this procedure is investigational, and there is very limited level 4c evidence1 to support this technique (fewer than 20 eyes examined in 4 case series and 1 case report). For patients with partial LSCD, tr

  6. State of the Art in Stem Cell Research: Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, and Transdifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Marolt, Darja

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells divide by asymmetric division and display different degrees of potency, or ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types. Owing to their unique regenerative capacity, stem cells have generated great enthusiasm worldwide and represent an invaluable tool with unprecedented potential for biomedical research and therapeutic applications. Stem cells play a central role in the understanding of molecular mechanisms regulating tissue development and regeneration in normal and pathological conditions and open large possibilities for the discovery of innovative pharmaceuticals to treat the most devastating diseases of our time. Not least, their intrinsic characteristics allow the engineering of functional tissues for replacement therapies that promise to revolutionize the medical practice in the near future. In this paper, the authors present the characteristics of pluripotent stem cells and new developments of transdifferentiation technologies and explore some of the biomedical applications that this emerging technology is expected to empower. PMID:24089646

  7. Understanding melanoma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nicholas; Couts, Kasey L; Luo, Yuchun; Fujita, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tumors are incredibly diverse and contain many different subpopulations of cells. The cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulation is responsible for many aspects of tumorigenesis and has been shown to play an important role in melanoma development, progression, drug resistance and metastasis. However, it is becoming clear that tumor cell populations are dynamic and can be influenced by many factors, such as signals from the tumor microenvironment and somatic evolution. This review will present the current understanding of CSCs and the challenges of identifying and characterizing this dynamic cell population. The known characteristics and functions of melanoma stem cells, and the potential for therapeutic targeting of these cells in melanoma, will be discussed. PMID:26594315

  8. Cervical cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tingting; Lu, Rongbiao; Zhang, Yizhen; Zhang, Ya; Zhao, Chenyang; Lin, Rongchun; Lin, Zhongqiu

    2015-12-01

    The concept of cancer stem cells (CSC) has been established over the past decade or so, and their role in carcinogenic processes has been confirmed. In this review, we focus on cervical CSCs, including (1) their purported origin, (2) markers used for cervical CSC identification, (3) alterations to signalling pathways in cervical cancer and (4) the cancer stem cell niche. Although cervical CSCs have not yet been definitively identified and characterized, future studies pursuing them as therapeutic targets may provide novel insights for treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:26597379

  9. Stem cells and somatic cells: reprogramming and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Estrov, Zeev

    2009-01-01

    Recent seminal discoveries have significantly advanced the field of stem cell research and received worldwide attention. Improvements in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology, enabling the cloning of Dolly the sheep, and the derivation and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells raised hopes that normal cells could be generated to replace diseased or injured tissue. At the same time, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that somatic cells of one tissue are capable of generating cells of another tissue. It was theorized that any cell might be reprogrammed, by exposure to a new environment, to become another cell type. This concept contradicts two established hypotheses: (1) that only specific tissues are generated from the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm and (2) that tissue cells arise from a rare population of tissue-specific stem cells in a hierarchical fashion. SCNT, cell fusion experiments, and most recent gene transfer studies also contradict these hypotheses, as they demonstrate that mature somatic cells can be reprogrammed to regain pluripotent (or even totipotent) stem cell capacity. On the basis of the stem cell theory, hierarchical cancer stem cell differentiation models have been proposed. Cancer cell plasticity is an established phenomenon that supports the notion that cellular phenotype and function might be altered. Therefore, mechanisms of cellular plasticity should be exploited and the clinical significance of the cancer stem cell theory cautiously assessed. PMID:19778860

  10. Laser biomodulation on stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Li, Xue-Feng; Tan, Li-Ling; Liu, Songhao

    2001-08-01

    Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.

  11. Apoptosis, Stem Cells, and Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Andreas; Steller, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Most metazoans have at least some ability to regenerate damaged cells and tissues, although the regenerative capacity varies depending on the species, organ, or developmental stage. Cell replacement and regeneration occur in two contexts: renewal of spent cells during tissue homeostasis (homeostatic growth), and in response to external injury, wounding, or amputation (epimorphic regeneration). Model organisms that display remarkable regenerative capacity include amphibians, planarians, Hydra, and the vertebrate liver. In addition, several mammalian organs—including the skin, gut, kidney, muscle, and even the human nervous system—have some ability to replace spent or damaged cells. Although the regenerative response is complex, it typically involves the induction of new cell proliferation through formation of a blastema, followed by cell specification, differentiation, and patterning. Stem cells and undifferentiated progenitor cells play an important role in both tissue homeostasis and tissue regeneration. Stem cells are typically quiescent or passing slowly through the cell cycle in adult tissues, but they can be activated in response to cell loss and wounding. A series of studies, mostly performed in Drosophila as well as in Hydra, Xenopus, and mouse, has revealed an unexpected role of apoptotic caspases in the production of mitogenic signals that stimulate the proliferation of stem and progenitor cells to aid in tissue regeneration. This Review summarizes some of the key findings and discusses links to stem cell biology and cancer. PMID:20978240

  12. Endogenous cardiac stem cells.

    PubMed

    Barile, Lucio; Messina, Elisa; Giacomello, Alessandro; Marbán, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years it has been established that the heart contains a reservoir of stem and progenitor cells. These cells are positive for various stem/progenitor cell markers (Kit, Sca-1, Isl-1, and Side Population (SP) properties). The relationship between the various cardiac stem cells (CSC) and progenitor cells described awaits clarification. Furthermore, they may open a new therapeutic strategies of cardiac repair based on the regeneration potential of cardiac stem cells. Currently, cellular cardiomyoplasty is actively explored as means of regenerating damaged myocardium using several different cell types. CSCs seem a logical cell source to exploit for cardiac regeneration therapy. Their presence into the heart, the frequent co-expression of early cardiac progenitor transcription factors, and the capability for ex vivo and in vivo differentiation toward the cardiac lineages offer promise of enhanced cardiogenicity compared to other cell sources. CSCs, when isolated from various animal models by selection based on c-Kit, Sca-1, and/or MDR1, have shown cardiac regeneration potential in vivo following injection in the infracted myocardium. Recently, we have successfully isolated CSCs from small biopsies of human myocardium and expanded them ex vivo by many folds without losing differentiation potential into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, bringing autologous transplantation of CSCs closer to clinical evaluation. These cells are spontaneously shed from human surgical specimens and murine heart samples in primary culture. This heterogeneous population of cells forms multi-cellular clusters, dubbed cardiospheres (CSs), in suspension culture. CSs are composed of clonally-derived cells, consist of proliferating c-Kit positive cells primarily in their core and differentiating cells expressing cardiac and endothelial cell markers on their periphery. Although the intracardiac origin of adult myocytes has been unequivocally documented, the potential of an extracardiac source of cells, able to repopulate the lost CSCs in pathological conditions (infarct) cannot be excluded and will be discussed in this review. The delivery of human CSs or of CSs-derived cells into the injured heart of the SCID mouse resulted in engraftment, migration, myocardial regeneration and improvement of left ventricular function. Our method for ex vivo expansion of resident CSCs for subsequent autologous transplantation back into the heart, may give these cell populations, the resident and the transplanted one, the combined ability to mediate myocardial regeneration to an appreciable degree, and may change the way in which cardiovascular disease will be approached in the future. PMID:17631436

  13. Stem cells for cardiac repair: an introduction

    PubMed Central

    du Pré, Bastiaan C; Doevendans, Pieter A; van Laake, Linda W

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Most cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy, are associated with loss of functional cardiomyocytes. Unfortunately, the heart has a limited regenerative capacity and is not able to replace these cardiomyocytes once lost. In recent years, stem cells have been put forward as a potential source for cardiac regeneration. Pre-clinical studies that use stem cell-derived cardiac cells show promising results. The mechanisms, though, are not well understood, results have been variable, sometimes transient in the long term, and often without a mechanistic explanation. There are still several major hurdles to be taken. Stem cell-derived cardiac cells should resemble original cardiac cell types and be able to integrate in the damaged heart. Integration requires administration of stem cell-derived cardiac cells at the right time using the right mode of delivery. Once delivered, transplanted cells need vascularization, electrophysiological coupling with the injured heart, and prevention of immunological rejection. Finally, stem cell therapy needs to be safe, reproducible, and affordable. In this review, we will give an introduction to the principles of stem cell based cardiac repair. PMID:23888179

  14. Materials as stem cell regulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-06-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.

  15. Once Upon a Stem Cell

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Science > Once Upon a Stem Cell Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Once Upon a Stem Cell By ... Do Geometry Sticky Stem Cells This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  16. Stem cells: research tools and clinical treatments.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Michael C; Wallace, Euan M

    2011-09-01

    The term 'stem cell' most commonly refers to embryonic stem cells, particularly in the lay media; however, it also describes other cell types. A stem cell represents a cell of multi-lineage potential with the ability for self-renewal. It is now clear that the plasticity and immortality of a given stem cell will depend on what type of stem cell it is, whether an embryonic stem cell, a fetal-placental stem cell or an adult stem cell. Stem cells offer great promise as cell-based therapies for the future. With evolving technology, much of the socio-political debate regarding stem cells can now be avoided. PMID:21951457

  17. Biochemistry of epidermal stem cells?

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Richard L.; Adhikary, Gautam; Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Rorke, Ellen A.; Vemuri, Mohan C.; Boucher, Shayne E.; Bickenbach, Jackie R.; Kerr, Candace

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidermis is an important protective barrier that is essential for maintenance of life. Maintaining this barrier requires continuous cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, these processes must be balanced to produce a normal epidermis. The stem cells of the epidermis reside in specific locations in the basal epidermis, hair follicle and sebaceous glands and these cells are responsible for replenishment of this tissue. Scope of review A great deal of effort has gone into identifying protein epitopes that mark stem cells, in identifying stem cell niche locations, and in understanding how stem cell populations are related. We discuss these studies as they apply to understanding normal epidermal homeostasis and skin cancer. Major conclusions An assortment of stem cell markers have been identified that permit assignment of stem cells to specific regions of the epidermis, and progress has been made in understanding the role of these cells in normal epidermal homeostasis and in conditions of tissue stress. A key finding is the multiple stem cell populations exist in epidermis that give rise to different structures, and that multiple stem cell types may contribute to repair in damaged epidermis. General significance Understanding epidermal stem cell biology is likely to lead to important therapies for treating skin diseases and cancer, and will also contribute to our understanding of stem cells in other systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. PMID:22820019

  18. Stem Cell Awareness Day Scientific Symposium

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Stem Cell Awareness Day Scientific Symposium Stem Cells, Skin Cells, Cancer Cells: Basic Epigenetic Control of Skin Epithelial Stem Cells Click here to RSVP or contact andreao@uci.edu #12;Stem Cell Awareness Day Science Symposium Stem Cells, Skin Cells, Cancer Cells: Basic and Translational Challenges

  19. Stem Cell Niche: Structure and Function

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    STEM CELL NICHES IN MAMMALIAN SYSTEMS . . . 613 The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche The Intestinal Stem Cell Niche . . . 617 The Neural Stem Cell Niche . . . . . 618 The Germ Line Stem Cell NicheStem Cell Niche: Structure and Function Linheng Li and Ting Xie Stowers Institute for Medical

  20. Cell Stem Cell Sic Transit Gloria

    E-print Network

    Simons, Ben

    Cell Stem Cell Review Sic Transit Gloria: Farewell to the Epidermal Transit Amplifying Cell? Philip, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK 4Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK *Correspondence: phj20@hutchison-mrc.cam.ac.uk DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2007.09.014 For the past 30

  1. Adult skeletal muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sambasivan, Ramkumar; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles in vertebrates have a phenomenal regenerative capacity. A muscle that has been crushed can regenerate fully both structurally and functionally within a month. Remarkably, efficient regeneration continues to occur following repeated injuries. Thousands of muscle precursor cells are needed to accomplish regeneration following acute injury. The differentiated muscle cells, the multinucleated contractile myofibers, are terminally withdrawn from mitosis. The source of the regenerative precursors is the skeletal muscle stem cells-the mononucleated cells closely associated with myofibers, which are known as satellite cells. Satellite cells are mitotically quiescent or slow-cycling, committed to myogenesis, but undifferentiated. Disruption of the niche after muscle damage results in their exit from quiescence and progression towards commitment. They eventually arrest proliferation, differentiate, and fuse to damaged myofibers or make de novo myofibers. Satellite cells are one of the well-studied adult tissue-specific stem cells and have served as an excellent model for investigating adult stem cells. They have also emerged as an important standard in the field of ageing and stem cells. Several recent reviews have highlighted the importance of these cells as a model to understand stem cell biology. This chapter begins with the discovery of satellite cells as skeletal muscle stem cells and their developmental origin. We discuss transcription factors and signalling cues governing stem cell function of satellite cells and heterogeneity in the satellite cell pool. Apart from satellite cells, a number of other stem cells have been shown to make muscle and are being considered as candidate stem cells for amelioration of muscle degenerative diseases. We discuss these "offbeat" muscle stem cells and their status as adult skeletal muscle stem cells vis-a-vis satellite cells. The ageing context is highlighted in the concluding section. PMID:25344672

  2. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affects tissue specific stem cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Yuriko; Doi, Hanako; Ono, Yusuke; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Kitajima, Michio; Miura, Kiyonori; Li, Tao-Sheng; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Postmenopausal disorders are frequently observed in various organs, but their relationship with estrogen deficiency and mechanisms remain unclear. As tissue-specific stem cells have been found to express estrogen receptors, we examined the hypothesis that estrogen deficiency impairs stem cells, which consequently contributes to postmenopausal disorders. Six-week-old C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized, following which they received 17?-estradiol replacement or vehicle (control). Sham-operated mice were used as healthy controls. All mice were killed for evaluation 2 months after treatments. Compared with the healthy control, ovariectomy significantly decreased uterine weight, which was partially recovered by 17?-estradiol replacement. Ovariectomy significantly increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, but impaired their capacity to grow mixed cell-type colonies in vitro. Estrogen replacement further increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, without significantly affecting colony growth in vitro. The number of CD105-positive mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow also significantly decreased after ovariectomy, but completely recovered following estrogen replacement. Otherwise, neither ovariectomy nor estrogen replacement changed the number of Pax7-positive satellite cells, which are a skeletal muscle-type stem cell. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affected tissue-specific stem cells, suggesting a likely and direct relationship with postmenopausal disorders. PMID:26245252

  3. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affects tissue specific stem cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Yuriko; Doi, Hanako; Ono, Yusuke; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Kitajima, Michio; Miura, Kiyonori; Li, Tao-Sheng; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Postmenopausal disorders are frequently observed in various organs, but their relationship with estrogen deficiency and mechanisms remain unclear. As tissue-specific stem cells have been found to express estrogen receptors, we examined the hypothesis that estrogen deficiency impairs stem cells, which consequently contributes to postmenopausal disorders. Six-week-old C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized, following which they received 17?-estradiol replacement or vehicle (control). Sham-operated mice were used as healthy controls. All mice were killed for evaluation 2 months after treatments. Compared with the healthy control, ovariectomy significantly decreased uterine weight, which was partially recovered by 17?-estradiol replacement. Ovariectomy significantly increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, but impaired their capacity to grow mixed cell-type colonies in vitro. Estrogen replacement further increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, without significantly affecting colony growth in vitro. The number of CD105-positive mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow also significantly decreased after ovariectomy, but completely recovered following estrogen replacement. Otherwise, neither ovariectomy nor estrogen replacement changed the number of Pax7-positive satellite cells, which are a skeletal muscle-type stem cell. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affected tissue-specific stem cells, suggesting a likely and direct relationship with postmenopausal disorders. PMID:26245252

  4. Pancreatic cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ya-Yun; Yuan, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Studies are emerging in support of the cancer stem cells (CSCs) theory which considers that a tiny subset of cancer cells is exclusively responsible for the initiation and malignant behavior of a cancer. This cell population, also termed CSCs, possesses the capacity both to self-renew, producing progeny that have the identical tumorigenic potential, and to differentiate into the bulk of cancer cells, helping serve the formation of the tumor entities, which, altogether, build the hierarchically organized structure of a cancer. In this review, we try to articulate the complicated signaling pathways regulating the retention of the characteristics of pancreatic CSCs, and in the wake of which, we seek to offer insights into the CSCs-relevant targeted therapeutics which are, in the meantime, confronted with bigger challenges than ever. PMID:26045976

  5. EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Matrix Remodeling Maintains Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal by

    E-print Network

    Voldman, Joel

    EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Matrix Remodeling Maintains Embryonic Stem Cell Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA Key Words. Embryonic stem cell · Extracellular and synthetic matrices have been used to influence embryonic stem cell (ESC) self- renewal or differentiation

  6. Modeling Stem Cell Induction Processes

    E-print Network

    Gracio, Filipe

    Technology for converting human cells to pluripotent stem cell using induction processes has the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine. However, the production of these so called iPS cells is still quite inefficient ...

  7. Cell Replacement Therapies: Is It Time to Reprogram?

    PubMed Central

    Feund, Christian; Mummery, Christine L.; Hoeben, Rob C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hematopoietic stem cell transplantations have become a very successful therapeutic approach to treat otherwise life-threatening blood disorders. It is thought that stem cell transplantation may also become a feasible treatment option for many non-blood-related diseases. So far, however, the limited availability of human leukocyte antigen-matched donors has hindered development of some cell replacement therapies. The Nobel-prize rewarded finding that pluripotency can be induced in somatic cells via expression of a few transcription factors has led to a revolution in stem cell biology. The possibility to change the fate of somatic cells by expressing key transcription factors has been used not only to generate pluripotent stem cells, but also for directly converting somatic cells into fully differentiated cells of another lineage or more committed progenitor cells. These approaches offer the prospect of generating cell types with a specific genotype de novo, which would circumvent the problems associated with allogeneic cell transplantations. This technology has generated a plethora of new disease-specific research efforts, from studying disease pathogenesis to therapeutic interventions. Here we will discuss the opportunities in this booming field of cell biology and summarize how the scientists in the Netherlands have joined efforts in one area to exploit the new technology. PMID:25141889

  8. Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matikainen, Tiina; Laine, Jarmo . E-mail: jarmo.laine@bts.redcoss.fi

    2005-09-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications.

  9. Creation of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac cell sheets Katsuhisa Matsuura a,b,1

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    regeneration that transplanted stem cells differentiate into cardiomyocytes and replace the injured myocarCreation of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac cell sheets Katsuhisa Matsuura a,b,1 engineering Stem cell Cell culture Fibroblast Electrophysiology Growth factors a b s t r a c t Research

  10. Wnt Signaling in Stem Cells and Tumor Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The Wnt signaling cascade is critically important in stem cell biology, both in homeostatic maintenance and repair and regeneration of tissues and organs, through their respective somatic stem cells (SSCs). However, aberrant Wnt signaling is associated with a wide array of tumor types and Wnt signaling is important in the so-termed cancer stem cell/tumor-initiating cell (CSC/TIC) population. The ability to safely therapeutically target the Wnt signaling pathway offers enormous promise. However, just like the Sword of Damocles, significant risks and concerns regarding targeting such a critical pathway in normal stem cell maintenance and tissue homeostasis remain ever present. With this in mind, we review our current understanding of the role of Wnt signaling in SSCs and CSC/TICs and the potential to pharmacologically manipulate these endogenous stem cell populations (both normal and tumor). PMID:26251120

  11. Background Information 1. What are stem cells?

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Background Information 1. What are stem cells? 2. What might stem cell research achieve? 3. Why we need to continue research using embryonic stem cells? 4. Time taken for discoveries 5. Examples of stem cell therapies in clinical trials 6. Patentability of human embryonic stem cell therapies 7. Creation

  12. Stem Cell Ethics and Policy Christopher Wen

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Stem Cell Ethics and Policy Christopher Wen #12;Overview Embryonic Stem Cells Adult Stem Cells Federal Law Why Need More Lines Compromises #12;Arguments Against Embryonic Stem Cells and SCNT Embryo destruction Increase abortion Consent Cloning Destruction of Family #12;Why Embryonic Stem Cells

  13. Cancer Stem Cells: Models and Concepts

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Cancer Stem Cells: Models and Concepts Piero Dalerba, Robert W. Cho, and Michael F. Clarke Stanford by a pathologi- cal counterpart of normal adult stem cells, cancer stem cells. This model, first developed review the biological basis and the therapeutic implications of the stem cell model of cancer. 267 StemCells

  14. Trophoblast Stem Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, R. Michael; Fisher, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Trophoblast stem cells (TSC) are the precursors of the differentiated cells of the placenta. In the mouse, TSC can be derived from outgrowths of either blastocyst polar trophectoderm (TE) or extraembryonic ectoderm (ExE), which originates from polar TE after implantation. The mouse TSC niche appears to be located within the ExE adjacent to the epiblast, on which it depends for essential growth factors, but whether this cellular architecture is the same in other species remains to be determined. Mouse TSC self-renewal can be sustained by culture on mitotically inactivated feeder cells, which provide one or more factors related to the NODAL pathway, and a medium supplemented with FGF4, heparin, and fetal bovine serum. Repression of the gene network that maintains pluripotency and emergence of the transcription factor pathways that specify a trophoblast (TR) fate enables TSC derivation in vitro and placental formation in vivo. Disrupting the pluripotent network of embryonic stem cells (ESC) causes them to default to a TR ground state. Pluripotent cells that have acquired sublethal chromosomal alterations may be sequestered into TR for similar reasons. The transition from ESC to TSC, which appears to be unidirectional, reveals important aspects of initial fate decisions in mice. TSC have yet to be derived from domestic species in which remarkable TR growth precedes embryogenesis. Recent derivation of TSC from blastocysts of the rhesus monkey suggests that isolation of the human equivalents may be possible and will reveal the extent to which mechanisms uncovered by using animal models are true in our own species. PMID:21106963

  15. Embryonic stem cell bank: a work proposal.

    PubMed

    Nieto, A; Cobo, F; Barroso-Deljesús, A; Barnie, A H; Catalina, P; Cabrera, C M; Cortes, J L; Montes, R M; Concha, A

    2006-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have an unlimited capacity to proliferate by a self-renewal process and can be differentiated in the three germ layers, opening doors to new clinical therapies to replace missing or damaged cells. The number of research groups and projects using human stem cells has increased largely in the last 5 yr. The creation of stem cell banks is another important step to support the advance of research in this field. Banks must be operated within the strict regulatory famework of good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices that assure the highest quality standards and must implement a quality system that complies with international quality systems standards. It may also be appropriate to aim at an accreditation in order to assure correct laboratory practices at all times. Stem cell banks should receive the lines previously derived by other groups and hESCs should be provided for groups that justify their use in a research project previously approved by an ethical committee. The assays generally accepted as typical of hESCs together with the microbiological analysis should be performed in order to assure a consistent, reliable, and safe line for the researchers. In this article, the Andalusian Stem Cell Bank proposes a model of a stem cell banking process in order to create a flow diagram of hESC lines and, following the international initiatives in stem cells research, to achieve the full characterization of cells and a standardization of protocols that would simplify the hESCs culture. PMID:17237550

  16. Involvement of Plant Stem Cells or Stem Cell-Like Cells in Dedifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fangwei; Feng, Zhenhua; Liu, Hailiang; Zhu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Dedifferentiation is the transformation of cells from a given differentiated state to a less differentiated or stem cell-like state. Stem cell-related genes play important roles in dedifferentiation, which exhibits similar histone modification and DNA methylation features to stem cell maintenance. Hence, stem cell-related factors possibly synergistically function to provide a specific niche beneficial to dedifferentiation. During callus formation in Arabidopsis petioles, cells adjacent to procambium cells (stem cell-like cells) are dedifferentiated and survive more easily than other cell types. This finding indicates that stem cells or stem cell-like cells may influence the dedifferentiating niche. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of stem cell maintenance and dedifferentiation regulation. We also summarize current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the balance between differentiation and dedifferentiation. Furthermore, we discuss the correlation of stem cells or stem cell-like cells with dedifferentiation. PMID:26635851

  17. Cell Stem Cell Induction of Multipotential Hematopoietic

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    patients with hematologic diseases, including Fanconi anemia (Mu¨ ller et al., 2012), sickle cell anemiaCell Stem Cell Article Induction of Multipotential Hematopoietic Progenitors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells via Respecification of Lineage-Restricted Precursors Sergei Doulatov,1,2 Linda T. Vo,1

  18. Investigation of growth factors and cytokines that suppress adult stem cell asymmetric cell kinetics

    E-print Network

    Ganz, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Adult stem cells are potentially useful in many biomedical applications that can save lives and increase the quality of a patient's life, such as tissue engineering, cell replacement, and gene therapy. However, these ...

  19. The Clinical Status of Stem Cell Therapy for Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianyun; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Fan; Li, Jing; Li, Yaqi; Tan, Zirui; Hu, Jie; Qi, Yixin; Yan, Baoyong

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) is becoming a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the whole world. Stem cell-based therapy is emerging as a promising option for treatment of ICM. Several stem cell types including cardiac-derived stem cells (CSCs), bone marrow-derived stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), skeletal myoblasts (SMs), and CD34+ and CD 133+ stem cells have been applied in clinical researches. The clinical effect produced by stem cell administration in ICM mainly depends on the transdifferentiation and paracrine effect. One important issue is that low survival and residential rate of transferred stem cells in the infracted myocardium blocks the effective advances in cardiac improvement. Many other factors associated with the efficacy of cell replacement therapy for ICM mainly including the route of delivery, the type and number of stem cell infusion, the timing of injection, patient's physical condition, the particular microenvironment onto which the cells are delivered, and clinical condition remain to be addressed. Here we provide an overview of the pros and cons of these transferred cells and discuss the current state of their therapeutic potential. We believe that stem cell translation will be an ideal option for patients following ischemic heart disease in the future. PMID:26101528

  20. The new stem cell biology.

    PubMed Central

    Quesenberry, Peter J.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Frimberger, Angela E.; Dooner, Mark S.; Mcauliffe, Christina I.; Miller, Caroline; Becker, Pamela; Badiavas, Evangelis; Falanga, Vincent J.; Elfenbein, Gerald; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stem cells are capable of generating muscle, cardiac, hepatic, renal, and bone cells. Purified hematopoietic stem cells have generated cardiac and hepatic cells and reversed disease manifestations in these tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells also alter phenotype with cell cycle transit or circadian phase. During a cytokine stimulated cell cycle transit, reversible alterations of differentiation and engraftment occur. Primitive hematopoietic stem cells express a wide variety of adhesion and cytokine receptors and respond quickly with migration and podia extensions on exposure to cytokines. These data suggest an "Open Chromatin" model of stem cell regulation in which there is a fluctuating continuum in the stem cell/progenitor cell compartments, rather than a hierarchical relationship. These observations, along with progress in using low dose treatments and tolerization approaches, suggest many new therapeutic strategies involving stem cells and the creation of a new medical specialty; stemology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:12053709

  1. Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

  2. [Stem cell therapy: an update].

    PubMed

    Coulombel, Laure

    2009-03-01

    Medicine will be faced with a major challenge in coming years, namely how to treat for tissue dysfunction due to disease and aging There are two basic options: drug therapy and cell therapy. Stem cells have been the subject of intense speculation and controversy for several years, as they open up radically new therapeutic possibilities. Classical drugs can only smoothen consequences of tissue dysfunction, whereas cell therapy has the potential to restore tissue function by providing fresh cells. Cell therapy is totally different from organ transplantation, which can only benefit a limited number of patients. The use of the generic term "stem cells" to designate a whole variety of cell types that are present throughout life, is a source of confusion and ambiguity. It will take years of cognitive research to unravel the molecular mechanisms that govern a stem cell's multi- or totipotent status before we can fully exploit this therapeutic tool to the full. The younger a stem cell the greater its potential and, probably, the more durable its benefits, but the use of embryonic stem cells raises ethical issues. The redundancy or equivalence of diferent categories of cells is another source of controversy, yet researchers must be able to study stem cells in all their diversity, as complementary rather than competitive alternatives, in an acceptable ethical and regulatory environment. We briefly describe the three types of stem cells: pluripotent embryonic stem cells, fetal and adult stem cells, and pluripotent reprogrammed adult somatic cells. Only the former two categories have physiological functions: the first gives rise to tissues and organs while the second maintains tissue function during adulthood PMID:19883007

  3. Cell Stem Cell CNS-Resident Glial Progenitor/Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Richardson, William D.

    to this rule and provides a striking example of stem/precursor cell-mediated regeneration. RemyelinationCell Stem Cell Article CNS-Resident Glial Progenitor/Stem Cells Produce Schwann Cells as well. Richardson,3,4,* and Robin J.M. Franklin1,* 1MRC Cambridge Centre for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative

  4. Stem cells for spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Joshua; Kueper, Janina; Leon, Kaplan; Liebergall, Meir

    2015-01-26

    In the past few years, stem cells have become the focus of research by regenerative medicine professionals and tissue engineers. Embryonic stem cells, although capable of differentiating into cell lineages of all three germ layers, are limited in their utilization due to ethical issues. In contrast, the autologous harvest and subsequent transplantation of adult stem cells from bone marrow, adipose tissue or blood have been experimentally utilized in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases ranging from myocardial infarction to Alzheimer's disease. The physiologic consequences of stem cell transplantation and its impact on functional recovery have been studied in countless animal models and select clinical trials. Unfortunately, the bench to bedside translation of this research has been slow. Nonetheless, stem cell therapy has received the attention of spinal surgeons due to its potential benefits in the treatment of neural damage, muscle trauma, disk degeneration and its potential contribution to bone fusion. PMID:25621119

  5. Bioprinting for stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest to apply bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized proteins can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cell of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics. PMID:23260439

  6. Pancreatic Differentiation from Murine Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sakano, Daisuke; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Kume, Shoen

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are considered as a cell source for replacement therapies for pancreatic beta cells and other organs.We identified tetrabenazine (TBZ), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor as a promoter of late-stage differentiation of Pdx1-positive pancreatic progenitor cells into Ngn3-positive endocrine progenitor cells. A cell-permeable cAMP analog, dBu-cAMP promotes beta cell maturation in late stage of differentiation. The induced beta cells can secrete insulin in a glucose-dependent manner.Our protocol consists of a three -step differentiation process. ES cell recapitulate embryonic developmental processes in vitro. Therefore, the ES cell differentiation system is a useful model for the understanding of molecular mechanism of beta-cell differentiation and are useful for application for future regenerative medicine. PMID:25762295

  7. Lasers, stem cells, and COPD.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Josephs, Steven F; Alexandrescu, Doru T; Ramos, Famela; Bogin, Vladimir; Gammill, Vincent; Dasanu, Constantin A; De Necochea-Campion, Rosalia; Patel, Amit N; Carrier, Ewa; Koos, David R

    2010-01-01

    The medical use of low level laser (LLL) irradiation has been occurring for decades, primarily in the area of tissue healing and inflammatory conditions. Despite little mechanistic knowledge, the concept of a non-invasive, non-thermal intervention that has the potential to modulate regenerative processes is worthy of attention when searching for novel methods of augmenting stem cell-based therapies. Here we discuss the use of LLL irradiation as a "photoceutical" for enhancing production of stem cell growth/chemoattractant factors, stimulation of angiogenesis, and directly augmenting proliferation of stem cells. The combination of LLL together with allogeneic and autologous stem cells, as well as post-mobilization directing of stem cells will be discussed. PMID:20158898

  8. Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Veronica; Gaggianesi, Miriam; Spina, Valentina; Iovino, Flora; Dieli, Francesco; Stassi, Giorgio; Todaro, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays it is reported that, similarly to other solid tumors, colorectal cancer is sustained by a rare subset of cancer stem–like cells (CSCs), which survive conventional anticancer treatments, thanks to efficient mechanisms allowing escape from apoptosis, triggering tumor recurrence. To improve patient outcomes, conventional anticancer therapies have to be replaced with specific approaches targeting CSCs. In this review we provide strong support that BMP4 is an innovative therapeutic approach to prevent colon cancer growth increasing differentiation markers expression and apoptosis. Recent data suggest that in colorectal CSCs, protection from apoptosis is achieved by interleukin-4 (IL-4) autocrine production through upregulation of antiapoptotic mediators, including survivin. Consequently, IL-4 neutralization could deregulate survivin expression and localization inducing chemosensitivity of the colon CSCs pool. PMID:24212789

  9. STEM CELLS, CELL TRANSPLANTATION AND LIVER REPOPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Oertel, Michael; Shafritz, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplantation is currently the only therapeutic option for patients with end-stage chronic liver disease and for severe acute liver failure. Because of limited donor availability, attention has been focused on the possibility to restore liver mass and function through cell transplantation. Stem cells are a promising source for liver repopulation after cell transplantation, but whether or not the adult mammalian liver contains hepatic stem cells is highly controversial. Part of the problem is that proliferation of mature adult hepatocytes is sufficient to regenerate the liver after two-thirds partial hepatectomy or acute toxic liver injury and participation of stem cells is not required. However, under conditions in which hepatocyte proliferation is blocked, undifferentiated epithelial cells in the periportal areas, called “oval cells”, proliferate, differentiate into hepatocytes and restore liver mass. These cells are referred to as facultative liver stem cells, but they do not repopulate the normal liver after their transplantation. In contrast, epithelial cells isolated from the early fetal liver can effectively repopulate the normal liver, but they are already traversing the hepatic lineage and may not be true stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate along the hepatic lineage in culture, but at present these cells are inefficient in repopulating the liver. This review will characterize these various cell types and compare the properties of these cells and the conditions under which they do or do not repopulate the liver following their transplantation. PMID:18187050

  10. The Leading Edge of Stem Cell Therapeutics

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    malignant cancer cells. Stem cells are the most primordial cells of the organism (the embryonic stem cellThe Leading Edge of Stem Cell Therapeutics Ilyas Singec,1 Rahul Jandial,1,2 Andrew Crain,1,3 Guido Nikkhah,4 and Evan Y. Snyder1 1 Stem Cell & Regeneration Program, Burnham Institute for Medical Research

  11. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A; Baldini, N; Cenni, E; Gomez-Barrena, E; Granchi, D; Kassem, M; Konttinen, Y T; Mustafa, K; Pioletti, D P; Sillat, T; Finne-Wistrand, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopaedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and foetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem cells, use of platelet-rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed. PMID:21129153

  12. Stem cell therapy for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E

    2011-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which impairs the memory and intellectual abilities of the affected individuals. Loss of episodic as well as semantic memory is an early and principal feature. The basal forebrain cholinergic system is the population of neurons most affected by the neurodegenerative process. Extracellular as well as intracellular deposition of beta-amyloid or Abeta (Abeta) protein, intracellular formation of neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal loss are the neuropathological hallmarks of AD. In the last few years, hopes were raised that cell replacement therapy would provide cure by compensating the lost neuronal systems. Stem cells obtained from embryonic as well as adult tissue and grafted into the intact brain of mice or rats were mostly followed by their incorporation into the host parenchyma and differentiation into functional neural lineages. In the lesioned brain, stem cells exhibited targeted migration towards the damaged regions of the brain, where they engrafted, proliferated and matured into functional neurones. Neural precursor cells can be intravenously administered and yet migrate into brain damaged areas and induce functional recovery. Observations in animal models of AD have provided evidence that transplanted stem cells or neural precursor cells (NPCs) survive, migrate, and differentiate into cholinergic neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes with amelioration of the learning/memory deficits. Besides replacement of lost or damaged cells, stem cells stimulate endogenous neural precursors, enhance structural neuroplasticity, and down regulate proinflammatory cytokines and neuronal apoptotic death. Stem cells could also be genetically modified to express growth factors into the brain. In the last years, evidence indicated that the adult brain of mammals preserves the capacity to generate new neurons from neural stem/progenitor cells. Inefficient adult neurogenesis may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD and other neurodegenerative disorders. An attempt at mobilizing this endogenous pool of resident stem-like cells provides another attractive approach for the treatment of AD. Studies in patients with AD indicated decreased hippocampal volume derived by neurodegeneration. Intriguingly, many drugs including antidepressants, lithium, acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, and ginkgo biloba, were able to enhance the impaired neurogenesis in this disease process. This paved the way towards exploring the possible pharmacological manipulation of neurogenesis which would offer an alternative approach for the treatment of AD. PMID:21495961

  13. Stem cell therapy without the cells.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Greg

    2013-11-01

    As an example of the burgeoning importance of stem cell therapy, this past month the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) has approved $70 million to create a new network of stem cell clinical trial centers. Much work in the last decade has been devoted to developing the use of autologous and allogeneic adult stem cell transplants to treat a number of conditions, including heart attack, dementia, wounds, and immune system-related diseases. The standard model teaches us that adult stem cells exists throughout most of the body and provide a means to regenerate and repair most tissues through replication and differentiation. Although we have often witnessed the medical cart placed in front of the scientific horse in the development of stem cell therapies outside of academic circles, great strides have been made, such as the use of purified stem cells(1) instead of whole bone marrow transplants in cancer patients, where physicians avoid re-injecting the patients with their own cancer cells.(2) We most often think of stem cell therapy acting to regenerate tissue through replication and then differentiation, but recent studies point to the dramatic effects adult stem cells exert in the repair of various tissues through the release of paracrine and autocrine substances, and not simply through differentiation. Indeed, up to 80% of the therapeutic effect of adult stem cells has been shown to be through paracrine mediated actions.(3) That is, the collected types of molecules released by the stem cells, called the secretome, or stem cell released molecules (SRM), number in the 100s, including proteins, microRNA, growth factors, antioxidants, proteasomes, and exosomes, and target a multitude of biological pathways through paracrine actions. The composition of the different molecule types in SRM is state dependent, and varies with cell type and conditions such as age and environment. PMID:24567776

  14. Stem cell therapy without the cells

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Greg

    2013-01-01

    As an example of the burgeoning importance of stem cell therapy, this past month the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) has approved $70 million to create a new network of stem cell clinical trial centers. Much work in the last decade has been devoted to developing the use of autologous and allogeneic adult stem cell transplants to treat a number of conditions, including heart attack, dementia, wounds, and immune system-related diseases. The standard model teaches us that adult stem cells exists throughout most of the body and provide a means to regenerate and repair most tissues through replication and differentiation. Although we have often witnessed the medical cart placed in front of the scientific horse in the development of stem cell therapies outside of academic circles, great strides have been made, such as the use of purified stem cells1 instead of whole bone marrow transplants in cancer patients, where physicians avoid re-injecting the patients with their own cancer cells.2 We most often think of stem cell therapy acting to regenerate tissue through replication and then differentiation, but recent studies point to the dramatic effects adult stem cells exert in the repair of various tissues through the release of paracrine and autocrine substances, and not simply through differentiation. Indeed, up to 80% of the therapeutic effect of adult stem cells has been shown to be through paracrine mediated actions.3 That is, the collected types of molecules released by the stem cells, called the secretome, or stem cell released molecules (SRM), number in the 100s, including proteins, microRNA, growth factors, antioxidants, proteasomes, and exosomes, and target a multitude of biological pathways through paracrine actions. The composition of the different molecule types in SRM is state dependent, and varies with cell type and conditions such as age and environment. PMID:24567776

  15. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yan; Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou ; Li, Yuan; Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina; Kaufmann, Andreas M.

    2011-04-15

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  16. A natural stem cell therapy? How novel findings and biotechnology clarify the ethics of stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Patel, P

    2006-01-01

    The natural replacement of damaged cells by stem cells occurs actively and often in adult tissues, especially rapidly dividing cells such as blood cells. An exciting case in Boston, however, posits a kind of natural stem cell therapy provided to a mother by her fetus—long after the fetus is born. Because there is a profound lack of medical intervention, this therapy seems natural enough and is unlikely to be morally suspect. Nevertheless, we feel morally uncertain when we consider giving this type of therapy to patients who would not naturally receive it. Much has been written about the ethics of stem cell research and therapy; this paper will focus on how recent advances in biotechnology and biological understandings of development narrow the debate. Here, the author briefly reviews current stem cell research practices, revisits the natural stem cell therapy case for moral evaluation, and ultimately demonstrates the importance of permissible stem cell research and therapy, even absent an agreement about the definition of when embryonic life begins. Although one promising technology, blighted ovum utilisation, uses fertilised but developmentally bankrupt eggs, it is argued that utilisation of unfertilised eggs to derive totipotent stem cells obviates the moral debate over when life begins. There are two existing technologies that fulfil this criterion: somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenic stem cell derivation. Although these technologies are far from therapeutic, concerns over the morality of embryonic stem cell derivation should not hinder their advancement. PMID:16574879

  17. Ovarian germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Cheryl E; Telfer, Evelyn E; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    It has long been established that germline stem cells (GSCs) are responsible for lifelong gametogenesis in males, and some female invertebrates (for example, Drosophila) and lower vertebrates (for example, teleost fish and some prosimians) also appear to rely on GSCs to replenish their oocyte reserve in adulthood. However, the presence of such cells in the majority of female mammals is controversial, and the idea of a fixed ovarian reserve determined at birth is the prevailing belief among reproductive biologists. However, accumulating evidence demonstrates the isolation and culture of putative GSCs from the ovaries of adult mice and humans. Live offspring have been reportedly produced from the culture of adult mouse GSCs, and human GSCs formed primordial follicles using a mouse xenograft model. If GSCs were present in adult female ovaries, it could be postulated that the occurrence of menopause is not due to the exhaustion of a fixed supply of oocytes but instead is a result of GSC and somatic cell aging. Alternatively, they may be benign under normal physiological conditions. If their existence were confirmed, female GSCs could have many potential applications in both basic science and clinical therapies. GSCs not only may provide a valuable model for germ cell development and maturation but may have a role in the field of fertility preservation, with women potentially being able to store GSCs or GSC-derived oocytes from their own ovaries prior to infertility-inducing treatments. Essential future work in this field will include further independent corroboration of the existence of GSCs in female mammals and the demonstration of the production of mature competent oocytes from GSCs cultured entirely in vitro. PMID:25157949

  18. Progress in myeloma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Richard Dela; Tricot, Guido; Zangari, Maurizio; Zhan, Fenghuang

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy in the United States and affects about 4 in 100,000 Americans. Even though much progress has been made in MM therapy, MM remains an incurable disease for the vast majority of patients. The existence of MM stem cell is considered one of the major causes of MM drug-resistance, leading to relapse. This highlights the importance and urgency of developing approaches to target MM stem cells. However, very little is known about the molecular characteristics of the MM stem cells, which makes it difficult to target MM stem cells therapeutically. Evidence of the existence of a myeloma stem cell has been provided by Matsui et al. showing that the CD138- and CD20+ fraction, which is a minor population of the MM cells, has a greater clonogenic potential and has the phenotype of a memory B-cell (CD19+, CD27+). In this review, we report recent progress of cell surface markers in cancer stem cells, especially in myeloma and the molecular mechanisms related to drug resistance and myeloma disease progression. PMID:22432075

  19. Generating pluripotent stem cells: Differential epigenetic changes during cellular reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Stacey C.; Kim, Kitai

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells hold enomous potential for therapuetic applications in tissue replacement therapy. Reprogramming somatic cells from a patient donor to generate pluripotent stem cells involves both ethical concerns inherent in the use of embryonic and oocyte-derived stem cells, as well as issues of histocompatibility. Among the various pluripotent stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)—derived by ectopic expression of four reprogramming factors in donor somatic cells—are superior in terms of ethical use, histocompatibility, and derivation method. However, iPSC also show genetic and epigenetic differences that limit their differentiation potential, functionality, safety, and potential clinical utility. Here, we discuss the unique characteristics of iPSC and approaches that are being taken to overcome these limitations. PMID:22819821

  20. Harvesting dental stem cells - Overview.

    PubMed

    Sunil, P M; Manikandan, Ramanathan; Muthumurugan; Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan; Sivakumar, Muniapillai

    2015-08-01

    Dental stem cells have recently become one of the widely researched areas in dentistry. Ever since the identification of stem cells from various dental tissues like deciduous teeth, dental papilla, periodontal ligament and third molars, storing them for future use for various clinical applications was being explored. Dental stem cells were harvested and isolated using various techniques by different investigators and laboratories. This article explains the technical aspects of preparing the patient, atraumatic and aseptic removal of the tooth and its safe transportation and preservation for future expansion. PMID:26538883

  1. Harvesting dental stem cells - Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, P. M.; Manikandan, Ramanathan; Muthumurugan; Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan; Sivakumar, Muniapillai

    2015-01-01

    Dental stem cells have recently become one of the widely researched areas in dentistry. Ever since the identification of stem cells from various dental tissues like deciduous teeth, dental papilla, periodontal ligament and third molars, storing them for future use for various clinical applications was being explored. Dental stem cells were harvested and isolated using various techniques by different investigators and laboratories. This article explains the technical aspects of preparing the patient, atraumatic and aseptic removal of the tooth and its safe transportation and preservation for future expansion. PMID:26538883

  2. Cell Stem Cell Molecular Pathway and Cell State Responsible

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    Cell Stem Cell Article Molecular Pathway and Cell State Responsible for Dissociation-Induced Apoptosis in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Masatoshi Ohgushi,1,2 Michiru Matsumura,1,2 Mototsugu Eiraku,1 Sasai1,2,* 1Organogenesis and Neurogenesis Group 2Division of Human Stem Cell Technology 3Laboratory

  3. Cancer stem cells in surgery

    PubMed Central

    D’ANDREA, V.; GUARINO, S.; DI MATTEO, F.M.; SACCÀ, M. MAUGERI; DE MARIA, R.

    2014-01-01

    The Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) hypothesis is based on three fundamental ideas: 1) the similarities in the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal of normal stem cells and cancer cells; 2) the possibility that tumour cells might arise from normal stem cells; 3) the notion that tumours might contain ‘cancer stem cells’ - rare cells with indefinite proliferative potential that drive the formation and growth of tumours. The roles for cancer stem cells have been demonstrated for some cancers, such as cancers of the hematopoietic system, breast, brain, prostate, pancreas and liver. The attractive idea about cancer stem cell hypothesis is that it could partially explain the concept of minimal residual disease. After surgical macroscopically zero residual (R0) resections, even the persistence of one single cell nestling in one of the so called “CSCs niches” could give rise to distant relapse. Furthermore the metastatic cells can remain in a “dormant status” and give rise to disease after long period of apparent disease free. These cells in many cases have acquired resistance traits to chemo and radiotherapy making adjuvant treatment vain. Clarifying the role of the cancer stem cells and their implications in the oncogenesis will play an important role in the management of cancer patient by identifying new prospective for drugs and specific markers to prevent and monitoring relapse and metastasis. The identification of the niche where the CSCs reside in a dormant status might represent a valid instrument to follow-up patients also after having obtained a R0 surgical resection. What we believe is that if new diagnostic instruments were developed specifically to identify the localization and status of activity of the CSCs during tumor dormancy, this would lead to impressive improvement in the early detection and management of relapse and metastasis. PMID:25644725

  4. Diabetes and stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Fujimaki, Shin; Wakabayashi, Tamami; Takemasa, Tohru; Asashima, Makoto; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common serious metabolic diseases that results in hyperglycemia due to defects of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. The present review focuses on the alterations to the diabetic neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle, including stem cells in both tissues, and the preventive effects of physical activity on diabetes. Diabetes is associated with various nervous disorders, such as cognitive deficits, depression, and Alzheimer's disease, and that may be caused by neural stem cell dysfunction. Additionally, diabetes induces skeletal muscle atrophy, the impairment of energy metabolism, and muscle weakness. Similar to neural stem cells, the proliferation and differentiation are attenuated in skeletal muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. However, physical activity is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration to the neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle. Physical activity improves neurogenic capacity of neural stem cells and the proliferative and differentiative abilities of satellite cells. The present review proposes physical activity as a useful measure for the patients in diabetes to improve the physiological functions and to maintain their quality of life. It further discusses the use of stem cell-based approaches in the context of diabetes treatment. PMID:26075247

  5. Matrix Elasticity Directs Stem Cell Lineage Specification

    E-print Network

    Discher, Dennis

    and also for therapeu- tic uses of stem cells. INTRODUCTION Adult stem cells, as part of normalMatrix Elasticity Directs Stem Cell Lineage Specification Adam J. Engler,1,2 Shamik Sen,1,2 H. Lee.06.044 SUMMARY Microenvironments appear important in stem cell lineage specification but can be difficult

  6. Sources of Stem Cells for Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... transplant Types of stem cell transplants for treating cancer Sources of stem cells for transplant Donor matching for allogeneic transplant The ... Topic Types of stem cell transplants for treating cancer Next Topic Donor matching for ... Sources of stem cells for transplant There are 3 possible sources of ...

  7. Leading Edge Stem Cell Trafficking in Tissue

    E-print Network

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    and fetal stem cells, and cancer stem cells. In vivo trafficking underpins the successful therapeutic view of many cancers as stem cell-maintained diseases of dysregulated organogenesis (reviewed of malignant cancer stem cells, as compared to their normal tissue counterparts, takes on new import

  8. Illustration by Noma Bar Cancer stem cells

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Illustration by Noma Bar Cancer stem cells The root of all evil? Sep 11th 2008 From The Economist print edition Cancer may be caused by stem cells gone bad. If that proves to be correct, it should that is now being tested--is that cancers grow from stem cells in the way that healthy organs do. A stem cell

  9. Stem cell therapy as an option for pediatric surgical conditions.

    PubMed

    Zani, Augusto; De Coppi, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Regenerative medicine aims to replace, repair, or restore normal function of cells, tissues, and organs that are damaged by disease and holds a promising potential for the treatment of congenital anomalies. Herein, we present an overview of the different stem cell populations and discuss the potentials and most recent updates in stem cell therapy relevant to pediatric surgeons. In particular, we focus on stem cell applications in intestinal regeneration for necrotizing enterocolitis, liver regeneration in biliary atresia and human hepatocyte transplantation for liver failure, and pulmonary regeneration of hypoplastic lungs due to prematurity or congenital diaphragmatic hernia. PMID:24945441

  10. Recent highlights on bone stem cells: a report from Bone Stem Cells 2009, and not only….

    PubMed

    Cenni, Elisabetta; Perut, Francesca; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Fiorentini, Elisa; Baldini, Nicola

    2010-11-01

    The use of stem cells has opened new prospects for the treatment of orthopaedic conditions characterized by large bone defects. However, many issues still exist to which answers are needed before routine, large-scale application becomes possible. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC), which are clonogenic, multipotential precursors present in the bone marrow stroma, are generally employed for bone regeneration. Stem cells with multilineage differentiation similar to MSC have also been demonstrated in adipose tissue, peripheral blood, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid. Each source presents its own advantages and drawbacks. Unfortunately, no unique surface antigen is expressed by MSC, and this hampers simple MSC enrichment from heterogeneous populations. MSC are identified through a combination of physical, morphological and functional assays. Different in vitro and in vivo models have been described for the research on bone stem cells. These models should predict the in vivo bone healing capacity of MSC and if the induced osteogenesis is similar to the physiological one. Although stem cells offer an exciting possibility of a renewable source of cells and tissues for replacement, orthopaedic applications often represent case reports whereas controlled randomized trials are still lacking. Further biological aspects of bone stem cells should be elucidated and a general consensus on the best models, protocols and proper use of scaffolds and growth factors should be achieved. PMID:20874718

  11. Aneuploidy, stem cells and cancer.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Sen; Multani, Asha S

    2006-01-01

    Telomeres which protect the individual chromosomes from disintegration, end-to-end fusion and maintain the genomic integrity during the somatic cell divisions play an important role in cellular aging. Aging and cancer development are linked with each other because cancer is considered a group of complex genetic diseases that develop in old cells and, in both, telomere attrition is involved. Numeric chromosome imbalance also known as aneuploidy is the hallmark of most solid tumors, whether spontaneous or induced by carcinogens. We provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that telomere attrition is the earliest genetic alteration responsible for the induction of aneuploidy. Dysfunctional telomeres are highly recombinogenic leading to the formation of dicentric chromosomes. During cell divisions, such complex chromosome alterations undergo breakage fusion bridge cycles and may lead to loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and gene amplification. Furthermore, we have provided evidence in support of the hypothesis that all types of cancer originate in the organ- or tissue-specific stem cells present in a particular organ. Cancer cells and stem cells share many characteristics, such as, self-renewal, migration, and differentiation. Metaphases with abnormal genetic constitution present in the lymphocytes of cancer patients and in some of their asymptomatic family members may have been derived from the organ-specific stem cells. In addition, evidence and discussion has been presented for the existence of cancer-specific stem cells. Successful treatment of cancer, therefore, should be directed towards these cancer stem cells. PMID:16383014

  12. Generation of Isogenic Pluripotent Stem Cells Differing Exclusively at Two Early Onset Parkinson Point Mutations

    E-print Network

    Soldner, Frank

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells provide a unique tool for the study of human disease, as well as a promising source for cell replacement therapies. One crucial limitation ...

  13. Plasticity of spermatogonial stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Paul S; Simon, Liz; Nanjappa, Manjunatha K; Medrano, Theresa I; Berry, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    There have been significant breakthroughs over the past decade in the development and use of pluripotent stem cells as a potential source of cells for applications in regenerative medicine. It is likely that this methodology will begin to play an important role in human clinical medicine in the years to come. This review describes the plasticity of one type of pluripotent cell, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and their potential therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine and male infertility. Normally, SSCs give rise to sperm when in the testis. However, both human and murine SSCs can give rise to cells with embryonic stem (ES) cell-like characteristics that can be directed to differentiate into tissues of all three embryonic germ layers when placed in an appropriate inductive microenvironment, which is in contrast to other postnatal stem cells. Previous studies have reported that SSCs expressed an intermediate pluripotent phenotype before differentiating into a specific cell type and that extended culture was necessary for this to occur. However, recent studies from our group using a tissue recombination model demonstrated that SSCs differentiated rapidly into another tissue, in this case, prostatic epithelium, without expression of pluripotent ES cell markers before differentiation. These results suggest that SSCs are capable of directly differentiating into other cell types without going through an intermediate ES cell-like stage. Because SSCs do not require reprogramming to achieve a pluripotent state, they are an attractive source of pluripotent cells for use in regenerative medicine. PMID:25677134

  14. Are cancer stem cells radioresistant?

    PubMed Central

    Hittelman, Walter N; Liao, Yong; Wang, Li; Milas, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Based on findings that cancer cell clonogens exhibit stem cell features, it has been suggested that cancer stem-like cells are relatively radioresistant owing to different intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including quiescence, activated radiation response mechanisms (e.g., enhanced DNA repair, upregulated cell cycle control mechanisms and increased free-radical scavengers) and a surrounding microenvironment that enhances cell survival mechanisms (e.g., hypoxia and interaction with stromal elements). However, these radiosensitivity features are probably dynamic in nature and come into play at different times during the course of chemo/radiotherapy. Therefore, different molecularly targeted radiosensitization strategies may be needed at different stages of therapy. This article describes potential sensitization approaches based on the dynamics and changing properties of cancer stem-like cells during therapy. PMID:21062156

  15. Lost in translation: pluripotent stem cell-derived hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Mania; Liebhaber, Steffi; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Lachmann, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) such as embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells represent a promising cell type to gain novel insights into human biology. Understanding the differentiation process of PSCs in vitro may allow for the identification of cell extrinsic/intrinsic factors, driving the specification process toward all cell types of the three germ layers, which may be similar to the human in vivo scenario. This would not only lay the ground for an improved understanding of human embryonic development but would also contribute toward the generation of novel cell types used in cell replacement therapies. In this line, especially the developmental process of mesodermal cells toward the hematopoietic lineage is of great interest. Therefore, this review highlights recent progress in the field of hematopoietic specification of pluripotent stem cell sources. In addition, we would like to shed light on emerging factors controlling primitive and definitive hematopoietic development and to highlight recent approaches to improve the differentiation potential of PSC sources toward hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. While the generation of fully defined hematopoietic stem cells from PSCs remains challenging in vitro, we here underline the instructive role of cell extrinsic factors such as cytokines for the generation of PSC-derived mature hematopoietic cells. Thus, we have comprehensively examined the role of cytokines for the derivation of mature hematopoietic cell types such as macrophages, granulocytes, megakaryocytes, erythrocytes, dendritic cells, and cells of the B- and T-cell lineage. PMID:26174486

  16. Cell Stem Cell Wnt Proteins Are Self-Renewal Factors

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    Cell Stem Cell Article Wnt Proteins Are Self-Renewal Factors for Mammary Stem Cells and Promote.03.020 SUMMARY Adult stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to generate specialized cells. Self the organ develops postnatally, arises from stem cells, and is readily generated from transplanted cells. We

  17. Facultative Stem Cells in Liver and Pancreas: Fact and Fancy

    PubMed Central

    Yanger, Kilangsungla; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue turnover is a regular feature of higher eukaryotes, either as part of normal wear and tear (homeostasis) or in response to injury (regeneration). Cell replacement is achieved either through replication of existing cells or differentiation from a self-renewing pool of stem cells. The major distinction regards cellular potential, because stem cells by definition have a capacity to differentiate, while replication implies that cells adopt a single fate under physiologic conditions. A hybrid model, the facultative stem cell (FSC) model, posits that tissues contain cells that normally exhibit unipotency but have the capacity to function as stem cells upon injury. The FSC paradigm is well established in urodele amphibians, but the nature and role of FSCs in mammals is less defined. Here, we review the evidence for FSCs in two mammalian organs, the liver and the pancreas, and discuss alternative models that could account for regeneration in these organs. PMID:21312313

  18. Stem cell regulation: Implications when differentiated cells regulate symmetric stem cell division.

    PubMed

    Høyem, Marte Rørvik; Måløy, Frode; Jakobsen, Per; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2015-09-01

    We use a mathematical model to show that if symmetric stem cell division is regulated by differentiated cells, then changes in the population dynamics of the differentiated cells can lead to changes in the population dynamics of the stem cells. More precisely, the relative fitness of the stem cells can be affected by modifying the death rate of the differentiated cells. This result is interesting because stem cells are less sensitive than differentiated cells to environmental factors, such as medical therapy. Our result implies that stem cells can be manipulated indirectly by medical treatments that target the differentiated cells. PMID:25997796

  19. Stem cells and reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Oktem, O; Oktay, K

    2009-08-01

    For decades it has remained as a central dogma in dogma in reproductive biology that female mammals are born with a set non-renewable number of germ cells in the ovary. Recent revolutionary studies challenged this dogma by showing postnatal oogenesis in the adult ovary. In this review article the formation of primordial germ cells (PGC), the precursors of adult gametocytes beginning from their specification to their migration to prospective gonads will be reviewed with a special emphasis on stem cells studies that obtained gametocytes from germ and non germline stem cells. PMID:19745792

  20. Biomaterial Approaches for Stem Cell-Based Myocardial Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Cutts, Josh; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Brafman, David A

    2015-01-01

    Adult and pluripotent stem cells represent a ready supply of cellular raw materials that can be used to generate the functionally mature cells needed to replace damaged or diseased heart tissue. However, the use of stem cells for cardiac regenerative therapies is limited by the low efficiency by which stem cells are differentiated in vitro to cardiac lineages as well as the inability to effectively deliver stem cells and their derivatives to regions of damaged myocardium. In this review, we discuss the various biomaterial-based approaches that are being implemented to direct stem cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. First, we discuss the stem cell types available for cardiac repair and the engineering of naturally and synthetically derived biomaterials to direct their in vitro differentiation to the cell types that comprise heart tissue. Next, we describe biomaterial-based approaches that are being implemented to enhance the in vivo integration and differentiation of stem cells delivered to areas of cardiac damage. Finally, we present emerging trends of using stem cell-based biomaterial approaches to deliver pro-survival factors and fully vascularized tissue to the damaged and diseased cardiac tissue. PMID:26052226

  1. Label retaining cells and cutaneous stem cells.

    PubMed

    Terskikh, Vasily V; Vasiliev, Andrey V; Vorotelyak, Ekaterina A

    2012-06-01

    This is a comprehensive review on label retaining cells (LRC) in epidermal development and homeostasis. The precise in vivo identification and location of epidermal stem cells is a crucial issue in cutaneous biology. We discuss here the following problems: (1) Identification and location of LRC in the interfollicular epithelium and hair follicle; (2) The proliferative potential of LRC and their role in cutaneous homeostasis (3); LRC phenomenon and the Immortal Strand Hypothesis, which suggests an alternative mechanism for retention of genetic information; (4) Significance of LRC studies for development of stem cell concept. Now, it seems evident that LRC are a frequent feature of stem cell niches and revealing highly dormant LRC may be used for identification of stem cell niches in different tissues. LRC were used for screening specific markers of epidermal stem cells. Within a given tissue stem cells have different proliferative characteristics. There are more frequently cycling stem cells which function primarily in homeostasis, while LRC form a reserve of dormant, may be ultimate, stem cells, which are set aside for regeneration of injury or unforeseen need. The authors suggest that LRC dormancy described in Mammalia has much in common with developmental quiescence found in some other animals. For example in C. elegans reproductive system, vulval precursor cells have developmentally programmed cell-cycle arrest in the first larval stage, and then undergo an extended period of quiescence before resuming proliferation. Another example of developmental quiescence is the diapause, a widespread phenomenon exhibited by animals ranging from nematodes to mammals, often occurring at genetically predetermined life history stage. PMID:21744048

  2. Therapeutic PossibilitiesTherapeutic Possibilities of Stem Cell Researchof Stem Cell Research

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Therapeutic PossibilitiesTherapeutic Possibilities of Stem Cell Researchof Stem Cell Research.stemcellresearchfoundationstemcellresearchfoundation..org/WhatsNew/EmbryonicStemCellsorg/WhatsNew/EmbryonicStemCells..htmhtm #12;http://www.stemcellresearchfoundation.org/WhatsNew/PSA_2.htmhttp://www.stemcellresearchfoundation.org/WhatsNew/PSA_2.htm #12;Olfactory Bulb Stem Cells

  3. Enrichment of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells facilitates transduction for stem cell gene therapy

    E-print Network

    2015-01-01

    stem cell (HSC) gene therapy for sickle cell disease (SCD)Stem cell gene therapy is advancing toward the clinic for multiple diseasescell disease: lentiviral/antisickling ?-globin gene transduction of unmobilized, purified hematopoietic stem

  4. Telomeres in hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Baerlocher, Gabriela M; Roth, Alexander; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2003-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells have an impressive regenerative potential, strikingly illustrated in transplantation experiments using limited number of cells. In mice, serial transplantation experiments suggest that individual hematopoietic cells are capable of extensive self-renewal and that any possible limitations in the replicative potential of individual hematopoietic stem cells are not affecting normal blood cell formation. The situation with human hematopoietic stem cells is less clear. Unlike the situation in the mouse, the telomere length in nucleated human blood cells shows a remarkable decline with age. Furthermore, even partial telomerase deficiency in humans typically results in marrow failure, whereas complete lack of telomerase is tolerated up to several generations in the mouse. The decline in telomere length in human leukocytes with age follows a cubic function and is much higher in lymphocytes than in granulocytes. This finding suggests that, under normal circumstances, telomere loss is more likely to compromise the function of lymphocytes than the function of hematopoietic stem cells. To reconcile differences in telomere biology between man and mice, it has been proposed that telomere shortening evolved as a tumor suppressor mechanism in long-lived species that may not exist in shorter-lived mammals. According to this model, telomeres in human cells are intimately involved in signaling cell cycle progression and cell division. Most likely, a minimum number of telomere repeats is required at each telomere to prevent activation of a "telomere checkpoint" and allow cell cycle progression. Telomere length measurements appear useful to distinguish between depletion and exhaustion of hematopoietic stem cells as a cause of marrow failure. PMID:12799281

  5. n induced pluripotent stem cell, or IPS cell, is a stem cell that has been created from an

    E-print Network

    A n induced pluripotent stem cell, or IPS cell, is a stem cell that has been created from an adult that reprogram the cell and transform it into a cell that has all the characteristics of an embryonic stem cell are the advantages of induced pluripotent stem cells? Bioethics: Induced stem cells have the obvious edge

  6. Cell Stem Cell Technical Challenges in Using Human Induced

    E-print Network

    Saha, Krishanu

    pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), for modeling human disease pathogenesis. Modeling human diseases ``in a dishCell Stem Cell Review Technical Challenges in Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Model pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). This procedure has been applied to somatic cells from patients who

  7. Stem cell therapies for traumatic brain injury.

    E-print Network

    Koliatsos, VE; Xu, L; Cummings, BJ

    2015-01-01

    human neural stem cells in models of spinal cord injury andstem cell engraftment, proliferation and migration after spinal cord injury.stem cell therapies for models of DAI, although the field can borrow from spinal cord injury

  8. Control of the Embryonic Stem Cell State

    E-print Network

    Young, Richard A.

    Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine. These cells can be propagated in culture in an undifferentiated state but can be induced to differentiate into specialized ...

  9. DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ying; Xie, Nina; Jin, Peng; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation are specific epigenetic mechanisms that can contribute to the regulation of gene expression and cellular functions. DNA methylation is important for the function of embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells (such as haematopoietic stem cells, neural stem cells and germline stem cells), and changes in DNA methylation patterns are essential for successful nuclear reprogramming. In the past several years, the rediscovery of hydroxymethylation and the TET enzymes expanded our insights tremendously and uncovered more dynamic aspects of cytosine methylation regulation. Here, we review the current knowledge and highlight the most recent advances in DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and several well-studied adult stems cells. Our current understanding of stem cell epigenetics and new advances in the field will undoubtedly stimulate further clinical applications of regenerative medicine in the future. PMID:25776144

  10. Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Stem Cell (RPESC).

    PubMed

    Saini, Janmeet S; Temple, Sally; Stern, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a pigmented cellular monolayer that supports photoreceptor cells located in the overlying neural retina. The RPE is critical for vision and its dysfunction results in numerous pathologies, several with limited available disease-altering strategies. Regeneration of the retina from RPE is robust in lower vertebrates, but is not normally exhibited in mammals. We recently found that a subpopulation of human RPE cells can be stimulated in culture to generate multipotent self-renewing cells-the RPE stem cell (RPESC). RPESC can be expanded to generate RPE progeny that are a potential source for cell replacement therapy. Alternatively, RPESC can produce mesenchymal progeny which serve as a disease model of epiretinal membrane formation. Yet another potential application of RPESCs is activation within the eye to awaken dormant endogenous repair. PMID:26427459

  11. Stem-cell ecology and stem cells in motion

    PubMed Central

    Scadden, David T.

    2008-01-01

    This review highlights major scientific developments over the past 50 years or so in concepts related to stem-cell ecology and to stem cells in motion. Many thorough and eloquent reviews have been presented in the last 5 years updating progress in these issues. Some paradigms have been challenged, others validated, or new ones brought to light. In the present review, we will confine our remarks to the historical development of progress. In doing so, we will refrain from a detailed analysis of controversial data, emphasizing instead widely accepted views and some challenging novel ones. PMID:18398055

  12. Common stemness regulators of embryonic and cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hadjimichael, Christiana; Chanoumidou, Konstantina; Papadopoulou, Natalia; Arampatzi, Panagiota; Papamatheakis, Joseph; Kretsovali, Androniki

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells is regulated by a well characterized gene transcription circuitry. The circuitry is assembled by ESC specific transcription factors, signal transducing molecules and epigenetic regulators. Growing understanding of stem-like cells, albeit of more complex phenotypes, present in tumors (cancer stem cells), provides a common conceptual and research framework for basic and applied stem cell biology. In this review, we highlight current results on biomarkers, gene signatures, signaling pathways and epigenetic regulators that are common in embryonic and cancer stem cells. We discuss their role in determining the cell phenotype and finally, their potential use to design next generation biological and pharmaceutical approaches for regenerative medicine and cancer therapies. PMID:26516408

  13. In Appreciation of Stem Cell Research Doners..............................................................1 Glossary ..........................................................................................................................4

    E-print Network

    #12;#12;In Appreciation of Stem Cell Research Doners ..........................................................................................................................4 Stem Cell Research at the Weizmann Institute of Science......................................................9 Germ-Line Stem Cell Differentiation

  14. Stem Cell Reports CRIPTO/GRP78 Signaling Maintains Fetal and Adult Mammary Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Wahl, Geoffrey M.

    Stem Cell Reports Report CRIPTO/GRP78 Signaling Maintains Fetal and Adult Mammary Stem Cells Ex://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). SUMMARY Little is known about the extracellular signaling factors that govern mammary stem cell behavior. Here, we identify CRIPTO and its cell- surface receptor GRP78 as regulators of stem cell

  15. Probing Embryonic Stem Cell Autocrine and Paracrine

    E-print Network

    Voldman, Joel

    Probing Embryonic Stem Cell Autocrine and Paracrine Signaling Using Microfluidics Laralynne stem cell fate is traditionally manipulated by exogenously altering the cells' extracellular signaling are fundamental to both embryonic stem cell self-renewal and early embryonic development, but the nature

  16. MICROFLUIDIC CONTROL OF STEM CELL DIFFUSIBLE SIGNALING

    E-print Network

    Voldman, Joel

    MICROFLUIDIC CONTROL OF STEM CELL DIFFUSIBLE SIGNALING Katarina Blagovi, Lily Y. Kim, Alison M an important role in determining the phenotype of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We have developed a two cell differentiation. KEYWORDS: Embryonic stem cells, microfluidic perfusion, diffusible signaling

  17. www.yalecancercenter.org Understanding Stem Cell

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    is an Associate Professor of Medical Oncology at Yale Cancer Center and an expert in stem cell transplantation for cancer treatment. Chu Stuart, before we go into discussing bone marrow stem cell transplantation, can you who have cancer quite yet. Stem cell transplant is simply put, the transfer of cells that are capable

  18. Directing stem cell differentiation with antibodies

    E-print Network

    degenerative diseases. The medical exploita- tion of this phenomenon is carried out using stem cells derivedCOMMENTARY Directing stem cell differentiation with antibodies Martin Dalziel, Max Crispin OX1 3QU, United Kingdom Stem cells are highly specialized cells en- dowed with unlimited replicative

  19. --Taking STem Cell SCienCe from

    E-print Network

    Haimovich, Alexander

    -- Taking STem Cell SCienCe from Theory To TherapieS While The healing poTenTial of STem Cell one. produCed by our bodieS in an undifferenTiaTed STaTe, STem CellS evenTually SpeCialize Through na be tempered with a realistic as- sessment of where the development of stem cell therapies now stands. Most

  20. The Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Differentiation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Mahshid; Shamsasanjan, karim; Movassaghpourakbari, Aliakbar; Akbarzadehlaleh, Parvin; Molaeipour, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow microenvironment contains cellular and acellular compartments. The cellular compartment includes hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and some other stromal cell types, while the acellular compartment is composed of scaffold proteins known as the extra cellular matrix. Direct cell-cell contact as well as cytokines secreted by mesenchymal stem cells during coculture of hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells play a critical role in hematopoiesis, and determines the fate of hematopoietic stem cells. Several studies have demonstrated the impact of mesenchymal stem cells on self-renewal, expansion, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells in vitro, which have shown different and contradictory results. In this paper, we will investigate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells in vitro. PMID:26504750

  1. Parkinson's Disease Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Free of Viral Reprogramming Factors

    E-print Network

    Soldner, Frank

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients represent a powerful tool for biomedical research and may provide a source for replacement therapies. However, the use of viruses encoding the ...

  2. Steady advance of stem cell therapies: report from the 2011 World Stem Cell Summit, Pasadena, California, October 3-5.

    PubMed

    Swan, Melanie

    2011-12-01

    Stem cell research and related therapies (including regenerative medicine and cellular therapies) could have a significant near-term impact on worldwide public health and aging. One reason is the industry's strong linkage between policy, science, industry, and patient advocacy, as was clear in the attendance and programming at the 7(th) annual World Stem Cell Summit held in Pasadena, California, October 3-5, 2011. A special conference session sponsored by the SENS Foundation discussed how stem cell therapies are being used to extend healthy life span. Stem cells are useful not only in cell-replacement therapies, but also in disease modeling, drug discovery, and drug toxicity screening. Stem cell therapies are currently being applied to over 50 diseases, including heart, lung, neurodegenerative, and eye disease, cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Dozens of companies are developing therapeutic solutions that are in different stages of clinical use and clinical trials. Some high-profile therapies include Dendreon's Provenge for prostate cancer, Geron's first-ever embryonic stem cell trials for spinal cord injury, Fibrocell's laViv cellular therapy for wrinkles, and well-established commercial skin substitutes (Organogenesis' Apligraf and Advanced BioHealing's Dermagraft). Stem cell policy issues under consideration include medical tourism, standards for large-scale stem cell manufacturing, and lingering ethical debates over the use of embryonic stem cells. Contemporary stem cell science advances include a focus on techniques for the direct reprogramming of cells from one lineage to another without returning to pluripotency as an intermediary step, improved means of generating and characterizing induced pluripotent cells, and progress in approaches to neurodegenerative disease. PMID:22175514

  3. Stem cells and metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Andreia S; Docherty, Kevin

    2008-06-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder, which has been recognized as a global epidemic. It contributes to insulin resistance, the major cause of Type 2 diabetes, as well as to the development of other related diseases. Our basic premise is that a better understanding of how adult stem cells of the pancreas contribute to the maintenance of the pancreatic beta-cell pool against the increased metabolic demands associated with obesity may provide new therapeutic targets for treating diabetes. At the same time, if we knew more about the biology of adipocyte formation, maintenance and deposition in obese individuals, perhaps some control over the adipocyte tissue mass of these individuals would be facilitated and treatment of obesity would become available. Many investigations in the field are therefore aimed at describing how adipocyte stem cells function in the various sites of fat deposition and the extent to which these stem cells contribute to both brown and white adipocytes. Studies on the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells along the pancreatic and adipocyte lineages may therefore better inform approaches to these studies. PMID:18481959

  4. EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Disease Modeling Using Embryonic Stem Cells: MeCP2 Regulates

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Disease Modeling Using Embryonic Stem Cells: MeCP factor · Synaptophysin ABSTRACT Mutations in the gene encoding the methyl-CpG-binding protein MECP2 are the major cause of Rett syndrome, an autism spectrum disorder mainly affecting young females. MeCP2

  5. Federal Policy on Stem Cell Research

    MedlinePLUS

    ... issued EO 13505, entitled Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells (108KB PDF; get Adobe ... of Executive Order on Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells (NOT-OD-09-085) ...

  6. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are stem cells? How are they regulated? Health Fraud Scams Related Consumer Updates Adult Stem Cell Research Shows Promise Don't Be Fooled By Health Fraud Scams FDA 101: Health Fraud Awareness Cord Blood: ...

  7. Beware Unregulated Stem Cell Treatments, Experts Warn

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154536.html Beware Unregulated Stem Cell Treatments, Experts Warn Clinics selling treatments that ... clinics across the United States are offering unapproved stem cell treatments for conditions from baldness to heart ...

  8. Stem Cell Treatments: What to Ask

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Know about Stem Cell Treatments Considering a stem cell treatment? Be informed. Start here. From Lab to You How today’s research leads to tomorrow’s treatments. Patient Handbook (PDF) Download ...

  9. Bioengineered stem cells as an alternative for islet cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah J; Gala-Lopez, Boris L; Pepper, Andrew R; Pawlick, Rena L; Shapiro, AM James

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune and increasingly prevalent condition caused by immunological destruction of beta cells. Insulin remains the mainstay of therapy. Endeavours in islet transplantation have clearly demonstrated that type 1 diabetes is treatable by cellular replacement. Many challenges remain with this approach. The opportunity to use bioengineered embryonic or adult pluripotential stem cells, or islets derived from porcine xenograft sources could address future demands, but are still associated with considerable challenges. This detailed review outlines current progress in clinical islet transplantation, and places this in perspective for the remarkable scientific advances now occurring in stem cell and regenerative medicine approaches in the treatment of future curative treatment of diabetes. PMID:25815266

  10. Bioengineered stem cells as an alternative for islet cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah J; Gala-Lopez, Boris L; Pepper, Andrew R; Pawlick, Rena L; Shapiro, Am James

    2015-03-24

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune and increasingly prevalent condition caused by immunological destruction of beta cells. Insulin remains the mainstay of therapy. Endeavours in islet transplantation have clearly demonstrated that type 1 diabetes is treatable by cellular replacement. Many challenges remain with this approach. The opportunity to use bioengineered embryonic or adult pluripotential stem cells, or islets derived from porcine xenograft sources could address future demands, but are still associated with considerable challenges. This detailed review outlines current progress in clinical islet transplantation, and places this in perspective for the remarkable scientific advances now occurring in stem cell and regenerative medicine approaches in the treatment of future curative treatment of diabetes. PMID:25815266

  11. Cell Stem Cell Prediction and Testing of Novel Transcriptional

    E-print Network

    Morris, Quaid

    Cell Stem Cell Article Prediction and Testing of Novel Transcriptional Networks Regulating Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Commitment Emily Walker,1 Minako Ohishi,1 Ryan E. Davey,1 Wen Zhang,2.stanford@utoronto.ca DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2007.04.002 SUMMARY Stem cell fate is governed by the integration of intrinsic

  12. Cell Stem Cell An Expanded Oct4 Interaction Network: Implications

    E-print Network

    Babu, M. Madan

    Cell Stem Cell Resource An Expanded Oct4 Interaction Network: Implications for Stem Cell Biology.ac.uk (M.P.), jc4@sanger.ac.uk (J.C.) DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.03.004 SUMMARY The transcription factor Oct4 is key in embryonic stem cell identity and reprogramming. Insight into its part- ners should illuminate

  13. Cell Stem Cell Stage-Specific Differences in the

    E-print Network

    Hay, Bruce A.

    Cell Stem Cell Article Stage-Specific Differences in the Requirements for Germline Stem CellDepartment of Biochemistry, Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Washington Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158-0725, USA *Correspondence: hannele@u.washington.edu DOI 10.1016/j.stem

  14. Current focus of stem cell application in retinal repair.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Alonso, María L; Srivastava, Girish K

    2015-04-26

    The relevance of retinal diseases, both in society's economy and in the quality of people's life who suffer with them, has made stem cell therapy an interesting topic for research. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) are the focus in current endeavors as a source of different retinal cells, such as photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells. The aim is to apply them for cell replacement as an option for treating retinal diseases which so far are untreatable in their advanced stage. ESCs, despite the great potential for differentiation, have the dangerous risk of teratoma formation as well as ethical issues, which must be resolved before starting a clinical trial. iPSCs, like ESCs, are able to differentiate in to several types of retinal cells. However, the process to get them for personalized cell therapy has a high cost in terms of time and money. Researchers are working to resolve this since iPSCs seem to be a realistic option for treating retinal diseases. ADMSCs have the advantage that the procedures to obtain them are easier. Despite advancements in stem cell application, there are still several challenges that need to be overcome before transferring the research results to clinical application. This paper reviews recent research achievements of the applications of these three types of stem cells as well as clinical trials currently based on them. PMID:25914770

  15. Current focus of stem cell application in retinal repair

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Alonso, María L; Srivastava, Girish K

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of retinal diseases, both in society’s economy and in the quality of people’s life who suffer with them, has made stem cell therapy an interesting topic for research. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) are the focus in current endeavors as a source of different retinal cells, such as photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells. The aim is to apply them for cell replacement as an option for treating retinal diseases which so far are untreatable in their advanced stage. ESCs, despite the great potential for differentiation, have the dangerous risk of teratoma formation as well as ethical issues, which must be resolved before starting a clinical trial. iPSCs, like ESCs, are able to differentiate in to several types of retinal cells. However, the process to get them for personalized cell therapy has a high cost in terms of time and money. Researchers are working to resolve this since iPSCs seem to be a realistic option for treating retinal diseases. ADMSCs have the advantage that the procedures to obtain them are easier. Despite advancements in stem cell application, there are still several challenges that need to be overcome before transferring the research results to clinical application. This paper reviews recent research achievements of the applications of these three types of stem cells as well as clinical trials currently based on them. PMID:25914770

  16. STEM CELL RESEARCH OVERSIGHT AMENDMENT TO HUMAN STEM CELL RESEARCH PROTOCOL

    E-print Network

    Ullrich, Paul

    STEM CELL RESEARCH OVERSIGHT AMENDMENT TO HUMAN STEM CELL RESEARCH PROTOCOL PPM 220-02 governs the conduct of human stem cell research at the University of California, Davis. Please read this policy prior to completing this application. (PPM 220-02 Stem Cell Research). Please Note: Failure to complete this form

  17. Bio-engineering of stem/progenitor cells Blood stem cell products

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Bio-engineering of stem/progenitor cells Blood stem cell products: Toward sustainable benchmarks expansion of umbilical cord blood (UCB) derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) should stem cell derived products that fulfill our current best known criteria of clinical relevance

  18. College Students' Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concannon, James P.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Halverson, Kristy; Freyermuth, Sharyn

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before…

  19. Master Project in Stem Cell Biology In Vivo Manipulation of Skin Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Uppsala Universitet

    Master Project in Stem Cell Biology ­ In Vivo Manipulation of Skin Stem Cells Our lab is interested in understanding how stem cells contribute to tissue homeostasis and disease. Our model system is currently the skin, which harbors several distinct pools of stem cells. In order to identify regulatory networks

  20. hy are stem cells so valuable in research? One reason stem cells have generated

    E-print Network

    W hy are stem cells so valuable in research? One reason stem cells have generated excitement in science is their versatility. Like little Swiss Army knives, stem cells provide the basic tools of stem cells -- embryonic, induced pluripotent, fetal and adult -- can all be used in different ways

  1. INSTITUTE FOR STEM CELL AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE STEM CELL CLUB MEETINGS

    E-print Network

    ) and of Genome Sciences Epigenomics of Cancer Stem Cells #12;INSTITUTE FOR STEM CELL AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE STEM CELL CLUB MEETINGS SLU AdministrationD Research Assistant Professor MRI of stem cell migration Tuesday February 7, 2012 4PM Karol Bomsztyk, MD

  2. Neural stem cells could serve as a therapeutic material for age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Suksuphew, Sarawut; Noisa, Parinya

    2015-03-26

    Progressively loss of neural and glial cells is the key event that leads to nervous system dysfunctions and diseases. Several neurodegenerative diseases, for instance Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease, are associated to aging and suggested to be a consequence of deficiency of neural stem cell pool in the affected brain regions. Endogenous neural stem cells exist throughout life and are found in specific niches of human brain. These neural stem cells are responsible for the regeneration of new neurons to restore, in the normal circumstance, the functions of the brain. Endogenous neural stem cells can be isolated, propagated, and, notably, differentiated to most cell types of the brain. On the other hand, other types of stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells can also serve as a source for neural stem cell production, that hold a great promise for regeneration of the brain. The replacement of neural stem cells, either endogenous or stem cell-derived neural stem cells, into impaired brain is highly expected as a possible therapeutic mean for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, clinical features and current routinely treatments of age-related neurodegenerative diseases are documented. Noteworthy, we presented the promising evidence of neural stem cells and their derivatives in curing such diseases, together with the remaining challenges to achieve the best outcome for patients. PMID:25815135

  3. Neural stem cells could serve as a therapeutic material for age-related neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Suksuphew, Sarawut; Noisa, Parinya

    2015-01-01

    Progressively loss of neural and glial cells is the key event that leads to nervous system dysfunctions and diseases. Several neurodegenerative diseases, for instance Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease, are associated to aging and suggested to be a consequence of deficiency of neural stem cell pool in the affected brain regions. Endogenous neural stem cells exist throughout life and are found in specific niches of human brain. These neural stem cells are responsible for the regeneration of new neurons to restore, in the normal circumstance, the functions of the brain. Endogenous neural stem cells can be isolated, propagated, and, notably, differentiated to most cell types of the brain. On the other hand, other types of stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells can also serve as a source for neural stem cell production, that hold a great promise for regeneration of the brain. The replacement of neural stem cells, either endogenous or stem cell-derived neural stem cells, into impaired brain is highly expected as a possible therapeutic mean for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, clinical features and current routinely treatments of age-related neurodegenerative diseases are documented. Noteworthy, we presented the promising evidence of neural stem cells and their derivatives in curing such diseases, together with the remaining challenges to achieve the best outcome for patients. PMID:25815135

  4. Setting FIRES to Stem Cell Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roxanne Grietz

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this lesson is to present the basic scientific knowledge about stem cells, the promise of stem cell research to medicine, and the ethical considerations and arguments involved. One of the challenges of discussing stem cell research is that the field is constantly evolving and the most current information changes almost daily. Few…

  5. What's It Like to Donate Stem Cells?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... transplant Types of stem cell transplants for treating cancer Sources of stem cells for transplant Donor matching for allogeneic transplant The ... sometimes it can be hard to get enough stem cells from a person with cancer. Even after several days of apheresis, there may ...

  6. Original Article Gastrointestinal Stem Cells and Cancer--

    E-print Network

    Dove, William

    Original Article Gastrointestinal Stem Cells and Cancer-- Bridging the Molecular Gap S.J. Leedham Cancer is believed to be a disease involving stem cells. The digestive tract has a very high cancer in both the mouse and human has shown that crypts are clonal units and mutated stem cells may develop

  7. HEMATOPOIESIS AND STEM CELLS Brief report

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    HEMATOPOIESIS AND STEM CELLS Brief report TheAC133 CD38 , but not the rhodamine-low, phenotype of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; 2Program in Stem Cell Biology Network, Toronto, ON Phenotypic markers associated with hu- man hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were

  8. Cell replacement and visual restoration by retinal sheet transplants.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Magdalene J; Aramant, Robert B

    2012-11-01

    Retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) affect millions of people. Replacing lost cells with new cells that connect with the still functional part of the host retina might repair a degenerating retina and restore eyesight to an unknown extent. A unique model, subretinal transplantation of freshly dissected sheets of fetal-derived retinal progenitor cells, combined with its retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), has demonstrated successful results in both animals and humans. Most other approaches are restricted to rescue endogenous retinal cells of the recipient in earlier disease stages by a 'nursing' role of the implanted cells and are not aimed at neural retinal cell replacement. Sheet transplants restore lost visual responses in several retinal degeneration models in the superior colliculus (SC) corresponding to the location of the transplant in the retina. They do not simply preserve visual performance - they increase visual responsiveness to light. Restoration of visual responses in the SC can be directly traced to neural cells in the transplant, demonstrating that synaptic connections between transplant and host contribute to the visual improvement. Transplant processes invade the inner plexiform layer of the host retina and form synapses with presumable host cells. In a Phase II trial of RP and ARMD patients, transplants of retina together with its RPE improved visual acuity. In summary, retinal progenitor sheet transplantation provides an excellent model to answer questions about how to repair and restore function of a degenerating retina. Supply of fetal donor tissue will always be limited but the model can set a standard and provide an informative base for optimal cell replacement therapies such as embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived therapy. PMID:22771454

  9. Cell replacement and visual restoration by retinal sheet transplants

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Magdalene J.; Aramant, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) affect millions of people. Replacing lost cells with new cells that connect with the still functional part of the host retina might repair a degenerating retina and restore eyesight to an unknown extent. A unique model, subretinal transplantation of freshly dissected sheets of fetal-derived retinal progenitor cells, combined with its retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), has demonstrated successful results in both animals and humans. Most other approaches are restricted to rescue endogenous retinal cells of the recipient in earlier disease stages by a ‘nursing’ role of the implanted cells and are not aimed at neural retinal cell replacement. Sheet transplants restore lost visual responses in several retinal degeneration models in the superior colliculus (SC) corresponding to the location of the transplant in the retina. They do not simply preserve visual performance – they increase visual responsiveness to light. Restoration of visual responses in the SC can be directly traced to neural cells in the transplant, demonstrating that synaptic connections between transplant and host contribute to the visual improvement. Transplant processes invade the inner plexiform layer of the host retina and form synapses with presumable host cells. In a Phase II trial of RP and ARMD patients, transplants of retina together with its RPE improved visual acuity. In summary, retinal progenitor sheet transplantation provides an excellent model to answer questions about how to repair and restore function of a degenerating retina. Supply of fetal donor tissue will always be limited but the model can set a standard and provide an informative base for optimal cell replacement therapies such as embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived therapy. PMID:22771454

  10. Methods for Stem Cell Production and Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo (Inventor); Valluri, Jagan V. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for rapidly expanding a stem cell population with or without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention relates to methods for rapidly increasing the life span of stem cell populations without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention also relates to methods for increasing the sensitivity of cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions and in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The methods of the present invention can also be used to proliferate cancer cells by culturing them in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The present invention also relates to methods for testing the sensitivity of cancer cells and cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer cells and cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce tissue for use in transplantation by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors to promote differentiation of cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions.

  11. Insights & Perspectives Characterization of stem cells and

    E-print Network

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    Insights & Perspectives Characterization of stem cells and cancer cells on the basis of gene; robustness; stem cell Introduction Robustness and plasticity are essential features of all biological systems cell-cell interaction explains mutational robustness of differentiated cells and suggests how cancer

  12. Nuclear Mechanics and Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xinjian; Gavara, Nuria; Song, Guanbin

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential. Stem cell differentiation is a prerequisite for the application of stem cells in regenerative medicine and clinical therapy. In addition to chemical stimulation, mechanical cues play a significant role in regulating stem cell differentiation. The integrity of mechanical sensors is necessary for the ability of cells to respond to mechanical signals. The nucleus, the largest and stiffest cellular organelle, interacts with the cytoskeleton as a key mediator of cell mechanics. Nuclear mechanics are involved in the complicated interactions of lamins, chromatin and nucleoskeleton-related proteins. Thus, stem cell differentiation is intimately associated with nuclear mechanics due to its indispensable role in mechanotransduction and mechanical response. This paper reviews several main contributions of nuclear mechanics, highlights the hallmarks of the nuclear mechanics of stem cells, and provides insight into the relationship between nuclear mechanics and stem cell differentiation, which may guide clinical applications in the future. PMID:26210993

  13. Muscle stem cells at a glance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu Xin; Dumont, Nicolas A; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Muscle stem cells facilitate the long-term regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. This self-renewing population of satellite cells has only recently been defined through genetic and transplantation experiments. Although muscle stem cells remain in a dormant quiescent state in uninjured muscle, they are poised to activate and produce committed progeny. Unlike committed myogenic progenitor cells, the self-renewal capacity gives muscle stem cells the ability to engraft as satellite cells and capitulate long-term regeneration. Similar to other adult stem cells, understanding the molecular regulation of muscle stem cells has significant implications towards the development of pharmacological or cell-based therapies for muscle disorders. This Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster will review satellite cell characteristics and therapeutic potential, and provide an overview of the muscle stem cell hallmarks: quiescence, self-renewal and commitment. PMID:25300792

  14. Mesenchymal stem cell treatment for autoimmune diseases: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Fernando E; Carrión, Flavio; Villanueva, Sandra; Khoury, Maroun

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are now known to display not only stem cell multipotency, but also robust antiinflammatory and regenerative properties. After widespread in-vitro and in-vivo preclinical testing, autologous and allogeneic MSCs have been applied in a range of immune mediated conditions, including graft versus host disease, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, refractory systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis. Current data suggests that MSCs may not only replace diseased tissues, but also exert several trophic, regenerative and antiinflammatory effects. While the clinical outcome in case reports and phase I-II trials seems occasionally striking, these limited results point to the need to perform controlled multicenter trials. Future advances from stem cell science can be expected to pinpoint significant MSC subpopulations and/or stem cell markers for improved regenerative or immunoregulatory properties. PMID:23283436

  15. Amniotic fluid stem cells prevent ?-cell injury

    PubMed Central

    VILLANI, VALENTINA; MILANESI, ANNA; SEDRAKYAN, SARGIS; DA SACCO, STEFANO; ANGELOW, SUSANNE; CONCONI, MARIA TERESA; DI LIDDO, ROSA; DE FILIPPO, ROGER; PERIN, LAURA

    2015-01-01

    Background aims The contribution of amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) to tissue protection and regeneration in models of acute and chronic kidney injuries and lung failure has been shown in recent years. In the present study, we used a chemically induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes to determine whether AFSC could play a role in modulating ?-cell injury and restoring ?-cell function. Methods Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were given intracardial injection of AFSC; morphological and physiological parameters and gene expression profile for the insulin pathway were evaluated after cell transplantation. Results AFSC injection resulted in protection from ?-cell damage and increased ?-cell regeneration in a subset of mice as indicated by glucose and insulin levels, increased islet mass and preservation of islet structure. Moreover, ?-cell preservation/regeneration correlated with activation of the insulin receptor/Pi3K/Akt signaling pathway and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression involved in maintaining ?-cell mass and function. Conclusions Our results suggest a therapeutic role for AFSC in preserving and promoting endogenous ?-cell functionality and proliferation. The protective role of AFSC is evident when stem cell transplantation is performed before severe hyperglycemia occurs, which suggests the importance of early intervention. The present study demonstrates the possible benefits of the application of a non–genetically engineered stem cell population derived from amniotic fluid for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus and gives new insight on the mechanism by which the beneficial effect is achieved. PMID:24210784

  16. Rand medical discipline focused on har-nessing the power of stem cells and the

    E-print Network

    Rand medical discipline focused on har- nessing the power of stem cells and the body's own cells. Researchers also aim to develop tissue replace- ment therapies that could restore lost function to the study and development of stem cells, regenerative medicine also includes - physicians, nanotechnologists

  17. Stem Cell Research in Pakistan; Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Sayeda Anum; Muzavir, Sayed Raheel; Ashraf, Sadia; Ahmad, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Stem cells have proved to have great therapeutic potential as stem cell treatment is replacing traditional ways of treatment in different disorders like cancer, aplastic anemia, stroke, heart disorders. The developed and developing countries are investing differently in this area of research so research output and clinical translation of research greatly vary among developed and developing countries. Present study was done to investigate the current status of stem cells research in Pakistan and ways to improve it. Results Many advanced countries (USA, UK and Canada etc.) are investing heavily in stem cell research and treatment. Different developing countries like Iran, Turkey and India are also following the developed countries and investing a lot in stem cells research. Pakistan is also making efforts in establishing this field to get desired benefits but unfortunately the progress is at very low pace. If Government plays an active role along with private sector, stem cell research in Pakistan can be boosted up. The numbers of publications from Pakistan are very less compared to developed and neighboring countries and Pakistan also has very less number of institutes working in this area of research. Conclusions Stem cells research is at its initial stages in Pakistan and there is great need to bring Government, academia and industry together so they could make serious efforts to promote research in this very important field. This will help millions of patients suffering from incurable disorders and will also reduce economic loss. PMID:26019749

  18. Cell Stem Cell Molecular Profiling of Human Mammary Gland

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    Cell Stem Cell Resource Molecular Profiling of Human Mammary Gland Links Breast Cancer Risk to a p Centre, East Melbourne 3002, VIC, Australia 31Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 32 differences in CD44+ progenitor cells, where the levels of many Cell Stem Cell 13, 117­130, July 3, 2013 ª2013

  19. Dopamine neuron generation from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Sik; Park, Chang-Hwan

    2011-11-01

    The capacity of pluripotency and self-renewal of human embryonic stem (hES) cells may provide unlimited cell source for cell replacement therapy. In this manuscript we summarize hES differentiation protocols coculture with PA6 or MS5 stromal cells. After 7? 9 days of differentiation, neural rosettes were robustly appeared followed by coculture with sonic hedgehog over-expressing stromal cells efficiently generated dopaminergic neural precursor cells. Using this protocol, the majority of differentiated hES cells contained nestin positive cells (?95%) and after final differentiation a high percentage of TuJ1 positive neurons was tyrosine hydroxylase positive (?40%). PMID:24298339

  20. CANCER STEM CELLS IN OSTEOSARCOMA

    PubMed Central

    Bashur, Lindsay; Zhou, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in pediatric patients. Despite conventional treatments such as surgery and chemotherapy, long-term survival rates for patients diagnosed with osteosarcoma have not improved over the last 30 years, likely due to drug-resistant metastasis and disease recurrence. An emerging concept in cancer research is that within a heterogeneous tumor there is a small subset of cells called “cancer stem cells” that are responsible for drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. This brief review summarizes our current knowledge about cancer stem cells in osteosarcoma, including their potential as a new target for osteosarcoma treatment.

  1. Generation and Purification of Definitive Endoderm Cells Generated from Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, Ulf; Naujok, Ortwin

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into cells of the definitive endoderm requires an in vitro gastrulation event. Differentiated somatic cells derived from this germ layer may then be used for cell replacement therapies of degenerative diseases of the liver, lung, and pancreas. Here we describe an endoderm differentiation protocol, which initiates the differentiation from a defined cell number of dispersed single cells and reliably yields in >70-80 % endoderm-committed cells in a short 5-day treatment regimen. PMID:25762297

  2. Endometrial stem cells in regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    First described in 2004, endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) are adult stem cells isolated from the endometrial tissue. EnSCs comprise of a population of epithelial stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and side population stem cells. When secreted in the menstrual blood, they are termed menstrual stem cells or endometrial regenerative cells. Mounting evidence suggests that EnSCs can be utilized in regenerative medicine. EnSCs can be used as immuno-modulatory agents to attenuate inflammation, are implicated in angiogenesis and vascularization during tissue regeneration, and can also be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. Furthermore, EnSCs can be used in tissue engineering applications and there are several clinical trials currently in place to ascertain the therapeutic potential of EnSCs. This review highlights the progress made in EnSC research, describing their mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal potentials both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25097665

  3. Cancer Stem Cell Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    Chair Kathleen Kelly, Cell and Cancer Biology Branch, CCR, NCI Members Snorri Thorgeirsson, Laboratory of Experimental Carcinogenesis, CCR, NCI Mike Alley, Developmental Therapeutics Program, NCI Jesper Andersen, Laboratory of Experimental Carcinogenesis,

  4. Embryonic Stem Cell Patents and Human Dignity

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity. After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells do not. Since patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells may still threaten human dignity by encouraging people to treat embryos as property, patent agencies should carefully monitor and control these patents to ensure that patents are not inadvertently awarded on embryos or totipotent stem cells. PMID:17922198

  5. Stem cell maintenance in a different niche

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji Yeon; Lee, Seung Tae

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the difficulty of controlling stem cell fate and function in applications to regenerative medicine, a number of alternative approaches have been made. Recent reports demonstrate that a non-cellular niche modulating the biophysical microenvironment with chemical factors can support stem cell self-renewal. In our previous studies, early establishment was executed to optimize biophysical factors and it was subsequently found that the microgeometry of the extracellular matrix made huge differences in stem cell behavior and phenotype. We review here a three-dimensional, non-cellular niche designed to support stem cell self-renewal. The characteristics of stem cells under the designed system are further discussed. PMID:23875159

  6. Stem Cells in Teeth and Craniofacial Bones.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Chai, Y

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells are remarkable, and stem cell-based tissue engineering is an emerging field of biomedical science aiming to restore damaged tissue or organs. In dentistry and reconstructive facial surgery, it is of great interest to restore lost teeth or craniofacial bone defects using stem cell-mediated therapy. In the craniofacial region, various stem cell populations have been identified with regeneration potential. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge concerning the various types of tooth- and craniofacial bone-related stem cells and discuss their in vivo identities and regulating mechanisms. PMID:26350960

  7. Similarity on neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in transgenic brain tumor mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Guanqun; Li, Qingquan; Peng, Gang; Ma, Jun; Fan, Hongwei; Li, Yingbin

    2013-01-01

    Although it is believed that glioma is derived from brain tumor stem cells, the source and molecular signal pathways of these cells are still unclear. In this study, we used stable doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse brain tumor models (c-myc+/SV40Tag+/Tet-on+) to explore the malignant trans-formation potential of neural stem cells by observing the differences of neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in the tumor models. Results showed that chromosome instability occurred in brain tumor stem cells. The numbers of cytolysosomes and autophagosomes in brain tumor stem cells and induced neural stem cells were lower and the proliferative activity was obviously stronger than that in normal neural stem cells. Normal neural stem cells could differentiate into glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive and microtubule associated protein-2-positive cells, which were also negative for nestin. However, glial fibrillary acidic protein/nestin, microtubule associated protein-2/nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein/microtubule associated protein-2 double-positive cells were found in induced neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells. Results indicate that induced neural stem cells are similar to brain tumor stem cells, and are possibly the source of brain tumor stem cells. PMID:25206546

  8. Stem Cells, Science, and Public Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbut, J. Benjamin; Robert, Jason Scott

    2012-01-01

    These are interesting days in the scientific, social, and political debates about human embryonic stem cell research. Pluripotent stem cells--cells that can, in principle, give rise to the body's full range of cell types--were previously derivable only from human embryos that were destroyed in the process. Now, a variety of somatic cell types can…

  9. Klotho, stem cells, and aging

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Ao; Neyra, Javier A; Zhan, Ming; Hu, Ming Chang

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and progressive biological process involving dysfunction and eventually destruction of every tissue and organ. This process is driven by a tightly regulated and complex interplay between genetic and acquired factors. Klotho is an antiaging gene encoding a single-pass transmembrane protein, klotho, which serves as an aging suppressor through a wide variety of mechanisms, such as antioxidation, antisenescence, antiautophagy, and modulation of many signaling pathways, including insulin-like growth factor and Wnt. Klotho deficiency activates Wnt expression and activity contributing to senescence and depletion of stem cells, which consequently triggers tissue atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, the klotho protein was shown to suppress Wnt-signaling transduction, and inhibit cell senescence and preserve stem cells. A better understanding of the potential effects of klotho on stem cells could offer novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of klotho deficiency-related aging and disease. The klotho protein may be a promising therapeutic agent for aging and aging-related disorders. PMID:26346243

  10. Long-term maintenance of human induced pluripotent stem cells by automated cell culture system

    PubMed Central

    Konagaya, Shuhei; Ando, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Toshiaki; Suemori, Hirofumi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are regarded as new sources for cell replacement therapy. These cells can unlimitedly expand under undifferentiated conditions and be differentiated into multiple cell types. Automated culture systems enable the large-scale production of cells. In addition to reducing the time and effort of researchers, an automated culture system improves the reproducibility of cell cultures. In the present study, we newly designed a fully automated cell culture system for human iPS maintenance. Using an automated culture system, hiPS cells maintained their undifferentiated state for 60 days. Automatically prepared hiPS cells had a potency of differentiation into three germ layer cells including dopaminergic neurons and pancreatic cells. PMID:26573336

  11. Effects of nanotopography on stem cell phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Liao, Susan; Ng, Clarisse CH; Chan, Casey K; Raghunath, Michael; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can self renew indefinitely and differentiate into several somatic cells given the correct environmental cues. In the stem cell niche, stem cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions are crucial for different cellular functions, such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Recently, in addition to chemical surface modifications, the importance of nanometric scale surface topography and roughness of biomaterials has increasingly becoming recognized as a crucial factor for cell survival and host tissue acceptance in synthetic ECMs. This review describes the influence of nanotopography on stem cell phenotypes. PMID:21607108

  12. [Adult stem cells: their scientific interest and therapeutic future].

    PubMed

    Coulombel, L

    2007-09-01

    Fascinating and provocative findings have shaken the stem cell field during these past years, which may be exploited in the future in cell replacement therapies. Continuous renewal of blood, skin, and gut cells, has long be attributed to stem cells, but it was more unexpected to identify cells that fulfil the requirements for stem-progenitor cells in many tissues with a slow turnover such as heart, kidney, muscle and brain. However, despite their lack of risk and immunological barrier, adult stem cells are yet of poor therapeutic value in many diseases, because they are available in scarce number, are poorly amplified, and loose potential with ageing, among many obstacles. Thus, the identification in adult, and more recently fetal tissues, of cells with a high proliferative capacity and multi-lineage differentiation potential has been wellcome, although their existence is still a matter of controversy. An alternative would be to activate stem cells in situ, by acting on components of the niche as recently exemplified in the hematopoetic system. Finally, as fiction meets reality, it may become possible to reprogram human adult cells in pluripotent ES cells-like, as recently demonstrated in mice. PMID:17766162

  13. Stem cells - biological update and cell therapy progress

    PubMed Central

    GIRLOVANU, MIHAI; SUSMAN, SERGIU; SORITAU, OLGA; RUS-CIUCA, DAN; MELINCOVICI, CARMEN; CONSTANTIN, ANNE-MARIE; MIHU, CARMEN MIHAELA

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the advances in stem cell research have suggested that the human body may have a higher plasticity than it was originally expected. Until now, four categories of stem cells were isolated and cultured in vivo: embryonic stem cells, fetal stem cells, adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Although multiple studies were published, several issues concerning the stem cells are still debated, such as: the molecular mechanisms of differentiation, the methods to prevent teratoma formation or the ethical and religious issues regarding especially the embryonic stem cell research. The direct differentiation of stem cells into specialized cells: cardiac myocytes, neural cells, pancreatic islets cells, may represent an option in treating incurable diseases such as: neurodegenerative diseases, type I diabetes, hematologic or cardiac diseases. Nevertheless, stem cell-based therapies, based on stem cell transplantation, remain mainly at the experimental stages and their major limitation is the development of teratoma and cancer after transplantation. The induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) represent a prime candidate for future cell therapy research because of their significant self-renewal and differentiation potential and the lack of ethical issues. This article presents an overview of the biological advances in the study of stem cells and the current progress made in the field of regenerative medicine. PMID:26609255

  14. Learning about Cancer by Studying Stem Cells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Cancer by Studying Stem Cells Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Learning About Cancer by Studying Stem ... Once Upon a Stem Cell This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Nora; Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva; Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs; Apati, Agota

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  16. Stem Cells in the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Soto, Angel R.; Oakley, Derek H.; Wichterle, Hynek; Stein, Joel; Doetsch, Fiona K.; Henderson, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Given their capacity to regenerate cells lost through injury or disease, stem cells offer new vistas into possible treatments for degenerative diseases and their underlying causes. As such, stem cell biology is emerging as a driving force behind many studies in the field of regenerative medicine. This review focuses on our current understanding of the applications of stem cells in treating ailments of the human brain, with an emphasis on neurodegenerative diseases. Two types of neural stem cells are discussed: endogenous neural stem cells residing within the adult brain, and pluripotent stem cells capable of forming neural cells in culture. Endogenous neural stem cells give rise to neurons throughout life, but they are restricted to specialized regions in the brain. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms regulating these cells is key in determining their therapeutic potential, as well as finding mechanisms to activate dormant stem cells outside of these specialized microdomains. In parallel, patient-derived stem cells can be used to generate neural cells in culture, providing new tools for disease modeling, drug testing and cell-based therapies. Turning these technologies into viable treatments will require the integration of basic science with clinical skills in rehabilitation. PMID:24800720

  17. Intestinal stem cells and celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Piscaglia, Anna Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells (SCs) are the key to tissue genesis and regeneration. Given their central role in homeostasis, dysfunctions of the SC compartment play a pivotal role in the development of cancers, degenerative disorders, chronic inflammatory pathologies and organ failure. The gastrointestinal tract is constantly exposed to harsh mechanical and chemical conditions and most of the epithelial cells are replaced every 3 to 5 d. According to the so-called Unitarian hypothesis, this renewal is driven by a common intestinal stem cell (ISC) residing within the crypt base at the origin of the crypt-to-villus hierarchical migratory pattern. Celiac disease (CD) can be defined as a chronic immune-mediated disease that is triggered and maintained by dietary proteins (gluten) in genetically predisposed individuals. Many advances have been achieved over the last years in understanding of the pathogenic interactions among genetic, immunological and environmental factors in CD, with a particular emphasis on intestinal barrier and gut microbiota. Conversely, little is known about ISC modulation and deregulation in active celiac disease and upon a gluten-free diet. Nonetheless, bone marrow-derived SC transplantation has become an option for celiac patients with complicated or refractory disease. This manuscript summarizes the “state of the art” regarding CD and ISCs, their niche and potential role in the development and treatment of the disease. PMID:24772248

  18. Stem Cell-Based Meniscus Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Biman B.; Park, Sang-Hyug; Gil, Eun Seok

    2011-01-01

    Knee meniscus, a fibrocartilaginous tissue, is characterized by heterogeneity in extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomechanical properties, and critical for orthopedic stability, load transmission, shock absorption, and stress distribution within the knee joint. Most damage to the meniscus cannot be effectively healed by the body due to its partial avascular nature; thus, damage caused by injury or age impairs normal knee function, predisposing patients to osteoarthritis. Meniscus tissue engineering offers a possible solution to this problem by generating replacement tissue that may be implanted into the defect site to mimic the function of natural meniscal tissue. To address this need, a multiporous, multilamellar meniscus was formed using silk protein scaffolds and stem cells. The silk scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow stem cells and differentiated over time in chondrogenic culture in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta 3 to generate meniscus-like tissue in vitro. High cellularity along with abundant ECM leading to enhanced biomechanics similar to native tissue was found. Higher levels of collagen type I and II, sulfated glycosaminoglycans along with enhanced collagen 1-?1, aggrecan, and SOX9 gene expression further confirmed differentiation and matured cell phenotype. The results of this study are a step forward toward biomechanically competent meniscus engineering, reconstituting both form and function of the native meniscus. PMID:21682541

  19. Genetics of Gonadal Stem Cell Renewal.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, Leah Joy; de Cuevas, Margaret; Matunis, Erika

    2015-11-13

    Stem cells are necessary for the maintenance of many adult tissues. Signals within the stem cell microenvironment, or niche, regulate the self-renewal and differentiation capability of these cells. Misregulation of these signals through mutation or damage can lead to overgrowth or depletion of different stem cell pools. In this review, we focus on the Drosophila testis and ovary, both of which contain well-defined niches, as well as the mouse testis, which has become a more approachable stem cell system with recent technical advances. We discuss the signals that regulate gonadal stem cells in their niches, how these signals mediate self-renewal and differentiation under homeostatic conditions, and how stress, whether from mutations or damage, can cause changes in cell fate and drive stem cell competition. PMID:26355592

  20. Reforming craniofacial orthodontics via stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Pritam; Prasad, N.K.K.; Sahoo, Nivedita; Kumar, Gunjan; Mohanty, Debapreeti; Sah, Sushila

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are the most interesting cells in cell biology. They have the potential to evolve as one of the most powerful technologies in the future. The future refers to an age where it will be used extensively in various fields of medical and dental sciences. Researchers have discovered a number of sources from which stem cells can be derived. Craniofacial problems are very common and occur at all ages. Stem cells can be used therapeutically in almost every field of health science. In fact, many procedures will be reformed after stem cells come into play. This article is an insight into the review of the current researches being carried out on stem cells and its use in the field of orthodontics, which is a specialized branch of dentistry. Although the future is uncertain, there is a great possibility that stem cells will be used extensively in almost all major procedures of orthodontics. PMID:25767761

  1. Stem cell differentiation and human liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Li; Medine, Claire N; Zhu, Liang; Hay, David C

    2012-01-01

    Human stem cells are scalable cell populations capable of cellular differentiation. This makes them a very attractive in vitro cellular resource and in theory provides unlimited amounts of primary cells. Such an approach has the potential to improve our understanding of human biology and treating disease. In the future it may be possible to deploy novel stem cell-based approaches to treat human liver diseases. In recent years, efficient hepatic differentiation from human stem cells has been achieved by several research groups including our own. In this review we provide an overview of the field and discuss the future potential and limitations of stem cell technology. PMID:22563188

  2. Adult Stem Cell Responses to Nanostimuli

    PubMed Central

    Tsimbouri, Penelope M.

    2015-01-01

    Adult or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found in different tissues in the body, residing in stem cell microenvironments called “stem cell niches”. They play different roles but their main activity is to maintain tissue homeostasis and repair throughout the lifetime of an organism. Their ability to differentiate into different cell types makes them an ideal tool to study tissue development and to use them in cell-based therapies. This differentiation process is subject to both internal and external forces at the nanoscale level and this response of stem cells to nanostimuli is the focus of this review. PMID:26193326

  3. Stem cell differentiation and human liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Li; Medine, Claire N; Zhu, Liang; Hay, David C

    2012-05-01

    Human stem cells are scalable cell populations capable of cellular differentiation. This makes them a very attractive in vitro cellular resource and in theory provides unlimited amounts of primary cells. Such an approach has the potential to improve our understanding of human biology and treating disease. In the future it may be possible to deploy novel stem cell-based approaches to treat human liver diseases. In recent years, efficient hepatic differentiation from human stem cells has been achieved by several research groups including our own. In this review we provide an overview of the field and discuss the future potential and limitations of stem cell technology. PMID:22563188

  4. Adult Stem Cell Responses to Nanostimuli.

    PubMed

    Tsimbouri, Penelope M

    2015-01-01

    Adult or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found in different tissues in the body, residing in stem cell microenvironments called "stem cell niches". They play different roles but their main activity is to maintain tissue homeostasis and repair throughout the lifetime of an organism. Their ability to differentiate into different cell types makes them an ideal tool to study tissue development and to use them in cell-based therapies. This differentiation process is subject to both internal and external forces at the nanoscale level and this response of stem cells to nanostimuli is the focus of this review. PMID:26193326

  5. Imported Stem Cells Strike against Stroke.

    PubMed

    Péron, Sophie; Berninger, Benedikt

    2015-11-01

    Cells with neural stem cell (NSC)-like properties can be isolated from the cortex of adult brains following injury, but their origins and function are unclear. Now in Cell Stem Cell, Faiz et al. (2015) show that subventricular-zone-derived NSCs home to injured cortical area following stroke, where they generate reactive astrocytes. PMID:26544109

  6. Stem Cell Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Cells vs Gene TherapyStem Cells vs Gene Therapy For RA, not all genetic causes are known to kill oversecreted or transformed cells Gene therapy may have long term side effects #12;BibliographyStem Cell Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis By: Matt Ferry Biochem 118 Brutlag Winter 2012 #12

  7. Pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells: From basic research to applications

    PubMed Central

    Otsu, Masahiro; Nakayama, Takashi; Inoue, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    Basic research on pluripotent stem cells is designed to enhance understanding of embryogenesis, whereas applied research is designed to develop novel therapies and prevent diseases. Attainment of these goals has been enhanced by the establishment of embryonic stem cell lines, the technological development of genomic reprogramming to generate induced-pluripotent stem cells, and improvements in vitro techniques to manipulate stem cells. This review summarizes the techniques required to generate neural cells from pluripotent stem cells. In particular, this review describes current research applications of a simple neural differentiation method, the neural stem sphere method, which we developed. PMID:25426263

  8. Induction of Trabecular Meshwork Cells From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qiong J.; Zhu, Wei; Cook, Amy C.; Anfinson, Kristin R.; Tucker, Budd A.; Kuehn, Markus H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Loss or dysfunction of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells has been associated with the development of pathologically elevated IOP, and it is conceivable that replacement of damaged TM cells could restore function to the TM. We propose that the use of TM-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) created from a patient's own dermal fibroblasts offers the best solution to this challenge. Here we demonstrate that mouse iPSCs can be induced to differentiate into TM-like cells suitable for autologous transplantation. Methods. Directed induction of stem cell differentiation was achieved through coculture of mouse iPSCs with human TM cells for up to 21 days. The resultant TM-like cells (iPSC-TM) were characterized morphologically, immunohistochemically, and functionally. Results. The iPSC-TM cells closely resembled cultured human TM cells morphologically and began to express many markers of TM cells while ceasing to express pluripotency markers such as Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2. Functionally, these cells developed the ability to phagocytose particles. Finally, exposure to dexamethasone or phorbol 12-myristate acetate caused a distinct increase in the production and secretion of myocilin and matrix metalloproteinase-3, respectively, behavior characteristic of TM cells. Conclusions. Our data demonstrate that iPSCs can be induced to assume a phenotype that resembles native TM cells in many important aspects. Not only do these cells represent a valuable research tool, but transplantation into glaucomatous eyes with elevated IOP may also restore function to the TM, resulting in re-establishment of IOP. PMID:25298418

  9. Mammary stem cells have myoepithelial cell properties

    PubMed Central

    Prater, Michael D.; Petit, Valérie; Russell, I. Alasdair; Giraddi, Rajshekhar; Shehata, Mona; Menon, Suraj; Schulte, Reiner; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rath, Nicola; Olson, Michael F.; Metzger, Daniel; Faraldo, Marisa M.; Deugnier, Marie-Ange; Glukhova, Marina A.; Stingl, John

    2014-01-01

    Contractile myoepithelial cells dominate the basal layer of the mammary epithelium and are considered to be differentiated cells. However, we observe that up to 54% of single basal cells can form colonies when seeded into adherent culture in the presence of agents that disrupt acin-myosin interactions, and on average, 65% of the single-cell-derived basal colonies can repopulate a mammary gland when transplanted in vivo. This indicates that a high proportion of basal myoepithelial cells can give rise to a mammary repopulating unit (MRU). We demonstrate that myoepithelial cells, flow-sorted using 2 independent myoepithelial-specific reporter strategies, have MRU capacity. Using an inducible lineage tracing approach we follow the progeny of ?-smooth muscle actin-expressing myoepithelial cells and show that they function as long-lived lineage-restricted stem cells in the virgin state and during pregnancy. PMID:25173976

  10. Neutral competition of stem cells is skewed by proliferative changes downstream of Hh and Hpo

    PubMed Central

    Amoyel, Marc; Simons, Benjamin D; Bach, Erika A

    2014-01-01

    Neutral competition, an emerging feature of stem cell homeostasis, posits that individual stem cells can be lost and replaced by their neighbors stochastically, resulting in chance dominance of a clone at the niche. A single stem cell with an oncogenic mutation could bias this process and clonally spread the mutation throughout the stem cell pool. The Drosophila testis provides an ideal system for testing this model. The niche supports two stem cell populations that compete for niche occupancy. Here, we show that cyst stem cells (CySCs) conform to the paradigm of neutral competition and that clonal deregulation of either the Hedgehog (Hh) or Hippo (Hpo) pathway allows a single CySC to colonize the niche. We find that the driving force behind such behavior is accelerated proliferation. Our results demonstrate that a single stem cell colonizes its niche through oncogenic mutation by co-opting an underlying homeostatic process. PMID:25092766

  11. Neutral competition of stem cells is skewed by proliferative changes downstream of Hh and Hpo.

    PubMed

    Amoyel, Marc; Simons, Benjamin D; Bach, Erika A

    2014-10-16

    Neutral competition, an emerging feature of stem cell homeostasis, posits that individual stem cells can be lost and replaced by their neighbors stochastically, resulting in chance dominance of a clone at the niche. A single stem cell with an oncogenic mutation could bias this process and clonally spread the mutation throughout the stem cell pool. The Drosophila testis provides an ideal system for testing this model. The niche supports two stem cell populations that compete for niche occupancy. Here, we show that cyst stem cells (CySCs) conform to the paradigm of neutral competition and that clonal deregulation of either the Hedgehog (Hh) or Hippo (Hpo) pathway allows a single CySC to colonize the niche. We find that the driving force behind such behavior is accelerated proliferation. Our results demonstrate that a single stem cell colonizes its niche through oncogenic mutation by co-opting an underlying homeostatic process. PMID:25092766

  12. Cell Stem Cell Developmental Stage and Time Dictate the Fate

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    Cell Stem Cell Article Developmental Stage and Time Dictate the Fate of Wnt/b-Catenin-Responsive Stem Cells in the Mammary Gland Rene´ e van Amerongen,1,2,* Angela N. Bowman,1 and Roel Nusse1,* 1 a role for stem cells. Yet their origin, identity, and behavior in the intact tissue remain unknown

  13. Cell Stem Cell Wnt Signaling Mediates Self-Organization

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    research is to direct the differentiation of stem cells into specific developmental lineages. DescendantsCell Stem Cell Article Wnt Signaling Mediates Self-Organization and Axis Formation in Embryoid Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) form descendants of all three germ layers when differentiated as aggregates

  14. Equine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells have a Reduced Tendon Differentiation Capacity Compared to Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bavin, Emma P.; Smith, Olivia; Baird, Arabella E. G.; Smith, Lawrence C.; Guest, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries occur commonly in horses and their repair through scar tissue formation predisposes horses to a high rate of re-injury. Pluripotent stem cells may provide a cell replacement therapy to improve tendon tissue regeneration and lower the frequency of re-injury. We have previously demonstrated that equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiate into the tendon cell lineage upon injection into the damaged horse tendon and can differentiate into functional tendon cells in vitro to generate artificial tendons. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have now been derived from horses but, to date, there are no reports on their ability to differentiate into tendon cells. As iPSCs can be produced from adult cell types, they provide a more accessible source of cells than ESCs, which require the use of horse embryos. The aim of this study was to compare tendon differentiation by ESCs and iPSCs produced through two independent methods. In two-dimensional differentiation assays, the iPSCs expressed tendon-associated genes and proteins, which were enhanced by the presence of transforming growth factor-?3. However, in three-dimensional (3D) differentiation assays, the iPSCs failed to differentiate into functional tendon cells and generate artificial tendons. These results demonstrate the utility of the 3D in vitro tendon assay for measuring tendon differentiation and the need for more detailed studies to be performed on equine iPSCs to identify and understand their epigenetic differences from pluripotent ESCs prior to their clinical application. PMID:26664982

  15. Equine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells have a Reduced Tendon Differentiation Capacity Compared to Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Bavin, Emma P; Smith, Olivia; Baird, Arabella E G; Smith, Lawrence C; Guest, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries occur commonly in horses and their repair through scar tissue formation predisposes horses to a high rate of re-injury. Pluripotent stem cells may provide a cell replacement therapy to improve tendon tissue regeneration and lower the frequency of re-injury. We have previously demonstrated that equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiate into the tendon cell lineage upon injection into the damaged horse tendon and can differentiate into functional tendon cells in vitro to generate artificial tendons. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have now been derived from horses but, to date, there are no reports on their ability to differentiate into tendon cells. As iPSCs can be produced from adult cell types, they provide a more accessible source of cells than ESCs, which require the use of horse embryos. The aim of this study was to compare tendon differentiation by ESCs and iPSCs produced through two independent methods. In two-dimensional differentiation assays, the iPSCs expressed tendon-associated genes and proteins, which were enhanced by the presence of transforming growth factor-?3. However, in three-dimensional (3D) differentiation assays, the iPSCs failed to differentiate into functional tendon cells and generate artificial tendons. These results demonstrate the utility of the 3D in vitro tendon assay for measuring tendon differentiation and the need for more detailed studies to be performed on equine iPSCs to identify and understand their epigenetic differences from pluripotent ESCs prior to their clinical application. PMID:26664982

  16. [Human stem cells in the treatment of pancreatic and hepatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Hakonen, Elina; Toivonen, Sanna; Jalanko, Hannu; Otonkoski, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas and the liver are developmentally closely connected with each other.The development of stem cell technology has enabled the production of functional pancreatic endocrine cells and hepatocytes from pluripotent human stem cells. The differentiation of cells takes place by mimicking the events of developmental biology on a cell culture dish. The research is aiming at the development of cell replacement therapy for diabetes and hepatic insufficiency. Transplantations of islet cells have proven the possibilities of this strategy as a replacement of insulin therapy. Although there are promising initial clinical observations on hepatocyte transplantation, the limited growth capacity of these cells restricts the efficiency of the treatment. PMID:25558618

  17. Stem cell applications for pathologies of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Noha A; Abou-Taleb, Hisham A; Orabi, Hazem

    2015-01-01

    New stem cell based therapies are undergoing intense research and are widely investigated in clinical fields including the urinary system. The urinary bladder performs critical complex functions that rely on its highly coordinated anatomical composition and multiplex of regulatory mechanisms. Bladder pathologies resulting in severe dysfunction are common clinical encounter and often cause significant impairment of patient’s quality of life. Current surgical and medical interventions to correct urinary dysfunction or to replace an absent or defective bladder are sub-optimal and are associated with notable complications. As a result, stem cell based therapies for the urinary bladder are hoped to offer new venues that could make up for limitations of existing therapies. In this article, we review research efforts that describe the use of different types of stem cells in bladder reconstruction, urinary incontinence and retention disorders. In particular, stress urinary incontinence has been a popular target for stem cell based therapies in reported clinical trials. Furthermore, we discuss the relevance of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the development of bladder cancer. A key subject that should not be overlooked is the safety and quality of stem cell based therapies introduced to human subjects either in a research or a clinical context. PMID:26131312

  18. Hepatic regeneration from hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Austin, Timothy W; Lagasse, Eric

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, numerous investigators have reported novel cellular fates of multipotent stem or progenitor cells. In this review, we discuss the unexpected observations that hematopoietic stem cells can contribute to the hepatocyte lineage in humans and in rodent models of liver disease and regeneration. A key unresolved issue regarding hepatic regeneration from hematopoietic stem cells is whether the mechanism occurs through transdetermination, cell fusion, or other processes. A better understanding of the various stem or progenitor cells of the hepatic lineage may facilitate cellular transplantation approaches for the correction of hepatic function in patients with end-stage liver disease. PMID:12490303

  19. Stem cell niche engineering through droplet microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Allazetta, Simone; Lutolf, Matthias P

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells reside in complex niches in which their behaviour is tightly regulated by various biochemical and biophysical signals. In order to unveil some of the crucial stem cell-niche interactions and expedite the implementation of stem cells in clinical and pharmaceutical applications, in vitro methodologies are being developed to reconstruct key features of stem cell niches. Recently, droplet-based microfluidics has emerged as a promising strategy to build stem cell niche models in a miniaturized and highly precise fashion. This review highlights current advances in using droplet microfluidics in stem cell biology. We also discuss recent efforts in which microgel technology has been interfaced with high-throughput analyses to engender screening paradigms with an unparalleled potential for basic and applied biological studies. PMID:26051090

  20. Stem cells in the light of evolution

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2012-01-01

    All organisms depend on stem cells for their survival. As a result, stem cells may be a prerequisite for the evolution of specific characteristics in organisms that include regeneration, multicellularity and coloniality. Stem cells have attracted the attention of biologists and medical scientists for a long time. These provide materials for regenerative medicine. We review in this paper, the link between modern stem cell research and early studies in ancient organisms. It also outlines details on stem cells in the light of evolution with an emphasis on their regeneration potential, coloniality and multicellularity. The information provided might be of use to molecular biologists, medical scientists and developmental biologists who are engaged in integrated research involving the stem cells. PMID:22825600

  1. Two-photon imaging of stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchugonova, A.; Gorjup, E.; Riemann, I.; Sauer, D.; König, K.

    2008-02-01

    A variety of human and animal stem cells (rat and human adult pancreatic stem cells, salivary gland stem cells, dental pulpa stem cells) have been investigated by femtosecond laser 5D two-photon microscopy. Autofluorescence and second harmonic generation have been imaged with submicron spatial resolution, 270 ps temporal resolution, and 10 nm spectral resolution. In particular, NADH and flavoprotein fluorescence was detected in stem cells. Major emission peaks at 460nm and 530nm with typical mean fluorescence lifetimes of 1.8 ns and 2.0 ns, respectively, were measured using time-correlated single photon counting and spectral imaging. Differentiated stem cells produced the extracellular matrix protein collagen which was detected by SHG signals at 435 nm.

  2. Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells

    SciTech Connect

    LaBarge, Mark A; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2007-06-01

    In most adult tissues there reside pools of stem and progenitor cells inside specialized microenvironments referred to as niches. The niche protects the stem cells from inappropriate expansion and directs their critical functions. Thus guided, stem cells are able to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout the ebb and flow of metabolic and physical demands encountered over a lifetime. Indeed, a pool of stem cells maintains mammary gland structure throughout development, and responds to the physiological demands associated with pregnancy. This review discusses how stem cells were identified in both human and mouse mammary glands; each requiring different techniques that were determined by differing biological needs and ethical constraints. These studies together create a robust portrait of mammary gland biology and identify the location of the stem cell niche, elucidate a developmental hierarchy, and suggest how the niche might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

  3. Cell patterning technology for controlling the stem cell microenvironment

    E-print Network

    Rosenthal, Adam D. (Adam David), 1978-

    2007-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells serve as powerful models for the study of development and disease and hold enormous potential for future therapeutics. Yet, over two decades after mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) were first isolated, ...

  4. [Bioethical challenges of stem cell tourism].

    PubMed

    Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Erices, Alejandro; Santos, Manuel J

    2013-08-01

    Stem cells have drawn extraordinary attention from scientists and the general public due to their potential to generate effective therapies for incurable diseases. At the same time, the production of embryonic stem cells involves a serious ethical issue concerning the destruction of human embryos. Although adult stem cells and induced pluripotential cells do not pose this ethical objection, there are other bioethical challenges common to all types of stem cells related particularly to the clinical use of stem cells. Their clinical use should be based on clinical trials, and in special situations, medical innovation, both of which have particular ethical dimensions. The media has raised unfounded expectations in patients and the public about the real clinical benefits of stem cells. At the same time, the number of unregulated clinics is increasing around the world, making direct offers through Internet of unproven stem cell therapies that attract desperate patients that have not found solutions in standard medicine. This is what is called stem cells tourism. This article reviews this situation, its consequences and the need for international cooperation to establish effective regulations to prevent the exploitation of patients and to endanger the prestige of legitimate stem cell research. PMID:24448860

  5. Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells

    E-print Network

    Kim, K.

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer and transcription-factor-based reprogramming revert adult cells to an embryonic state, and yield pluripotent stem cells that can generate all tissues. Through different mechanisms and kinetics, ...

  6. Generation of ovine induced pluripotent stem cells 

    E-print Network

    Sartori, Chiara

    2012-06-30

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells derived from the early embryo and are able to differentiate into cells belonging to the three germ layers. They are a valuable tool in research and for clinical use, but ...

  7. Developments in human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Roger A

    2005-03-01

    My task today is to describe the properties of stem cells speaking from the perspective of an investigator familiar with mammalian embryos and also working on human embryonic stem cells. My laboratory is based in the Department of Surgery and the Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, where you can find more information about ourselves and our colleagues (www.stemcells.cam.ac.uk). PMID:15820011

  8. Reporter Plasmid to Identify Cancer Stem Cells

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI lentiviral plasmid can identify the putative cancer stem cell population through the expression of fluorescent or luminescent proteins and has the potential to advance new therapies. The key feature of the plasmid is a reporter system that only detects cells expressing the core stem cell transcription factors Sox2 and Oct4.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells, aging and regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Raggi, Chiara; Berardi, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tissue maintenance and regeneration is dependent on stem cells and increasing evidence has shown to decline with age. Stem cell based-aging is thought to influence therapeutic efficacy. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are involved in tissue regeneration. Here, we discuss the effects of age-related changes on MSC properties considering their possible use in research or regenerative medicine. PMID:23738303

  10. Purification of Immature Neuronal Cells from Neural Stem Cell Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Hassan; Osborne, Geoffrey W.; Yasuda, Takahiro; Golmohammadi, Mohammad G.; Rahman, Maryam; Deleyrolle, Loic P.; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Adams, David J.; Scheffler, Bjorn; Steindler, Dennis A.; Reynolds, Brent A.

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation capabilities make neural stem cells (NSCs) a promising renewable source of cells for therapeutic applications. However, the practical application for neuronal cell replacement is limited by heterogeneity of NSC progeny, relatively low yield of neurons, predominance of astrocytes, poor survival of donor cells following transplantation and the potential for uncontrolled proliferation of precursor cells. To address these impediments, we have developed a method for the generation of highly enriched immature neurons from murine NSC progeny. Adaptation of the standard differentiation procedure in concert with flow cytometry selection, using scattered light and positive fluorescent light selection based on cell surface antibody binding, provided a near pure (97%) immature neuron population. Using the purified neurons, we screened a panel of growth factors and found that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) demonstrated a strong survival effect on the cells in vitro, and enhanced their functional maturity. This effect was maintained following transplantation into the adult mouse striatum where we observed a 2-fold increase in the survival of the implanted cells and a 3-fold increase in NeuN expression. Additionally, based on the neural-colony forming cell assay (N-CFCA), we noted a 64 fold reduction of the bona fide NSC frequency in neuronal cell population and that implanted donor cells showed no signs of excessive or uncontrolled proliferation. The ability to provide defined neural cell populations from renewable sources such as NSC may find application for cell replacement therapies in the central nervous system. PMID:21687800

  11. Purification of immature neuronal cells from neural stem cell progeny.

    PubMed

    Azari, Hassan; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Yasuda, Takahiro; Golmohammadi, Mohammad G; Rahman, Maryam; Deleyrolle, Loic P; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Adams, David J; Scheffler, Bjorn; Steindler, Dennis A; Reynolds, Brent A

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation capabilities make neural stem cells (NSCs) a promising renewable source of cells for therapeutic applications. However, the practical application for neuronal cell replacement is limited by heterogeneity of NSC progeny, relatively low yield of neurons, predominance of astrocytes, poor survival of donor cells following transplantation and the potential for uncontrolled proliferation of precursor cells. To address these impediments, we have developed a method for the generation of highly enriched immature neurons from murine NSC progeny. Adaptation of the standard differentiation procedure in concert with flow cytometry selection, using scattered light and positive fluorescent light selection based on cell surface antibody binding, provided a near pure (97%) immature neuron population. Using the purified neurons, we screened a panel of growth factors and found that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) demonstrated a strong survival effect on the cells in vitro, and enhanced their functional maturity. This effect was maintained following transplantation into the adult mouse striatum where we observed a 2-fold increase in the survival of the implanted cells and a 3-fold increase in NeuN expression. Additionally, based on the neural-colony forming cell assay (N-CFCA), we noted a 64 fold reduction of the bona fide NSC frequency in neuronal cell population and that implanted donor cells showed no signs of excessive or uncontrolled proliferation. The ability to provide defined neural cell populations from renewable sources such as NSC may find application for cell replacement therapies in the central nervous system. PMID:21687800

  12. Genetic control of intestinal stem cell specification and development: a comparative view.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Shigeo; Hartenstein, Volker

    2012-06-01

    Stem cells of the adult vertebrate intestine (ISCs) are responsible for the continuous replacement of intestinal cells, but also serve as site of origin of intestinal neoplasms. The interaction between multiple signaling pathways, including Wnt/Wg, Shh/Hh, BMP, and Notch, orchestrate mitosis, motility, and differentiation of ISCs. Many fundamental questions of how these pathways carry out their function remain unanswered. One approach to gain more insight is to look at the development of stem cells, to analyze the "programming" process which these cells undergo as they emerge from the large populations of embryonic progenitors. This review intends to summarize pertinent data on vertebrate intestinal stem cell biology, to then take a closer look at recent studies of intestinal stem cell development in Drosophila. Here, stem cell pools and their niche environment consist of relatively small numbers of cells, and questions concerning the pattern of cell division, niche-stem cell contacts, or differentiation can be addressed at the single cell level. Likewise, it is possible to analyze the emergence of stem cells during development more easily than in vertebrate systems: where in the embryo do stem cells arise, what structures in their environment do they interact with, and what signaling pathways are active sequentially as a result of these interactions. Given the high degree of conservation among genetic mechanisms controlling stem cell behavior in all animals, findings in Drosophila will provide answers that inform research in the vertebrate stem cell field. PMID:22529012

  13. ABC transporters, neural stem cells and neurogenesis--a different perspective.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tingting; Islam, Omedul; Heese, Klaus

    2006-11-01

    Stem cells intrigue. They have the ability to divide exponentially, recreate the stem cell compartment, as well as create differentiated cells to generate tissues. Therefore, they should be natural candidates to provide a renewable source of cells for transplantation applied in regenerative medicine. Stem cells have the capacity to generate specific tissues or even whole organs like the blood, heart, or bones. A subgroup of stem cells, the neural stem cells (NSCs), is characterized as a self-renewing population that generates neurons and glia of the developing brain. They can be isolated, genetically manipulated and differentiated in vitro and reintroduced into a developing, adult or a pathologically altered central nervous system. NSCs have been considered for use in cell replacement therapies in various neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Characterization of genes with tightly controlled expression patterns during differentiation represents an approach to understanding the regulation of stem cell commitment. The regulation of stem cell biology by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters has emerged as an important new field of investigation. As a major focus of stem cell research is in the manipulation of cells to enable differentiation into a targeted cell population; in this review, we discuss recent literatures on ABC transporters and stem cells, and propose an integrated view on the role of the ABC transporters, especially ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCB1 and ABCG2, in NSCs' proliferation, differentiation and regulation, along with comparisons to that in hematopoietic and other stem cells. PMID:17088897

  14. Stem cell therapy in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Choudry, Fizzah Aziz; Mathur, Anthony

    2011-11-01

    Cell therapy provides one of the most important solutions to the unmet need for new treatments in cardiovascular disease. This area of research has undergone a rapid translation into humans, with the bone marrow mononuclear cell predominating as the cell type with most clinical data. Confidence in the use of this cell type has grown over the last year with the publication of the results of Phase II/III trials in the setting of acute and chronic ischemia confirming safety and biological activity. A large pan-European outcome study is now being planned, which will definitely address the therapeutic potential of this cell type with respect to mortality. Data for the use of selected populations of cells, bioengineered cells/scaffolds and the resident stem cell population continue to grow, with some of these approaches reported in Phase I clinical trials with promising results. There is still some way to go and these more complicated cell therapy products will need to undergo the same scrutiny that has been applied to the results of the bone marrow mononuclear cell trials to date. Ultimately, these engineered biologics will have to justify the costs involved in producing them by significantly improving on results obtained by using bone marrow mononuclear cells for cardiovascular repair. The continued success of this area of translational medicine relies on the ongoing partnership between clinicians and scientists, who have thus far demonstrated a determined and pragmatic approach to solving some of the complexities of moving from bench to bedside. The next 5-years will see this partnership reach fruition as the long-awaited results of outcome studies of cell therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease are published. PMID:21999258

  15. Nanomaterials for Engineering Stem Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Kerativitayanan, Punyavee; Carrow, James K; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2015-08-01

    Recent progress in nanotechnology has stimulated the development of multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Synergistic interactions between nanomaterials and stem cell engineering offer numerous possibilities to address some of the daunting challenges in regenerative medicine, such as controlling trigger differentiation, immune reactions, limited supply of stem cells, and engineering complex tissue structures. Specifically, the interactions between stem cells and their microenvironment play key roles in controlling stem cell fate, which underlines therapeutic success. However, the interactions between nanomaterials and stem cells are not well understood, and the effects of the nanomaterials shape, surface morphology, and chemical functionality on cellular processes need critical evaluation. In this Review, focus is put on recent development in nanomaterial-stem cell interactions, with specific emphasis on their application in regenerative medicine. Further, the emerging technologies based on nanomaterials developed over the past decade for stem cell engineering are reviewed, as well as the potential applications of these nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, stem cell isolation, and drug/gene delivery. It is anticipated that the enhanced understanding of nanomaterial-stem cell interactions will facilitate improved biomaterial design for a range of biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:26010739

  16. Stem cell-based approaches in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Mitsiadis, T A; Orsini, G; Jimenez-Rojo, L

    2015-01-01

    Repair of dental pulp and periodontal lesions remains a major clinical challenge. Classical dental treatments require the use of specialised tissue-adapted materials with still questionable efficacy and durability. Stem cell-based therapeutic approaches could offer an attractive alternative in dentistry since they can promise physiologically improved structural and functional outcomes. These therapies necessitate a sufficient number of specific stem cell populations for implantation. Dental mesenchymal stem cells can be easily isolated and are amenable to in vitro expansion while retaining their stemness. In vivo studies realised in small and large animals have evidenced the potential of dental mesenchymal stem cells to promote pulp and periodontal regeneration, but have also underlined new important challenges. The homogeneity of stem cell populations and their quality control, the delivery method, the quality of the regenerated dental tissues and their integration to the host tissue are some of the key challenges. The use of bioactive scaffolds that can elicit effective tissue repair response, through activation and mobilisation of endogenous stem cell populations, constitutes another emerging therapeutic strategy. Finally, the use of stem cells and induced pluripotent cells for the regeneration of entire teeth represents a novel promising alternative to dental implant treatment after tooth loss. In this mini-review, we present the currently applied techniques in restorative dentistry and the various attempts that are made to bridge gaps in knowledge regarding treatment strategies by translating basic stem cell research into the dental practice. PMID:26562631

  17. Human renal cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bussolati, Benedetta; Dekel, Benjamin; Azzarone, Bruno; Camussi, Giovanni

    2013-09-10

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), isolated in renal carcinomas, exhibit tumor-initiating capabilities and pluripotency. No specific CSC markers have been identified so far; therefore, their characterization is mainly based on functional studies. As they are resistant to chemo and radio therapy, renal CSCs may have a relevant role in tumor establishment, progression, and recurrence. CSCs were also shown to contribute to intra-tumor vasculogenesis through an endothelial differentiation and to favor the generation of the pre-metastatic niche through the release of exosomes/microvesicles. PMID:22587951

  18. The stem cell system in demosponges: insights into the origin of somatic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Funayama, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    The stem cell system is one of the unique systems that have evolved only in multicellular organisms. Major questions about this system include what type(s) of stem cells are involved (pluri-, multi- or uni-potent stem cells), and how the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells are regulated. To understand the origin of the stem cell system in metazoans and to get insights into the ancestral stem cell itself, it is important to discover the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the stem cell system in sponges (Porifera), the evolutionarily oldest extant metazoans. Histological studies here provided a body of evidence that archeocytes are the stem cells in sponges, and recent molecular studies of sponges, especially the finding of the expression of Piwi homologues in archeocytes and choanocytes in a freshwater sponge, Ephydatia fluviatilis, have provided critical insights into the stem cell system in demosponges. Here I introduce archeocytes and discuss (i) modes of archeocyte differentiation, (ii) our current model of the stem cell system in sponges composed of both archeocytes and choanocytes based on our molecular analysis and previous microscopic studies suggesting the maintenance of pluripotency in choanocytes, (iii) the inference that the Piwi and piRNA function in maintaining stem cells (which also give rise to gametes) may have already been achieved in the ancestral metazoan, and (iv) possible hypotheses about how the migrating stem cells arose in the urmetazoan (protometazoan) and about the evolutionary origin of germline cells in the urbilaterian (protobilaterian). PMID:20078651

  19. WORKER CELL: An adult stem cell, collected from

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Stanford has launched an ambitious stem-cell institute, hoping to cure or treat cancer and other diseases the root cause of cancer," he says. "There is good evidence that there may be cancer stem cells. We could look within existing cancers and identify the stem cells and, over time, create a laboratory

  20. Adult stem cell and mesenchymal progenitor theories of aging.

    PubMed

    Fukada, So-Ichiro; Ma, Yuran; Uezumi, Akiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Advances in medical science and technology allow people live longer lives, which results in age-related problems. Humans cannot avoid the various aged-related alterations of aging; in other words, humans cannot remain young at molecular and cellular levels. In 1956, Harman proposed the "free radical theory of aging" to explain the molecular mechanisms of aging. Telomere length, and accumulation of DNA or mitochondrial damage are also considered to be mechanisms of aging. On the other hand, stem cells are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis by replacing parenchymal cells; therefore, the stem cell theory of aging is also used to explain the progress of aging. Importantly, the stem cell theory of aging is likely related to other theories. In addition, recent studies have started to reveal the essential roles of tissue-resident mesenchymal progenitors/stem cells/stromal cells in maintaining tissue homeostasis, and some evidence of their fundamental roles in the progression of aging has been presented. In this review, we discuss how stem cell and other theories connect to explain the progress of aging. In addition, we consider the mesenchymal progenitor theory of aging to describing the process of aging. PMID:25364718

  1. Stem Cell Basics Last modified on April 08, 2015

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Stem Cell Basics Last modified on April 08, 2015 About this document This primer on stem cells is intended for anyone who wishes to learn more about the biological properties of stem cells, the important questions about stem cells that are the focus of scientific research, and the potential use of stem cells

  2. Systematic screen of chemotherapeutics in Drosophila stem cell tumors

    E-print Network

    Perrimon, Norbert

    chemotherapeutics with anti-inflammatories may reduce tumor recurrence. cancer stem cell | drug screening | Drosophila intestinal stem cell | whole-animal screening Avexing problem in cancer therapeutics is tumor of cells with stem cell properties, called cancer stem cells (CSCs) (6, 7). CSCs, like wild-type (WT) stem

  3. III. Stem Cells and Their Asymmetric Cell Divisions Stem cells to synapses: regulation of self-renewal and differentiation in

    E-print Network

    Fukai, Tomoki

    III. Stem Cells and Their Asymmetric Cell Divisions Stem cells to synapses: regulation of self The Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge UK CB2 1QN Discovering how stem fates is a key step in the therapeutic use of stem cells to repair tissues after damage or disease. We

  4. StemCells2005;23:13331342 www.StemCells.com Original Article

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    StemCells2005;23:1333­1342 www.StemCells.com Original Article Shear-Controlled Single-Step Mouse-5099/2005/$12.00/0doi:10.1634/stemcells.2005-0112 Abstract To facilitate the exploitation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs

  5. Adult stem-like cells in kidney.

    PubMed

    Hishikawa, Keiichi; Takase, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Taro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-26

    Human pluripotent cells are promising for treatment for kidney diseases, but the protocols for derivation of kidney cell types are still controversial. Kidney tissue regeneration is well confirmed in several lower vertebrates such as fish, and the repair of nephrons after tubular damages is commonly observed after renal injury. Even in adult mammal kidney, renal progenitor cell or system is reportedly presents suggesting that adult stem-like cells in kidney can be practical clinical targets for kidney diseases. However, it is still unclear if kidney stem cells or stem-like cells exist or not. In general, stemness is defined by several factors such as self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potency and characteristic gene expression profiles. The definite use of stemness may be obstacle to understand kidney regeneration, and here we describe the recent broad findings of kidney regeneration and the cells that contribute regeneration. PMID:25815133

  6. Nonclinical safety strategies for stem cell therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Michaela E.; Morton, Daniel; Rossi, Annamaria

    2012-08-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology, especially the development of the induced pluripotent stem cell techniques, have generated tremendous enthusiasm and efforts to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapies are being considered for the treatment of degenerative diseases, inflammatory conditions, cancer and repair of damaged tissue. The safety of a stem cell therapy depends on many factors including the type of cell therapy, the differentiation status and proliferation capacity of the cells, the route of administration, the intended clinical location, long term survival of the product and/or engraftment, the need for repeated administration, the disease to be treated and the age of the population. Understanding the product profile of the intended therapy is crucial to the development of the nonclinical safety study design.

  7. Embryonic cortical neural stem cells migrate ventrally and persist as postnatal striatal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Willaime-Morawek, Sandrine; Seaberg, Raewyn M.; Batista, Claudia; Labbé, Etienne; Attisano, Liliana; Gorski, Jessica A.; Jones, Kevin R.; Kam, Angela; Morshead, Cindi M.; van der Kooy, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic cortical neural stem cells apparently have a transient existence, as they do not persist in the adult cortex. We sought to determine the fate of embryonic cortical stem cells by following Emx1IREScre; LacZ/EGFP double-transgenic murine cells from midgestation into adulthood. Lineage tracing in combination with direct cell labeling and time-lapse video microscopy demonstrated that Emx1-lineage embryonic cortical stem cells migrate ventrally into the striatal germinal zone (GZ) perinatally and intermingle with striatal stem cells. Upon integration into the striatal GZ, cortical stem cells down-regulate Emx1 and up-regulate Dlx2, which is a homeobox gene characteristic of the developing striatum and striatal neural stem cells. This demonstrates the existence of a novel dorsal-to-ventral migration of neural stem cells in the perinatal forebrain. PMID:17030986

  8. Cancer stem cells in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Lathia, Justin D.; Mack, Stephen C.; Mulkearns-Hubert, Erin E.; Valentim, Claudia L.L.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Tissues with defined cellular hierarchies in development and homeostasis give rise to tumors with cellular hierarchies, suggesting that tumors recapitulate specific tissues and mimic their origins. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant primary brain tumor and contains self-renewing, tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contribute to tumor initiation and therapeutic resistance. As normal stem and progenitor cells participate in tissue development and repair, these developmental programs re-emerge in CSCs to support the development and progressive growth of tumors. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that govern CSCs has informed the development of novel targeted therapeutics for GBM and other brain cancers. CSCs are not self-autonomous units; rather, they function within an ecological system, both actively remodeling the microenvironment and receiving critical maintenance cues from their niches. To fulfill the future goal of developing novel therapies to collapse CSC dynamics, drawing parallels to other normal and pathological states that are highly interactive with their microenvironments and that use developmental signaling pathways will be beneficial. PMID:26109046

  9. Abstract--Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are important to stem cell therapy and tissue engineering due to their

    E-print Network

    Coenen, Frans

    Abstract--Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are important to stem cell therapy and tissue engineering on MSC. I. INTRODUCTION esenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are important to stem cell therapy and tissue studied types of stem cells nowadays. The pluripotency of MSCs includes osteogenesis, chondrogenesis

  10. [The world of stem cells].

    PubMed

    Jacob, François

    2002-10-01

    Since its beginning, at the turn of the 19th century, biology has been mostly--if not exclusively--analytical. Reductionism has progressively unveiled a series of structures buried into one another like Russian dolls. The study of the genome, the deepest structure of organisms, represents the triumph of reductionism. With the deciphering of the genome and the birth of what is called the 'proteome'--i.e. the study of the proteins and of their interactions--, a new stage appears. To the disorganisation that characterised two centuries of biology, a phase of reconstruction of living organisms is substituted. This is concerned first with interactions of proteins and of cells. In addition, one of the most remarkable tools for this latter research has been provided by embryonic stem cells. PMID:12494495

  11. Signaling involved in stem cell reprogramming and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Shihori

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell differentiation is regulated by multiple signaling events. Recent technical advances have revealed that differentiated cells can be reprogrammed into stem cells. The signals involved in stem cell programming are of major interest in stem cell research. The signaling mechanisms involved in regulating stem cell reprogramming and differentiation are the subject of intense study in the field of life sciences. In this review, the molecular interactions and signaling pathways related to stem cell differentiation are discussed. PMID:26328015

  12. Islet transplantation versus stem cells for the cell therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Basta, G; Montanucci, P; Calafiore, R

    2015-12-01

    Pancreatic islet cell transplantation has represented the mainstay of cell therapy for the potential, final cure of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), along the past two decades. Unfortunately, the restricted availability of cadaveric human donor pancreases coupled with heavy side effects of the recipient's general immunosuppression, have severely crippled progress of this approach into clinical trials. Only a few excellence centers, worldwide, have thus far accrued still quite marginal clinical success. In an attempt to overcome the limits of islet transplantation new technologies for use of several stem cell lineages are being under investigation, with initial experimental evidence of success. Essentially, the actual lines of research involve attempts to either activate native endogenous stem cells that replace diseased/dead cells, by a cell regeneration process, or condition other stem cells to acquire the functional properties of the targeted cells to be substituted (i.e., beta-cell-like elements associated with insulin secretory competence). A wide array of stem cells may fulfill this task, from embryonic (whose use still faces strong ethical barriers), to adult, to induced pluripotent stem cells. Mesenchymal adult stem cells, retrievable from many different sites, including adipose tissue, bone marrow and post-partum umbilical cord Wharton Jelly, seem to couple plastic to immunoregulatory properties that might greatly help progress for the disease cure. PMID:26398188

  13. Stem cells and lineages of the intestine: a developmental and evolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Shigeo; Gold, David; Hartenstein, Volker

    2012-01-01

    The intestine consists of epithelial cells that secrete digestive enzymes and mucus (gland cells), absorb food particles (enterocytes), and produce hormones (endocrine cells). Intestinal cells are rapidly turned over and need to be replaced. In cnidarians, mitosis of differentiated intestinal cells accounts for much of the replacement; in addition, migratory, multipotent stem cells (interstitial cells) contribute to the production of intestinal cells. In other phyla, intestinal cell replacement is solely the function of stem cells entering the gut from the outside (such as in case of the neoblasts of platyhelmints) or intestinal stem cells located within the midgut epithelium (as in both vertebrates or arthropods). We will attempt in the following to review important aspects of midgut stem cells in different animal groups: where are they located, what types of lineages do they produce, and how do they develop. We will start out with a comparative survey of midgut cell types found across the animal kingdom; then briefly look at the specification of these cells during embryonic development; and finally focus on the stem cells that regenerate midgut cells during adult life. In a number of model systems, including mouse, zebrafish and Drosophila, the molecular pathways controlling ISC proliferation and the specification of intestinal cell types are under intensive investigation. We will highlight findings of the recent literature, focusing on aspects that are shared between the different models and that point at evolutionary ancient mechanisms of intestinal cell formation. PMID:23179635

  14. Stem Cell Biology and it Application to Biotechnology

    E-print Network

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    Stem Cell Biology and it Application to Biotechnology Srivatsan Kidambi, Ph.D. Assistant Professor.edu Stem Cell Engineering-What, Why, How?? #12;Cells of the Human Body · The human body is composed of many cells have the same potential ­Some cells remain "immature"--these are stem cells ­When stem cells

  15. Enhancing spontaneous stem cell healing (Review)

    PubMed Central

    MAGUIRE, GREG; FRIEDMAN, PETER

    2014-01-01

    Adult stem cells are distributed throughout the human body and are responsible to a great extent for the body’s ability to maintain and heal itself. Accumulating data since the 1990s regarding stem cells have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of stem cells are not restricted to their ability to differentiate and are more likely due to their ability to release a multitude of molecules. Recent studies indicated that ?80% of the therapeutic benefit of adult stem cells is manifested by the stem cell released molecules (SRM) rather than the differentiation of the stem cells into mature tissue. Stem cells may release potent combinations of factors that modulate the molecular composition of the cellular milieu to evoke a multitude of responses from neighboring cells. A multitude of pathways are involved in cellular and tissue function and, when the body is in a state of disease or trauma, a multitude of pathways are involved in the underlying mechanisms of that disease or trauma. Therefore, stem cells represent a natural systems-based biological factory for the production and release of a multitude of molecules that interact with the system of biomolecular circuits underlying disease or tissue damage. Currently, efforts are aimed at defining, stimulating, enhancing and harnessing SRM mechanisms, in order to develop systems-based methods for tissue regeneration, develop drugs/biologics or other therapeutics and enhance the release of SRM into the body for natural healing through proper dietary, exercise and other lifestyle strategies. PMID:24649089

  16. Transdifferentiation of Stem Cells: A Critical View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruh, Ina; Martin, Ulrich

    Recently a large amount of new data on the plasticity of stem cells of various lineages have emerged, providing new perspectives especially for the therapeutic application of adult stem cells. Previously unknown possibilities of cell differentiation beyond the known commitment of a given stem cell have been described using keywords such as "blood to liver," or "bone to brain." Controversies on the likelihood, as well as the biological significance, of these conversions almost immediately arose within this young field of stem cell biology. This chapter will concentrate on these controversies and focus on selected examples demonstrating the technical aspects of stem cell transdifferentiation and the evaluation of the tools used to analyze these events.

  17. Adult Stem Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Berardi, Emanuele; Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Satellite cells are unipotent stem cells involved in muscle regeneration. However, the skeletal muscle microenvironment exerts a dominant influence over stem cell function. The cell intrinsic complexity of the skeletal muscle niche located within the connective tissue between fibers includes motor neurons, tendons, blood vessels, immune response mediators and interstitial cells. All these cell types modulate the trafficking of stimuli responsible of muscle fiber regeneration. In addition, several stem cell types have been discovered in skeletal muscle tissue, mainly located in the interstitium. The majority of these stem cells appears to directly contribute to myogenic differentiation, although some of them are mainly implicated in paracrine effects. This review focuses on adult stem cells, which have been used for therapeutic purposes, mainly in animal models of chronic muscle degeneration. Emerging literature identifies other myogenic progenitors generated from pluripotent stem cells as potential candidates for the treatment of skeletal muscle degeneration. However, adult stem cells still represent the gold standard for future comparative studies. PMID:26122100

  18. Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays CONNIEEAVES,CINDYMILLER,JOHANNE CASHMAN Columbia, Canada Key Words.Hematopoietic stem cells Transplantation Cord blood. Expansion Growthfactors murine hematopoietic stem cells to be quantitated. Measurements of murine CRU have shown

  19. 3 CFR - Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Presidential Documents...30, 2009 Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Memorandum for the Heads...responsible, scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human...

  20. Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth Main Content Key ... Your Dentist Before Transplant Before an organ or stem cell transplant, have a dental checkup. Your mouth ...

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells that have been destroyed by high doses of ... video will automatically play next. Up next Stem Cell Fraud: A 60 Minutes investigation - ... Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis - Duration: 6:48. NCIcancertopics 6,520 views ...

  2. Stem Cell Research and Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eve, David J.; Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.; Klasko, Stephen K.; Sanberg, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells are being touted as the greatest discovery for the potential treatment of a myriad of diseases in the new millennium, but there is still much research to be done before it will be known whether they can live up to this description. There is also an ethical debate over the production of one of the most valuable types of stem cell: the…

  3. Representations of stem cell clinics on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Kamenova, Kalina; Reshef, Amir; Caulfield, Timothy

    2014-12-01

    The practice of travelling abroad to receive unproven and unregulated stem cell treatments has become an increasingly problematic global phenomenon known as 'stem cell tourism'. In this paper, we examine representations of nine major clinics and providers of such treatments on the microblogging network Twitter. We collected and conducted a content analysis of Twitter posts (n?=?363) by these establishments and by other users mentioning them, focusing specifically on marketing claims about treatment procedures and outcomes, discussions of safety and efficacy of stem cell transplants, and specific representations of patients' experiences. Our analysis has shown that there were explicit claims or suggestions of benefits associated with unproven stem cell treatments in approximately one third of the tweets and that patients' experiences, whenever referenced, were presented as invariably positive and as testimonials about the efficacy of stem cell transplants. Furthermore, the results indicated that the tone of most tweets (60.2 %) was overwhelmingly positive and there were rarely critical discussions about significant health risks associated with unproven stem cell therapies. When placed in the context of past research on the problems associated with the marketing of unproven stem cell therapies, this analysis of representations on Twitter suggests that discussions in social media have also remained largely uncritical of the stem cell tourism phenomenon, with inaccurate representations of risks and benefits for patients. PMID:24970380

  4. Particle Systems for Stem Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Shi, Donglu; Wen, Xuejun

    2015-07-01

    Stem cells have been widely investigated for regeneration of aged, injured, or diseased tissues. Although they have remarkable potential in clinical applications, some critical issues must be addressed, one of which being the poor control of their fates in vivo. A variety of particles, typically the organic and inorganic materials, liposomes, and polyplexes, provides multiple functionalities of labeling and tracking of the transplanted stem cells, and versatile capabilities of intracellular delivery of biomolecules for stem cell control in vivo. In this report, major applications of different particle systems are reviewed on the topics of tracking transplanted stem cells and labeling of endogenous stem cells in vivo. Detailed discussions are provided on recent advances of the particle-assisted intracellular delivery of biomolecules to stem cells for in vivo applications. Some novel particle-carriers are reported on stem cell transplantation and drug delivery for cancer therapy. Also discussed are critical challenges and future directions in the development of particle carriers for stem cell applications. PMID:26307835

  5. Lineage Analysis of Epidermal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alcolea, Maria P.; Jones, Philip H.

    2014-01-01

    Lineage tracing involves labeling cells to track their subsequent behavior within the normal tissue environment. The advent of genetic lineage tracing and cell proliferation assays, together with high resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging and quantitative methods to infer cell behavior from lineage-tracing data, has transformed our understanding of murine epidermal stem and progenitor cells. Here, we review recent insights that reveal how a progenitor cell population maintains interfollicular epidermis, whereas stem cells, quiescent under homeostatic conditions, are mobilized in response to wounding. We discuss progress in understanding how the various stem cell populations of the hair follicle sustain this complex and highly dynamic structure, and recent analysis of stem cells in sweat and sebaceous glands. The extent to which insights from mouse studies can be applied to human epidermis is also considered. PMID:24384814

  6. Spermatogonial stem cells: progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Komeya, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from a mouse to other recipient mice was shown to be feasible, which clearly demonstrated the functional identity of SSCs. Since then, several important new findings and other technical developments have followed, which included a new hypothesis on their cell kinetics and spermatogonial hierarchy in the testis, a culture method allowing their self-renewal and proliferation, a testis tissue organ culture method, which induced their complete differentiation up to sperm, and the in vitro induction of germ cells from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. These advancements reinforced or advanced our understanding of this unique cell. Nonetheless, there are many unresolved questions in the study of spermatogonial stem cells and a long road remains until these cells can be used clinically in reproductive medicine. PMID:25994650

  7. Translational research of adult stem cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to chronic coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Its prevalence is increasing despite advances in medical and device therapies. Cell based therapies generating new cardiomyocytes and vessels have emerged as a promising treatment to reverse functional deterioration and prevent the progression to CHF. Functional efficacy of progenitor cells isolated from the bone marrow and the heart have been evaluated in preclinical large animal models. Furthermore, several clinical trials using autologous and allogeneic stem cells and progenitor cells have demonstrated their safety in humans yet their clinical relevance is inconclusive. This review will discuss the clinical therapeutic applications of three specific adult stem cells that have shown particularly promising regenerative effects in preclinical studies, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell, heart derived cardiosphere-derived cell and cardiac stem cell. We will also discuss future therapeutic approaches. PMID:26635920

  8. Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Aplastic Anemia Bone Marrow Tests Sickle Cell Disease Thalassemias Send a link to NHLBI to someone ... stem cells that the treatment destroyed. Severe blood diseases, such as thalassemias (thal-a-SE-me-ahs), ...

  9. Derivation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines from Vitrified Human Blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Cara K; Schaft, Julia; Roy, Tammie K; Dumevska, Biljana; Peura, Teija T

    2016-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells typically derived from blastulating embryos that have become excess to clinical needs in assisted reproduction programs. They provide cellular models for embryonic development and disease, and are thought to be useful for future cell replacement therapies and regenerative medicine. Here we describe methods to derive human embryonic stem cell lines. This includes blastocyst cryopreservation using a highly efficient vitrification protocol, the production and use of fibroblast feeder cells, embryo plating and passaging of resulting cellular outgrowths, and cryopreservation of putative stem cells lines. PMID:24961221

  10. Bringing Leukemia Stem Cells into the Clinic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jean C Y

    2015-11-01

    Outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain poor due to high rates of relapse. Thus, there is an urgent unmet medical need for new therapies that can more effectively kill the leukemia stem cells (LSC) and recently recognized preleukemic hematopoietic stem cells (preL-HSC) that can drive relapsed disease. In order to develop such therapies, a better understanding of the biology of these stem cell populations is required. The best functional assays for stem cells are xenotransplantation models using immunodeficient mouse recipients. Here, we present evidence of the clinical validity of such models for studying the biology of AML stem cells and propose a new paradigm for the development of LSC-targeted agents and biomarker tools for patient selection. PMID:26551024

  11. Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Bunnell, Bruce A.; Frazier, Trivia; Rowan, Brian; Shah, Forum; Thomas-Porch, Caasy; Wu, Xiying

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the complexity of adipose tissue and its physiological role was not well appreciated. This changed with the discovery of adipokines such as leptin. The cellular composition of adipose tissue is heterogeneous and changes as a function of diabetes and disease states such as diabetes. Tissue engineers view adipose tissue as a rich source of adult stromal/stem cells isolated by collagenase digestion. In vitro and in vivo studies have documented that adipose stromal/stem cells are multipotent, with the ability to differentiate along the adipocyte, chondrocyte, osteoblast and other lineage pathways. The adipose stromal/stem cells secrete a wide range of cytokines and growth factors with potential paracrine actions. Furthermore, adipose stromal/stem cells exert immunomodulatory functions when added to mixed lymphocyte reactions, suggesting that they can be transplanted allogeneically. This review article focuses on these mechanisms of adipose stromal/stem cell action and their potential utility as cellular therapeutics. PMID:23538753

  12. Overcoming Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moitra, Karobi

    2015-01-01

    The principle mechanism of protection of stem cells is through the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These transporters serve as the guardians of the stem cell population in the body. Unfortunately these very same ABC efflux pumps afford protection to cancer stem cells in tumors, shielding them from the adverse effects of chemotherapy. A number of strategies to circumvent the function of these transporters in cancer stem cells are currently under investigation. These strategies include the development of competitive and allosteric modulators, nanoparticle mediated delivery of inhibitors, targeted transcriptional regulation of ABC transporters, miRNA mediated inhibition, and targeting of signaling pathways that modulate ABC transporters. The role of ABC transporters in cancer stem cells will be explored in this paper and strategies aimed at overcoming drug resistance caused by these particular transporters will also be discussed. PMID:26649310

  13. Planarians as a model of aging to study the interaction between stem cells and senescent cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Perrigue, Patrick M; Najbauer, Joseph; Jozwiak, Agnieszka A; Barciszewski, Jan; Aboody, Karen S; Barish, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The depletion of stem cell pools and the accumulation of senescent cells in animal tissues are linked to aging. Planarians are invertebrate flatworms and are unusual in that their stem cells, called neoblasts, are constantly replacing old and dying cells. By eliminating neoblasts in worms via irradiation, the biological principles of aging are exposed in the absence of wound healing and regeneration, making planaria a powerful tool for aging research. PMID:26654402

  14. Artificial gametes from stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Míguez-Forjan, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The generation of artificial gametes is a real challenge for the scientific community today. In vitro development of human eggs and sperm will pave the way for the understanding of the complex process of human gametogenesis and will provide with human gametes for the study of infertility and the onset of some inherited disorders. However, the great promise of artificial gametes resides in their future application on reproductive treatments for all these people wishing to have genetically related children and for which gamete donation is now their unique option of parenthood. This is the case of infertile patients devoid of suitable gametes, same sex couples, singles and those fertile couples in a high risk of transmitting serious diseases to their progeny. In the search of the best method to obtain artificial gametes, many researchers have successfully obtained human germ cell-like cells from stem cells at different stages of differentiation. In the near future, this field will evolve to new methods providing not only viable but also functional and safe artificial germ cells. These artificial sperm and eggs should be able to recapitulate all the genetic and epigenetic processes needed for the correct gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis leading to the birth of a healthy and fertile newborn. PMID:26161331

  15. 2011 Annual Report Institute for Stem Cell Biology

    E-print Network

    Quake, Stephen R.

    and Cancer iPS Cells and Skin Diseases Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Research Embryonic and iPS Cells Cancer Stem Cells Tissue-Specific(Adult)StemCells Program in Regenerative Medicine Education PhD Program-dose chemotherapy and purified blood stem cell rescue for stage-4 breast cancer. The original small trial

  16. SINGAPORE STEM CELL CONSORTIUM (SSCC) CALL FOR PROPOSALS DIRECTED DIFFERENTIATION

    E-print Network

    Yao, Shao Q

    The Singapore Stem Cell Consortium (SSCC) is an initiative of the A*STAR Biomedical Research Council (BMRC cells. It seeks to catalyze the translation of basic stem cell research into clinically viable stem cell cell research. It also has an interest in using stem cells to create models of mammalian development

  17. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, ? cells

    E-print Network

    Hrvatin, Sinisa

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic ? cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in ...

  18. From Beta cell replacement to beta cell regeneration: implications for antidiabetic therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengcheng; Wu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes is affecting more than 25.8 million people in the United States, causing huge burden on the health care system and economy. Insulin injection, which is the predominant treatment for diabetes, is incapable of replenishing the lost insulin-producing beta cell in patients. Restoring beta cell mass through replacement therapy such as islet transplantation or beta cell regeneration through in vitro and in vivo strategies has attracted particular attentions in the field due to its potential to cure diabetes. In the aspect of islet transplantation, gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and more biocompatible immunosuppressive drugs have been tested in various preclinical animal models to improve the longevity and function of human islets against the posttransplantation challenges. In the islet regeneration aspect, insulin-producing cells have been generated through in vitro transdifferentiation of stem cells and other types of cells and demonstrated to be capable of glycemic control. Moreover, several biomarkers including cell-surface receptors, soluble factors, and transcriptional factors have been identified or rediscovered in mediating the process of beta cell proliferation in rodents. This review summarizes the current progress and hurdles in the preclinical efforts in resurrecting beta cells. It may provide some useful insights into the future drug discovery for antidiabetic purposes. PMID:25355714

  19. Stem cells and regeneration in planarians.

    PubMed

    Handberg-Thorsager, Mette; Fernandez, Enrique; Salo, Emili

    2008-01-01

    Understanding stem cells is a major goal of current research because of its potential medical applications. Although great advances have been made, such as the culturing and differentiation of embryonic stem cells and reprogramming of cell fates, many basic questions remain unanswered. Describing the mechanisms underlying regeneration will help to understand the biology of stem cells and therefore to control their behavior. While regeneration is being studied in a variety of models, the planarian is particularly noteworthy. In this model system a fragment as small as 1/279 of the animal can regenerate completely within a few weeks. These animals can also grow and degrow--specifically degenerating certain tissues--according to environmental conditions, thus demonstrating a complete control of their stem cell dynamics. However, one of the most interesting aspects of the planarian model system is the presence of a unique type of stem cell that can differentiate into all cell types found in the organism, including the germ line. This represents a simple, extremely powerful, and accessible stem cell system in which to address a variety of important questions. In the last ten years, molecular, cellular, and bioinformatics tools have been established for use in this model, making it ideally placed for in vivo analysis of stem cells in their natural environment without ethical complications. PMID:18508666

  20. Connecting Mitochondria, Metabolism, and Stem Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Wanet, Anaïs; Arnould, Thierry; Najimi, Mustapha; Renard, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    As sites of cellular respiration and energy production, mitochondria play a central role in cell metabolism. Cell differentiation is associated with an increase in mitochondrial content and activity and with a metabolic shift toward increased oxidative phosphorylation activity. The opposite occurs during reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Studies have provided evidence of mitochondrial and metabolic changes during the differentiation of both embryonic and somatic (or adult) stem cells (SSCs), such as hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and tissue-specific progenitor cells. We thus propose to consider those mitochondrial and metabolic changes as hallmarks of differentiation processes. We review how mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, and function are directly involved in embryonic and SSC differentiation and how metabolic and sensing pathways connect mitochondria and metabolism with cell fate and pluripotency. Understanding the basis of the crosstalk between mitochondria and cell fate is of critical importance, given the promising application of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In addition to the development of novel strategies to improve the in vitro lineage-directed differentiation of stem cells, understanding the molecular basis of this interplay could lead to the identification of novel targets to improve the treatment of degenerative diseases. PMID:26134242

  1. Biomimetic interfacial interpenetrating polymer networks control neural stem cell behavior

    E-print Network

    Saha, Krishanu

    Biomimetic interfacial interpenetrating polymer networks control neural stem cell behavior Krishanu precisely orchestrate signal presentation to stem cells. Using a biomimetic interfacial interpenetrating

  2. Stem Cell Therapies in Orthopaedic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Marcucio, Ralph S; Nauth, Aaron; Giannoudis, Peter V; Bahney, Chelsea; Piuzzi, Nicolas S; Muschler, George; Miclau, Theodore

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells offer great promise to help understand the normal mechanisms of tissue renewal, regeneration, and repair, and also for development of cell-based therapies to treat patients after tissue injury. Most adult tissues contain stem cells and progenitor cells that contribute to homeostasis, remodeling, and repair. Multiple stem and progenitor cell populations in bone are found in the marrow, the endosteum, and the periosteum. They contribute to the fracture healing process after injury and are an important component in tissue engineering approaches for bone repair. This review focuses on current concepts in stem cell biology related to fracture healing and bone tissue regeneration, as well as current strategies and limitations for clinical cell-based therapies. PMID:26584262

  3. Odontogenic epithelial stem cells: hidden sources.

    PubMed

    Padma Priya, Sivan; Higuchi, Akon; Abu Fanas, Salem; Pooi Ling, Mok; Kumari Neela, Vasantha; Sunil, P M; Saraswathi, T R; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    The ultimate goal of dental stem cell research is to construct a bioengineered tooth. Tooth formation occurs based on the well-organized reciprocal interaction of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The dental mesenchymal stem cells are the best explored, but because the human odontogenic epithelium is lost after the completion of enamel formation, studies on these cells are scarce. The successful creation of a bioengineered tooth is achievable only when the odontogenic epithelium is reconstructed to produce a replica of natural enamel. This article discusses the untapped sources of odontogenic epithelial stem cells in humans, such as those present in the active dental lamina in postnatal life, in remnants of dental lamina (the gubernaculum cord), in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and in reduced enamel epithelium. The possible uses of these stem cells in regenerative medicine, not just for enamel formation, are discussed. PMID:26367485

  4. The Effect of Laser Irradiation on Adipose Derived Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamse, H.; de Villiers, J.; Mvula, B.

    2009-06-01

    There are two fundamental types of stem cells: Embryonic Stem cells and Adult Stem cells. Adult Stem cells have a more restricted potential and can usually differentiate into a few different cell types. In the body these cells facilitate the replacement or repair of damaged or diseased cells in organs. Low intensity laser irradiation was shown to increase stem cell migration and stimulate proliferation and it is thought that treatment of these cells with laser irradiation may increase the stem cell harvest and have a positive effect on the viability and proliferation. Our research is aimed at determining the effect of laser irradiation on differentiation of Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) into different cell types using a diode laser with a wavelength of 636 nm and at 5 J/cm2. Confirmation of stem cell characteristics and well as subsequent differentiation were assessed using Western blot analysis and cellular morphology supported by fluorescent live cell imaging. Functionality of subsequent differentiated cells was confirmed by measuring adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and cell viability.

  5. www.cell-research.com | Cell Research Wnt signaling and stem cell control

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    to excess of stem cells and cancer [4, 5]. In this review, I will give an overview of Wnt signalingwww.cell-research.com | Cell Research Roel Nusse 523 npg REVIEW Wnt signaling and stem cell control types of stem cells and may act as a niche factor to maintain stem cells in a self-renewing state

  6. Time to Reconsider Stem Cell Induction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Denker, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in stem cell research suggest that it may be time to reconsider the current focus of stem cell induction strategies. During the previous five years, approximately, the induction of pluripotency in somatic cells, i.e., the generation of so-called ‘induced pluripotent stem cells’ (iPSCs), has become the focus of ongoing research in many stem cell laboratories, because this technology promises to overcome limitations (both technical and ethical) seen in the production and use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A rapidly increasing number of publications suggest, however, that it is now possible to choose instead other, alternative ways of generating stem and progenitor cells bypassing pluripotency. These new strategies may offer important advantages with respect to ethics, as well as to safety considerations. The present communication discusses why these strategies may provide possibilities for an escape from the dilemma presented by pluripotent stem cells (self-organization potential, cloning by tetraploid complementation, patenting problems and tumor formation risk). PMID:24710555

  7. Biomaterials and Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhanpeng; Gupte, Melanie J.; Ma, Peter X.

    2013-01-01

    Importance of the field Organ failure and tissue loss are challenging health issues due to widespread injury, the lack of organs for transplantation, and limitations of conventional artificial implants. The field of tissue engineering aims to provide alternative living substitutes that restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Areas covered in this review In this paper, a wide range of porous scaffolds are reviewed, with an emphasis on phase separation techniques that generate advantageous nanofibrous 3D scaffolds for stem cell-based tissue engineering applications. In addition, methods for presentation and delivery of bioactive molecules to mimic the properties of stem cell niche are summarized. Recent progress in using these bio-instructive scaffolds to support stem cell differentiation and tissue regeneration is also presented. What the reader will gain Stem cells have great clinical potential because of their capability to differentiate into multiple cell types. Biomaterials have served as artificial extracellular environments to regulate stem cell behavior. Biomaterials with various physical, mechanical, and chemical properties can be designed to control stem cell development for regeneration. Take home message The research at the interface of stem cell biology and biomaterials has made and will continue to make exciting advances in tissue engineering. PMID:23327471

  8. Time to reconsider stem cell induction strategies.

    PubMed

    Denker, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in stem cell research suggest that it may be time to reconsider the current focus of stem cell induction strategies. During the previous five years, approximately, the induction of pluripotency in somatic cells, i.e., the generation of so-called 'induced pluripotent stem cells' (iPSCs), has become the focus of ongoing research in many stem cell laboratories, because this technology promises to overcome limitations (both technical and ethical) seen in the production and use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A rapidly increasing number of publications suggest, however, that it is now possible to choose instead other, alternative ways of generating stem and progenitor cells bypassing pluripotency. These new strategies may offer important advantages with respect to ethics, as well as to safety considerations. The present communication discusses why these strategies may provide possibilities for an escape from the dilemma presented by pluripotent stem cells (self-organization potential, cloning by tetraploid complementation, patenting problems and tumor formation risk). PMID:24710555

  9. Cell Stem Cell Transient Inactivation of Rb and ARF

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    , Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine 2Departments of Pediatrics and Genetics Stanford of higher vertebrates that, if elucidated, could significantly impact regenerative medicine. MuscleCell Stem Cell Article Transient Inactivation of Rb and ARF Yields Regenerative Cells from

  10. Crosstalk between stem cell and cell cycle machineries.

    PubMed

    Kareta, Michael S; Sage, Julien; Wernig, Marius

    2015-12-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, defined by an unlimited self-renewal capacity and an undifferentiated state, are best typified by embryonic stem cells. These cells have a unique cell cycle compared to somatic cells as defined by a rapid progression through the cell cycle and a minimal time spent in G1. Recent reports indicate that pluripotency and cell cycle regulation are mechanistically linked. In this review, we discuss the reciprocal co-regulation of these processes, how this co-regulation may prevent differentiation, and how cellular reprogramming can re-establish the unique cell cycle regulation in induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:26520682

  11. Engineering microenvironments to control stem cell fate and function

    E-print Network

    ), StemBook, ed. The Stem Cell Research Community, StemBook, doi/10.3824/stembook.1.5.1, httpEngineering microenvironments to control stem cell fate and function Shawdee Eshghi and David V . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2. Sequential factors to program stem cell differentiation

  12. Spatial Organization of Embryonic Stem Cell Responsiveness to Autocrine Gp130 Ligands Reveals an Autoregulatory Stem

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Spatial Organization of Embryonic Stem Cell Responsiveness to Autocrine Gp130 Ligands Reveals an Autoregulatory Stem Cell Niche RYAN E. DAVEY,a PETER W. ZANDSTRA a,b a Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical, Ontario, Canada Key Words. Autocrine signaling · Embryonic stem cell · Niche · Self-renewal · Stem cell

  13. Seeing Stem Cells at Work In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Amit K.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell based-therapies are novel therapeutic strategies that hold key for developing new treatments for diseases conditions with very few or no cures. Although there has been an increase in the number of clinical trials involving stem cell-based therapies in the last few years, the long-term risks and benefits of these therapies are still unknown. Detailed in vivo studies are needed to monitor the fate of transplanted cells, including their distribution, differentiation, and longevity over time. Advancements in non-invasive cellular imaging techniques to track engrafted cells in real-time present a powerful tool for determining the efficacy of stem cell-based therapies. In this review, we describe the latest approaches to stem cell labeling and tracking using different imaging modalities. PMID:23975604

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Stem cells engineering for cell-based therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taupin, Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Stem cells carry the promise to cure a broad range of diseases and injuries, from diabetes, heart and muscular diseases, to neurological diseases, disorders and injuries. Significant progresses have been made in stem cell research over the past decade; the derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from human tissues, the development of cloning technology by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and the confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain and that neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS), including that of humans. Despite these advances, there may be decades before stem cell research will translate into therapy. Stem cell research is also subject to ethical and political debates, controversies and legislation, which slow its progress. Cell engineering has proven successful in bringing genetic research to therapy. In this review, I will review, in two examples, how investigators are applying cell engineering to stem cell biology to circumvent stem cells' ethical and political constraints and bolster stem cell research and therapy.

  15. Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Johannesson, Bjarki; Sagi, Ido; Burnett, Lisa Cole; Kort, Daniel H; Prosser, Robert W; Paull, Daniel; Nestor, Michael W; Freeby, Matthew; Greenberg, Ellen; Goland, Robin S; Leibel, Rudolph L; Solomon, Susan L; Benvenisty, Nissim; Sauer, Mark V; Egli, Dieter

    2014-06-26

    The transfer of somatic cell nuclei into oocytes can give rise to pluripotent stem cells that are consistently equivalent to embryonic stem cells, holding promise for autologous cell replacement therapy. Although methods to induce pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells by transcription factors are widely used in basic research, numerous differences between induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells have been reported, potentially affecting their clinical use. Because of the therapeutic potential of diploid embryonic stem-cell lines derived from adult cells of diseased human subjects, we have systematically investigated the parameters affecting efficiency of blastocyst development and stem-cell derivation. Here we show that improvements to the oocyte activation protocol, including the use of both kinase and translation inhibitors, and cell culture in the presence of histone deacetylase inhibitors, promote development to the blastocyst stage. Developmental efficiency varied between oocyte donors, and was inversely related to the number of days of hormonal stimulation required for oocyte maturation, whereas the daily dose of gonadotropin or the total number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved did not affect developmental outcome. Because the use of concentrated Sendai virus for cell fusion induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration, causing premature oocyte activation, we used diluted Sendai virus in calcium-free medium. Using this modified nuclear transfer protocol, we derived diploid pluripotent stem-cell lines from somatic cells of a newborn and, for the first time, an adult, a female with type 1 diabetes. PMID:24776804

  16. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into gonad and adrenal steroidogenic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Takashi; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Kaoru; Umezawa, Akihiro; Taniguchi, Takanobu

    2014-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy is necessary for patients with adrenal and gonadal failure. Steroid hormone treatment is also employed in aging people for sex hormone deficiency. These patients undergo such therapies, which have associated risks, for their entire life. Stem cells represent an innovative tool for tissue regeneration and the possibility of solving these problems. Among various stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to differentiate into steroidogenic cells both in vivo and in vitro. In particular, they can effectively be differentiated into steroidogenic cells by expressing nuclear receptor 5A subfamily proteins (steroidogenic factor-1 and liver receptor homolog-1) with the aid of cAMP. This approach will provide a source of cells for future regenerative medicine for the treatment of diseases caused by steroidogenesis deficiencies. It can also represent a useful tool for studying the molecular mechanisms of steroidogenesis and its related diseases. PMID:24772247

  17. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Lisa B; Tuan, Rocky S

    2014-01-21

    Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan. PMID:24757526

  18. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Boyette, Lisa B.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan. PMID:24757526

  19. Analytical strategies for studying stem cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, James M.; Choi, William T.; Sreekumar, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Owing to their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency, stem cells possess untold potential for revolutionizing the field of regenerative medicine through the development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Central to developing these strategies is improving our understanding of biological mechanisms responsible for governing stem cell fate and self-renewal. Increasing attention is being given to the significance of metabolism, through the production of energy and generation of small molecules, as a critical regulator of stem cell functioning. Rapid advances in the field of metabolomics now allow for in-depth profiling of stem cells both in vitro and in vivo, providing a systems perspective on key metabolic and molecular pathways which influence stem cell biology. Understanding the analytical platforms and techniques that are currently used to study stem cell metabolomics, as well as how new insights can be derived from this knowledge, will accelerate new research in the field and improve future efforts to expand our understanding of the interplay between metabolism and stem cell biology. PMID:26213533

  20. Technology Advancement for Integrative Stem Cell Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have endeavored to use stem cells for a variety of applications ranging from basic science research to translational medicine. Population-based characterization of such stem cells, while providing an important foundation to further development, often disregard the heterogeneity inherent among individual constituents within a given population. The population-based analysis and characterization of stem cells and the problems associated with such a blanket approach only underscore the need for the development of new analytical technology. In this article, we review current stem cell analytical technologies, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each, followed by applications of these technologies in the field of stem cells. Furthermore, while recent advances in micro/nano technology have led to a growth in the stem cell analytical field, underlying architectural concepts allow only for a vertical analytical approach, in which different desirable parameters are obtained from multiple individual experiments and there are many technical challenges that limit vertically integrated analytical tools. Therefore, we propose—by introducing a concept of vertical and horizontal approach—that there is the need of adequate methods to the integration of information, such that multiple descriptive parameters from a stem cell can be obtained from a single experiment. PMID:24874188

  1. Stem cells: balancing resistance and sensitivity to DNA damage

    E-print Network

    Lahav, Galit

    . By contrast, adult stem cells show variable sensitivity to damage. Here we describe the multiple pathways or resistance of em- bryonic or adult stem cells from different tissues. Stem cells must respond appropriately damaged cells from compromising the ge- nomic integrity of the population. Conversely, adult stem cells

  2. Regulatory networks define phenotypic classes of human stem cell lines

    E-print Network

    Shamir, Ron

    LETTERS Regulatory networks define phenotypic classes of human stem cell lines Franz-Josef Mu¨ller1 called stem cells, even though they range from pluripotent cells--typified by embryonic stem cells, which are capable of virtually unlimited proliferation and differenti- ation--to adult stem cell lines, which can

  3. Regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation Nghi Nguyen Biochemistry 118Q Spring 2007 #12;Outline · Adult Stem Cells & Maintenance · Asymmetric Cell Division · Stem Cell Niche · GSC, Dpp, Bam · Cancer #12;Adult Stem Cells: Maintenance & Repair Blood Neurons Skin Fuller, DBIO 210, Spring

  4. Stem cell mechanobiology: diverse lessons from bone marrow

    E-print Network

    Discher, Dennis

    Stem cell mechanobiology: diverse lessons from bone marrow Irena L. Ivanovska, Jae-Won Shin, Joe in stem cell biology, with a particular focus on bone marrow stem and progenitor cells. Influence of matrix mechanics on differentiation of bone marrow cells Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute

  5. Immortalization of Mouse Germ Line Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Marie-Claude; Braydich-Stolle, Laura; Dettin, Luis; Johnson, Eric; Dym, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In the mammalian testis, the germ line stem cells are a small subpopulation of type A spermatogonia that proliferate and ultimately differentiate into sperm under the control of both endocrine and paracrine factors. To study the early phases of spermatogenesis at the molecular level, an in vitro system must be devised whereby germ line stem cells can be either cultured for a prolonged period of time or expanded as cell lines. In the study reported here, we chose to immortalize type A spermatogonia using the Simian virus large T-antigen gene (LTAg) under the control of an ecdysone-inducible promoter. While the cells escaped the hormonal control after a finite number of generations and expressed the LTAg constitutively, their growth remained slow and the cells exhibited morphological features typical of spermatogonia at the light microscopic level. Moreover, the cells expressed detectable levels of protein markers specific for germ cells such as Dazl, and specific for germ line stem cells such as Oct-4, a transcription factor, and GFR?-1, the receptor for glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Further analysis confirmed the spermatogonial phenotype and also revealed the expression of markers expressed in stem cells such as Piwi12 and Prame11. Since the cells respond to GDNF by a marked increase in their rate of proliferation, this cell line represents a good in vitro model for studying aspects of mouse germ line stem cell biology. PMID:15671143

  6. Searching for naïve human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Simone Aparecida Siqueira; Costas, Roberta Montero; Pereira, Lygia Veiga

    2015-01-01

    Normal mouse pluripotent stem cells were originally derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocysts and shown to be the in vitro equivalent of those pre-implantation embryonic cells, and thus were called embryonic stem cells (ESCs). More than a decade later, pluripotent cells were isolated from the ICM of human blastocysts. Despite being called human ESCs, these cells differ significantly from mouse ESCs, including different morphology and mechanisms of control of pluripotency, suggesting distinct embryonic origins of ESCs from the two species. Subsequently, mouse pluripotent stem cells were established from the ICM-derived epiblast of post-implantation embryos. These mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are morphological and epigenetically more similar to human ESCs. This raised the question of whether cells from the human ICM are in a more advanced differentiation stage than their murine counterpart, or whether the available culture conditions were not adequate to maintain those human cells in their in vivo state, leading to a transition into EpiSC-like cells in vitro. More recently, novel culture conditions allowed the conversion of human ESCs into mouse ESC-like cells called naïve (or ground state) human ESCs, and the derivation of naïve human ESCs from blastocysts. Here we will review the characteristics of each type of pluripotent stem cells, how (and whether) these relate to different stages of embryonic development, and discuss the potential implications of naïve human ESCs in research and therapy. PMID:25914771

  7. Stem cell therapy in oral and maxillofacial region: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, PM; Manikandhan, R; Muthu, MS; Abraham, S

    2012-01-01

    Cells with unique capacity for self-renewal and potency are called stem cells. With appropriate biochemical signals stem cells can be transformed into desirable cells. The idea behind this article is to shortly review the obtained literature on stem cell with respect to their properties, types and advantages of dental stem cells. Emphasis has been given to the possibilities of stem cell therapy in the oral and maxillofacial region including regeneration of tooth and craniofacial defects. PMID:22434942

  8. [Effects of different culture system of isolating and passage of sheep embryonic stem-like cells].

    PubMed

    Bai, Changming; Liu, Chousheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xinzhuang

    2008-07-01

    In this research, we use mouse embryonic fibroblasts as feeder layers. To eliminate the influence of serum and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) conditioned medium (ESCCM) on self-renewal of sheep embryonic stem-like cells, knockout serum replacement (KSR) was used to replace serum, then supplanted with ESCCM for the isolation and cloning of sheep embryonic stem-like cells. We found when inner cell masses (ICMs) cultured in the control group with medium supplanted with fetal bovine serum (FBS), sheep ES-like cells could not survive for more than 3 passages. However, sheep embryonic stem-like cells could remain undifferentiated for 5 passages when cultured in the medium that FBS was substituted by KSR. The result indicates that KSR culture system was more suitable for the isolation and cloning of sheep embryonic stem-like cells compared to FBS culture system. Finally we applied medium with 15% KSR as basic medium supplanted with 40% ESCCM as a new culture system to isolate sheep embryonic stem-like cells, we found one embryonic stem-like cell line still maintained undifferentiating for 8 passages, which characterized with a normal and stable karyotype and high expression of alkaline phosphatase. These results suggest that it is suitable to culture sheep ICM in the new culture system with 15% KSR as basic medium and supplanted with 40% ESCCM, which indicated that mouse ES cells might secrete factors playing important roles in promoting sheep ES-like cells' self-renewal. PMID:18837407

  9. Recipes for adult stem cell plasticity: fusion cuisine or readymade?

    PubMed Central

    Alison, M R; Poulsom, R; Otto, W R; Vig, P; Brittan, M; Direkze, N C; Lovell, M; Fang, T C; Preston, S L; Wright, N A

    2004-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports the idea that certain adult stem cells, particularly those of bone marrow origin, can engraft at alternative locations, particularly when the recipient organ is damaged. Under strong and positive selection pressure these cells will clonally expand/differentiate, making an important contribution to tissue replacement. Similarly, bone marrow derived cells can be amplified in vitro and differentiated into many types of tissue. Despite seemingly irrefutable evidence for stem cell plasticity, a veritable chorus of detractors has emerged, some doubting its very existence, motivated perhaps by more than a little self interest. The issues that have led to this situation include the inability to reproduce certain quite startling observations, and extrapolation from the behaviour of embryonic stem cells to suggest that adult bone marrow cells simply fuse with other cells and adopt their phenotype. Although these issues need resolving and, accepting that cell fusion does appear to allow reprogramming of haemopoietic cells in special circumstances, criticising this whole new field because some areas remain unclear is not good science. PMID:14747430

  10. [Induced differentiation of stem cells into androgen-secreting cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Sun, Jie

    2015-08-01

    Leydig cells are the major source of androgens in males. Stem cells can be induced to differentiate into androgen-secreting Leydig like cells, whose functions are regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary, so that they precisely secret the necessary hormones to maintain physiological function. Therefore, the establishment of an effective protocol to induce the differentiation of stem cells into androgen-secreting cells is very helpful for the treatment of hypogonadism caused by abnormalities of Leydig cells. This review outlines the recent findings concerning the differentiation of stem cells into androgen-secreting cells. PMID:26442307

  11. On the Stem Cell Origin of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    In each major theory of the origin of cancer—field theory, chemical carcinogenesis, infection, mutation, or epigenetic change—the tissue stem cell is involved in the generation of cancer. Although the cancer type is identified by the more highly differentiated cells in the cancer cell lineage or hierarchy (transit-amplifying cells), the property of malignancy and the molecular lesion of the cancer exist in the cancer stem cell. In the case of teratocarcinomas, normal germinal stem cells have the potential to become cancers if placed in an environment that allows expression of the cancer phenotype (field theory). In cancers due to chemically induced mutations, viral infections, somatic and inherited mutations, or epigenetic changes, the molecular lesion or infection usually first occurs in the tissue stem cells. Cancer stem cells then give rise to transit-amplifying cells and terminally differentiated cells, similar to what happens in normal tissue renewal. However, the major difference between cancer growth and normal tissue renewal is that whereas normal transit amplifying cells usually differentiate and die, at various levels of differentiation, the cancer transit-amplifying cells fail to differentiate normally and instead accumulate (ie, they undergo maturation arrest), resulting in cancer growth. PMID:20431026

  12. HLA Engineering of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Riolobos, Laura; Hirata, Roli K; Turtle, Cameron J; Wang, Pei-Rong; Gornalusse, German G; Zavajlevski, Maja; Riddell, Stanley R; Russell, David W

    2013-01-01

    The clinical use of human pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives is limited by the rejection of transplanted cells due to differences in their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. This has led to the proposed use of histocompatible, patient-specific stem cells; however, the preparation of many different stem cell lines for clinical use is a daunting task. Here, we develop two distinct genetic engineering approaches that address this problem. First, we use a combination of gene targeting and mitotic recombination to derive HLA-homozygous embryonic stem cell (ESC) subclones from an HLA-heterozygous parental line. A small bank of HLA-homozygous stem cells with common haplotypes would match a significant proportion of the population. Second, we derive HLA class I–negative cells by targeted disruption of both alleles of the Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) gene in ESCs. Mixed leukocyte reactions and peptide-specific HLA-restricted CD8+ T cell responses were reduced in class I–negative cells that had undergone differentiation in embryoid bodies. These B2M?/? ESCs could act as universal donor cells in applications where the transplanted cells do not express HLA class II genes. Both approaches used adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors for efficient gene targeting in the absence of potentially genotoxic nucleases, and produced pluripotent, transgene-free cell lines. PMID:23629003

  13. HuCNS-SC (StemCells).

    PubMed

    Taupin, Philippe

    2006-04-01

    HuCNS-SC, a proprietary human neural stem cells product, is being developed as a cellular therapy for the potential treatment of Batten disease, one of a group of disorders known as neural ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL). Developer StemCells is also investigating the therapy for spinal cord injury and other central nervous system disorders, such as demyelinating disease, stroke and Alzheimer's disease. A phase I trial of HuCNS-SC for infantile and late-infantile NCL has been initiated, following the March 2006 U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of StemCells' investigational new drug application. PMID:16610769

  14. Molecular control of embryonic stem cell identity

    E-print Network

    Mathur, Divya, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic Stem (ES) cells are the in vitro derivatives of the inner cell mass of a developing embryo, and exhibit the property of pluripotency, which is the ability of a cell to give rise to all cell lineages of an organism. ...

  15. TARGETING CANCER STEM CELLS Summary of technology

    E-print Network

    Mucina, Ladislav

    TARGETING CANCER STEM CELLS Summary of technology Cancerstemcells of publications in cell biology and cancer, and he is inventor of a granted US patent. Professor Dharmarajan has of U138 glioma cells in culture, and it sensitises these cells to the anti- cancer effects

  16. Derivation of Neural Stem Cells from Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Karanfil, I??l; Bagci-Onder, Tugba

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells offer therapeutic tools for neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on embryoid body (EB)-mediated stem cell culture techniques used to derive NSCs from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Generation of healthy and stable NSCs from iPSCs heavily depends on standardized in vitro cell culture systems that mimic the embryonic environments utilized during neural development. Specifically, the neural induction and expansion methods after EB formation are described in this review. PMID:25863785

  17. TGF-? Signaling in Stem Cell Regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlin; Wei, Wanguo; Ding, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) family of cytokines, including TGF-?, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), and activin/nodal, is a group of crucial morphogens in embryonic development, and plays key roles in modulating stem/progenitor cell fate. TGF-? signaling is essential in maintaining the pluripotency of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), and its modulation can direct lineage-specific differentiation. Recent studies also demonstrate TGF-? signaling negatively regulates reprogramming and inhibition of TGF-? signaling can enhance reprogramming through facilitating mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). This chapter introduces methods of modulating somatic cell reprogramming to iPSCs and neural induction from hPSCs through modulating TGF-? signaling by chemical approaches. PMID:26520122

  18. Clinical translation of human neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human neural stem cell transplants have potential as therapeutic candidates to treat a vast number of disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). StemCells, Inc. has purified human neural stem cells and developed culture conditions for expansion and banking that preserve their unique biological properties. The biological activity of these human central nervous system stem cells (HuCNS-SC®) has been analyzed extensively in vitro and in vivo. When formulated for transplantation, the expanded and cryopreserved banked cells maintain their stem cell phenotype, self-renew and generate mature oligodendrocytes, neurons and astrocytes, cells normally found in the CNS. In this overview, the rationale and supporting data for pursuing neuroprotective strategies and clinical translation in the three components of the CNS (brain, spinal cord and eye) are described. A phase I trial for a rare myelin disorder and phase I/II trial for spinal cord injury are providing intriguing data relevant to the biological properties of neural stem cells, and the early clinical outcomes compel further development. PMID:23987648

  19. Clinical translation of human neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Ann; Uchida, Nobuko; Capela, Alexandra; Gorba, Thorsten; Huhn, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Human neural stem cell transplants have potential as therapeutic candidates to treat a vast number of disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). StemCells, Inc. has purified human neural stem cells and developed culture conditions for expansion and banking that preserve their unique biological properties. The biological activity of these human central nervous system stem cells (HuCNS-SC®) has been analyzed extensively in vitro and in vivo. When formulated for transplantation, the expanded and cryopreserved banked cells maintain their stem cell phenotype, self-renew and generate mature oligodendrocytes, neurons and astrocytes, cells normally found in the CNS. In this overview, the rationale and supporting data for pursuing neuroprotective strategies and clinical translation in the three components of the CNS (brain, spinal cord and eye) are described. A phase I trial for a rare myelin disorder and phase I/II trial for spinal cord injury are providing intriguing data relevant to the biological properties of neural stem cells, and the early clinical outcomes compel further development. PMID:23987648

  20. WHAT CONTROLS STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT-- CELL POTENTIAL OR LOCAL ENVIRONMENT?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In H. virescens, as in M. sexta and other lepidoptera, midgut development proceeds through the sequential proliferation and differentiation of the midgut stem cells. In larvae,the stem cells repeatedly differentiatiate to goblet, columnar, and to a lesser extent endocrine cells of the midgut; a res...

  1. Directed Dopaminergic Neuron Differentiation from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengbo; Xia, Ninuo; Reijo Pera, Renee A.

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (also known as A9 DA neurons) are the specific cell type that is lost in Parkinson’s disease (PD). There is great interest in deriving A9 DA neurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) for regenerative cell replacement therapy for PD. During neural development, A9 DA neurons originate from the floor plate (FP) precursors located at the ventral midline of the central nervous system. Here, we optimized the culture conditions for the stepwise differentiation of hPSCs to A9 DA neurons, which mimics embryonic DA neuron development. In our protocol, we first describe the efficient generation of FP precursor cells from hPSCs using a small molecule method, and then convert the FP cells to A9 DA neurons, which could be maintained in vitro for several months. This efficient, repeatable and controllable protocol works well in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from normal persons and PD patients, in which one could derive A9 DA neurons to perform in vitro disease modeling and drug screening and in vivo cell transplantation therapy for PD. PMID:25285746

  2. Stem cells and bone: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Bone physiology and stem cells were tightly intertwined with one another, both conceptually and experimentally, long before the current explosion of interest in stem cells and so-called regenerative medicine. Bone is home to the two best known and best characterized systems of postnatal stem cells, and it is the only organ in which two stem cells and their dependent lineages coordinate the overall adaptive responses of two major physiological systems. All along, the nature and the evolutionary significance of the interplay of bone and hematopoiesis have remained a major scientific challenge, but also allowed for some of the most spectacular developments in cell biology-based medicine, such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This question recurs in novel forms at multiple turning points over time: today, it finds in the biology of the "niche" its popular phrasing. Entirely new avenues of investigation emerge as a new view of bone in physiology and medicine is progressively established. Looking at bone and stem cells in a historical perspective provides a unique case study to highlight the general evolution of science in biomedicine since the end of World War II to the present day. A paradigm shift in science and in its relation to society and policies occurred in the second half of the XXth century, with major implications thereof for health, industry, drug development, market and society. Current interest in stem cells in bone as in other fields is intertwined with that shift. New opportunities and also new challenges arise. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Stem cells and bone". PMID:25171959

  3. Cell-cell and cell-medium interactions in the growth of mouse embryonic stem cells

    E-print Network

    Mittal, Nikhil, 1979-

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells serve as powerful models for the study of development and disease and hold enormous potential for future therapeutics. Due to the potential for embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to provide a variety of tissues ...

  4. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discher, Dennis

    2010-03-01

    Adhesion of stem cells - like most cells - is not just a membrane phenomenon. Most tissue cells need to adhere to a ``solid'' for viability, and over the last decade it has become increasingly clear that the physical ``elasticity'' of that solid is literally ``felt'' by cells. Here we show that Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) specify lineage and commit to phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to the elasticity typical of tissues [1]. In serum only media, soft matrices that mimic brain appear neurogenic, stiffer matrices that mimic muscle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II activity blocks all elasticity directed lineage specification, which indicates that the cytoskeleton pulls on matrix through adhesive attachments. Results have significant implications for `therapeutic' stem cells and have motivated development of a proteomic-scale method to identify mechano-responsive protein structures [2] as well as deeper physical studies of matrix physics [3] and growth factor pathways [4]. [4pt] [1] A. Engler, et al. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification. Cell (2006).[0pt] [2] C.P. Johnson, et al. Forced unfolding of proteins within cells. Science (2007).[0pt] [3] A.E.X. Brown, et al. Multiscale mechanics of fibrin polymer: Gel stretching with protein unfolding and loss of water. Science (2009).[0pt] [4] D.E. Discher, et al. Growth factors, matrices, and forces combine and control stem cells. Science (2009).

  5. Understanding cellular networks to improve hematopoietic stem cell expansion cultures

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Understanding cellular networks to improve hematopoietic stem cell expansion cultures Daniel C blood stem cell growth have met with limited success. Considering that adult stem cell cultures-output systems, adult stem cell cultures are better described as complex, non-linear, multiple-input multiple

  6. Forcing Stem Cells to Behave: A Biophysical Perspective of the

    E-print Network

    Chen, Christopher S.

    Forcing Stem Cells to Behave: A Biophysical Perspective of the Cellular Microenvironment Yubing Sun 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 1936-122X/12/0609-0519$20.00 Keywords stem cell fate strong influences on regulating stem cell fate. Stem cells sense and respond to these insoluble bio

  7. 3 CFR - Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of July 30, 2009 Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research..., scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic stem cell research, to the...

  8. 2010 Annual Report Institute for Stem Cell Biology

    E-print Network

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Members The Lorry I. Lokey Stem Cell Building Research Embryonic and iPS Cancer Stem Cells Tissue of the Ludwig Center for Cancer Stem Cell Research Virginia and D.K. Ludwig Professor for Clinical Investigation2010 Annual Report Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine #12;#12;We are engaged

  9. [Adult stem cells: seing is not being].

    PubMed

    Coulombel, Laure

    2003-01-01

    Recent unexpected observations in adult rodents that stem/progenitor cells located in the bone marrow, but also in other tissues, could, after their transplantation to an irradiated host contribute to the regeneration of damaged organs such as brain, liver, pancreas or muscle, have raised much hope for future therapeutic applications. These data have also initially been interpreted as a proof of a possible transdifferentiation or plasticity of adult stem cells located in these tissues. Additional experiments rigorously analyzed have tempered initial enthusiasm, by showing that if marrow cells do migrate in damaged muscles and liver, their contribution to organ repair is low, and in some cases, explained by cell fusion. Nevertheless, among bone marrow cells, two categories of stem cells now emerge that have a potentially tremendous interest in cell therapy, if we succeed in understanding how to purify, amplify and differentiate these more efficiently and reproducibly. PMID:12942437

  10. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Where you live (geography) matters . Some disease-causing fungi are more common in certain parts of the ... Preventing fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are a ...

  11. Heterochromatin components in germline stem cell maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yalan; Li, Willis X.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell maintenance requires expression of genes essential for stemness and repression of differentiation genes. How this is achieved remains incompletely understood. Here we investigate the requirement for central components of heterochromatin, Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) and the histone H3 lys9 methyltransferase Su(var)3-9, in the Drosophila male germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal, a paradigm for studying adult stem cell behavior. We found that mutations or RNAi knock down of HP1 or Su(var)3-9 cause loss of GSCs, accompanied by defects in cell division or survival and premature expression of the differentiation gene bag of marbles (bam). Conversely, over-expressing HP1 increases GSC number in wildtype flies and, strikingly, restores fertility to the sterile hopscotch (hop) mutant flies that lack niche signals. These results suggest that the central components of heterochromatin play roles including repressing differentiation genes in Drosophila male GSC maintenance. PMID:26626305

  12. STEM CELLS 2014;00:0000 www.StemCells.com AlphaMed Press 2014 EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS

    E-print Network

    Feng, Jian

    symptoms of Parkinson's disease are linked to the relatively selective degeneration of nigral DA words. induced pluripotent stem cells · Parkinson's disease · parkin · dopamine · microtubule ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of nigral do paminergic (DA

  13. Heterochromatin components in germline stem cell maintenance.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yalan; Li, Willis X

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell maintenance requires expression of genes essential for stemness and repression of differentiation genes. How this is achieved remains incompletely understood. Here we investigate the requirement for central components of heterochromatin, Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) and the histone H3 lys9 methyltransferase Su(var)3-9, in the Drosophila male germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal, a paradigm for studying adult stem cell behavior. We found that mutations or RNAi knock down of HP1 or Su(var)3-9 cause loss of GSCs, accompanied by defects in cell division or survival and premature expression of the differentiation gene bag of marbles (bam). Conversely, over-expressing HP1 increases GSC number in wildtype flies and, strikingly, restores fertility to the sterile hopscotch (hop) mutant flies that lack niche signals. These results suggest that the central components of heterochromatin play roles including repressing differentiation genes in Drosophila male GSC maintenance. PMID:26626305

  14. Can We Build Artificial Stem Cell Compartments?

    E-print Network

    Semino, Carlos E.

    2003-01-01

    Animals carry stem cells throughout their entire life, from embryogenesis to senescence. Their function during development and adulthood consists basically of forming and sustaining functional tissues while maintaining a ...

  15. Stem cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sakthiswary, Rajalingham; Raymond, Azman Ali

    2012-01-01

    The lack of curative therapies for neurodegenerative diseases has high economic impact and places huge burden on the society. The contribution of stem cells to cure neurodegenerative diseases has been unraveled and explored extensively over the past few years. Beyond substitution of the lost neurons, stem cells act as immunomodulators and neuroprotectors. A large number of preclinical and a small number of clinical studies have shown beneficial outcomes in this context. In this review, we have summarized the current concepts of stem cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases and the recent advances in this field, particularly between 2010 and 2012. Further studies should be encouraged to resolve the clinical issues and vague translational findings for maximum optimization of the efficacy of stem cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25624807

  16. [Research Progress on Muscle-derived Stem Cells Capable of Hematopoiesis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fang; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Juan-Juan; Gao, Xiao-Ning; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Zhao, Shu-Wu; Wang, Tao; Dou, Hao-Ying

    2015-10-01

    Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSC) are defined as myogenic stem cells endowed with their ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types of their derivative tissue, and are proved to be over 10 times more efficient in hematopoiesis than hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Although the mechanism which MDSC differentiate into blood cells is still unclear, MDSC were considered to replace HSC to treat the patients suffering from bone marrow diseases such as aplastic anemia and tumor. MDSC are different from HSC in a variety aspects like biological characteristics, protein expression and cell proliferation. On the other hand, MDSC contain multiple distinct stem cell populations. Among these, there is only a small part with the ability to repopulate hematopoietic cells, and it is still uncertain whether their origin is same as HSC. This review summarizes the difference between MDSC and HSC, the ability of MDSC to repopulate hematopoietic cells, and the prospect of MDSCs' transplantation. PMID:26524070

  17. Clinical grade adult stem cell banking

    PubMed Central

    Thirumala, Sreedhar; Goebel, W Scott

    2009-01-01

    There has been a great deal of scientific interest recently generated by the potential therapeutic applications of adult stem cells in human care but there are several challenges regarding quality and safety in clinical applications and a number of these challenges relate to the processing and banking of these cells ex-vivo. As the number of clinical trials and the variety of adult cells used in regenerative therapy increases, safety remains a primary concern. This has inspired many nations to formulate guidelines and standards for the quality of stem cell collection, processing, testing, banking, packaging and distribution. Clinically applicable cryopreservation and banking of adult stem cells offers unique opportunities to advance the potential uses and widespread implementation of these cells in clinical applications. Most current cryopreservation protocols include animal serum proteins and potentially toxic cryoprotectant additives (CPAs) that prevent direct use of these cells in human therapeutic applications. Long term cryopreservation of adult stem cells under good manufacturing conditions using animal product free solutions is critical to the widespread clinical implementation of ex-vivo adult stem cell therapies. Furthermore, to avoid any potential cryoprotectant related complications, reduced CPA concentrations and efficient post-thaw washing to remove CPA are also desirable. The present review focuses on the current strategies and important aspects of adult stem cell banking for clinical applications. These include current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs), animal protein free freezing solutions, cryoprotectants, freezing & thawing protocols, viability assays, packaging and distribution. The importance and benefits of banking clinical grade adult stem cells are also discussed. PMID:20046678

  18. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease. PMID:26593898

  19. Stem cell factors in plants: chromatin connections.

    PubMed

    Kornet, N; Scheres, B

    2008-01-01

    The progression of pluripotent stem cells to differentiated cell lineages requires major shifts in cell differentiation programs. In both mammals and higher plants, this process appears to be controlled by a dedicated set of transcription factors, many of which are kingdom specific. These divergent transcription factors appear to operate, however, together with a shared suite of factors that affect the chromatin state. It is of major importance to investigate whether such shared global control mechanisms indicate a common mechanistic basis for preservation of the stem cell state, initiation of differentiation programs, and coordination of cell state transitions. PMID:19150963

  20. Entropy, Ergodicity, and Stem Cell Multipotency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridden, Sonya J.; Chang, Hannah H.; Zygalakis, Konstantinos C.; MacArthur, Ben D.

    2015-11-01

    Populations of mammalian stem cells commonly exhibit considerable cell-cell variability. However, the functional role of this diversity is unclear. Here, we analyze expression fluctuations of the stem cell surface marker Sca1 in mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells using a simple stochastic model and find that the observed dynamics naturally lie close to a critical state, thereby producing a diverse population that is able to respond rapidly to environmental changes. We propose an information-theoretic interpretation of these results that views cellular multipotency as an instance of maximum entropy statistical inference.

  1. Lung regeneration: mechanisms, applications and emerging stem cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Kotton, Darrell N; Morrisey, Edward E

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the respiratory system has an extensive ability to respond to injury and regenerate lost or damaged cells. The unperturbed adult lung is remarkably quiescent, but after insult or injury progenitor populations can be activated or remaining cells can re-enter the cell cycle. Techniques including cell-lineage tracing and transcriptome analysis have provided novel and exciting insights into how the lungs and trachea regenerate in response to injury and have allowed the identification of pathways important in lung development and regeneration. These studies are now informing approaches for modulating the pathways that may promote endogenous regeneration as well as the generation of exogenous lung cell lineages from pluripotent stem cells. The emerging advances, highlighted in this Review, are providing new techniques and assays for basic mechanistic studies as well as generating new model systems for human disease and strategies for cell replacement. PMID:25100528

  2. Renal stem cell reprogramming: Prospects in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Morales, Elvin E; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-09-26

    Stem cell therapy is a promising future enterprise for renal replacement in patients with acute and chronic kidney disease, conditions which affect millions worldwide and currently require patients to undergo lifelong medical treatments through dialysis and/or organ transplant. Reprogramming differentiated renal cells harvested from the patient back into a pluripotent state would decrease the risk of tissue rejection and provide a virtually unlimited supply of cells for regenerative medicine treatments, making it an exciting area of current research in nephrology. Among the major hurdles that need to be overcome before stem cell therapy for the kidney can be applied in a clinical setting are ensuring the fidelity and relative safety of the reprogrammed cells, as well as achieving feasible efficiency in the reprogramming processes that are utilized. Further, improved knowledge about the genetic control of renal lineage development is vital to identifying predictable and efficient reprogramming approaches, such as the expression of key modulators or the regulation of gene activity through small molecule mimetics. Here, we discuss several recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell technologies. We also explore strategies that have been successful in renal progenitor generation, and explore what these methods might mean for the development of cell-based regenerative therapies for kidney disease. PMID:25258667

  3. A novel view of the adult bone marrow stem cell hierarchy and stem cell trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak, M Z

    2015-01-01

    This review presents a novel view and working hypothesis about the hierarchy within the adult bone marrow stem cell compartment and the still-intriguing question of whether adult bone marrow contains primitive stem cells from early embryonic development, such as cells derived from the epiblast, migrating primordial germ cells or yolk sac-derived hemangioblasts. It also presents a novel view of the mechanisms that govern stem cell mobilization and homing, with special emphasis on the role of the complement cascade as a trigger for egress of hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow into blood as well as the emerging role of novel homing factors and priming mechanisms that support stromal-derived factor 1-mediated homing of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells after transplantation. PMID:25486871

  4. Somatic stem cell heterogeneity: diversity in the blood, skin and intestinal stem cell compartments.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Margaret A; Nguyen, Hoang; Shroyer, Noah

    2015-05-01

    Somatic stem cells replenish many tissues throughout life to repair damage and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Stem cell function is frequently described as following a hierarchical model in which a single master cell undergoes self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types and is responsible for most regenerative activity. However, recent data from studies on blood, skin and intestinal epithelium all point to the concomitant action of multiple types of stem cells with distinct everyday roles. Under stress conditions such as acute injury, the surprising developmental flexibility of these stem cells enables them to adapt to diverse roles and to acquire different regeneration capabilities. This paradigm shift raises many new questions about the developmental origins, inter-relationships and molecular regulation of these multiple stem cell types. PMID:25907613

  5. Vascular Potential of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iacobas, Ionela; Vats, Archana; Hirschi, Karen K.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death and disability in the US. Understanding the biological activity of stem and progenitor cells, and their ability to contribute to the repair, regeneration and remodeling of the heart and blood vessels affected by pathologic processes is an essential part of the paradigm in enabling us to achieve a reduction in related deaths. Both human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are promising sources of cells for clinical cardiovascular therapies. Additional in vitro studies are needed, however, to understand their relative phenotypes and molecular regulation toward cardiovascular cell fates. Further studies in translational animal models are also needed to gain insights into the potential and function of both human ES- and iPS-derived cardiovascular cells, and enable translation from experimental and pre-clinical studies to human trials. PMID:20453170

  6. Spheroid Culture of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Cesarz, Zoe; Tamama, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Compared with traditional 2D adherent cell culture, 3D spheroidal cell aggregates, or spheroids, are regarded as more physiological, and this technique has been exploited in the field of oncology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in spheroids have enhanced anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and tissue reparative/regenerative effects with improved cell survival after transplantation. Cytoskeletal reorganization and drastic changes in cell morphology in MSC spheroids indicate a major difference in mechanophysical properties compared with 2D culture. Enhanced multidifferentiation potential, upregulated expression of pluripotency marker genes, and delayed replicative senescence indicate enhanced stemness in MSC spheroids. Furthermore, spheroid formation causes drastic changes in the gene expression profile of MSC in microarray analyses. In spite of these significant changes, underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways triggering and sustaining these changes are largely unknown. PMID:26649054

  7. Spheroid Culture of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cesarz, Zoe; Tamama, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Compared with traditional 2D adherent cell culture, 3D spheroidal cell aggregates, or spheroids, are regarded as more physiological, and this technique has been exploited in the field of oncology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in spheroids have enhanced anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and tissue reparative/regenerative effects with improved cell survival after transplantation. Cytoskeletal reorganization and drastic changes in cell morphology in MSC spheroids indicate a major difference in mechanophysical properties compared with 2D culture. Enhanced multidifferentiation potential, upregulated expression of pluripotency marker genes, and delayed replicative senescence indicate enhanced stemness in MSC spheroids. Furthermore, spheroid formation causes drastic changes in the gene expression profile of MSC in microarray analyses. In spite of these significant changes, underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways triggering and sustaining these changes are largely unknown. PMID:26649054

  8. Stem cells. Asymmetric apportioning of aged mitochondria between daughter cells is required for stemness.

    PubMed

    Katajisto, Pekka; Döhla, Julia; Chaffer, Christine L; Pentinmikko, Nalle; Marjanovic, Nemanja; Iqbal, Sharif; Zoncu, Roberto; Chen, Walter; Weinberg, Robert A; Sabatini, David M

    2015-04-17

    By dividing asymmetrically, stem cells can generate two daughter cells with distinct fates. However, evidence is limited in mammalian systems for the selective apportioning of subcellular contents between daughters. We followed the fates of old and young organelles during the division of human mammary stemlike cells and found that such cells apportion aged mitochondria asymmetrically between daughter cells. Daughter cells that received fewer old mitochondria maintained stem cell traits. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission disrupted both the age-dependent subcellular localization and segregation of mitochondria and caused loss of stem cell properties in the progeny cells. Hence, mechanisms exist for mammalian stemlike cells to asymmetrically sort aged and young mitochondria, and these are important for maintaining stemness properties. PMID:25837514

  9. Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells.

    PubMed

    Uchida, N; Buck, D W; He, D; Reitsma, M J; Masek, M; Phan, T V; Tsukamoto, A S; Gage, F H; Weissman, I L

    2000-12-19

    Stem cells, which are clonogenic cells with self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties, have the potential to replace or repair damaged tissue. We have directly isolated clonogenic human central nervous system stem cells (hCNS-SC) from fresh human fetal brain tissue, using antibodies to cell surface markers and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. These hCNS-SC are phenotypically 5F3 (CD133)(+), 5E12(+), CD34(-), CD45(-), and CD24(-/lo). Single CD133(+) CD34(-) CD45(-) sorted cells initiated neurosphere cultures, and the progeny of clonogenic cells could differentiate into both neurons and glial cells. Single cells from neurosphere cultures initiated from CD133(+) CD34(-) CD45(-) cells were again replated as single cells and were able to reestablish neurosphere cultures, demonstrating the self-renewal potential of this highly enriched population. Upon transplantation into brains of immunodeficient neonatal mice, the sorted/expanded hCNS-SC showed potent engraftment, proliferation, migration, and neural differentiation. PMID:11121071

  10. Comparison of intracerebral transplantation effects of different stem cells on rodent stroke models

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yun; Wu, Jianyu; Ju, Rongkai; Chen, Zhiguo; Xu, Qunyuan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), induced neural stem cells (iNSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and an immortalized cell line (RMNE6), representing different characteristics of stem cells, were transplanted into normal and/or injured brain areas of rodent stroke models, and their effects were compared to select suitable stem cells for cell replacement stroke therapy. The rat and mice ischaemic models were constructed using the middle cerebral artery occlusion technique. Both electrocoagulation of the artery and the intraluminal filament technique were used. The behaviour changes and fates of grafted stem cells were determined mainly by behaviour testing and immunocytochemistry. Following iPSC transplantation into the corpora striata of normal mice, a tumour developed in the brain. The iNSCs survived well and migrated towards the injured area without differentiation. Although there was no tumourigenesis in the brain of normal or ischaemic mice after the iNSCs were transplanted in the cortices, the behaviour in ischaemic mice was not improved. Upon transplanting MSC and RMNE6 cells into ischaemic rat brains, results similar to iNSCs in mice were seen. However, transplantation of RMNE6 caused a brain tumour. Thus, tumourigenesis and indeterminate improvement of behaviour are challenging problems encountered in stem cell therapy for stroke, and the intrinsic characteristics of stem cells should be remodelled before transplantation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25914321

  11. Extrinsic Factors Involved in the Differentiation of Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebecca S. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with many debilitating complications. Treatment of diabetes mellitus mainly revolves around conventional oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin replacement therapy. Recently, scientists have turned their attention to the generation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from stem cells of various sources. To date, many types of stem cells of human and animal origins have been successfully turned into IPCs in vitro and have been shown to exert glucose-lowering effect in vivo. However, scientists are still faced with the challenge of producing a sufficient number of IPCs that can in turn produce sufficient insulin for clinical use. A careful choice of stem cells, methods, and extrinsic factors for induction may all be contributing factors to successful production of functional beta-islet like IPCs. It is also important that the mechanism of differentiation and mechanism by which IPCs correct hyperglycaemia are carefully studied before they are used in human subjects. PMID:21747828

  12. Adult Stem Cell Transplantation: Is Gender a Factor in Stemness?

    PubMed Central

    Tajiri, Naoki; Duncan, Kelsey; Borlongan, Mia C.; Pabon, Mibel; Acosta, Sandra; de la Pena, Ike; Hernadez-Ontiveros, Diana; Lozano, Diego; Aguirre, Daniela; Reyes, Stephanny; Sanberg, Paul R.; Eve, David J.; Borlongan, Cesar V.; Kaneko, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Cell therapy now constitutes an important area of regenerative medicine. The aging of the population has mandated the discovery and development of new and innovative therapeutic modalities to combat devastating disorders such as stroke. Menstrual blood and Sertoli cells represent two sources of viable transplantable cells that are gender-specific, both of which appear to have potential as donor cells for transplantation in stroke. During the subacute phase of stroke, the use of autologous cells offers effective and practical clinical application and is suggestive of the many benefits of using the aforementioned gender-specific cells. For example, in addition to being exceptionally immunosuppressive, testis-derived Sertoli cells secrete many growth and trophic factors and have been shown to aid in the functional recovery of animals transplanted with fetal dopaminergic cells. Correspondingly, menstrual blood cells are easily obtainable and exhibit angiogenic characteristics, proliferative capability, and pluripotency. Of further interest is the ability of menstrual blood cells, following transplantation in stroke models, to migrate to the infarct site, secrete neurotrophic factors, regulate the inflammatory response, and be steered towards neural differentiation. From cell isolation to transplantation, we emphasize in this review paper the practicality and relevance of the experimental and clinical use of gender-specific stem cells, such as Sertoli cells and menstrual blood cells, in the treatment of stroke. PMID:25170809

  13. Two subpopulations of stem cells for T cell lineage

    SciTech Connect

    Katsura, Y.; Amagai, T.; Kina, T.; Sado, T.; Nishikawa, S.

    1985-11-01

    An assay system for the stem cell that colonizes the thymus and differentiates into T cells was developed, and by using this assay system the existence of two subpopulations of stem cells for T cell lineage was clarified. Part-body-shielded and 900-R-irradiated C57BL/6 (H-2b, Thy-1.2) recipient mice, which do not require the transfer of pluripotent stem cells for their survival, were transferred with cells from B10 X Thy-1.1 (H-2b, Thy-1.1) donor mice. The reconstitution of the recipient's thymus lymphocytes was accomplished by stem cells in the donor cells and those spared in the shielded portion of the recipient that competitively colonize the thymus. Thus, the stem cell activity of donor cells can be evaluated by determining the proportion of donor-type (Thy-1.1+) cells in the recipient's thymus. Bone marrow cells were the most potent source of stem cells. By contrast, when the stem cell activity was compared between spleen and bone marrow cells of whole-body-irradiated (800 R) C57BL/6 mice reconstituted with B10 X Thy-1.1 bone marrow cells by assaying in part-body-shielded and irradiated C57BL/6 mice, the activity of these two organs showed quite a different time course of development. The results strongly suggest that the stem cells for T cell lineage in the bone marrow comprise at least two subpopulations, spleen-seeking and bone marrow-seeking cells.

  14. TECHNICAL ADVANCE Automated tracking of stem cell lineages of Arabidopsis

    E-print Network

    Chowdhury, Amit K. Roy

    827 4437; e-mail venug@ucr.edu). SUMMARY Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) of higher plants harbor stem-cell niches. The cells of the stem-cell niche are organized into spatial domains of distinct function and cell to ensure stem-cell homeostasis and organ differentiation. Exploring the causal relationships between cell

  15. Cellcell interaction networks regulate blood stem and progenitor cell fate

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell­cell interaction networks regulate blood stem and progenitor cell fate Daniel C Kirouac1 a novel mathematical model of blood stem cell development incorporating cell-level kinetic parameters. Through integrated in silico and experimental analyses, we show that blood stem and progenitor cell fate

  16. Osteogenic Differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanhong; Pilquil, Carlos; Opas, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have been widely studied due to their pluripotency and their potential of self-renewal. Murine ES cells are useful in investigating the molecular pathways underlying their differentiation to various mature cell types in the body. This chapter describes the maintenance of murine ES cells in culture and a routine ES cell osteogenic differentiation protocol utilized in our laboratory. PMID:25417061

  17. Are hematopoietic stem cells involved in hepatocarcinogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Antonino, Matteo; Del Prete, Valentina; Neve, Viviana; Scavo, Maria Principia; Barone, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The liver has three cell lineages able to proliferate after a hepatic injury: the mature hepatocyte, the ductular “bipolar” progenitor cell termed “oval cell” and the putative periductular stem cell. Hepatocytes can only produce other hepatocytes whereas ductular progenitor cells are considerate bipolar since they can give rise to biliary cells or hepatocytes. Periductular stem cells are rare in the liver, have a very long proliferation potential and may be multipotent, being this aspect still under investigation. They originate in the bone marrow since their progeny express genetic markers of donor hematopoietic cells after bone marrow transplantation. Since the liver is the hematopoietic organ of the fetus, it is possible that hematopoietic stem cells may reside in the liver of the adult. This assumption is proved by the finding that oval cells express hematopoietic markers like CD34, CD45, CD 109, Thy-1, c-kit, and others, which are also expressed by bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (BMSCs). Few and discordant studies have evaluated the role of BMSC in hepatocarcinogenesis so far and further studies in vitro and in vivo are warranted in order to definitively clarify such an issue. PMID:25202697

  18. Commonalities in immune modulation between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs).

    PubMed

    Ottoboni, Linda; De Feo, Donatella; Merlini, Arianna; Martino, Gianvito

    2015-12-01

    Owing to their unique immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been advocated as a potential therapy for numerous pathological conditions in which immune-mediated inflammatory reactions play a crucial role, such as autoimmune disorders, cerebrovascular diseases and tumours. Increasing evidence suggest that stem cells, other than MSCs, are also capable of immunomodulation. Neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) have been among the first stem cells to show immunomodulatory properties and nowadays represent one the most studied and promising stem cell subtype in still uncurable acute and chronic inflammatory neurological disorders. Although the ontogeny of NPCs and MSCs greatly diverges, their immunomodulatory mechanisms are similar and are largely based on the bystander (paracrine) effect through membrane-bound and soluble mediators that influence the behavior of host immune cells. This observation suggests the existence of a core stem cell signature across different stem cell lineages and that shared signalling pathways between the stem cell niche and the inflammatory immune response likely mediate both NPC and MSC immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25986012

  19. Exploiting stem cell therapy: the 3rd meeting of stem cell research Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Piva, Roberta; Giordano, Antonio; Galderisi, Umberto

    2013-04-01

    The study of stem cells is one of the most exciting areas of contemporary biomedical research. During the 3rd Joint Meeting of Stem Cell Research Italy (June 2012, Ferrara, Italy), scientists from different multidisciplinary areas explored new frontiers of basic and applied stem cell research with key lectures and oral presentations. There was a public debate on ethics during the opening ceremony, specifically on the limits and potentialities of adult and embryonic stem cells. Some scientists presented basic research data showing evolutionary aspects, which could be of interest in understanding specific biological phenomena. Others focused on "dangerous liaisons" between gene transfer vectors and the human genome. Some speakers provided insight into current stem cell therapies, such as those involving human epithelial stem cells for treatment of skin diseases. Other researchers presented data on close-to-therapy findings, such as the use of mesenchymal stem cells in brain repair. Of note, during the meeting, spotlights were focused on major issues that have to be considered for GMP stem cell production for cell therapy. In "Meet the Expert" sessions, specialists presented innovative technologies such as a next-generation sequencing system. Finally, the meeting provided an excellent opportunity for young scientists to show their findings, and to discuss with each other and with internationally recognized experts. PMID:22927167

  20. Advances in hepatic stem/progenitor cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Stefaan; Best, Jan; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Dollé, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The liver is famous for its strong regenerative capacity, employing different modes of regeneration according to type and extent of injury. Mature liver cells are able to proliferate in order to replace the damaged tissue allowing the recovery of the parenchymal function. In more severe scenarios hepatocytes are believed to arise also from a facultative liver progenitor cell compartment. In human, severe acute liver failure and liver cirrhosis are also both important clinical targets in which regeneration is impaired, where the role of this stem cell compartment seems more convincing. In animal models, the current state of ambiguity regarding the identity and role of liver progenitor cells in liver physiology dampens the enthusiasm for the potential use of these cells in regenerative medicine. The aim of this review is to give the basics of liver progenitor cell biology and discuss recent results vis-à-vis their identity and contribution to liver regeneration. PMID:26600740

  1. Kallikrein-kinin in stem cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Julie; Bledsoe, Grant; Chao, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The tissue kallikrein-kinin system exerts a wide spectrum of biological activities in the cardiovascular, renal and central nervous systems. Tissue kallikrein-kinin modulates the proliferation, viability, mobility and functional activity of certain stem cell populations, namely mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), mononuclear cell subsets and neural stem cells. Stimulation of these stem cells by tissue kallikrein-kinin may lead to protection against renal, cardiovascular and neural damage by inhibiting apoptosis, inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress and promoting neovascularization. Moreover, MSCs and EPCs genetically modified with tissue kallikrein are resistant to hypoxia- and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, and offer enhanced protective actions in animal models of heart and kidney injury and hindlimb ischemia. In addition, activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system promotes EPC recruitment to the inflamed synovium of arthritic rats. Conversely, cleaved high molecular weight kininogen, a product of plasma kallikrein, reduces the viability and vasculogenic activity of EPCs. Therefore, kallikrein-kinin provides a new approach in enhancing the efficacy of stem cell therapy for human diseases. PMID:25258666

  2. Personalized nanomedicine advancements for stem cell tracking?

    PubMed Central

    Janowski, Mirek; Bulte, Jeff W.M.; Walczak, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological developments in biomedicine have facilitated the generation of data on the anatomical, physiological and molecular level for individual patients and thus introduces opportunity for therapy to be personalized in an unprecedented fashion. Generation of patient-specific stem cells exemplifies the efforts toward this new approach. Cell-based therapy is a highly promising treatment paradigm; however, due to the lack of consistent and unbiased data about the fate of stem cells in vivo, interpretation of therapeutic remains challenging hampering the progress in this field. The advent of nanotechnology with a wide palette of inorganic and organic nanostructures has expanded the arsenal of methods for tracking transplanted stem cells. The diversity of nanomaterials has revolutionized personalized nanomedicine and enables individualized tailoring of stem cell labeling materials for the specific needs of each patient. The successful implementation of stem cell tracking will likely be a significant driving force that will contribute to the further development of nanotheranostics. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the role of cell tracking using currently available nanoparticles. PMID:22820528

  3. Review: Stem cells and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Alenzi, Faris Q; Lotfy, Mahmoud; Tamimi, Waleed G; Wyse, Richard K H

    2010-09-01

    Both stem cell and gene therapy research are currently the focus of intense research in institutions and companies around the world. Both approaches hold great promise by offering radical new and successful ways of treating debilitating and incurable diseases effectively. Gene therapy is an approach to treat, cure, or ultimately prevent disease by changing the pattern of gene expression. It is mostly experimental, but a number of clinical human trials have already been conducted. Gene therapy can be targeted to somatic or germ cells; the most common vectors are viruses. Scientists manipulate the viral genome and thus introduce therapeutic genes to the target organ. Viruses, in this context, can cause adverse events such as toxicity, immune and inflammatory responses, as well as gene control and targeting issues. Alternative modalities being considered are complexes of DNA with lipids and proteins. Stem cells are primitive cells that have the capacity to self renew as well as to differentiate into 1 or more mature cell types. Pluripotent embryonic stem cells derived from the inner cell mass can develop into more than 200 different cells and differentiate into cells of the 3 germ cell layers. Because of their capacity of unlimited expansion and pluripotency, they are useful in regenerative medicine. Tissue or adult stem cells produce cells specific to the tissue in which they are found. They are relatively unspecialized and predetermined to give rise to specific cell types when they differentiate. The current review provides a summary of our current knowledge of stem cells and gene therapy as well as their clinical implications and related therapeutic options. PMID:20858588

  4. Adipose stem cell-based regenerative medicine for reversal of diabetic hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hyun Joon; Kim, Courtney; Williams, Stuart K

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is a devastating disease that affects millions of people globally and causes a myriad of complications that lead to both patient morbidity and mortality. Currently available therapies, including insulin injection and beta cell replacement through either pancreas or pancreatic islet transplantation, are limited by the availability of organs. Stem cells provide an alternative treatment option for beta cell replacement through selective differentiation of stem cells into cells that recognize glucose and produce and secrete insulin. Embryonic stem cells, albeit pluripotent, face a number of challenges, including ethical and political concerns and potential teratoma formation. Adipose tissue represents an alternative source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, which can be obtained using a relatively simple, non-invasive, and inexpensive method. Similarly to other adult mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are capable of differentiating into insulin-producing cells. They are also capable of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, which facilitate engraftment of donor pancreatic islets when co-transplanted. Additionally, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of ADSCs can protect donor islets during the early phase of transplantation and subsequently improve engraftment of donor islets into the recipient organ. Although ADSC-therapy is still in its infancy, the potential benefits of ADSCs are far reaching. PMID:24936245

  5. Adipose stem cell-based regenerative medicine for reversal of diabetic hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hyun Joon; Kim, Courtney; Williams, Stuart K

    2014-06-15

    Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is a devastating disease that affects millions of people globally and causes a myriad of complications that lead to both patient morbidity and mortality. Currently available therapies, including insulin injection and beta cell replacement through either pancreas or pancreatic islet transplantation, are limited by the availability of organs. Stem cells provide an alternative treatment option for beta cell replacement through selective differentiation of stem cells into cells that recognize glucose and produce and secrete insulin. Embryonic stem cells, albeit pluripotent, face a number of challenges, including ethical and political concerns and potential teratoma formation. Adipose tissue represents an alternative source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, which can be obtained using a relatively simple, non-invasive, and inexpensive method. Similarly to other adult mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are capable of differentiating into insulin-producing cells. They are also capable of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, which facilitate engraftment of donor pancreatic islets when co-transplanted. Additionally, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of ADSCs can protect donor islets during the early phase of transplantation and subsequently improve engraftment of donor islets into the recipient organ. Although ADSC-therapy is still in its infancy, the potential benefits of ADSCs are far reaching. PMID:24936245

  6. System for tracking transplanted limbal epithelial stem cells in the treatment of corneal stem cell deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boadi, J.; Sangwal, V.; MacNeil, S.; Matcher, S. J.

    2015-03-01

    The prevailing hypothesis for the existence and healing of the avascular corneal epithelium is that this layer of cells is continually produced by stem cells in the limbus and transported onto the cornea to mature into corneal epithelium. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD), in which the stem cell population is depleted, can lead to blindness. LSCD can be caused by chemical and thermal burns to the eye. A popular treatment, especially in emerging economies such as India, is the transplantation of limbal stem cells onto damaged limbus with hope of repopulating the region. Hence regenerating the corneal epithelium. In order to gain insights into the success rates of this treatment, new imaging technologies are needed in order to track the transplanted cells. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is well known for its high resolution in vivo images of the retina. A custom OCT system has been built to image the corneal surface, to investigate the fate of transplanted limbal stem cells. We evaluate two methods to label and track transplanted cells: melanin labelling and magneto-labelling. To evaluate melanin labelling, stem cells are loaded with melanin and then transplanted onto a rabbit cornea denuded of its epithelium. The melanin displays strongly enhanced backscatter relative to normal cells. To evaluate magneto-labelling the stem cells are loaded with magnetic nanoparticles (20-30nm in size) and then imaged with a custom-built, magneto-motive OCT system.

  7. College Students' Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concannon, James P.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Halverson, Kristy; Freyermuth, Sharyn

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before and after instruction. Two goals of the instruction were to: (1) help students construct accurate scientific ideas, and (2) enhance their reasoning about socioscientific issues. The course structure included interactive lectures, case discussions, hands-on activities, and independent projects. Overall, students' understandings of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning increased from pre-test to post-test. For example, on the post-test, students gained knowledge concerning the age of an organism related to the type of stem cell it possesses. However, we found that some incorrect ideas that were evident on the pre-test persisted after instruction. For example, before and after instruction several students maintained the idea that stem cells can currently be used to produce organs.

  8. Stem-cell challenges in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a long way from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaotang; Sun, Dayu; Tang, Xiaotong; Cai, Yulong; Yin, Zheng Qin; Xu, Haiwei

    2014-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent type of dementia, and its neuropathology is characterized by deposition of insoluble ?-amyloid peptides, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and the loss of diverse neurons. Current pharmacological treatments for AD relieve symptoms without affecting the major pathological characteristics of the disease. Therefore, it is essential to develop new and effective therapies. Stem-cell types include tissue-specific stem cells, such as neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells derived from blastocysts, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogrammed from somatic cells. Recent preclinical evidence suggests that stem cells can be used to treat or model AD. The mechanisms of stem cell based therapies for AD include stem cell mediated neuroprotection and trophic actions, antiamyloidogenesis, beneficial immune modulation, and the replacement of the lost neurons. iPSCs have been recently used to model AD, investigate sporadic and familial AD pathogenesis, and screen for anti-AD drugs. Although considerable progress has been achieved, a series of challenges must be overcome before stem cell based cell therapies are used clinically for AD patients. This review highlights the recent experimental and preclinical progress of stem-cell therapies for AD, and discusses the translational challenges of their clinical application. PMID:24500883

  9. Cancer Stem Cells in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ryou-u; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Ono, Makiko; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory is generally acknowledged as an important field of cancer research, not only as an academic matter but also as a crucial aspect of clinical practice. CSCs share a variety of biological properties with normal somatic stem cells in self-renewal, the propagation of differentiated progeny, the expression of specific cell markers and stem cell genes, and the utilization of common signaling pathways and the stem cell niche. However, CSCs differ from normal stem cells in their chemoresistance and their tumorigenic and metastatic activities. In this review, we focus on recent reports regarding the identification of CSC markers and the molecular mechanism of CSC phenotypes to understand the basic properties and molecular target of CSCs. In addition, we especially focus on the CSCs of breast cancer since the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy can lead to the enrichment of CSCs in patients with that disease. The identification of CSC markers and an improved understanding of the molecular mechanism of CSC phenotypes should lead to progress in cancer therapy and improved prognoses for patients with cancer. PMID:24212663

  10. Patterning pluripotency in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Sevilla, Ana; Wan, Leo Q.; Lemischka, Ihor R.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Developmental gradients of morphogens and the formation of boundaries guide the choices between self-renewal and differentiation in stem cells. Still, surprisingly little is known about gene expression signatures of differentiating stem cells at the boundaries between regions. We thus combined inducible gene expression with a microfluidic technology to pattern gene expression in murine embryonic stem cells. Regional depletion of the Nanog transcriptional regulator was achieved through the exposure of cells to microfluidic gradients of morphogens. In this way, we established pluripotency-differentiation boundaries between Nanog expressing cells (pluripotency zone) and Nanog suppressed cells (early differentiation zone) within the same cell population, with a gradient of Nanog expression across the individual cell colonies, to serve as a mimic of the developmental process. Using this system, we identified strong interactions between Nanog and its target genes by constructing a network with Nanog as the root and the measured levels of gene expression in each region. Gene expression patterns at the pluripotency-differentiation boundaries recreated in vitro were similar to those in the developing blastocyst. This approach to the study of cellular commitment at the boundaries between gene expression domains, a phenomenon critical for understanding of early development, has potential to benefit fundamental research of stem cells and their application in regenerative medicine. PMID:23843329

  11. Stem Cell Therapy for Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jameel, Mohammad Nurulqadr

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Stem cell transplantation has emerged as a novel treatment option for ischemic heart disease. Different cell types have been utilized and the recent development of induced pluripotent stem cells has generated tremendous excitement in the regenerative field. Bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cell transplantation in preclinical large animal models of postinfarction left ventricular remodeling has demonstrated long-term functional and bioenergetic improvement. These beneficial effects are observed despite no significant engraftment of bone marrow cells in the myocardium and even lower differentiation of these cells into cardiomyocytes. It is thought to be related to the paracrine effect of these stem cells, which secrete factors that lead to long-term gene expression changes in the host myocardium, thereby promoting neovascularization, inhibiting apoptosis, and stimulating resident cardiac progenitor cells. Future studies are warranted to examine the changes in the recipient myocardium after stem cell transplantation and to investigate the signaling pathways involved in these effects. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 1879–1897. PMID:20687781

  12. Replacement of Diseased Mouse Liver by Hepatic Cell Transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, Jonathan A.; Sandgren, Eric P.; Degen, Jay L.; Palmiter, Richard D.; Brinster, Ralph L.

    1994-02-01

    Adult liver has the unusual ability to fully regenerate after injury. Although regeneration is accomplished by the division of mature hepatocytes, the replicative potential of these cells is unknown. Here, the replicative capacity of adult liver cells and their medical usefulness as donor cells for transplantation were investigated by transfer of adult mouse liver cells into transgenic mice that display an endogenous defect in hepatic growth potential and function. The transplanted liver cell populations replaced up to 80 percent of the diseased recipient liver. These findings demonstrate the enormous growth potential of adult hepatocytes, indicating the feasibility of liver cell transplantation as a method to replace lost or diseased hepatic parenchyma.

  13. Chondrogenic Differentiation of Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Embryonic Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Shu, K.

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) contraction associated with chondrogenesis is attributed to the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). In this study, pluripotent embryonic carcinoma cells (ECCs) and MSCs were ...

  14. Large animal models for stem cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The field of regenerative medicine is approaching translation to clinical practice, and significant safety concerns and knowledge gaps have become clear as clinical practitioners are considering the potential risks and benefits of cell-based therapy. It is necessary to understand the full spectrum of stem cell actions and preclinical evidence for safety and therapeutic efficacy. The role of animal models for gaining this information has increased substantially. There is an urgent need for novel animal models to expand the range of current studies, most of which have been conducted in rodents. Extant models are providing important information but have limitations for a variety of disease categories and can have different size and physiology relative to humans. These differences can preclude the ability to reproduce the results of animal-based preclinical studies in human trials. Larger animal species, such as rabbits, dogs, pigs, sheep, goats, and non-human primates, are better predictors of responses in humans than are rodents, but in each case it will be necessary to choose the best model for a specific application. There is a wide spectrum of potential stem cell-based products that can be used for regenerative medicine, including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, somatic stem cells, and differentiated cellular progeny. The state of knowledge and availability of these cells from large animals vary among species. In most cases, significant effort is required for establishing and characterizing cell lines, comparing behavior to human analogs, and testing potential applications. Stem cell-based therapies present significant safety challenges, which cannot be addressed by traditional procedures and require the development of new protocols and test systems, for which the rigorous use of larger animal species more closely resembling human behavior will be required. In this article, we discuss the current status and challenges of and several major directions for the future development of large animal models to facilitate advances in stem cell-based regenerative medicine. PMID:23672797

  15. Stem cell delivery systems inspired by tissue-specific niches.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Chan; Choi, Ji Suk; Woo, Chang Hee; Cho, Yong Woo

    2014-11-10

    Since stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into a variety of cell types, stem cell delivery systems (SCDSs) can be effective therapeutic strategies for a multitude of diseases and disorders. For stem cell-based therapy, stem cells are introduced directly (or peripherally) into a target tissue via different delivery systems. Despite initial promising results obtained from preclinical studies, a number of technical hurdles must be overcome for ultimate clinical utility of stem cells. A key aspect of SCDSs is how to create local environments, called stem cell niches, for improvement of survival and engraftment as well as the fate of transplanted stem cells. The stem cell niches encompassing a wide range of biochemical, biophysical, and biomechanical cues play a guidance role to modulate stem cell behaviors such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Recent studies have tried to decipher the complex interplay between stem cells and niches, and thereafter to engineer SCDS, mimicking dynamic stem cell niches encompassing a wide range of biochemical, biophysical, and biomechanical cues. Here, we discuss the biological role of stem cell niches and highlight recent progress in SCDS to mimic stem cell niches, particularly focusing on important biomaterial properties for modulating stem cell fate. PMID:24979211

  16. Self-renewal of teratocarcinoma and embryonic stem cells 

    E-print Network

    Chambers, Ian; Smith, Austin G

    2004-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells derived from preimplantation embryos, primordial germ cells or teratocarcinomas are currently unique in undergoing prolonged symmetrical self-renewal in culture. For mouse embryonic stem (ES)cells, ...

  17. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into Corticofugal projection neurons

    E-print Network

    Kmet, Muriel Marie

    2013-01-01

    neural  stem  cells  to   model  neurological  disease.  stem cells (iPSCs) into corticospinal motor neurons, to elucidate diseasestem cell-based therapies aiming at neural protection in neurological diseases

  18. Inducible formation of breast cancer stem cells and their dynamic equilibrium with non-stem cancer cells

    E-print Network

    Inducible formation of breast cancer stem cells and their dynamic equilibrium with non-stem cancer selectively inhibits CSCs. cellular transformation | inflammation | cancer stem cells equilibrium Cancer stem heterogeneous, being composed of multiple cell types with different phenotypic and molecular properties. Cancer

  19. Hedgehog and Resident Vascular Stem Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Ciaran J.; Hakimjavadi, Roya; Fitzpatrick, Emma; Kennedy, Eimear; Walls, Dermot; Morrow, David; Redmond, Eileen M.; Cahill, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The Hedgehog pathway is a pivotal morphogenic driver during embryonic development and a key regulator of adult stem cell self-renewal. The discovery of resident multipotent vascular stem cells and adventitial progenitors within the vessel wall has transformed our understanding of the origin of medial and neointimal vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) during vessel repair in response to injury, lesion formation, and overall disease progression. This review highlights the importance of components of the Hh and Notch signalling pathways within the medial and adventitial regions of adult vessels, their recapitulation following vascular injury and disease progression, and their putative role in the maintenance and differentiation of resident vascular stem cells to vascular lineages from discrete niches within the vessel wall. PMID:26064136

  20. Colon cancer stem cells: Controversies and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Tesori, Valentina; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Tumors have long been viewed as a population in which all cells have the equal propensity to form new tumors, the so called conventional stochastic model. The cutting-edge theory on tumor origin and progression, tends to consider cancer as a stem cell disease. Stem cells are actively involved in the onset and maintenance of colon cancer. This review is intended to examine the state of the art on colon cancer stem cells (CSCs), with regard to the recent achievements of basic research and to the corresponding translational consequences. Specific prominence is given to the hypothesized origin of CSCs and to the methods for their identification. The growing understanding of CSC biology is driving the optimization of novel anti-cancer targeted drugs. PMID:23716979

  1. The ethics of stem cells revisited.

    PubMed

    de Miguel-Beriain, Iñigo

    2015-03-01

    Stem cells constitute one of the most promising tools for regenerative medicine. Thus, it seems morally compelling to explore all the sources that might provide us with them. However, some of these sources, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer, embryo destruction, or even induced pluripotency obtained by reprogramming have raised deep ethical issues. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the stem cell ethical debate at the current moment through an analysis of the academic literature. It will also provide an analysis of the ethical implications of the most relevant scientific advances that have happened in recent months or those which seem about to merge. PMID:25446134

  2. Rethinking differentiation: Stem cells, regeneration, and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Cell differentiation is an essential process for the development, growth, reproduction and longevity of all multicellular organisms, and its regulation has been the focus of intense investigation for the past 4 decades. The study of natural and induced stem cells has ushered an age of re-examination of what it means to be a stem or a differentiated cell. Past and recent discoveries in plants and animals, as well as novel experimental manipulations are beginning to erode many of these established concepts, and are forcing a re-evaluation of the experimental systems and paradigms presently being used to explore these and other biological process. PMID:24679530

  3. Substrates for clinical applicability of stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Enam, Sanjar; Jin, Sha

    2015-01-01

    The capability of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to differentiate into a variety of cells in the human body holds great promise for regenerative medicine. Many substrates exist on which hPSCs can be self-renewed, maintained and expanded to further the goal of clinical application of stem cells. In this review, we highlight numerous extracellular matrix proteins, peptide and polymer based substrates, scaffolds and hydrogels that have been pioneered. We discuss their benefits and shortcomings and offer future directions as well as emphasize commercially available synthetic peptides as a type of substrate that can bring the benefits of regenerative medicine to clinical settings. PMID:25815112

  4. Metabolic Reprogramming of Stem Cell Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Ryall, James G; Cliff, Tim; Dalton, Stephen; Sartorelli, Vittorio

    2015-12-01

    For many years, stem cell metabolism was viewed as a byproduct of cell fate status rather than an active regulatory mechanism; however, there is now a growing appreciation that metabolic pathways influence epigenetic changes associated with lineage commitment, specification, and self-renewal. Here we review how metabolites generated during glycolytic and oxidative processes are utilized in enzymatic reactions leading to epigenetic modifications and transcriptional regulation. We discuss how "metabolic reprogramming" contributes to global epigenetic changes in the context of naive and primed pluripotent states, somatic reprogramming, and hematopoietic and skeletal muscle tissue stem cells, and we discuss the implications for regenerative medicine. PMID:26637942

  5. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Cultures and Assays

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Benjamin J.; Calvi, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The adult hematopoietic system is repopulated in its entirety from a rare cell type known as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that reside in the marrow space throughout the skeletal system. Here we describe the isolation and identification of HSCs both phenotypically and functionally. PMID:24482184

  6. Hematopoietic stem cell cultures and assays.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Benjamin J; Calvi, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    The adult hematopoietic system is repopulated in its entirety from a rare cell type known as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that reside in the marrow space throughout the skeletal system. Here we describe the isolation and identification of HSCs both phenotypically and functionally. PMID:24482184

  7. 5____________________________________________________________________________ Engineering Stem Cells into Organs

    E-print Network

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    Cells into Organs: Topobiological Transformations Demonstrated by Beak, Feather, and Other Ectodermal Organ Morphogenesis ChengMing Chuong, Ping Wu, Maksim Plikus, TingXin Jiang, and Randall Bruce Widelitz 90033 I. Introduction II. Between Stem Cells and Organs III. Topobiological Transformation Events

  8. Materials for stem cell factories of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiz, Adam D.; Smith, James G. W.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Winkler, David A.; Barrett, David A.; Davies, Martyn C.; Young, Lorraine E.; Denning, Chris; Alexander, Morgan R.

    2014-06-01

    Polymeric substrates are being identified that could permit translation of human pluripotent stem cells from laboratory-based research to industrial-scale biomedicine. Well-defined materials are required to allow cell banking and to provide the raw material for reproducible differentiation into lineages for large-scale drug-screening programs and clinical use. Yet more than 1 billion cells for each patient are needed to replace losses during heart attack, multiple sclerosis and diabetes. Producing this number of cells is challenging, and a rethink of the current predominant cell-derived substrates is needed to provide technology that can be scaled to meet the needs of millions of patients a year. In this Review, we consider the role of materials discovery, an emerging area of materials chemistry that is in large part driven by the challenges posed by biologists to materials scientists.

  9. Development of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Fen; Wu, Mengyao; Wang, Zack Z.

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), provide a new cell source for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug discovery, and preclinical toxicity screening. Understanding of the onset and the sequential process of hematopoietic cells from differentiated hPSCs will enable the achievement of personalized medicine and provide an in vitro platform for studying of human hematopoietic development and disease. During embryogenesis, hemogenic endothelial cells, a specified subset of endothelial cells in embryonic endothelium, are the primary source of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells. In this review, we discuss current status in the generation of multipotent hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from hPSCs via hemogenic endothelial cells. We also review the achievements in direct reprogramming from non-hematopoietic cells to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Further characterization of hematopoietic differentiation in hPSCs will improve our understanding of blood development and expedite the development of hPSC-derived blood products for therapeutic purpose. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved PMID:25740540

  10. Stemness of T cells and the hematopoietic stem cells: fate, memory, niche, cytokines.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Francesca B; Graciotti, Laura; Procopio, Antonio D; Keller, Jonathan R; Durum, Scott K

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells are able to generate both cells that differentiate and cells that remain undifferentiated but potentially have the same developmental program. The prolonged duration of the protective immune memory for infectious diseases such as polio, small pox, and measles, suggested that memory T cells may have stem cell properties. Understanding the molecular basis for the life-long persistence of memory T cells may be useful to project targeted therapies for immune deficiencies and infectious diseases and to formulate vaccines. In the last decade evidence from different laboratories shows that memory T cells may share self-renewal pathways with bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells. In stem cells the intrinsic self-renewal activity, which depends on gene expression, is known to be modulated by extrinsic signals from the environment that may be tissue specific. These extrinsic signals for stemness of memory T cells include cytokines such as IL-7 and IL-15 and there are other cytokine signals for maintaining the cytokine signature (TH1, TH2, etc.) of memory T cells. Intrinsic and extrinsic pathways that might be common to bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells and memory T lymphocytes are discussed and related to self-renewal functions. PMID:24231048

  11. Characterization of chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Jonathan M.; Qin, Lu; Kowalski, Jeanne; Smith, B. Douglas; Griffin, Constance A.; Vala, Milada S.; Collector, Michael I.; Perkins, Brandy; Zahurak, Marianna; Matsui, William; Gocke, Christopher D.; Sharkis, Saul J.; Levitsky, Hyam I.; Jones, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Though tyrosine kinase inhibitors have redefined the care of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), these agents have not proved curative, likely due to resistance of the leukemia stem cells (LSC). While a number of potential therapeutic targets have emerged in CML, their expression in the LSC remains largely unknown. We therefore isolated subsets of CD34+ stem/progenitor cells from normal donors and from patients with chronic phase or blast crisis CML. These cell subsets were then characterized based on ability to engraft immunodeficient mice and expression of candidate therapeutic targets. The CD34+CD38? CML cell population with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity was the most enriched for immunodeficient mouse engrafting capacity. The putative targets: PROTEINASE 3, SURVIVIN, and hTERT were expressed only at relatively low levels by the CD34+CD38?ALDHhigh CML cells, similar to the normal CD34+CD38?ALDHhigh cells and less than in the total CML CD34+ cells. In fact, the highest expression of these antigens was in normal, unfractionated CD34+ cells. In contrast, PRAME and WT1 were more highly expressed by all CML CD34+ subsets than their normal counterparts. Thus, ALDH activity appears to enrich for CML stem cells, which display an expression profile that is distinct from normal stem/progenitor cells and even the CML progenitors. Indeed, expression of a putative target by the total CD34+ population in CML does not guarantee expression by the LSC. These expression patterns suggest that PROTEINASE 3, SURVIVIN, and hTERT are not optimal therapeutic targets in CML stem cells; whereas PRAME and WT1 seem promising. PMID:21132730

  12. Stem cell models of polyglutamine diseases and their use in cell-based therapies

    PubMed Central

    Siska, Evangelia K.; Koliakos, George; Petrakis, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    Polyglutamine diseases are fatal neurological disorders that affect the central nervous system. They are caused by mutations in disease genes that contain CAG trinucleotide expansions in their coding regions. These mutations are translated into expanded glutamine chains in pathological proteins. Mutant proteins induce cytotoxicity, form intranuclear aggregates and cause neuronal cell death in specific brain regions. At the moment there is no cure for these diseases and only symptomatic treatments are available. Here, we discuss novel therapeutic approaches that aim in neuronal cell replacement using induced pluripotent or adult stem cells. Additionally, we present the beneficial effect of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells and their use as disease models or RNAi/gene delivery vehicles. In combination with their paracrine and cell-trophic properties, such cells may prove useful for the development of novel therapies against polyglutamine diseases. PMID:26236184

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells as therapies for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Juan; Yang, Rongbing; Biswas, Sangita; Qin, Xin; Zhang, Min; Deng, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that leads to permanent neurological deficits. Current MS treatment regimens are insufficient to treat the irreversible neurological disabilities. Tremendous progress in the experimental and clinical applications of cell-based therapies has recognized stem cells as potential candidates for regenerative therapy for many neurodegenerative disorders including MS. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) derived precursor cells can modulate the autoimmune response in the central nervous system (CNS) and promote endogenous remyelination and repair process in animal models. This review highlights studies involving the immunomodulatory and regenerative effects of mesenchymal stem cells and iPSCs derived cells in animal models, and their translation into immunomodulatory and neuroregenerative treatment strategies for MS. PMID:25918935

  14. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Juan; Yang, Rongbing; Biswas, Sangita; Qin, Xin; Zhang, Min; Deng, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that leads to permanent neurological deficits. Current MS treatment regimens are insufficient to treat the irreversible neurological disabilities. Tremendous progress in the experimental and clinical applications of cell-based therapies has recognized stem cells as potential candidates for regenerative therapy for many neurodegenerative disorders including MS. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) derived precursor cells can modulate the autoimmune response in the central nervous system (CNS) and promote endogenous remyelination and repair process in animal models. This review highlights studies involving the immunomodulatory and regenerative effects of mesenchymal stem cells and iPSCs derived cells in animal models, and their translation into immunomodulatory and neuroregenerative treatment strategies for MS. PMID:25918935

  15. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hirschi, Karen K.; Li, Song; Roy, Krishnendu

    2014-01-01

    With the discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, it is now possible to convert differentiated somatic cells into multipotent stem cells that have the capacity to generate all cell types of adult tissues. Thus, there is a wide variety of applications for this technology, including regenerative medicine, in vitro disease modeling, and drug screening/discovery. Although biological and biochemical techniques have been well established for cell reprogramming, bioengineering technologies offer novel tools for the reprogramming, expansion, isolation, and differentiation of iPS cells. In this article, we review these bioengineering approaches for the derivation and manipulation of iPS cells and focus on their relevance to regenerative medicine. PMID:24905879

  16. Stem Cell Reports Single-Cell Analysis of Proxy Reporter Allele-Marked Epithelial Cells

    E-print Network

    Jensen, Shane T.

    Stem Cell Reports Resource Single-Cell Analysis of Proxy Reporter Allele-Marked Epithelial Cells Establishes Intestinal Stem Cell Hierarchy Ning Li,1 Maryam Yousefi,1,5 Angela Nakauka-Ddamba,1 Rajan Jain,2 development of targeted murine reporter alleles as proxies for intestinal stem cell activity has led

  17. Normal and neoplastic non-stem cells can spontaneously convert to a stem-like state

    E-print Network

    Su, Ying

    Current models of stem cell biology assume that normal and neoplastic stem cells reside at the apices of hierarchies and differentiate into nonstem progeny in a unidirectional manner. Here we identify a subpopulation of ...

  18. Activation of the retina's regenerative potential by embryonic stem cell-derived microvesicles

    E-print Network

    Katsman, Diana

    2012-01-01

    liver stem cell?derived microvesicles accelerate hepatic regenerationliver stem cell?derived microvesicles accelerate hepatic regenerationliver stem cell?derived microvesicles accelerate hepatic regeneration

  19. Stem cell therapy for intervertebral disk regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gou, Shanmiao; Oxentenko, Shawn C; Eldrige, Jason S; Xiao, Lizu; Pingree, Mathew J; Wang, Zhen; Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Qu, Wenchun

    2014-11-01

    Intervertebral disk degeneration has been considered an irreversible process characterized by a decrease in cell viability, attenuation of proteoglycan and type II collagen synthesis, and dehydration of nucleus pulposus. Stem cell therapy specifically addresses the degenerative process and offers a potentially effective treatment modality. Current preclinical studies show that mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to repair degenerative disks by differentiation toward chondrocyte-like cells, which produce proteoglycans and type II collagen. There has been evidence that mesenchymal stem cell transplantation into the intervertebral disk increases the intradiskal magnetic resonance imaging T2 signal intensity, increases the disk height, and decreases the degenerative grade in animal models. Appropriate selection of cell carriers/matrix is important because it may prevent cell leakage into the spinal canal and provide an environment that facilitates cell proliferation and differentiation. Although human cell therapy trials for degenerative disk disease are on the horizon, potential issues might arise. The authors hereby review the current state of regenerative cell therapy in degenerative disk disease, with emphasis in cell source, techniques for cellular expansion, induction, transplantation, potential benefit, and risks of the use of this novel medical armamentarium in the treatment of degenerative disk disease. PMID:25122106

  20. Stem cells as drug delivery methods: application of stem cell secretome for regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tran, Christine; Damaser, Margot S

    2015-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a unique cell population defined by their ability to indefinitely self-renew, differentiate into multiple cell lineages, and form clonal cell populations. It was originally thought that this ability for broad plasticity defined the therapeutic potential of MSCs. However, an expanding body of recent literature has brought growing awareness to the remarkable array of bioactive molecules produced by stem cells. This protein milieu or "secretome" comprises a diverse host of cytokines, chemokines, angiogenic factors, and growth factors. The autocrine/paracrine role of these molecules is being increasingly recognized as key to the regulation of many physiological processes including directing endogenous and progenitor cells to sites of injury as well as mediating apoptosis, scarring, and tissue revascularization. In fact, the immunomodulatory and paracrine role of these molecules may predominantly account for the therapeutic effects of MSCs given that many in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated limited stem cell engraftment at the site of injury. While the study of such a vast protein array remains challenging, technological advances in the field of proteomics have greatly facilitated our ability to analyze and characterize the stem cell secretome. Thus, stem cells can be considered as tunable pharmacological storehouses useful for combinatorial drug manufacture and delivery. As a cell-free option for regenerative medicine therapies, stem cell secretome has shown great potential in a variety of clinical applications including the restoration of function in cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, oncologic, and genitourinary pathologies. PMID:25451858

  1. Craniofacial Tissue Engineering by Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, J.J.; Giannobile, W.V.; Helms, J.A.; Hollister, S.J.; Krebsbach, P.H.; Longaker, M.T.; Shi, S.

    2008-01-01

    Craniofacial tissue engineering promises the regeneration or de novo formation of dental, oral, and craniofacial structures lost to congenital anomalies, trauma, and diseases. Virtually all craniofacial structures are derivatives of mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are the offspring of mesenchymal cells following asymmetrical division, and reside in various craniofacial structures in the adult. Cells with characteristics of adult stem cells have been isolated from the dental pulp, the deciduous tooth, and the periodontium. Several craniofacial structures—such as the mandibular condyle, calvarial bone, cranial suture, and subcutaneous adipose tissue—have been engineered from mesenchymal stem cells, growth factor, and/or gene therapy approaches. As a departure from the reliance of current clinical practice on durable materials such as amalgam, composites, and metallic alloys, biological therapies utilize mesenchymal stem cells, delivered or internally recruited, to generate craniofacial structures in temporary scaffolding biomaterials. Craniofacial tissue engineering is likely to be realized in the foreseeable future, and represents an opportunity that dentistry cannot afford to miss. PMID:17062735

  2. Canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling in neural stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Bengoa-Vergniory, Nora; Kypta, Robert M

    2015-11-01

    The first mammalian Wnt to be discovered, Wnt-1, was found to be essential for the development of a large part of the mouse brain over 25 years ago. We have since learned that Wnt family secreted glycolipoproteins, of which there are nineteen, which activate a diverse network of signals that are particularly important during embryonic development and tissue regeneration. Wnt signals in the developing and adult brain can drive neural stem cell self-renewal, expansion, asymmetric cell division, maturation and differentiation. The molecular events taking place after a Wnt binds to its cell-surface receptors are complex and, at times, controversial. A deeper understanding of these events is anticipated to lead to improvements in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and stem cell-based replacement therapies. Here, we review the roles played by Wnts in neural stem cells in the developing mouse brain, at neurogenic sites of the adult mouse and in neural stem cell culture models. PMID:26306936

  3. TRANSLATIONAL STEM CELL STUDIES Consensus Guidance for Banking and Supply of Human

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    TRANSLATIONAL STEM CELL STUDIES Consensus Guidance for Banking and Supply of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines for Research Purposes The International Stem Cell Banking Initiative # Humana Press 2009 Keywords Human embryonic stem cells . Cell banking . Standardisation . Microbiological testing

  4. Minimal model for stem-cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2013-09-01

    To explain the differentiation of stem cells in terms of dynamical systems theory, models of interacting cells with intracellular protein expression dynamics are analyzed and simulated. Simulations were carried out for all possible protein expression networks consisting of two genes under cell-cell interactions mediated by the diffusion of a protein. Networks that show cell differentiation are extracted and two forms of symmetric differentiation based on Turing's mechanism and asymmetric differentiation are identified. In the latter network, the intracellular protein levels show oscillatory dynamics at a single-cell level, while cell-to-cell synchronicity of the oscillation is lost with an increase in the number of cells. Differentiation to a fixed-point-type behavior follows with a further increase in the number of cells. The cell type with oscillatory dynamics corresponds to a stem cell that can both proliferate and differentiate, while the latter fixed-point type only proliferates. This differentiation is analyzed as a saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant circle, while the number ratio of each cell type is shown to be robust against perturbations due to self-consistent determination of the effective bifurcation parameter as a result of the cell-cell interaction. Complex cell differentiation is designed by combing these simple two-gene networks. The generality of the present differentiation mechanism, as well as its biological relevance, is discussed.

  5. TGF-? control of stem cell differentiation genes

    PubMed Central

    Massagué, Joan; Xi, Qiaoran

    2012-01-01

    The canonical TGF-?/Smad signaling pathway was delineated in the mid 90’s and enriched over the past decade with many findings about its specificity, regulation, networking, and malfunctions in disease. However, a growing understanding of the chromatin status of a critical class of TGF-? target genes –the genes controlling differentiation of embryonic stem cells– recently prompted a reexamination of this pathway and its critical role in the regulation of stem cell differentiation. The new findings reveal master regulators of the pluripotent state set the stage for Smad-mediated activation of master regulators of the next differentiation stage. Furthermore, a novel branch of the TGF-?/Smad pathway has been identified in which a chromatin-reading Smad complex makes the master differentiation genes accessible to canonical Smad complexes for transcriptional activation. These findings provide exciting new insights into the global role of TGF-? signaling in the regulators of stem cell fate. PMID:22710171

  6. Heterogeneity and plasticity of epidermal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Schepeler, Troels; Page, Mahalia E.; Jensen, Kim B.

    2014-01-01

    The epidermis is an integral part of our largest organ, the skin, and protects us against the hostile environment. It is a highly dynamic tissue that, during normal steady-state conditions, undergoes constant turnover. Multiple stem cell populations residing in autonomously maintained compartments facilitate this task. In this Review, we discuss stem cell behaviour during normal tissue homeostasis, regeneration and disease within the pilosebaceous unit, an integral structure of the epidermis that is responsible for hair growth and lubrication of the epithelium. We provide an up-to-date view of the pilosebaceous unit, encompassing the heterogeneity and plasticity of multiple discrete stem cell populations that are strongly influenced by external cues to maintain their identity and function. PMID:24961797

  7. Stem Cells: The Pursuit of Genomic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Wyles, Saranya P.; Brandt, Emma B.; Nelson, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells harbor significant potential for regenerative medicine as well as basic and clinical translational research. Prior to harnessing their reparative nature for degenerative diseases, concerns regarding their genetic integrity and mutation acquisition need to be addressed. Here we review pluripotent and multipotent stem cell response to DNA damage including differences in DNA repair kinetics, specific repair pathways (homologous recombination vs. non-homologous end joining), and apoptotic sensitivity. We also describe DNA damage and repair strategies during reprogramming and discuss potential genotoxic agents that can reduce the inherent risk for teratoma formation and mutation accumulation. Ensuring genomic stability in stem cell lines is required to achieve the quality control standards for safe clinical application. PMID:25405730

  8. Engineering the niche for stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shawna; Barker, Nicholas

    2013-12-01

    Much has been made about the potential for stem cells in regenerative medicine but the reality is that the development of actual therapies has been slow. Adult stem cells rely heavily on the assortment of biochemical and biophysical elements that constitute the local microenvironment in which they exist. One goal of biomedicine is to create an artificial yet biofunctional niche to support multipotency, differentiation and proliferation. Such tools would facilitate more conclusive experimentation by biologists, pharmaceutical scientists and tissue engineers. While many bioengineering techniques and platforms are already in use, technological innovations now allow this to be done at a higher resolution and specificity. Ultimately, the multidisciplinary integration of engineering and biology will allow the niche to be generated at a scale that can be clinically exploited. Using the systems that constitute the intestinal, hematopoietic and epidermal tissues, this article summarizes the various approaches and tools currently employed to recreate stem cell niches and also explores recent advances in the field. PMID:24274105

  9. Stem cell stratagems in alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Sipp, Douglas

    2011-05-01

    Stem cell research has attracted an extraordinary amount of attention and expectation due to its potential for applications in the treatment of numerous medical conditions. These exciting clinical prospects have generated widespread support from both the public and private sectors, and numerous preclinical studies and rigorous clinical trials have already been initiated. Recent years, however, have also seen alarming growth in the number and variety of claims of clinical uses of notional 'stem cells' that have not been adequately tested for safety and/or efficacy. In this article, I will survey the contours of the stem cell industry as practiced by alternative medicine providers, and highlight points of commonality in their strategies for marketing. PMID:21449827

  10. Controlling Redox Status for Stem Cell Survival, Expansion, and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sart, Sébastien; Song, Liqing; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have long been considered as pathological agents inducing apoptosis under adverse culture conditions. However, recent findings have challenged this dogma and physiological levels of ROS are now considered as secondary messengers, mediating numerous cellular functions in stem cells. Stem cells represent important tools for tissue engineering, drug screening, and disease modeling. However, the safe use of stem cells for clinical applications still requires culture improvements to obtain functional cells. With the examples of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), this review investigates the roles of ROS in the maintenance of self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells. In addition, this work highlights that the tight control of stem cell microenvironment, including cell organization, and metabolic and mechanical environments, may be an effective approach to regulate endogenous ROS generation. Taken together, this paper indicates the need for better quantification of ROS towards the accurate control of stem cell fate. PMID:26273419

  11. Ceramide signaling in cancer and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2008-01-01

    Most of the previous work on the sphingolipid ceramide has been devoted to its function as an apoptosis inducer. Recent studies, however, have shown that in stem cells, ceramide has additional nonapoptotic functions. In this article, ceramide signaling will be reviewed in light of ‘systems interface biology’: as an interconnection of sphingolipid metabolism, membrane biophysics and cell signaling. The focus will be on the metabolic interconversion of ceramide and sphingomyelin or sphingosine-1-phosphate. Lipid rafts and sphingolipid-induced protein scaffolds will be discussed as a membrane interface for lipid-controlled cell signaling. Ceramide/sphingomyelin and ceramide/sphingosine-1-phosphate-interdependent cell-signaling pathways are significant for the regulation of cell polarity, apoptosis and/or proliferation, and as novel pharmacologic targets in cancer and stem cells. PMID:19050750

  12. Human omentum fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells transdifferentiates into pancreatic islet-like cluster.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, M; Indumathi, S; Harikrishnan, R; Mishra, Rashmi; Lissa, R P; Rajkumar, J S; Sudarsanam, D

    2013-10-01

    Current protocols of islet cell transplantation for the treatment of diabetes mellitus have been hampered by islet availability and allograft rejection. Although bone marrow and subcutaneous adipose tissue stem cells feature their tissue repair efficacy, applicability of stem cells from various sources is being researched to develop a promising therapy for diabetes mellitus. Although omentum fat has emerged as an innovative source of stem cells, the dearth of researches confirming its transdifferentiation potential limits its applicability as a regenerative tool in diabetic therapy. Thus, this work is a maiden attempt to explore the colossal potency of omentum fat-derived stem cells on its lucrative differentiation ability. The plasticity of omentum fat stem cells was substantiated by transdifferentiation into pancreatic islet-like clusters, which was confirmed by dithizone staining and immunocytochemistry for insulin. It was also confirmed by the expression of pancreatic endocrine markers nestin and pancreatic duodenal homeobox?1 (Pdx 1) using Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), neurogenic 3, islet-1 transcription factor, paired box gene 4, Pdx 1 and insulin using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and through insulin secretion assay. This study revealed the in vitro differentiation potency of omentum fat stem cells into pancreatic islet-like clusters. However, further research pursuits exploring its in vivo endocrine efficacy would make omentum fat stem cells a superior source for ?-cell replacement therapy. PMID:23315589

  13. Stem cell-based therapy for treating limbal stem cells deficiency: A review of different strategies

    PubMed Central

    He, Hong; Yiu, Samuel C.

    2014-01-01

    The self renewal capability of limbal epithelial stem (LEST) cells is fundamental to the maintenance and healing of corneal epithelium. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), due to dysfunction or loss of LEST cells, therefore presents as persistent epithelial defects, corneal vascularization, conjunctivalization etc. Stem cell-based therapy, in its simplest form – limbal autograft, has been used successfully for more than a decade. For bilateral LSCD, similar approaches with limbal allografts have been unsuccessful largely due to strong immune rejection. Therefore, as an alternate strategy for treating bilateral LSCD, ex vivo expansion of the remaining LEST cells or autologous stem cells sourced from other potential sites is being explored. Different culture systems (with and without xenobiotic supplements) using substrates like amniotic membrane or fibrin gels have been used successfully for ex vivo LEST cell maintenance and reproduction by imitating the stem cell niche. This paper is organized into sections reviewing the LEST cells, LSCD and various stem cell-based approaches for treating LSCD and discussing future direction and challenges. PMID:25278795

  14. Redox Regulation in Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shijie; Li, Chunbao; Cheng, Ninghui; Cui, Xiaojiang; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS-dependent (redox regulation) signaling pathways and transcriptional activities are thought to be critical in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation during growth and organogenesis. Aberrant ROS burst and dysregulation of those ROS-dependent cellular processes are strongly associated with human diseases including many cancers. ROS levels are elevated in cancer cells partially due to their higher metabolism rate. In the past 15 years, the concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been gaining ground as the subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell-like properties and characteristics have been identified in various cancers. CSCs possess low levels of ROS and are responsible for cancer recurrence after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Unfortunately, how CSCs control ROS production and scavenging and how ROS-dependent signaling pathways contribute to CSCs function remain poorly understood. This review focuses on the role of redox balance, especially in ROS-dependent cellular processes in cancer stem cells (CSCs). We updated recent advances in our understanding of ROS generation and elimination in CSCs and their effects on CSC self-renewal and differentiation through modulating signaling pathways and transcriptional activities. The review concludes that targeting CSCs by manipulating ROS metabolism/dependent pathways may be an effective approach for improving cancer treatment. PMID:26273424

  15. The N-glycome of human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Satomaa, Tero; Heiskanen, Annamari; Mikkola, Milla; Olsson, Cia; Blomqvist, Maria; Tiittanen, Minna; Jaatinen, Taina; Aitio, Olli; Olonen, Anne; Helin, Jari; Hiltunen, Jukka; Natunen, Jari; Tuuri, Timo; Otonkoski, Timo; Saarinen, Juhani; Laine, Jarmo

    2009-01-01

    Background Complex carbohydrate structures, glycans, are essential components of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans. While individual glycan structures including the SSEA and Tra antigens are already used to define undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC), the whole spectrum of stem cell glycans has remained unknown. We undertook a global study of the asparagine-linked glycoprotein glycans (N-glycans) of hESC and their differentiated progeny using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric and NMR spectroscopic profiling. Structural analyses were performed by specific glycosidase enzymes and mass spectrometric fragmentation analyses. Results The data demonstrated that hESC have a characteristic N-glycome which consists of both a constant part and a variable part that changes during hESC differentiation. hESC-associated N-glycans were downregulated and new structures emerged in the differentiated cells. Previously mouse embryonic stem cells have been associated with complex fucosylation by use of SSEA-1 antibody. In the present study we found that complex fucosylation was the most characteristic glycosylation feature also in undifferentiated hESC. The most abundant complex fucosylated structures were Lex and H type 2 antennae in sialylated complex-type N-glycans. Conclusion The N-glycan phenotype of hESC was shown to reflect their differentiation stage. During differentiation, hESC-associated N-glycan features were replaced by differentiated cell-associated structures. The results indicated that hESC differentiation stage can be determined by direct analysis of the N-glycan profile. These results provide the first overview of the N-glycan profile of hESC and form the basis for future strategies to target stem cell glycans. PMID:19490625

  16. Ground Zero in the Debate over Stem-Cell Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwick, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Describes how political, legal, and ethical battles over embryonic stem-cell research are focused on the University of Wisconsin at Madison, where the cells were first isolated. Addresses the issue of access to the university's stem cells and a recent presidential decision regarding funding for stem-cell research.(EV)

  17. More Frequent than Desired: Midgut Stem Cell Somatic Mutations.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Ip, Y Tony

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation of somatic mutations in adult stem cells contributes to the decline of tissue functions and cancer initiation. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Siudeja et al. (2015) investigate the rate and mechanism of naturally occurring mutations in Drosophila midgut intestinal stem cells during aging and find high-frequency mutations arising from multiple mechanisms. PMID:26637937

  18. eural stem cells are a focus of strong interestbecauseof thepossibilitythat

    E-print Network

    Newman, Eric A.

    and their supporting cells, glia, and it is hoped that something akin to neural stem cells in the adult human brain-specificdistinctions. Human neural stem cells behave differ- ently from their rodent equivalents in culture1 ,but the direct with subependymal cells in other parts of the adult mammalian brain, such as the spinal cord or brain stem, which

  19. Physical plasticity of the nucleus in stem cell differentiation

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    in naive stem cells would therefore prove to be physically plastic and also more pliable than nuclei in differentiated cells. Micromanipulation methods indeed show that nuclei in human embryonic stem cells are highly (1) and often reflects changes in chromatin structure (2). Stem cell nuclei are therefore said

  20. Stem Cell Self-Renewal: Centrosomes on the Move

    E-print Network

    Doe, Chris

    Stem Cell Self-Renewal: Centrosomes on the Move Three recent studies show that centrosome asymmetry correlates with self-renewal of Drosophila neural and germline stem cells and that equalizing centrosomes disrupts asymmetric cell division. Clemens Cabernard and Chris Q. Doe Stem cells need to balance self

  1. Introduction Stem cells are small populations of relatively undifferentiated

    E-print Network

    Laux, Thomas

    definition is, however, that it is based on something the stem cell daughters do but tells us little aboutIntroduction Stem cells are small populations of relatively undifferentiated dividing cells whose daughters can either remain stem cells or differentiate. In most, but not all cases, they are pluripotent

  2. Cytoskeleton-based forecasting of stem cell lineage fates

    E-print Network

    Chen, Christopher S.

    for stem cell tissue regeneration. During the process of lineage commitment, cells undergo a numberCytoskeleton-based forecasting of stem cell lineage fates Matthew D. Treisera , Eric H. Yanga, and approved November 13, 2009 (received for review August 24, 2009) Stem cells that adopt distinct lineages

  3. Stem cell treatment for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Guo, Kequan; Ikehara, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and neurodegenerative disorder that induces dementia in older people. It was first reported in 1907 by Alois Alzheimer, who characterized the disease as causing memory loss and cognitive impairment. Pathologic characteristics of AD are ?-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neurodegeneration. Current therapies only target the relief of symptoms using various drugs, and do not cure the disease. Recently, stem cell therapy has been shown to be a potential approach to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, and in this review, we focus on stem cell therapies for AD. PMID:25342318

  4. Stem Cell Therapy: MRI Guidance and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kraitchman, Dara L.; Gilson, Wesley D.; Lorenz, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    With the recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) labeling of cellular therapeutics, it is natural that interventional MRI techniques for targeting would be developed. This review provides an overview of the current methods of stem cell labeling and the challenges that are created with respect to interventional MRI administration. In particular, stem cell therapies will require specialized, MR-compatible devices as well as integration of graphical user interfaces with pulse sequences designed for interactive, real-time delivery in many organs. Specific applications that are being developed will be reviewed as well as strategies for future translation to the clinical realm. PMID:18219684

  5. Therapeutic applications of mesenchymal stem cells for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting the neuromuscular system and does not have a known singular cause. Genetic mutations, extracellular factors, non-neuronal support cells, and the immune system have all been shown to play varied roles in clinical and pathological disease progression. The therapeutic plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be well matched to this complex disease pathology, making MSCs strong candidates for cellular therapy in ALS. In this review, we summarize a variety of explored mechanisms by which MSCs play a role in ALS progression, including neuronal and non-neuronal cell replacement, trophic factor delivery, and modulation of the immune system. Currently relevant techniques for applying MSC therapy in ALS are discussed, focusing in particular on delivery route and cell source. We include examples from in vitro, preclinical, and clinical investigations to elucidate the remaining progress that must be made to understand and apply MSCs as a treatment for ALS. PMID:25157751

  6. Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell Aging and Sex: Are We Missing Something?

    E-print Network

    Brunet, Anne

    selection at longevity associated loci. While these genetic hypotheses are difficult to test experimentally Medicine Ph.D. Program 3Department of Genetics 4The Glenn Laboratories for the Biology of Aging Stanford to sustain tissue regeneration and function throughout life, including adult stem cell renewal. Most adult

  7. Quantification of Colonic Stem Cell Mutations.

    PubMed

    Whetstone, Ryan D; Gold, Barry

    2015-01-01

    The ability to measure stem cell mutations is a powerful tool to quantify in a critical cell population if, and to what extent, a chemical can induce mutations that potentially lead to cancer. The use of an enzymatic assay to quantify stem cell mutations in the X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene has been previously reported.(1) This method requires the preparation of frozen sections and incubation of the sectioned tissue with a reaction mixture that yields a blue color if the cells produce functional glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme. If not, the cells appear whitish. We have modified the reaction mixture using Optimal Cutting Temperature Compound (OCT) medium in place of polyvinyl alcohol. This facilitates pH measurement, increases solubilization of the G6PD staining components and restricts diffusion of the G6PD enzyme. To demonstrate that a mutation occurred in a stem cell, the entire crypt must lack G6PD enzymatic activity. Only if a stem cell harbors a phenotypic G6PD mutation will all of the progeny in the crypt lack G6PD enzymatic activity. To identify crypts with a stem cell mutation, four consecutive adjacent frozen sections (a level) were cut at 7 µm thicknesses. This approach of making adjacent cuts provides conformation that a crypt was fully mutated since the same mutated crypt will be observed in adjacent sections. Slides with tissue samples that were more than 50 µm apart were prepared to assess a total of >10(4) crypts per mouse. The mutation frequency is the number of observed mutated (white) crypts÷by the number of wild type (blue) crypts in a treatment group. PMID:26436534

  8. Stem vs non-stem cell origin of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huels, D J; Sansom, O J

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the western world and is characterised by deregulation of the Wnt signalling pathway. Mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene, which encodes a protein that negatively regulates this pathway, occurs in almost 80% of CRC cases. The progression of this cancer from an early adenoma to carcinoma is accompanied by a well-characterised set of mutations including KRAS, SMAD4 and TP53. Using elegant genetic models the current paradigm is that the intestinal stem cell is the origin of CRC. However, human histology and recent studies, showing marked plasticity within the intestinal epithelium, may point to other cells of origin. Here we will review these latest studies and place these in context to provide an up-to-date view of the cell of origin of CRC. PMID:26110974

  9. Nanotechnology in the regulation of stem cell behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, King-Chuen; Tseng, Ching-Li; Wu, Chi-Chang; Kao, Feng-Chen; Tu, Yuan-Kun; So, Edmund C.; Wang, Yang-Kao

    2013-10-01

    Stem cells are known for their potential to repair damaged tissues. The adhesion, growth and differentiation of stem cells are likely controlled by the surrounding microenvironment which contains both chemical and physical cues. Physical cues in the microenvironment, for example, nanotopography, were shown to play important roles in stem cell fate decisions. Thus, controlling stem cell behavior by nanoscale topography has become an important issue in stem cell biology. Nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field and research from this field has greatly advanced. Nanotechnology allows the manipulation of sophisticated surfaces/scaffolds which can mimic the cellular environment for regulating cellular behaviors. Thus, we summarize recent studies on nanotechnology with applications to stem cell biology, including the regulation of stem cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, tracking and imaging. Understanding the interactions of nanomaterials with stem cells may provide the knowledge to apply to cell-scaffold combinations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  10. Stem cell-derived vascular endothelial cells and their potential application in regenerative medicine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although a 'vascular stem cell' population has not been identified or generated, vascular endothelial and mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) can be derived from currently known pluripotent stem cell sources, including human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. We rev...

  11. Nano scaffolds and stem cell therapy in liver tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaser, Laila M.; Fawzy, Sherin M.

    2015-08-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been constantly developing of late due to the major progress in cell and organ transplantation, as well as advances in materials science and engineering. Although stem cells hold great potential for the treatment of many injuries and degenerative diseases, several obstacles must be overcome before their therapeutic application can be realized. These include the development of advanced techniques to understand and control functions of micro environmental signals and novel methods to track and guide transplanted stem cells. A major complication encountered with stem cell therapies has been the failure of injected cells to engraft to target tissues. The application of nanotechnology to stem cell biology would be able to address those challenges. Combinations of stem cell therapy and nanotechnology in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have achieved significant advances. These combinations allow nanotechnology to engineer scaffolds with various features to control stem cell fate decisions. Fabrication of Nano fiber cell scaffolds onto which stem cells can adhere and spread, forming a niche-like microenvironment which can guide stem cells to proceed to heal damaged tissues. In this paper, current and emergent approach based on stem cells in the field of liver tissue engineering is presented for specific application. The combination of stem cells and tissue engineering opens new perspectives in tissue regeneration for stem cell therapy because of the potential to control stem cell behavior with the physical and chemical characteristics of the engineered scaffold environment.

  12. Stem Cells and Stem Cell-derived Tissues and Their Use in Safety Assessment*

    PubMed Central

    Kolaja, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Toxicology has long relied on animal models in a tedious approach to understanding risk of exposure to an uncharacterized molecule. Stem cell-derived tissues can be made in high purity, quality, and quantity to enable a new approach to this problem. Currently, stem cell-derived tissues are primarily “generic” genetic backgrounds; the future will see the integration of various genetic backgrounds and complex three-dimensional models to create truly unique in vitro organoids. This minireview focuses on the state of the art of a number of stem cell-derived tissues and details their application in toxicology. PMID:24362027

  13. : The opposite effects of doxorubicin on bone marrow stem cells versus breast cancer stem cells depend on glucosylceramide synthase

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Tsan

    1 : The opposite effects of doxorubicin on bone marrow stem cells versus breast cancer stem synthase, Breast cancer stem cells, Bone marrow Dox Dox GCS (stemness) GCS ABCG2+ sphere formation assay Dox ABCG2+ (bone marrow spheres) ABCG2+ (in vivo

  14. Towards consistent generation of pancreatic lineage progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rostovskaya, Maria; Bredenkamp, Nicholas; Smith, Austin

    2015-10-19

    Human pluripotent stem cells can in principle be used as a source of any differentiated cell type for disease modelling, drug screening, toxicology testing or cell replacement therapy. Type I diabetes is considered a major target for stem cell applications due to the shortage of primary human beta cells. Several protocols have been reported for generating pancreatic progenitors by in vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. Here we first assessed one of these protocols on a panel of pluripotent stem cell lines for capacity to engender glucose sensitive insulin-producing cells after engraftment in immunocompromised mice. We observed variable outcomes with only one cell line showing a low level of glucose response. We, therefore, undertook a systematic comparison of different methods for inducing definitive endoderm and subsequently pancreatic differentiation. Of several protocols tested, we identified a combined approach that robustly generated pancreatic progenitors in vitro from both embryo-derived and induced pluripotent stem cells. These findings suggest that, although there are intrinsic differences in lineage specification propensity between pluripotent stem cell lines, optimal differentiation procedures may consistently direct a substantial fraction of cells into pancreatic specification. PMID:26416676

  15. Towards consistent generation of pancreatic lineage progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Rostovskaya, Maria; Bredenkamp, Nicholas; Smith, Austin

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells can in principle be used as a source of any differentiated cell type for disease modelling, drug screening, toxicology testing or cell replacement therapy. Type I diabetes is considered a major target for stem cell applications due to the shortage of primary human beta cells. Several protocols have been reported for generating pancreatic progenitors by in vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. Here we first assessed one of these protocols on a panel of pluripotent stem cell lines for capacity to engender glucose sensitive insulin-producing cells after engraftment in immunocompromised mice. We observed variable outcomes with only one cell line showing a low level of glucose response. We, therefore, undertook a systematic comparison of different methods for inducing definitive endoderm and subsequently pancreatic differentiation. Of several protocols tested, we identified a combined approach that robustly generated pancreatic progenitors in vitro from both embryo-derived and induced pluripotent stem cells. These findings suggest that, although there are intrinsic differences in lineage specification propensity between pluripotent stem cell lines, optimal differentiation procedures may consistently direct a substantial fraction of cells into pancreatic specification. PMID:26416676

  16. Eckol suppresses maintenance of stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, Kyung-Hwan; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Lim, Eun-Jung; An, Sungkwan; Park, Myung-Jin; Hyun, Jin-Won; Suh, Yongjoon; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Su-Jae

    2011-07-01

    A subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell properties is responsible for tumor maintenance and progression, and may contribute to resistance to anticancer treatments. Thus, compounds that target cancer stem-like cells could be usefully applied to destroy cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of Eckol, a phlorotannin compound, on stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells. To determine whether Eckol targets glioma stem-like cells, we examined whether Eckol treatment could change the expression levels of glioma stem-like cell markers and self-renewal-related proteins as well as the sphere forming ability, and the sensitivity to anticancer treatments. Alterations in the malignant properties of sphere-derived cells by Eckol were also investigated by soft-agar colony forming assay, by xenograft assay in nude mice, and by cell invasion assay. Treatment of sphere-forming glioma cells with Eckol effectively decreased the sphere formation as well as the CD133{sup +} cell population. Eckol treatment suppressed expression of the glioma stem-like cell markers and the self-renewal-related proteins without cell death. Moreover, treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol significantly attenuated anchorage-independent growth on soft agar and tumor formation in xenograft mice. Importantly, Eckol treatment effectively reduced the resistance of glioma stem-like cells to ionizing radiation and temozolomide. Treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol markedly blocked both phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and Ras-Raf-1-Erk signaling pathways. These results indicate that the natural phlorotannin Eckol suppresses stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells, and thereby makes glioma stem-like cells more sensitive to anticancer treatments, providing novel therapeutic strategies targeting specifically cancer stem-like cells.

  17. Microgravity-Enhanced Stem Cell Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo; Valluri, Jagan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells, both embryonic and adult, promise to revolutionize the practice of medicine in the future. In order to realize this potential, a number of hurdles must be overcome. Most importantly, the signaling mechanisms necessary to control the differentiation of stem cells into tissues of interest remain to be elucidated, and much of the present research on stem cells is focused on this goal. Nevertheless, it will also be essential to achieve large-scale expansion and, in many cases, assemble cells in 3D as transplantable tissues. To this end, microgravity analog bioreactors can play a significant role. Microgravity bioreactors were originally conceived as a tool to study the cellular responses to microgravity. However, the technology can address some of the shortcomings of conventional cell culture systems; namely, the deficiency of mass transport in static culture and high mechanical shear forces in stirred systems. Unexpectedly, the conditions created in the vessel were ideal for 3D cell culture. Recently, investigators have demonstrated the capability of the microgravity bioreactors to expand hematopoietic stem cells compared to static culture, and facilitate the differentiation of umbilical cord stem cells into 3D liver aggregates. Stem cells are capable of differentiating into functional cells. However, there are no reliable methods to induce the stem cells to form specific cells or to gain enough cells for transplantation, which limits their application in clinical therapy. The aim of this study is to select the best experimental setup to reach high proliferation levels by culturing these cells in a microgravity-based bioreactor. In typical cell culture, the cells sediment to the bottom surface of their container and propagate as a one-cell-layer sheet. Prevention of such sedimentation affords the freedom for self-assembly and the propagation of 3D tissue arrays. Suspension of cells is easily achievable using stirred technologies. Unfortunately, in conventional bioreactors, stirring invokes deleterious forces that disrupt cell aggregation and results in cell death. First-generation rotating bioreactors provided rotation on the horizontal axis, which resulted in the suspension of cells without stirring, thus providing a suitable environment to propagate cells without sedimentation to a surface. The rotating wall bioreactors did not provide a way to remove air bubbles that were causing shear and disrupting 3D cultures. Johnson Space Center successfully engineered the hydrofocusing bioreactor (HFB) that resolved the problem of removing the air bubbles from the fluid medium of NASA's rotating-wall space bioreactors. The HFB uses the principle of hydrodynamic focusing that simultaneously produces a low-shear fluid culture environment and a variable hydrofocusing force that can control the movement, location, and removal of suspended cells, tissues, and air bubbles from the bioreactor. The HFB is a rotating, domeshaped cell culture vessel with a centrally located sampling port and an internal viscous spinner. The vessel and spinner can rotate at different speeds either in the same or opposite directions. Rotation of the vessel and viscous interaction at the spinner generate a hydrofocusing force. Adjusting the differential rotation rate between vessel and spinner controls the magnitude of the force.

  18. Cancer Stem Cells--Perspectives on Current Status and Future Directions: AACR Workshop on Cancer Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Wahl, Geoffrey M.

    Cancer Stem Cells--Perspectives on Current Status and Future Directions: AACR Workshop on Cancer A workshop was convened by the AACR to discuss the rapidly emerging cancer stem cell model for tumor that cancers develop from a small subset of cells with self-renewal properties analogous to organ stem cells

  19. Extracellular matrix: A dynamic microenvironment for stem cell niche?

    PubMed Central

    Gattazzo, Francesca; Urciuolo, Anna; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Background Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic and complex environment characterized by biophysical, mechanical and biochemical properties specific for each tissue and able to regulate cell behavior. Stem cells have a key role in the maintenance and regeneration of tissues and they are located in a specific microenvironment, defined as niche. Scope of review We overview the progresses that have been made in elucidating stem cell niches and discuss the mechanisms by which ECM affects stem cell behavior. We also summarize the current tools and experimental models for studying ECM–stem cell interactions. Major conclusions ECM represents an essential player in stem cell niche, since it can directly or indirectly modulate the maintenance, proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. Several ECM molecules play regulatory functions for different types of stem cells, and based on its molecular composition the ECM can be deposited and finely tuned for providing the most appropriate niche for stem cells in the various tissues. Engineered biomaterials able to mimic the in vivo characteristics of stem cell niche provide suitable in vitro tools for dissecting the different roles exerted by the ECM and its molecular components on stem cell behavior. General significance ECM is a key component of stem cell niches and is involved in various aspects of stem cell behavior, thus having a major impact on tissue homeostasis and regeneration under physiological and pathological conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties. PMID:24418517

  20. Differentiation of dendritic cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Silk, Kathryn M; Tseng, Su-Yi; Nishimoto, Kevin P; Lebkowski, Jane; Reddy, Anita; Fairchild, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Improving our understanding of the interactions between human dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells may contribute to the development of therapeutic strategies for a variety of immune-mediated disorders. The possibility of using DCs themselves as tools to manipulate immune responses opens even greater therapeutic avenues. Current methods of generating human DCs are both inadequate and susceptible to high levels of variability between individuals. DCs differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) could provide a more reliable, consistent solution. DCs have now successfully been differentiated from hESCs and more recently this has been repeated using protocols that avoid the inclusion of animal products, an important modification for clinical use. We have developed a novel method for the generation of DCs from hESCs in the absence of animal products that does not necessitate a separate embryoid body (EB) generation step. The technique involves the use of four growth factors and their successive removal from culture, resulting in accumulation of DCs with phenotypic, morphological, and immunostimulatory properties comparable to those of classical human monocyte-derived DCs. In addition to the application of hESC-derived DCs in basic research and novel approaches to cancer immunotherapy, they may also play a central role in the field of regenerative medicine. Tolerogenic DCs differentiated from hESCs may be used to persuade the immune system of the recipients of cell replacement therapy to tolerate allogeneic tissues differentiated from the same hESC line. Such an approach may help to address the immunological barriers that threaten to derail the clinical application of hESCs. PMID:21822895

  1. Pluripotent stem cell based gene therapy for hematological diseases.

    PubMed

    Vanhee, Stijn; Vandekerckhove, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Standard treatment for severe inherited hematopoietic diseases consists of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Alternatively, patients can be treated with gene therapy: gene-corrected autologous hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) are transplanted. By using retro- or lentiviral vectors, a copy of the functional gene is randomly inserted in the DNA of the HSPC and becomes constitutively expressed. Gene therapy is currently limited to monogenic diseases for which clinical trials are being actively conducted in highly specialized centers around the world. This approach, although successful, carries with it inherent safety and efficacy issues. Recently, two technologies became available that, when combined, may enable treatment of genetic defects by HSPC that have the non-functional allele replaced by a functional copy. One technology consists of the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from patient blood samples or skin biopsies, the other concerns nuclease-mediated gene editing. Both technologies have been successfully combined in basic research and appear applicable in the clinic. This paper reviews recent literature, discusses what can be achieved in the clinic using present knowledge and points out further research directions. PMID:26381313

  2. Investigating the cancer stem cell hypothesis in canine tumours 

    E-print Network

    Blacking, Thalia Margaret

    2011-07-05

    The cancer stem cell hypothesis has recently re-emerged as a compelling paradigm for the development and progression of neoplastic disease. The hypothesis proposes that a specific subset of “cancer stem cells” (CSC), ...

  3. Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth

    MedlinePLUS

    Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth KEY POINTS n Have a dental checkup before your transplant procedure. n See ... problems . SEE YOUR DENTIST Before an organ or stem cell transplant, have a dental checkup. Your mouth ...

  4. Potential for stem cell use in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Pincott, Emma Siân; Burch, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This article reports on the evolving field of stem cell therapy and its impact on the management of cardiac pathology, in particular congenital heart disease. To date, stem cell therapy has focused on cardiomyoplasty for heart muscle disease, stem cell therapies are already in clinical use for these disorders. Research is now also supporting the potential role of stem cell therapy for congenital heart disease. In the future it may be possible to use stem cells to create cellular grafts and structures that may be surgically implanted into the disordered heart using bioengineering technology. Different types of stem cells have been evaluated and the identification of specific cardiac stem cells offers great potential. Preliminary animal studies investigating fetal cardiac therapies are also underway. These new directions for stem cell research provide exciting potential for the future management of congenital heart disease. PMID:22413976

  5. Stem cell responses to nanotopography.

    PubMed

    Park, Siyeon; Im, Gun-Il

    2015-03-01

    Cells interact with various nanoscaled topographical and biochemical cues in their cellular macromolecular environment. Nanotopography recreates or mimic the cellular macromolecular environment in vitro. The influence of material surface topography on the behavior of adherent cells has been studied. Current techniques enable various kinds of nanopatterned surface to be generated and applied to cells. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of nanotopography and its surface patterns, and introduce nanotopography effects on cell behavior including cell attachment, proliferation, and cell differentiation with particular emphasis on musculoskeletal regeneration. PMID:24853234

  6. Stem Cells, Progenitor Cells, and Lineage Decisions in the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hummitzsch, Katja; Anderson, Richard A.; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Wu, Ji; Telfer, Evelyn E.; Russell, Darryl L.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring stem cells in the mammalian ovary has unleashed a Pandora's box of new insights and questions. Recent evidence supports the existence of stem cells of a number of the different cell types within the ovary. The evidence for a stem cell model producing mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells is strong, despite a limited number of reports. The recent identification of a precursor granulosa cell, the gonadal ridge epithelial-like cell, is exciting and novel. The identification of female germline (oogonial) stem cells is still very new and is currently limited to just a few species. Their origins and physiological roles, if any, are unknown, and their potential to produce oocytes and contribute to follicle formation in vivo lacks robust evidence. The precursor of thecal cells remains elusive, and more compelling data are needed. Similarly, claims of very small embryonic-like cells are also preliminary. Surface epithelial cells originating from gonadal ridge epithelial-like cells and from the mesonephric epithelium at the hilum of the ovary have also been proposed. Another important issue is the role of the stroma in guiding the formation of the ovary, ovigerous cords, follicles, and surface epithelium. Immune cells may also play key roles in developmental patterning, given their critical roles in corpora lutea formation and regression. Thus, while the cellular biology of the ovary is extremely important for its major endocrine and fertility roles, there is much still to be discovered. This review draws together the current evidence and perspectives on this topic. PMID:25541635

  7. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in skin: why and what for?

    PubMed

    Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, few stem cells have gained as much clinical notoriety as mesenchymal stem cells. Indeed, MSCs are already in use for a range of systemic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions that also affect the skin, such as acute and chronic graft versus host disease or lupus erythematosus. Most interestingly, these cells are able to improve skin wound healing in multiple preclinical models and few patient series. An additional potential of these cells is the delivery of missing structural elements in skin inherited disorders. However, we here contend that MSCs are not appropriate for cell replacement therapies in the context of wound healing. Indeed, engraftment of cells in the dermis is poor in the absence of irradiation and the observed effects seem mainly due to paracrine factors. In this viewpoint, we favour the hypothesis of a replete niche and competition with resident mesenchymal populations in the dermis not allowing the engraftment of newly delivered MSCs. Consequently, we propose that the benefit of MSCs may be at least in part reproduced by the growth factors or immunomodulatory molecules that they produce. In any case, the rapid progress in this field has allowed the emergence of important questions in skin biology that need to be addressed in parallel with the predictable future use of MSCs in the clinic. PMID:23614735

  8. Tracing Synaptic Connectivity onto Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Isabella; Huang, Longwen; Ung, Kevin; Arenkiel, Benjamin R.

    2012-01-01

    Transsynaptic circuit tracing using genetically modified Rabies virus (RV) is an emerging technology for identifying synaptic connections between neurons. Complementing this methodology, it has become possible to assay the basic molecular and cellular properties of neuronal lineages derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro, and these properties are under intense investigation towards devising cell replacement therapies. Here, we report the generation of a novel mouse ES cell (mESC) line that harbors the genetic elements to allow RV-mediated transsynaptic circuit tracing in ES cell-derived neurons and their synaptic networks. To facilitate transsynaptic tracing, we have engineered a new reporter allele by introducing cDNA encoding tdTomato, the Rabies-G glycoprotein, and the avian TVA receptor into the ROSA26 locus by gene targeting. We demonstrate high-efficiency differentiation of these novel mESCs into functional neurons, show their capacity to functionally connect with primary neuronal cultures as evidenced by immunohistochemistry and electrophysiological recordings, and show their ability to act as source cells for presynaptic tracing of neuronal networks in vitro and in vivo. Together, our data highlight the potential for using genetically engineered stem cells to investigate fundamental mechanisms of synapse and circuit formation with unambiguous identification of presynaptic inputs onto neuronal populations of interest. PMID:22996827

  9. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    PubMed Central

    Zanatta, G.; Steffens, D.; Braghirolli, D.I.; Fernandes, R.A.; Netto, C.A.; Pranke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage. PMID:22183245

  10. Stem cell therapy for Alzheimer's disease and related disorders: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tong, Leslie M; Fong, Helen; Huang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Underlying cognitive declines in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the result of neuron and neuronal process losses due to a wide range of factors. To date, all efforts to develop therapies that target specific AD-related pathways have failed in late-stage human trials. As a result, an emerging consensus in the field is that treatment of AD patients with currently available drug candidates might come too late, likely as a result of significant neuronal loss in the brain. In this regard, cell-replacement therapies, such as human embryonic stem cell- or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cells, hold potential for treating AD patients. With the advent of stem cell technologies and the ability to transform these cells into different types of central nervous system neurons and glial cells, some success in stem cell therapy has been reported in animal models of AD. However, many more steps remain before stem cell therapies will be clinically feasible for AD and related disorders in humans. In this review, we will discuss current research advances in AD pathogenesis and stem cell technologies; additionally, the potential challenges and strategies for using cell-based therapies for AD and related disorders will be discussed. PMID:25766620

  11. Stem cell therapy for Alzheimer's disease and related disorders: current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Leslie M; Fong, Helen; Huang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Underlying cognitive declines in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the result of neuron and neuronal process losses due to a wide range of factors. To date, all efforts to develop therapies that target specific AD-related pathways have failed in late-stage human trials. As a result, an emerging consensus in the field is that treatment of AD patients with currently available drug candidates might come too late, likely as a result of significant neuronal loss in the brain. In this regard, cell-replacement therapies, such as human embryonic stem cell- or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cells, hold potential for treating AD patients. With the advent of stem cell technologies and the ability to transform these cells into different types of central nervous system neurons and glial cells, some success in stem cell therapy has been reported in animal models of AD. However, many more steps remain before stem cell therapies will be clinically feasible for AD and related disorders in humans. In this review, we will discuss current research advances in AD pathogenesis and stem cell technologies; additionally, the potential challenges and strategies for using cell-based therapies for AD and related disorders will be discussed. PMID:25766620

  12. [Cell-based therapies - an innovative therapeutic option in ophthalmology : Treating corneal diseases with stem cells].

    PubMed

    Bakker, Ann-Christin; Langer, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Pathological changes and disorders of the cornea are a major cause of severe visual impairment and blindness. Replacement of a pathologically altered cornea with healthy corneal tissue from the eye of a suitable donor is among the most common and successful transplantation procedures in medicine. In Germany, approximately 5000-6000 corneal transplantations are performed each year, but the total demand per year is estimated to be twice as high. With a success rate of 90?%, the outcome of cornea transplantation is very favourable. However, long-term maintenance and regeneration of a healthy new cornea requires tissue-specific corneal stem cells residing at the basal layer of the limbus, which is the annular transition zone between the cornea and sclera. When this important limbal stem cell population is destroyed or dysfunctional, a pathological condition known as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) manifests. Limbal stem cell deficiency describes conditions associated with impaired corneal wound healing and regeneration. In this situation, transplantation of healthy limbal stem cells is the only curative treatment approach for restoration of an intact and functional ocular surface. To date, treatment of LSCD presents a great challenge for ophthalmologists. However, innovative, cell-therapeutic approaches may open new, promising treatment perspectives. In February 2015, the European Commission granted marketing authorization to the first stem cell-based treatment in the European Union. The product named Holoclar® is an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) for the treatment of moderate to severe LSCD due to physical and chemical burns in adults. Further cell-based treatment approaches are in clinical development. PMID:26459569

  13. The benefits and risks of stem cell technology

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, A; Chen, G; Negro, A; Boehm, M

    2013-01-01

    The potential impact of stem cell technology on medical and dental practice is vast. Stem cell research will not only provide the foundation for future therapies, but also reveal unique insights into basic disease mechanisms. Therefore, an understanding of stem cell technology will be necessary for clinicians in the future. Herein, we give a basic overview of stem cell biology and therapeutics for the practicing clinician. PMID:22093062

  14. Science and society: a stem cell technology model.

    PubMed

    Kiatpongsan, Sorapop

    2008-02-01

    Stem cell technology has been recognized as an emerging technology that could transform current supportive approach toward curing many chronic disorders and degenerative conditions. Regenerative medicine is the promising area of medical practice in the coming decade. However, stem cell technology also brings up controversial issues from the bioethical perspective such as the destruction of human embryos to derive embryonic stem cells or putting the egg donors at risk when retrieving oocytes used in somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. Recently, scientists have discovered a novel method to derive human embryonic stem cell-like cells (iPS; induced pluripotent stem cells) from human skin cells. This innovative approach would not only be a breakthrough discovery to advance the knowledge of stem cell research and the landmark for future stem cell-based therapy but will also provide viable solutions for social concerns on bioethical issues. PMID:18389995

  15. Bone marrow stem cells and liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Porada, Graça; Zanjani, Esmail D.; Porada, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    The development of new approaches to treat patients with hepatic diseases that can eliminate the need for liver transplantation is imperative. The use of cell therapy as a means of repopulating the liver has several advantages over whole organ transplantation, since it would be less invasive, less immunogenic, and would allow the use, in some instances, of autologous-derived cells. Stem/progenitor cells that would be ideal for liver repopulation would need to have characteristics such as availability and ease of isolation, the ability to be expanded in vitro, ensuring adequate numbers of cells, susceptibility to modification by viral vector transduction/genetic recombination, to correct any underlying genetic defects, and the ability of restoring liver function following transplantation. Bone marrow-derived stem cells such as Hematopoietic, Mesenchymal and Endothelial Progenitor cells possess some or most of these characteristics, making them ideal candidates for liver regenerative therapies. Here, we will summarize the ability of each of these stem cell populations to give rise to functional hepatic elements which could mediate repair in patients with liver damage/disease. PMID:20417684

  16. Vascular potential of human pluripotent stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death and disability in the US. Understanding the biological activity of stem and progenitor cells, and their ability to contribute to the repair, regeneration and remodeling of the heart and blood vessels affected by pathological processes is an ess...

  17. Web Resources for Stem Cell Research

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ting; Peng, Xing; Ye, Lili; Wang, Jiajia; Song, Fuhai; Bai, Zhouxian; Han, Guangchun; Ji, Fengmin; Lei, Hongxing

    2015-01-01

    In this short review, we have presented a brief overview on major web resources relevant to stem cell research. To facilitate more efficient use of these resources, we have provided a preliminary rating based on our own user experience of the overall quality for each resource. We plan to update the information on an annual basis. PMID:25701763

  18. Redox regulation in cancer stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS-dependent (redox regulation) signaling pathways and transcriptional activities are thought to be critical in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation during growth and organogenesis. Aberrant ROS burst and dysregulation of those ROS-dependent cellular processe...

  19. Epigenetic regulation of hematopoietic stem cell aging

    SciTech Connect

    Beerman, Isabel

    2014-12-10

    Aging is invariably associated with alterations of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment, including loss of functional capacity, altered clonal composition, and changes in lineage contribution. Although accumulation of DNA damage occurs during HSC aging, it is unlikely such consistent aging phenotypes could be solely attributed to changes in DNA integrity. Another mechanism by which heritable traits could contribute to the changes in the functional potential of aged HSCs is through alterations in the epigenetic landscape of adult stem cells. Indeed, recent studies on hematopoietic stem cells have suggested that altered epigenetic profiles are associated with HSC aging and play a key role in modulating the functional potential of HSCs at different stages during ontogeny. Even small changes of the epigenetic landscape can lead to robustly altered expression patterns, either directly by loss of regulatory control or through indirect, additive effects, ultimately leading to transcriptional changes of the stem cells. Potential drivers of such changes in the epigenetic landscape of aged HSCs include proliferative history, DNA damage, and deregulation of key epigenetic enzymes and complexes. This review will focus largely on the two most characterized epigenetic marks – DNA methylation and histone modifications – but will also discuss the potential role of non-coding RNAs in regulating HSC function during aging.

  20. What Undergraduates Misunderstand about Stem Cell Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Kristy Lynn; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Clark, Catharine G.

    2010-01-01

    As biotechnology-related scientific advances, such as stem cell research (SCR), are increasingly permeating the popular media, it has become ever more important to understand students' ideas about this issue. Very few studies have investigated learners' ideas about biotechnology. Our study was designed to understand the types of alternative…

  1. Enhanced ex vivo expansion of adult mesenchymal stem cells by fetal mesenchymal stem cell ECM

    E-print Network

    Ng, Chee Ping

    Large-scale expansion of highly functional adult human mesenchymal stem cells (aMSCs) remains technologically challenging as aMSCs lose self renewal capacity and multipotency during traditional long-term culture and their ...

  2. Human Intestinal Tissue with Adult Stem Cell Properties Derived from Pluripotent Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Forster, Ryan

    Genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been proposed as a source for transplantation therapies and are rapidly becoming valuable tools for human disease modeling. However, many applications are ...

  3. Transcriptional profiling of adult neural stem-like cells from the human brain.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Cecilie Jonsgar; Vik-Mo, Einar O; Behnan, Jinan; Helseth, Eirik; Langmoen, Iver A

    2014-01-01

    There is a great potential for the development of new cell replacement strategies based on adult human neural stem-like cells. However, little is known about the hierarchy of cells and the unique molecular properties of stem- and progenitor cells of the nervous system. Stem cells from the adult human brain can be propagated and expanded in vitro as free floating neurospheres that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all three cell types of the central nervous system. Here we report the first global gene expression study of adult human neural stem-like cells originating from five human subventricular zone biopsies (mean age 42, range 33-60). Compared to adult human brain tissue, we identified 1,189 genes that were significantly up- and down-regulated in adult human neural stem-like cells (1% false discovery rate). We found that adult human neural stem-like cells express stem cell markers and have reduced levels of markers that are typical of the mature cells in the nervous system. We report that the genes being highly expressed in adult human neural stem-like cells are associated with developmental processes and the extracellular region of the cell. The calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions are enriched among the most differentially regulated genes between adult human neural stem-like cells and adult human brain tissue. We confirmed the expression of 10 of the most up-regulated genes in adult human neural stem-like cells in an additional sample set that included adult human neural stem-like cells (n?=?6), foetal human neural stem cells (n?=?1) and human brain tissues (n?=?12). The NGFR, SLITRK6 and KCNS3 receptors were further investigated by immunofluorescence and shown to be heterogeneously expressed in spheres. These receptors could potentially serve as new markers for the identification and characterisation of neural stem- and progenitor cells or as targets for manipulation of cellular fate. PMID:25514637

  4. Applying Shear Stress to Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Russell P; Guidry, Julia B; Messina, Stephanie L; Ahsan, Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    Thorough understanding of the effects of shear stress on stem cells is critical for the rationale design of large-scale production of cell-based therapies. This is of growing importance as emerging tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications drive the need for clinically relevant numbers of both pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and cells derived from PSCs. Here, we describe the use of a custom parallel plate bioreactor system to impose fluid shear stress on a layer of PSCs adhered to protein-coated glass slides. This system can be useful both for basic science studies in mechanotransduction and as a surrogate model for bioreactors used in large-scale production. PMID:25762292

  5. Microfluidic Perfusion for Regulating Diffusible Signaling in Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Voldman, Joel

    Microfluidic Perfusion for Regulating Diffusible Signaling in Stem Cells Katarina Blagovic1 , Lily and in vitro, and are particularly important in embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency and lineage commitment, Voldman J (2011) Microfluidic Perfusion for Regulating Diffusible Signaling in Stem Cells. PLoS ONE 6

  6. Stem cell tourism and public education: the missing elements.

    PubMed

    Master, Zubin; Robertson, Kelsey; Frederick, Daniel; Rachul, Christen; Caulfield, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    Stem cell tourism describes the Internet-based industry where in patients receive unproven stem cell interventions. To better inform the public, several organizations provide educational material on stem cell therapies and tourism; however, an assessment of the currently available resources reveals a lack of comprehensive information, suggesting that further efforts are needed. PMID:25192461

  7. PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT HAS INCREASED UNDERSTANDING OF STEM CELL RESEARCH

    E-print Network

    Obbard, Darren

    PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT HAS INCREASED UNDERSTANDING OF STEM CELL RESEARCH www.eurostemcell.org is a major to parliamentary questions. Its function as a coordinating force for communication of stem cell biology the two cardinal properties of embryonic stem cells, the ability to `self-renew' and to differentiate

  8. Signal processing underlying extrinsic control of stem cell fate

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Signal processing underlying extrinsic control of stem cell fate Ryan E. Davey and Peter W. Zandstra Purpose of review Strategies to manipulate stem cells for therapeutic applications are limited by our inability to control or predict stem cell fate decisions in response to exogenous stimuli

  9. STEM CELL SURVIVAL IN THE FACE OF GENOMIC INSTABILITY

    E-print Network

    Gertz, Michael

    STEM CELL SURVIVAL IN THE FACE OF GENOMIC INSTABILITY DISSERTATION ANJA GEISELHART 2015 #12;D I BY ANJA GEISELHART, M.SC. BORN IN RIEDLINGEN, GERMANY ORAL EXAMINATION: 20.05.2015 #12;STEM CELL SURVIVAL .........................................................1 1.1.1 Hematopoietic stem cells

  10. www.yalecancercenter.org Preparing for a Stem Cell

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Preparing for a Stem Cell Transplant Guest Expert: Stuart Seropian, MD of Medicine. Here is Ed Chu. Chu This evening our topic is stem cell transplantation. Why don't we go ahead and start off by defining for our audience, what is stem cell transplantation? Seropian I will try to answer

  11. Invited Submission A Global Assessment of Stem Cell Engineering

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    in the stem cell field, both in basic research and in the translation of research into clinical applications, and commercialization as it relates to stem cell research and technology. It also will require programs that support activity in the research community. Also, en- gineers have become increasingly involved in stem cell bi

  12. The stem cell patent landscape as relevant to cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-10-01

    Cancer vaccine targeting cancer stem cells is proposed to serve as a potent immunotherapy. Thus, it would be useful to examine the main trends in stem cell patenting activity as a guide for those seeking to develop such cancer vaccines. We found that a substantial number of stem cell patents were granted up to the end of 2010, including ~2000 issued in the US. Many of these have been filed since 2001, including 7,551 applications in the US. Stem cell development, as evidenced by the numbers of PubMed articles, has matured steadily in recent years. However, the other metrics, such as the number of patent applications, the technology-science linkage and the number of patent assignees, have been stagnant. Moreover, the ownership of stem cell patents is still quiet fragmented across multiple organizations, and the number of stem cell patent assignees from the business sector has not increased significantly. Academic and nonprofit institutions not only account for a large share of stem cell patents but also apply for patents continually. Based on this analysis, the strength of stem cell resources seems to remain stagnant in recent years due to the ban on government funding of embryonic stem cell research. Furthermore, the patent prosecution or technical barriers in the field of stem cells would be another main reason that the number of US-issued stem cell patents for each application have been in gradual decline since 2000. Therefore, we consider stem cell technology to still be under development. PMID:21957493

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Stem Cells: A Complexity Primer for the

    E-print Network

    d'Inverno, Mark

    1 Mathematical Modeling of Stem Cells: A Complexity Primer for the Stem-Cell Biologist Mark d. We also discuss some of the details of our current project to model and simulate stem-cell behaviors using this paradigm. 1 www.stemcell8.cn #12;Simulating Ants Using techniques from computer science, we

  14. Researcharticle Molecular Signatures of the Three Stem Cell Lineages in

    E-print Network

    Researcharticle Molecular Signatures of the Three Stem Cell Lineages in Hydra and the Emergence of Stem Cell Function at the Base of Multicellularity Georg Hemmrich,y,1 Konstantin Khalturin,y,1 Anna, Zagreb, Croatia 6 Laboratory for Pluripotent Stem Cell Studies, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology

  15. The mission of the UW Stem Cell and Regenerative Medi-

    E-print Network

    SCRMCNotes The mission of the UW Stem Cell and Regenerative Medi- cine Center is to advance the science of stem cell biology and foster breakthroughs in regenerative medicine through faculty. They include Stem Cell Bioengineering, Cardiovascular Regeneration, Musculoskeletal Regen- eration, Molecular

  16. The mission of the UW Stem Cell and Regenerative Medi-

    E-print Network

    SCRMCNotes The mission of the UW Stem Cell and Regenerative Medi- cine Center is to advance the science of stem cell biology and foster breakthroughs in regenerative medicine through faculty to help foster stem cell and regenerative medicine research and education. Change is a constant in life

  17. Emergence of Patterned Stem Cell Differentiation Within Multicellular Structures

    E-print Network

    Chen, Christopher S.

    Emergence of Patterned Stem Cell Differentiation Within Multicellular Structures SAMI ALOM RUIZ, Pennsylvania, USA Key Words. Mesenchymal stem cells · Differentiation · Three-dimensional · Patterning ABSTRACT The ability of stem cells to differentiate into specified lineages in the appropriate locations is vital

  18. New device allows for manipulation of differentiating stem cells

    E-print Network

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    New device allows for manipulation of differentiating stem cells 13 January 2015, by Amanda Morris a novel microfluidic device that allows for electroporation of stem cells during differentiation, making of Engineering, and John Kessler, the Ken and Ruth Davee Professor of Stem Cell Biology at the Feinberg School

  19. An Alternative Splicing Switch Regulates Embryonic Stem Cell

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    An Alternative Splicing Switch Regulates Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency and Reprogramming Mathieu for Systems Biology, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute 4Center for Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, Samuel expression. Here, we identify an evolutionarily conserved embryonic stem cell (ESC)- specific AS event

  20. Stem cells: Concepts and prospects SAVNEET KAUR1

    E-print Network

    Giri, Ranjit K.

    Stem cells: Concepts and prospects SAVNEET KAUR1 and C C KARTHA2 1 Division of Cellular & Molecular incorporating stem cells, genes and growth factors that can acceler- ate the recovery of a failing organ through, or increasing blood supply by enhancing vasculogenesis. Stem cells with their unique and facile potentialities