Sample records for stem cell replacement

  1. Locally induced neural stem cells\\/pluripotent stem cells for in vivo cell replacement therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ti-Fei Yuan; Oscar Arias-Carrión

    2008-01-01

    Neural stem cells hold the key to innovative new treatments for age-associated degeneration and traumatic injury to the brain and spinal cord. We hypothesized that the in vivo induced pluripotent stem cells or neural stem cells through \\

  2. Therapeutic Use of Stem Cell Transplantation for Cell Replacement or Cytoprotective Effect of Microvesicle Released from Mesenchymal Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moonhwan; Ban, Taehyun; Rhim, Taiyoun

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and severe type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP), and which is currently no method was developed to restore normal structure and function. There are several reports on therapeutic effects of adult stem cell transplantations in animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. However, little is known about how mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) can repair the IPF. In this study, we try to provide the evidence to show that transplanted mesenchymal stem cells directly replace fibrosis with normal lung cells using IPF model mice. As results, transplanted MSC successfully integrated and differentiated into type II lung cell which express surfactant protein. In the other hand, we examine the therapeutic effects of microvesicle treatment, which were released from mesenchymal stem cells. Though the therapeutic effects of MV treatment is less than that of MSC treatment, MV treat-ment meaningfully reduced the symptom of IPF, such as collagen deposition and inflammation. These data suggest that stem cell transplantation may be an effective strategy for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis via replacement and cytoprotective effect of microvesicle released from MSCs. PMID:24598998

  3. Stem cell therapy. Use of differentiated pluripotent stem cells as replacement therapy for treating disease.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ira J; Daley, George Q; Goldman, Steven A; Huard, Johnny; Kamp, Timothy J; Trucco, Massimo

    2014-08-22

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) directed to various cell fates holds promise as source material for treating numerous disorders. The availability of precisely differentiated PSC-derived cells will dramatically affect blood component and hematopoietic stem cell therapies and should facilitate treatment of diabetes, some forms of liver disease and neurologic disorders, retinal diseases, and possibly heart disease. Although an unlimited supply of specific cell types is needed, other barriers must be overcome. This review of the state of cell therapies highlights important challenges. Successful cell transplantation will require optimizing the best cell type and site for engraftment, overcoming limitations to cell migration and tissue integration, and occasionally needing to control immunologic reactivity, as well as a number of other challenges. Collaboration among scientists, clinicians, and industry is critical for generating new stem cell-based therapies. PMID:25146295

  4. Characterization of Spermatogonial Stem Cells Lacking Intercellular Bridges and Genetic Replacement of a Mutation in Spermatogonial Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Iwamori; Tokuko Iwamori; Martin M. Matzuk

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells have a potential of gene therapy for regenerative medicine. Among various stem cells, spermatogonial stem cells have a unique characteristic in which neighboring cells can be connected by intercellular bridges. However, the roles of intercellular bridges for stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and proliferation remain to be elucidated. Here, we show not only the characteristics of testis-expressed gene 14

  5. Use of mesenchymal stem cells to enhance bone formation around revision hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Korda, Michelle; Blunn, Gordon; Goodship, Allen; Hua, Jia

    2008-06-01

    Tissue engineering approaches to regenerate bone stock in revision total hip replacements could enhance the longevity of the implant and benefit the quality of the patient's life. This study investigated the impaction of allograft with mesenchymal stem cells in an ovine hip hemiarthroplasty model. In total, 10 sheep were divided into two groups with 5 sheep in each group. The groups were: 1) mesenchymal stem cells mixed with allograft; 2) allograft only as a control. Ground reaction force was assessed for limb function and showed that there was no significant difference in the recovery for animals in different groups. The amount of bone regenerated around the hip replacement was assessed using un-decalcified histology. The results showed that the stem cell group generated significantly more new bone at the implant-allograft interface and within the graft than the control group. The results from this study indicate that the use of stem cells on an allograft scaffold increases bone formation indicating that the use of stem cells for revision hip arthroplasty may be beneficial for patients undergoing revision surgery where the bone stock is compromised. PMID:18271017

  6. Short stem shoulder replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Simon N.; Coghlan, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: It is agreed that it is important to anatomically reproduce the proximal humeral anatomy when performing a prosthetic shoulder replacement. This can be difficult with a long stemmed prosthesis, in particular if there is little relationship of the metaphysis to the humeral shaft. The ‘short stem’ prosthesis can deal with this problem. Aims: A prospective study assessed the results of total shoulder arthroplasty using a short stem humeral prosthesis, a ceramic humeral head, and a pegged cemented polyethylene glenoid. Materials and methods: Patients with primary shoulder osteoarthritis were recruited into this prospective trial and pre-operatively had the ASES, Constant, SPADI, and DASH scores recorded. The patients were clinically reviewed at the two weeks, eight weeks, one year, and two year mark with completion of a data form. Radiological evaluation was at the eight week, one year and two year follow-up. At the one and two year follow-up the satisfaction rating, the range of passive and active motion, Constant, ASES, SPADI, DASH and pain results were recorded and analysed with SPPS 20. Results: During the study period 97 short stem, ceramic head total shoulder replacements were carried out. At the time of follow-up 12 were two years from operation and 38 one year from operation. Active elevation was overall mean 160 degrees. Constant scores were 76 at 1 year, and 86 at 2 years, ASES 88 and 93, and satisfaction 96% and 98% respectively at one and 2 year follow up. There were no problems during insertion of the humeral prosthesis, or any radiolucent lines or movement of the prosthesis on later radiographs. Conclusion: The short stem prosthesis had no complications, and on follow up radiographs good bone fixation. These fairly short term clinical results were overall good. PMID:25258497

  7. Stem Cells

    MedlinePLUS

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  8. Niche displacement of human leukemic stem cells uniquely allows their competitive replacement with healthy HSPCs

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Allison L.; Campbell, Clinton J.V.; Hopkins, Claudia I.; Fiebig-Comyn, Aline; Russell, Jennifer; Ulemek, Jelena; Foley, Ronan; Leber, Brian; Xenocostas, Anargyros; Collins, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation (HSCT) is currently the leading strategy to manage acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, treatment-related morbidity limits the patient generalizability of HSCT use, and the survival of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) within protective areas of the bone marrow (BM) continues to lead to high relapse rates. Despite growing appreciation for the significance of the LSC microenvironment, it has remained unresolved whether LSCs preferentially situate within normal HSC niches or whether their niche requirements are more promiscuous. Here, we provide functional evidence that the spatial localization of phenotypically primitive human AML cells is restricted to niche elements shared with their normal counterparts, and that their intrinsic ability to initiate and retain occupancy of these niches can be rivaled by healthy hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). When challenged in competitive BM repopulation assays, primary human leukemia-initiating cells (L-ICs) can be consistently outperformed by HSPCs for BM niche occupancy in a cell dose-dependent manner that ultimately compromises long-term L-IC renewal and subsequent leukemia-initiating capacity. The effectiveness of this approach could be demonstrated using cytokine-induced mobilization of established leukemia from the BM that facilitated the replacement of BM niches with transplanted HSPCs. These findings identify a functional vulnerability of primitive leukemia cells, and suggest that clinical development of these novel transplantation techniques should focus on the dissociation of L-IC–niche interactions to improve competitive replacement with healthy HSPCs during HSCT toward increased survival of patients. PMID:25180064

  9. Directing Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into a Neurosensory Lineage for Auditory Neuron Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Gunewardene, Niliksha; Bergen, Nicole Van; Crombie, Duncan; Needham, Karina; Dottori, Mirella

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Emerging therapies for sensorineural hearing loss include replacing damaged auditory neurons (ANs) using stem cells. Ultimately, it is important that these replacement cells can be patient-matched to avoid immunorejection. As human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be obtained directly from the patient, they offer an opportunity to generate patient-matched neurons for transplantation. Here, we used an established neural induction protocol to differentiate two hiPSC lines (iPS1 and iPS2) and one human embryonic stem cell line (hESC; H9) toward a neurosensory lineage in vitro. Immunocytochemistry and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the expression of key markers involved in AN development at defined time points of differentiation. The hiPSC- and hESC-derived neurosensory progenitors expressed the dorsal hindbrain marker (PAX7), otic placodal marker (PAX2), proneurosensory marker (SOX2), ganglion neuronal markers (NEUROD1, BRN3A, ISLET1, ßIII-tubulin, Neurofilament kDa 160), and sensory AN markers (GATA3 and VGLUT1) over the time course examined. The hiPSC- and hESC-derived neurosensory progenitors had the highest expression levels of the sensory neural markers at 35 days in vitro. Furthermore, the neurons generated from this assay were found to be electrically active. While all cell lines analyzed produced functional neurosensory-like progenitors, variabilities in the levels of marker expression were observed between hiPSC lines and within samples of the same cell line, when compared with the hESC controls. Overall, these findings indicate that this neural assay was capable of differentiating hiPSCs toward a neurosensory lineage but emphasize the need for improving the consistency in the differentiation of hiPSCs into the required lineages. PMID:25126480

  10. Neurodegeneration and cell replacement.

    PubMed

    Ormerod, Brandi K; Palmer, Theo D; Caldwell, Maeve A

    2008-01-12

    The past decade has witnessed ground-breaking advances in human stem cell biology with scientists validating adult neurogenesis and establishing methods to isolate and propagate stem cell populations suitable for transplantation. These advances have forged promising strategies against human neurodegenerative diseases. For example, growth factor administration could stimulate intrinsic repair from endogenous neural stem cells, and cultured stem cells engineered into biopumps could be transplanted to deliver neuroprotective or restorative agents. Stem cells could also be transplanted to generate new neural elements that augment and potentially replace degenerating central nervous system (CNS) circuitry. Early efforts in neural tissue transplantation have shown that these strategies can improve functional outcome, but the ultimate success of clinical stem cell-based strategies will depend on detailed understanding of stem cell biology in the degenerating brain and detailed evaluation of their functional efficacy and safety in preclinical animal models. PMID:17331894

  11. Human umbilical cord blood serum can replace fetal bovine serum in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Shetty; K. Bharucha; V. Tanavde

    2007-01-01

    The potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to differentiate into different cell types has opened up the possibility of using these cells clinically to treat a variety of disorders. In this study we describe the use of human umbilical cord blood serum (CBS) as a replacement for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for culturing MSC from different sources. MSC from human

  12. Autologous adipose stem cells and polylactide discs in the replacement of the rabbit temporomandibular joint disc

    PubMed Central

    Ahtiainen, Katja; Mauno, Jari; Ellä, Ville; Hagström, Jaana; Lindqvist, Christian; Miettinen, Susanna; Ylikomi, Timo; Kellomäki, Minna; Seppänen, Riitta

    2013-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc lacks functional replacement after discectomy. We investigated tissue-engineered bilayer polylactide (PLA) discs and autologous adipose stem cells (ASCs) as a potential replacement for the TMJ disc. These ASC discs were pre-cultured either in control or in differentiation medium, including transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 for one week. Prior to implantation, expression of fibrocartilaginous genes was measured by qRT-PCR. The control and differentiated ASC discs were implanted, respectively, in the right and left TMJs of rabbits for six (n = 5) and 12 months (n = 5). Thereafter, the excised TMJ areas were examined with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and histology. No signs of infection, inflammation or foreign body reactions were detected at histology, whereas chronic arthrosis and considerable condylar hypertrophy were observed in all operated joints at CBCT. The left condyle treated with the differentiated ASC discs appeared consistently smoother and more sclerotic than the right condyle. The ASC disc replacement resulted in dislocation and morphological changes in the rabbit TMJ. The ASC discs pre-treated with TGF-?1 enhanced the condylar integrity. While adverse tissue reactions were not shown, the authors suggest that with improved attachment and design, the PLA disc and biomaterial itself would hold potential for TMJ disc replacement. PMID:23720535

  13. CFTR gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells mediated by Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR)

    PubMed Central

    Sangiuolo, Federica; Scaldaferri, Maria Lucia; Filareto, Antonio; Spitalieri, Paola; Guerra, Lorenzo; Favia, Maria; Caroppo, Rosa; Mango, Ruggiero; Bruscia, Emanuela; Gruenert, Dieter C.; Casavola, Valeria; De Felici, Massimo; Novelli, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Different gene targeting approaches have been developed to modify endogenous genomic DNA in both human and mouse cells. Briefly, the process involves the targeting of a specific mutation in situ leading to the gene correction and the restoration of a normal gene function. Most of these protocols with therapeutic potential are oligonucleotide based, and rely on endogenous enzymatic pathways. One gene targeting approach, “Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR)”, has been found to be effective in modifying genomic DNA. This approach uses small DNA fragments (SDF) to target specific genomic loci and induce sequence and subsequent phenotypic alterations. This study shows that SFHR can stably introduce a 3-bp deletion (deltaF508, the most frequent cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation) into the Cftr (CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) locus in the mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell genome. After transfection of deltaF508-SDF into murine ES cells, SFHR-mediated modification was evaluated at the molecular levels on DNA and mRNA obtained from transfected ES cells. About 12% of transcript corresponding to deleted allele was detected, while 60% of the electroporated cells completely last any measurable CFTR-dependent chloride efflux The data indicate that the SFHR technique can be used to effectively target and modify genomic sequences in ES cells. Once the SFHR-modified ES cells differentiate into different cell lineages they can be useful for elucidating tissue-specific gene function and for the development of transplantation-based cellular and therapeutic protocols. PMID:17981772

  14. Cftr gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells mediated by Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR).

    PubMed

    Sangiuolo, Federica; Scaldaferri, Maria Lucia; Filareto, Antonio; Spitalieri, Paola; Guerra, Lorenzo; Favia, Maria; Caroppo, Rosa; Mango, Ruggiero; Bruscia, Emanuela; Gruenert, Dieter C; Casavola, Valeria; De Felici, Massimo; Novelli, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Different gene targeting approaches have been developed to modify endogenous genomic DNA in both human and mouse cells. Briefly, the process involves the targeting of a specific mutation in situ leading to the gene correction and the restoration of a normal gene function. Most of these protocols with therapeutic potential are oligonucleotide based, and rely on endogenous enzymatic pathways. One gene targeting approach, "Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR)", has been found to be effective in modifying genomic DNA. This approach uses small DNA fragments (SDF) to target specific genomic loci and induce sequence and subsequent phenotypic alterations. This study shows that SFHR can stably introduce a 3-bp deletion (deltaF508, the most frequent cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation) into the Cftr (CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) locus in the mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell genome. After transfection of deltaF508-SDF into murine ES cells, SFHR-mediated modification was evaluated at the molecular levels on DNA and mRNA obtained from transfected ES cells. About 12% of transcript corresponding to deleted allele was detected, while 60% of the electroporated cells completely lost any measurable CFTR-dependent chloride efflux. The data indicate that the SFHR technique can be used to effectively target and modify genomic sequences in ES cells. Once the SFHR-modified ES cells differentiate into different cell lineages they can be useful for elucidating tissue-specific gene function and for the development of transplantation-based cellular and therapeutic protocols. PMID:17981772

  15. Multi-kilobase homozygous targeted gene replacement in human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Susan M.; Ortiz, Luis; Mali, Prashant; Aach, John; Church, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Sequence-specific nucleases such as TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 system have so far been used to disrupt, correct or insert transgenes at precise locations in mammalian genomes. We demonstrate efficient ‘knock-in’ targeted replacement of multi-kilobase genes in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Using a model system replacing endogenous human genes with their mouse counterpart, we performed a comprehensive study of targeting vector design parameters for homologous recombination. A 2.7 kilobase (kb) homozygous gene replacement was achieved in up to 11% of iPSC without selection. The optimal homology arm length was around 2 kb, with homology length being especially critical on the arm not adjacent to the cut site. Homologous sequence inside the cut sites was detrimental to targeting efficiency, consistent with a synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) mechanism. Using two nuclease sites, we observed a high degree of gene excisions and inversions, which sometimes occurred more frequently than indel mutations. While homozygous deletions of 86 kb were achieved with up to 8% frequency, deletion frequencies were not solely a function of nuclease activity and deletion size. Our results analyzing the optimal parameters for targeting vector design will inform future gene targeting efforts involving multi-kilobase gene segments, particularly in human iPSC. PMID:25414332

  16. Multi-kilobase homozygous targeted gene replacement in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Susan M; Ortiz, Luis; Mali, Prashant; Aach, John; Church, George M

    2015-02-18

    Sequence-specific nucleases such as TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 system have so far been used to disrupt, correct or insert transgenes at precise locations in mammalian genomes. We demonstrate efficient 'knock-in' targeted replacement of multi-kilobase genes in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Using a model system replacing endogenous human genes with their mouse counterpart, we performed a comprehensive study of targeting vector design parameters for homologous recombination. A 2.7 kilobase (kb) homozygous gene replacement was achieved in up to 11% of iPSC without selection. The optimal homology arm length was around 2 kb, with homology length being especially critical on the arm not adjacent to the cut site. Homologous sequence inside the cut sites was detrimental to targeting efficiency, consistent with a synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) mechanism. Using two nuclease sites, we observed a high degree of gene excisions and inversions, which sometimes occurred more frequently than indel mutations. While homozygous deletions of 86 kb were achieved with up to 8% frequency, deletion frequencies were not solely a function of nuclease activity and deletion size. Our results analyzing the optimal parameters for targeting vector design will inform future gene targeting efforts involving multi-kilobase gene segments, particularly in human iPSC. PMID:25414332

  17. Porcine Embryonic Stem Cells: A Possible Source for Cell Replacement Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Hall

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in\\u000a the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro.\\u000a This may largely be attributable to differences in porcine pre-implantation development compared to the mouse and human. Expression\\u000a of oct4, nanog and sox2 differs in

  18. Cell Stem Cell Molecular Analysis of Stem Cells and Their

    E-print Network

    Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    mediterranea provide an interesting model for studying both stem cell function and line- age commitment duringCell Stem Cell Article Molecular Analysis of Stem Cells and Their Descendants during Cell Turnover@neuro.utah.edu DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2008.07.002 SUMMARY In adult planarians, the replacement of cells lost

  19. Human adult dental pulp stem cells enhance poststroke functional recovery through non-neural replacement mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Leong, Wai Khay; Henshall, Tanya L; Arthur, Agnes; Kremer, Karlea L; Lewis, Martin D; Helps, Stephen C; Field, John; Hamilton-Bruce, Monica A; Warming, Scott; Manavis, Jim; Vink, Robert; Gronthos, Stan; Koblar, Simon A

    2012-03-01

    Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), derived from third molar teeth, are multipotent and have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under inductive conditions both in vitro and following transplantation into the avian embryo. In this study, we demonstrate that the intracerebral transplantation of human DPSCs 24 hours following focal cerebral ischemia in a rodent model resulted in significant improvement in forelimb sensorimotor function at 4 weeks post-treatment. At this time, 2.3 ± 0.7% of engrafted cells had survived in the poststroke brain and demonstrated targeted migration toward the stroke lesion. In the peri-infarct striatum, transplanted DPSCs differentiated into astrocytes in preference to neurons. Our data suggest that the dominant mechanism of action underlying DPSC treatment that resulted in enhanced functional recovery is unlikely to be due to neural replacement. Functional improvement is more likely to be mediated through DPSC-dependent paracrine effects. This study provides preclinical evidence for the future use of human DPSCs in cell therapy to improve outcome in stroke patients. PMID:23197777

  20. Use of Differentiated Pluripotent Stem Cells in Replacement Therapy for Treating Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Ira J.; Daley, George Q.; Goldman, Steven A.; Huard, Johnny; Kamp, Timothy J.; Trucco, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Patient-derived pluripotent stem cells (PSC) directed to various cell fates holds promise as source material for treating numerous disorders. The availability of precisely differentiated PSC-derived cells will dramatically impact blood component and hematopoietic stem cell therapies, and should facilitate treatment of diabetes, some forms of liver disease and neurologic disorders, retinal diseases, and possibly heart disease. Although an unlimited supply of specific cell types are needed, other barriers must be overcome. This review of the state of cell therapies highlights important challenges. Successful cell transplantation will require optimizing the best cell type and site for engraftment, overcoming limitations to cell migration and tissue integration, and occasionally needing to control immunologic reactivity. Collaboration among scientists, clinicians, and industry is critical for generating new stem cell-based therapies. PMID:25146295

  1. Selective erythroid replacement in murine beta-thalassemia using fetal hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bethel, C. A.; Murugesh, D.; Harrison, M. R.; Mohandas, N.; Rubin, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    We have explored the application of fetal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplants for cellular replacement in a murine model of beta-thalassemia. Liver-derived HSCs from nonthalassemic syngeneic murine fetal donors were transplanted into nonirradiated neonatal beta-thalassemic recipients. Significant erythrocyte chimerism (9-27%) was demonstrated in the majority of recipients at 1 month and remained stable or increased (up to 55%) during long-term follow-up in almost all cases. Chimeras had improved phenotypes, as evidenced by decreased reticulocyte counts, increased mean erythrocyte deformability, and decreased iron deposits in comparison to controls. To investigate whether the high degree of peripheral blood chimerism was predominantly a feature of erythroid elements or was a general feature of all hematopoietic elements, chimeras were created using donor HSCs "tagged" with a DNA transgene. Whereas donor hemoglobin comprised > 30% of total hemoglobin, nucleated tagged nonerythroid donor cells comprised < 1% of peripheral blood elements. Explanations for the observed selective increase in erythroid chimerism include longer survival of normal donor red cells compared to that of thalassemic red cells and the effective maturation of the donor erythroid elements in the bone marrow in chimeric animals. The latter explanation bears consideration because it is consistent with the process of ineffective erythropoiesis, well documented to occur in thalassemia, in which the majority of thalassemic erythroid cells are destroyed during erythropoiesis prior to release from the bone marrow. Overall, these data demonstrate the potential for significant erythroid chimerism and suggest that fetal HSC transplantation may play a significant role in future treatment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:7980734

  2. Human Neural Stem Cell Replacement Therapy for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis by Spinal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hefferan, Michael P.; Galik, Jan; Kakinohana, Osamu; Sekerkova, Gabriela; Santucci, Camila; Marsala, Silvia; Navarro, Roman; Hruska-Plochan, Marian; Johe, Karl; Feldman, Eva; Cleveland, Don W.; Marsala, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background Mutation in the ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase (SOD1) causes an inherited form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Mutant synthesis in motor neurons drives disease onset and early disease progression. Previous experimental studies have shown that spinal grafting of human fetal spinal neural stem cells (hNSCs) into the lumbar spinal cord of SOD1G93A rats leads to a moderate therapeutical effect as evidenced by local ?-motoneuron sparing and extension of lifespan. The aim of the present study was to analyze the degree of therapeutical effect of hNSCs once grafted into the lumbar spinal ventral horn in presymptomatic immunosuppressed SOD1G93A rats and to assess the presence and functional integrity of the descending motor system in symptomatic SOD1G93A animals. Methods/Principal Findings Presymptomatic SOD1G93A rats (60–65 days old) received spinal lumbar injections of hNSCs. After cell grafting, disease onset, disease progression and lifespan were analyzed. In separate symptomatic SOD1G93A rats, the presence and functional conductivity of descending motor tracts (corticospinal and rubrospinal) was analyzed by spinal surface recording electrodes after electrical stimulation of the motor cortex. Silver impregnation of lumbar spinal cord sections and descending motor axon counting in plastic spinal cord sections were used to validate morphologically the integrity of descending motor tracts. Grafting of hNSCs into the lumbar spinal cord of SOD1G93A rats protected ?-motoneurons in the vicinity of grafted cells, provided transient functional improvement, but offered no protection to ?-motoneuron pools distant from grafted lumbar segments. Analysis of motor-evoked potentials recorded from the thoracic spinal cord of symptomatic SOD1G93A rats showed a near complete loss of descending motor tract conduction, corresponding to a significant (50–65%) loss of large caliber descending motor axons. Conclusions/Significance These data demonstrate that in order to achieve a more clinically-adequate treatment, cell-replacement/gene therapy strategies will likely require both spinal and supraspinal targets. PMID:22916141

  3. Impact of enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with Morquio A syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Shimada, Tsutomu; Bober, Michael B; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Montaño, Adriana M; Giugliani, Roberto; Kubaski, Francyne; Yasuda, Eriko; Rodríguez-López, Alexander; Espejo-Mojica, Angela J; Sánchez, Oscar F; Mason, Robert W; Barrera, Luis A; Mackenzie, William G; Orii, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) can present with systemic skeletal dysplasia, leading to a need for multiple orthopedic surgical procedures, and often become wheelchair bound in their teenage years. Studies on patients with MPS IVA treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) showed a sharp reduction on urinary keratan sulfate, but only modest improvement based on a 6-minute walk test and no significant improvement on a 3-minute climb-up test and lung function test compared with the placebo group, at least in the short-term. Surgical remnants from ERT-treated patients did not show reduction of storage materials in chondrocytes. The impact of ERT on bone lesions in patients with MPS IVA remains limited. ERT seems to be enhanced in a mouse model of MPS IVA by a novel form of the enzyme tagged with a bone-targeting moiety. The tagged enzyme remained in the circulation much longer than untagged native enzyme and was delivered to and retained in bone. Three-month-old MPS IVA mice treated with 23 weekly infusions of tagged enzyme showed marked clearance of the storage materials in bone, bone marrow, and heart valves. When treatment was initiated at birth, reduction of storage materials in tissues was even greater. These findings indicate that specific targeting of the enzyme to bone at an early stage may improve efficacy of ERT for MPS IVA. Recombinant N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) (erGALNS) and in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (prGALNS) has been produced as an alternative to the conventional production in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Recombinant GALNS produced in microorganisms may help to reduce the high cost of ERT and the introduction of modifications to enhance targeting. Although only a limited number of patients with MPS IVA have been treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), beneficial effects have been reported. A wheelchair-bound patient with a severe form of MPS IVA was treated with HSCT at 15 years of age and followed up for 10 years. Radiographs showed that the figures of major and minor trochanter appeared. Loud snoring and apnea disappeared. In all, 1 year after bone marrow transplantation, bone mineral density at L2–L4 was increased from 0.372 g/cm2 to 0.548 g/cm2 and was maintained at a level of 0.48±0.054 for the following 9 years. Pulmonary vital capacity increased approximately 20% from a baseline of 1.08 L to around 1.31 L over the first 2 years and was maintained thereafter. Activity of daily living was improved similar to the normal control group. After bilateral osteotomies, a patient can walk over 400 m using hip–knee–ankle–foot orthoses. This long-term observation of a patient shows that this treatment can produce clinical improvements although bone deformity remained unchanged. In conclusion, ERT is a therapeutic option for MPS IVA patients, and there are some indications that HSCT may be an alternative to treat this disease. However, as neither seems to be a curative therapy, at least for the skeletal dysplasia in MPS IVA patients, new approaches are investigated to enhance efficacy and reduce costs to benefit MPS IVA patients.

  4. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Info Center Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Information Frequently Asked Questions What are stem cells? ... U.S. policy? More FAQs Links to related resources Stem Cell Research Center for Regenerative Medicine NIH Stem Cell ...

  5. Engineered cartilaginous tubes for tracheal tissue replacement via self-assembly and fusion of human mesenchymal stem cell constructs.

    PubMed

    Dikina, Anna D; Strobel, Hannah A; Lai, Bradley P; Rolle, Marsha W; Alsberg, Eben

    2015-06-01

    There is a critical need to engineer a neotrachea because currently there are no long-term treatments for tracheal stenoses affecting large portions of the airway. In this work, a modular tracheal tissue replacement strategy was developed. High-cell density, scaffold-free human mesenchymal stem cell-derived cartilaginous rings and tubes were successfully generated through employment of custom designed culture wells and a ring-to-tube assembly system. Furthermore, incorporation of transforming growth factor-?1-delivering gelatin microspheres into the engineered tissues enhanced chondrogenesis with regard to tissue size and matrix production and distribution in the ring- and tube-shaped constructs, as well as luminal rigidity of the tubes. Importantly, all engineered tissues had similar or improved biomechanical properties compared to rat tracheas, which suggests they could be transplanted into a small animal model for airway defects. The modular, bottom up approach used to grow stem cell-based cartilaginous tubes in this report is a promising platform to engineer complex organs (e.g., trachea), with control over tissue size and geometry, and has the potential to be used to generate autologous tissue implants for human clinical applications. PMID:25818451

  6. Novel ceramic bone replacement material CeraBall seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Douglas; Qin Liu; Andreas Humpe; Jörg Wiltfang; Sureshan Sivananthan; Patrick H. Warnke

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) are two very common ceramic materials for bone replacement. A recently developed material for bone replacement is CeraBall, which is a mixed HA-TCP scaffold available as porous spherical scaffolds of diameter 4 and 6 mm. Before their use as bone replacement materials in vivo, in vitro testing of these scaffolds is necessary. The

  7. Cell Stem Cell Perspective

    E-print Network

    van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    Cell Stem Cell Perspective Identifying the Stem Cell of the Intestinal Crypt: Strategies.clevers@hubrecht.eu http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2012.09.009 Decades ago, two nonoverlapping crypt stem cell populations were proposed: Leblond's Crypt Base Columnar (CBC) cell and Potten's +4 cell. The identification

  8. Cell Stem Cell Perspective

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yi

    Cell Stem Cell Perspective Genetic and Epigenetic Variations in iPSCs: Potential Causes Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA 5Harvard Stem Cell Institute, WAB-149G, 200.1016/j.stem.2013.07.001 The ability to reprogram somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (i

  9. Optimizing stem cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh’s plane. PMID:20803548

  10. Stem Cells and Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Center Can Stem Cells Help my Medical Condition? Stem Cell Information Frequently Asked Questions What are stem cells? ... U.S. policy? More FAQs Links to related resources Stem Cell Research Center for Regenerative Medicine NIH Stem Cell ...

  11. A Stable Chimeric Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Can Successfully Replace Basic FGF in Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Yasuko; Higuchi, Kumiko; Aiki, Yasuhiko; Shu, Yujing; Asada, Masahiro; Asashima, Makoto; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru; Ito, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are essential for maintaining self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Recombinant basic FGF (bFGF or FGF2) is conventionally used to culture pluripotent stem cells; however, because of the instability of bFGF, repeated addition of fresh bFGF into the culture medium is required in order to maintain its concentration. In this study, we demonstrate that a heat-stable chimeric variant of FGF, termed FGFC, can be successfully used for maintaining human pluripotent stem cells. FGFC is a chimeric protein composed of human FGF1 and FGF2 domains that exhibits higher thermal stability and protease resistance than do both FGF1 and FGF2. Both human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells were maintained in ordinary culture medium containing FGFC instead of FGF2. Comparison of cells grown in FGFC with those grown in conventional FGF2 media showed no significant differences in terms of the expression of pluripotency markers, global gene expression, karyotype, or differentiation potential in the three germ lineages. We therefore propose that FGFC may be an effective alternative to FGF2, for maintenance of human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25850016

  12. A Stable Chimeric Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Can Successfully Replace Basic FGF in Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Onuma, Yasuko; Higuchi, Kumiko; Aiki, Yasuhiko; Shu, Yujing; Asada, Masahiro; Asashima, Makoto; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru; Ito, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are essential for maintaining self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Recombinant basic FGF (bFGF or FGF2) is conventionally used to culture pluripotent stem cells; however, because of the instability of bFGF, repeated addition of fresh bFGF into the culture medium is required in order to maintain its concentration. In this study, we demonstrate that a heat-stable chimeric variant of FGF, termed FGFC, can be successfully used for maintaining human pluripotent stem cells. FGFC is a chimeric protein composed of human FGF1 and FGF2 domains that exhibits higher thermal stability and protease resistance than do both FGF1 and FGF2. Both human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells were maintained in ordinary culture medium containing FGFC instead of FGF2. Comparison of cells grown in FGFC with those grown in conventional FGF2 media showed no significant differences in terms of the expression of pluripotency markers, global gene expression, karyotype, or differentiation potential in the three germ lineages. We therefore propose that FGFC may be an effective alternative to FGF2, for maintenance of human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25850016

  13. Stem cell and precursor cell therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingli Cai; Mahendra S. Rao

    2002-01-01

    Strategies for cell replacement therapy have been guided by the success in the hematopoietic stem cell field. In this review,\\u000a we discuss the basis of this success and examine whether this stem cell transplant model can be replicated in other systems\\u000a where stem cell therapy is being evaluated. We conclude that identifying the most primitive stem cell and using it

  14. Impact of Enzyme Replacement Therapy and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy on Growth in Patients with Hunter Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pravin; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Akemi; Yabe, Hiromasa; Kato, Shunichi; Shimada, Tsutomu; Mason, Robert W.; Orii, Kenji E.; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis II) present with skeletal dysplasia including short stature as well as CNS and visceral organ involvement. A previous study on Hunter syndrome indicated an impact on brain and heart involvement after hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) at an early stage but little impact after enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) (Tanaka et al 2012). Meanwhile, impact on growth in patients with Hunter syndrome treated with ERT and HSCT has not been compared until now. We recently developed baseline growth charts for untreated patients with Hunter syndrome to evaluate the natural history of growth of these patients compared to unaffected controls (Patel et al, 2014). To assess impact of ERT and HSCT on growth, clinical data were obtained from 44 Japanese male patients with MPS II; 26 patients had been treated with ERT, 12 patients had been treated with HSCT, and 6 had been treated with both ERT and HSCT. Height and weight were compared to untreated patients and unaffected controls from the previous study. We demonstrated 1) that MPS II patients, who had been treated with either ERT or HSCT, had increased height and weight when compared to untreated patients, and 2) that HSCT and ERT were equally effective in restoring growth of MPS II patients. In conclusion, HSCT should be considered as one of the primary therapeutic options for early stage treatment of MPS II, as HSCT has also been reported to have a positive effect on brain and heart valve development (Tanaka et al 2012). PMID:25061571

  15. Activities of daily living in patients with Hunter syndrome: Impact of enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanjuakio, Julian; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Patel, Pravin; Yasuda, Eriko; Kubaski, Francyne; Tanaka, Akemi; Yabe, Hiromasa; Mason, Robert W; Montaño, Adriana M; Orii, Kenji E; Orii, Koji O; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis II; MPS II) using a newly designed ADL questionnaire. We applied the questionnaire to evaluate clinical phenotypes and therapeutic efficacies of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We also explored early signs and symptoms to make early diagnosis feasible. We devised a new ADL questionnaire with three domains: "movement," "movement with cognition," and "cognition." Each domain has four subcategories rated on a 5-point scale based on level of assistance. We also scored signs and symptoms unique to MPS by 12 subcategories (five points per category), providing 60 points in total. The questionnaire was first administered to 138 healthy Japanese controls (0.33-50years), and successively, to 74 Japanese patients with Hunter syndrome (4-49years). The patient cohort consisted of 51 severe and 23 attenuated phenotypes; 20 patients treated with HSCT, 23 patients treated early with ERT (?8years), 25 patients treated late with ERT (>8years), and 4 untreated patients. Among 18 severe phenotypic patients treated by HSCT, 10 were designated as early HSCT (?5years), while 8 were designated as late HSCT (>5years). Scores from patients with severe phenotypes were lower than controls and attenuated phenotypes in all categories. Among patients with severe phenotypes, there was a trend that HSCT provides a higher ADL score than early ERT, and there was a significant difference in ADL scores between late ERT and HSCT groups. Early ERT and early HSCT provided a higher score than late ERT and late HSCT, respectively. In conclusion, we have evaluated the feasibility of a new questionnaire in control population and patients with Hunter syndrome, leading to a novel evaluation method for clinical phenotypes and therapeutic efficacy. Early treatment with HSCT provides a better consequence in ADL of patients. PMID:25468646

  16. The different extent of B and T cell immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapies in SCID patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Serana, Federico; Sottini, Alessandra; Chiarini, Marco; Zanotti, Cinzia; Ghidini, Claudia; Lanfranchi, Arnalda; Notarangelo, Lucia Dora; Caimi, Luigi; Imberti, Luisa

    2010-12-15

    The lack of adenosine deaminase (ADA) leads to the accumulation of toxic metabolites, resulting in SCID. If the disease is left untreated, it is likely to have a fatal outcome in early infancy. Because hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and enzyme replacement therapy with pegylated bovine ADA (PEG-ADA) are both provided in our hospital, we undertook a retrospective longitudinal comparative study of the extent of lymphocyte recovery in two groups of treated ADA-SCID children. Together with classical immunological parameters, we quantified the output of the new B and T cells from the production sites using the ?-deleting recombination excision circle and TCR excision circle assay, and we monitored T cell repertoire diversification. We found that immune reconstitution was different following the two treatments. The stable production of ?-deleting recombination excision circle(+) lymphocytes sustained an increase in B cell number in HSCT-treated patients, whereas in PEG-ADA-treated patients, it was accompanied by a significant and progressive decrease in circulating CD19(+) lymphocytes, which never reached the levels observed in age-matched children. The mobilization of TCR excision circle(+) cells, though lower than in controls, was stable with time after HSCT treatment, leading to a constant peripheral T cell number and to the diversification of the T cell repertoire; however, it was compromised in children receiving prolonged PEG-ADA therapy, whose T cells showed progressively narrowing T cell repertoires. PMID:21057082

  17. Stem Cell Transplants

    MedlinePLUS

    What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every living thing is made up of cells — including the human ... cells can become new cells like this. Blood Stem Cells When you hear about stem cell transplants, they ...

  18. Stem Cells Branch Out

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela Hines (AAAS; )

    2000-02-25

    Heals all manner of ailments, unlimited quantities, tailor-made for you. â?¦ No, it's not an advertisement for snake oil but may represent the promise of stem cellsâ??cells that have the potential to produce various cell types that make up the body and might therefore provide replacements for tissues damaged by age, trauma, or disease. But the work raises numerous questions as well: Can such promise be true? What is the ethical cost of such developments? Who will fund the necessary R&D? This article introduces a special issue on stem cells.

  19. Stem cells, cancer, and cancer stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tannishtha Reya; Sean J. Morrison; Michael F. Clarke; Irving L. Weissman

    2001-01-01

    Stem cell biology has come of age. Unequivocal proof that stem cells exist in the haematopoietic system has given way to the prospective isolation of several tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells, the initial delineation of their properties and expressed genetic programmes, and the beginnings of their utility in regenerative medicine. Perhaps the most important and useful property of stem cells

  20. Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell

    E-print Network

    Saunders, Mark

    Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell Based Therapies to treat Retinal Diseases, Endogenous Regeneration of the human Retina Stem is to investigate the application of Müller stem cells in cell replacement therapies for glaucomatous degeneration

  1. The therapeutic potential of neural stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianvito Martino; Stefano Pluchino

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that transplantation of neural stem\\/precursor cells may protect the central nervous system from inflammatory damage through a 'bystander' mechanism that is alternative to cell replacement. This novel mechanism, which might improve the success of transplantation procedures, is exerted by undifferentiated neural stem cells, the functional characteristics of which are regulated by important stem cell regulators released by

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Tooth Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Li; Ye, Ling; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2009-01-01

    Tooth loss compromises human oral health. Although several prosthetic methods, such as artificial denture and dental implants, are clinical therapies to tooth loss problems, they are thought to have safety and usage time issues. Recently, tooth tissue engineering has attracted more and more attention. Stem cell based tissue engineering is thought to be a promising way to replace the missing tooth. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells which can differentiate into a variety of cell types. The potential MSCs for tooth regeneration mainly include stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from the apical part of the papilla (SCAPs), stem cells from the dental follicle (DFSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). This review outlines the recent progress in the mesenchymal stem cells used in tooth regeneration. PMID:20690498

  3. Epithelial Cells Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Schüler, Axel

    Keywords Epithelial Cells Keratins Stem Cells » Prof. Thomas M. Magin Epithelia protect the body, altered cell adhesion and signal- ling. As no molecular therapy for these conditions is available, one that the co-chaperone CHIP can remove mutant aggregated keratins in a cell culture model of EBS, leading

  4. Cell Stem Cell From Stem Cells to Grandmother Cells

    E-print Network

    Shors, Tracey J.

    how learning enhances the survival of neural stem/progenitor cell progeny and what these new neuronsCell Stem Cell Commentary From Stem Cells to Grandmother Cells: How Neurogenesis Relates@rutgers.edu DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2008.08.010 Neurogenesis contributes thousands of new neurons each day

  5. Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress Rapid Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Automated implementations of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their deriva- tives further increase interest in strategies the marked improvements that control of feed- back signaling can offer primary stem cell culture

  6. Stem Cell 101 What is a stem cell?

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Stem Cell 101 What is a stem cell? A stem cell is a parent cell in the body that has two specific into all types of tissue in the body ­ this is called differentiation. Where are stem cells found? There are two types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, found in embryos, and adult stem cells, which can

  7. Stem cells in urology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamer Aboushwareb; Anthony Atala

    2008-01-01

    The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem

  8. Umbilical Cord Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy E. Mitchell

    The two most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue\\u000a types (1–3). Generally, stem cells are categorized as one of three types: embryonic stem cells (ES), embryonic germ cells (EG), or adult\\u000a stem cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastula (Fig. 1). They

  9. Stem cell culture engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gargi Seth; Catherine M. Verfaillie

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells have the capacity for self renewal and undergo multilineage differentiation. Stem cells isolated from both blastocysts and adult tissues represent valuable sources of cells for applications in cell therapy, drug screening and tissue engineering. While expanding stem cells in culture, it is critical to maintain their self?renewal and differentiation capacity. In generating particular cell types for specific applications,

  10. Cell Stem Cell Dear Student: Stem Cell Scientists' Advice

    E-print Network

    Cell Stem Cell Forum Dear Student: Stem Cell Scientists' Advice to the Next Generation Emily L on Stem Cells in Society, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 2Department of Family Practice, University of British@stanford.edu (C.T.S.) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.05.007 For the field of pluripotent stem cell biology

  11. Cell Stem Cell Brief Report

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    Cell Stem Cell Brief Report Reprogramming of T Cells from Human Peripheral Blood Yuin-Han Loh,1,2,5,9,10,* 1Stem Cell Transplantation Program, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA 2Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 3

  12. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Wei; Yuan Li; Chao Chen; Katharina Stoelzel; Andreas M. Kaufmann; Andreas E. Albers

    2011-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of

  13. Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Lavker; Tung-Tien Sun; Hideo Oshima; Yann Barrandon; Masashi Akiyama; Corinne Ferraris; Genevieve Chevalier; Bertrand Favier; Colin A. B. Jahoda; Danielle Dhouailly; Andrei A. Panteleyev; Angela M. Christiano

    2003-01-01

    The workshop on Hair Follicle Stem Cells brought together investigators who have used a variety of approaches to try to understand the biology of follicular epithelial stem cells, and the role that these cells play in regulating the hair cycle. One of the main concepts to emerge from this workshop is that follicular epithelial stem cells are multipotent, capable of

  14. Cell Fusion and Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Silk; Anne E. Powell; Paige S. Davies; Melissa H. Wong

    \\u000a Differentiation, self-renewal and the ability to readily undergo cell fusion are properties of adult and embryonic stem cells.\\u000a Spontaneous fusion between stem cells, and fusion of stem cells with various differentiated cell types, has been observed\\u000a in many in vitro and in vivo contexts. Stem cell fusion is implicated in many crucial functions during normal development\\u000a and is increasingly being

  15. Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics What is a Stem Cell?

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics What is a Stem Cell? Stem cells are the starting point from to line blood vessels. All of these highly specialized cells have to grow from unspecialized stem cells. Stem cells produce new cells by dividing. In the right conditions, these new cells can then continue

  16. Introduction to stem cells and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Kolios, George; Moodley, Yuben

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are a population of undifferentiated cells characterized by the ability to extensively proliferate (self-renewal), usually arise from a single cell (clonal), and differentiate into different types of cells and tissue (potent). There are several sources of stem cells with varying potencies. Pluripotent cells are embryonic stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of the embryo and induced pluripotent cells are formed following reprogramming of somatic cells. Pluripotent cells can differentiate into tissue from all 3 germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm). Multipotent stem cells may differentiate into tissue derived from a single germ layer such as mesenchymal stem cells which form adipose tissue, bone, and cartilage. Tissue-resident stem cells are oligopotent since they can form terminally differentiated cells of a specific tissue. Stem cells can be used in cellular therapy to replace damaged cells or to regenerate organs. In addition, stem cells have expanded our understanding of development as well as the pathogenesis of disease. Disease-specific cell lines can also be propagated and used in drug development. Despite the significant advances in stem cell biology, issues such as ethical controversies with embryonic stem cells, tumor formation, and rejection limit their utility. However, many of these limitations are being bypassed and this could lead to major advances in the management of disease. This review is an introduction to the world of stem cells and discusses their definition, origin, and classification, as well as applications of these cells in regenerative medicine. PMID:23257690

  17. Human Pulmonary Chimerism after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin T. Suratt; Carlyne D. Cool; Amanda E. Serls; Lin Chen; Marileila Varella-Garcia; Elizabeth J. Shpall; Kevin K. Brown; G. Scott Worthen

    Many of the body's tissues once thought to be only locally regenera- tive may, in fact, be actively replaced by circulating stem cells after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Localization of donor- derived cells (\\

  18. Cell Stem Cell Protocol Review

    E-print Network

    neurons might be re- placed. As the identity of ``true'' CNS stem cells, defined as being capableCell Stem Cell Protocol Review Everything that Glitters Isn't Gold: A Critical Review of Postnatal School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA 6Department of Stem Cell

  19. Cell Stem Cell Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical

    E-print Network

    Chen, Christopher S.

    Cell Stem Cell Review Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical Interactions with the Extracellular, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA 5Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State.06.016 A diverse array of environmental factors contributes to the overall control of stem cell activity

  20. Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell Epigenetics: Looking Forward

    E-print Network

    Sander, Maike

    Cell Stem Cell Voices Stem Cell Epigenetics: Looking Forward Epigenetics in Adult SCs The integrity of tissues is maintained by adult stem cells during adulthood. How- ever, recent work indicates that tissues often contain more than one population of stem cells that are located at distinct niches and display

  1. Understanding Embryonic Stem Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Douglas A. Melton, Ph.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute; )

    2008-04-10

    This indexed webcast video along with synchronized lecture slides is from Howard Hughes Medical Institute's 2006 Holiday LecturesPotent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration. Douglas A. Melton presents an introduction to stem cells, as well as answers to questions about the role of stem cells in the human body. This video requires RealPlayer 10.

  2. Gene therapy: can neural stem cells deliver?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan Y. Snyder; Jeanne F. Loring; Franz-Josef Müller

    2006-01-01

    Neural stem cells are a self-renewing population that generates the neurons and glia of the developing brain. They can be isolated, proliferated, genetically manipulated and differentiated in vitro and reintroduced into a developing, adult or pathologically altered CNS. Neural stem cells have been considered for use in cell replacement therapies in various neurodegenerative diseases, and an unexpected and potentially valuable

  3. Promising New Sources for Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Leeb; Marcin Jurga; Colin McGuckin; Richard Moriggl; Lukas Kenner

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings have placed stem cell research at the forefront of biomedical sciences. Basic research on embryonic stem cells\\u000a (ESCs) has contributed to our knowledge about the developmental potential and plasticity of stem cells. Furthermore, it has\\u000a raised hope to use these cells as potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease.\\u000a Unfortunately, ESCs can also

  4. Stem cells in the umbilical cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L. Weiss; Deryl L. Troyer

    2006-01-01

    Stem cells are the next frontier in medicine. Stem cells are thought to have great therapeutic and biotechnological potential.\\u000a This will not only to replace damaged or dysfunctional cells, but also rescue them and\\/or deliver therapeutic proteins after\\u000a they have been engineered to do so. Currently, ethical and scientific issues surround both embryonic and fetal stem cells\\u000a and hinder their

  5. Plant stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis. PMID:22404469

  6. Cemented stems: a requisite in revision total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Mullaji, A; Shetty, G M

    2014-11-01

    Stems may improve fixation and stability of components during revision total knee replacement. However, the choice between cemented and cementless stems is not a clear one. Cemented stems offer several advantages in terms of versatility, mechanical stability, surgical technique and clinical outcome over their cementless counterpart. PMID:25381422

  7. Stem Cells and Bioactive Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Bielby; Julia M. Polak

    Major advances in biological and materials research have created the possibilities for tissue engineering and regenerative\\u000a medicine. Finding the most effective ways of utilising stem cells, of several types, and triggering their differentiatoin\\u000a in a controlled manner will provide cell sources for cell replacement therapy. Materials will be bioresorbable in vivo and bioactive, contributing to differentiation, implantation and long-term engraftment

  8. Differentiation Potential of Adult Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry E. Young; Asa C. Black

    Stem cells are a subcategory of cells designated as “precursor” cells. Precursor cells provide the cellular building blocks\\u000a to maintain the tissues and organs of the body throughout the life-span of an individual. Precursor cells also provide the\\u000a cellular building blocks for tissue replacement and repair following injury. There are three basic categories of precursor\\u000a cells: lineage-uncommitted pluripotent stem cells;

  9. Stem cell transplantation for neurometabolic and neurodegenerative diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lamya S. Shihabuddin; Isabelle Aubert

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, the potential for therapeutic use of stem cell transplantation for cell replacement or as cellular vectors for gene delivery for neurometabolic and neurodegenerative diseases has received a great deal of interest. There has been substantial progress in our understanding of stem cell biology. Potential applications of cell-mediated therapy include direct cell replacement or protection and repair

  10. Stem Cells News Update: A Personal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wong, SC

    2013-01-01

    This article is a follow-up to a previous Commentary published in 2011. It updates some of the events mentioned in that Commentary and continues with more interesting and exciting news on stem cell research and the emerging field of Regenerative Medicine. Some of the news includes: 1) the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka; 2) the cloning of human embryonic stem cells; 3) the continued search for truly pluripotent adult stem cells via in vitro and in vivo protocols; 4) the breakthrough in organ replacements; 5) the global stem cell race; 6) the global stem cell cryo-preservation business; 7) the worldwide stem cell donor registries, and 8) the issue of government regulation on stem cell therapy. PMID:24778557

  11. Gastrointestinal Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Parveen; Aleem A. Khan; M. Aejaz Habeeb; C. M. Habibullah

    \\u000a Stem cell research is advancing at an incredible pace, with new ­discoveries and clinical applications being reported from\\u000a all over the world. Stem cells are functionally defined by their ability to self-renew and to differentiate into the cell\\u000a lineages of their tissue of origin. Stem cells are self-sustaining and can ­replicate themselves for long periods of time.\\u000a These characteristics make

  12. Stem Cell Transplants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Irwin Slesnick

    2004-01-01

    Transplanting embryonic stem cells from embryo into adult as a means of rejuvenating diseased cells, tissues, and organs poses ethical and moral challenges. In recent years, stem cell-derived nerve and glandular tissue has been transplanted into the brains and pancreas of Parkinson's disease and diabetes patients, respectively, with mixed results. This chapter provides background information on stem cell research, the future treatment of Parkinson's disease, and the controversy surrounding this sensitive issue.

  13. Embryonic Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria L. Browning; Jon S. Odorico

    Stem cells, which have a great capacity for self-renewal and can differentiate into at least one committed cell type, exist\\u000a in embryonic and adult organisms of many phyla. Although stem cells of various types from mice and other lower organisms have\\u000a been studied for many years, it was not until the derivation of stem cell lines from human embryos in

  14. Skeletal muscle stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer CJ Chen; David J Goldhamer

    2003-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells responsible for the post-natal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on the basic biology of the satellite cell with emphasis on its role in muscle repair and parallels between embryonic myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Recent advances have altered the long-standing view of the satellite cell as a committed myogenic stem

  15. Circulating Skeletal Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergei A. Kuznetsov; Mahesh H. Mankani; Stan Gronthos; Kazuhito Satomura; Paolo Bianco; Pamela Gehron Robey

    2001-01-01

    We report the isolation of adherent, clono- genic, fibroblast-like cells with osteogenic and adipogenic potential from the blood of four mammalian species. These cells phenotypically resemble but are distinguish- able from skeletal stem cells found in bone marrow (stromal stem cells, \\

  16. Stress and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tower, John

    2013-01-01

    The unique properties and functions of stem cells make them particularly susceptible to stresses and also lead to their regulation by stress. Stem cell division must respond to the demand to replenish cells during normal tissue turnover as well as in response to damage. Oxidative stress, mechanical stress, growth factors, and cytokines signal stem cell division and differentiation. Many of the conserved pathways regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are also stress-response pathways. The long life span and division potential of stem cells create a propensity for transformation (cancer) and specific stress responses such as apoptosis and senescence act as antitumor mechanisms. Quiescence regulated by CDK inhibitors and a hypoxic niche regulated by FOXO transcription factor function to reduce stress for several types of stem cells to facilitate long-term maintenance. Aging is a particularly relevant stress for stem cells, because repeated demands on stem cell function over the life span can have cumulative cell-autonomous effects including epigenetic dysregulation, mutations, and telomere erosion. In addition, aging of the organism impairs function of the stem cell niche and systemic signals, including chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:23799624

  17. Cardiac stem cell therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Nesselmann; A. Kaminski; G. Steinhoff

    2011-01-01

    In cardiac stem cell therapy, the past decade has been interesting with respect to preclinical and clinical research. The\\u000a high diversity of applied stem cell populations and evaluation methods represent a challenge to fully understand the impact\\u000a of stem cell administration, leaving uncertain answers to the questions that have been dealt with thus far. In the present\\u000a work, registered studies

  18. Embryonic Stem Cell Course

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This "Course-in-a-Box" from Bio-Link is a good starting point for instructors to develop a course on embryonic stem cells. If a full course on stem cells is not appropriate for a particular curriculum "individual lectures and activity modules are well-suited for integration into existing bioscience or biotechnology courses." Materials include laboratory protocols for both mouse and human embryonic stem cells, lectures, activities, and assessments. A free login is required to access the materials.

  19. Bioreactors Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Schüler, Axel

    Keywords Bioreactors Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine Tissue Engineering Pharmacology » Prof. M.; yeZhelyev, M.; eMMrich, F.; o'regan, r.; bader, a. Quantum dots for human mesenchymal stem cells and mechanical forces mediated to the cells by the matrix. The in vivo extracellular matrix constitutes

  20. Stem Cell Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Stem Cell Resources website is "to provide timely, reliable, high-quality and scientifically credible stem cell information for the educational community worldwide." The website is a division of Bioscience Network which publishes online science education materials. On the site, visitors will find a stem cell image library, a multimedia area, and a special section titled "For Educators". In the "For Educators" area, visitors will find links to a primer on stem cells and links to educational resources on stem cells from curriculum to case studies to lesson plans from such trusted sources as the Australian Stem Cell Centre and the National Institutes of Health. Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes videos that show how embryonic stem cell lines are made, along with other animations and graphics on the topic. Additionally, the site's "SCR Library" area includes the link to the Stem Cell Image Library, which provides dozens of photos of stem cells taken from researchers at the University of Cambridge and other institutions.

  1. Skeletal muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Grace W; Lamb, Elizabeth K; Kao, Race L

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (myoblasts) are the primary stem cells of skeletal muscle which contribute to growth, maintenance, and repair of the muscles. Satellite cells are the first stem cells used for cellular cardiomyoplasty more than 20 years ago. The isolation, culture, labeling, and identification of satellite cells are described in detail here. The implantation and outcomes of cellular cardiomyoplasty using satellite cells have been summarized in the previous chapter (Chapter 1). PMID:23807783

  2. Immunogenicity of human embryonic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Henrik Grinnemo; Christer Sylvén; Outi Hovatta; Göran Dellgren; Matthias Corbascio

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (HESC) are pluripotent stem cells isolated from the inner cell mass of human blastocysts. With\\u000a the first successful culturing of HESC, a new era of regenerative medicine was born. HESC can differentiate into almost any\\u000a cell type and, in the future, might replace solid organ transplantation and even be used to treat progressive degenerative\\u000a diseases such

  3. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page Print this page Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... PBSC Donating bone marrow Donor experiences Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  4. Stem Cell Differentiation Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-30

    This game uses a modified Uno deck to review concepts related to stem cell research and diabetes. Specifically, it covers material in the "Pulse-Chase Primer," "Pancreatic Beta Cells," and "Microarrays and Stem Cells" activities from the same resource which may or may not be necessary to complete prior to this activity (depending on learner's prior knowledge). Learners accumulate points and answer questions about stem cells, development, and microarrays so that they can be the first to differentiate into a pancreatic beta (?) cell. This activity is recommended for learners studying Biology at the High School (honors, IB and AP) or Undergraduate level.

  5. Bone marrow stem cells.

    PubMed

    Duong, Minh Ngoc; Ma, Yu-Ting; Chiu, Ray C J

    2013-01-01

    The "mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)" are cells adherent in the bone marrow, which can be isolated to induce differentiation. In contrast to the "embryonic stem cells" whose goal is to develop a new organism, the "MSC adult stem cells" can participate in tissue growth and repair throughout postnatal life. Addition of 5-azacytidine to MSCs in vitro induces the gradual increase in cellular size and begins spontaneous beatings, thereafter differentiating into cardiomyocytes. The "Methods" and "Protocols" to induce structural and functional maturations of MSCs, thus to achieve "Cellular Cardiomyoplasty," are described. With appropriate media, differentiations of MSCs to various kinds of cells such as chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes are also achievable. PMID:23807784

  6. Human embryonic stem cells and respect for life

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to stimulate academic discussion about the ethical justification of using human primordial stem cells for tissue transplantation, cell replacement, and gene therapy. There are intriguing alternatives to using embryos obtained from elective abortions and in vitro fertilisation to reconstitute damaged or dysfunctional human organs. These include the expansion and transplantation of latent adult progenitor cells. Key Words: Primordial stem cell research • embryonic stem cells • pluripotent stem cells • embryo research PMID:10860206

  7. MicroRNAs, stem cells and cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Minal

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the various regulatory characteristics of microRNAs that are capable of generating widespread changes in gene expression via post translational repression of many mRNA targets and control self-renewal, differentiation and division of cells. It controls the stem cell functions by controlling a wide range of pathological and physiological processes, including development, differentiation, cellular proliferation, programmed cell death, oncogenesis and metastasis. Through either mRNA cleavage or translational repression, miRNAs alter the expression of their cognate target genes; thereby modulating cellular pathways that affect the normal functions of stem cells, turning them into cancer stem cells, a likely cause of relapse in cancer patients. This present review further emphasizes the recent discoveries on the functional analysis of miRNAs in cancer metastasis and implications on miRNA based therapy using miRNA replacement or anti-miRNA technologies in specific cancer stem cells that are required to establish their efficacy in controlling tumorigenic potential and safe therapeutics. PMID:22993663

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dah-Ching; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have two features: the ability to differentiate along different lineages and the ability of self-renewal. Two major types of stem cells have been described, namely, embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are obtained from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and are associated with tumorigenesis, and the use of human ESCs involves ethical and legal considerations. The use of adult mesenchymal stem cells is less problematic with regard to these issues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and also exhibit multilineage differentiation. MSCs can be isolated from a variety of tissues, such as umbilical cord, endometrial polyps, menses blood, bone marrow, adipose tissue, etc. This is because the ease of harvest and quantity obtained make these sources most practical for experimental and possible clinical applications. Recently, MSCs have been found in new sources, such as menstrual blood and endometrium. There are likely more sources of MSCs waiting to be discovered, and MSCs may be a good candidate for future experimental or clinical applications. One of the major challenges is to elucidate the mechanisms of differentiation, mobilization, and homing of MSCs, which are highly complex. The multipotent properties of MSCs make them an attractive choice for possible development of clinical applications. Future studies should explore the role of MSCs in differentiation, transplantation, and immune response in various diseases. PMID:21396235

  9. Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course Ceské Budjovice January 2013 #12;Pluripotent (stem(s) of differentiation ·Symmetric/asymmetric division ? ? ? ? #12;Where can we find the origins of stem cell research;1981 Lines of pluripotent cells were established for the first time from mouse embryo ­ Embryonic Stem Cells

  10. Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course Ceské Budjovice November 2013 #12;Pluripotent (stem(s) of differentiation ·Symmetric/asymmetric division ? ? ? ? #12;Where can we find the origins of stem cell research;1981 Lines of pluripotent cells were established for the first time from mouse embryo ­ Embryonic Stem Cells

  11. Placenta—an alternative source of stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiina Matikainen; Jarmo. Laine

    2005-01-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem

  12. Promises of stem cell therapy for retinal degenerative diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Yat-Hin Wong; Ming-Wai Poon; Rosita Tsz-Wai Pang; Qizhou Lian; David Wong

    With the development of stem cell technology, stem cell-based therapy for retinal degeneration has been proposed to restore\\u000a the visual function. Many animal studies and some clinical trials have shown encouraging results of stem cell-based therapy\\u000a in retinal degenerative diseases. While stem cell-based therapy is a promising strategy to replace damaged retinal cells and\\u000a ultimately cure retinal degeneration, there are

  13. Stem Cell Niche

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei Wen; Pei Sun; Rongwen Xi

    \\u000a The adult stem cells are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis and commonly reside in specific local microenvironment\\u000a named niche. The niche keeps stem cells in multipotent state, prevents them from precocious differentiation and positions\\u000a them to undergo asymmetric division to produce differentiated ­progenies for tissue regeneration. The niches employ a variety\\u000a of factors including cell adhesion molecules, extra cellular matrix,

  14. Intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Umar, Shahid

    2010-10-01

    Self-renewal in the intestinal epithelia is fueled by a population of undifferentiated intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that give rise to daughter or progenitor cells, which can subsequently differentiate into the mature cell types required for normal gut function. The cellular signals that regulate self-renewal are poorly understood and the factors that mediate the transition from a stem cell to a progenitor cell in the gut are unknown. Recent studies have suggested that ISCs are located either at the crypt base interspersed between the Paneth cells (eg, Lgr-5+ve cells) or at or near position 4 within the intestinal crypt (eg, DCAMKL-1 or Bmi-1+ve cells). This raises the possibility that distinct stem cell regions exist in the crypts and that ISC's state of activation will determine how the self-renewal is regulated in the intestinal tract. PMID:20683682

  15. Stem Cell Task Force

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides an overview of the activities of an NIH task force established to move the stem cell research agenda forward. The section titled Scientific Research may be of particular interest to researchers in this area. It provides links to the Web sites of stem cell-related research at a number of NIH institutes, as well as an extensive information index, a FAQs page about stem cell research, information on funding opportunities, and much more.

  16. Cardiac stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Leri, Annarosa; Rota, Marcello; Hosoda, Toru; Goichberg, Polina; Anversa, Piero

    2014-11-01

    The critical role that stem cell niches have in cardiac homeostasis and myocardial repair following injury is the focus of this review. Cardiac niches represent specialized microdomains where the quiescent and activated state of resident stem cells is regulated. Alterations in niche function with aging and cardiac diseases result in abnormal sites of cardiomyogenesis and inadequate myocyte formation. The relevance of Notch1 signaling, gap-junction formation, HIF-1? and metabolic state in the regulation of stem cell growth and differentiation within the cardiac niches are discussed. PMID:25267073

  17. SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

  18. Clonal interrogation of stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin Hope; Mickie Bhatia

    2011-01-01

    Individual stem cells are functionally defined by their self-renewal and differentiation potential. Methods for clonal analysis are essential for understanding stem cells, particularly given the increasing evidence for stem-cell heterogeneity. Stem cells reside within complex microenvironments, making single-cell analysis particularly challenging. Furthermore, simultaneous molecular and functional characterization of single stem cells is not trivial. Here we explore clonal assays applied

  19. Stem cells in embryonic skin development.

    PubMed

    Forni, Maria F; Trombetta-Lima, Marina; Sogayar, Mari C

    2012-01-01

    The skin is a complex stratified organ which acts not only as a permeability barrier and defense against external agents, but also has essential thermoregulatory, sensory and metabolic functions. Due to its high versatility and activity, the skin undergoes continuous self-renewal to repair damaged tissue and replace old cells. Consequently, the skin is a reservoir for adult stem cells of different embryonic origins. Skin stem cell populations reside in the adult hair follicle, sebaceous gland, dermis and epidermis. However, the origin of most of the stem cell populations found in the adult epidermis is still unknown. Far more unknown is the embryonic origin of other stem cells that populate the other layers of this tissue. In this review we attempt to clarify the emergence, structure, markers and embryonic development of diverse populations of stem cells from the epidermis, dermis and related appendages such as the sebaceous gland and hair follicle. PMID:23283431

  20. LESSON PLAN Stem Cell Discussion

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    LESSON PLAN Stem Cell Discussion Learning objectives Students will: · consider the implications of stem cell research · research the current research situation · debate the future of stem cell of the Wellcome Trust, discusses why stem cells have the potential to treat many debilitating diseases, and why

  1. Information on Stem Cell Research

    MedlinePLUS

    Information on Stem Cell Research Research @ NINDS Stem Cell Highlights Submit a hESC line for NIH review (9/21/09) NIH Opens ... found here: Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells NINDS Stem Cell Research on Campus The Intramural Research Program of ...

  2. Microarrays and Stem Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Colvard

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners use microarray technology to determine which genes are turned on and off at various points in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells on their way to becoming pancreatic ? cells. An introductory PowerPoint, reading, video clip and an animation provide learners with background information needed to interpret the results of a paper microarray simulation. Learners will position cDNA strips on mini-microarrays to discover which genes are expressing, to what degree they are expressing, and which are not. They use these findings to trace the differentiation of embryonic stem cells that give rise to pancreatic ? cells and other cell types. The role of growth factors and proximity of other cell types is central to learners understanding how researchers may direct the ultimate fate of stem cells. The value of this in treating diabetes is also discussed. This activity is recommended for learners studying Biology at the High School (honors, IB and AP) or Undergraduate level.

  3. Cell Stem Cell The Systematic Production

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell Stem Cell Review The Systematic Production of Cells for Cell Therapies Daniel C. Kirouac1 10.1016/j.stem.2008.09.001 Stem cells have emerged as the starting material of choice. Translating the biological properties and potential of stem cells into therapies will require overcoming

  4. Colon cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Fabrizi, Eros; Palio, Elisabetta; De Maria, Ruggero

    2009-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer and the second cause of cancer-related death in the Western world, leading to 655,000 deaths worldwide per year (Jemal et al. in CA Cancer J Clin 56:106-130, 2006). Despite the emergence of new targeted agents and the use of various therapeutic combinations, none of the treatment options available is curative in patients with advanced cancer. A growing body of evidence is increasingly supporting the idea that human cancers can be considered as a stem cell disease. According to the cancer stem cell model, malignancies originate from a small fraction of cancer cells that show self-renewal and pluripotency and are capable of initiating and sustaining tumor growth (Boman and Wicha in J Clin Oncol 26:2795-2799, 2008). The cancer-initiating cells or "cancer stem cells" were first identified in hematologic malignancies and most recently in several solid tumors, including CRC. The hypothesis of stem cell-driven tumorigenesis in colon cancer raises questions as to whether current treatments are able to efficiently target the tumorigenic cell population that is responsible for tumor growth and maintenance. This review will focus on the different aspects of stem cell biology in the context of CRC, which might help to understand the mechanisms that give rise to tumor development and resistance to therapy. First, we will briefly revise the knowledge available on normal intestinal stem cells and recent advances in understanding crypt biology, which have led to new theory on the origins of colon adenomas and cancers. Then, we will summarize the evidence and current status on colon cancer stem cells, focusing on their relevance and promises for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:19727638

  5. Kidney Injury, Stem Cells and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This review summarizes the most recent advances in stem cell and regenerative approaches to treat kidney injury, and highlights areas of active controversy. Over the last year a number of findings have been reported that have brought this field much closer to clinical translation. Recent Findings Recent progress in regenerative nephrology includes the directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells to kidney fates, understanding the proliferative capacity of tubules after injury, the use of mesenchymal stem cells for kidney disease and tissue engineering approaches to renal replacement. Controversies persist, however, including whether adult epithelial stem cells exist at all, the best therapeutic strategy for the treatment of kidney injury and how to use mesenchymal stem cells optimally for the prevention of acute kidney injury. Summary While recent progress in kidney regeneration is very encouraging, current controversies must be resolved before clinical breakthroughs can occur. PMID:24231311

  6. The advantages of hair follicle pluripotent stem cells over embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuyuki Amoh; Kensei Katsuoka; Robert M. Hoffman

    2010-01-01

    Multipotent adult stem cells have many potential therapeutic applications. Our recent findings suggest that hair follicles are a promising source of easily accessible multipotent stem cells. Stem cells in the hair follicle area express the neural stem cell marker nestin, suggesting that hair-follicle stem cells and neural stem cells have common features. Nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can form neurons

  7. Cell Stem Cell Short Article

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    -renewal and reprogramming. INTRODUCTION The transcription factors OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 are master regulators the requirement of OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG in stem cell function (De Los Angeles et al., 2012), discrepancies

  8. Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lei; Zou, Zhongmin; Tian, Hong; Zhang, Yubo; Zhou, Huchuan; Liu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, stem cell-based approaches have attracted more attention from scientists and clinicians due to their possible therapeutical effect on stroke. Animal studies have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), neural stem cells (NSCs), and mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) might be due to cell replacement, neuroprotection, endogenous neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and modulation on inflammation and immune response. Although several clinical studies have shown the high efficiency and safety of stem cell in stroke management, mainly MSCs, some issues regarding to cell homing, survival, tracking, safety, and optimal cell transplantation protocol, such as cell dose and time window, should be addressed. Undoubtably, stem cell-based gene therapy represents a novel potential therapeutic strategy for stroke in future. PMID:24719869

  9. Cell Stem Cell Alternative Induced Pluripotent

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell Stem Cell Letter Alternative Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Characterization Criteria, Canada 4Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA 5Samuel.2009.02.010 ``Guidelines and Techniques for the Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

  10. Stem cell therapy and the retina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R E MacLaren; R A Pearson

    2007-01-01

    Retinal degeneration culminating in photoreceptor loss is the leading cause of untreatable blindness in the developed world. In this review, we consider how photoreceptors might be replaced by transplantation and how stem cells might be optimised for use as donor cells in future clinical strategies for retinal repair. We discuss the current advances in human and animal models of retinal

  11. Stem cell population asymmetry can reduce rate of replicative aging

    E-print Network

    Hormoz, Sahand

    2013-01-01

    Cycling tissues such as the intestinal epithelium, germ line, and hair follicles, require a constant flux of differentiated cells. These tissues are maintained by a population of stem cells, which generate differentiated progenies and self-renew. Asymmetric division of each stem cell into one stem cell and one differentiated cell can accomplish both tasks. However, in mammalian cycling tissues, some stem cells divide symmetrically into two differentiated cells and are replaced by a neighbor that divides symmetrically into two stem cells. Besides this heterogeneity in fate (population asymmetry), stem cells also exhibit heterogenous proliferation-rates; in the long run, however, all stem cells proliferate at the same average rate (equipotency). We construct and simulate a mathematical model based on these experimental observations. We show that the complex steady-state dynamics of population-asymmetric stem cells reduces the rate of replicative aging of the tissue --potentially lowering the incidence of somati...

  12. Cell Stem Cell A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Tgf-b Signaling

    E-print Network

    Liu, David R.

    Cell Stem Cell Article A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Tgf-b Signaling Replaces Sox2 in Reprogramming screening to iden- tify small molecules that can replace Sox2 in reprog- ramming. We show that one with three genes, Sox2, Oct4, and Klf4, can directly reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent stem cell state

  13. Stem Cell Research

    SciTech Connect

    Catherine Verfaillie

    2009-01-23

    We have identified a population of primitive cells in normal human post-natal bone marrow that can, at the single cell level, differentiate in many ways and also proliferate extensively. These cells can differentiate in vitro into most mesodermal cell types (for example, bone cells, and others), as well as cells into cells of the nervous system. The finding that stem cells exist in post-natal tissues with previously unknown proliferation and differentiation potential opens up the possibility of using them to treat a host of degenerative, traumatic or congenital diseases.

  14. The River of Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Widelitz, Randall Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Greco et al. (2009) characterize the hair germ as a novel stop between bulge stem cell and transient amplifying cells during hair regeneration. The work implies stem cell states can be regulated to form different numbers of intermediate stops, depending on physiological requirements. PMID:19200797

  15. Brain cancer stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara G. M. Piccirillo; Elena Binda; Roberta Fiocco; Angelo L. Vescovi; Khalid Shah

    2009-01-01

    Cancers comprise heterogeneous cells, ranging from highly proliferative immature precursors to more differentiated cell lineages.\\u000a In the last decade, several groups have demonstrated the existence of cancer stem cells in both nonsolid solid tumors, including\\u000a some of the brain: glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), medulloblastoma, and ependymoma. These cells, like their normal counterpart\\u000a in homologous tissues, are multipotent, undifferentiated, self-sustaining, yet transformed

  16. Stem cell mobilization.

    PubMed

    Cottler-Fox, Michele H; Lapidot, Tsvee; Petit, Isabelle; Kollet, Orit; DiPersio, John F; Link, Dan; Devine, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Successful blood and marrow transplant (BMT), both autologous and allogeneic, requires the infusion of a sufficient number of hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells (HPCs) capable of homing to the marrow cavity and regenerating a full array of hematopoietic cell lineages in a timely fashion. At present, the most commonly used surrogate marker for HPCs is the cell surface marker CD34, identified in the clinical laboratory by flow cytometry. Clinical studies have shown that infusion of at least 2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg recipient body weight results in reliable engraftment as measured by recovery of adequate neutrophil and platelet counts approximately 14 days after transplant. Recruitment of HPCs from the marrow into the blood is termed mobilization, or, more commonly, stem cell mobilization. In Section I, Dr. Tsvee Lapidot and colleagues review the wide range of factors influencing stem cell mobilization. Our current understanding focuses on chemokines, proteolytic enzymes, adhesion molecules, cytokines and stromal cell-stem cell interactions. On the basis of this understanding, new approaches to mobilization have been designed and are now starting to undergo clinical testing. In Section II, Dr. Michele Cottler-Fox describes factors predicting the ability to mobilize the older patient with myeloma. In addition, clinical approaches to improving collection by individualizing the timing of apheresis and adjusting the volume of blood processed to achieve a desired product are discussed. Key to this process is the daily enumeration of blood CD34(+) cells. Newer methods of enumerating and mobilizing autologous blood HPCs are discussed. In Section III, Dr. John DiPersio and colleagues provide data on clinical results of mobilizing allogeneic donors with G-CSF, GM-CSF and the combination of both as relates to the number and type of cells collected by apheresis. Newer methods of stem cell mobilization as well as the relationship of graft composition on immune reconstitution and GVHD are discussed. PMID:14633793

  17. Cell Stem Cell Primed to Perish

    E-print Network

    Lahav, Galit

    Cell Stem Cell Previews Primed to Perish: Heightened Mitochondrial Priming Explains hESC Apoptosis Sensitivity Niels Geijsen1,2,* 1Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.09.011 Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are hypersensitive to apoptotic stimuli

  18. 2171DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS RESEARCH ARTICLE INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Crews, Stephen

    goal of neural stem cell research is to generate dopaminergic neurons in vitro for cell replacement2171DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS RESEARCH ARTICLE INTRODUCTION Complex behaviors require cord and brain (Monastirioti, 1999). One of the best-characterized insect dopaminergic neurons is the H-cell

  19. Fifth Annual Stem Cell Summit.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    The Fifth Annual Stem Cell Summit, held in New York, included topics covering new commercial developments in the research field of stem cell-based therapies. This conference report highlights selected presentations on embryonic and adult stem cells, stem cell-based therapies for the treatment of orthopedic and cardiovascular indications and inflammatory diseases, as well as technologies for processing and storing stem cells. Investigational therapies discussed include placental expanded (PLX) cells (Pluristem Therapeutics Inc), StemEx (Gamida-Teva Joint Venture/Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd) and remestemcel-L (Osiris Therapeutics Inc/Genzyme Corp/JCR Pharmaceuticals Co Ltd/ Mochida Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). PMID:20373251

  20. The potential of umbilical cord blood multipotent stem cells for nonhematopoietic tissue and cell regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmella Van De Ven; Daniel Collins; M. Brigid Bradley; Erin Morris; Mitchell S. Cairo; St. Paul

    Stem cells have been isolated from human embryos, fetal tissue, umbilical cord blood (UCB), and also from ''adult'' sources. Adult stem cells are found in many tissues of the body and are capable of maintaining, generating, and replacing terminally differentiated cells. A source of pluripotent stem cells has been recently identified in UCB that can also differentiate across tissue lineage

  1. Laser biomodulation on stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Li, Xue-Feng; Tan, Li-Ling; Liu, Songhao

    2001-08-01

    Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.

  2. Apoptosis, Stem Cells, and Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Andreas; Steller, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Most metazoans have at least some ability to regenerate damaged cells and tissues, although the regenerative capacity varies depending on the species, organ, or developmental stage. Cell replacement and regeneration occur in two contexts: renewal of spent cells during tissue homeostasis (homeostatic growth), and in response to external injury, wounding, or amputation (epimorphic regeneration). Model organisms that display remarkable regenerative capacity include amphibians, planarians, Hydra, and the vertebrate liver. In addition, several mammalian organs—including the skin, gut, kidney, muscle, and even the human nervous system—have some ability to replace spent or damaged cells. Although the regenerative response is complex, it typically involves the induction of new cell proliferation through formation of a blastema, followed by cell specification, differentiation, and patterning. Stem cells and undifferentiated progenitor cells play an important role in both tissue homeostasis and tissue regeneration. Stem cells are typically quiescent or passing slowly through the cell cycle in adult tissues, but they can be activated in response to cell loss and wounding. A series of studies, mostly performed in Drosophila as well as in Hydra, Xenopus, and mouse, has revealed an unexpected role of apoptotic caspases in the production of mitogenic signals that stimulate the proliferation of stem and progenitor cells to aid in tissue regeneration. This Review summarizes some of the key findings and discusses links to stem cell biology and cancer. PMID:20978240

  3. Human motor neuron generation from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nizzardo; C. Simone; M. Falcone; F. Locatelli; G. Riboldi; G. P. Comi; S. Corti

    2010-01-01

    Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a group of neurological disorders that selectively affect motor neurons. There are currently\\u000a no cures or efficacious treatments for these diseases. In recent years, significant developments in stem cell research have\\u000a been applied to MNDs, particularly regarding neuroprotection and cell replacement. However, a consistent source of motor neurons\\u000a for cell replacement is required. Human embryonic

  4. Neural Stem Cell Self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanhong; Sun, Guoqiang; Zhao, Chunnian; Stewart, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Two fundamental properties of stem cells are their ability to self-renew and to differentiate. Self-renewal is an integration of proliferation control with the maintenance of an undifferentiated state. Stem cell self-renewal is regulated by the dynamic interplay between transcription factors, epigenetic control, microRNA (miRNA) regulators, and cell-extrinsic signals from the microenvironment in which stem cells reside. Recent progress in defining specific roles for cell-intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors in regulating stem cell self-renewal starts to unfold the multilayered regulatory networks. This review focuses on cell-intrinsic regulators, including orphan nuclear receptor TLX, polycomb transcriptional repressor Bmi1, high-mobility-group DNA binding protein Sox2, basic helix-loop-helix Hes genes, histone modifying enzymes and chromatin remodeling proteins, and small RNA modulators, as well as cell-extrinsic signaling molecules, such as Wnt, Notch, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), TGF?, EGF, and FGF. Unraveling the mechanisms by which neural stem cells renew themselves will provide insights into both basic neurosciences and clinical applications of stem cell-based cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:17644000

  5. Characterization of amniotic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Koike, Chika; Zhou, Kaixuan; Takeda, Yuji; Fathy, Moustafa; Okabe, Motonori; Yoshida, Toshiko; Nakamura, Yukio; Kato, Yukio; Nikaido, Toshio

    2014-08-01

    The amnion membrane is developed from embryo-derived cells, and amniotic cells have been shown to exhibit multidifferentiation potential. These cells represent a desirable source for stem cells for a variety of reasons. However, to date very few molecular analyses of amnion-derived cells have been reported, and efficient markers for isolating the stem cells remain unclear. This paper assesses the characterization of amnion-derived cells as stem cells by examining stemness marker expressions for amnion-derived epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative PCR. Flow cytometry revealed that amnion epithelial cells expressed CD133, CD 271, and TRA-1-60, whereas mecenchymal cells expressed CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105. Immunohistochemistry showed that both cells expressed the stemness markers Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and SSEA4. Stemness genes' expression in amnion epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, fibroblast, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was compared by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amnion-derived epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells expressed Oct3/4, Nanog, and Klf4 more than bone marrow-derived MSCs. The sorted TRA1-60-positive cells expressed Oct3/4, Nanog, and Klf4 more than unsorted cells or TRA1-60-negative cells. TRA1-60 can be a marker for isolating amnion epithelial stem cells. PMID:25068631

  6. [Multiple myeloma stem cell].

    PubMed

    Hosen, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells. MM patients harbor phenotypic CD19+ B cells expressing the immunoglobulin gene sequence and the idiotype unique to the individual myeloma clone. However, in most MM patients CD19+ clonotypic B cells do not reconstitute MM disease upon transplantation into immune-deficient mice. In the SCID-rab and SCID-hu models, which enable engraftment of human MM in vivo, CD19-CD38++ plasma cells engrafted and rapidly propagated MM. These results indicate that MM-initiating cells are derived from plasma cells, which are terminally differentiated cells. It should be now clarified whether all MM plasma cells can exert as MM-initiating cells when located in the appropriate niche or only distinct myeloma stem cells can propagate MM. PMID:25626303

  7. Biomaterials as Stem Cell Niche: Cardiovascular Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ge Zhang; Laura J. Suggs

    \\u000a A tissue-specific stem cell niche functions to direct either self-renewal or differentiation. The niche comprises all local\\u000a cues that can be sensed by the cell including soluble and insoluble signals, physical forces and cell–cell contacts. Approximating\\u000a the stem cell niche through the utilization of biomaterials may give rise to a greater understanding of the biology of the\\u000a stem cell niche

  8. Embryonic Stem Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Erdmann, Deanne

    2006-07-20

    BioEd Online is an "educational resource for educators, students, and parents" from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The "Hot Topics" section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are "receiving national attention." The controversy surrounding embryonic stem cells, and coverage it receives in news and research publications in the United States and around the world definitely warrants a closer look at this issue. This "Hot Topic" compiled by Joseph Marx, PhD, Nancy Moreno, PhD, and Deanne Erdmann, MS, contains a brief discussion of the stem cell debate, and includes references and links for further reading. Related news articles can be found as well. Be sure to check out the related slide sets for both embryonic stem cells and stem cells. These slide shows are an excellent resource to use in the classroom. Just add the slides you wish to use to your tray and then view or download your slide tray for an instant visual resource.

  9. Materials as stem cell regulators

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:24845994

  10. Once Upon a Stem Cell

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Science > Once Upon a Stem Cell Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Once Upon a Stem Cell By ... Do Geometry Sticky Stem Cells This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  11. Embryonic Stem Cells from Parthenotes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose B. Cibelli; Kerrianne Cunniff; Kent E. Vrana

    2006-01-01

    While human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold tremendous therapeutic potential, they also create societal and ethical dilemmas. Adult and placental stem cells represent two alternatives to the hESC, but may have technical limitations. An additional alternative is the stem cell derived from parthenogenesis. Parthenogenesis is a reproductive mechanism that is common in lower organisms and produces a live birth from

  12. Haute Culture: Tailoring stem cells

    E-print Network

    Chou, James

    research projects and its faculty have founded five stem cell-related startup companies and serveHaute Culture: Tailoring stem cells to make us well Tuesday, April 24, 2012 6:00-7:30 p;Haute Culture: Tailoring stem cells to make us well Moderator Brock Reeve, MPhil, MBA Executive Director

  13. Melanoma Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Schatton; Markus H. Frank

    \\u000a The hypothesis that tumor initiation and growth are driven by a subpopulation of malignant cells, that is, cancer stem cells\\u000a (CSCs), has received considerable attention. The CSC concept predicts that the design of novel therapies that ablate CSCs\\u000a or target CSC-specific protumorigenic signaling pathways might result in more durable therapeutic responses in cancer patients\\u000a than those achieved by therapeutic approaches

  14. Cancer Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello Maugeri Saccà; Vito D’Andrea; Angelo Pulcini; Ruggero Maria

    \\u000a Far from being a new concept, the belief that cancer might originate from stem cells dates back to the mid-19th century when\\u000a Rudolf Virchow proposed that cancer arises from embryo-like cells, based on the histologic similarity between embryonic and\\u000a cancer tissues. This hypothesis was later extended by Cohnheim and Durante, who postulated that adult tissues contain embryonic\\u000a remnants that usually

  15. Cell Stem Cell Sic Transit Gloria

    E-print Network

    Simons, Ben

    Cell Stem Cell Review Sic Transit Gloria: Farewell to the Epidermal Transit Amplifying Cell? Philip, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK 4Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR years, the prevailing model of epidermal homeostasis has been that epidermal stem cells give rise

  16. Stem cells: research tools and clinical treatments.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Michael C; Wallace, Euan M

    2011-09-01

    The term 'stem cell' most commonly refers to embryonic stem cells, particularly in the lay media; however, it also describes other cell types. A stem cell represents a cell of multi-lineage potential with the ability for self-renewal. It is now clear that the plasticity and immortality of a given stem cell will depend on what type of stem cell it is, whether an embryonic stem cell, a fetal-placental stem cell or an adult stem cell. Stem cells offer great promise as cell-based therapies for the future. With evolving technology, much of the socio-political debate regarding stem cells can now be avoided. PMID:21951457

  17. Stem Cell Plasticity, Beyond Alchemy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Rutenberg; Takashi Hamazaki; Amar M. Singh; Naohiro Terada

    2004-01-01

    Cell plasticity is a central issue in stem cell biology. Differentiated somatic nuclei have the flexibility to dedifferentiate\\u000a when transferred into oocytes or when fused to pluripotent embryonic stem cells. Recent publications also claim that somatic\\u000a stem cells can convert into developmentally unrelated cell types both in vivo and ex vivo without such drastic cell manipulations.\\u000a Some of these claims

  18. Perinatal sources of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Piskorska-Jasiulewicz, Magdalena Maria; Witkowska-Zimny, Ma?gorzata

    2015-01-01

    Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Successful application of hematopoietic stem cells in hematology has led to the search for other sources of stem cells and expanding the scale of their application. Perinatal stem cells are a versatile cell population, and they are interesting for both scientific and practical objectives. Stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in the case of genetic disorders. In this review paper we focus on the extraction and therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from perinatal tissues such as the placenta, the amnion, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and Wharton's jelly. PMID:25748624

  19. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cell therapies for spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Kubli, Corinne A.; Lu, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The greatest challenge to successful treatment of spinal cord injury is the limited regenerative capacity of the central nervous system and its inability to replace lost neurons and severed axons following injury. Neural stem cell grafts derived from fetal central nervous system tissue or embryonic stem cells have shown therapeutic promise by differentiation into neurons and glia that have the potential to form functional neuronal relays across injured spinal cord segments. However, implementation of fetal-derived or embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell therapies for patients with spinal cord injury raises ethical concerns. Induced pluripotent stem cells can be generated from adult somatic cells and differentiated into neural stem cells suitable for therapeutic use, thereby providing an ethical source of implantable cells that can be made in an autologous fashion to avoid problems of immune rejection. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury, as well as addressing potential mechanisms, future perspectives and challenges. PMID:25788906

  20. Prostate epithelial stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh-Joon; Xin, Li

    2014-01-01

    The classic androgen ablation and replacement experiment demonstrates that prostate epithelia possess extensive regenerative capacities and implies the existence of the prostate stem/progenitor cells. These cells may serve as the cells of origin for prostate cancer and their intrinsic property may dictate the clinical behaviors of the resulting diseases. Therefore, detailed characterization of these cells will potentially benefit disease prevention, diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we describe several major in vitro and in vivo approaches that have been employed in the studies of the prostate stem cell activities, summarize the major progress that has been made during the last two decades regarding the identity of prostate stem/progenitor cells and their niches, and discuss some remaining outstanding questions in the field. PMID:25374923

  1. ``Stemness'': Transcriptional Profiling of Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Ramalho-Santos; Soonsang Yoon; Yumi Matsuzaki; Richard C. Mulligan; Douglas A. Melton

    2002-01-01

    The transcriptional profiles of mouse embryonic, neural, and hematopoietic stem cells were compared to define a genetic program for stem cells. A total of 216 genes are enriched in all three types of stem cells, and several of these genes are clustered in the genome. When compared to differentiated cell types, stem cells express a significantly higher number of genes

  2. Synergistic effects of combining adult neural stem cells with mesenchymal stem cells as a transplant therapy in the transgenic rat model of Huntington's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. ROSSIGNOL; K. K. DAVIS; S. C. CLERC; S. A. LOWRANCE; J. J. MATCHYNSKI; M. C. BOMBARD; K. D. FINK; K. RABER; S. VON HÖRSTEN; L. LESCAUDRON; G. L. DUNBAR

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is marked by choreic movements and a decline in cognitive abilities. Adult stem cells such as adult neural stem cells (ANSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit the ability to differentiate into neural lineages representing an attractive source for cell replacement therapy in neurological disorders, such as HD. ANSCs have been

  3. Cell Stem Cell Adult SVZ Stem Cells Lie in a Vascular

    E-print Network

    Lin, Gang

    Cell Stem Cell Article Adult SVZ Stem Cells Lie in a Vascular Niche: A Quantitative Analysis Susan K. Goderie,1 Badrinath Roysam,3 and Sally Temple1,2,* 1New York Neural Stem Cell Institute within stem cell niches. Here, we examine whether neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult subventricular

  4. Pluripotent stem cells as new drugs? The example of Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Preynat-Seauve; Pierre R. Burkhard; Jean Villard; Walter Zingg; Nathalie Ginovart; Anis Feki; Michel Dubois-Dauphin; Samia A. Hurst; Alex Mauron; Marisa Jaconi

    2009-01-01

    Cell replacement therapy is a widely discussed novel concept of medical treatment. The increased knowl- edge in the stem cell field, particularly pluripotent stem cells, potentially provides powerful tools for this therapeutic concept. A large number of disease characterized by the loss of functional cells are potential candidates for cell replacement therapy and, in this regards, Parkinson's disease is of

  5. Measuring stem cell circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Hrushesky, William; Rich, Ivan N

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that occur within a 24-h time cycle. Sleep is a prime example of a circadian rhythm and with it melatonin production. Stem cell systems also demonstrate circadian rhythms. This is particularly the case for the proliferating cells within the system. In fact, all proliferating cell populations exhibit their own circadian rhythm, which has important implications for disease and the treatment of disease. Stem cell chronobiology is particularly important because the treatment of cancer can be significantly affected by the time of day a drug is administered. This protocol provides a basis for measuring hematopoietic stem cell circadian rhythm for future stem cell chronotherapeutic applications. PMID:25388388

  6. Stem cell research and transplantation: Science leading ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Daar; A. Bhatt; E. Court; P. A. Singer

    2004-01-01

    One of the most exciting developments in the biological sciences in the past decade has been the discovery and characterization of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The interest to transplanters is the potential applications of stem cells in regenerative medicine (RM), which may involve tissue engineering, genetic engineering, and other techniques to repair, replace, or regenerate failing tissues and organs.

  7. Stem cells—meet immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy S. P. Heng; Jarrod A. Dudakov; Danika M. P. Khong; Ann P. Chidgey; Richard L. Boyd

    2009-01-01

    The ability of stem cells to differentiate into various different cell types holds great promise for the treatment of irreversible\\u000a tissue damage that occurs in many debilitating conditions. With stem cell research advancing at a tremendous pace, it is becoming\\u000a clear that one of the greatest hurdles to successful stem cell-derived therapies is overcoming immune rejection of the transplant.\\u000a Although

  8. Control of Stemness by Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriko Gotoh

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of stem cells, scientists have invested tremendous effort in establishing in vitro culture conditions in order to maintain the self-renewal and efficient proliferative capabilities of stem cells by manipulating a va- riety of growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is one of the most common growth factors used to expand stem cells, including human embryonic stem (hES)

  9. Induced pluripotent stem cells and neurodegenerative diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Chen; Shi-Fu Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, are characterized\\u000a by idiopathic neuron loss in different regions of the central nervous system, which contributes to the relevant dysfunctions\\u000a in the patients. The application of cell replacement therapy using human embryonic stem (hES) cells, though having attracted\\u000a much attention, has been hampered by the intrinsic ethical problems. It

  10. Local administration of TGF?-1/VEGF165 gene-transduced bone mesenchymal stem cells for Achilles allograft replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuelei; Mao, Zebin; Hou, Yu; Lin, Lin; Xue, Tao; Chen, Lianxu; Wang, Haijun; Yu, Changlong

    2011-03-11

    Graft remodeling following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction requires a long period of recovery before it is capable of withstanding physiological loads. Graft revascularization is extremely important in the remodeling process. In ACL reconstruction, the local administration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) significantly increased revascularization of the graft, but did not significantly affect the mechanical properties of the graft after implantation (Ju et al., 2006; Yoshikawa, et al., 2006). Our previous studies showed that transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF?1) could promote improvements in mechanical strength in Achilles tendon regeneration, by regulating collagen type I and type III synthesis, cross-link formation, and matrix-remodeling (Hou et al., 2009). The current study aims to investigate whether the co-expression of TGF?1/VEGF(165) could beneficially affect the remodeling of ACL grafts. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), transfected with an adenoviral vector encoding TGF?1, VEGF(165) or TGF?1/VEGF(165), were surgically implanted into experimental ACL grafts, with non-transfected cells as a control. HE and toluidine blue staining, vascular number, and biomechanical features were analyzed at 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery. The results suggest that TGF?1 expression, in the TGF?1/VEGF(165)-transfected BMSCs, could accelerate the remodeling of the reconstructed ligament. The cross-talk between TGF?1 and VEGF(165) has positive consequences, as TGF?1/VEGF(165)-transfected BMSCs significantly promoted angiogenesis of the reconstructed ligament at 3, 6, 12 weeks, with the best mechanical properties being achieved at 24 weeks. Furthermore, co-expression of these genes is more powerful and efficient than single gene therapy. PMID:21303664

  11. Stem cells for myocardial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Orlic, Donald; Hill, Jonathan M; Arai, Andrew E

    2002-12-13

    Stem cells are being investigated for their potential use in regenerative medicine. A series of remarkable studies suggested that adult stem cells undergo novel patterns of development by a process referred to as transdifferentiation or plasticity. These observations fueled an exciting period of discovery and high expectations followed by controversy that emerged from data suggesting cell-cell fusion as an alternate interpretation for transdifferentiation. However, data supporting stem cell plasticity are extensive and cannot be easily dismissed. Myocardial regeneration is perhaps the most widely studied and debated example of stem cell plasticity. Early reports from animal and clinical investigations disagree on the extent of myocardial renewal in adults, but evidence indicates that cardiomyocytes are generated in what was previously considered a postmitotic organ. On the basis of postmortem microscopic analysis, it is proposed that renewal is achieved by stem cells that infiltrate normal and infarcted myocardium. To further understand the role of stem cells in regeneration, it is incumbent on us to develop instrumentation and technologies to monitor myocardial repair over time in large animal models. This may be achieved by tracking labeled stem cells as they migrate into myocardial infarctions. In addition, we must begin to identify the environmental cues that are needed for stem cell trafficking and we must define the genetic and cellular mechanisms that initiate transdifferentiation. Only then will we be able to regulate this process and begin to realize the full potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. PMID:12480809

  12. Human parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells: one potential resource for cell therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Hao; WanWan Zhu; Chao Sheng; Yang Yu; Qi Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells derived from somatic cells through such processes as nuclear transfer or induced pluripotent stem (iPS)\\u000a cells present an important model for biomedical research and provide potential resources for cell replacement therapies. However,\\u000a the overall efficiency of the conversional nuclear transfer is very low and the safety issue remains a major concern for iPS\\u000a cells. Embryonic stem cells

  13. The promises of stem cells: stem cell therapy for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Hideki; Choong, Chi-Jing; Yasuda, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Despite the multitude of intensive research, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying movement disorders including Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and Huntington's disease remain more or less elusive. Treatments to halt these disease progressions are currently unavailable. With the recent induced pluripotent stem cells breakthrough and accomplishment, stem cell research, as the vast majority of scientists agree, holds great promise for relieving and treating debilitating movement disorders. As stem cells are the precursors of all cells in the human body, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern how they develop and work would provide us many fundamental insights into human biology of health and disease. Moreover, stem-cell-derived neurons may be a renewable source of replacement cells for damaged neurons in movement disorders. While stem cells show potential for regenerative medicine, their use as tools for research and drug testing is thought to have more immediate impact. The use of stem-cell-based drug screening technology could be a big boost in drug discovery for these movement disorders. Particular attention should also be given to the involvement of neural stem cells in adult neurogenesis so as to encourage its development as a therapeutic option. PMID:24262163

  14. Immunomodulation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Reza; Fiorina, Paolo; Adra, Chaker N.; Atkinson, Mark; Sayegh, Mohamed H.

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent stromal cells that have the potential to give rise to cells of diverse lineages. Interestingly, MSCs can be found in virtually all postnatal tissues. The main criteria currently used to characterize and identify these cells are the capacity for self-renewal and differentiation into tissues of mesodermal origin, combined with a lack in expression of certain hematopoietic molecules. Because of their developmental plasticity, the notion of MSC-based therapeutic intervention has become an emerging strategy for the replacement of injured tissues. MSCs have also been noted to possess the ability to impart profound immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Indeed, some of the initial observations regarding MSC protection from tissue injury once thought mediated by tissue regeneration may, in reality, result from immunomodulation. Whereas the exact mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory functions of MSC remain largely unknown, these cells have been exploited in a variety of clinical trials aimed at reducing the burden of immune-mediated disease. This article focuses on recent advances that have broadened our understanding of the immunomodulatory properties of MSC and provides insight as to their potential for clinical use as a cell-based therapy for immune-mediated disorders and, in particular, type 1 diabetes. PMID:18586907

  15. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY: Orienting Stem Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matthew R. Wallenfang (University of Pennsylvania; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology)

    2003-09-12

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into a variety of different cell types. However, it is not clear what determines the path taken by any particular stem cell. Discussing recent work with stem cells from the fruit fly testis (Yamashita et al.), Wallenfang and Matunis explain in their Perspective that, at least in the case of these stem cells, the trick is the asymmetric arrangement of the mitotic spindle during cell division. This asymmetric arrangement ensures that as the stem cell divides, one daughter cell remains in the environmental niche of the testis and continues to self-renew, whereas the other daughter cell is edged out of the niche and begins to differentiate.

  16. Stem cells in veterinary medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A Fortier; Alexander J Travis

    2011-01-01

    The stem cell field in veterinary medicine continues to evolve rapidly both experimentally and clinically. Stem cells are\\u000a most commonly used in clinical veterinary medicine in therapeutic applications for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries\\u000a in horses and dogs. New technologies of assisted reproduction are being developed to apply the properties of spermatogonial\\u000a stem cells to preserve endangered animal species. The

  17. Stem Cell Transplants at Childbirth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Sanberg; Dong-Hyuk Park; Cesar V. Borlongan

    2010-01-01

    Autologous transplantation of stem cells is a natural phenomenon at birth in mammals via the umbilical cord. Here, we discuss\\u000a that a delay in the cord clamping may increase stem cell supply to the baby, thereby allowing an innate stem cell therapy\\u000a that can render acute benefits in the case of neonatal disease, as well as long-term benefits against age-related

  18. Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matikainen, Tiina [Program of Developmental and Reproductive Biology, Biomedicum Helsinki and Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Laine, Jarmo [Stem Cell and Transplantation Services, Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Kivihaantie 7, FIN 00310, Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: jarmo.laine@bts.redcoss.fi

    2005-09-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications.

  19. Stem cell therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Aguayo-Mazzucato; Susan Bonner-Weir

    2010-01-01

    The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine holds great promise for the cure of many diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Any potential stem-cell-based cure for T1DM should address the need for ?-cell replacement, as well as control of the autoimmune response to cells which express insulin. The ex vivo generation of ? cells suitable for transplantation to

  20. Genomics and proteomics in stem cell research: the road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung-Min; Simpson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell research has been widely studied over the last few years and has attracted increasing attention from researchers in all fields of medicine due to its potential to treat many previously incurable diseases by replacing damaged cells or tissues. As illustrated by hematopoietic stem research, understanding stem cell differentiation at molecular levels is essential for both basic research and for clinical applications of stem cells. Although multiple integrative analyses, such as genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, are required to understand stem cell biology, proteomics has a unique position in stem cell research. For example, several major breakthroughs in HSC research were due to the identification of proteins such as colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) and cell-surface CD molecules. In 2007, the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) and the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) launched the joint Proteome Biology of Stem Cells Initiative. A systematic proteomics approach to understanding stem cell differentiation will shed new light on stem cell biology and accelerate clinical applications of stem cells. PMID:21190000

  1. Modeling Stem Cell Induction Processes

    E-print Network

    Grácio, Filipe

    Technology for converting human cells to pluripotent stem cell using induction processes has the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine. However, the production of these so called iPS cells is still quite inefficient ...

  2. Mechanotransduction: Tuning Stem Cells Fate

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Francesco; Tiribuzi, Roberto; Armentano, Ilaria; Kenny, Josè Maria; Martino, Sabata; Orlacchio, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    It is a general concern that the success of regenerative medicine-based applications is based on the ability to recapitulate the molecular events that allow stem cells to repair the damaged tissue/organ. To this end biomaterials are designed to display properties that, in a precise and physiological-like fashion, could drive stem cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. The rationale is that stem cells are highly sensitive to forces and that they may convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. In this review, we describe novelties on stem cells and biomaterials interactions with more focus on the implication of the mechanical stimulation named mechanotransduction. PMID:24956164

  3. Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zuoren; Pestell, Timothy G.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Pestell, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of cells within tumors with capabilities of self-renewal, differentiation, and tumorigenicity when transplanted into an animal host. A number of cell surface markers such as CD44, CD24, and CD133 are often used to identify and enrich CSCs. A regulatory network consisting of microRNAs and Wnt/?-catenin, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways controls the CSC properties. The clinical relevance of CSCs has been strengthened by emerging evidence, demonstrating that CSCs are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation treatment and that CSCs are very likely to be the origin of cancer metastasis. CSCs are believed to be an important target for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Herein we summarize the current understanding of CSCs, with a focus on the role of miRNA and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and discuss the clinical application of targeting CSCs for cancer treatment. PMID:22981632

  4. Pluripotent stem cells from the adult mouse inner ear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huawei Li; Hong Liu; Stefan Heller

    2003-01-01

    In mammals, the permanence of acquired hearing loss is mostly due to the incapacity of the cochlea to replace lost mechanoreceptor cells, or hair cells. In contrast, damaged vestibular organs can generate new hair cells, albeit in limited numbers. Here we show that the adult utricular sensory epithelium contains cells that display the characteristic features of stem cells. These inner

  5. Stem Cell Glycolipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Yanagisawa

    Glycolipids are compounds containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety.\\u000a Because of their expression patterns and the intracellular localization patterns, glycolipids, including stage-specific embryonic\\u000a antigens (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, and possibly SSEA-1) and gangliosides (e.g., GD3, GD2, and A2B5 antigens), have been used as marker\\u000a molecules of stem cells. In this review, I will

  6. Stem cell therapy: challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Bhagavati, Satyakam

    2015-03-01

    Stem cells have generated great interest for their potential therapeutic use because of their capacity to self-renew indefinitely and to generate all cell lineages (pluripotency). Many diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders or diabetes are caused by loss of functionality or deficiency of a particular cell type. Stem cells differentiated into a specific cell type such as pancreatic ?-cells or neurons, for example, thus hold great promise for regenerative medicine. However, many challenges have to be overcome before stem cell therapy can become a viable clinical approach. PMID:24992980

  7. STEM CELLS 2014;00:0000 www.StemCells.com AlphaMed Press 2014 EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS

    E-print Network

    Feng, Jian

    reduced in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)derived TH + or TH neurons from PD patients neurons by stabilizing microtubules. STEM CELLS 2014; 00:000­000 INTRODUCTION The locomotorSTEM CELLS 2014;00:0000 www.StemCells.com ©AlphaMed Press 2014 EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS

  8. Background Information 1. What are stem cells?

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Background Information 1. What are stem cells? 2. What might stem cell research achieve? 3. Why we need to continue research using embryonic stem cells? 4. Time taken for discoveries 5. Examples of stem cell therapies in clinical trials 6. Patentability of human embryonic stem cell therapies 7. Creation

  9. Stem cells in gastroenterology and hepatology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Quante; Timothy C. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract and liver depends on stem cells with properties of longevity, self-renewal and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential esophageal, gastric, intestinal, colonic, hepatic and pancreatic stem cells provides hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. Embryonic stem cells and induced

  10. Stem Cell Basics About this document

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    1 Stem Cell Basics About this document This primer on stem cells is intended for anyone who wishes to learn more about the biological properties of stem cells, the important questions about stem cells that are the focus of scientific research, and the potential use of stem cells in research and in treating disease

  11. Methods of Retinal Ganglion Cell Differentiation From Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Katherine P.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Davidson, Kathryn C.; Pébay, Alice; Wong, Raymond C. B.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma, the worldwide leading cause of irreversible blindness, is characterized by progressive degeneration of the optic nerve and loss of retinal ganglion cells. Research into glaucoma pathogenesis has been hampered by difficulties in isolating and culturing retinal ganglion cells in vitro. However, recent improvements in laboratory techniques have enabled the generation of a variety of mature cell types from pluripotent stem cells, including retinal ganglion cells. Indeed, stem cell-based approaches have the potential to revolutionize the field by providing an unlimited source of cells for replacement therapies and by enabling development of in vitro disease models for drug screening and research. Consequently, research aimed at directing pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into retinal ganglion cells has expanded dramatically during the past decade, resulting in significant advances in technique and efficiency. In this paper, we review the methodology for retinal ganglion cell differentiation from pluripotent stem cells of both mouse and human origin and summarize how these techniques have opened up new avenues for modelling glaucoma. Generation of stem cell–derived retinal ganglion cells will have significant translational values, providing an in vitro platform to study the mechanisms responsible for pathogenesis and for drug screening to improve treatment options, as well as for the development of cell therapies for optic neuropathies such as glaucoma. PMID:25774327

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Treatment of CNS Injury

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Michael F; Mathias, Louisa; Ozturk, Ezgi; Cram, David S; Boyd, Richard L; Petratos, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Brain and spinal cord injuries present significant therapeutic challenges. The treatments available for these conditions are largely ineffective, partly due to limitations in directly targeting the therapeutic agents to sites of pathology within the central nervous system (CNS). The use of stem cells to treat these conditions presents a novel therapeutic strategy. A variety of stem cell treatments have been examined in animal models of CNS trauma. Many of these studies have used stem cells as a cell-replacement strategy. These investigations have also highlighted the significant limitations of this approach. Another potential strategy for stem cell therapy utilises stem cells as a delivery mechanism for therapeutic molecules. This review surveys the literature relevant to the potential of mesenchymal stem cells for delivery of therapeutic agents in CNS trauma in humans. PMID:21629440

  13. Stem cells: a regenerative pharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Shanthly, N; Aruva, M R; Zhang, K; Mathew, B; Thakur, M L

    2006-09-01

    Stem cells (SC), found in both adult and fetal tissues, are self-renewing elements that can generate the various cell types in the body. There are 3 classes of SC: totipotent, multipotent, and pluripotent. The SC with a significant developmental potential are the embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are derived from the early stages of mammalian embryo. SC possess regenerative properties and this offers unprecedented opportunities for developing medical therapies for debilitating diseases. Hematopoietic SC have been used successfully in bone marrow transplants for over 40 years. Pluripotent SC offer renewable source of replacement of cells and tissues to treat a myriad of diseases. However there are limiting factors. Adult SC are rare and cannot multiply as the ES. Pluripotent SC have great therapeutic potential, but face technical challenges. A serious concern is the ethical issue since they are derived from human embryos or fetal tissue. Quite often SC have been targets of mutations and risk carcinogenesis. Various markers have been identified based on the uniqueness of SC receptors and in vivo tracking studies using nanocolloids and radioactive tracers have been performed. Though 111In-oxine has been used to image SC transplants, PET with a high spatial resolution would be ideal. Currently 2 agents are being studied, 18F-FDG and 64Cu-Pyruvaldehyde bi(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone). The following few pages bring forth the various limitations and summarize progress made in SC utilization so as to create awareness of SC research in ISORBE community and to foster strategy that ISORBE community can disseminate information and exchange knowledge on radio labeled SC. PMID:16868534

  14. Investigation of growth factors and cytokines that suppress adult stem cell asymmetric cell kinetics

    E-print Network

    Ganz, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Adult stem cells are potentially useful in many biomedical applications that can save lives and increase the quality of a patient's life, such as tissue engineering, cell replacement, and gene therapy. However, these ...

  15. Harvard Stem Cell Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) was formed in 2004 to "draw Harvard's resources together by establishing a cooperative community of scientists and practitioners, by developing new ways to fund and support research, and by promoting opportunities for open communication and education." Their website features videos of HSCI scientists speaking about their selected disease programs. Visitors can click on a video as it appears, or they can wait for one of the next videos in the rotation. To read about the disease programs, visitors can click on the "Research" tab near the top of the page, and then select the "Research Programs" link to read about the different programs and the lead researcher. Research programs include the "Blood Disease Program", "Cancer Program", "Cardiovascular Disease Program", "Kidney Disease Program", "Nervous System Diseases Program", and the "Translational Research Program". The "Resources" tab near the top of the page has video of a great series of education sessions that are held quarterly by HSCI, and which address the medical, religious, economic, and public policy concerns that stem cell research presents. There are eight sessions to watch, and each runs longer than an hour, so each topic is covered in exquisite detail.

  16. Immunobiology of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, S; Xie, N; Li, W; Yuan, B; Shi, Y; Wang, Y

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from almost all tissues and effectively expanded in vitro. Although their true in situ properties and biological functions remain to be elucidated, these in vitro expanded cells have been shown to possess potential to differentiate into specific cell lineages. It is speculated that MSCs in situ have important roles in tissue cellular homeostasis by replacing dead or dysfunctional cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that in vitro expanded MSCs of various origins have great capacity to modulate immune responses and change the progression of different inflammatory diseases. As tissue injuries are often accompanied by inflammation, inflammatory factors may provide cues to mobilize MSCs to tissue sites with damage. Before carrying out tissue repair functions, MSCs first prepare the microenvironment by modulating inflammatory processes and releasing various growth factors in response to the inflammation status. In this review, we focus on the crosstalk between MSCs and immune responses and their potential clinical applications, especially in inflammatory diseases. PMID:24185619

  17. Breast cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Thomas W.; Naylor, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarize what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically. PMID:23986719

  18. Alternative Embryonic Stem Cell Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomo Šari?; Narges Zare Mehrjardi; Jürgen Hescheler

    \\u000a Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to differentiate in vivo or in vitro to practically all cell types of an adult\\u000a organism. In vivo, pluripotent stem cells exist only transiently in early embryos. However, when explanted the in vitro counterparts\\u000a of these cells, known as embryonic stem (ES) cells, can be maintained indefinitely in culture in undifferentiated state

  19. History of Cancer Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart Sell

    \\u000a It has been hypothesized for over 40 years that cancers contain the same cell populations as normal tissues: stem cells, proliferating\\u000a transit-amplifying cells, and terminally differentiated (mature cells). The properties of cancer stem cells include the ability\\u000a to transplant the tumor, the ability to grow in vitro and the ability to resist conventional therapies. The idea that cancer\\u000a arose from

  20. The new stem cell biology.

    PubMed Central

    Quesenberry, Peter J.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Frimberger, Angela E.; Dooner, Mark S.; Mcauliffe, Christina I.; Miller, Caroline; Becker, Pamela; Badiavas, Evangelis; Falanga, Vincent J.; Elfenbein, Gerald; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stem cells are capable of generating muscle, cardiac, hepatic, renal, and bone cells. Purified hematopoietic stem cells have generated cardiac and hepatic cells and reversed disease manifestations in these tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells also alter phenotype with cell cycle transit or circadian phase. During a cytokine stimulated cell cycle transit, reversible alterations of differentiation and engraftment occur. Primitive hematopoietic stem cells express a wide variety of adhesion and cytokine receptors and respond quickly with migration and podia extensions on exposure to cytokines. These data suggest an "Open Chromatin" model of stem cell regulation in which there is a fluctuating continuum in the stem cell/progenitor cell compartments, rather than a hierarchical relationship. These observations, along with progress in using low dose treatments and tolerization approaches, suggest many new therapeutic strategies involving stem cells and the creation of a new medical specialty; stemology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:12053709

  1. Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

  2. Stem cells for spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Joshua; Kueper, Janina; Leon, Kaplan; Liebergall, Meir

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, stem cells have become the focus of research by regenerative medicine professionals and tissue engineers. Embryonic stem cells, although capable of differentiating into cell lineages of all three germ layers, are limited in their utilization due to ethical issues. In contrast, the autologous harvest and subsequent transplantation of adult stem cells from bone marrow, adipose tissue or blood have been experimentally utilized in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases ranging from myocardial infarction to Alzheimer’s disease. The physiologic consequences of stem cell transplantation and its impact on functional recovery have been studied in countless animal models and select clinical trials. Unfortunately, the bench to bedside translation of this research has been slow. Nonetheless, stem cell therapy has received the attention of spinal surgeons due to its potential benefits in the treatment of neural damage, muscle trauma, disk degeneration and its potential contribution to bone fusion. PMID:25621119

  3. Bioprinting for stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest to apply bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized proteins can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cell of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics. PMID:23260439

  4. Stem cells for spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Joshua; Kueper, Janina; Leon, Kaplan; Liebergall, Meir

    2015-01-26

    In the past few years, stem cells have become the focus of research by regenerative medicine professionals and tissue engineers. Embryonic stem cells, although capable of differentiating into cell lineages of all three germ layers, are limited in their utilization due to ethical issues. In contrast, the autologous harvest and subsequent transplantation of adult stem cells from bone marrow, adipose tissue or blood have been experimentally utilized in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases ranging from myocardial infarction to Alzheimer's disease. The physiologic consequences of stem cell transplantation and its impact on functional recovery have been studied in countless animal models and select clinical trials. Unfortunately, the bench to bedside translation of this research has been slow. Nonetheless, stem cell therapy has received the attention of spinal surgeons due to its potential benefits in the treatment of neural damage, muscle trauma, disk degeneration and its potential contribution to bone fusion. PMID:25621119

  5. Stem Cells behind the Barrier.

    PubMed

    Cangkrama, Michael; Ting, Stephen B; Darido, Charbel

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal stem cells sustain the adult skin for a lifetime through self-renewal and the production of committed progenitors. These stem cells generate progeny that will undergo terminal differentiation leading to the development of a protective epidermal barrier. Whereas the molecular mechanisms that govern epidermal barrier repair and renewal have been extensively studied, pathways controlling stem cell differentiation remain poorly understood. Asymmetric cell divisions, small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs), chromatin remodeling complexes, and multiple differentiation factors tightly control the balance of stem and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, and disruption of this balance leads to skin diseases. In this review, we summarize and discuss current advances in our understanding of the mechanisms regulating epidermal stem and progenitor cell differentiation, and explore new relationships for maintenance of skin barrier function. PMID:23812084

  6. Cell Stem Cell Endogenous Bone Marrow MSCs

    E-print Network

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    of cultured cells (Sacchetti et al., 2007). Similar multipotent MSCs can be isolated from mouse bone marrowCell Stem Cell Article Endogenous Bone Marrow MSCs Are Dynamic, Fate-Restricted Participants Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA 4Harvard Stem Cell Institute, 1350 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA

  7. Cell Stem Cell Induction of Multipotential Hematopoietic

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    patients with hematologic diseases, including Fanconi anemia (Mu¨ ller et al., 2012), sickle cell anemiaCell Stem Cell Article Induction of Multipotential Hematopoietic Progenitors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells via Respecification of Lineage-Restricted Precursors Sergei Doulatov,1,2 Linda T. Vo,1

  8. Developmental Cell Sox2+ Stem Cells Contribute

    E-print Network

    Klein, Ophir

    Developmental Cell Article Sox2+ Stem Cells Contribute to All Epithelial Lineages of the Tooth via of the incisor in the labial cervical loop. Here, we show that the transcription factor Sox2 is a specific marker for these stem cells. Sox2+ cells became restricted to the labial cervical loop during tooth morphogenesis

  9. Stem Cells for Cell-Based Therapies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lauren Pecorino (University of Greenwich, U.K.; )

    2001-07-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article explains how stem cells have the potential to cure many human diseases because they are: like blank cells - they can become any cell in the human body, enduring - embryos, in particular, can provide an endless supply of stem cells, and regenerative - they can be used as a live source of self-repair.

  10. Stem Cells, Colorectal Cancer and Cancer Stem Cell Markers Correlations

    PubMed Central

    CHERCIU, IRINA; B?RB?LAN, A.; PIRICI, D.; M?RG?RITESCU, C.; S?FTOIU, A.

    2014-01-01

    : The idea of stem cells as being progenitors of cancer was initially controversial, but later supported by research in the field of leukemia and solid tumors. Afterwards, it was established that genetic abnormalities can affect the stem and progenitor cells, leading to uncontrolled replication and deregulated differentiation. These alterations will cause the changeover to cancerous stem cells (CSC) having two main characteristics: tumor initiation and maintenance. This review will focus on the colorectal cancer stem cell (CR-CSCs) theory which provides a better understanding of different tumor processes: initiation, aggressive growth, recurrence, treatment resistance and metastasis. A search in PubMed/Medline was performed using the following keywords: colorectal cancer stem cells (CR-CSCs), colorectal neoplasms stem cells, colorectal cancer stem cell (CR-CSCs) markers, etc. Electronic searches were supplemented by hand searching reference lists, abstracts and proceedings from meetings. Isolation of CR-CSCs can be achieved by targeting and selecting subpopulation of tumor cells based on expression of one or multiple cell surface markers associated with cancer self-renewal, markers as: CD133, CD166, CD44, CD24, beta1 integrin-CD29, Lgr5, EpCAM (ESA), ALDH-1, Msi-1, DCAMLK1 or EphB receptors. The identification and localization of CR-CSCs through different markers will hopefully lead to a better stratification of prognosis and treatment response, as well as the development of new effective strategies for cancer management. PMID:25729599

  11. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections As a stem cell transplant ... Page Preventing fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are ...

  12. What's It Like to Donate Stem Cells?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... To learn more What’s it like to donate stem cells? People usually volunteer to donate stem cells for ... an autologous transplant. If you want to donate stem cells for someone else People who want to donate ...

  13. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Search the Consumer Updates Section Researchers hope ... blood-forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

  14. Bioengineered stem cells as an alternative for islet cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah J; Gala-Lopez, Boris L; Pepper, Andrew R; Pawlick, Rena L; Shapiro, AM James

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune and increasingly prevalent condition caused by immunological destruction of beta cells. Insulin remains the mainstay of therapy. Endeavours in islet transplantation have clearly demonstrated that type 1 diabetes is treatable by cellular replacement. Many challenges remain with this approach. The opportunity to use bioengineered embryonic or adult pluripotential stem cells, or islets derived from porcine xenograft sources could address future demands, but are still associated with considerable challenges. This detailed review outlines current progress in clinical islet transplantation, and places this in perspective for the remarkable scientific advances now occurring in stem cell and regenerative medicine approaches in the treatment of future curative treatment of diabetes.

  15. Generating cartilage repair from pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Aixin; Hardingham, Timothy E; Kimber, Susan J

    2014-08-01

    The treatment of degeneration and injury of articular cartilage has been very challenging for scientists and surgeons. As an avascular and hypocellular tissue, cartilage has a very limited capacity for self-repair. Chondrocytes are the only cell type in cartilage, in which they are surrounded by the extracellular matrix that they secrete and assemble. Autologous chondrocyte implantation for cartilage defects has achieved good results, but the limited resources and complexity of the procedure have hindered wider application. Stem cells form an alternative to chondrocytes as a source of chondrogenic cells due to their ability to proliferate extensively while retaining the potential for differentiation. Adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells have been differentiated into chondrocytes, but the limitations in their proliferative ability and the heterogeneous cell population hinder their adoption as a prime alternative source for generating chondrocytes. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are attractive as candidates for cell replacement therapy because of their unlimited self-renewal and ability for differentiation into mesodermal derivatives as well as other lineages. In this review, we focus on current protocols for chondrogenic differentiation of ESCs, in particular the chemically defined culture system developed in our lab that could potentially be adapted for clinical application. PMID:23957872

  16. What can pluripotent stem cells teach us about neurodegenerative diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Wichterle, Hynek; Przedborski, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases represent a growing public health challenge. Current medications treat symptoms, but none halt or retard neurodegeneration. The recent advent of pluripotent cell biology has opened new avenues for neurodegenerative disease research. The greatest potential for induced pluripotent cells derived from affected individuals is likely to be their utility for modeling and understanding the mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative processes, and for searching for new treatments, including cell replacement therapies. However, much work remains to be done before pluripotent cells can be used for preclinical and clinical applications. Here we discuss the challenges of generating specific neural cell subtypes from pluripotent stem cells, the use of pluripotent stem cells to model both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms of neurodegeneration, whether adult-onset neurodegeneration can be emulated in short-term cultures and the hurdles of cell replacement therapy. Progress in these four areas will substantially accelerate effective application of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:20581816

  17. Metabolic circuits in neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Yeon; Rhee, Inmoo; Paik, Jihye

    2014-11-01

    Metabolic activity indicative of cellular demand is emerging as a key player in cell fate decision. Numerous studies have demonstrated that diverse metabolic pathways have a critical role in the control of the proliferation, differentiation and quiescence of stem cells. The identification of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and the characterization of their development and fate decision process have provided insight into the regenerative potential of the adult brain. As a result, the potential of NSPCs in cell replacement therapies for neurological diseases is rapidly growing. The aim of this review is to discuss the recent findings on the crosstalk among key regulators of NSPC development and the metabolic regulation crucial for the function and cell fate decisions of NSPCs. Fundamental understanding of the metabolic circuits in NSPCs may help to provide novel approaches for reactivating neurogenesis to treat degenerative brain conditions and cognitive decline. PMID:25037158

  18. Metabolic circuits in neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Yeon; Rhee, Inmoo

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic activity indicative of cellular demand is emerging as a key player in cell fate decision. Numerous studies have demonstrated that diverse metabolic pathways have a critical role in the control of the proliferation, differentiation and quiescence of stem cells. The identification of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and the characterization of their development and fate decision process have provided insight into the regenerative potential of the adult brain. As a result, the potential of NSPCs in cell replacement therapies for neurological diseases is rapidly growing. The aim of this review is to discuss the recent findings on the crosstalk among key regulators of NSPC development and the metabolic regulation crucial for the function and cell fate decisions of NSPCs. Fundamental understanding of the metabolic circuits in NSPCs may help to provide novel approaches for reactivating neurogenesis to treat degenerative brain conditions and cognitive decline. PMID:25037158

  19. Lasers, stem cells, and COPD

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The medical use of low level laser (LLL) irradiation has been occurring for decades, primarily in the area of tissue healing and inflammatory conditions. Despite little mechanistic knowledge, the concept of a non-invasive, non-thermal intervention that has the potential to modulate regenerative processes is worthy of attention when searching for novel methods of augmenting stem cell-based therapies. Here we discuss the use of LLL irradiation as a "photoceutical" for enhancing production of stem cell growth/chemoattractant factors, stimulation of angiogenesis, and directly augmenting proliferation of stem cells. The combination of LLL together with allogeneic and autologous stem cells, as well as post-mobilization directing of stem cells will be discussed. PMID:20158898

  20. Hunt for pluripotent stem cell – Regenerative medicine search for almighty cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariusz Z. Ratajczak; Ewa K. Zuba-Surma; Marcin Wysoczynski; Wu Wan; Janina Ratajczak; Wojciech Wojakowski; Magda Kucia

    2008-01-01

    Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are searching for a novel stem cell based therapeutic strategy that will allow for efficient treatment or even potential replacement of damaged organs. The pluripotent stem cell (PSC), which gives rise to cells from all three germ lineages, seems to be the most ideal candidate for such therapies. PSC could be extracted from developing embryos.

  1. Cell Stem Cell The Use of Fresh Embryos in Stem Cell Research

    E-print Network

    Cell Stem Cell Commentary The Use of Fresh Embryos in Stem Cell Research: Ethical and Policy Issues of poor quality, can provide sources of human embryonic stem cell lines. We consider why some donate for fresh embryo donation based on those of Canada. Introduction Stem cell investigators have sought

  2. Cancer stem cells and “stemness” genes in neuro-oncology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia K. Nicolis

    2007-01-01

    The main properties of stem cells include long-term self-renewal and the capacity to give rise to one or more types of differentiated progeny. Recently, much evidence was provided that leukemia and tumor maintenance and growth are sustained by a small proportion of cells exhibiting stem cell properties. In neural tumors, stem cells have been detected in glioblastoma, medulloblastoma and ependymoma.

  3. Stem cell therapy for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E

    2011-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which impairs the memory and intellectual abilities of the affected individuals. Loss of episodic as well as semantic memory is an early and principal feature. The basal forebrain cholinergic system is the population of neurons most affected by the neurodegenerative process. Extracellular as well as intracellular deposition of beta-amyloid or Abeta (Abeta) protein, intracellular formation of neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal loss are the neuropathological hallmarks of AD. In the last few years, hopes were raised that cell replacement therapy would provide cure by compensating the lost neuronal systems. Stem cells obtained from embryonic as well as adult tissue and grafted into the intact brain of mice or rats were mostly followed by their incorporation into the host parenchyma and differentiation into functional neural lineages. In the lesioned brain, stem cells exhibited targeted migration towards the damaged regions of the brain, where they engrafted, proliferated and matured into functional neurones. Neural precursor cells can be intravenously administered and yet migrate into brain damaged areas and induce functional recovery. Observations in animal models of AD have provided evidence that transplanted stem cells or neural precursor cells (NPCs) survive, migrate, and differentiate into cholinergic neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes with amelioration of the learning/memory deficits. Besides replacement of lost or damaged cells, stem cells stimulate endogenous neural precursors, enhance structural neuroplasticity, and down regulate proinflammatory cytokines and neuronal apoptotic death. Stem cells could also be genetically modified to express growth factors into the brain. In the last years, evidence indicated that the adult brain of mammals preserves the capacity to generate new neurons from neural stem/progenitor cells. Inefficient adult neurogenesis may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD and other neurodegenerative disorders. An attempt at mobilizing this endogenous pool of resident stem-like cells provides another attractive approach for the treatment of AD. Studies in patients with AD indicated decreased hippocampal volume derived by neurodegeneration. Intriguingly, many drugs including antidepressants, lithium, acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, and ginkgo biloba, were able to enhance the impaired neurogenesis in this disease process. This paved the way towards exploring the possible pharmacological manipulation of neurogenesis which would offer an alternative approach for the treatment of AD. PMID:21495961

  4. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A; Baldini, N; Cenni, E; Gomez-Barrena, E; Granchi, D; Kassem, M; Konttinen, Y T; Mustafa, K; Pioletti, D P; Sillat, T; Finne-Wistrand, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopaedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and foetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem cells, use of platelet-rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed. PMID:21129153

  5. GPCRs in stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Doze, Van A; Perez, Dianne M

    2013-01-01

    Many tissues of the body cannot only repair themselves, but also self-renew, a property mainly due to stem cells and the various mechanisms that regulate their behavior. Stem cell biology is a relatively new field. While advances are slowly being realized, stem cells possess huge potential to ameliorate disease and counteract the aging process, causing its speculation as the next panacea. Amidst public pressure to advance rapidly to clinical trials, there is a need to understand the biology of stem cells and to support basic research programs. Without a proper comprehension of how cells and tissues are maintained during the adult life span, clinical trials are bound to fail. This review will cover the basic biology of stem cells, the various types of stem cells, their potential function, and the advantages and disadvantages to their use in medicine. We will next cover the role of G protein-coupled receptors in the regulation of stem cells and their potential in future clinical applications. PMID:23415095

  6. GPCRs in Stem Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    DOZE, VAN A.; PEREZ, DIANNE M.

    2013-01-01

    Many tissues of the body cannot only repair themselves, but also self-renew, a property mainly due to stem cells and the various mechanisms that regulate their behavior. Stem cell biology is a relatively new field. While advances are slowly being realized, stem cells possess huge potential to ameliorate disease and counteract the aging process, causing its speculation as the next panacea. Amidst public pressure to advance rapidly to clinical trials, there is a need to understand the biology of stem cells and to support basic research programs. Without a proper comprehension of how cells and tissues are maintained during the adult life span, clinical trials are bound to fail. This review will cover the basic biology of stem cells, the various types of stem cells, their potential function, and the advantages and disadvantages to their use in medicine. We will next cover the role of G-protein coupled receptors in the regulation of stem cells and their potential in future clinical applications. PMID:23415095

  7. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Albers, Andreas E

    2011-04-15

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed "myospheres" or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types. PMID:21277299

  8. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany) [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China); Li, Yuan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China)] [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China); Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)] [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kaufmann, Andreas M. [Clinic for Gynecology CCM/CBF, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)] [Clinic for Gynecology CCM/CBF, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Albers, Andreas E., E-mail: andreas.albers@charite.de [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  9. Stem cell therapy without the cells

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Greg

    2013-01-01

    As an example of the burgeoning importance of stem cell therapy, this past month the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) has approved $70 million to create a new network of stem cell clinical trial centers. Much work in the last decade has been devoted to developing the use of autologous and allogeneic adult stem cell transplants to treat a number of conditions, including heart attack, dementia, wounds, and immune system-related diseases. The standard model teaches us that adult stem cells exists throughout most of the body and provide a means to regenerate and repair most tissues through replication and differentiation. Although we have often witnessed the medical cart placed in front of the scientific horse in the development of stem cell therapies outside of academic circles, great strides have been made, such as the use of purified stem cells1 instead of whole bone marrow transplants in cancer patients, where physicians avoid re-injecting the patients with their own cancer cells.2 We most often think of stem cell therapy acting to regenerate tissue through replication and then differentiation, but recent studies point to the dramatic effects adult stem cells exert in the repair of various tissues through the release of paracrine and autocrine substances, and not simply through differentiation. Indeed, up to 80% of the therapeutic effect of adult stem cells has been shown to be through paracrine mediated actions.3 That is, the collected types of molecules released by the stem cells, called the secretome, or stem cell released molecules (SRM), number in the 100s, including proteins, microRNA, growth factors, antioxidants, proteasomes, and exosomes, and target a multitude of biological pathways through paracrine actions. The composition of the different molecule types in SRM is state dependent, and varies with cell type and conditions such as age and environment. PMID:24567776

  10. Inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer promote directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells into functional neurons.

    PubMed

    Zong, Ling; Chen, Kaitian; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Di; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Xuemei; Jiang, Hongyan

    2014-10-01

    Intact spiral ganglion neurons are required for cochlear implantation or conventional hearing amplification as an intervention for sensorineural hearing loss. Treatment strategies to replace the loss of spiral ganglion neurons are needed. Recent reports have suggested that amniotic fluid-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into neuron-like cells in response to cytokines and are not tumorigenic. Amniotic fluid stem cells represent a potential resource for cellular therapy of neural deafness due to spiral ganglion pathology. However, the directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells is undetermined in the absence of cytokines and the consequence of inner ear supporting cells from the mouse cochlea organ of Corti on the differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells remains to be defined. In an effort to circumvent these limitations, we investigated the effect of inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer on amniotic fluid stem cells differentiation in vitro. An inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer direct contact system was established to induce differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells. Our results showed that inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer successfully promoted directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells into neurons with characteristics of functionality. Furthermore, we showed that Wnt signaling may play an essential role in triggering neurogenesis. These findings indicate the potential use of inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer as a nerve-regenerative scaffold. A reliable and effective amniotic fluid stem cell differentiation support structure provided by inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer should contribute to efforts to translate cell-based strategies to the clinic. PMID:25124154

  11. Application of Stem Cell Technology in Dental Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ruoxue; Lengner, Chistopher

    2013-01-01

    Significance In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the isolation and characterization of dental tissue-derived stem cells and address the potential of these cell types for use in regenerative cell transplantation therapy. Recent Advances Looking forward, platforms for the delivery of stem cells via scaffolds and the use of growth factors and cytokines for enhancing dental stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are discussed. Critical Issues We aim to understand the developmental origins of dental tissues in an effort to elucidate the molecular pathways governing the genesis of somatic dental stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of several dental stem cells are discussed, including the developmental stage and specific locations from which these cells can be purified. In particular, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth may act as a very practical and easily accessibly reservoir for autologous stem cells and hold the most value in stem cell therapy. Dental pulp stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells should also be considered for their triple lineage differentiation ability and relative ease of isolation. Further, we address the potentials and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cells as a cell source in dental regenerative. Future Directions From an economical and a practical standpoint, dental stem cell therapy would be most easily applied in the prevention of periodontal ligament detachment and bone atrophy, as well as in the regeneration of dentin-pulp complex. In contrast, cell-based tooth replacement due to decay or other oral pathology seems, at the current time, an untenable approach. PMID:24527351

  12. Developmental and Potential Therapeutic Aspects of Mammalian Neural Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bai; S. L. Gerson; R. H. Miller

    Advances in our understanding of the biology of stem cells, including neural, hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, have\\u000a opened new avenues for cell-based therapeutic approaches to replace damaged or lost neurons. The mature central nervous system\\u000a (CNS) has traditionally been considered an unfavourable environment for the regeneration of damaged axons or the generation\\u000a of new neurons. The recent realization that

  13. STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT 17:119131 (2008) Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Honavar, Vasant

    of neural stem cells (NSCs) to the eye in hopes of devel- oping a therapy to replace retinal neurons lostSTEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT 17:119­131 (2008) © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. DOI: 10.1089/scd.2007 successful. At the moment, little is known about the fun- damental biological differences between stem cell

  14. Stem cell sources for regenerative medicine: the immunological point of view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Preynat-Seauve; Karl-Heinz Krause

    Stem cell transplantation consists in the introduction of stem cells or derived products in a diseased organism. Because of\\u000a the differentiation properties of stem cells, the goal is to replace damaged cells or tissues. Numbers of stem cell were identified\\u000a and isolated from embryos, fetuses, or adult organs, harboring different properties, and thus providing multiple strategies\\u000a of regenerative medicine for

  15. Comparison of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Markers in Multiple Human Adult Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Masoud; Ghanbarvand, Farideh; Reza Behvarz, Mohammad; Ejtemaei, Mehri; Ghadirkhomi, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells which identified by adherence to plastic, expression of cell surface markers including CD44, CD90, CD105, CD106, CD166, and Stro-1, lack of the expression of hematopoietic markers, no immunogenic effect and replacement of damaged tissues. These properties led to development of progressive methods to isolation and characterization of MSCs from various sources for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine. Methods: We isolated MSC-like cells from testis biopsies, ovary, hair follicle and umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly and investigated the expression of specific cell surface antigens using flow cytometry in order to verify stemness properties of these cells. Results: All four cell types adhered to plastic culture flask a few days after primary culture. All our cells positively expressed common MSC- specific cell surface markers. Moreover, our results revealed the expression of CD19and CD45 antigens in these cells. Conclusion: According to our results, high expression of CD44 in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs),granulosa cells (GCs)and Wharton’s jelly- MSCs (WJ-MSCs)may help them to maintain stemness properties. Furthermore, we suggest that CD105+SSCs, HFSCs and WJ-MSCs revealed the osteogenic potential of these cells. Moreover, high expression of CD90 in SSCs and HFSCs may associate to higher growth and differentiation potential of these cells. Further, the presence of CD19 on SSCs and GCs may help them to efficiency in response to trans-membrane signals. Thus, these four types of MSCs may be useful in clinical applications and cell therapy. PMID:25473449

  16. Regenerating cochlear hair cells: quo vadis stem cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk Beisel; Laura Hansen; Garrett Soukup; Bernd Fritzsch

    2008-01-01

    Many elderly people worldwide lose the neurosensory part of their ear and turn deaf. Cochlear implants to restore some hearing\\u000a after neurosensory hearing loss are, at present, the only therapy for these people. In contrast to this therapy, replacement\\u000a of hair cells via stem cell therapies holds the promise for a cure. We review here current insights into embryonic, adult,

  17. Sources of Stem Cells for Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Donor matching for allogeneic transplant Sources of stem cells for transplant There are 3 possible sources of ... cord blood transplants are being actively studied. Which stem cell source is best? All 3 sources of stem ...

  18. Ovarian germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Cheryl E; Telfer, Evelyn E; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    It has long been established that germline stem cells (GSCs) are responsible for lifelong gametogenesis in males, and some female invertebrates (for example, Drosophila) and lower vertebrates (for example, teleost fish and some prosimians) also appear to rely on GSCs to replenish their oocyte reserve in adulthood. However, the presence of such cells in the majority of female mammals is controversial, and the idea of a fixed ovarian reserve determined at birth is the prevailing belief among reproductive biologists. However, accumulating evidence demonstrates the isolation and culture of putative GSCs from the ovaries of adult mice and humans. Live offspring have been reportedly produced from the culture of adult mouse GSCs, and human GSCs formed primordial follicles using a mouse xenograft model. If GSCs were present in adult female ovaries, it could be postulated that the occurrence of menopause is not due to the exhaustion of a fixed supply of oocytes but instead is a result of GSC and somatic cell aging. Alternatively, they may be benign under normal physiological conditions. If their existence were confirmed, female GSCs could have many potential applications in both basic science and clinical therapies. GSCs not only may provide a valuable model for germ cell development and maturation but may have a role in the field of fertility preservation, with women potentially being able to store GSCs or GSC-derived oocytes from their own ovaries prior to infertility-inducing treatments. Essential future work in this field will include further independent corroboration of the existence of GSCs in female mammals and the demonstration of the production of mature competent oocytes from GSCs cultured entirely in vitro. PMID:25157949

  19. UCLA stem cell scientists discover new airway stem cell:

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers at UCLA have identified a new stem cell that participates in the repair of the large airways of the lungs, which play a vital role in protecting the body from infectious agents and toxins in the environment.

  20. A medium hyperglycosylated podocalyxin enables noninvasive and quantitative detection of tumorigenic human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tateno, Hiroaki; Onuma, Yasuko; Ito, Yuzuru; Hiemori, Keiko; Aiki, Yasuhiko; Shimizu, Madoka; Higuchi, Kumiko; Fukuda, Masakazu; Warashina, Masaki; Honda, Susumu; Asashima, Makoto; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    While human pluripotent stem cells are attractive sources for cell-replacement therapies, a major concern remains regarding their tumorigenic potential. Thus, safety assessment of human pluripotent stem cell-based products in terms of tumorigenicity is critical. Previously we have identified a pluripotent stem cell-specific lectin probe rBC2LCN recognizing hyperglycosylated podocalyxin as a cell surface ligand. Here we demonstrate that hyperglycosylated podocalyxin is secreted from human pluripotent stem cells into cell culture supernatants. We establish a sandwich assay system, named the GlycoStem test, targeting the soluble hyperglycosylated podocalyxin using rBC2LCN. The GlycoStem test is sufficiently sensitive and quantitative to detect residual human pluripotent stem cells. This work provides a proof of concept for the noninvasive and quantitative detection of tumorigenic human pluripotent stem cells using cell culture supernatants. The developed method should increase the safety of human pluripotent stem cell-based cell therapies. PMID:24518842

  1. Cell Stem Cell Stage-Specific Differences in the

    E-print Network

    Hay, Bruce A.

    Cell Stem Cell Article Stage-Specific Differences in the Requirements for Germline Stem CellDepartment of Biochemistry, Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Washington tissues in the animal kingdom depend on stem cell populations. Embryonic stem cells are considered

  2. Planarian Regeneration and Stem Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado (Howard Hughes Medical Institute; )

    2007-03-31

    A mini-documentary discussing the remarkable regenerative capabilities of the planarian, and how HHMI researcher Alejandro Snchez Alvarado uses them to study the biology of stem cells. This presentation is also featured on the DVD Potent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration, available for free from HHMI. This video is 11 minutes and 46 seconds in length, and available for download in Quicktime (114 MB) and Windows Media (156 MB) formats. All Stem Cell videos are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/video.html.

  3. Cancer Stem Cells and Differentiation Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart Sell

    2006-01-01

    Cancers arise from stem cells in adult tissues and the cells that make up a cancer reflect the same stem cell ? progeny ? differentiation progression observed in normal tissues. All adult tissues are made up of lineages of cells consisting of tissue stem cells and their progeny (transit-amplifying cells and terminally differentiated cells); the number of new cells produced

  4. Neuroreplacement therapy and stem cell biology under disease conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sugaya

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in stem cell technology are expanding our ability to replace a variety of cells throughout the body. In the past, neurological diseases caused by the degeneration of neuronal cells were considered incurable because of a long-held 'truism'; neurons do not regenerate during adulthood. However, this statement has been challenged, and we have now found much evidence that the

  5. Cancer stem cells in surgery

    PubMed Central

    D’ANDREA, V.; GUARINO, S.; DI MATTEO, F.M.; SACCÀ, M. MAUGERI; DE MARIA, R.

    2014-01-01

    The Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) hypothesis is based on three fundamental ideas: 1) the similarities in the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal of normal stem cells and cancer cells; 2) the possibility that tumour cells might arise from normal stem cells; 3) the notion that tumours might contain ‘cancer stem cells’ - rare cells with indefinite proliferative potential that drive the formation and growth of tumours. The roles for cancer stem cells have been demonstrated for some cancers, such as cancers of the hematopoietic system, breast, brain, prostate, pancreas and liver. The attractive idea about cancer stem cell hypothesis is that it could partially explain the concept of minimal residual disease. After surgical macroscopically zero residual (R0) resections, even the persistence of one single cell nestling in one of the so called “CSCs niches” could give rise to distant relapse. Furthermore the metastatic cells can remain in a “dormant status” and give rise to disease after long period of apparent disease free. These cells in many cases have acquired resistance traits to chemo and radiotherapy making adjuvant treatment vain. Clarifying the role of the cancer stem cells and their implications in the oncogenesis will play an important role in the management of cancer patient by identifying new prospective for drugs and specific markers to prevent and monitoring relapse and metastasis. The identification of the niche where the CSCs reside in a dormant status might represent a valid instrument to follow-up patients also after having obtained a R0 surgical resection. What we believe is that if new diagnostic instruments were developed specifically to identify the localization and status of activity of the CSCs during tumor dormancy, this would lead to impressive improvement in the early detection and management of relapse and metastasis. PMID:25644725

  6. Cancer stem cells in surgery.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, V; Guarino, S; Di Matteo, F M; Maugeri Saccà, M; De Maria, R

    2014-01-01

    The Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) hypothesis is based on three fundamental ideas: 1) the similarities in the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal of normal stem cells and cancer cells; 2) the possibility that tumour cells might arise from normal stem cells; 3) the notion that tumours might contain 'cancer stem cells' - rare cells with indefinite proliferative potential that drive the formation and growth of tumours. The roles for cancer stem cells have been demonstrated for some cancers, such as cancers of the hematopoietic system, breast, brain, prostate, pancreas and liver. The attractive idea about cancer stem cell hypothesis is that it could partially explain the concept of minimal residual disease. After surgical macroscopically zero residual (R0) resections, even the persistence of one single cell nestling in one of the so called "CSCs niches" could give rise to distant relapse. Furthermore the metastatic cells can remain in a "dormant status" and give rise to disease after long period of apparent disease free. These cells in many cases have acquired resistance traits to chemo and radiotherapy making adjuvant treatment vain. Clarifying the role of the cancer stem cells and their implications in the oncogenesis will play an important role in the management of cancer patient by identifying new prospective for drugs and specific markers to prevent and monitoring relapse and metastasis. The identification of the niche where the CSCs reside in a dormant status might represent a valid instrument to follow-up patients also after having obtained a R0 surgical resection. What we believe is that if new diagnostic instruments were developed specifically to identify the localization and status of activity of the CSCs during tumor dormancy, this would lead to impressive improvement in the early detection and management of relapse and metastasis. PMID:25644725

  7. The role of stem cells in midgut growth and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hakim, R S; Baldwin, K M; Loeb, M

    2001-06-01

    The Manduca sexta (L.) [Lepidoptera: Sphingidae] and Heliothis virescens (F.) [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] midguts consist of a pseudostratified epithelium surrounded by striated muscle and tracheae. This epithelium contains goblet, columnar, and basal stem cells. The stem cells are critically important in that they are capable of massive proliferation and differentiation. This growth results in a fourfold enlargement of the midgut at each larval molt. The stem cells are also responsible for limited cell replacement during repair. While the characteristics of the stem cell population vary over the course of an instar, stem cells collected early in an instar and those collected late can start in vitro cultures. Cultures of larval stem, goblet, and columnar cells survive in vitro for several mo through proliferation and differentiation of the stem cells. One of the two polypeptide differentiation factors which have been identified and characterized from the culture medium has now been shown to be present in midgut in vivo. Thus the ability to examine lepidopteran midgut stem cell growth in vitro and in vivo is proving to be effective in determining the basic features of stem cell action and regulation. PMID:11515964

  8. Renal Stem Cells and Kidney Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Yokoo; Akira Fukui; Kei Matsumoto; Tetsuya Kawamura

    \\u000a Significant advances have been made in stem cell research over the past decade. A number of non-hematopoietic sources of stem\\u000a cells (or progenitor cells) have been identified including endothelial stem cells and neural stem cells. These discoveries\\u000a have been a major step towards the potential regeneration of organs for clinical applications using stem cells. The worldwide\\u000a shortage of donor kidneys

  9. Cell Stem Cell Molecular Pathway and Cell State Responsible

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    Cell Stem Cell Article Molecular Pathway and Cell State Responsible for Dissociation-Induced Apoptosis in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Masatoshi Ohgushi,1,2 Michiru Matsumura,1,2 Mototsugu Eiraku,1 Sasai1,2,* 1Organogenesis and Neurogenesis Group 2Division of Human Stem Cell Technology 3Laboratory

  10. What Is a Stem Cell Niche?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nishikawa; M. Osawa

    Niche has become the most important issue in stem cell biology, but it is still a hypothetical notion that cannot be defined in a better way than the microenvironment surrounding stem cells. Using a melanocyte stem cell system as a model, we have analyzed the cellular and molecular requirements for differentiation of quiescent stem cells. Our results demonstrate the multiple

  11. Stem Cell Migration in Health and Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Dittmar; Susannah H. Kassmer; Benjamin Kasenda; Jeanette Seidel; Bernd Niggemann; Kurt S. Zänker

    2010-01-01

    Within the past years, our knowledge about stem cells in health and disease has changed dramatically. To date, it is feasible to isolate and propagate human pluripotent stem cells from various sources, such as cord blood, bone marrow or adipose tissue, and to generate donor-specific ethically harmless induced pluripotent stem cells, which exhibits embryonic stem cell properties. However, irrespective of

  12. Recent highlights on bone stem cells: a report from Bone Stem Cells 2009, and not only…

    PubMed Central

    Cenni, Elisabetta; Perut, Francesca; Baglío, Serena Rubina; Fiorentini, Elisa; Baldini, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The use of stem cells has opened new prospects for the treatment of orthopaedic conditions characterized by large bone defects. However, many issues still exist to which answers are needed before routine, large-scale application becomes possible. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC), which are clonogenic, multipotential precursors present in the bone marrow stroma, are generally employed for bone regeneration. Stem cells with multilineage differentiation similar to MSC have also been demonstrated in adipose tissue, peripheral blood, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid. Each source presents its own advantages and drawbacks. Unfortunately, no unique surface antigen is expressed by MSC, and this hampers simple MSC enrichment from heterogeneous populations. MSC are identified through a combination of physical, morphological and functional assays. Different in vitro and in vivo models have been described for the research on bone stem cells. These models should predict the in vivo bone healing capacity of MSC and if the induced osteogenesis is similar to the physiological one. Although stem cells offer an exciting possibility of a renewable source of cells and tissues for replacement, orthopaedic applications often represent case reports whereas controlled randomized trials are still lacking. Further biological aspects of bone stem cells should be elucidated and a general consensus on the best models, protocols and proper use of scaffolds and growth factors should be achieved. PMID:20874718

  13. Recent highlights on bone stem cells: a report from Bone Stem Cells 2009, and not only….

    PubMed

    Cenni, Elisabetta; Perut, Francesca; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Fiorentini, Elisa; Baldini, Nicola

    2010-11-01

    The use of stem cells has opened new prospects for the treatment of orthopaedic conditions characterized by large bone defects. However, many issues still exist to which answers are needed before routine, large-scale application becomes possible. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC), which are clonogenic, multipotential precursors present in the bone marrow stroma, are generally employed for bone regeneration. Stem cells with multilineage differentiation similar to MSC have also been demonstrated in adipose tissue, peripheral blood, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid. Each source presents its own advantages and drawbacks. Unfortunately, no unique surface antigen is expressed by MSC, and this hampers simple MSC enrichment from heterogeneous populations. MSC are identified through a combination of physical, morphological and functional assays. Different in vitro and in vivo models have been described for the research on bone stem cells. These models should predict the in vivo bone healing capacity of MSC and if the induced osteogenesis is similar to the physiological one. Although stem cells offer an exciting possibility of a renewable source of cells and tissues for replacement, orthopaedic applications often represent case reports whereas controlled randomized trials are still lacking. Further biological aspects of bone stem cells should be elucidated and a general consensus on the best models, protocols and proper use of scaffolds and growth factors should be achieved. PMID:20874718

  14. Stem Cells for Cardiac Repair: Status, Mechanisms, and New Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mingliang, Ren; Bo, Zhang; Zhengguo, Wang

    2011-01-01

    Faced with the end stage of heart disease, the current treatments only slow worsening of heart failure. Stem cells have the potential of self-renewal and differentiation. It is expected to replace and repair damaged myocardium. But many clinical trials have shown that the stem cell therapy of heart failure is modest or not effective. The possible causes for the limited effects of stem cell in curing heart failure are the stem cells which have been transplanted into the ischemic heart muscle may suffer low survival rate, affected by inflammatory molecules, proapoptotic factor, and lack of nutrients and oxygen, and then the stem cells which home and have been completely transplanted to the site of myocardial infarction become very small. Therefore, through preconditioning of stem cells and appropriate choice of genes for mesenchymal stem cell modification to improve the survival rate of stem cells, ability in homing and promoting angiogenesis may become the newly effective strategies for the application of stem cells therapy in heart failure. PMID:21776280

  15. Cell Stem Cell Wnts as Self-Renewal Factors

    E-print Network

    Verheyen, Esther M.

    Cell Stem Cell Previews Wnts as Self-Renewal Factors: Mammary Stem Cells and Beyond Esther M, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada 2Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell.clevers@hubrecht.eu DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.05.004 Adult stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine, yet

  16. Cancer Stem Cells and Microenvironment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Federico; Antonio Giordano

    \\u000a The theory of the cancer stem cell (CSC) is fairly recent and has both challenged and disrupted the previous understandings\\u000a of cancer biology. From the initial findings of cancer-driving cellular sub-populations, the interest in the CSC theory has\\u000a flourished. Here we discuss the biology behind both embryonic and adult stem cells and how this biology is the basis for our

  17. Stem Cells Promises to Keep?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lauren E. Yaich

    2002-01-01

    Samantha and her husband Brad have two children, conceived with the help of in vitro fertilization treatments. After viewing a TV program on stem cells and their potential medical uses, Samantha is convinced that they should donate the remaining frozen embryos they have to medical research, an idea Brad strongly objects to. The case teaches about stem cells and their medical applications as well as the ethical dilemmas posed by their use.

  18. Columbia Stem Cell Initiative Tapping the potential of stem cells for human health

    E-print Network

    Adams, Mark

    Columbia Stem Cell Initiative Tapping the potential of stem cells for human health Tenure Track Faculty Positions in Stem Cell Research at Columbia University Medical Center The Columbia Stem Cell Initiative (CSCI; www.ColumbiaStemCell.org) brings together more than 120 groups working to tap the potential

  19. Curr Gene Ther . Author manuscript Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells? A DNA integrity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Curr Gene Ther . Author manuscript Page /1 7 Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells should be addressed to: John De Vos Abstract Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are two types of pluripotent stem cells that hold great promise for biomedical

  20. Stem Cells of Mammalian Brain: Biology of the Stem Cells in vivoand in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. V. Viktorov

    2001-01-01

    Stem cells are totipotent cells of the blastocyst (embryonal stem cells) and multipotent germinative cells of ento-, ecto-, and mesoderm that give rise to all tissues during embryogenesis. The stem cells have high proliferation activity and an unlimited capacity for self-production by symmetrical mitosis. Asymmetrical mitosis of the stem cells generates daughter cells (“progenitor cells”) with unlimited proliferation potential. During

  1. Generation of Isogenic Pluripotent Stem Cells Differing Exclusively at Two Early Onset Parkinson Point Mutations

    E-print Network

    Soldner, Frank

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells provide a unique tool for the study of human disease, as well as a promising source for cell replacement therapies. One crucial limitation ...

  2. Types of Stem Cell Transplants for Treating Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sources of stem cells for transplant Types of stem cell transplants for treating cancer In a typical stem ... come from your identical twin or triplet Autologous stem cell transplants These stem cells come from you alone. ...

  3. Future Research in Adipose Stem Cell Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan

    \\u000a Adipose stem cells have a bright prospect in regenerative medicine for tissue\\/organ engineering. However, some hurdles may\\u000a hinder the progress of adipose stem cell engineering. Therefore this chapter highlights the advances in adipose stem cell\\u000a researches, and focuses on prospective researches that are needed to overcome the hurdles in adipose stem cell engineering,\\u000a i.e., to identify the various stem cells

  4. EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Long-Term, Stable Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem

    E-print Network

    Ryugo, David K.

    EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Long-Term, Stable Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors Grafted into the Adult Mammalian Neostriatum IGOR NASONKIN Words. Cellular therapy · Embryonic stem cells · Neural differentiation · Neural induction · Neural stem

  5. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nóra Varga; Zoltán Veréb; Éva Rajnavölgyi; Katalin Német; Ferenc Uher; Balázs Sarkadi; Ágota Apáti

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated

  6. Stem cells from residual IVF-embryos – Continuation of life justifies isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ger P. A. Bongaerts; René S. V. M. Severijnen

    2007-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated pluripotent cells that can indefinitely grow in vitro. They are derived from the inner mass of early embryos. Because of their ability to differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers, and finally into specialized somatic cell types, human embryonic stem cells represent important material for studying developmental biology and cell replacement therapy. They are usually

  7. Cell Stem Cell Wnt Proteins Are Self-Renewal Factors

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    Cell Stem Cell Article Wnt Proteins Are Self-Renewal Factors for Mammary Stem Cells and Promote.03.020 SUMMARY Adult stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to generate specialized cells. Self the organ develops postnatally, arises from stem cells, and is readily generated from transplanted cells. We

  8. Adult stem cell-based apexogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yao; Shu, Li-Hong; Yan, Ming; Dai, Wen-Yong; Li, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Dong; Yu, Jin-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Generally, the dental pulp needs to be removed when it is infected, and root canal therapy (RCT) is usually required in which infected dental pulp is replaced with inorganic materials (paste and gutta percha). This treatment approach ultimately brings about a dead tooth. However, pulp vitality is extremely important to the tooth itself, since it provides nutrition and acts as a biosensor to detect the potential pathogenic stimuli. Despite the reported clinical success rate, RCT-treated teeth are destined to be devitalized, brittle and susceptible to postoperative fracture. Recently, the advances and achievements in the field of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have inspired novel biological approaches to apexogenesis in young patients suffering from pulpitis or periapical periodontitis. This review mainly focuses on the benchtop and clinical regeneration of root apex mediated by adult stem cells. Moreover, current strategies for infected pulp therapy are also discussed here. PMID:25332909

  9. Concise Review: Stem Cell Therapies for Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fortino, Veronica R.; Pelaez, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that is heterogeneous in nature and has different causes. Different from and more burdensome than nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain more severely affects people's quality of life. Understanding the various mechanisms of the onset and progression of neuropathic pain is important in the development of an effective treatment. Research is being done to replace current pharmacological treatments with cellular therapies that will have longer lasting effects. Stem cells present an exciting potential therapy for neuropathic pain. In this review, we describe the neuroprotective effects of stem cells along with special emphasis on the current translational research using stem cells to treat neuropathic pain. PMID:23572051

  10. Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meimei; Liu, Ning; Zang, Ru; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “niches”, to impact stem cell fate decision. The niche factors include the regulatory factors such as oxygen, extracellular matrix (synthetic and decellularized), paracrine/autocrine signaling and physical forces (i.e., mechanical force, electrical force and flow shear). The use of novel bioreactors with precise control and recapitulation of niche factors through modulating reactor operation parameters can enable efficient stem cell expansion and differentiation. Recently, the development of microfluidic devices and microbioreactors also provides powerful tools to manipulate the stem cell microenvironment by adjusting flow rate and cytokine gradients. In general, bioreactor engineering can be used to better modulate stem cell niches critical for stem cell expansion, differentiation and applications as novel cell-based biomedicines. This paper reviews important factors that can be more precisely controlled in bioreactors and their effects on stem cell engineering. PMID:24179601

  11. Stem-cell therapy for renal diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Mollura; Joshua M. Hare; Hamid Rabb

    2003-01-01

    Significant attention is currently directed to the biological and therapeutic capabilities of stem cells for developing novel treatments for acute and chronic kidney diseases. To date, viable sources of stem cells for renal therapies include adult bone marrow and embryonic tissues, including the metanephric mesenchyme and mesonephros. Native adult kidney stem cells have yet to be identified. Systemically introduced stem

  12. EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS or INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS? A DNA INTEGRITY PERSPECTIVE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    stem cells and examine the three main sources of genomic abnormalities in iPSCs: (1) genomic variety1 EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS or INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS? A DNA INTEGRITY PERSPECTIVE Qiang Bai Gene Therapy 2013;13(2):93-8" #12;2 ABSTRACT Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem

  13. Pluripotent Stem Cells: Sources and Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean P. Palecek

    \\u000a Pluripotent human stem cells, including embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, hold tremendous\\u000a promise as a source of progenitor cells and terminally differentiated cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine\\u000a applications. Pluripotent stem cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and have the ability to differentiate to clinically\\u000a relevant cell types in each of the three germ

  14. Endometrial stem cell transplantation in MPTP- exposed primates: an alternative cell source for treatment of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin F; Mutlu, Levent; Massasa, Efi E; Elsworth, John D; Eugene Redmond, D; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Cell-replacement therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to slow down or replace neuronal loss. Compared to other stem cell types, endometrium-derived stem cells (EDSCs) are an attractive source of stem cells for cellular therapies because of their ease of collection and vast differentiation potential. Here we demonstrate that endometrium-derived stem cells may be transplanted into an MPTP exposed monkey model of PD. After injection into the striatum, endometrium-derived stem cells engrafted, exhibited neuron-like morphology, expressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and increased the numbers of TH positive cells on the transplanted side and dopamine metabolite concentrations in vivo. Our results suggest that endometrium-derived stem cells may provide a therapeutic benefit in the primate model of PD and may be used in stem cell based therapies. PMID:25283241

  15. Endometrial stem cell transplantation in MPTP- exposed primates: an alternative cell source for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Erin F; Mutlu, Levent; Massasa, Efi E; Elsworth, John D; Eugene Redmond, D; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Cell-replacement therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to slow down or replace neuronal loss. Compared to other stem cell types, endometrium-derived stem cells (EDSCs) are an attractive source of stem cells for cellular therapies because of their ease of collection and vast differentiation potential. Here we demonstrate that endometrium-derived stem cells may be transplanted into an MPTP exposed monkey model of PD. After injection into the striatum, endometrium-derived stem cells engrafted, exhibited neuron-like morphology, expressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and increased the numbers of TH positive cells on the transplanted side and dopamine metabolite concentrations in vivo. Our results suggest that endometrium-derived stem cells may provide a therapeutic benefit in the primate model of PD and may be used in stem cell based therapies. PMID:25283241

  16. Harnessing Pluripotency from Differentiated Cells: A Regenerative Source for Tissue-Specific Stem Cell Therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilham Saleh Abuljadayel

    2006-01-01

    Processes involving conversion of mature adult cells into undifferentiated cells have tremendous therapeutic potential in treating a variety of malignant and non-malignant disorders, including degenerative diseases. This can be achieved in autologous or allogeneic settings, by replacing either defective cells or regenerating those that are in deficit through reprogramming more commited cells into stem cells. The concept behind reprogramming differentiated

  17. [Therapeutic use of stem cells].

    PubMed

    Uzan, Georges

    2004-09-15

    Stem cells display important capacities of self renewing, proliferation and differentiation. Because those present in the embryo have the more remarkable properties, their potential use in the therapy of until now incurable degenerative diseases have been envisioned. Embryonic stem (ES) cells are located in the inner mass of the balstocyst at early stages of the development. Even in long-term cultures they still retain their undifferentiated features. Under specific culture conditions, ES cells can be committed into a variety of differentiation pathways, giving rise to large amounts of cells corresponding to different tissues (neurones, cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, etc.). However, producing these tissues from already established ES cell lines would lead to immune rejection when transplanted to patients. To prevent this pitfall and using the expertise accumulated by animal cloning by nucleus transfer, it has been proposed to adapt this technique to human ES cells. The therapeutic cloning consists in transferring the nucleus of somatic stem cells isolated from the patient into an enucleated oocyte, to allow blastocyst development from which ES cells will be derived. From these stem cells, compatible tissues will be then produced. The problem is that it is in theoretically possible to reimplant the cloned blastocyst into a surrogate mother for obtaining a baby genetically identical to the donor. This is called reproductive cloning. This worrying risk raises important ethic and legal questions. PMID:15497791

  18. n induced pluripotent stem cell, or IPS cell, is a stem cell that has been created from an

    E-print Network

    A n induced pluripotent stem cell, or IPS cell, is a stem cell that has been created from an adult that reprogram the cell and transform it into a cell that has all the characteristics of an embryonic stem cell are the advantages of induced pluripotent stem cells? Bioethics: Induced stem cells have the obvious edge

  19. Control of the Embryonic Stem Cell State

    E-print Network

    Young, Richard A.

    Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine. These cells can be propagated in culture in an undifferentiated state but can be induced to differentiate into specialized ...

  20. MICROFLUIDIC CONTROL OF STEM CELL DIFFUSIBLE SIGNALING

    E-print Network

    Voldman, Joel

    MICROFLUIDIC CONTROL OF STEM CELL DIFFUSIBLE SIGNALING Katarina Blagovi, Lily Y. Kim, Alison M cell differentiation. KEYWORDS: Embryonic stem cells, microfluidic perfusion, diffusible signaling; they secrete molecules to which they respond. Microfluidics offers a potential solution to this challenge

  1. Learning about Cancer by Studying Stem Cells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Science Home Page Learning About Cancer by Studying Stem Cells By Sharon Reynolds Posted January 8, 2014 Normally, ... of them are exploring the process by studying stem cells. Modeling Early Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancer cells grown ...

  2. Cell Stem Cell Molecular Signatures of Human Induced Pluripotent

    E-print Network

    Sur, Mriganka

    cell lines. INTRODUCTION With the potential to differentiate into cells of three germ lineages ex vivoCell Stem Cell Article Molecular Signatures of Human Induced Pluripotent StemCells@molbio.mgh.harvard.edu DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2012.03.008 SUMMARY Although human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have

  3. Cell Stem Cell, Volume 12 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Jacobsen, Steve

    Cell Stem Cell, Volume 12 Supplemental Information Stage-Specific Roles for Tet1 and Tet2 in DNA Demethylation in Primordial Germ Cells John J. Vincent, Yun Huang, Pao-Yang Chen, Suhua Feng, Joseph H). Arrowheads denote Oct4+ PGCs. #12;B: Flow cytometry of e10.5 Oct4gfp genital ridges (GR). GFP+ cells (green

  4. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Štefková, Kate?ina; Procházková, Ji?ina; Pacherník, Ji?í

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells.

  5. Patenting Human Genes and Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enca Martin-Rendon; Derek J. Blake

    2007-01-01

    Cell lines and genetically modified single cell organisms have been considered patentable subjects for the last two decades. However, despite the technical patentability of genes and stem cell lines, social and legal controversy concerning their 'ownership' has surrounded stem cell research in recent years. Some granted patents on stem cells with extremely broad claims are casting a shadow over the

  6. Therapeutic implications of cancer stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Al-Hajj; Michael W Becker; Max Wicha; Irving Weissman; Michael F Clarke

    2004-01-01

    Most cancers comprise a heterogenous population of cells with marked differences in their proliferative potential as well as the ability to reconstitute the tumor upon transplantation. Cancer stem cells are a minor population of tumor cells that possess the stem cell property of self-renewal. In addition, dysregulation of stem cell self-renewal is a likely requirement for the development of cancer.

  7. The hematopoietic stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dongsu; Sykes, David B.; Scadden, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess the ability to self-renew and to differentiate to mature progeny along multiple different hematopoietic lineages. The function of HSCs depends upon the signals from surrounding cells found within the highly specialized microenvironment termed the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Understanding and exploiting the HSC niche is a goal of basic scientists and clinicians alike. Recent studies have focused on defining the cellular components and molecular factors critical to this microenvironment. Here we review recent findings, discuss unresolved questions, and examine the clinical implications of our current knowledge of the HSC niche. PMID:22201730

  8. Stem Cell Reports CRIPTO/GRP78 Signaling Maintains Fetal and Adult Mammary Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Wahl, Geoffrey M.

    Stem Cell Reports Report CRIPTO/GRP78 Signaling Maintains Fetal and Adult Mammary Stem Cells Ex cell behavior. Here, we identify CRIPTO and its cell- surface receptor GRP78 as regulators of stem cell differentiation and reduces self-renewal of mammary stem cell-enriched populations cultured ex vivo. By contrast

  9. Neural stem and progenitor cells in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Ladran, Ian; Tran, Ngoc; Topol, Aaron; Brennand, Kristen J.

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) have the potential to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and/or oligodendrocytes. Because these cells can be expanded in culture, they represent a vast source of neural cells. With the recent discovery that patient fibroblasts can be reprogrammed directly into induced NSPCs, the regulation of NSPC fate and function, in the context of cell-based disease models and patient-specific cell-replacement therapies, warrants review. PMID:24068527

  10. Stem cells: sources and therapies.

    PubMed

    Monti, Manuela; Perotti, Cesare; Del Fante, Claudia; Cervio, Marila; Redi, Carlo Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The historical, lexical and conceptual issues embedded in stem cell biology are reviewed from technical, ethical, philosophical, judicial, clinical, economic and biopolitical perspectives. The mechanisms assigning the simultaneous capacity to self-renew and to differentiate to stem cells (immortal template DNA and asymmetric division) are evaluated in the light of the niche hypothesis for the stemness state. The induction of cell pluripotency and the different stem cells sources are presented (embryonic, adult and cord blood). We highlight the embryonic and adult stem cell properties and possible therapies while we emphasize the particular scientific and social values of cord blood donation to set up cord blood banks. The current scientific and legal frameworks of cord blood banks are reviewed at an international level as well as allogenic, dedicated and autologous donations. The expectations and the challenges in relation to present-day targeted diseases like diabetes mellitus type I, Parkinson's disease and myocardial infarction are evaluated in the light of the cellular therapies for regenerative medicine. PMID:23283430

  11. Production of Uniparental Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigrid Eckardt; K. John McLaughlin

    \\u000a Embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent cells derived from somatic cells, can yield differentiated progeny with potential\\u000a applicability for tissue repair. This chapter describes the generation of embryonic stem cells from gamete-derived uniparental\\u000a embryos. These embryonic stem cells can be patient-derived and potentially histocompatible with the gamete donor. The production\\u000a of uniparental embryos followed by derivation of embryonic stem cells

  12. Cancer stem cells and cancer therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Soltanian; Maryam M. Matin

    2011-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumour cells that possess the stem cell properties of self-renewal and differentiation.\\u000a Stem cells might be the target cells responsible for malignant transformation, and tumour formation may be a disorder of stem\\u000a cell self-renewal pathway. Epigenetic alterations and mutations of genes involved in signal transmissions may promote the\\u000a formation of CSCs. These

  13. --Taking STem Cell SCienCe from

    E-print Network

    Bieber, Michael

    -- Taking STem Cell SCienCe from Theory To TherapieS While The healing poTenTial of STem CellS one. produCed by our bodieS in an undifferenTiaTed STaTe, STem CellS evenTually SpeCialize Through na be tempered with a realistic as- sessment of where the development of stem cell therapies now stands. Most

  14. Adult Stem Cell Plasticity Revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Mezey

    \\u000a Cell biologists have long realized that most cells do not live as long as the organisms they comprise; thus, cells in almost\\u000a every tissue need to be renewed\\/replaced during the natural lifespan of the organism. Depending on the turnover rate of cells\\u000a in any given organ, this process can be very frequent or very rare. Epithelial cells in the mouth

  15. In Appreciation of Stem Cell Research Doners..............................................................1 Glossary ..........................................................................................................................4

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Ehud

    #12;#12;In Appreciation of Stem Cell Research Doners ..........................................................................................................................4 Stem Cell Research at the Weizmann Institute of Science......................................................9 Germ-Line Stem Cell Differentiation

  16. Recent Advances towards the Clinical Application of Stem Cells for Retinal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Silke; Jayaram, Hari; Limb, G. Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases constitute a major cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Stem cell-based therapies offer hope for these patients at risk of or suffering from blindness due to the deterioration of the neural retina. Various sources of stem cells are currently being investigated, ranging from human embryonic stem cells to adult-derived induced pluripotent stem cells as well as human Müller stem cells, with the first clinical trials to investigate the safety and tolerability of human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium cells having recently commenced. This review aims to summarize the latest advances in the development of stem cell strategies for the replacement of retinal neurons and their supportive cells, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) affected by retinal degenerative conditions. Particular emphasis will be given to the advances in stem cell transplantation and the challenges associated with their translation into clinical practice. PMID:24710533

  17. Therapeutic potential of motor neurons differentiated from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    López-González, Rodrigo; Velasco, Iván

    2012-01-01

    Degeneration of motor neurons (MN) caused by disease or injury leads to paralysis and is fatal in some conditions. To date, there are no effective treatments for MN disorders; therefore, cell therapy is a promising strategy to replace lost MN. Embryonic stem (ES) cells isolated from the inner cell mass of mammalian blastocysts self-renew and are pluripotent because they differentiate into cell types of the three germinal layers. Reprogramming of adult cells to a state similar to ES cells, termed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, has been recently reported. It is well established that pluripotent cell types can give rise to specialized phenotypes, including neurons. Mouse, monkey and human MN can be differentiated from ES and iPS cells using procedures generally involving embryoid bodies formation and stimulation with retinoic acid and Sonic hedgehog. Differentiated MN express characteristic molecular markers such as Islet1, HB9 and Choline acetyltransferase, exhibit electrophysiological maturity and are able to form synaptic contacts similar to neuromuscular junctions in vitro. Furthermore, transplanted MN promote functional recovery in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases and MN injury. The potential clinical applications of stem cell-derived MN was enhanced after iPS cell derivation, which makes possible the generation of patient-specific pluripotent cells for autologous cell replacement therapies and may be used for drug development and disease modeling. This review summarizes MN differentiation protocols from ES and iPS cells in regard to neuronal differentiation efficiency, expression of MN markers and functional properties in vitro, as well as their therapeutic effects after grafting. PMID:22293229

  18. Role of stem cells in tooth bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamleshwar; Mishra, Niraj; Kumar, Lakshya; Agarwal, Kaushal Kishore; Agarwal, Bhaskar

    2012-01-01

    The creation of teeth in the laboratory depends upon the manipulation of stem cells and requires a synergy of all cellular and molecular events that finally lead to the formation of tooth-specific hard tissues, dentin, and enamel. This review focuses on the different sources of stem cells that have been used for making teeth in vitro. The search was performed from 1970 to 2012 and was limited to English language papers. The keywords searched on medline were ‘stem cells and dentistry,’ ‘stem cells and odontoblast,’ ‘stem cells and dentin,’ and ‘stem cells and ameloblasts.’

  19. [Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Mohty, Mohamad

    2008-12-15

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative option in different hematologic malignancies. This benefit is traditionally based on the immune anti-tumour effect mediated by the allogeneic immune effectors derived from the graft, usually called "graft versus leukemia". Several categories of donors and sources of stem cells are currently used. In addition, different types of preparative regimens are available, and can be distinguished based on their myeloablative and immunosuppressive properties. Despite significant progress in terms of short term toxicity and morbidity, and despite effective prophylactic strategies, graft versus host disease remains a major complication, with its corollary of prolonged immunosuppression and opportunistic infections. However, allogeneic stem cell transplantation is rapidly expanding because the immunological anti-tumour effect has been demonstrated both in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies with a relatively acceptable risk of toxicity. PMID:19213539

  20. Chemical approaches to studying stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlin; Jiang, Kai; Wei, Wanguo; Shi, Yan; Ding, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells, including both pluripotent stem cells and multipotent somatic stem cells, hold great potential for interrogating the mechanisms of tissue development, homeostasis and pathology, and for treating numerous devastating diseases. Establishment of in vitro platforms to faithfully maintain and precisely manipulate stem cell fates is essential to understand the basic mechanisms of stem cell biology, and to translate stem cells into regenerative medicine. Chemical approaches have recently provided a number of small molecules that can be used to control cell self-renewal, lineage differentiation, reprogramming and regeneration. These chemical modulators have been proven to be versatile tools for probing stem cell biology and manipulating cell fates toward desired outcomes. Ultimately, this strategy is promising to be a new frontier for drug development aimed at endogenous stem cell modulation. PMID:23266890

  1. Cell reprogramming for the creation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells by defined factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiqun Yin; Heng Wang; Hongguo Cao; Yunhai Zhang; Yong Tao; Xiaorong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), characterized by being able to differentiate into various types of cells, are generally regarded\\u000a as the most promising sources for cell replacement therapies. However, as typical PSCs, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are still\\u000a far away from human clinics so far due to ethical issues and immune rejection response. One way to avoid such problems is\\u000a to

  2. Cell Stem Cell An Expanded Oct4 Interaction Network: Implications

    E-print Network

    Babu, M. Madan

    Cell Stem Cell Resource An Expanded Oct4 Interaction Network: Implications for Stem Cell Biology is key in embryonic stem cell identity and reprogramming. Insight into its part- ners should illuminate set of Oct4-binding proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells. We find that Oct4 asso- ciates

  3. Adult Stem Cells: Sources and Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Okochi

    \\u000a Basic and clinical research on adult stem cells is progressing rapidly. New technology that can generate iPS (induced pluripotent\\u000a stem cells) cells from various types of tissue may completely change the stem cell world and regenerative medicine. In terms\\u000a of clinical applications, both bone marrow and skin are very attractive sources of adult stem cells because they are highly\\u000a accessible

  4. Tracking of Stem Cells In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingli Fu; Dara L. Kraitchman

    \\u000a Clinical and basic studies of stem-cell-based therapies have shown promising results for cardiovascular diseases. Despite\\u000a a rapid transition from animal studies to clinical trials, the mechanisms of action by which stem cells improve heart function\\u000a remain largely unknown. To optimize stem cell therapies in patients, a method to noninvasively monitor stem cell delivery\\u000a and to evaluate cell survival, biodistribution, and

  5. Stem Cells in the Infarcted Heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dinender K. Singla

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is currently generating a significant interest for use in the future treatment of cardiovascular\\u000a diseases. Stem cell populations are rapidly increasing, and we are still in the search of optimal cell types to use in clinical\\u000a trials as bone marrow stem cells did not show significant improvement in cardiac function following transplantation. Experimental\\u000a stem cell studies raised

  6. Progress and Prospects for Stem Cell Engineering

    E-print Network

    Schaffer, David V.

    to a pluripotent state by ectopic introduction of reprogramming factors Embryonic stem (ES) cells: cells isolated tissue. In 1981, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) were successfully cultured and demonstratedProgress and Prospects for Stem Cell Engineering Randolph S. Ashton,1 Albert J. Keung,1 Joseph

  7. Mini Review Neuronal stem cells in adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Christian Bauer; Herbert Tempfer; Gustav Bernroider; Hannelore Bauer

    Summary Neuronal stem cells are like other tissue-specific stem cells, undifferentiated cells which can proliferate and may give rise to glia and neurons. They are present in mammalians throughout the entire life and are supposed to play an important role in renewal of neurons. However, little is known about the origin, phenotypic expression and function of neuronal stem cells in

  8. HEMATOPOIESIS AND STEM CELLS Brief report

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    be instrumental in advancing HSC-based therapies. Using an expansion system previously shown to increase hematopoi stem cells,10 endothelial progenitor cells,11 and brain and colon cancer stem cells.12,13 The absenceHEMATOPOIESIS AND STEM CELLS Brief report TheAC133 CD38 , but not the rhodamine-low, phenotype

  9. Extinction models for cancer stem cell therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Sehl; Hua Zhou; Janet S. Sinsheimer; Kenneth L. Lange

    Cells with stem cell-like properties are now viewed as initiating and sustaining many cancers. This suggests that cancer can be cured by driving these cancer stem cells to extinction. The problem with this strategy is that ordinary stem cells are apt to be killed in the process. This paper sets bounds on the killing differential (difference between death rates of

  10. Parkinson's Disease Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Free of Viral Reprogramming Factors

    E-print Network

    Soldner, Frank

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients represent a powerful tool for biomedical research and may provide a source for replacement therapies. However, the use of viruses encoding the ...

  11. Lgr proteins in epithelial stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Barker, Nick; Tan, Shawna; Clevers, Hans

    2013-06-01

    The ultimate success of global efforts to exploit adult stem cells for regenerative medicine will depend heavily on the availability of robust, highly selective stem cell surface markers that facilitate the isolation of stem cells from human tissues. Any subsequent expansion or manipulation of isolated stem cells will also require an intimate knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate these cells, to ensure maintenance of their regenerative capacities and to minimize the risk of introducing undesirable growth traits that could pose health risks for patients. A subclass of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor (Lgr) proteins has recently gained prominence as adult stem cell markers with crucial roles in maintaining stem cell functions. Here, we discuss the major impact that their discovery has had on our understanding of adult stem cell biology in various self-renewing tissues and in accelerating progress towards the development of effective stem cell therapies. PMID:23715542

  12. The Role of MicroRNAs in Cardiac Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Purvis, Nima; Bahn, Andrew; Katare, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are considered as the next generation drug treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease who are resistant to conventional treatment. Among several stem cells used in the clinical setting, cardiac stem cells (CSCs) which reside in the myocardium and epicardium of the heart have been shown to be an effective option for the source of stem cells. In normal circumstances, CSCs primarily function as a cell store to replace the physiologically depleted cardiovascular cells, while under the diseased condition they have been shown to experimentally regenerate the diseased myocardium. In spite of their major functional role, molecular mechanisms regulating the CSCs proliferation and differentiation are still unknown. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Recent studies have demonstrated the important role of miRs in regulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as other physiological and pathological processes related to stem cell function. This review summarises the current understanding of the role of miRs in CSCs. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which miRs regulate CSCs may lead to advances in the mode of stem cell therapies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25802528

  13. Stem Cell Therapy: A New Treatment for Burns?

    PubMed Central

    Arno, Anna; Smith, Alexandra H.; Blit, Patrick H.; Shehab, Mohammed Al; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising new approach in almost every medicine specialty. This vast, heterogeneous family of cells are now both naturally (embryonic and adult stem cells) or artificially obtained (induced pluripotent stem cells or iPSCs) and their fates have become increasingly controllable, thanks to ongoing research in this passionate new field. We are at the beginning of a new era in medicine, with multiple applications for stem cell therapy, not only as a monotherapy, but also as an adjunct to other strategies, such as organ transplantation or standard drug treatment. Regrettably, serious preclinical concerns remain and differentiation, cell fusion, senescence and signalling crosstalk with growth factors and biomaterials are still challenges for this promising multidisciplinary therapeutic modality. Severe burns have several indications for stem cell therapy, including enhancement of wound healing, replacement of damaged skin and perfect skin regeneration – incorporating skin appendages and reduced fibrosis –, as well as systemic effects, such as inflammation, hypermetabolism and immunosuppression. The aim of this review is to describe well established characteristics of stem cells and to delineate new advances in the stem cell field, in the context of burn injury and wound healing.

  14. Lung Epithelial Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magnus Karl Magnusson; Olafur Baldursson; Thorarinn Gudjonsson

    \\u000a The lung epithelium is structurally and functionally a complex tissue composed of different cell types. It is exposed to toxic\\u000a agents and pathogens that can with time result in various lung diseases, including lung cancer. The major cell types in the\\u000a proximal tracheobronchial part are basal cells, goblet cells, ciliated cells, and cells of the submucosal glands. Further\\u000a down the

  15. Do we Still Need Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Stem Cell-Based Therapies? Epistemic and Ethical Aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina Hug; Göran Hermerén

    While scientific community disagrees about similarities and differences between human embryonic stem (hES) cells and human\\u000a induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells, some politicians embrace translational hiPS cell research as a replacement for translational\\u000a hES cell research. We examine the ethical relevance of the main differences between hES and hiPS cell-based therapies and\\u000a discuss whether, given the current state of knowledge,

  16. III. Stem Cells and Their Asymmetric Cell Divisions Stem cells to synapses: regulation of self-renewal and differentiation in

    E-print Network

    Kazama, Hokto

    III. Stem Cells and Their Asymmetric Cell Divisions Stem cells to synapses: regulation of self fates is a key step in the therapeutic use of stem cells to repair tissues after damage or disease. We are investigating the genetic networks that regulate neural stem cells in Drosophila. Stem cells can divide

  17. Hematopoietic stem cells: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mosaad, Youssef Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Considerable efforts have been made in recent years in understanding the mechanisms that govern hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) origin, development, differentiation, self-renewal, aging, trafficking, plasticity and transdifferentiation. Hematopoiesis occurs in sequential waves in distinct anatomical locations during development and these shifts in location are accompanied by changes in the functional status of the stem cells and reflect the changing needs of the developing organism. HSCs make a choice of either self-renewal or committing to differentiation. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation is considered to be critical to the maintenance of stem cell numbers. It is still under debate if HSC can rejuvenate infinitely or if they do not possess ''true" self-renewal and undergo replicative senescence such as any other somatic cell. Gene therapy applications that target HSCs offer a great potential for the treatment of hematologic and immunologic diseases. However, the clinical success has been limited by many factors. This review is intended to summarize the recent advances made in the human HSC field, and will review the hematopoietic stem cell from definition through development to clinical applications. PMID:25457002

  18. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Signals Regulate Neural Stem Cell Fate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lianhua Bai; Arnold Caplan; Donald Lennon; Robert H. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes depending on their location within the\\u000a central nervous system (CNS). The cellular and molecular cues mediating end-stage cell fate choices are not completely understood.\\u000a The retention of multipotent NSCs in the adult CNS raises the possibility that selective recruitment of their progeny to specific\\u000a lineages may facilitate repair in a

  19. Stem Cell and Research in Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative medicine using stem cells has progressed significantly over the last decade. Plastic surgeons historically have used tissues of human being to restore various defect sites and utilized a single cell lines for the tissue regeneration. The cell sources (autologous or allogeneic), cell types (embryonic stem cell or adult stem cell), and source of tissues (bone marrow, muscle, adipose, cartilage, or blood) are very important for stem cell-based tissue coverage. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent precursors obtained from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and reported to be used for preventing muscle atrophy after peripheral nerve injury. Multipotent adult stem cells are easily accessed for plastic surgeons during many routine procedures. This article briefly review the current state of overall stem cell research and clinical applications in the plastic surgical field. PMID:25473205

  20. Cancer Stem Cells Found in Pancreatic Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have detected cancer stem cells in tumors from patients with pancreatic cancer. Experiments in mice suggest that these cancer stem cells may help explain the aggressive growth and spread of pancreatic tumors seen in patients.

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 319 Subscription preferences ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  2. Retinal Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ani V. Das; Jackson James; Sreekumaran Edakkot; Iqbal Ahmad

    The vertebrate retina is a well-characterized central nervous system (CNS) structure, consisting of seven major cell types,\\u000a which in adult are arranged in a stereotypical laminar organization. These cell types are born in an evolutionarily conserved\\u000a temporal sequence: the majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), horizontal cells, amacrine cells, and cone photoreceptors\\u000a are born during early histogenesis, whereas the majority

  3. Cell replacement and visual restoration by retinal sheet transplants

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Magdalene J.; Aramant, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) affect millions of people. Replacing lost cells with new cells that connect with the still functional part of the host retina might repair a degenerating retina and restore eyesight to an unknown extent. A unique model, subretinal transplantation of freshly dissected sheets of fetal-derived retinal progenitor cells, combined with its retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), has demonstrated successful results in both animals and humans. Most other approaches are restricted to rescue endogenous retinal cells of the recipient in earlier disease stages by a ‘nursing’ role of the implanted cells and are not aimed at neural retinal cell replacement. Sheet transplants restore lost visual responses in several retinal degeneration models in the superior colliculus (SC) corresponding to the location of the transplant in the retina. They do not simply preserve visual performance – they increase visual responsiveness to light. Restoration of visual responses in the SC can be directly traced to neural cells in the transplant, demonstrating that synaptic connections between transplant and host contribute to the visual improvement. Transplant processes invade the inner plexiform layer of the host retina and form synapses with presumable host cells. In a Phase II trial of RP and ARMD patients, transplants of retina together with its RPE improved visual acuity. In summary, retinal progenitor sheet transplantation provides an excellent model to answer questions about how to repair and restore function of a degenerating retina. Supply of fetal donor tissue will always be limited but the model can set a standard and provide an informative base for optimal cell replacement therapies such as embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived therapy. PMID:22771454

  4. Stem cells in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue; Feng, Fei; Zhou, Yong-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which were first identified in acute myeloid leukemia and subsequently in a large array of solid tumors, play important roles in cancer initiation, dissemination and recurrence. CSCs are often transformed tissue-specific stem cells or de-differentiated transit amplifying progenitor cells. Several populations of multipotent gastric stem cells (GSCs) that reside in the stomach have been determined to regulate physiological tissue renewal and injury repair. These populations include the Villin+ and Lgr5+ GSCs in the antrum, the Troy+ chief cells in the corpus, and the Sox2+ GSCs that are found in both the antrum and the corpus. The disruption of tumor suppressors in Villin+ or Lgr5+ GSCs leads to GC in mouse models. In addition to residing GSCs, bone marrow-derived cells can initiate GC in a mouse model of chronic Helicobacter infection. Furthermore, expression of the cell surface markers CD133 or CD44 defines gastric CSCs in mouse models and in human primary GC tissues and cell lines. Targeted elimination of CSCs effectively reduces tumor size and grade in mouse models. In summary, the recent identification of normal GSCs and gastric CSCs has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular and cellular etiology of GC and will aid in the development of effective therapies to treat patients. PMID:25574084

  5. Epithelial Stem Cells: A Folliculocentric View

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Cotsarelis

    2006-01-01

    Putative epithelial stem cells were identified in the hair follicle bulge as quiescent “label retaining cells”. The study of these cells was hindered until the identification of bulge cell molecular markers, such as CD34 expression and K15 promoter activity. This allowed for the isolation and characterization of bulge cells from mouse follicles. Bulge cells possess stem cell characteristics, including multipotency,

  6. Conductive space solar cell coverglass replacement technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Zach S.; Wilt, David M.; Hoffman, Ryan; Ferguson, Dale

    2014-03-01

    A flexible space solar cell coverglass replacement called Pseudomorphic Glass (PMG) has been under investigation in hopes of providing a robust, flexible, high transmissivity replacement for conventional coverglass. PMG is composed of conventional cover glass and/or fused silica in the form of small spheres incorporated in a variety of polymer matrices. The glass spheres provide the primary radiation protection and the polymer matrix provides the mechanical integrity. PMG development has recently focused on technologies for providing the electrical conductivity required to dissipate environmental charging, even in the presence of electric propulsion plumes.

  7. The stem cell secretome and its role in brain repair

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Denise; Cossetti, Chiara; Iraci, Nunzio; Gaude, Edoardo; Musco, Giovanna; Bachi, Angela; Pluchino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Compelling evidence exists that non-haematopoietic stem cells, including mesenchymal (MSCs) and neural/progenitor stem cells (NPCs), exert a substantial beneficial and therapeutic effect after transplantation in experimental central nervous system (CNS) disease models through the secretion of immune modulatory or neurotrophic paracrine factors. This paracrine hypothesis has inspired an alternative outlook on the use of stem cells in regenerative neurology. In this paradigm, significant repair of the injured brain may be achieved by injecting the biologics secreted by stem cells (secretome), rather than implanting stem cells themselves for direct cell replacement. The stem cell secretome (SCS) includes cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, and has gained increasing attention in recent years because of its multiple implications for the repair, restoration or regeneration of injured tissues. Thanks to recent improvements in SCS profiling and manipulation, investigators are now inspired to harness the SCS as a novel alternative therapeutic option that might ensure more efficient outcomes than current stem cell-based therapies for CNS repair. This review discusses the most recent identification of MSC- and NPC-secreted factors, including those that are trafficked within extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs), and reflects on their potential effects on brain repair. It also examines some of the most convincing advances in molecular profiling that have enabled mapping of the SCS. PMID:23827856

  8. Derivation of hematopoietic stem cells from murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    McKinney-Freeman, Shannon; Daley, George

    2007-01-01

    A stem cell is defined as a cell with the capacity to both self-renew and generate multiple differentiated progeny. Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are derived from the blastocyst of the early embryo and are pluripotent in differentiative ability. Their vast differentiative potential has made them the focus of much research centered on deducing how to coax them to generate clinically useful cell types. The successful derivation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from mouse ESC has recently been accomplished and can be visualized in this video protocol. HSC, arguably the most clinically exploited cell population, are used to treat a myriad of hematopoietic malignancies and disorders. However, many patients that might benefit from HSC therapy lack access to suitable donors. ESC could provide an alternative source of HSC for these patients. The following protocol establishes a baseline from which ESC-HSC can be studied and inform efforts to isolate HSC from human ESC. In this protocol, ESC are differentiated as embryoid bodies (EBs) for 6 days in commercially available serum pre-screened for optimal hematopoietic differentiation. EBs are then dissociated and infected with retroviral HoxB4. Infected EB-derived cells are plated on OP9 stroma, a bone marrow stromal cell line derived from the calvaria of M-CSF-/- mice, and co-cultured in the presence of hematopoiesis promoting cytokines for ten days. During this co-culture, the infected cells expand greatly, resulting in the generation a heterogeneous pool of 100 s of millions of cells. These cells can then be used to rescue and reconstitute lethally irradiated mice. PMID:18830431

  9. Neural stem cells could serve as a therapeutic material for age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Suksuphew, Sarawut; Noisa, Parinya

    2015-03-26

    Progressively loss of neural and glial cells is the key event that leads to nervous system dysfunctions and diseases. Several neurodegenerative diseases, for instance Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease, are associated to aging and suggested to be a consequence of deficiency of neural stem cell pool in the affected brain regions. Endogenous neural stem cells exist throughout life and are found in specific niches of human brain. These neural stem cells are responsible for the regeneration of new neurons to restore, in the normal circumstance, the functions of the brain. Endogenous neural stem cells can be isolated, propagated, and, notably, differentiated to most cell types of the brain. On the other hand, other types of stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells can also serve as a source for neural stem cell production, that hold a great promise for regeneration of the brain. The replacement of neural stem cells, either endogenous or stem cell-derived neural stem cells, into impaired brain is highly expected as a possible therapeutic mean for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, clinical features and current routinely treatments of age-related neurodegenerative diseases are documented. Noteworthy, we presented the promising evidence of neural stem cells and their derivatives in curing such diseases, together with the remaining challenges to achieve the best outcome for patients. PMID:25815135

  10. Neural stem cells could serve as a therapeutic material for age-related neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Suksuphew, Sarawut; Noisa, Parinya

    2015-01-01

    Progressively loss of neural and glial cells is the key event that leads to nervous system dysfunctions and diseases. Several neurodegenerative diseases, for instance Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease, are associated to aging and suggested to be a consequence of deficiency of neural stem cell pool in the affected brain regions. Endogenous neural stem cells exist throughout life and are found in specific niches of human brain. These neural stem cells are responsible for the regeneration of new neurons to restore, in the normal circumstance, the functions of the brain. Endogenous neural stem cells can be isolated, propagated, and, notably, differentiated to most cell types of the brain. On the other hand, other types of stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells can also serve as a source for neural stem cell production, that hold a great promise for regeneration of the brain. The replacement of neural stem cells, either endogenous or stem cell-derived neural stem cells, into impaired brain is highly expected as a possible therapeutic mean for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, clinical features and current routinely treatments of age-related neurodegenerative diseases are documented. Noteworthy, we presented the promising evidence of neural stem cells and their derivatives in curing such diseases, together with the remaining challenges to achieve the best outcome for patients.

  11. Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Their Niche

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Iwasaki; Toshio Suda

    \\u000a The stem cells’ major capabilities (i.e., the pluripotency and the self-renewal) are the keys to sustain the lifelong functionality\\u000a of the organ. Stem cells reside in the special microenvironment called niche. The niche and stem cells adhere to each other\\u000a via adhesion molecules and exchange the molecular signals that maintain the stem cell features. It has been suggested that\\u000a tumor

  12. The Niche Regulation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Iwasaki; Toshio Suda

    \\u000a Stem cells’ major capabilities, that is, pluripotency and self-renewal, are key to sustaining the lifelong functionality of\\u000a organs. Stem cells reside in the special microenvironment called the niche. The niche and stem cells adhere to each other\\u000a via adhesion molecules and exchange the molecular signals that maintain stem cell features. It has been suggested that tumor\\u000a tissue also contains such

  13. Stem Cell Niche System in Mouse Spermatogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shosei Yoshida

    \\u000a Mammalian spermatogenesis endures on the persistent activity of stem cells, i.e., their self-renewal and production of differentiating\\u000a progeny. The normal functioning of stem cells explicitly requires a particular microenvironment within the tissue – the stem cell niche – as an indispensable element. While the mammalian spermatogenic stem cell niche system remains to be fully elucidated, recent\\u000a knowledge has improved our

  14. Cell Stem Cell Prediction and Testing of Novel Transcriptional

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell Stem Cell Article Prediction and Testing of Novel Transcriptional Networks Regulating Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Commitment Emily Walker,1 Minako Ohishi,1 Ryan E. Davey,1 Wen Zhang,2.stanford@utoronto.ca DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2007.04.002 SUMMARY Stem cell fate is governed by the integration of intrinsic

  15. Stem Cells: Golden Opportunities with Ethical Baggage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anne McLaren (Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute; )

    2000-06-09

    Stems cells are defined as those cells which can divide to produce a daughter like themselves (self-renewal) as well as a daughter that will give rise to specific differentiated cells. Stem cells in the body may be unipotent, like spermatogenic stem cells (which are responsible for the continuing production of spermatozoa), or they can be multipotent, like neural or hemopoietic stem cells, which give rise respectively to all the varied cell types in the nervous system or in the blood and immune system. Given the possibility of directed differentiation of stem cells, these multipotent somatic stem cell lines may prove to be of significant clinical value. This article discusses the potential as well as the ethical issues associated with the use of stem cells.

  16. Results of Curing Some Diseases by Stem Cell Transplantation at Stem Cell R&D Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phan Kim Ngoc; Pham Van Phuc; Viet Nam

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell therapy in curing dangerous diseases usually is main target of many researches about stem cells. In the world, researching and applying stem cells to cure diseases got some great achievements while there is a few in Viet Nam. In recently years, Laboratory of Stem cell R&D, University of Science, VNU HCM city carried out some researches about pre-

  17. College Students' Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concannon, James P.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Halverson, Kristy; Freyermuth, Sharyn

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before…

  18. College Students’ Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Concannon; Marcelle A. Siegel; Kristy Halverson; Sharyn Freyermuth

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors’ conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before and after instruction. Two goals of the

  19. Stem Cell Rev . Author manuscript Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: a systematic reappraisal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stem Cell Rev . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: a systematic (acronym for Adult mesenchymal stem cells engineering for connective tissue disorders. From the bench Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) biological properties and repair capacity. Part of Genostem activity has been

  20. hy are stem cells so valuable in research? One reason stem cells have generated

    E-print Network

    W hy are stem cells so valuable in research? One reason stem cells have generated excitement in science is their versatility. Like little Swiss Army knives, stem cells provide the basic tools of stem cells -- embryonic, induced pluripotent, fetal and adult -- can all be used in different ways

  1. Stem Cells . Author manuscript Human mesenchymal stem cells reprogram adult cardiomyocytes toward a

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Stem Cells . Author manuscript Page /1 15 Human mesenchymal stem cells reprogram adult-Marie Rodriguez Abstract Because stem cells are often found to improve repair healing are still elusive. Several studies have reported that stem cells can fuse with cardiomyocytes

  2. Bio-engineering of stem/progenitor cells Blood stem cell products

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Bio-engineering of stem/progenitor cells Blood stem cell products: Toward sustainable benchmarks expansion of umbilical cord blood (UCB) derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) should stem cell derived products that fulfill our current best known criteria of clinical relevance

  3. Stem Cell Reports Quality Metrics for Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes

    E-print Network

    Stem Cell Reports Article Quality Metrics for Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes Sean P. Sheehy,1, provided the original author and source are credited. SUMMARY Advances in stem cell manufacturing methods have made it possible to produce stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes at industrial scales for in vitro

  4. Salivary gland cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nör, Jacques E

    2013-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

  5. A niche opportunity for stem cell therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G B Adams; D T Scadden

    2008-01-01

    The success of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-based therapies relies on the ability of the stem cells to both engraft and self-renew sufficiently in the bone marrow microenvironment. Previous studies identified that a number of components of bone contribute to the regulation of HSCs indicating that they participate in a stem cell ‘niche’. This niche is a dynamic microenvironment that changes

  6. Stem cells and repair of lung injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel P Neuringer; Scott H Randell

    2004-01-01

    Fueled by the promise of regenerative medicine, currently there is unprecedented interest in stem cells. Furthermore, there have been revolutionary, but somewhat controversial, advances in our understanding of stem cell biology. Stem cells likely play key roles in the repair of diverse lung injuries. However, due to very low rates of cellular proliferation in vivo in the normal steady state,

  7. Epigenetic regulation of aging stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E A Pollina; A Brunet

    2011-01-01

    The function of adult tissue-specific stem cells declines with age, which may contribute to the physiological decline in tissue homeostasis and the increased risk of neoplasm during aging. Old stem cells can be ‘rejuvenated’ by environmental stimuli in some cases, raising the possibility that a subset of age-dependent stem cell changes is regulated by reversible mechanisms. Epigenetic regulators are good

  8. Setting FIRES to Stem Cell Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roxanne Grietz

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this lesson is to present the basic scientific knowledge about stem cells, the promise of stem cell research to medicine, and the ethical considerations and arguments involved. One of the challenges of discussing stem cell research is that the field is constantly evolving and the most current information changes almost daily. Few…

  9. Leading Edge Stem Cell Trafficking in Tissue

    E-print Network

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    Leading Edge Review Stem Cell Trafficking in Tissue Development, Growth, and Disease Diana J. Laird, USA 4Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 5Harvard Stem Cell Institute, 42 Church Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 6Present address: Institute

  10. Governing stem cell fate through inert materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Di Nardo; Marilena Minieri

    2011-01-01

    A decade of intensive research has not produced consistent results able to allow a safe and cost-effective use of stem cells in the clinical setting. Among the different causes, the vision that the stem cell rejuvenating potential could overwhelm all the other biological cues has demonstrated to be very weak. Instead, it is now clear that stem cell fate is

  11. Epidermal homeostasis: a balancing act of stem cells in the skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cédric Blanpain; Elaine Fuchs

    2009-01-01

    The skin epidermis and its array of appendages undergo ongoing renewal by a process called homeostasis. Stem cells in the epidermis have a crucial role in maintaining tissue homeostasis by providing new cells to replace those that are constantly lost during tissue turnover or following injury. Different resident skin stem cell pools contribute to the maintenance and repair of the

  12. Extinction models for cancer stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Sehl, Mary; Zhou, Hua; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Lange, Kenneth L

    2011-12-01

    Cells with stem cell-like properties are now viewed as initiating and sustaining many cancers. This suggests that cancer can be cured by driving these cancer stem cells to extinction. The problem with this strategy is that ordinary stem cells are apt to be killed in the process. This paper sets bounds on the killing differential (difference between death rates of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells) that must exist for the survival of an adequate number of normal stem cells. Our main tools are birth-death Markov chains in continuous time. In this framework, we investigate the extinction times of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells. Application of extreme value theory from mathematical statistics yields an accurate asymptotic distribution and corresponding moments for both extinction times. We compare these distributions for the two cell populations as a function of the killing rates. Perhaps a more telling comparison involves the number of normal stem cells NH at the extinction time of the cancer stem cells. Conditioning on the asymptotic time to extinction of the cancer stem cells allows us to calculate the asymptotic mean and variance of NH. The full distribution of NH can be retrieved by the finite Fourier transform and, in some parameter regimes, by an eigenfunction expansion. Finally, we discuss the impact of quiescence (the resting state) on stem cell dynamics. Quiescence can act as a sanctuary for cancer stem cells and imperils the proposed therapy. We approach the complication of quiescence via multitype branching process models and stochastic simulation. Improvements to the ?-leaping method of stochastic simulation make it a versatile tool in this context. We conclude that the proposed therapy must target quiescent cancer stem cells as well as actively dividing cancer stem cells. The current cancer models demonstrate the virtue of attacking the same quantitative questions from a variety of modeling, mathematical, and computational perspectives. PMID:22001354

  13. Stem cell therapy for voiding and erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Vaegler, Martin; Lenis, Andrew T; Daum, Lisa; Renninger, M; Bastian, Amend; Stenzl, Arnulf; Damaser, Margot S; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Voiding dysfunction comprises a variety of disorders, including stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder, and affects millions of men and women worldwide. Erectile dysfunction (ED) also decreases quality of life for millions of men, as well as for their partners. Advanced age and diabetes are common comorbidities that can exacerbate and negatively impact upon the development of these disorders. Therapies that target the pathophysiology of these conditions to halt progression are not currently available. However, stem cell therapy could fill this therapeutic void. Stem cells can reduce inflammation, prevent fibrosis, promote angiogenesis, recruit endogenous progenitor cells, and differentiate to replace damaged cells. Adult multipotent stem cell therapy, in particular, has shown promise in case reports and preclinical animal studies. Stem cells have also enabled advances in urological tissue engineering by facilitating ex vivo construction of bladder wall and urethral tissue (using a patient's own cells) prior to transplantation. More recent studies have focused on bioactive factor secretion and homing of stem cells. In the future, clinicians are likely to utilize allogeneic stem cell sources, intravenous systemic delivery, and ex vivo cell enhancement to treat voiding dysfunction and ED. PMID:22710667

  14. Embryonic stem cells: An alternative approach to developmental toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Tandon, S; Jyoti, S

    2012-04-01

    Stem cells in the body have a unique ability to renew themselves and give rise to more specialized cell types having functional commitments. Under specified growth conditions, these cell types remain unspecialized but can be triggered to become specific cell type of the body such as heart, nerve, or skin cells. This ability of embryonic stem cells for directed differentiation makes it a prominent candidate as a screening tool in revealing safer and better drugs. In addition, genetic variations and birth defects caused by mutations and teratogens affecting early human development could also be studied on this basis. Moreover, replacement of animal testing is needed because it involves ethical, legal, and cost issues. Thus, there is a strong requirement for validated and reliable, if achievable, human stem cell-based developmental assays for pharmacological and toxicological screening. PMID:22557918

  15. Microbioreactors for Stem Cell Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald O. Freytes; Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a During tissue development and regeneration, stem cells respond to the entire milieu of their environment, through dynamic\\u000a interactions with the surrounding cells, extracellular matrix, and cascades of molecular and physical regulatory factors.\\u000a A new generation of culture systems is emerging to offer some of the biological fidelity of a whole organism within highly\\u000a controllable in vitro settings and provide the

  16. Methods for Stem Cell Production and Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo (Inventor); Valluri, Jagan V. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for rapidly expanding a stem cell population with or without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention relates to methods for rapidly increasing the life span of stem cell populations without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention also relates to methods for increasing the sensitivity of cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions and in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The methods of the present invention can also be used to proliferate cancer cells by culturing them in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The present invention also relates to methods for testing the sensitivity of cancer cells and cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer cells and cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce tissue for use in transplantation by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors to promote differentiation of cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions.

  17. Large animal models for cardiac stem cell therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gandolfi; A. Vanelli; G. Pennarossa; M. Rahaman; F. Acocella; T. A. L. Brevini

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in developed countries and is one of the leading causes of disease burden in developing countries. Therapies have markedly increased survival in several categories of patients, nonetheless mortality still remains high. For this reason high hopes are associated with recent developments in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine that promise to replace

  18. Dormancy in the stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tissues characterized by constant turnover contain post-mitotic, terminally differentiated cells originating from highly proliferative progenitors, which in turn derive from a relatively small population of stem cells. At the population level, self-renewal and differentiation are the possible outcomes of stem cell proliferation; overall, however, stem cells are quiescent if compared with their direct progeny. The recent discovery of a particularly quiescent, or dormant, subpopulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) raises a number of fundamental questions. As stem cell fate is influenced by the signals integrated by the stem cell niche, will dormant HSCs reside in specific dormant niches? Is the mechanism of dormancy common to multiple regenerating tissues or specific to the hematopoietic system? If cancer is maintained by a few cancer stem cells, do they also contain a subpopulation of dormant cells, and could this be exploited for therapeutic purposes? PMID:22429750

  19. Dormancy in the stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Sottocornola, Roberta; Lo Celso, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Tissues characterized by constant turnover contain post-mitotic, terminally differentiated cells originating from highly proliferative progenitors, which in turn derive from a relatively small population of stem cells. At the population level, self-renewal and differentiation are the possible outcomes of stem cell proliferation; overall, however, stem cells are quiescent if compared with their direct progeny. The recent discovery of a particularly quiescent, or dormant, subpopulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) raises a number of fundamental questions. As stem cell fate is influenced by the signals integrated by the stem cell niche, will dormant HSCs reside in specific dormant niches? Is the mechanism of dormancy common to multiple regenerating tissues or specific to the hematopoietic system? If cancer is maintained by a few cancer stem cells, do they also contain a subpopulation of dormant cells, and could this be exploited for therapeutic purposes? PMID:22429750

  20. Insights & Perspectives Characterization of stem cells and

    E-print Network

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    Insights & Perspectives Characterization of stem cells and cancer cells on the basis of gene; robustness; stem cell Introduction Robustness and plasticity are essential features of all biological systems cell-cell interaction explains mutational robustness of differentiated cells and suggests how cancer

  1. Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert Gold; Michael Dean

    \\u000a One aspect of the analogy between embryogenesis and cancer is the emphasis on rapid cell division and self-renewal from a\\u000a small number of immortal cells. A key understanding in developmental biology is the concept of determination and its consequences,\\u000a in the form of lineage totipotency, pluripotency, multipotency, and unipotency. The normal cell fate decision point involves\\u000a epigenetic mechanisms that are

  2. Potential of stem cell treatment in detrusor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2014-10-23

    The current treatments of bladder dysfunctions, such as bladder overactivity and impaired ability to empty, have limitations, and new treatment alternatives are needed. Stem cell transplantation and tissue engineering have shown promising results in preclinical studies. Stem cells were originally thought to act by differentiating into various cell types, thereby replacing damaged cells and restoring functional deficits. Even if such a mechanism cannot be excluded, the current belief is that a main action is exerted by the stem cells secreting bioactive factors that direct other stem cells to the target organ. In addition, stem cells may exert a number of other effects that can improve bladder dysfunction, since they may have antiapoptotic, antifibrotic, and immunomodulatory properties, and can induce neovascularization. Tissue engineering for bladder replacement, which has had varying success in different animal species, has reached the proof-of-concept state in humans, but recent research suggests that the present approaches may not be optimal. Further studies on new approaches, using animal models with translational predictability, seem necessary for further progress. PMID:25453263

  3. Cancer Stem Cells in Brain Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Wang; Chitra Venugopal; Sheila K. Singh

    \\u000a Several lines of evidence suggest that brain tumors arise from the ­transformation of a normal neural stem cell (NSC) or progenitor\\u000a cell, which relies on the recognition of the many functional and genetic similarities shared by somatic stem cells and cancer\\u000a cells. A minority population of human brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) was identified through application of stem cell\\u000a assays

  4. Endometrial stem cells in regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    First described in 2004, endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) are adult stem cells isolated from the endometrial tissue. EnSCs comprise of a population of epithelial stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and side population stem cells. When secreted in the menstrual blood, they are termed menstrual stem cells or endometrial regenerative cells. Mounting evidence suggests that EnSCs can be utilized in regenerative medicine. EnSCs can be used as immuno-modulatory agents to attenuate inflammation, are implicated in angiogenesis and vascularization during tissue regeneration, and can also be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. Furthermore, EnSCs can be used in tissue engineering applications and there are several clinical trials currently in place to ascertain the therapeutic potential of EnSCs. This review highlights the progress made in EnSC research, describing their mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal potentials both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25097665

  5. Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Myocardial Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Orlic; Richard O. Cannon III

    Adult bone marrow consists of several populations of stem cells that are the focus of investigations into their potential\\u000a to regenerate nonhematopoietic tissues. According to this hypothesis, bone marrow stem cells display a plasticity not previously\\u000a recognized. Although data supporting bone marrow stem cell plasticity is extensive, many researchers dispute this concept.\\u000a One of the most controversial aspects of stem

  6. Amniotic fluid stem cells prevent ?-cell injury

    PubMed Central

    VILLANI, VALENTINA; MILANESI, ANNA; SEDRAKYAN, SARGIS; DA SACCO, STEFANO; ANGELOW, SUSANNE; CONCONI, MARIA TERESA; DI LIDDO, ROSA; DE FILIPPO, ROGER; PERIN, LAURA

    2015-01-01

    Background aims The contribution of amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) to tissue protection and regeneration in models of acute and chronic kidney injuries and lung failure has been shown in recent years. In the present study, we used a chemically induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes to determine whether AFSC could play a role in modulating ?-cell injury and restoring ?-cell function. Methods Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were given intracardial injection of AFSC; morphological and physiological parameters and gene expression profile for the insulin pathway were evaluated after cell transplantation. Results AFSC injection resulted in protection from ?-cell damage and increased ?-cell regeneration in a subset of mice as indicated by glucose and insulin levels, increased islet mass and preservation of islet structure. Moreover, ?-cell preservation/regeneration correlated with activation of the insulin receptor/Pi3K/Akt signaling pathway and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression involved in maintaining ?-cell mass and function. Conclusions Our results suggest a therapeutic role for AFSC in preserving and promoting endogenous ?-cell functionality and proliferation. The protective role of AFSC is evident when stem cell transplantation is performed before severe hyperglycemia occurs, which suggests the importance of early intervention. The present study demonstrates the possible benefits of the application of a non–genetically engineered stem cell population derived from amniotic fluid for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus and gives new insight on the mechanism by which the beneficial effect is achieved. PMID:24210784

  7. Generation of Trophoblast Stem Cells from Rabbit Embryonic Stem Cells with BMP4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Tan; Xianghui Tang; Jing Zhang; Yuyu Niu; Hongwei Chen; Bin Li; Qiang Wei; Weizhi Ji; Anton Wutz

    2011-01-01

    Trophoblast stem (TS) cells are ideal models to investigate trophectoderm differentiation and placental development. Herein, we describe the derivation of rabbit trophoblast stem cells from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Rabbit ES cells generated in our laboratory were induced to differentiate in the presence of BMP4 and TS-like cell colonies were isolated and expanded. These cells expressed the molecular markers of

  8. Stem cells in the Drosophila digestive system.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiankun; Chauhan, Chhavi; Hou, Steven X

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis by continuously replenishing damaged, aged and dead cells in any organism. Five types of region and organ-specific multipotent adult stem cells have been identified in the Drosophila digestive system: intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the posterior midgut; hindgut intestinal stem cells (HISCs) at the midgut/hindgut junction; renal and nephric stem cells (RNSCs) in the Malpighian Tubules; type I gastric stem cells (GaSCs) at foregut/midgut junction; and type II gastric stem cells (GSSCs) at the middle of the midgut. Despite the fact that each type of stem cell is unique to a particular organ, they share common molecular markers and some regulatory signaling pathways. Due to the simpler tissue structure, ease of performing genetic analysis, and availability of abundant mutants, Drosophila serves as an elegant and powerful model system to study complex stem cell biology. The recent discoveries, particularly in the Drosophila ISC system, have greatly advanced our understanding of stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and the role of stem cells play in tissue homeostasis/regeneration and adaptive tissue growth. PMID:23696352

  9. Saving Superman: Ethics and Stem Cell Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Doug M. Post

    2006-01-01

    This case explores the political and ethical issues associated with stem cell research. Students read the case describing Christopher Reeve’s accident and injuries and his advocacy for stem cell research along with background readings on stem cells and the ethics of stem cell research. They are then assigned to one of four stakeholder groups and asked to develop a position on whether or not the U.S. Senate should expand stem cell research with a focus on the ethics underlying the issue.  They present their positions in class in a simulated public hearing.

  10. Embryonic Stem Cell Patents and Human Dignity

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity. After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells do not. Since patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells may still threaten human dignity by encouraging people to treat embryos as property, patent agencies should carefully monitor and control these patents to ensure that patents are not inadvertently awarded on embryos or totipotent stem cells. PMID:17922198

  11. Similarity on neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in transgenic brain tumor mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Guanqun; Li, Qingquan; Peng, Gang; Ma, Jun; Fan, Hongwei; Li, Yingbin

    2013-01-01

    Although it is believed that glioma is derived from brain tumor stem cells, the source and molecular signal pathways of these cells are still unclear. In this study, we used stable doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse brain tumor models (c-myc+/SV40Tag+/Tet-on+) to explore the malignant trans-formation potential of neural stem cells by observing the differences of neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in the tumor models. Results showed that chromosome instability occurred in brain tumor stem cells. The numbers of cytolysosomes and autophagosomes in brain tumor stem cells and induced neural stem cells were lower and the proliferative activity was obviously stronger than that in normal neural stem cells. Normal neural stem cells could differentiate into glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive and microtubule associated protein-2-positive cells, which were also negative for nestin. However, glial fibrillary acidic protein/nestin, microtubule associated protein-2/nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein/microtubule associated protein-2 double-positive cells were found in induced neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells. Results indicate that induced neural stem cells are similar to brain tumor stem cells, and are possibly the source of brain tumor stem cells. PMID:25206546

  12. The Game of Life: Stem Cell Edition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, learners play a game that models what happens as stem cells differentiate into different cell types. As learners play, they'll discover that a wide variety of cells can arise as different "cell fate decisions" are made along a stem cell's developmental path.

  13. Stem Cells, Science, and Public Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbut, J. Benjamin; Robert, Jason Scott

    2012-01-01

    These are interesting days in the scientific, social, and political debates about human embryonic stem cell research. Pluripotent stem cells--cells that can, in principle, give rise to the body's full range of cell types--were previously derivable only from human embryos that were destroyed in the process. Now, a variety of somatic cell types can…

  14. [Adult stem cells: their scientific interest and therapeutic future].

    PubMed

    Coulombel, L

    2007-09-01

    Fascinating and provocative findings have shaken the stem cell field during these past years, which may be exploited in the future in cell replacement therapies. Continuous renewal of blood, skin, and gut cells, has long be attributed to stem cells, but it was more unexpected to identify cells that fulfil the requirements for stem-progenitor cells in many tissues with a slow turnover such as heart, kidney, muscle and brain. However, despite their lack of risk and immunological barrier, adult stem cells are yet of poor therapeutic value in many diseases, because they are available in scarce number, are poorly amplified, and loose potential with ageing, among many obstacles. Thus, the identification in adult, and more recently fetal tissues, of cells with a high proliferative capacity and multi-lineage differentiation potential has been wellcome, although their existence is still a matter of controversy. An alternative would be to activate stem cells in situ, by acting on components of the niche as recently exemplified in the hematopoetic system. Finally, as fiction meets reality, it may become possible to reprogram human adult cells in pluripotent ES cells-like, as recently demonstrated in mice. PMID:17766162

  15. Human hair genealogies and stem cell latency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Yeon Kim; Simon Tavaré; Darryl Shibata

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stem cells divide to reproduce themselves and produce differentiated progeny. A fundamental problem in human biology has been the inability to measure how often stem cells divide. Although it is impossible to observe every division directly, one method for counting divisions is to count replication errors; the greater the number of divisions, the greater the numbers of errors. Stem

  16. Therapeutic Potential of Stem Cells in Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Roche; R. Enseñat-Waser; J. A. Reig; J. Jones; T. León-Quinto; B. Soria

    Stem cells possess the ability to self-renew by symmetric divisions and, under certain circumstances, differentiate to a committed\\u000a lineage by asymmetric cell divisions. Depending on the origin, stem cells are classified as either embryonic or adult. Embryonic\\u000a stem cells are obtained from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, a structure that appears during embryonic development\\u000a at day 6 in

  17. Sources of Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Hipp; Anthony Atala

    2008-01-01

    The shortage of organ donors for regenerative medicine has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based\\u000a therapy. Stem cells have been used widely for regenerative medicine applications. The development of innovative methods to\\u000a generate stem cells from different sources suggests that there may be new alternatives for cell-based therapies. Here, we\\u000a provide an overview of human

  18. Stem cells and diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Berná; T León-Quinto; R Enseñat-Waser; E Montanya; F Martín; B Soria

    2001-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting 2–5% of the population. Transplantation of isolated islets of Langerhans from donor pancreata could be a cure for diabetes; however, such an approach is limited by the scarcity of the transplantation material and the long-term side effects of immunosuppressive therapy. These problems may be overcome by using a renewable source of cells, such

  19. Stem cell tracking with optically active nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Cui, Yan; Chan, Jerry KY; Xu, Chenjie

    2013-01-01

    Stem-cell-based therapies hold promise and potential to address many unmet clinical needs. Cell tracking with modern imaging modalities offers insight into the underlying biological process of the stem-cell-based therapies, with the goal to reveal cell survival, migration, homing, engraftment, differentiation, and functions. Adaptability, sensitivity, resolution, and non-invasiveness have contributed to the longstanding use of optical imaging for stem cell tracking and analysis. To identify transplanted stem cells from the host tissue, optically active probes are usually used to label stem cells before the administration. In comparison to the traditional fluorescent probes like fluorescent proteins and dyes, nanoparticle-based probes are advantageous in terms of the photo-stabilities and minimal changes to the cell phenotype. The main focus here is to overview the recent development of optically active nanoparticles for stem cells tracking. The related optical imaging modalities include fluorescence imaging, photoacoustic imaging, Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy imaging. PMID:23638335

  20. Stem cells and neurodegenerative diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LingLing Hou; Tao Hong

    2008-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the neurodegenerative changes or apoptosis of neurons involved in networks,\\u000a which are important to specific physiological functions. With the development of old-aging society, the incidence of neurodegenerative\\u000a diseases is on the increase. However, it is difficult to diagnose for most of neurodegenerative diseases. At present, there\\u000a are too few effective therapies. Advances in stem cell

  1. Elimination of Cancer Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sagrera; J. Pérez-Losada; M. Pérez-Caro; R. Jiménez; I. Sánchez-García; C. Cobaleda

    \\u000a The acceptance of the Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) concept has revolutionized all aspects of our understanding of cancer biology,\\u000a from the cellular origin of cancer to its growth and expansion, shedding new light into the interrelations of all the cellular\\u000a components of the tumour and their role in its progression. From the therapeutic point of view, the existence of CSCs

  2. Interplay between Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L.; Zhao, Y.; Shi, S.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to their potential for replacing damaged and diseased tissues by differentiating into tissue-specific cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to interact closely with immune cells, such as lymphocytes. In this review, we will discuss current research regarding the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs and the effects of lymphocytes on MSCs. We will suggest how these findings could be translated to potential clinical treatment. MSCs can regulate immune response by inducing activated T-cell apoptosis through the FAS ligand (FASL)/FAS-mediated death pathway via cell-cell contact, leading to up-regulation of regulatory T-cells (Tregs), which ultimately results in immune tolerance. Conversely, lymphocytes can impair survival and osteogenic differentiation of implanted MSCs by secreting the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-? and TNF-? and/or through the FASL/FAS-mediated death pathway, thereby negatively affecting MSC-mediated tissue regeneration. One novel strategy to improve MSC-based tissue engineering involves the reduction of IFN-? and TNF-? concentration by systemic infusion of Tregs or local application of aspirin. Further understanding of the mechanisms underlying the interplay between lymphocytes and MSCs may be helpful in the development of promising approaches to improve cell-based regenerative medicine and immune therapies. PMID:22988011

  3. Reconstitution of Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis by Murine Embryonic Stem Cells Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuxian Jiang; Byeong-Chel Lee; Yigong Fu; Shalom Avraham; Bing Lim; Hava Karsenty Avraham

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundMammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the

  4. Cell Stem Cell Short Article

    E-print Network

    Lahav, Galit

    readiness for apoptosis, known as mito- chondrial priming, differs between hESCs and differ- entiated cells through two primary mechanisms. First, nuclear p53 activates the transcription of proapoptotic genes

  5. Intestinal stem cells and celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Piscaglia, Anna Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells (SCs) are the key to tissue genesis and regeneration. Given their central role in homeostasis, dysfunctions of the SC compartment play a pivotal role in the development of cancers, degenerative disorders, chronic inflammatory pathologies and organ failure. The gastrointestinal tract is constantly exposed to harsh mechanical and chemical conditions and most of the epithelial cells are replaced every 3 to 5 d. According to the so-called Unitarian hypothesis, this renewal is driven by a common intestinal stem cell (ISC) residing within the crypt base at the origin of the crypt-to-villus hierarchical migratory pattern. Celiac disease (CD) can be defined as a chronic immune-mediated disease that is triggered and maintained by dietary proteins (gluten) in genetically predisposed individuals. Many advances have been achieved over the last years in understanding of the pathogenic interactions among genetic, immunological and environmental factors in CD, with a particular emphasis on intestinal barrier and gut microbiota. Conversely, little is known about ISC modulation and deregulation in active celiac disease and upon a gluten-free diet. Nonetheless, bone marrow-derived SC transplantation has become an option for celiac patients with complicated or refractory disease. This manuscript summarizes the “state of the art” regarding CD and ISCs, their niche and potential role in the development and treatment of the disease. PMID:24772248

  6. On the existence of cardiomesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Betancourt, José R; Hernández, Salomón

    2015-05-01

    The most efficient cells for cardiac regeneration are myocardium-resident cardiac stem cells. However, the limited availability of these cells restricts their utility for cardiac cellular therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into a wide variety of tissues, but it is not simple to accurately direct cell differentiation into a specific lineage, such as cardiac tissue; this renders a low efficiency for cardiac regeneration therapy. Given the heterogeneity of mesenchymal stem cells, it may be possible to find specific stem cell subpopulations with a definite differentiation capacity toward cardiac lineage. A parameter to assess cardiac differentiation specificity could be surface marker expression; a population with an immunophenotype similar to cardiac stem cells may have a superior therapeutic value than unsorted mesenchymal stem cells. We hypothesize the existence of a cell line that combines the expression of cardiac stem cell surface markers with those of mesenchymal stem cells, a suitable name for this population is cardiomesenchymal stem cells (CMSC); such cells would be ideal for cardiac regeneration. PMID:25769705

  7. Stem cells in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Soto, Angel R; Oakley, Derek H; Wichterle, Hynek; Stein, Joel; Doetsch, Fiona K; Henderson, Christopher E

    2014-11-01

    Given their capacity to regenerate cells lost through injury or disease, stem cells offer new vistas into possible treatments for degenerative diseases and their underlying causes. As such, stem cell biology is emerging as a driving force behind many studies in regenerative medicine. This review focuses on the current understanding of the applications of stem cells in treating ailments of the human brain, with an emphasis on neurodegenerative diseases. Two types of neural stem cells are discussed: endogenous neural stem cells residing within the adult brain and pluripotent stem cells capable of forming neural cells in culture. Endogenous neural stem cells give rise to neurons throughout life, but they are restricted to specialized regions in the brain. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms regulating these cells is key in determining their therapeutic potential as well as finding mechanisms to activate dormant stem cells outside these specialized microdomains. In parallel, patient-derived stem cells can be used to generate neural cells in culture, providing new tools for disease modeling, drug testing, and cell-based therapies. Turning these technologies into viable treatments will require the integration of basic science with clinical skills in rehabilitation. PMID:24800720

  8. Switching stem cell state through programmed germ cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Gillich, Astrid; Hayashi, Katsuhiko

    2011-06-01

    Depending on their origin, embryo-derived stem cells have distinct properties that largely correspond to their counterpart in vivo. Mouse epiblast stem cells derived from post-implantation embryos differ from embryonic stem cells derived from blastocysts in their transcriptional and epigenetic profile, their morphology and culture requirements. When maintained in appropriate conditions, the cells keep self-renewing and do not adopt a different state. Recent studies, however, show that it is possible to convert between stem cell states. Here we review recent advances to induce stem cell state changes and we consider the potential of germ cell-mediated reprogramming for the conversion. Since the properties of mouse epiblast stem cells are similar to human embryonic stem cells, we discuss the significance of stem cell conversion and germ cell-mediated reprogramming in humans. PMID:21330045

  9. Designer T cells by T cell receptor replacement.

    PubMed

    Sommermeyer, Daniel; Neudorfer, Julia; Weinhold, Monika; Leisegang, Matthias; Engels, Boris; Noessner, Elfriede; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M; Charo, Jehad; Schendel, Dolores J; Blankenstein, Thomas; Bernhard, Helga; Uckert, Wolfgang

    2006-11-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer is a convenient method to produce antigen-specific T cells for adoptive therapy. However, the expression of two TCR in T cells could impair their function or cause unwanted effects by mixed TCR heterodimers. With five different TCR and four different T cells, either mouse or human, we show that some TCR are strong--in terms of cell surface expression--and replace weak TCR on the cell surface, resulting in exchange of antigen specificity. Two strong TCR are co-expressed. A mouse TCR replaces human TCR on human T cells. Even though it is still poorly understood why some TCRalpha/beta combinations are preferentially expressed on T cells, our data suggest that, in the future, designer T cells with exclusive tumor reactivity can be generated by T cell engineering. PMID:17051621

  10. Reforming craniofacial orthodontics via stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Pritam; Prasad, N.K.K.; Sahoo, Nivedita; Kumar, Gunjan; Mohanty, Debapreeti; Sah, Sushila

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are the most interesting cells in cell biology. They have the potential to evolve as one of the most powerful technologies in the future. The future refers to an age where it will be used extensively in various fields of medical and dental sciences. Researchers have discovered a number of sources from which stem cells can be derived. Craniofacial problems are very common and occur at all ages. Stem cells can be used therapeutically in almost every field of health science. In fact, many procedures will be reformed after stem cells come into play. This article is an insight into the review of the current researches being carried out on stem cells and its use in the field of orthodontics, which is a specialized branch of dentistry. Although the future is uncertain, there is a great possibility that stem cells will be used extensively in almost all major procedures of orthodontics.

  11. Combination stem cell therapy for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ichim, Thomas E; Solano, Fabio; Lara, Fabian; Rodriguez, Jorge Paz; Cristea, Octav; Minev, Boris; Ramos, Famela; Woods, Erik J; Murphy, Michael P; Alexandrescu, Doru T; Patel, Amit N; Riordan, Neil H

    2010-01-01

    Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) that are not eligible for transplantation have limited therapeutic options. Stem cell therapy such as autologous bone marrow, mobilized peripheral blood, or purified cells thereof has been used clinically since 2001. To date over 1000 patients have received cellular therapy as part of randomized trials, with the general consensus being that a moderate but statistically significant benefit occurs. Therefore, one of the important next steps in the field is optimization. In this paper we discuss three ways to approach this issue: a) increasing stem cell migration to the heart; b) augmenting stem cell activity; and c) combining existing stem cell therapies to recapitulate a "therapeutic niche". We conclude by describing a case report of a heart failure patient treated with a combination stem cell protocol in an attempt to augment beneficial aspects of cord blood CD34 cells and mesenchymal-like stem cells. PMID:20398245

  12. Combination stem cell therapy for heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) that are not eligible for transplantation have limited therapeutic options. Stem cell therapy such as autologous bone marrow, mobilized peripheral blood, or purified cells thereof has been used clinically since 2001. To date over 1000 patients have received cellular therapy as part of randomized trials, with the general consensus being that a moderate but statistically significant benefit occurs. Therefore, one of the important next steps in the field is optimization. In this paper we discuss three ways to approach this issue: a) increasing stem cell migration to the heart; b) augmenting stem cell activity; and c) combining existing stem cell therapies to recapitulate a "therapeutic niche". We conclude by describing a case report of a heart failure patient treated with a combination stem cell protocol in an attempt to augment beneficial aspects of cord blood CD34 cells and mesenchymal-like stem cells. PMID:20398245

  13. Stem Cells for Augmenting Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Gulotta, Lawrence V.; Chaudhury, Salma; Wiznia, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Tendon healing is fraught with complications such as reruptures and adhesion formation due to the formation of scar tissue at the injury site as opposed to the regeneration of native tissue. Stem cells are an attractive option in developing cell-based therapies to improve tendon healing. However, several questions remain to be answered before stem cells can be used clinically. Specifically, the type of stem cell, the amount of cells, and the proper combination of growth factors or mechanical stimuli to induce differentiation all remain to be seen. This paper outlines the current literature on the use of stem cells for tendon augmentation. PMID:22190960

  14. Application of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Experimental Nephrology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahito Ito; Akira Suzuki; Masaru Okabe; Enyu Imai; Masatsugu Hori

    2001-01-01

    Recent advancement in developmental biology has led to the discovery of immature mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow and several established organs. The therapeutic potentials of such stem cells for treating serious diseases constitute a major rationale for every research effort, and clinical trials for replacing some damaged tissues such as cartilage are currently under way. Although the feasibility of

  15. Neutral competition of stem cells is skewed by proliferative changes downstream of Hh and Hpo

    PubMed Central

    Amoyel, Marc; Simons, Benjamin D; Bach, Erika A

    2014-01-01

    Neutral competition, an emerging feature of stem cell homeostasis, posits that individual stem cells can be lost and replaced by their neighbors stochastically, resulting in chance dominance of a clone at the niche. A single stem cell with an oncogenic mutation could bias this process and clonally spread the mutation throughout the stem cell pool. The Drosophila testis provides an ideal system for testing this model. The niche supports two stem cell populations that compete for niche occupancy. Here, we show that cyst stem cells (CySCs) conform to the paradigm of neutral competition and that clonal deregulation of either the Hedgehog (Hh) or Hippo (Hpo) pathway allows a single CySC to colonize the niche. We find that the driving force behind such behavior is accelerated proliferation. Our results demonstrate that a single stem cell colonizes its niche through oncogenic mutation by co-opting an underlying homeostatic process. PMID:25092766

  16. Neutral competition of stem cells is skewed by proliferative changes downstream of Hh and Hpo.

    PubMed

    Amoyel, Marc; Simons, Benjamin D; Bach, Erika A

    2014-10-16

    Neutral competition, an emerging feature of stem cell homeostasis, posits that individual stem cells can be lost and replaced by their neighbors stochastically, resulting in chance dominance of a clone at the niche. A single stem cell with an oncogenic mutation could bias this process and clonally spread the mutation throughout the stem cell pool. The Drosophila testis provides an ideal system for testing this model. The niche supports two stem cell populations that compete for niche occupancy. Here, we show that cyst stem cells (CySCs) conform to the paradigm of neutral competition and that clonal deregulation of either the Hedgehog (Hh) or Hippo (Hpo) pathway allows a single CySC to colonize the niche. We find that the driving force behind such behavior is accelerated proliferation. Our results demonstrate that a single stem cell colonizes its niche through oncogenic mutation by co-opting an underlying homeostatic process. PMID:25092766

  17. Generation, Culture, and Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Therapeutic Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin Yong Moon; Yong Bin Park; Dae-Sung Kim; Sun Kyung Oh; Dong-Wook Kim

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst, can continuously proliferate in an undifferentiated state and can also be induced to differentiate into a desired cell lineage. These abilities make ES cells an appealing source for cell replacement therapies, the study of developmental biology, and drug\\/toxin screening studies. As compared to mouse ES cells,

  18. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)] [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)] [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)] [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)] [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  19. Transdifferentiation of Stem Cells: A Critical View

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ina Gruh; Ulrich Martin

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Recently a large amount of new data on the plasticity of stem cells of various lineages have emerged, providing new perspectives\\u000a especially for the therapeutic application of adult stem cells. Previously unknown possibilities of cell differentiation beyond\\u000a the known commitment of a given stem cell have been described using keywords such as “blood to liver,” or “bone to brain.”\\u000a Controversies

  20. Stem cells and the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, stem cells have been heralded as potential therapeutic agents to address a large number of degenerative diseases. Yet, in order to rationally utilize these cells as effective therapeutic agents, and\\/or improve treatment of stem-cell-associated malignancies such as leukemias and carcinomas, a better understanding of the basic biological properties of stem cells needs to be acquired. A major

  1. Pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells: From basic research to applications

    PubMed Central

    Otsu, Masahiro; Nakayama, Takashi; Inoue, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    Basic research on pluripotent stem cells is designed to enhance understanding of embryogenesis, whereas applied research is designed to develop novel therapies and prevent diseases. Attainment of these goals has been enhanced by the establishment of embryonic stem cell lines, the technological development of genomic reprogramming to generate induced-pluripotent stem cells, and improvements in vitro techniques to manipulate stem cells. This review summarizes the techniques required to generate neural cells from pluripotent stem cells. In particular, this review describes current research applications of a simple neural differentiation method, the neural stem sphere method, which we developed. PMID:25426263

  2. Stem cell therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjolijn Duijvestein

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and mesenchymal stromal (MSC) cell therapy are currently under investigation as novel therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Hematopoietic stem cells are thought to repopulate the immune system and reset the immunological response to luminal antigens. MSCs have the capacity to differentiate into a wide variety of distinct cell lineages and to suppress immune responses

  3. Tissue Engineering Using Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahar Cohen; Lucy Leshanski

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of using stem cells for tissue engineering has greatly encouraged scientists to design new platforms in the field of regenerative and reconstructive medicine. Stem cells have the ability to rejuvenate and repair damaged tissues and can be derived from both embryonic and adult sources. Among cell types suggested as a cell source for tissue engineering (TE), human embryonic

  4. Culture and differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Austin G. Smith

    1991-01-01

    Summary Techniques are described for the culture of murine embryonic stem cells in the absence of heterologous feeder cells and for the induction of differentiation programs. The regulatory factor differentiation inhibiting activity\\/ leukaemia inhibitory factor (DIA\\/LIF) is produced at high concentration by transient expression in Cos cells and is used to suppress stem cell differentiation by addition to the culture

  5. Preclinical Assessment of Stem Cell Therapies for Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Joers, Valerie L.; Emborg, Marina E.

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells, as subjects of study for use in treating neurological diseases, are envisioned as a replacement for lost neurons and glia, a means of trophic support, a therapeutic vehicle, and, more recently, a tool for in vitro modeling to understand disease and to screen and personalize treatments. In this review we analyze the requirements of stem cell–based therapy for clinical translation, advances in stem cell research toward clinical application for neurological disorders, and different animal models used for analysis of these potential therapies. We focus on Parkinson’s disease (typically defined by the progressive loss of dopaminergic nigral neurons), stroke (neurodegeneration associated with decreased blood perfusion in the brain), and multiple sclerosis (an autoimmune disorder that generates demyelination, axonal damage, astrocytic scarring, and neurodegeneration in the brain and spinal cord). We chose these disorders for their diversity and the number of people affected by them. An additional important consideration was the availability of multiple animal models in which to test stem cell applications for these diseases. We also discuss the relationship between the limited number of systematic stem cell studies performed in animals, in particular nonhuman primates and the delayed progress in advancing stem cell therapies to clinical success. PMID:20075496

  6. Label Retaining Cells and Cutaneous Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasily V. Terskikh; Andrey V. Vasiliev; Ekaterina A. Vorotelyak

    This is a comprehensive review on label retaining cells (LRC) in epidermal development and homeostasis. The precise in vivo\\u000a identification and location of epidermal stem cells is a crucial issue in cutaneous biology. We discuss here the following\\u000a problems: (1) Identification and location of LRC in the interfollicular epithelium and hair follicle; (2) The proliferative\\u000a potential of LRC and their

  7. Cell replacement therapies for nervous system regeneration.

    PubMed

    López-Bendito, Guillermina; Arlotta, Paola

    2012-02-01

    The adult brain was thought to be a slowly decaying organ, a sophisticated but flawed machine condemned to inevitable decline. Today we know that the brain is more plastic than previously assumed, as most prominently demonstrated by the constitutive birth of new neurons that occurs in selected regions of the adult brain, even in humans. However, the overall modest capacity for endogenous repair of the central nervous system (CNS) has sparked interest in understanding the barriers to neuronal regeneration and in developing novel approaches to enable neuronal and circuit repair for therapeutic benefit in neurodegenerative disorders and traumatic injuries. Scientists recently assembled in Baeza, a picturesque town in the south of Spain, to discuss aspects of CNS regeneration. The picture that emerged shows how an integrated view of developmental and adult neurogenesis may inform the manipulation of neural progenitors, differentiated cells, and pluripotent stem cells for therapeutic benefit and foster new understanding of the inner limits of brain plasticity. PMID:21557508

  8. Cell Stem Cell Limited Acquisition of Chromosomal Aberrations

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cell Stem Cell Letters Limited Acquisition of Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Adult Mesenchymal 4Emory University Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA 5Section of Hematology, Stem Cell Acquisition of Lineage- Specific Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Adult Stem Cells,'' Ben-David and colleagues

  9. J Cell Biochem . Author manuscript Optimizing stem cell culture

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    J Cell Biochem . Author manuscript Page /1 7 Optimizing stem cell culture Boudewijn Van Der Sanden * Correspondence should be adressed to: Didier Wion Abstract Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical

  10. Cell Stem Cell Developmental Stage and Time Dictate the Fate

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    Cell Stem Cell Article Developmental Stage and Time Dictate the Fate of Wnt/b-Catenin-Responsive Stem Cells in the Mammary Gland Rene´ e van Amerongen,1,2,* Angela N. Bowman,1 and Roel Nusse1,* 1 a role for stem cells. Yet their origin, identity, and behavior in the intact tissue remain unknown

  11. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, cells

    E-print Network

    Gifford, David K.

    Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, cells Sinisa Hrvatina , Charles W. O , David K. Giffordb , and Douglas A. Meltona,e,1 a Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard Stem Cell Institute and e Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138

  12. Cell Stem Cell The Adult Mouse and Human Pancreas Contain

    E-print Network

    Cell Stem Cell Article The Adult Mouse and Human Pancreas Contain Rare Multipotent Stem Cells.smukler@utoronto.ca DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2011.01.015 SUMMARY The search for putative precursor cells within the pancreas has been the focus of extensive research. Previously, we identified rare pancreas-derived mul- tipotent

  13. Hunt for Pluripotent Stem Cell – Regenerative Medicine Search for Almighty Cell

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.; Zuba-Surma, Ewa K.; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Wan, Wu; Ratajczak, Janina; Kucia, Magda

    2009-01-01

    Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are searching for a novel stem cell based therapeutic strategy that will allow for efficient treatment or even potential replacement of damaged organs. The pluripotent stem cell (PSC) which gives rise to cells from all three germ lineages, seems to be the most ideal candidate for such therapies. PSC could be extracted from developing embryos. However, since this source of stem cells for potential therapeutic purposes remains controversial, stem cell researchers look for PSC that could be isolated from the adult tissues or generated from already differentiated cells. True PSC should possess both potential for multilineage differentiation in vitro and, more importantly, also be able to complement in vivo blastocyst development. This review will summarize current approaches and limitations to isolate PSC from adult tissues or, alternatively, to generate it by nuclear reprogramming from already differentiated somatic cells. PMID:18243661

  14. Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization therapy accelerates recovery of renal function independent of stem cell contribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geurt Stokman; Jaklien C. Leemans; Nike Claessen; Jan J. Weening; Sandrine Florquin

    2005-01-01

    Acute renal failure and tubular cell loss as a result of ischemia constitute major challenges in renal pathophysiology. Increasing evidence suggests important roles for bone marrow stem cells in the regeneration of renal tissue after injury. This study investigated whether the enhanced availability of hematopoietic stem cells, induced by stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, to the injured kidney

  15. Stem cell therapy for autism.

    PubMed

    Ichim, Thomas E; Solano, Fabio; Glenn, Eduardo; Morales, Frank; Smith, Leonard; Zabrecky, George; Riordan, Neil H

    2007-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions whose incidence is reaching epidemic proportions, afflicting approximately 1 in 166 children. Autistic disorder, or autism is the most common form of ASD. Although several neurophysiological alterations have been associated with autism, immune abnormalities and neural hypoperfusion appear to be broadly consistent. These appear to be causative since correlation of altered inflammatory responses, and hypoperfusion with symptology is reported. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are in late phases of clinical development for treatment of graft versus host disease and Crohn's Disease, two conditions of immune dysregulation. Cord blood CD34+ cells are known to be potent angiogenic stimulators, having demonstrated positive effects in not only peripheral ischemia, but also in models of cerebral ischemia. Additionally, anecdotal clinical cases have reported responses in autistic children receiving cord blood CD34+ cells. We propose the combined use of MSC and cord blood CD34+cells may be useful in the treatment of autism. PMID:17597540

  16. Stem Cell Therapy for Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ichim, Thomas E; Solano, Fabio; Glenn, Eduardo; Morales, Frank; Smith, Leonard; Zabrecky, George; Riordan, Neil H

    2007-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions whose incidence is reaching epidemic proportions, afflicting approximately 1 in 166 children. Autistic disorder, or autism is the most common form of ASD. Although several neurophysiological alterations have been associated with autism, immune abnormalities and neural hypoperfusion appear to be broadly consistent. These appear to be causative since correlation of altered inflammatory responses, and hypoperfusion with symptology is reported. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are in late phases of clinical development for treatment of graft versus host disease and Crohn's Disease, two conditions of immune dysregulation. Cord blood CD34+ cells are known to be potent angiogenic stimulators, having demonstrated positive effects in not only peripheral ischemia, but also in models of cerebral ischemia. Additionally, anecdotal clinical cases have reported responses in autistic children receiving cord blood CD34+ cells. We propose the combined use of MSC and cord blood CD34+cells may be useful in the treatment of autism. PMID:17597540

  17. Perspectives Making Human Neurons from Stem Cells after Spinal Cord Injury

    E-print Network

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) has been recognized as one of the conditions for which stem cell transplantation might first prove beneficial [1]. After SCI, loss of localized myelinating oligodendrocytes and grey matter neurons occurs, with glial scar formation and degeneration of both descending and ascending axons (Figure 1). Replacement of oligodendrocytes to promote remyelination or of neurons to assuage neuronal loss and damage through establishment of relay circuitry or release of trophic factors, are possibilities for stem cell transplantation intervention. Scientists and clinicians recognize the need to move cautiously toward cell replacement goals, as damaging results due to premature clinical testing would be devastating for patients and the emerging stem cell neural repair field. Animal studies need to address fundamental questions—Which is the best cell source for neuron or oligodendrocyte replacement, what is the best location for transplantation, and what is the best time-course after injury? Embryonic Spinal Cord Stem Cells

  18. Extrafollicular Dermal Melanocyte Stem Cells and Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hoerter, James D.; Bradley, Patrick; Casillas, Alexandria; Chambers, Danielle; Denholm, Carli; Johnson, Kimberly; Weiswasser, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that extrafollicular dermal melanocyte stem cells (MSCs) persist after birth in the superficial nerve sheath of peripheral nerves and give rise to migratory melanocyte precursors when replacements for epidermal melanocytes are needed on the basal epidermal layer of the skin. If a damaged MSC or melanocyte precursor can be shown to be the primary origin of melanoma, targeted identification and eradication of it by antibody-based therapies will be the best method to treat melanoma and a very effective way to prevent its recurrence. Transcription factors and signaling pathways involved in MSC self-renewal, expansion and differentiation are reviewed. A model is presented to show how the detrimental effects of long-term UVA/UVB radiation on DNA and repair mechanisms in MSCs convert them to melanoma stem cells. Zebrafish have many advantages for investigating the role of MSCs in the development of melanoma. The signaling pathways regulating the development of MSCs in zebrafish are very similar to those found in humans and mice. The ability to easily manipulate the MSC population makes zebrafish an excellent model for studying how damage to MSCs may lead to melanoma. PMID:22666269

  19. Mammary stem cells have myoepithelial cell properties

    PubMed Central

    Prater, Michael D.; Petit, Valérie; Russell, I. Alasdair; Giraddi, Rajshekhar; Shehata, Mona; Menon, Suraj; Schulte, Reiner; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rath, Nicola; Olson, Michael F.; Metzger, Daniel; Faraldo, Marisa M.; Deugnier, Marie-Ange; Glukhova, Marina A.; Stingl, John

    2014-01-01

    Contractile myoepithelial cells dominate the basal layer of the mammary epithelium and are considered to be differentiated cells. However, we observe that up to 54% of single basal cells can form colonies when seeded into adherent culture in the presence of agents that disrupt acin-myosin interactions, and on average, 65% of the single-cell-derived basal colonies can repopulate a mammary gland when transplanted in vivo. This indicates that a high proportion of basal myoepithelial cells can give rise to a mammary repopulating unit (MRU). We demonstrate that myoepithelial cells, flow-sorted using 2 independent myoepithelial-specific reporter strategies, have MRU capacity. Using an inducible lineage tracing approach we follow the progeny of ?-smooth muscle actin-expressing myoepithelial cells and show that they function as long-lived lineage-restricted stem cells in the virgin state and during pregnancy. PMID:25173976

  20. Rac1 Is Required for Epithelial Stem Cell Function during Dermal and Oral Mucosal Wound Healing but Not for Tissue Homeostasis in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rogerio M. Castilho; Cristiane H. Squarize; Kantima Leelahavanichkul; Yi Zheng; Thomas Bugge; J. Silvio Gutkind; Erik H. J. Danen

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe regenerative capacity of the skin, including the continuous replacement of exfoliated cells and healing of injuries relies on the epidermal stem cells and their immediate cell descendants. The relative contribution of the hair follicle stem cells and the interfollicular stem cells to dermal wound healing is an area of active investigation. Recent studies have revealed that the small GTPase

  1. Stem cell therapy for retinal diseases: update

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Distinct stem cell types have been established from embryos and identified in the fetal tissues and umbilical cord blood as well as in specific niches in many adult mammalian tissues and organs such as bone marrow, brain, skin, eyes, heart, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, breast, ovaries, and prostate. All stem cells are undifferentiated cells that exhibit unlimited self-renewal and can generate multiple cell lineages or more restricted progenitor populations that can contribute to tissue homeostasis by replenishing the cells or to tissue regeneration after injury. The remarkable progress of regenerative medicine in the last few years indicates promise for the use of stem cells in the treatment of ophthalmic disorders. Experimental and human studies with intravitreal bone marrow-derived stem cells have begun. This paper reviews recent advances and potential sources of stem cells for cell therapy in retinal diseases. PMID:22206617

  2. Stem cells in the light of evolution

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2012-01-01

    All organisms depend on stem cells for their survival. As a result, stem cells may be a prerequisite for the evolution of specific characteristics in organisms that include regeneration, multicellularity and coloniality. Stem cells have attracted the attention of biologists and medical scientists for a long time. These provide materials for regenerative medicine. We review in this paper, the link between modern stem cell research and early studies in ancient organisms. It also outlines details on stem cells in the light of evolution with an emphasis on their regeneration potential, coloniality and multicellularity. The information provided might be of use to molecular biologists, medical scientists and developmental biologists who are engaged in integrated research involving the stem cells. PMID:22825600

  3. Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells

    SciTech Connect

    LaBarge, Mark A; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2007-06-01

    In most adult tissues there reside pools of stem and progenitor cells inside specialized microenvironments referred to as niches. The niche protects the stem cells from inappropriate expansion and directs their critical functions. Thus guided, stem cells are able to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout the ebb and flow of metabolic and physical demands encountered over a lifetime. Indeed, a pool of stem cells maintains mammary gland structure throughout development, and responds to the physiological demands associated with pregnancy. This review discusses how stem cells were identified in both human and mouse mammary glands; each requiring different techniques that were determined by differing biological needs and ethical constraints. These studies together create a robust portrait of mammary gland biology and identify the location of the stem cell niche, elucidate a developmental hierarchy, and suggest how the niche might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

  4. Applications of Microfluidics in Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiucen; Austin, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell research can significantly benefit from recent advances of microfluidics technology. In a rationally designed microfluidics device, analyses of stem cells can be done in a much deeper and wider way than in a conventional tissue culture dish. Miniaturization makes analyses operated in a high-throughput fashion, while controls of fluids help to reconstruct the physiological environments. Through integration with present characterization tools like fluorescent microscope, microfluidics offers a systematic way to study the decision-making process of stem cells, which has attractive medical applications. In this paper, recent progress of microfluidics devices on stem cell research are discussed. The purpose of this review is to highlight some key features of microfluidics for stem cell biologists, as well as provide physicists/engineers an overview of how microfluidics has been and could be used for stem cell research. PMID:23336098

  5. Constructing stem cell microenvironments using bioengineering approaches.

    PubMed

    Brafman, David A

    2013-12-01

    Within the adult organism, stem cells reside in defined anatomical microenvironments called niches. These architecturally diverse microenvironments serve to balance stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Proper regulation of this balance is instrumental to tissue repair and homeostasis, and any imbalance can potentially lead to diseases such as cancer. Within each of these microenvironments, a myriad of chemical and physical stimuli interact in a complex (synergistic or antagonistic) manner to tightly regulate stem cell fate. The in vitro replication of these in vivo microenvironments will be necessary for the application of stem cells for disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine purposes. However, traditional reductionist approaches have only led to the generation of cell culture methods that poorly recapitulate the in vivo microenvironment. To that end, novel engineering and systems biology approaches have allowed for the investigation of the biological and mechanical stimuli that govern stem cell fate. In this review, the application of these technologies for the dissection of stem cell microenvironments will be analyzed. Moreover, the use of these engineering approaches to construct in vitro stem cell microenvironments that precisely control stem cell fate and function will be reviewed. Finally, the emerging trend of using high-throughput, combinatorial methods for the stepwise engineering of stem cell microenvironments will be explored. PMID:24064536

  6. Cell patterning technology for controlling the stem cell microenvironment

    E-print Network

    Rosenthal, Adam D. (Adam David), 1978-

    2007-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells serve as powerful models for the study of development and disease and hold enormous potential for future therapeutics. Yet, over two decades after mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) were first isolated, ...

  7. Clinical trials for stem cell therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Trounson; Rahul G. Thakar; Geoff Lomax; Don Gibbons

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, clinical trials with stem cells have taken the emerging field in many new directions. While numerous teams\\u000a continue to refine and expand the role of bone marrow and cord blood stem cells for their vanguard uses in blood and immune\\u000a disorders, many others are looking to expand the uses of the various types of stem cells found

  8. Outlook for stem cells in medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Pal’tsev; V. N. Smirnov; A. A. Ivanov

    2009-01-01

    Study of stem cells by methods of molecular and cellular biology brings us closer to understanding the basis of life. At the\\u000a same time, the problem of stem cells has great social resonance caused, first of all, by their potential to treat pancreatic\\u000a diabetes, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. Prospects for stem cells in medical practice\\u000a and the

  9. Cancer Stem Cells in Solid Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elodie Potet; Lauren Cameron; Nagy A. Habib; Natasa Levicar

    \\u000a The existence of cancer stem cells continues to be extensively debated among scientists, and given the mounting evidence,\\u000a it is an area that needs further examination. The possible reason for resistance to current treatment modalities in cancer\\u000a is that we have yet to discover a method to eradicate cancer stem cells. This chapter describes the theory of cancer stem\\u000a cells,

  10. Stem cell banking: between traceability and identifiability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bartha M Knoppers; Rosario Isasi

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell banks are increasingly seen as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational research.\\u000a Stem cell banks support transnational access to quality-controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines from different origins\\u000a and of varying grades. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, advances in regenerative medicine\\u000a are leading to the development of a

  11. Stem Cells: Sources and Clinical Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steinar Funderud

    Research within the field of stem cells has especially during the last two decades given incredibly much new insight into\\u000a how organs and tissues in our bodies undergo replenishment or repair. In this short review some of most recent developments\\u000a within somatic stem cells and embryonic stem cells are briefly discussed with the intention to serve as a background for

  12. Neurogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rosner; M. Mikula; A. Preitschopf; M. Feichtinger; K. Schipany; M. Hengstschläger

    In 2003, human amniotic fluid has been shown to contain stem cells expressing Oct-4, a marker for pluripotency. This finding\\u000a initiated a rapidly growing and very promising new stem cell research field. Since then, amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells have\\u000a been demonstrated to harbour the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers and to form three-dimensional\\u000a aggregates,

  13. Embryonic Stem Cell Patents and Human Dignity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Resnik

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity.\\u000a After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human\\u000a embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells\\u000a do not. Since patents

  14. Generation of Thyroid Follicular Cells from Pluripotent Stem Cells: Potential for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Will; Lin, Reigh-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 12% of the population in the United States will be afflicted with a thyroid related disorder during their lifetime. Common treatment approaches are tailored to the specific disorder and include surgery, radioactive iodine ablation, antithyroid drugs, thyroid hormone replacement, external beam radiation, and chemotherapy. Regenerative medicine endeavors to combat disease by replacing or regenerating damaged, diseased, or dysfunctional body parts. A series of achievements in pluripotent stem cell research have transformed regenerative medicine in many ways by demonstrating “repair” of a number of body parts in mice, of which, the thyroid has now been inducted into this special group. Seminal work in pluripotent cells, namely embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, have made possible their path to becoming key tools and biological building blocks for cell-based regenerative medicine to combat the gamut of human diseases, including those affecting the thyroid. PMID:24995001

  15. Dedifferentiation and reprogramming: origins of cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann-Morvinski, Dinorah; Verma, Inder M

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative medicine aims to replace the lost or damaged cells in the human body through a new source of healthy transplanted cells or by endogenous repair. Although human embryonic stem cells were first thought to be the ideal source for cell therapy and tissue repair in humans, the discovery by Yamanaka and colleagues revolutionized the field. Almost any differentiated cell can be sent back in time to a pluripotency state by expressing the appropriate transcription factors. The process of somatic reprogramming using Yamanaka factors, many of which are oncogenes, offers a glimpse into how cancer stem cells may originate. In this review we discuss the similarities between tumor dedifferentiation and somatic cell reprogramming and how this may pose a risk to the application of this new technology in regenerative medicine. PMID:24531722

  16. Generation of ovine induced pluripotent stem cells 

    E-print Network

    Sartori, Chiara

    2012-06-30

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells derived from the early embryo and are able to differentiate into cells belonging to the three germ layers. They are a valuable tool in research and for clinical use, but ...

  17. Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells

    E-print Network

    Kim, K.

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer and transcription-factor-based reprogramming revert adult cells to an embryonic state, and yield pluripotent stem cells that can generate all tissues. Through different mechanisms and kinetics, ...

  18. Reporter Plasmid to Identify Cancer Stem Cells

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI lentiviral plasmid can identify the putative cancer stem cell population through the expression of fluorescent or luminescent proteins and has the potential to advance new therapies. The key feature of the plasmid is a reporter system that only detects cells expressing the core stem cell transcription factors Sox2 and Oct4.

  19. Plant stem cells as innovation in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Moru?, Martyna; Baran, Monika; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena; Skotnicka-Graca, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    The stem cells thanks to their ability of unlimited division number or transformation into different cell types creating organs, are responsible for regeneration processes. Depending on the organism in which the stem cells exists, they divide to the plant or animal ones. The later group includes the stem cells existing in both embryo's and adult human's organs. It includes, among others, epidermal stem cells, located in the hair follicle relieves and also in its basal layers, and responsible for permanent regeneration of the epidermis. Temporary science looks for method suitable for stimulation of the epidermis stem cells, amongst the other by delivery of e.g., growth factors for proliferation that decrease with the age. One of the methods is the use of the plant cell culture technology, including a number of methods that should ensure growth of plant cells, issues or organs in the environment with the microorganism-free medium. It uses abilities of the different plant cells to dedifferentiation into stem cells and coming back to the pluripotent status. The extracts obtained this way from the plant stem cells are currently used for production of both common or professional care cosmetics. This work describes exactly impact of the plant stem cell extract, coming from one type of the common apple tree (Uttwiler Spätlauber) to human skin as one of the first plant sorts, which are used in cosmetology and esthetic dermatology. PMID:25362798

  20. Controls of Germline Stem Cells, Entry into

    E-print Network

    Kimble, Judith

    STEM CELLS AND THEIR NICHE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Organization of the Adult Germ LineControls of Germline Stem Cells, Entry into Meiosis, and the Sperm/Oocyte Decision@wisc.edu Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 2007. 23:405­33 First published online as a Review in Advance on June 22

  1. Microfabricated platform for studying stem cell fates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicki I. Chin; Philippe Taupin; Sandeep Sanga; John Scheel; Fred H. Gage; Sangeeta N. Bhatia

    2004-01-01

    Platformsthatallowparallel,quantitativeanalysis of single cells will be integral to realizing the potential of postgenomic biology. In stem cell biology, the study of clonal stem cells in multiwell formats is currently both inefficient and time-consuming. Thus, to investigate low- frequency events of interest, large sample sizes must be interrogated. We report a simple, versatile, and efficient micropatterned arraying system conducive to the

  2. Stem Cells in Neurodevelopment and Plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flora M Vaccarino; Yosif Ganat; Yuchun Zhang; Wei Zheng

    2001-01-01

    The processes of stem cell proliferation and differentiation during embryogenesis are governed by transcription factors that regulate the regional differentiation of the central nervous system (CNS). Do neural “stemcells persisting in the postnatal CNS disobey this sequence of events? The division of neural progenitor cells is promoted by basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Fgf2 or Epidermal Growth Factor Egf. However,

  3. Identification of Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenwei Li; David G. Heidt; Piero Dalerba; Charles F. Burant; Lanjing Zhang; Volkan Adsay; Max Wicha; Michael F. Clarke; Diane M. Simeone

    Emerging evidence has suggested that the capability of a tumor to grow and propagate is dependent on a small subset of cells within a tumor, termed cancer stem cells. Although data have been provided to support this theory in human blood, brain, and breast cancers, the identity of pancreatic cancer stem cells has not been determined. Using a xenograft model

  4. Telomeres, stem cells, and hematology

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Telomeres are highly dynamic structures that adjust the cellular response to stress and growth stimulation based on previous cell divisions. This critical function is accomplished by progressive telomere shortening and DNA damage responses activated by chromosome ends without sufficient telomere repeats. Repair of critically short telomeres by telomerase or recombination is limited in most somatic cells, and apoptosis or cellular senescence is triggered when too many uncapped telomeres accumulate. The chance of the latter increases as the average telomere length decreases. The average telomere length is set and maintained in cells of the germ line that typically express high levels of telomerase. In somatic cells, the telomere length typically declines with age, posing a barrier to tumor growth but also contributing to loss of cells with age. Loss of (stem) cells via telomere attrition provides strong selection for abnormal cells in which malignant progression is facilitated by genome instability resulting from uncapped telomeres. The critical role of telomeres in cell proliferation and aging is illustrated in patients with 50% of normal telomerase levels resulting from a mutation in one of the telomerase genes. Here, the role of telomeres and telomerase in human biology is reviewed from a personal historical perspective. PMID:18263784

  5. Induced pluripotent stem cells from goat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Gu, Chenghao; Wang, Ziyu; Dong, Fulu; Wang, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful model for genetic engineering, studying developmental biology, and modeling disease. To date, ESCs have been established from the mouse (Evans and Kaufman, 1981, Nature 292:154-156), non-human primates (Thomson et al., , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 92:7844-7848), humans (Thomson et al., 1998, Science 282:1145-1147), and rats (Buehr et al., , Cell 135:1287-1298); however, the derivation of ESCs from domesticated ungulates such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs have not been successful. Alternatively, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells with several combinations of genes encoding transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG). To date, iPSCs have been isolated from various species, but only limited information is available regarding goat iPSCs (Ren et al., 2011, Cell Res 21:849-853). The objectives of this study were to generate goat iPSCs from fetal goat primary ear fibroblasts using lentiviral transduction of four human transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The goat iPSCs were successfully generated by co-culture with mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts using medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and human basic fibroblast growth factor. The goat iPSCs colonies are flat, compact, and closely resemble human iPSCs. They have a normal karyotype; stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and NANOG; express endogenous pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, and NANOG); and can spontaneously differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24123501

  6. Adult stem cell and mesenchymal progenitor theories of aging

    PubMed Central

    Fukada, So-ichiro; Ma, Yuran; Uezumi, Akiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Advances in medical science and technology allow people live longer lives, which results in age-related problems. Humans cannot avoid the various aged-related alterations of aging; in other words, humans cannot remain young at molecular and cellular levels. In 1956, Harman proposed the “free radical theory of aging” to explain the molecular mechanisms of aging. Telomere length, and accumulation of DNA or mitochondrial damage are also considered to be mechanisms of aging. On the other hand, stem cells are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis by replacing parenchymal cells; therefore, the stem cell theory of aging is also used to explain the progress of aging. Importantly, the stem cell theory of aging is likely related to other theories. In addition, recent studies have started to reveal the essential roles of tissue-resident mesenchymal progenitors/stem cells/stromal cells in maintaining tissue homeostasis, and some evidence of their fundamental roles in the progression of aging has been presented. In this review, we discuss how stem cell and other theories connect to explain the progress of aging. In addition, we consider the mesenchymal progenitor theory of aging to describing the process of aging. PMID:25364718

  7. Chemical genetics and its potential in cardiac stem cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Joaquim M; Riley, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade or so, intensive research in cardiac stem cell biology has led to significant discoveries towards a potential therapy for cardiovascular disease; the main cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. The major goal within the field of cardiovascular regenerative medicine is to replace lost or damaged cardiac muscle and coronaries following ischaemic disease. At present, de novo cardiomyocytes can be generated either in vitro, for cell transplantation or disease modelling using directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells, or in vivo via direct reprogramming of resident adult cardiac fibroblast or ectopic stimulation of resident cardiac stem or progenitor cells. A major bottleneck with all of these approaches is the low efficiency of cardiomyocyte differentiation alongside their relative functional immaturity. Chemical genetics, and the application of phenotypic screening with small molecule libraries, represent a means to enhance understanding of the molecular pathways controlling cardiovascular cell differentiation and, moreover, offer the potential for discovery of new drugs to invoke heart repair and regeneration. Here, we review the potential of chemical genetics in cardiac stem cell therapy, highlighting not only the major contributions to the field so far, but also the future challenges. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Regenerative Medicine and Pharmacology: A Look to the Future. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-2 PMID:22385148

  8. Checkpoints of Melanocyte Stem Cell Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lukas Sommer (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.; Institute of Cell Biology REV)

    2005-08-23

    The bulge region of the adult hair follicle contains the niches for both epithelial and melanocyte stem cells. Recent evidence suggests that the development of melanocyte stem cells is controlled by a complex network of transcription factors, including Pax3, Sox10, and Mitf, and of regulatory extracellular cues such as Wnt. However, additional players are likely to be involved. It will be intriguing to identify these signals and to elucidate whether and how neighboring epithelial stem cells influence the balance between melanocyte stem cell maintenance and differentiation.

  9. Stem cells and cardiac regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Alfred A; Schlechta, Bernhard; Gasparovicova, Aneta; Wolner, Ernst; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Laufer, Günther

    2007-09-01

    Despite many advances in cardiovascular medicine, heart failure (HF) remains the leading cause of death in developed countries affecting at least 10 million people in Western Europe alone. The poor long-term prognosis of HF patients, and immense public health implications has fuelled interest in finding new therapeutic modalities. Recent observations of the beneficial effect of stem cells on the damaged heart in animal experiments have generated tremendous excitement and stimulated clinical studies suggesting that this approach is feasible, safe, and potentially effective in humans. Cell-based myocardial regeneration is currently explored for a wide range of cardiac disease states, including acute and chronic ischemic myocardial damage, cardiomyopathy and as biological heart pacemakers. The aim of the present manuscript is to review the work that has been done to establish the role of stem cells in cardiac repair, give an update on the clinical trials performed so far, as well as to discuss critically the controversies, challenges and future surrounding this novel therapeutic concept. PMID:17555531

  10. Human embryonic stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Shannon, T A

    2001-12-01

    The author presents an overview (completed on September 15, 2001) of three issues involved in the ethics of human embryonic stem cell therapy: the ethical implications of some of the scientific issues involved, the specific ethical issues of the moral standing of the early human embryo and the problem of cooperation, and a consideration of two public policy issues: should the research go forward, and what kind of health care system should the United States adopt. The author argues that the public policy questions are the most important agenda. PMID:12755154

  11. Stem cell research, in Parliament.

    PubMed

    Late autumn and early winter have seen a flurry of Parliamentary activity about the law and ethics of embryonic stem cell research. This follows publication of the Chief Medical Officer's Expert Group's report on the subject (see Bulletin 160), the first recommendation of which was that such research should be permitted by means of a regulation under the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. The following records some of the episodes in that activity with extracts from some of the speeches made. PMID:11831256

  12. Melanocyte Stem Cells: As an Excellent Model to Study Stem Cell Biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masatake Osawa; Kiyotaka Hasegawa; Mariko Moriyama; Shin-Ichi Nishikawa

    Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying stem cell regulation is of great importance for their clinical applications\\u000a in regenerative medicine and cancer therapy. The function of stem cells is maintained by their specialized microenvironment,\\u000a referred as the niche. Despite intensive studies of the stem cell niche, the molecular basis of stem cell regulation by the\\u000a niche has still remained elusive. Since

  13. Targeting the stem cell niche: squeezing blood from bones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Ballen

    2007-01-01

    During human development, stem cells establish themselves in specific anatomic locations or niches. The niche harbors the stem cells, and regulates how stem cells proliferate. The interaction between stem cells and their niche affects stem cell function, and offers an opportunity to improve the marrow microenvironment. Osteoblasts produce hematopoietic growth factors and are activated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). A calcium

  14. New perspectives in human stem cell therapeutic research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Trounson

    2009-01-01

    Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but

  15. Purification of Immature Neuronal Cells from Neural Stem Cell Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Hassan; Osborne, Geoffrey W.; Yasuda, Takahiro; Golmohammadi, Mohammad G.; Rahman, Maryam; Deleyrolle, Loic P.; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Adams, David J.; Scheffler, Bjorn; Steindler, Dennis A.; Reynolds, Brent A.

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation capabilities make neural stem cells (NSCs) a promising renewable source of cells for therapeutic applications. However, the practical application for neuronal cell replacement is limited by heterogeneity of NSC progeny, relatively low yield of neurons, predominance of astrocytes, poor survival of donor cells following transplantation and the potential for uncontrolled proliferation of precursor cells. To address these impediments, we have developed a method for the generation of highly enriched immature neurons from murine NSC progeny. Adaptation of the standard differentiation procedure in concert with flow cytometry selection, using scattered light and positive fluorescent light selection based on cell surface antibody binding, provided a near pure (97%) immature neuron population. Using the purified neurons, we screened a panel of growth factors and found that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) demonstrated a strong survival effect on the cells in vitro, and enhanced their functional maturity. This effect was maintained following transplantation into the adult mouse striatum where we observed a 2-fold increase in the survival of the implanted cells and a 3-fold increase in NeuN expression. Additionally, based on the neural-colony forming cell assay (N-CFCA), we noted a 64 fold reduction of the bona fide NSC frequency in neuronal cell population and that implanted donor cells showed no signs of excessive or uncontrolled proliferation. The ability to provide defined neural cell populations from renewable sources such as NSC may find application for cell replacement therapies in the central nervous system. PMID:21687800

  16. Adult stem cell therapy beyond haemopoietic stem cell transplantation? An update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Hows

    2005-01-01

    The lifesaving potential of haemopoietic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of haematological malignancies and other life threatening disorders of the haemopoietic stem cell is universally accepted. In contrast, the use of adult marrow derived stem cells for tissue repair strategies in degenerative disease or after tissue damage are only in the early stages of evolution. A range of opinion

  17. Hydra and the evolution of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Thomas C G

    2009-04-01

    Hydra are remarkable because they are immortal. Much of immortality can be ascribed to the asexual mode of reproduction by budding, which requires a tissue consisting of stem cells with continuous self-renewal capacity. Emerging novel technologies and the availability of genomic resources enable for the first time to analyse these cells in vivo. Stem cell differentiation in Hydra is governed through the coordinated actions of conserved signaling pathways. Studies of stem cells in Hydra, therefore, promise critical insights of general relevance into stem cell biology including cellular senescence, lineage programming and reprogramming, the role of extrinsic signals in fate determination and tissue homeostasis, and the evolutionary origin of these cells. With these new facts as a backdrop, this review traces the history of studying stem cells in Hydra and offers a view of what the future may hold. PMID:19274660

  18. Adult stem-like cells in kidney

    PubMed Central

    Hishikawa, Keiichi; Takase, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Taro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent cells are promising for treatment for kidney diseases, but the protocols for derivation of kidney cell types are still controversial. Kidney tissue regeneration is well confirmed in several lower vertebrates such as fish, and the repair of nephrons after tubular damages is commonly observed after renal injury. Even in adult mammal kidney, renal progenitor cell or system is reportedly presents suggesting that adult stem-like cells in kidney can be practical clinical targets for kidney diseases. However, it is still unclear if kidney stem cells or stem-like cells exist or not. In general, stemness is defined by several factors such as self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potency and characteristic gene expression profiles. The definite use of stemness may be obstacle to understand kidney regeneration, and here we describe the recent broad findings of kidney regeneration and the cells that contribute regeneration. PMID:25815133

  19. Nonclinical safety strategies for stem cell therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Michaela E., E-mail: michaela_sharpe@yahoo.com [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom); Morton, Daniel [Exploratory Drug Safety, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, 02140 (United States)] [Exploratory Drug Safety, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, 02140 (United States); Rossi, Annamaria [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom)] [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology, especially the development of the induced pluripotent stem cell techniques, have generated tremendous enthusiasm and efforts to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapies are being considered for the treatment of degenerative diseases, inflammatory conditions, cancer and repair of damaged tissue. The safety of a stem cell therapy depends on many factors including the type of cell therapy, the differentiation status and proliferation capacity of the cells, the route of administration, the intended clinical location, long term survival of the product and/or engraftment, the need for repeated administration, the disease to be treated and the age of the population. Understanding the product profile of the intended therapy is crucial to the development of the nonclinical safety study design.

  20. Down-regulation of MHC class I expression in human neuronal stem cells using viral stealth mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Mi Lee; Jae Young Kim; Bum Rae Cho; Woo Kyung Chung; Byung-Woo Yoon; Seung U. Kim; Byeong Chun Lee; Woo Suk Hwang; Shin-Yong Moon; Jung Sang Lee; Curie Ahn

    2005-01-01

    Due to their unique capacity for self-renewal in addition to their ability to differentiate into cells of all neuronal lineages, neuronal stem cells (NSCs) are promising candidates for cell replacement therapy in neuronal injury and neurodegenerative diseases. However, there are few studies on immune rejection, which is one of the main problems facing successful stem cell therapy. In order to

  1. Human embryonic stem cells vs human induced pluripotent stem cells for cardiac repair.

    PubMed

    Barad, Lili; Schick, Revital; Zeevi-Levin, Naama; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Binah, Ofer

    2014-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into any specialized cell type, including cardiomyocytes. Therefore, hESC-derived and hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs and hiPSC-CMs, respectively) offer great potential for cardiac regenerative medicine. Unlike some organs, the heart has a limited ability to regenerate, and dysfunction resulting from significant cardiomyocyte loss under pathophysiological conditions, such as myocardial infarction (MI), can lead to heart failure. Unfortunately, for patients with end-stage heart failure, heart transplantation remains the main alternative, and it is insufficient, mainly because of the limited availability of donor organs. Although left ventricular assist devices are progressively entering clinical practice as a bridge to transplantation and even as an optional therapy, cell replacement therapy presents a plausible alternative to donor organ transplantation. During the past decade, multiple candidate cells were proposed for cardiac regeneration, and their mechanisms of action in the myocardium have been explored. The purpose of this article is to critically review the comprehensive research involving the use of hESCs and hiPSCs in MI models and to discuss current controversies, unresolved issues, challenges, and future directions. PMID:25442431

  2. Nanoparticles Based Stem Cell Tracking in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Edmundson, Matthew; Thanh, Nguyen TK; Song, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapies offer great potentials in the treatment for a wide range of diseases and conditions. With so many stem cell replacement therapies going through clinical trials currently, there is a great need to understand the mechanisms behind a successful therapy, and one of the critical points of discovering them is to track stem cell migration, proliferation and differentiation in vivo. To be of most use tracking methods should ideally be non-invasive, high resolution and allow tracking in three dimensions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the ideal methods, but requires a suitable contrast agent to be loaded to the cells to be tracked, and one of the most wide-spread in stem cell tracking is a group of agents known as magnetic nanoparticles. This review will explore the current use of magnetic nanoparticles in developing and performing stem cell therapies, and will investigate their potential limitations and the future directions magnetic nanoparticle tracking is heading in. PMID:23946823

  3. The potential of stem cells for the restoration of auditory function in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhengqing; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most common disabilities, affecting approximately 10% of the population. Hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons are usually damaged in most cases of hearing loss. Currently, there is virtually no biological approach to replace damaged hearing cells. Recent developments in stem cell technology provide new opportunities for the treatment of deafness. Two major strategies have been investigated: differentiation of endogenous stem cells into new hair cells; and introduction of exogenous cells into the inner ear to substitute injured hearing neurons. Although there is still a learning curve in stem cell-based replacement, the probability exists to utilize personalized stem cells to eventually provide a novel intervention for patients with deafness in future clinical research trials. PMID:23627825

  4. Stem cell sources for tooth regeneration: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Otsu, Keishi; Kumakami-Sakano, Mika; Fujiwara, Naoki; Kikuchi, Kazuko; Keller, Laetitia; Lesot, Hervé; Harada, Hidemitsu

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells are capable of renewing themselves through cell division and have the remarkable ability to differentiate into many different types of cells. They therefore have the potential to become a central tool in regenerative medicine. During the last decade, advances in tissue engineering and stem cell-based tooth regeneration have provided realistic and attractive means of replacing lost or damaged teeth. Investigation of embryonic and adult (tissue) stem cells as potential cell sources for tooth regeneration has led to many promising results. However, technical and ethical issues have hindered the availability of these cells for clinical application. The recent discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has provided the possibility to revolutionize the field of regenerative medicine (dentistry) by offering the option of autologous transplantation. In this article, we review the current progress in the field of stem cell-based tooth regeneration and discuss the possibility of using iPS cells for this purpose. PMID:24550845

  5. Stem cells and lineages of the intestine: a developmental and evolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Shigeo; Gold, David; Hartenstein, Volker

    2012-01-01

    The intestine consists of epithelial cells that secrete digestive enzymes and mucus (gland cells), absorb food particles (enterocytes), and produce hormones (endocrine cells). Intestinal cells are rapidly turned over and need to be replaced. In cnidarians, mitosis of differentiated intestinal cells accounts for much of the replacement; in addition, migratory, multipotent stem cells (interstitial cells) contribute to the production of intestinal cells. In other phyla, intestinal cell replacement is solely the function of stem cells entering the gut from the outside (such as in case of the neoblasts of platyhelmints) or intestinal stem cells located within the midgut epithelium (as in both vertebrates or arthropods). We will attempt in the following to review important aspects of midgut stem cells in different animal groups: where are they located, what types of lineages do they produce, and how do they develop. We will start out with a comparative survey of midgut cell types found across the animal kingdom; then briefly look at the specification of these cells during embryonic development; and finally focus on the stem cells that regenerate midgut cells during adult life. In a number of model systems, including mouse, zebrafish and Drosophila, the molecular pathways controlling ISC proliferation and the specification of intestinal cell types are under intensive investigation. We will highlight findings of the recent literature, focusing on aspects that are shared between the different models and that point at evolutionary ancient mechanisms of intestinal cell formation. PMID:23179635

  6. Stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Runhui

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify global research trends of stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrievals for stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease from 2002 to 2011 using the Web of Science. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed articles on stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease which were published and indexed in the Web of Science; (b) type of articles: original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material and news items; (c) year of publication: 2002–2011. Exclusion criteria: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) we excluded documents that were not published in the public domain; (c) we excluded a number of corrected papers from the total number of articles. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Type of literature; (2) annual publication output; (3) distribution according to journals; (4) distribution according to subject areas; (5) distribution according to country; (6) distribution according to institution; (7) comparison of countries that published the most papers on stem cell transplantation from different cell sources for treating Parkinson's disease; (8) comparison of institutions that published the most papers on stem cell transplantation from different cell sources for treating Parkinson's disease in the Web of Science from 2002 to 2011; (9) comparison of studies on stem cell transplantation from different cell sources for treating Parkinson's disease RESULTS: In total, 1 062 studies on stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease appeared in the Web of Science from 2002 to 2011, almost one third of which were from American authors and institutes. The number of studies on stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease had gradually increased over the past 10 years. Papers on stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease appeared in journals such as Stem Cells and Experimental Neurology. Although the United States published more articles addressing neural stem cell and embryonic stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease, China ranked first for articles published on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease. CONCLUSION: From our analysis of the literature and research trends, we found that stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease may offer further benefits in regenerative medicine. PMID:25709626

  7. Synthetic Niches for Stem Cell Differentiation into T cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ankur Singh; Krishnendu Roy

    \\u000a T cell development from hematopoietic stem cells takes place in the thymus under precisely controlled intercellular signaling\\u000a between the stem cells and thymic stromal and epithelial cells. In vitro or ex vivo development of mature T cells from stem\\u000a cells faces two primary hurdles; one being the inability of culture conditions to provide a three dimensional thymic niche\\u000a with lineage-specific

  8. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Somatic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junying Yu; Maxim A. Vodyanik; Kim Smuga-Otto; Jessica Antosiewicz-Bourget; Jennifer L. Frane; Shulan Tian; Jeff Nie; Gudrun A. Jonsdottir; Victor Ruotti; Ron Stewart; Igor I. Slukvin; James A. Thomson

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows trans-acting factors present in the mammalian oocyte to reprogram somatic cell nuclei to an undifferentiated state. We show that four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28) are sufficient to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells that exhibit the essential characteristics of embryonic stem (ES) cells. These induced pluripotent human stem cells have normal

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells: A promising candidate in regenerative medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye Chen; Jian-Zhong Shao; Li-Xin Xiang; Xue-Jun Dong; Guo-Rong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells were initially characterized as plastic adherent, fibroblastoid cells. In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on mesenchymal stem cells since they have great plasticity and are potential for therapeutic applications. Mesenchymal stem cells or mesenchymal stem cell-like cells have been shown to reside within the connective tissues of most organs. These cells can differentiate into

  10. Stem Cell Niches for Skin Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Levi, Benjamin; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Longaker, Michael T.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies offer tremendous potential for skin regeneration following injury and disease. Functional stem cell units have been described throughout all layers of human skin and the collective physical and chemical microenvironmental cues that enable this regenerative potential are known as the stem cell niche. Stem cells in the hair follicle bulge, interfollicular epidermis, dermal papillae, and perivascular space have been closely investigated as model systems for niche-driven regeneration. These studies suggest that stem cell strategies for skin engineering must consider the intricate molecular and biologic features of these niches. Innovative biomaterial systems that successfully recapitulate these microenvironments will facilitate progenitor cell-mediated skin repair and regeneration. PMID:22701121

  11. Cell surface engineering of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Debanjan; Zhao, Weian; Gupta, Ashish; Loh, Wei Li; Karnik, Rohit; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    By leveraging the capacity to promote regeneration, stem cell therapies offer enormous hope for solving some of the most tragic illnesses, diseases, and tissue defects world-wide. However, a significant barrier to the effective implementation of cell therapies is the inability to target a large quantity of viable cells with high efficiency to tissues of interest. Systemic infusion is desired as it minimizes the invasiveness of cell therapy, and maximizes practical aspects of repeated doses. However, cell types such as mesenchymal stem cells exhibit a poor homing capability or lose their capacity to home following culture expansion (i.e. FASEB J 21:3197-3207, 2007; Circulation 108:863-868, 2003; Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation 32:1005-1011; Blood 104:3581-3587, 2004). To address this challenge, we have developed a simple platform technology to chemically attach cell adhesion molecules to the cell surface to improve the homing efficiency to specific tissues. This chemical approach involves a stepwise process including (1) treatment of cells with sulfonated biotinyl-N-hydroxy-succinimide to introduce biotin groups on the cell surface, (2) addition of streptavidin that binds to the biotin on the cell surface and presents unoccupied binding sites, and (3) attachment of biotinylated targeting ligands that promote adhesive interactions with vascular endothelium. Specifically, in our model system, a biotinylated cell rolling ligand, sialyl Lewisx (SLeX), found on the surface of leukocytes (i.e., the active site of the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL-1)), is conjugated on MSC surface. The SLeX engineered MSCs exhibit a rolling response on a P-selectin coated substrate under shear stress conditions. This indicates that this approach can be used to potentially target P-selectin expressing endothelium in the more marrow or at sites of inflammation. Importantly, the surface modification has no adverse impact on MSCs' native phenotype including their multilineage differentiation capacity, viability, proliferation, and adhesion kinetics. We anticipate that the present approach to covalently modify the cell surface and immobilize required ligands is not limited to MSCs or the SLeX ligand. Therefore, this technology should have broad implications on cell therapies that utilize systemic administration and require targeting of cells to specific tissues. The approach may also be useful to promote specific cell-cell interactions. In this protocol, we describe the conjugation of SLeX on MSC surface and methods to study cell rolling behaviors of SLeX-modified MSCs on a P-selectin coated substrate using an in vitro flow chamber assay. We also provide a brief description of cell characterization assays that can be used to examine the impact of the chemical modification regimen. PMID:21431540

  12. Clonogenicity: Holoclones and Meroclones Contain Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Beaver, Charlotte M.; Ahmed, Aamir; Masters, John R.

    2014-01-01

    When primary cultures of normal cells are cloned, three types of colony grow, called holoclones, meroclones and paraclones. These colonies are believed to be derived from stem cells, transit-amplifying cells and differentiated cells respectively. More recently, this approach has been extended to cancer cell lines. However, we observed that meroclones from the prostate cancer cell line DU145 produce holoclones, a paradoxical observation as meroclones are thought to be derived from transit-amplifying cells. The purpose of this study was to confirm this observation and determine if both holoclones and meroclones from cancer cell lines contain stem cells. We demonstrated that both holoclones and meroclones can be serially passaged indefinitely, are highly proliferative, can self-renew to form spheres, are serially tumorigenic and express stem cell markers. This study demonstrates that the major difference between holoclones and meroclones derived from a cancer cell line is the proportion of stem cells within each colony, not the presence or absence of stem cells. These findings may reflect the properties of cancer as opposed to normal cells, perhaps indicating that the hierarchy of stem cells is more extensive in cancer. PMID:24587067

  13. Stem Cells as a Treatment for Chronic Liver Disease and Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Levi?ar; I. Dimarakis; C. Flores; J. Tracey; M. Y. Gordon; N. A. Habib

    Advances in stem cell biology and the discovery of pluripotent stem cells have made the prospect of cell therapy and tissue\\u000a regeneration a clinical reality. Cell therapies hold great promise to repair, restore, replace or regenerate affected organs\\u000a and may perform better than any pharmacological or mechanical device. There is an accumulating body of evidence supporting\\u000a the contribution of adult

  14. Chemically Induced Specification of Retinal Ganglion Cells From Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Riazifar, Hamidreza; Jia, Yousheng; Chen, Jing; Lynch, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is the primary pathological change for many retinal degenerative diseases. Although there is currently no effective treatment for this group of diseases, cell transplantation to replace lost RGCs holds great potential. However, for the development of cell replacement therapy, better understanding of the molecular details involved in differentiating stem cells into RGCs is essential. In this study, a novel, stepwise chemical protocol is described for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells into functional RGCs. Briefly, stem cells were differentiated into neural rosettes, which were then cultured with the Notch inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT). The expression of neural and RGC markers (BRN3A, BRN3B, ATOH7/Math5, ?-synuclein, Islet-1, and THY-1) was examined. Approximately 30% of the cell population obtained expressed the neuronal marker TUJ1 as well the RGC markers. Moreover, the differentiated RGCs generated action potentials and exhibited both spontaneous and evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents, indicating that functional and mature RGCs were generated. In combination, these data demonstrate that a single chemical (DAPT) can induce PAX6/RX-positive stem cells to undergo differentiation into functional RGCs. PMID:24493857

  15. 3 CFR - Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Presidential Documents Other...July 30, 2009 Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Memorandum for the Heads of...responsible, scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic...

  16. Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth Main Content Key Points? ... Your Dentist Before Transplant Before an organ or stem cell transplant, have a dental checkup. Your mouth should ...

  17. Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues From the Director: Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease Past Issues / ... Zerhouni, NIH Director, described the need for expanding stem cell research. Recently, he spoke about stem cell research ...

  18. Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays CONNIEEAVES,CINDYMILLER,JOHANNE CASHMAN Columbia, Canada Key Words.Hematopoietic stem cells Transplantation Cord blood. Expansion Growthfactors murine hematopoietic stem cells to be quantitated. Measurements of murine CRU have shown

  19. Stem cell politics, ethics and medical progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Annas; Arthur Caplan; Sherman Elias

    1999-01-01

    Tremendous controversy has surrounded efforts to undertake research on totipotent human stem cells. To date public policy in the United States has attempted to skirt the ethical and social questions raised by this research. Annas et al. argue that research using human embryos as a source of totipotent stem cells can secure broad public support if there is an open

  20. Sex hormone drives blood stem cell reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Calvanese, Vincenzo; Lee, Lydia K; Mikkola, Hanna K A

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells ensure the maintenance of tissue homeostasis throughout life by tightly regulating their self-renewal and differentiation. In a recent study published in Nature, Nakada et al, 2014 unveil an unexpected endocrine mechanism that regulates hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal. PMID:24562387

  1. Sex hormone drives blood stem cell reproduction.

    PubMed

    Calvanese, Vincenzo; Lee, Lydia K; Mikkola, Hanna K A

    2014-03-18

    Stem cells ensure the maintenance of tissue homeostasis throughout life by tightly regulating their self-renewal and differentiation. In a recent study published in Nature, Nakada et al, 2014 unveil an unexpected endocrine mechanism that regulates hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal. PMID:24562387

  2. Keratinocyte Stem Cells: a Commentary1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher S. Potten; Catherine Booth

    2002-01-01

    For many years it has been widely accepted that stem cells play a crucial role in adult tissue maintenance. The concept that the renewing tissues of the body contain a small subcompartment of self-maintaining stem cells, upon which the entire tissue is dependent, is also now accepted as applicable to all renewing tissues. Gene therapy and tissue engineering are driving

  3. Stem cell stories: from bedside to bench

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Woods

    2008-01-01

    The stem cell story is not a simple story but a complex narrative: one that requires careful analysis in order to identify major themes and plots. This paper offers an analysis of the ethics of the clinical application of stem cells and argues that even quite risky therapies can be ethical. These arguments cannot be used to justify all aspects

  4. Stem Cell Imaging: Tips, Tricks & Best Practices

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    n/a n/a (AAAS; )

    2011-09-21

    This webinar focus on best practices for the manipulation and imaging of stem cells in the laboratory, and explains how the latest imaging solutions have been successfully applied for advancement of our understanding of stem cells and their application in disease treatment.

  5. Matrix Elasticity Directs Stem Cell Lineage Specification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam J. Engler; Shamik Sen; H. Lee Sweeney; Dennis E. Discher

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Microenvironments appear important in stem cell lineage specification but can be difficult to adequately characterize or control with soft tis- sues. Naive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) areshownheretospecifylineageandcommitto phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to tissue- level elasticity. Soft matrices that mimic brain are neurogenic, stiffer matricesthat mimicmus- cle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. During

  6. Stem Cell Research and Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eve, David J.; Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.; Klasko, Stephen K.; Sanberg, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells are being touted as the greatest discovery for the potential treatment of a myriad of diseases in the new millennium, but there is still much research to be done before it will be known whether they can live up to this description. There is also an ethical debate over the production of one of the most valuable types of stem cell: the…

  7. Engineering stem cells for future medicine.

    PubMed

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna

    2013-03-01

    Despite their great potential in regenerative medicine applications, stem cells (especially pluripotent ones) currently show a limited clinical success, partly due to a lack of biological knowledge, but also due to a lack of specific and advanced technological instruments able to overcome the current boundaries of stem cell functional maturation and safe/effective therapeutic delivery. This paper aims at describing recent insights, current limitations, and future horizons related to therapeutic stem cells, by analyzing the potential of different bioengineering disciplines in bringing stem cells toward a safe clinical use. First, we clarify how and why stem cells should be properly engineered and which could be in a near future the challenges and the benefits connected with this process. Second, we identify different routes toward stem cell differentiation and functional maturation, relying on chemical, mechanical, topographical, and direct/indirect physical stimulation. Third, we highlight how multiscale modeling could strongly support and optimize stem cell engineering. Finally, we focus on future robotic tools that could provide an added value to the extent of translating basic biological knowledge into clinical applications, by developing ad hoc enabling technologies for stem cell delivery and control. PMID:23380842

  8. Concise Review: Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency, Dysfunction, and Distress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The cornea is the clear tissue at the front of the eye that transmits light to the retina at the back of the eye. The cornea is covered by an epithelium and surrounded by a narrow band of tissue known as the limbus. The limbus has two important roles in maintaining a healthy corneal epithelium. First, stem cells for the corneal epithelium reside at the limbus and not in the cornea. Second, the limbus acts as a barrier separating the clear avascular corneal epithelium from the surrounding vascular conjunctival tissue. A failure of these limbal functions can result in the painful and blinding disease of limbal stem cell deficiency. In this disease, the corneal epithelium cannot be maintained by the stem cells, and the corneal surface becomes replaced by hazy conjunctival tissue. There are many causes of limbal stem cell deficiency, such as burns to the eye, inflammatory diseases, and hereditary diseases. Current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease is discussed here. In particular, understanding whether the limbal stem cells are lost or become dysfunctional or indeed whether the limbal microenvironment is disturbed is important when developing appropriate management strategies for the disease. PMID:23197757

  9. Small molecules, big roles – the chemical manipulation of stem cell fate and somatic cell reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Wenlin; Laurent, Timothy; Ding, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Summary Despite the great potential of stem cells for basic research and clinical applications, obstacles – such as their scarce availability and difficulty in controlling their fate – need to be addressed to fully realize their potential. Recent achievements of cellular reprogramming have enabled the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or other lineage-committed cells from more accessible and abundant somatic cell types by defined genetic factors. However, serious concerns remain about the efficiency and safety of current genetic approaches to cell reprogramming and traditional culture systems that are used for stem cell maintenance. As a complementary approach, small molecules that target specific signaling pathways, epigenetic processes and other cellular processes offer powerful tools for manipulating cell fate to a desired outcome. A growing number of small molecules have been identified to maintain the self-renewal potential of stem cells, to induce lineage differentiation and to facilitate reprogramming by increasing the efficiency of reprogramming or by replacing genetic reprogramming factors. Furthermore, mechanistic investigations of the effects of these chemicals also provide new biological insights. Here, we examine recent achievements in the maintenance of stem cells, including pluripotent and lineage-specific stem cells, and in the control of cell fate conversions, including iPSC reprogramming, conversion of primed to naïve pluripotency, and transdifferentiation, with an emphasis on manipulation with small molecules. PMID:23420199

  10. Enabling stem cell therapies through synthetic stem cell–niche engineering

    PubMed Central

    Peerani, Raheem; Zandstra, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    Enabling stem cell–targeted therapies requires an understanding of how to create local microenvironments (niches) that stimulate endogenous stem cells or serve as a platform to receive and guide the integration of transplanted stem cells and their derivatives. In vivo, the stem cell niche is a complex and dynamic unit. Although components of the in vivo niche continue to be described for many stem cell systems, how these components interact to modulate stem cell fate is only beginning to be understood. Using the HSC niche as a model, we discuss here microscale engineering strategies capable of systematically examining and reconstructing individual niche components. Synthetic stem cell–niche engineering may form a new foundation for regenerative therapies. PMID:20051637

  11. Metabolic oxidation regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yanes, Oscar; Clark, Julie; Wong, Diana M; Patti, Gary J; Sanchez-Ruiz, Antonio; Benton, H Paul; Trauger, Sunia A; Desponts, Caroline; Ding, Sheng; Siuzdak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Metabolites offer an important unexplored complement to understanding the pluripotency of stem cells. Using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, we show that embryonic stem cells are characterized by abundant metabolites with highly unsaturated structures whose levels decrease upon differentiation. By monitoring the reduced and oxidized glutathione ratio as well as ascorbic acid levels, we demonstrate that the stem cell redox status is regulated during differentiation. Based on the oxidative biochemistry of the unsaturated metabolites, we experimentally manipulated specific pathways in embryonic stem cells while monitoring the effects on differentiation. Inhibition of the eicosanoid signaling pathway promoted pluripotency and maintained levels of unsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, downstream oxidized metabolites (e.g., neuroprotectin D1) and substrates of pro-oxidative reactions (e.g., acyl-carnitines), promoted neuronal and cardiac differentiation. We postulate that the highly unsaturated metabolome sustained by stem cells makes them particularly attuned to differentiate in response to in vivo oxidative processes such as inflammation. PMID:20436487

  12. Two Updates on Stem Cell Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In a recent press briefing, stem cell research pioneers James Thomson and John Gearhart announced that, despite political obstacles and limited funding, stem cell research is progressing and clinical trials on human beings should begin within the next five years. The Why Files chronicles the first five years of embryonic stem cell research, covering the science, the politics, and the ethical issues behind this contentious topic (and a closer look at the both the promise and doubt in adult stem cells). The second website -- from CBS News -- covers the press briefing held by Thomson and Gearhart, and offers two interactive features on stem cell research and human cloning, as well as links to related CBS News stories.

  13. Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Bunnell, Bruce A.; Frazier, Trivia; Rowan, Brian; Shah, Forum; Thomas-Porch, Caasy; Wu, Xiying

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the complexity of adipose tissue and its physiological role was not well appreciated. This changed with the discovery of adipokines such as leptin. The cellular composition of adipose tissue is heterogeneous and changes as a function of diabetes and disease states such as diabetes. Tissue engineers view adipose tissue as a rich source of adult stromal/stem cells isolated by collagenase digestion. In vitro and in vivo studies have documented that adipose stromal/stem cells are multipotent, with the ability to differentiate along the adipocyte, chondrocyte, osteoblast and other lineage pathways. The adipose stromal/stem cells secrete a wide range of cytokines and growth factors with potential paracrine actions. Furthermore, adipose stromal/stem cells exert immunomodulatory functions when added to mixed lymphocyte reactions, suggesting that they can be transplanted allogeneically. This review article focuses on these mechanisms of adipose stromal/stem cell action and their potential utility as cellular therapeutics. PMID:23538753

  14. Application of Stem Cells in Orthopedics

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Andreas; van Griensven, Martijn; Imhoff, Andreas B.; Buchmann, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell research plays an important role in orthopedic regenerative medicine today. Current literature provides us with promising results from animal research in the fields of bone, tendon, and cartilage repair. While early clinical results are already published for bone and cartilage repair, the data about tendon repair is limited to animal studies. The success of these techniques remains inconsistent in all three mentioned areas. This may be due to different application techniques varying from simple mesenchymal stem cell injection up to complex tissue engineering. However, the ideal carrier for the stem cells still remains controversial. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of current basic research and clinical data concerning stem cell research in bone, tendon, and cartilage repair. Furthermore, a focus is set on different stem cell application techniques in tendon reconstruction, cartilage repair, and filling of bone defects. PMID:22550505

  15. Magneto-Optical Labeling of Fetal Neural Stem Cells for in vivo MRI Tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Flexman; S. Minoshima; Y. Kim; D. J. Cross

    2006-01-01

    Neural stem cell therapy for neurological pathologies, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, may delay the onset of symptoms, replace damaged neurons and\\/or support the survival of endogenous cells. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to track magnetically labeled cells in vivo to observe migration. Prior to transplantation, labeled cells must be characterized to show that they retain their

  16. Breast cancer stem cells and radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Tiffany Marie

    2007-12-01

    The present studies explore the response of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC's) to radiation and the implications for clinical cancer treatment. Current cancer therapy eliminates bulky tumor mass but may fail to eradicate a critical tumor initiating cell population termed "cancer stem cells". These cells are potentially responsible for tumor formation, metastasis, and recurrence. Recently cancer stem cells have been prospectively identified in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The breast cancer stem cell has been identified by the surface markers CD44+/CD24 -(low). In vitro mammosphere cultures allow for the enrichment of the cancer stem cell population and were utilized in order to study differential characteristics of BCSC's. Initial studies found that BCSC's display increased radiation resistance as compared to other non-stem tumor cells. This resistance was accompanied by decreased H2AX phosphorylation, decreased reactive oxygen species formation, and increased phosphorylation of the checkpoint protein Chk1. These studies suggest differential DNA damage and repair within the BCSC population. Studies then examined the consequences of fractionated radiation on the BCSC population and found a two-fold increase in BCSC's following 5 x 3Gy. This observation begins to tie cancer stem cell self-renewal to the clinical stem cell phenomenon of accelerated repopulation. Accelerated repopulation is observed when treatment gaps increase between sequential fractions of radiotherapy and may be due to cancer stem cell symmetric self-renewal. The balance between asymmetric and symmetric stem cell division is vital for proper maintenance; deregulation is likely linked to cancer initiation and progression. The developmental Notch-1 pathway was found to regulate BCSC division. Over-expressing the constitutively active Notch-1-ICD in MCF7 cells produced an increase in the BCSC population. Additionally, radiation was observed to increase the expression of the Notch-1 ligand, Jagged-1, and this was complemented by radiation induced Notch-1 activation. Studies also linked hypoxia and BCSC renewal through Epo signaling. Treatment with rhEpo induced an increase in BCSC's, which again was due to rhEpo induced Jagged-1 expression and subsequent Notch-1 activation. This thesis suggests that radiation and rhEpo induce Jagged-1 expression in non-stem cells, which then induce Notch-1 activation in adjacent stem cells, and results in symmetric cancer stem cell self-renewal.

  17. Hematopoietic cell differentiation from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, are undifferentiated cells that can self-renew and potentially differentiate into all hematopoietic lineages, such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), hematopoietic progenitor cells and mature hematopoietic cells in the presence of a suitable culture system. Establishment of pluripotent stem cells provides a comprehensive model to study early hematopoietic development and has emerged as a powerful research tool to explore regenerative medicine. Nowadays, HSC transplantation and hematopoietic cell transfusion have successfully cured some patients, especially in malignant hematological diseases. Owing to a shortage of donors and a limited number of the cells, hematopoietic cell induction from pluripotent stem cells has been regarded as an alternative source of HSCs and mature hematopoietic cells for intended therapeutic purposes. Pluripotent stem cells are therefore extensively utilized to facilitate better understanding in hematopoietic development by recapitulating embryonic development in vivo, in which efficient strategies can be easily designed and deployed for the generation of hematopoietic lineages in vitro. We hereby review the current progress of hematopoietic cell induction from embryonic stem/induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:23796405

  18. Smart Drugs for Smarter Stem Cells: Making SENSe (Sphingolipid-Enhanced Neural Stem Cells) of Ceramide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erhard Bieberich

    2008-01-01

    Ceramide and its derivative sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are important signaling sphingolipids for neural stem cell apoptosis and differentiation. Most recently, our group has shown that novel ceramide analogs can be used to eliminate teratoma (stem cell tumor)-forming cells from a neural stem cell graft. In new studies, we found that S1P promotes survival of specific neural precursor cells that undergo differentiation

  19. Pluripotent stem cells induced from adult neural stem cells by reprogramming with two factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong Beom Kim; Holm Zaehres; Guangming Wu; Luca Gentile; Kinarm Ko; Vittorio Sebastiano; Marcos J. Araúzo-Bravo; David Ruau; Dong Wook Han; Martin Zenke; Hans R. Schöler

    2008-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells is a valuable tool to understand the mechanisms of regaining pluripotency and further opens up the possibility of generating patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. Reprogramming of mouse and human somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells, designated as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, has been possible with the expression of the transcription factor quartet Oct4 (also known as

  20. Stem Cells and Alcohol-Related Cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhigang Peter Gao; Q. Max Guo

    \\u000a Stem cells are populations of cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells, tissues, and organs.\\u000a Stem cells are characterized by their capacities of multipotency to differentiate or self-renew. They play a crucial role\\u000a in many aspects of biology, from embryo development to tissue repair and maintenance. In many organs and tissues, they serve\\u000a as an

  1. Somatic stem cells for regenerative dentistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Morsczeck; Gottfried Schmalz; Torsten Eugen Reichert; Florian Völlner; Kerstin Galler; Oliver Driemel

    2008-01-01

    Complex human tissues harbour stem cells and\\/or precursor cells, which are responsible for tissue development or repair. Recently,\\u000a dental tissues such as periodontal ligament (PDL), dental papilla or dental follicle have been identified as easily accessible\\u000a sources of undifferentiated cells. The dental stem cell biology might provide meaningful insights into the development of\\u000a dental tissues and cellular differentiation processes. Dental

  2. Basics of Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew T. Harting

    \\u000a This chapter will define key terms and introduce important basic information about the fundamental building blocks of the\\u000a entire text: the stem and progenitor cells. After a brief discussion of terminology central to the field, we will explore\\u000a the various stem and progenitor cells including bone marrow-derived cell populations, specific niche-derived cell populations,\\u000a as well as special situations such as

  3. Preconditioning Strategy in Stem Cell Transplantation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shan Ping; Wei, Zheng; Wei, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation therapy has emerged as a promising regenerative medicine for ischemic stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders. However, many issues and problems remain to be resolved before successful clinical applications of the cell-based therapy. To this end, some recent investigations have sought to benefit from well-known mechanisms of ischemic/hypoxic preconditioning. Ischemic/hypoxic preconditioning activates endogenous defense mechanisms that show marked protective effects against multiple insults found in ischemic stroke and other acute attacks. As in many other cell types, a sub-lethal hypoxic exposure significantly increases the tolerance and regenerative properties of stem cells and progenitor cells. So far, a variety of preconditioning triggers have been tested on different stem cells and progenitor cells. Preconditioned stem cells and progenitors generally show much better cell survival, increased neuronal differentiation, enhanced paracrine effects leading to increased trophic support, and improved homing to the lesion site. Transplantation of preconditioned cells helps to suppress inflammatory factors and immune responses, and promote functional recovery. Although the preconditioning strategy in stem cell therapy is still an emerging research area, accumulating information from reports over the last few years already indicates it as an attractive, if not essential, prerequisite for transplanted cells. It is expected that stem cell preconditioning and its clinical applications will attract more attention in both the basic research field of preconditioning as well as in the field of stem cell translational research. This review summarizes the most important findings in this active research area, covering the preconditioning triggers, potential mechanisms, mediators, and functional benefits for stem cell transplant therapy. PMID:23914259

  4. Prepatterning in the Stem Cell Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Tonge, Peter D.; Olariu, Victor; Coca, Daniel; Kadirkamanathan, Visakan; Burrell, Kelly E.; Billings, Stephen A.; Andrews, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism by which an apparently uniform population of cells can generate a heterogeneous population of differentiated derivatives is a fundamental aspect of pluripotent and multipotent stem cell behaviour. One possibility is that the environment and the differentiation cues to which the cells are exposed are not uniform. An alternative, but not mutually exclusive possibility is that the observed heterogeneity arises from the stem cells themselves through the existence of different interconvertible substates that pre-exist before the cells commit to differentiate. We have tested this hypothesis in the case of apparently homogeneous pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma (EC) stem cells, which do not follow a uniform pattern of differentiation when exposed to retinoic acid. Instead, they produce differentiated progeny that include both neuronal and non-neural phenotypes. Our results suggest that pluripotent NTERA2 stem cells oscillate between functionally distinct substates that are primed to select distinct lineages when differentiation is induced. PMID:20531938

  5. The Effect of Laser Irradiation on Adipose Derived Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamse, H.; de Villiers, J.; Mvula, B.

    2009-06-01

    There are two fundamental types of stem cells: Embryonic Stem cells and Adult Stem cells. Adult Stem cells have a more restricted potential and can usually differentiate into a few different cell types. In the body these cells facilitate the replacement or repair of damaged or diseased cells in organs. Low intensity laser irradiation was shown to increase stem cell migration and stimulate proliferation and it is thought that treatment of these cells with laser irradiation may increase the stem cell harvest and have a positive effect on the viability and proliferation. Our research is aimed at determining the effect of laser irradiation on differentiation of Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) into different cell types using a diode laser with a wavelength of 636 nm and at 5 J/cm2. Confirmation of stem cell characteristics and well as subsequent differentiation were assessed using Western blot analysis and cellular morphology supported by fluorescent live cell imaging. Functionality of subsequent differentiated cells was confirmed by measuring adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and cell viability.

  6. Bioreactor Engineering of Stem Cell Environments

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Nina; Marolt, Darja; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold promise to revolutionize modern medicine by development of new therapies, disease models and drug screening systems. Standard cell culture systems have limited biological relevance because they do not recapitulate the complex 3-dimensional interactions and biophysical cues that characterize the in vivo environment. In this review, we discuss the current advances in engineering stem cell environments using novel biomaterials and bioreactor technologies. We also reflect on the challenges the field is currently facing with regard to translation of stem cell based therapies into the clinic. PMID:23531529

  7. Activin/Nodal signalling in stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pauklin, Siim; Vallier, Ludovic

    2015-02-15

    Activin/Nodal growth factors control a broad range of biological processes, including early cell fate decisions, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms by which the Activin/Nodal signalling pathway governs stem cell function in these different stages of development. We describe recent findings that associate Activin/Nodal signalling to pathological conditions, focusing on cancer stem cells in tumorigenesis and its potential as a target for therapies. Moreover, we will discuss future directions and questions that currently remain unanswered on the role of Activin/Nodal signalling in stem cell self-renewal, differentiation and proliferation. PMID:25670788

  8. Epigenetic regulation in adult stem cells and cancers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate to distinct cell types. Multiple signaling pathways have been shown to play essential roles as extrinsic cues in maintaining adult stem cell identity and activity. Recent studies also show dynamic regulation by epigenetic mechanisms as intrinsic factors in multiple adult stem cell lineages. Emerging evidence demonstrates intimate crosstalk between these two mechanisms. Misregulation of adult stem cell activity could lead to tumorigenesis, and it has been proposed that cancer stem cells may be responsible for tumor growth and metastasis. However, it is unclear whether cancer stem cells share commonalities with normal adult stem cells. In this review, we will focus on recent discoveries of epigenetic regulation in multiple adult stem cell lineages. We will also discuss how epigenetic mechanisms regulate cancer stem cell activity and probe the common and different features between cancer stem cells and normal adult stem cells. PMID:24172544

  9. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, ? cells

    E-print Network

    Hrvatin, Sinisa

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic ? cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in ...

  10. Genetic modification of stem cells for transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ian Phillips; Yao Liang Tang

    2008-01-01

    Gene modification of cells prior to their transplantation, especially stem cells, enhances their survival and increases their function in cell therapy. Like the Trojan horse, the gene-modified cell has to gain entrance inside the host's walls and survive and deliver its transgene products Using cellular, molecular and gene manipulation techniques the transplanted cell can be protected in a hostile environment

  11. Neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sujoy K. Dhara; Steven L. Stice

    2008-01-01

    Availability of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has enhanced human neural differentiation research. The derivation of neural progenitor (NP) cells from hESC facilitates the interrogation of human embryonic development through the generation of neuronal subtypes and supporting glial cells. These cells will likely lead to novel drug screening and cell therapy uses. This review will discuss the current status of

  12. Spatial Organization of Embryonic Stem Cell Responsiveness to Autocrine Gp130 Ligands Reveals an Autoregulatory Stem

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Spatial Organization of Embryonic Stem Cell Responsiveness to Autocrine Gp130 Ligands Reveals an Autoregulatory Stem Cell Niche RYAN E. DAVEY,a PETER W. ZANDSTRA a,b a Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical, Ontario, Canada Key Words. Autocrine signaling · Embryonic stem cell · Niche · Self-renewal · Stem cell

  13. Multipotent somatic stem cells contribute to the stem cell niche in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Voog, Justin; D'Alterio, Cecilia; Jones, D Leanne

    2008-08-28

    Adult stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments, or niches, that have an important role in regulating stem cell behaviour. Therefore, tight control of niche number, size and function is necessary to ensure the proper balance between stem cells and progenitor cells available for tissue homeostasis and wound repair. The stem cell niche in the Drosophila male gonad is located at the tip of the testis where germline and somatic stem cells surround the apical hub, a cluster of approximately 10-15 somatic cells that is required for stem cell self-renewal and maintenance. Here we show that somatic stem cells in the Drosophila testis contribute to both the apical hub and the somatic cyst cell lineage. The Drosophila orthologue of epithelial cadherin (DE-cadherin) is required for somatic stem cell maintenance and, consequently, the apical hub. Furthermore, our data indicate that the transcriptional repressor escargot regulates the ability of somatic cells to assume and/or maintain hub cell identity. These data highlight the dynamic relationship between stem cells and the niche and provide insight into genetic programmes that regulate niche size and function to support normal tissue homeostasis and organ regeneration throughout life. PMID:18641633

  14. Time to reconsider stem cell induction strategies.

    PubMed

    Denker, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in stem cell research suggest that it may be time to reconsider the current focus of stem cell induction strategies. During the previous five years, approximately, the induction of pluripotency in somatic cells, i.e., the generation of so-called 'induced pluripotent stem cells' (iPSCs), has become the focus of ongoing research in many stem cell laboratories, because this technology promises to overcome limitations (both technical and ethical) seen in the production and use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A rapidly increasing number of publications suggest, however, that it is now possible to choose instead other, alternative ways of generating stem and progenitor cells bypassing pluripotency. These new strategies may offer important advantages with respect to ethics, as well as to safety considerations. The present communication discusses why these strategies may provide possibilities for an escape from the dilemma presented by pluripotent stem cells (self-organization potential, cloning by tetraploid complementation, patenting problems and tumor formation risk). PMID:24710555

  15. Stem cell applications in military medicine.

    PubMed

    Christopherson, Gregory T; Nesti, Leon J

    2011-01-01

    There are many similarities between health issues affecting military and civilian patient populations, with the exception of the relatively small but vital segment of active soldiers who experience high-energy blast injuries during combat. A rising incidence of major injuries from explosive devices in recent campaigns has further complicated treatment and recovery, highlighting the need for tissue regenerative options and intensifying interest in the possible role of stem cells for military medicine. In this review we outline the array of tissue-specific injuries typically seen in modern combat - as well as address a few complications unique to soldiers--and discuss the state of current stem cell research in addressing each area. Embryonic, induced-pluripotent and adult stem cell sources are defined, along with advantages and disadvantages unique to each cell type. More detailed stem cell sources are described in the context of each tissue of interest, including neural, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and sensory tissues, with brief discussion of their potential role in regenerative medicine moving forward. Additional commentary is given to military stem cell applications aside from regenerative medicine, such as blood pharming, immunomodulation and drug screening, with an overview of stem cell banking and the unique opportunity provided by the military and civilian overlap of stem cell research. PMID:22011454

  16. Biomaterials and Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhanpeng; Gupte, Melanie J.; Ma, Peter X.

    2013-01-01

    Importance of the field Organ failure and tissue loss are challenging health issues due to widespread injury, the lack of organs for transplantation, and limitations of conventional artificial implants. The field of tissue engineering aims to provide alternative living substitutes that restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Areas covered in this review In this paper, a wide range of porous scaffolds are reviewed, with an emphasis on phase separation techniques that generate advantageous nanofibrous 3D scaffolds for stem cell-based tissue engineering applications. In addition, methods for presentation and delivery of bioactive molecules to mimic the properties of stem cell niche are summarized. Recent progress in using these bio-instructive scaffolds to support stem cell differentiation and tissue regeneration is also presented. What the reader will gain Stem cells have great clinical potential because of their capability to differentiate into multiple cell types. Biomaterials have served as artificial extracellular environments to regulate stem cell behavior. Biomaterials with various physical, mechanical, and chemical properties can be designed to control stem cell development for regeneration. Take home message The research at the interface of stem cell biology and biomaterials has made and will continue to make exciting advances in tissue engineering. PMID:23327471

  17. Stem cell applications in military medicine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There are many similarities between health issues affecting military and civilian patient populations, with the exception of the relatively small but vital segment of active soldiers who experience high-energy blast injuries during combat. A rising incidence of major injuries from explosive devices in recent campaigns has further complicated treatment and recovery, highlighting the need for tissue regenerative options and intensifying interest in the possible role of stem cells for military medicine. In this review we outline the array of tissue-specific injuries typically seen in modern combat - as well as address a few complications unique to soldiers - and discuss the state of current stem cell research in addressing each area. Embryonic, induced-pluripotent and adult stem cell sources are defined, along with advantages and disadvantages unique to each cell type. More detailed stem cell sources are described in the context of each tissue of interest, including neural, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and sensory tissues, with brief discussion of their potential role in regenerative medicine moving forward. Additional commentary is given to military stem cell applications aside from regenerative medicine, such as blood pharming, immunomodulation and drug screening, with an overview of stem cell banking and the unique opportunity provided by the military and civilian overlap of stem cell research. PMID:22011454

  18. Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Elizabeth; Madani, Seyed Yazdan; Sheth, Roosey; Seifalian, Amelia; Green, Mark; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are an exciting advancement in the field of nanotechnology. They expand the possibilities of noninvasive analysis and have many useful properties, making them potential candidates for numerous novel applications. Notably, they have been shown that they can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and are capable of conjugation with various cell types, including stem cells. In-depth research has been undertaken to establish these benefits, so that a deeper level of understanding of stem cell migratory pathways and differentiation, tumor migration, and improved drug delivery can be achieved. Stem cells have the ability to treat and cure many debilitating diseases with limited side effects, but a main problem that arises is in the noninvasive tracking and analysis of these stem cells. Recently, researchers have acknowledged the use of SPIONs for this purpose and have set out to establish suitable protocols for coating and attachment, so as to bring MRI tracking of SPION-labeled stem cells into common practice. This review paper explains the manner in which SPIONs are produced, conjugated, and tracked using MRI, as well as a discussion on their limitations. A concise summary of recently researched magnetic particle coatings is provided, and the effects of SPIONs on stem cells are evaluated, while animal and human studies investigating the role of SPIONs in stem cell tracking will be explored. PMID:24729700

  19. Transformation of intestinal stem cells into gastric stem cells on loss of transcription factor Cdx2

    PubMed Central

    Simmini, Salvatore; Bialecka, Monika; Huch, Meritxell; Kester, Lennart; van de Wetering, Marc; Sato, Toshiro; Beck, Felix; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Clevers, Hans; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The endodermal lining of the adult gastro-intestinal tract harbours stem cells that are responsible for the day-to-day regeneration of the epithelium. Stem cells residing in the pyloric glands of the stomach and in the small intestinal crypts differ in their differentiation programme and in the gene repertoire that they express. Both types of stem cells have been shown to grow from single cells into 3D structures (organoids) in vitro. We show that single adult Lgr5-positive stem cells, isolated from small intestinal organoids, require Cdx2 to maintain their intestinal identity and are converted cell-autonomously into pyloric stem cells in the absence of this transcription factor. Clonal descendants of Cdx2null small intestinal stem cells enter the gastric differentiation program instead of producing intestinal derivatives. We show that the intestinal genetic programme is critically dependent on the single transcription factor encoding gene Cdx2. PMID:25500896

  20. Defining stem cell dynamics in models of intestinal tumor initiation.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Louis; Morrissey, Edward; van der Heijden, Maartje; Nicholson, Anna M; Sottoriva, Andrea; Buczacki, Simon; Kemp, Richard; Tavaré, Simon; Winton, Douglas J

    2013-11-22

    Cancer is a disease in which cells accumulate genetic aberrations that are believed to confer a clonal advantage over cells in the surrounding tissue. However, the quantitative benefit of frequently occurring mutations during tumor development remains unknown. We quantified the competitive advantage of Apc loss, Kras activation, and P53 mutations in the mouse intestine. Our findings indicate that the fate conferred by these mutations is not deterministic, and many mutated stem cells are replaced by wild-type stem cells after biased, but still stochastic events. Furthermore, P53 mutations display a condition-dependent advantage, and especially in colitis-affected intestines, clones harboring mutations in this gene are favored. Our work confirms the previously theoretical notion that the tissue architecture of the intestine suppresses the accumulation of mutated lineages. PMID:24264992