Sample records for stem cell replacement

  1. Phenotypic Evolutionary Models in Stem Cell Biology: Replacement, Quiescence, and Variability

    E-print Network

    Mangel, Marc

    Phenotypic Evolutionary Models in Stem Cell Biology: Replacement, Quiescence, and Variability Marc of biology, but thus far have not been applied to the study of stem cells except for investigations of cancer: Mangel M, Bonsall MB (2008) Phenotypic Evolutionary Models in Stem Cell Biology: Replacement, Quiescence

  2. Harveian Oration 2014: Stem cells and cell replacement prospects

    E-print Network

    Gurdon, John

    2015-04-01

    1 Weismann A. Das Keimplasma, eine theorie der Vererbung. In: Parker WN, Ronnfeldt H (eds), The germ-plasm: a theory of heredity. London: Walter Scott, 1892. 2 Briggs R, King TJ. Transplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated...

  3. Phenotypic Evolutionary Models in Stem Cell Biology: Replacement, Quiescence, and Variability

    PubMed Central

    Mangel, Marc; Bonsall, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    Phenotypic evolutionary models have been used with great success in many areas of biology, but thus far have not been applied to the study of stem cells except for investigations of cancer. We develop a framework that allows such modeling techniques to be applied to stem cells more generally. The fundamental modeling structure is the stochastic kinetics of stem cells in their niche and of transit amplifying and fully differentiated cells elsewhere in the organism, with positive and negative feedback. This formulation allows graded signals to be turned into all or nothing responses, and shows the importance of looking beyond the niche for understanding how stem cells behave. Using the deterministic version of this framework, we show how competition between different stem cell lines can be analyzed, and under what circumstances stem cells in a niche will be replaced by other stem cells with different phenotypic characteristics. Using the stochastic version of our framework and state dependent life history theory, we show that the optimal behavior of a focal stem cell will involve long periods of quiescence and that a population of identical stem cells will show great variability in the times at which activity occurs; we compare our results with classic ones on quiescence and variability in the hematopoietic system. PMID:18270578

  4. Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwen Lomberk

    2007-01-01

    In this issue, ‘Pancreatology and the Web’ focuses on stem cell research, one of the 21st century’s most exciting areas of science. Stem cell research has been advancing our knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. Although still in its infancy, this field also offers a revolutionary

  5. Neurodegeneration and cell replacement.

    PubMed

    Ormerod, Brandi K; Palmer, Theo D; Caldwell, Maeve A

    2008-01-12

    The past decade has witnessed ground-breaking advances in human stem cell biology with scientists validating adult neurogenesis and establishing methods to isolate and propagate stem cell populations suitable for transplantation. These advances have forged promising strategies against human neurodegenerative diseases. For example, growth factor administration could stimulate intrinsic repair from endogenous neural stem cells, and cultured stem cells engineered into biopumps could be transplanted to deliver neuroprotective or restorative agents. Stem cells could also be transplanted to generate new neural elements that augment and potentially replace degenerating central nervous system (CNS) circuitry. Early efforts in neural tissue transplantation have shown that these strategies can improve functional outcome, but the ultimate success of clinical stem cell-based strategies will depend on detailed understanding of stem cell biology in the degenerating brain and detailed evaluation of their functional efficacy and safety in preclinical animal models. PMID:17331894

  6. cAMP and EPAC Signaling Functionally Replace OCT4 During Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Ashley L; Adil, Maroof M; Mao, Sunnie R; Schaffer, David V

    2015-05-01

    The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells-generated via the ectopic overexpression of reprogramming factors such as OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and C-MYC (OSKM) in a differentiated cell type-has enabled groundbreaking research efforts in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug discovery. Although initial studies have focused on the roles of nuclear factors, increasing evidence highlights the importance of signal transduction during reprogramming. By utilizing a quantitative, medium-throughput screen to initially identify signaling pathways that could potentially replace individual transcription factors during reprogramming, we initially found that several pathways-such as Notch, Smoothened, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling-were capable of generating alkaline phosphatase positive colonies in the absence of OCT4, the most stringently required Yamanaka factor. After further investigation, we discovered that cAMP signal activation could functionally replace OCT4 to induce pluripotency, and results indicate that the downstream exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) signaling pathway rather than protein kinase A (PKA) signaling is necessary and sufficient for this function. cAMP signaling may reduce barriers to reprogramming by contributing to downstream epithelial gene expression, decreasing mesenchymal gene expression, and increasing proliferation. Ultimately, these results elucidate mechanisms that could lead to new reprogramming methodologies and advance our understanding of stem cell biology. PMID:25666918

  7. Human umbilical cord blood serum can replace fetal bovine serum in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Shetty; K. Bharucha; V. Tanavde

    2007-01-01

    The potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to differentiate into different cell types has opened up the possibility of using these cells clinically to treat a variety of disorders. In this study we describe the use of human umbilical cord blood serum (CBS) as a replacement for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for culturing MSC from different sources. MSC from human

  8. Basal medium composition and serum or serum replacement concentration influences on the maintenance of murine embryonic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad A. Chaudhry; Timothy Z. Vitalis; Bruce D. Bowen; James M. Piret

    2008-01-01

    The expansion of stem cell numbers while retaining their developmental properties is a bioprocess challenge. We compared the\\u000a growth rates and embryoid body (EB) formation yields of R1 and EFC murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) cultured in two basal\\u000a media (DMEM or DMEM:F12) with additions of 1.7–15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or serum replacer (KOSR). Whereas the basal medium\\u000a or

  9. Multi-kilobase homozygous targeted gene replacement in human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Susan M.; Ortiz, Luis; Mali, Prashant; Aach, John; Church, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Sequence-specific nucleases such as TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 system have so far been used to disrupt, correct or insert transgenes at precise locations in mammalian genomes. We demonstrate efficient ‘knock-in’ targeted replacement of multi-kilobase genes in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Using a model system replacing endogenous human genes with their mouse counterpart, we performed a comprehensive study of targeting vector design parameters for homologous recombination. A 2.7 kilobase (kb) homozygous gene replacement was achieved in up to 11% of iPSC without selection. The optimal homology arm length was around 2 kb, with homology length being especially critical on the arm not adjacent to the cut site. Homologous sequence inside the cut sites was detrimental to targeting efficiency, consistent with a synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) mechanism. Using two nuclease sites, we observed a high degree of gene excisions and inversions, which sometimes occurred more frequently than indel mutations. While homozygous deletions of 86 kb were achieved with up to 8% frequency, deletion frequencies were not solely a function of nuclease activity and deletion size. Our results analyzing the optimal parameters for targeting vector design will inform future gene targeting efforts involving multi-kilobase gene segments, particularly in human iPSC. PMID:25414332

  10. Establishment of Alternative Culture Method for Spermatogonial Stem Cells Using Knockout Serum Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Aoshima, Keisuke; Baba, Ai; Makino, Yoshinori; Okada, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    Since spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are capable of both self-renewal and differentiation to daughter cells for subsequent spermatogenesis, the development of an efficient in vitro culture system is essential for studies related to spermatogenesis. Although the currently available system is serum-free and contains only chemically-defined components, it highly relies upon bovine serum albumin (BSA), a component with batch-to-batch quality variations similar to those of fetal bovine serum. Thus, we searched for an alternative BSA-free culture system that preserved the properties of SSCs. In this study, we utilized Knockout Serum Replacement (KSR) in the SSC culture medium, as a substitute for BSA. The results demonstrated that KSR supported the continuous growth of SSCs in vitro and the SSC activity in vivo without BSA, in a feeder-cell combination with mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The addition of BSA to KSR further facilitated cell cycle progression, whereas a transplantation assay revealed that the addition of BSA did not affect the number of SSCs in vivo. The combination of KSR with BSA also allowed the elimination of GFRA1 and FGF2, and the reduction of the GDNF concentration from 20 ng/ml to 5 ng/ml, while maintaining the growth rate and the expression of SSC markers. Furthermore, KSR was also useful with SSCs from non-DBA/2 strains, such as C57BL/6 and ICR. These results suggested that KSR is an effective substitute for BSA for long-term in vitro cultures of SSCs. Therefore, this method is practical for various studies related to SSCs, including spermatogenesis and germ stem cell biology. PMID:24204931

  11. Establishment of alternative culture method for spermatogonial stem cells using knockout serum replacement.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, Keisuke; Baba, Ai; Makino, Yoshinori; Okada, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    Since spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are capable of both self-renewal and differentiation to daughter cells for subsequent spermatogenesis, the development of an efficient in vitro culture system is essential for studies related to spermatogenesis. Although the currently available system is serum-free and contains only chemically-defined components, it highly relies upon bovine serum albumin (BSA), a component with batch-to-batch quality variations similar to those of fetal bovine serum. Thus, we searched for an alternative BSA-free culture system that preserved the properties of SSCs. In this study, we utilized Knockout Serum Replacement (KSR) in the SSC culture medium, as a substitute for BSA. The results demonstrated that KSR supported the continuous growth of SSCs in vitro and the SSC activity in vivo without BSA, in a feeder-cell combination with mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The addition of BSA to KSR further facilitated cell cycle progression, whereas a transplantation assay revealed that the addition of BSA did not affect the number of SSCs in vivo. The combination of KSR with BSA also allowed the elimination of GFRA1 and FGF2, and the reduction of the GDNF concentration from 20 ng/ml to 5 ng/ml, while maintaining the growth rate and the expression of SSC markers. Furthermore, KSR was also useful with SSCs from non-DBA/2 strains, such as C57BL/6 and ICR. These results suggested that KSR is an effective substitute for BSA for long-term in vitro cultures of SSCs. Therefore, this method is practical for various studies related to SSCs, including spermatogenesis and germ stem cell biology. PMID:24204931

  12. Embryonic stem cells: overcoming the immunological barriers to cell replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kathy O; Waldmann, Herman; Fairchild, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    The appeal of using embryonic stem (ES) cells for regenerative medicine lies in their pluripotency and resulting ability to differentiate into all somatic cell types. While graft rejection remains the greatest hurdle to their use in the clinic, several approaches have been proposed to protect the allogeneic ES cell-derived grafts from host immunity: the creation of nuclear transfer human ES (hES) cell lines; the development of parthenogenic hES cells and iPS cells; the establishment of a bank of clinically-approved lines; the generation of hematopoietic chimerism and the induction of peripheral tolerance in recipients. Here, we discuss how the immune-privileged features of ES cells and tissues derived from them may influence these approaches and review the strategies and mechanisms involved in sustaining antigen-specific tolerance through interplay between dendritic cells (DC) and regulatory T cells (Treg). This overview therefore surveys prospects for developing novel regimes to prolong acceptance of ES cell-derived tissues with minimal use of immunosuppressive drugs. PMID:19149632

  13. Derivation and maintenance of human embryonic stem cell line on human adult skin fibroblast feeder cells in serum replacement medium.

    PubMed

    Tecirlioglu, R Tayfur; Nguyen, Linh; Koh, Karen; Trounson, Alan O; Michalska, Anna E

    2010-04-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells were originally isolated and maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder layers in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS). However, if the hES cells are to be used for therapeutic applications, it is preferable to regulatory authorities that they be derived and cultured in animal-free conditions to prevent mouse antigen contamination that would exacerbate an immune response to foreign proteins, and the potential risk of transmission of retroviral and other zoonotic pathogens to humans. As a step towards this goal, we derived a new hES cell line (MISCES-01) on human adult skin fibroblasts as feeder cells using serum replacement (SR) medium. The MISCES-01 cells have a normal diploid karyotype (46XX), express markers of pluripotency (OCT4, GCTM-2, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, and alkaline phosphatase) and following in vitro and in vivo differentiation, give rise to derivatives of the three primary germ layers. This cell line can be obtained for research purposes from the Australian Stem Cell Centre (http://www.stemcellcentre.edu.au). PMID:20178002

  14. Stem-cell-based, tissue engineered tracheal replacement in a child: a 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Martin J; De Coppi, Paolo; Speggiorin, Simone; Roebuck, Derek; Butler, Colin R; Samuel, Edward; Crowley, Claire; McLaren, Clare; Fierens, Anja; Vondrys, David; Cochrane, Lesley; Jephson, Christopher; Janes, Samuel; Beaumont, Nicholas J; Cogan, Tristan; Bader, Augustinus; Seifalian, Alexander M; Hsuan, J Justin; Lowdell, Mark W; Birchall, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Stem-cell-based, tissue engineered transplants might offer new therapeutic options for patients, including children, with failing organs. The reported replacement of an adult airway using stem cells on a biological scaffold with good results at 6 months supports this view. We describe the case of a child who received a stem-cell-based tracheal replacement and report findings after 2 years of follow-up. Methods A 12-year-old boy was born with long-segment congenital tracheal stenosis and pulmonary sling. His airway had been maintained by metal stents, but, after failure, a cadaveric donor tracheal scaffold was decellularised. After a short course of granulocyte colony stimulating factor, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were retrieved preoperatively and seeded onto the scaffold, with patches of autologous epithelium. Topical human recombinant erythropoietin was applied to encourage angiogenesis, and transforming growth factor ? to support chondrogenesis. Intravenous human recombinant erythropoietin was continued postoperatively. Outcomes were survival, morbidity, endoscopic appearance, cytology and proteomics of brushings, and peripheral blood counts. Findings The graft revascularised within 1 week after surgery. A strong neutrophil response was noted locally for the first 8 weeks after surgery, which generated luminal DNA neutrophil extracellular traps. Cytological evidence of restoration of the epithelium was not evident until 1 year. The graft did not have biomechanical strength focally until 18 months, but the patient has not needed any medical intervention since then. 18 months after surgery, he had a normal chest CT scan and ventilation-perfusion scan and had grown 11 cm in height since the operation. At 2 years follow-up, he had a functional airway and had returned to school. Interpretation Follow-up of the first paediatric, stem-cell-based, tissue-engineered transplant shows potential for this technology but also highlights the need for further research. Funding Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Trust, The Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust, University College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, and Region of Tuscany. PMID:22841419

  15. Impact of enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with Morquio A syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Shimada, Tsutomu; Bober, Michael B; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Montańo, Adriana M; Giugliani, Roberto; Kubaski, Francyne; Yasuda, Eriko; Rodríguez-López, Alexander; Espejo-Mojica, Angela J; Sánchez, Oscar F; Mason, Robert W; Barrera, Luis A; Mackenzie, William G; Orii, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) can present with systemic skeletal dysplasia, leading to a need for multiple orthopedic surgical procedures, and often become wheelchair bound in their teenage years. Studies on patients with MPS IVA treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) showed a sharp reduction on urinary keratan sulfate, but only modest improvement based on a 6-minute walk test and no significant improvement on a 3-minute climb-up test and lung function test compared with the placebo group, at least in the short-term. Surgical remnants from ERT-treated patients did not show reduction of storage materials in chondrocytes. The impact of ERT on bone lesions in patients with MPS IVA remains limited. ERT seems to be enhanced in a mouse model of MPS IVA by a novel form of the enzyme tagged with a bone-targeting moiety. The tagged enzyme remained in the circulation much longer than untagged native enzyme and was delivered to and retained in bone. Three-month-old MPS IVA mice treated with 23 weekly infusions of tagged enzyme showed marked clearance of the storage materials in bone, bone marrow, and heart valves. When treatment was initiated at birth, reduction of storage materials in tissues was even greater. These findings indicate that specific targeting of the enzyme to bone at an early stage may improve efficacy of ERT for MPS IVA. Recombinant N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) (erGALNS) and in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (prGALNS) has been produced as an alternative to the conventional production in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Recombinant GALNS produced in microorganisms may help to reduce the high cost of ERT and the introduction of modifications to enhance targeting. Although only a limited number of patients with MPS IVA have been treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), beneficial effects have been reported. A wheelchair-bound patient with a severe form of MPS IVA was treated with HSCT at 15 years of age and followed up for 10 years. Radiographs showed that the figures of major and minor trochanter appeared. Loud snoring and apnea disappeared. In all, 1 year after bone marrow transplantation, bone mineral density at L2-L4 was increased from 0.372 g/cm(2) to 0.548 g/cm(2) and was maintained at a level of 0.48±0.054 for the following 9 years. Pulmonary vital capacity increased approximately 20% from a baseline of 1.08 L to around 1.31 L over the first 2 years and was maintained thereafter. Activity of daily living was improved similar to the normal control group. After bilateral osteotomies, a patient can walk over 400 m using hip-knee-ankle-foot orthoses. This long-term observation of a patient shows that this treatment can produce clinical improvements although bone deformity remained unchanged. In conclusion, ERT is a therapeutic option for MPS IVA patients, and there are some indications that HSCT may be an alternative to treat this disease. However, as neither seems to be a curative therapy, at least for the skeletal dysplasia in MPS IVA patients, new approaches are investigated to enhance efficacy and reduce costs to benefit MPS IVA patients. PMID:25897204

  16. Stem Cells as a Source for Cell Replacement in Parkinson’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Offen; Yossef S. Levy; Eldad Melamed

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the basal ganglia (BG), consisting of a remarkable diversity of neuroactive substances, organized into functional subsystems. Pathologically, it is characterized by continuous dopaminergic cell loss in the nigrostriatal and other dopaminergic systems that are found outside the extrapyramidal system, and its main classic triad of signs involves resting tremor, rigidity, and

  17. Basal medium composition and serum or serum replacement concentration influences on the maintenance of murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Muhammad A; Vitalis, Timothy Z; Bowen, Bruce D; Piret, James M

    2008-11-01

    The expansion of stem cell numbers while retaining their developmental properties is a bioprocess challenge. We compared the growth rates and embryoid body (EB) formation yields of R1 and EFC murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) cultured in two basal media (DMEM or DMEM:F12) with additions of 1.7-15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or serum replacer (KOSR). Whereas the basal medium or KOSR dose did not have a significant effect on growth rate for either cell line, increasing doses of KOSR had a significant negative effect on the EB yield of EFC cells. Use of DMEM:F12 and increasing doses of FBS independently and significantly increased the growth rate for both cell lines. DMEM:F12 also significantly increased EB yields for both cell lines. The results show that use of DMEM:F12 and several-fold lower than conventional concentrations of KOSR can efficiently support maintenance of mESC and that KOSR should be dose as well as lot optimized. PMID:19101815

  18. E-cadherin is crucial for embryonic stem cell pluripotency and can replace OCT4 during somatic cell reprogramming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torben Redmer; Sebastian Diecke; Tamara Grigoryan; Angel Quiroga-Negreira; Walter Birchmeier; Daniel Besser

    2011-01-01

    We report new functions of the cell-adhesion molecule E-cadherin in murine pluripotent cells. E-cadherin is highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells, and interference with E-cadherin causes differentiation. During cellular reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts by OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC, fully reprogrammed cells were exclusively observed in the E-cadherin-positive cell population and could not be obtained in the absence of

  19. Human umbilical cord blood serum can replace fetal bovine serum in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shetty, P; Bharucha, K; Tanavde, V

    2007-03-01

    The potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to differentiate into different cell types has opened up the possibility of using these cells clinically to treat a variety of disorders. In this study we describe the use of human umbilical cord blood serum (CBS) as a replacement for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for culturing MSC from different sources. MSC from human and swine bone marrow and human umbilical cord blood were cultured in the presence of DMEM/F12 containing either FBS or CBS. Human MSC cultured in presence of FBS or CBS showed typical fibroblast-like morphology, which is characteristic of MSC. 99% of the cells cultured in FBS had a CD73+/CD105+/CD45- phenotype compared to 96% of cells cultured in CBS. Cells cultured in CBS had a significantly higher cell count as compared to cells cultured in FBS. Swine Bone Marrow MSC cultured in the presence of FBS and CBS were morphologically and phenotypically similar. Human umbilical cord blood serum supports the growth of MSC. While no significant differences were observed in the MSC numbers in swine cells cultured in the presence of FBS or CBS, human cells showed a greater proliferation potential in the presence of CBS as compared to FBS. Therefore, CBS can be used as an effective substitute to FBS for developing clinically useful protocols for culturing MSC. PMID:17208468

  20. Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell States, Fates,

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Carsten

    and Stem Cell Research, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden 4Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, LundCell Stem Cell Review Stem Cell States, Fates, and the Rules of Attraction Tariq Enver,1 Martin

  1. Derivation and maintenance of human embryonic stem cell line on human adult skin fibroblast feeder cells in serum replacement medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tayfur Tecirlioglu; Linh Nguyen; Karen Koh; Alan O. Trounson; Anna E. Michalska

    2010-01-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells were originally isolated and maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder layers\\u000a in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS). However, if the hES cells are to be used for therapeutic applications, it is\\u000a preferable to regulatory authorities that they be derived and cultured in animal-free conditions to prevent mouse antigen\\u000a contamination that would exacerbate

  2. It is hoped that stem cells will provide an inexhaustible source of neu-rons and glia for therapies aimed at cell replacement or neuroprotection

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    -221 84 Lund, Sweden. 3 Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, LundIt is hoped that stem cells will provide an inexhaustible source of neu- rons and glia. 1). Embryonic stem (ES) cells, and stem cells from the fetal or adult central nervous system (CNS

  3. A stable chimeric fibroblast growth factor (FGF) can successfully replace basic FGF in human pluripotent stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Yasuko; Higuchi, Kumiko; Aiki, Yasuhiko; Shu, Yujing; Asada, Masahiro; Asashima, Makoto; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru; Ito, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are essential for maintaining self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Recombinant basic FGF (bFGF or FGF2) is conventionally used to culture pluripotent stem cells; however, because of the instability of bFGF, repeated addition of fresh bFGF into the culture medium is required in order to maintain its concentration. In this study, we demonstrate that a heat-stable chimeric variant of FGF, termed FGFC, can be successfully used for maintaining human pluripotent stem cells. FGFC is a chimeric protein composed of human FGF1 and FGF2 domains that exhibits higher thermal stability and protease resistance than do both FGF1 and FGF2. Both human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells were maintained in ordinary culture medium containing FGFC instead of FGF2. Comparison of cells grown in FGFC with those grown in conventional FGF2 media showed no significant differences in terms of the expression of pluripotency markers, global gene expression, karyotype, or differentiation potential in the three germ lineages. We therefore propose that FGFC may be an effective alternative to FGF2, for maintenance of human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25850016

  4. Tissue engineering of replacement skin: the crossroads of biomaterials, wound healing, embryonic development, stem cells and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Anthony D; Ferguson, Mark W J

    2007-06-22

    Advanced therapies combating acute and chronic skin wounds are likely to be brought about using our knowledge of regenerative medicine coupled with appropriately tissue-engineered skin substitutes. At the present time, there are no models of an artificial skin that completely replicate normal uninjured skin. Natural biopolymers such as collagen and fibronectin have been investigated as potential sources of biomaterial to which cells can attach. The first generation of degradable polymers used in tissue engineering were adapted from other surgical uses and have drawbacks in terms of mechanical and degradation properties. This has led to the development of synthetic degradable gels primarily as a way to deliver cells and/or molecules in situ, the so-called smart matrix technology. Tissue or organ repair is usually accompanied by fibrotic reactions that result in the production of a scar. Certain mammalian tissues, however, have a capacity for complete regeneration without scarring; good examples include embryonic or foetal skin and the ear of the MRL/MpJ mouse. Investigations of these model systems reveal that in order to achieve such complete regeneration, the inflammatory response is altered such that the extent of fibrosis and scarring is diminished. From studies on the limited examples of mammalian regeneration, it may also be possible to exploit such models to further clarify the regenerative process. The challenge is to identify the factors and cytokines expressed during regeneration and incorporate them to create a smart matrix for use in a skin equivalent. Recent advances in the use of DNA microarray and proteomic technology are likely to aid the identification of such molecules. This, coupled with recent advances in non-viral gene delivery and stem cell technologies, may also contribute to novel approaches that would generate a skin replacement whose materials technology was based not only upon intelligent design, but also upon the molecules involved in the process of regeneration. PMID:17251138

  5. Stem cells, cancer, and cancer stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tannishtha Reya; Sean J. Morrison; Michael F. Clarke; Irving L. Weissman

    2001-01-01

    Stem cell biology has come of age. Unequivocal proof that stem cells exist in the haematopoietic system has given way to the prospective isolation of several tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells, the initial delineation of their properties and expressed genetic programmes, and the beginnings of their utility in regenerative medicine. Perhaps the most important and useful property of stem cells

  6. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from neural stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong Beom Kim; Holm Zaehres; Marcos J Araúzo-Bravo; Hans R Schöler

    2009-01-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human somatic cells by expression of defined transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4, Nanog and Lin28) is a powerful tool for conducting basic research and investigating the potential of these cells for replacement therapies. In our laboratory, iPS cells have been generated from adult mouse neural stem cells (NSCs)

  7. Embryonic stem cells cultured in serum-free medium acquire bovine apolipoprotein B-100 from feeder cell layers and serum replacement medium.

    PubMed

    Hisamatsu-Sakamoto, Michiko; Sakamoto, Norihisa; Rosenberg, Amy S

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cell populations that are cultured with heterologous animal products can acquire xenoantigens, potentially limiting their clinical utility because of immune responses. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are an attractive source of multiple potential cellular therapies and are typically derived and routinely cultured on murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cell layers in commercially available serum replacement (SR) medium or fetal calf serum (FCS)-containing medium. Recently, we found that a strong antibody response was generated in human subjects after the second infusion of therapeutic cells cultured in FCS-containing medium. This response was specific for bovine apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), which is the major protein component of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and which targets its binding to abundant low-density lipoprotein receptors on the cell surface, from which it is internalized. Here, we have shown that ESCs cultured on MEFs in SR medium acquired bovine apoB-100 from MEFs and from the SR medium as well. Our findings also suggest that bovine LDL are used as critical nutrients for ESC propagation. PMID:17951218

  8. Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell

    E-print Network

    Saunders, Mark

    Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell Based Therapies to treat Retinal Diseases, Endogenous Regeneration of the human Retina Stem is to investigate the application of Müller stem cells in cell replacement therapies for glaucomatous degeneration

  9. Neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kennea, Nigel L; Mehmet, Huseyin

    2002-07-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to self-renew, and are capable of differentiating into neurones, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Such cells have been isolated from the developing brain and more recently from the adult central nervous system. This review aims to provide an overview of the current research in this evolving area. There is now increasing knowledge of the factors controlling the division and differentiation of NSCs during normal brain development. In addition, the cues for differentiation in vitro, and the possibility of transdifferentiation are reviewed. The discovery of these cells in the adult brain has encouraged research into their role during neurogenesis in the normal mature brain and after injury. Lastly other sources of neural precursors are discussed, and the potential for stem cells to be used in cell replacement therapy for brain injury or degenerative brain diseases with a particular emphasis on cerebral ischaemia and Parkinson's disease. PMID:12115869

  10. Stem cell niches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Terskikh; A. V. Vasiliev; E. A. Vorotelyak

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the stem cell niche and its interaction with stem cells is one of fundamental problems in the biology of stem\\u000a cells. Stem cell niches are formed during ontogeny. A niche can remain vacant and exist independently of stem cells; however,\\u000a stem cell self-renewal cannot be maintained for long periods outside of the niche except for particular conditions,

  11. Epithelial Cells Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Schüler, Axel

    Keywords Epithelial Cells Keratins Stem Cells » Prof. Thomas M. Magin Epithelia protect the body, altered cell adhesion and signal- ling. As no molecular therapy for these conditions is available, one that the co-chaperone CHIP can remove mutant aggregated keratins in a cell culture model of EBS, leading

  12. Epidermal Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Terskikh; A. V. Vasil'ev

    2001-01-01

    Epidermis contains a compartment of stem cells but currently there is no common criterion to recognize individual stem cells with any confidence. Epidermis appears to contain stem cells of different levels of maturity and it is very likely that the main repository of epidermal stem cells is located in the hair follicle from which cells can emigrate into epidermis and

  13. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medicine Reproductive cloning Signals Somatic cell Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) Somatic (adult) stem cell Stem cells ... refer to an animal produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or parthenogenesis . Cloning —See Clone . Cord ...

  14. Cell differentiation: Hepatocytes from non-hepatic adult stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm R. Alison; Richard Poulsom; Rosemary Jeffery; Amar P. Dhillon; Alberto Quaglia; Joe Jacob; Marco Novelli; Grant Prentice; Jill Williamson; Nicholas A. Wright

    2000-01-01

    Stem cells are undifferentiated long-lived cells that are capable of many rounds of division. Here we show that adult human liver cells can be derived from stem cells originating in the bone marrow or circulating outside the liver, raising the possibility that blood-system stem cells could be used clinically to generate hepatocytes for replacing damaged tissue.

  15. Stem Cell 101 What is a stem cell?

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Stem Cell 101 What is a stem cell? A stem cell is a parent cell in the body that has two specific into all types of tissue in the body ­ this is called differentiation. Where are stem cells found? There are two types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, found in embryos, and adult stem cells, which can

  16. Cell Stem Cell Perspective

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yi

    for genetic alterations that facilitate cell prop- agation (Figure 1C). In addition to these causes, certainCell Stem Cell Perspective Genetic and Epigenetic Variations in iPSCs: Potential Causes Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA 4Department of Genetics, Harvard

  17. Stem cells in urology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamer Aboushwareb; Anthony Atala

    2008-01-01

    The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem

  18. Toward ‘SMART’ stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Stem cell research is at the heart of regenerative medicine, which holds great promise for the treatment of many devastating disorders. However, in addition to hurdles posed by well-publicized ethical issues, this emerging field presents many biological challenges. What is a stem cell? How are embryonic stem cells different from adult stem cells? What are the physiological bases for therapeutically

  19. Umbilical Cord Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy E. Mitchell

    The two most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue\\u000a types (1–3). Generally, stem cells are categorized as one of three types: embryonic stem cells (ES), embryonic germ cells (EG), or adult\\u000a stem cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastula (Fig. 1). They

  20. Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress Rapid Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Automated *Correspondence: peter.zandstra@utoronto.ca DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2012.01.003 SUMMARY Clinical hematopoietic implementations of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their deriva- tives further increase interest in strategies

  1. Cell Stem Cell Dear Student: Stem Cell Scientists' Advice

    E-print Network

    Cell Stem Cell Forum Dear Student: Stem Cell Scientists' Advice to the Next Generation Emily L on Stem Cells in Society, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 2Department of Family Practice, University of British@stanford.edu (C.T.S.) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.05.007 For the field of pluripotent stem cell biology

  2. Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease?

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Ben; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Scott, Robert A.H.; Leadbeater, Wendy; Scheven, Ben A.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, based on more recent evidence, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the growth of new connections. Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs) and endogenous retinal stem cells may replace lost photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and restore vision in the diseased eye, whereas treatment of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) has so far been reliant on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Here, we review the properties of non-retinal-derived adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells (NSCs), MSC derived from bone marrow (BMSC), adipose tissues (ADSC) and dental pulp (DPSC), together with ESC/iPSC and discuss and compare their potential advantages as therapies designed to provide trophic support, repair and replacement of retinal neurons, RPE and glia in degenerative retinal diseases. We conclude that ESCs/iPSCs have the potential to replace lost retinal cells, whereas MSC may be a useful source of paracrine factors that protect RGC and stimulate regeneration of their axons in the optic nerve in degenerate eye disease. NSC may have potential as both a source of replacement cells and also as mediators of paracrine treatment. PMID:25752437

  3. Cell Stem Cell Brief Report

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    Cell Stem Cell Brief Report Reprogramming of T Cells from Human Peripheral Blood Yuin-Han Loh,1,2,5,9,10,* 1Stem Cell Transplantation Program, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA 2Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 3

  4. Pluripotent stem cells and their niches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. William Lensch; Laurence Daheron; Thorsten M. Schlaeger

    2006-01-01

    The ability of stem cells to self-renew and to replace mature cells is fundamental to ontogeny and tissue regeneration. Stem\\u000a cells of the adult organism can be categorized as mono-, bi-, or multipotent, based on the number of mature cell types to\\u000a which they can give rise. In contrast, pluripotent stem cells of the early embryo have the ability to

  5. Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics What is a Stem Cell?

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics What is a Stem Cell? Stem cells are the starting point from to line blood vessels. All of these highly specialized cells have to grow from unspecialized stem cells. Stem cells produce new cells by dividing. In the right conditions, these new cells can then continue

  6. Stem cells: science, policy, and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, Gerald D.; Fischbach, Ruth L.

    2004-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells offer the promise of a new regenerative medicine in which damaged adult cells can be replaced with new cells. Research is needed to determine the most viable stem cell lines and reliable ways to promote the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into specific cell types (neurons, muscle cells, etc.). To create new cell lines, it is necessary to destroy preimplantation blastocysts. This has led to an intense debate that threatens to limit embryonic stem cell research. The profound ethical issues raised call for informed, dispassionate debate. PMID:15545983

  7. Stem cells: science, policy, and ethics.

    PubMed

    Fischbach, Gerald D; Fischbach, Ruth L

    2004-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cells offer the promise of a new regenerative medicine in which damaged adult cells can be replaced with new cells. Research is needed to determine the most viable stem cell lines and reliable ways to promote the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into specific cell types (neurons, muscle cells, etc). To create new cell lines, it is necessary to destroy preimplantation blastocysts. This has led to an intense debate that threatens to limit embryonic stem cell research. The profound ethical issues raised call for informed, dispassionate debate. PMID:15545983

  8. Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell Epigenetics: Looking Forward

    E-print Network

    Sander, Maike

    Cell Stem Cell Voices Stem Cell Epigenetics: Looking Forward Epigenetics in Adult SCs The integrity of tissues is maintained by adult stem cells during adulthood. How- ever, recent work indicates that tissues often contain more than one population of stem cells that are located at distinct niches and display

  9. Cell Stem Cell Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical

    E-print Network

    Chen, Christopher S.

    Cell Stem Cell Review Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical Interactions with the Extracellular, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA 5Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State.06.016 A diverse array of environmental factors contributes to the overall control of stem cell activity

  10. Stem Cell Biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth O. Hexner; Stephen G. Emerson

    \\u000a Stem cells are functionally defined as long-lived cells that can both self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types.\\u000a Embryonic stem cells, considered totipotent cells, give rise to all embryonic tissue layers and, consequently, all tissue\\u000a types. Hematologists\\/oncologists are perhaps most familiar with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): the single pluripotent cell\\u000a that can give rise to all lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid

  11. Gene therapy: can neural stem cells deliver?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan Y. Snyder; Jeanne F. Loring; Franz-Josef Müller

    2006-01-01

    Neural stem cells are a self-renewing population that generates the neurons and glia of the developing brain. They can be isolated, proliferated, genetically manipulated and differentiated in vitro and reintroduced into a developing, adult or pathologically altered CNS. Neural stem cells have been considered for use in cell replacement therapies in various neurodegenerative diseases, and an unexpected and potentially valuable

  12. Preclinical Trials for Stem Cell Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda B. Lester; K. Y. Francis Pau; Don P. Wolf

    Stem cell-based therapy holds great promise for the treatment of human diseases attributable to the loss or dysfunction of\\u000a a single cell type. However, before stem cells can be used clinically, their safety and efficacy must be clearly established.\\u000a This is particularly important for endocrine applications in which hormone replacement treatments are available. Indeed, new\\u000a stem cell-based treatments must meet

  13. Understanding Embryonic Stem Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Douglas A. Melton, Ph.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute; )

    2008-04-10

    This indexed webcast video along with synchronized lecture slides is from Howard Hughes Medical Institute's 2006 Holiday LecturesPotent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration. Douglas A. Melton presents an introduction to stem cells, as well as answers to questions about the role of stem cells in the human body. This video requires RealPlayer 10.

  14. Stemming the Stem Cell Setback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Fleis

    2003-01-01

    This Comment highlights the recent federal funding setbacks in the biotechnology industry and considers the resulting challenges to future research collaboration. After providing a historical background to stem cell technology, Mr. Fleis examines the passionately opposed public responses to the technology's use of embryos and to its future applications. Fleis continues by noting past legislative initiatives that have accelerated the

  15. Stem Cells and Bioactive Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Bielby; Julia M. Polak

    Major advances in biological and materials research have created the possibilities for tissue engineering and regenerative\\u000a medicine. Finding the most effective ways of utilising stem cells, of several types, and triggering their differentiatoin\\u000a in a controlled manner will provide cell sources for cell replacement therapy. Materials will be bioresorbable in vivo and bioactive, contributing to differentiation, implantation and long-term engraftment

  16. The Effect of Laser Irradiation on Adipose Derived Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Abrahamse; J. de Villiers; B. Mvula

    2009-01-01

    There are two fundamental types of stem cells: Embryonic Stem cells and Adult Stem cells. Adult Stem cells have a more restricted potential and can usually differentiate into a few different cell types. In the body these cells facilitate the replacement or repair of damaged or diseased cells in organs. Low intensity laser irradiation was shown to increase stem cell

  17. Stem cells news update: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sc

    2013-12-01

    This article is a follow-up to a previous Commentary published in 2011. It updates some of the events mentioned in that Commentary and continues with more interesting and exciting news on stem cell research and the emerging field of Regenerative Medicine. Some of the news includes: 1) the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka; 2) the cloning of human embryonic stem cells; 3) the continued search for truly pluripotent adult stem cells via in vitro and in vivo protocols; 4) the breakthrough in organ replacements; 5) the global stem cell race; 6) the global stem cell cryo-preservation business; 7) the worldwide stem cell donor registries, and 8) the issue of government regulation on stem cell therapy. PMID:24778557

  18. Tracking adult stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo J Snippert; Hans Clevers

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue—known as their niche—and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context, rather than outside their natural environment. The mouse is an attractive model in which to study adult mammalian

  19. Cultures of human embryonic stem cells: serum replacement medium or serum-containing media and the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi Koivisto; Marjukka Hyvärinen; Anne-Marie Strömberg; Jose Inzunza; Eija Matilainen; Milla Mikkola; Outi Hovatta; Heli Teerijoki

    2004-01-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells have traditionally been cultured in medium containing fetal calf serum (FCS) and mouse fibroblasts as feeder cells. The use of animal derived materials carries a risk of transmitting animal pathogens, and they are not optimal in cultures aimed at cell transplantation in humans. This technical study aiming at facilitating IVF units to establish new hES

  20. Bioreactors Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Schüler, Axel

    Keywords Bioreactors Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine Tissue Engineering Pharmacology » Prof. M.; yeZhelyev, M.; eMMrich, F.; o'regan, r.; bader, a. Quantum dots for human mesenchymal stem cells and mechanical forces mediated to the cells by the matrix. The in vivo extracellular matrix constitutes

  1. Membrane Glycolipids in Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Robert K.; Suzuki, Yusuke; Yanagisawa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and very small embryonic-like stem cells, are undifferentiated cells that are endowed with a high potential for proliferation and the capacity for self-renewal with retention of pluri/multipotency to differentiate into their progenies. Recently, studies regarding the biological functions of glycolipids and cell surface microdomains (caveolae, lipid rafts, or glycolipid-enriched microdomains) in stem cells are emerging. In this review, we introduce the expression patterns of glycolipids and the functional roles of cell surface microdomains in stem cells. PMID:19716368

  2. Harnessing the therapeutic potential of myogenic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason D. White; Miranda D. Grounds

    2003-01-01

    The potential clinical use of stem cells for cell transplantation therapies to replace defective genes in myopathies is an area of intense investigation. Precursor cells derived from non-muscle tissue with myogenic potential have been identified in many tissues, including bone marrow and dermis, although the status of these putative stem cells requires clarification. The incorporation of circulating bone-marrow derived stem

  3. ADULT MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS DERIVED FROM EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. L. BOYD; P. BOSCH; S. L. STICE

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are useful in cell therapy and stem cell research but they have a limited lifespan in culture. Our goal was to develop a unique and limitless supply of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, opening up new uses and enhance existing uses of these important cell types. For any application that uses large

  4. Adult stem cell plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Poulsom; Malcolm R. Alison; Stuart J. Forbes; Nicholas A. Wright

    2002-01-01

    Observations made in the last few years support the existence of pathways, in adult humans and rodents, that allow adult stem cells to be surprisingly flexible in their differentiation repertoires. Termed plasticity, this property allows adult stem cells, assumed, until now, to be committed to generating a fixed range of progeny, to switch, when they have been relocated, to make

  5. Stem Cell Differentiation Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-30

    This game uses a modified Uno deck to review concepts related to stem cell research and diabetes. Specifically, it covers material in the "Pulse-Chase Primer," "Pancreatic Beta Cells," and "Microarrays and Stem Cells" activities from the same resource which may or may not be necessary to complete prior to this activity (depending on learner's prior knowledge). Learners accumulate points and answer questions about stem cells, development, and microarrays so that they can be the first to differentiate into a pancreatic beta (?) cell. This activity is recommended for learners studying Biology at the High School (honors, IB and AP) or Undergraduate level.

  6. Cell Stem Cell Short Article

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    -renewal and reprogramming. INTRODUCTION The transcription factors OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 are master regulators of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (De Los Angeles et al., 2012) and, along with Klf4 and c the requirement of OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG in stem cell function (De Los Angeles et al., 2012), discrepancies

  7. Prostate cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lang, SH; Frame, FM; Collins, AT

    2009-01-01

    Despite the discovery over 60 years ago by Huggins and Hodges 1 that prostate cancers respond to androgen deprivation therapy, hormone-refractory prostate cancer remains a major clinical challenge. There is now mounting evidence that solid tumours originate from undifferentiated stem cell-like cells coexisting within a heterogeneous tumour mass that drive tumour formation, maintain tumour homeostasis and initiate metastases. This review focuses upon current evidence for prostate cancer stem cells, addressing the identification and properties of both normal and transformed prostate stem cells. PMID:19040209

  8. Mesenchymal autologous stem cells.

    PubMed

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; da Costa, Jaderson Costa

    2015-02-01

    The use of cell-based therapies for spinal cord injuries has recently gained prominence as a potential therapy or component of a combination strategy. Experimental and clinical studies have been performed using mesenchymal stem cell therapy to treat spinal cord injuries with encouraging results. However, there have been reports on the adverse effects of these stem cell-based therapies, especially in the context of tumor modulation. This article surveys the literature relevant to the potential of mesenchymal autologous stem cells for spinal cord injuries and their clinical implications. PMID:23402865

  9. Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course Ceské Budjovice January 2013 #12;Pluripotent (stem(s) of differentiation ·Symmetric/asymmetric division ? ? ? ? #12;Where can we find the origins of stem cell research;1981 Lines of pluripotent cells were established for the first time from mouse embryo ­ Embryonic Stem Cells

  10. Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    Embryonic Stem Cells Cell Signalling Course Ceské Budjovice November 2013 #12;Pluripotent (stem(s) of differentiation ·Symmetric/asymmetric division ? ? ? ? #12;Where can we find the origins of stem cell research;1981 Lines of pluripotent cells were established for the first time from mouse embryo ­ Embryonic Stem Cells

  11. Promises of stem cell therapy for retinal degenerative diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Yat-Hin Wong; Ming-Wai Poon; Rosita Tsz-Wai Pang; Qizhou Lian; David Wong

    With the development of stem cell technology, stem cell-based therapy for retinal degeneration has been proposed to restore\\u000a the visual function. Many animal studies and some clinical trials have shown encouraging results of stem cell-based therapy\\u000a in retinal degenerative diseases. While stem cell-based therapy is a promising strategy to replace damaged retinal cells and\\u000a ultimately cure retinal degeneration, there are

  12. Stem cell niches in mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thimios A. Mitsiadis; Ornella Barrandon; Ariane Rochat; Yann Barrandon; Cosimo De Bari

    2007-01-01

    Stem cells safeguard tissue homeostasis and guarantee tissue repair throughout life. The decision between self-renewal and differentiation is influenced by a specialized microenvironment called stem cell niche. Physical and molecular interactions with niche cells and orientation of the cleavage plane during stem cell mitosis control the balance between symmetric and asymmetric division of stem cells. Here we highlight recent progress

  13. Disguising adult neural stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindi M Morshead; Derek van der Kooy

    2004-01-01

    A description of adult neural stem cells has remained somewhat elusive. With no unique and definitive markers to label stem cells in general, neural stem cells are difficult to identify definitively and one is forced to examine cell behavior — leading to the retrospective identification of a stem cell. The most prevalent view in the literature describes the adult forebrain

  14. [Cancer stem cells].

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Katarzyna; Niewiarowska, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Cancer stem cell theory gains increasingly greater significance in the world of medicine. Numerous findings of scientific research in vivo and in vitro indicate that it is the population of undifferentiated, self-renewing cells which is responsible for recurrence of cancer and metastasis. Similarly to normal stem cells, cancer stem cells (CSC) function in the environment of the other cells of the organism, called the niche, where they receive signals for differentiation and proliferation processes. Disorders in the signaling pathways between CSC and the niche that result from e.g. acquired oncogenic mutations may lead to uncontrolled proliferation of stem cells, gaining independence from the primary niche or settling a new microenvironment. CSC are identified on the basis of specific markers - membrane proteins or cell enzymes. Methods based on the measurement of dye fluorescence (obtaining side population, SP) or fluorescence of the fluorophore conjugated with a monoclonal antibody directed against the specific CSC marker are used for isolation. A different method obtains morphologically miscellaneous clones by single cell cloning: holo-, mero- and paraclones. Tumor forming assay in NOD/SCID mice is a standard in vivo test that confirms the stem character of isolated cells. However, this model may not fully reflect the complexity of cancer illnesses in human beings. Solving the mystery of oncogenesis, including the existence of cancer stem cells, is undoubtedly one of the priorities of contemporary medicine that should contribute to the improvement of cancer therapy.  PMID:23001204

  15. Stem Cell Niche

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei Wen; Pei Sun; Rongwen Xi

    \\u000a The adult stem cells are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis and commonly reside in specific local microenvironment\\u000a named niche. The niche keeps stem cells in multipotent state, prevents them from precocious differentiation and positions\\u000a them to undergo asymmetric division to produce differentiated ­progenies for tissue regeneration. The niches employ a variety\\u000a of factors including cell adhesion molecules, extra cellular matrix,

  16. Stem Cells and Renal Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Roufosse; H. T. Cook

    2008-01-01

    The role of embryonal or adult stem cells, in particular bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells, in regenerating the kidney after injury has been the subject of intensive investigation. BM-derived stem cells have been shown to give rise to small numbers of most renal cell types, including tubular cells, mesangial cells, podocytes, vascular cells and interstitial cells. However, the role this

  17. Generation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In-Hyun Park; Paul H Lerou; Rui Zhao; Hongguang Huo; George Q Daley

    2008-01-01

    Pluripotent cells, such as embryonic stem cells, are invaluable tools for research and can potentially serve as a source of cell- and tissue-replacement therapy. Rejection after transplantation of cells and tissue derived from embryonic stem cells is a significant obstacle to their clinical use. Recently, human somatic cells have been reprogrammed directly to pluripotency by ectopic expression of four transcription

  18. Stem cells in embryonic skin development.

    PubMed

    Forni, Maria F; Trombetta-Lima, Marina; Sogayar, Mari C

    2012-01-01

    The skin is a complex stratified organ which acts not only as a permeability barrier and defense against external agents, but also has essential thermoregulatory, sensory and metabolic functions. Due to its high versatility and activity, the skin undergoes continuous self-renewal to repair damaged tissue and replace old cells. Consequently, the skin is a reservoir for adult stem cells of different embryonic origins. Skin stem cell populations reside in the adult hair follicle, sebaceous gland, dermis and epidermis. However, the origin of most of the stem cell populations found in the adult epidermis is still unknown. Far more unknown is the embryonic origin of other stem cells that populate the other layers of this tissue. In this review we attempt to clarify the emergence, structure, markers and embryonic development of diverse populations of stem cells from the epidermis, dermis and related appendages such as the sebaceous gland and hair follicle. PMID:23283431

  19. Clonal interrogation of stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin Hope; Mickie Bhatia

    2011-01-01

    Individual stem cells are functionally defined by their self-renewal and differentiation potential. Methods for clonal analysis are essential for understanding stem cells, particularly given the increasing evidence for stem-cell heterogeneity. Stem cells reside within complex microenvironments, making single-cell analysis particularly challenging. Furthermore, simultaneous molecular and functional characterization of single stem cells is not trivial. Here we explore clonal assays applied

  20. Directed Induction of Functional Motor Neuron-Like Cells from Genetically Engineered Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hwan-Woo Park; Jung-Sun Cho; Chul-Kyu Park; Sung Jun Jung; Chang-Hwan Park; Shin-Jae Lee; Seog Bae Oh; Young-Seok Park; Mi-Sook Chang

    2012-01-01

    Cell replacement using stem cells is a promising therapeutic approach to treat degenerative motor neuron (MN) disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a desirable cell source for autologous cell replacement therapy to treat nervous system injury due to their plasticity, low immunogenicity, and a lower risk of tumor

  1. LESSON PLAN Stem Cell Discussion

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    LESSON PLAN Stem Cell Discussion Learning objectives Students will: · consider the implications of stem cell research · research the current research situation · debate the future of stem cell of the Wellcome Trust, discusses why stem cells have the potential to treat many debilitating diseases, and why

  2. Embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masumi HirabayashiShinichi Hochi; Shinichi Hochi

    Over the past 25 years, the reverse genetic approach including precise and conditional replacement or loss of gene function\\u000a at a specific locus was considered possible only in mice due to the absence of embryonic stem (ES) or induced pluripotent\\u000a stem (iPS) cell lines in other species. Recently, however, stem cell technology in rats has become available for biomedical\\u000a research.

  3. Microarrays and Stem Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Colvard

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners use microarray technology to determine which genes are turned on and off at various points in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells on their way to becoming pancreatic ? cells. An introductory PowerPoint, reading, video clip and an animation provide learners with background information needed to interpret the results of a paper microarray simulation. Learners will position cDNA strips on mini-microarrays to discover which genes are expressing, to what degree they are expressing, and which are not. They use these findings to trace the differentiation of embryonic stem cells that give rise to pancreatic ? cells and other cell types. The role of growth factors and proximity of other cell types is central to learners understanding how researchers may direct the ultimate fate of stem cells. The value of this in treating diabetes is also discussed. This activity is recommended for learners studying Biology at the High School (honors, IB and AP) or Undergraduate level.

  4. Cell Stem Cell The Systematic Production

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell Stem Cell Review The Systematic Production of Cells for Cell Therapies Daniel C. Kirouac1 10.1016/j.stem.2008.09.001 Stem cells have emerged as the starting material of choice. Translating the biological properties and potential of stem cells into therapies will require overcoming

  5. Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm A. S. Moore

    \\u000a Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the most well-characterized tissue-specific stem cell. Over 50 years of basic research\\u000a and clinical application has provided insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of HSC biology. HSC undergo self-renewal\\u000a by symmetric or asymmetric division, or differentiation to common myeloid progenitors and progressively more differentiated\\u000a myeloid and lymphoid progeny. The chemokine SDF-1\\/ CXCL12 produced by

  6. Germline Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spradling, Allan; Fuller, Margaret T.; Braun, Robert E.; Yoshida, Shosei

    2011-01-01

    Sperm and egg production requires a robust stem cell system that balances self-renewal with differentiation. Self-renewal at the expense of differentiation can cause tumorigenesis, whereas differentiation at the expense of self-renewal can cause germ cell depletion and infertility. In most organisms, and sometimes in both sexes, germline stem cells (GSCs) often reside in a defined anatomical niche. Factors within the niche regulate a balance between GSC self-renewal and differentiation. Asymmetric division of the germline stem cell to form daughter cells with alternative fates is common. The exception to both these tendencies is the mammalian testis where there does not appear to be an obvious anatomical niche and where GSC homeostasis is likely accomplished by a stochastic balance of self-renewal and differentiation and not by regulated asymmetric cell division. Despite these apparent differences, GSCs in all organisms share many common mechanisms, although not necessarily molecules, to guarantee survival of the germline. PMID:21791699

  7. Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lei; Zou, Zhongmin; Tian, Hong; Zhang, Yubo; Zhou, Huchuan; Liu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, stem cell-based approaches have attracted more attention from scientists and clinicians due to their possible therapeutical effect on stroke. Animal studies have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), neural stem cells (NSCs), and mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) might be due to cell replacement, neuroprotection, endogenous neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and modulation on inflammation and immune response. Although several clinical studies have shown the high efficiency and safety of stem cell in stroke management, mainly MSCs, some issues regarding to cell homing, survival, tracking, safety, and optimal cell transplantation protocol, such as cell dose and time window, should be addressed. Undoubtably, stem cell-based gene therapy represents a novel potential therapeutic strategy for stroke in future. PMID:24719869

  8. Cell Stem Cell A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Tgf-b Signaling

    E-print Network

    Liu, David R.

    with three genes, Sox2, Oct4, and Klf4, can directly reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent stem cell stateCell Stem Cell Article A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Tgf-b Signaling Replaces Sox2 in Reprogramming screening to iden- tify small molecules that can replace Sox2 in reprog- ramming. We show that one

  9. Stem cell population asymmetry can reduce rate of replicative aging

    E-print Network

    Hormoz, Sahand

    2013-01-01

    Cycling tissues such as the intestinal epithelium, germ line, and hair follicles, require a constant flux of differentiated cells. These tissues are maintained by a population of stem cells, which generate differentiated progenies and self-renew. Asymmetric division of each stem cell into one stem cell and one differentiated cell can accomplish both tasks. However, in mammalian cycling tissues, some stem cells divide symmetrically into two differentiated cells and are replaced by a neighbor that divides symmetrically into two stem cells. Besides this heterogeneity in fate (population asymmetry), stem cells also exhibit heterogenous proliferation-rates; in the long run, however, all stem cells proliferate at the same average rate (equipotency). We construct and simulate a mathematical model based on these experimental observations. We show that the complex steady-state dynamics of population-asymmetric stem cells reduces the rate of replicative aging of the tissue --potentially lowering the incidence of somati...

  10. Stem cell therapy and the retina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R E MacLaren; R A Pearson

    2007-01-01

    Retinal degeneration culminating in photoreceptor loss is the leading cause of untreatable blindness in the developed world. In this review, we consider how photoreceptors might be replaced by transplantation and how stem cells might be optimised for use as donor cells in future clinical strategies for retinal repair. We discuss the current advances in human and animal models of retinal

  11. Stem Cell Research

    SciTech Connect

    Catherine Verfaillie

    2009-01-23

    We have identified a population of primitive cells in normal human post-natal bone marrow that can, at the single cell level, differentiate in many ways and also proliferate extensively. These cells can differentiate in vitro into most mesodermal cell types (for example, bone cells, and others), as well as cells into cells of the nervous system. The finding that stem cells exist in post-natal tissues with previously unknown proliferation and differentiation potential opens up the possibility of using them to treat a host of degenerative, traumatic or congenital diseases.

  12. Cell Stem Cell Alternative Induced Pluripotent

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell Stem Cell Letter Alternative Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Characterization Criteria, Canada 4Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA 5Samuel, Canada *Correspondence: jellis@sickkids.ca (J.E.), william.stanford@utoronto.ca (W.L.S.) DOI 10.1016/j.stem

  13. Bromodeoxyuridine Specifically Labels the Regenerative Stem Cells of Planarians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip A. Newmark; Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

    2000-01-01

    The singular regenerative abilities of planarians require a population of stem cells known as neoblasts. In response to wounding, or during the course of cell turnover, neoblasts are signaled to divide and\\/or differentiate, thereby replacing lost cell types. The study of these pluripotent stem cells and their role in planarian regeneration has been severely hampered by the reported inability of

  14. Chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiguang; Lv, Lin; Yang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conventional chemotherapy is the main treatment for cancer and benefits patients in the form of decreased relapse and metastasis and longer overall survival. However, as the target therapy drugs and delivery systems are not wholly precise, it also results in quite a few side effects, and is less efficient in many cancers due to the spared cancer stem cells, which are considered the reason for chemotherapy resistance, relapse, and metastasis. Conventional chemotherapy limitations and the cancer stem cell hypothesis inspired our search for a novel chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells. In this review, we summarize cancer stem cell enrichment methods, the search for new efficient drugs, and the delivery of drugs targeting cancer stem cells. We also discuss cancer stem cell hierarchy complexity and the corresponding combination therapy for both cancer stem and non-stem cells. Learning from cancer stem cells may reveal novel strategies for chemotherapy in the future. PMID:26045975

  15. State of the Art in Stem Cell Research: Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, and Transdifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Marolt, Darja

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells divide by asymmetric division and display different degrees of potency, or ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types. Owing to their unique regenerative capacity, stem cells have generated great enthusiasm worldwide and represent an invaluable tool with unprecedented potential for biomedical research and therapeutic applications. Stem cells play a central role in the understanding of molecular mechanisms regulating tissue development and regeneration in normal and pathological conditions and open large possibilities for the discovery of innovative pharmaceuticals to treat the most devastating diseases of our time. Not least, their intrinsic characteristics allow the engineering of functional tissues for replacement therapies that promise to revolutionize the medical practice in the near future. In this paper, the authors present the characteristics of pluripotent stem cells and new developments of transdifferentiation technologies and explore some of the biomedical applications that this emerging technology is expected to empower. PMID:24089646

  16. Role of Gap Junctions in Embryonic and Somatic Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond C. B. Wong; Martin F. Pera; Alice Pébay

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells provide an invaluable tool to develop cell replacement therapies for a range of serious disorders caused by cell\\u000a damage or degeneration. Much research in the field is focused on the identification of signals that either maintain stem cell\\u000a pluripotency or direct their differentiation. Understanding how stem cells communicate within their microenvironment is essential\\u000a to achieve their therapeutic potentials.

  17. Stem Cells in Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas A. Wright

    \\u000a Tumours are thought to contain a subpopulation of self-renewing stem cells, the so-called cancer stem cells, which maintain the tumour. Moreover, tumours themselves are thought to arise from organ-specific stem cells. In epithelia, transformation of these cells leads to spread of a mutated stem cell clone through the epithelial sheet, leading to the development of a pre-invasive lesion. Barrett’s oesophagus

  18. Controversies over stem cell research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gorka Orive; Rosa M. Hernández; Alicia R. Gascón; Manoli Igartua; José Luis Pedraz

    2003-01-01

    Much interest and effort has focused on the therapeutic potential of stem cell technology to treat presently intractable diseases. However, this scientific promise has been accompanied by important issues, including ethical hurdles, political policies and dilemmas concerning cell-source selection (embryonic versus adult stem cells). Although the contribution of stem cells to medical research seems enormous, many countries now face complex

  19. Heart repair and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    van Laake, Linda W; Hassink, Rutger; Doevendans, Pieter A; Mummery, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Of the medical conditions currently being discussed in the context of possible treatments based on cell transplantation therapy, few have received more attention than the heart. Much focus has been on the potential application of bone marrow-derived cell preparations, which have already been introduced into double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. The consensus is that bone marrow may have therapeutic benefit but that this is not based on the ability of bone marrow cells to transdifferentiate into cardiac myocytes. Are there potential stem cell sources of cardiac myocytes that may be useful in replacing those lost or dysfunctional after myocardial infarction? Here, this question is addressed with a review of the recent literature. PMID:17008381

  20. Stem cells and somatic cells: reprogramming and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Estrov, Zeev

    2009-01-01

    Recent seminal discoveries have significantly advanced the field of stem cell research and received worldwide attention. Improvements in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology, enabling the cloning of Dolly the sheep, and the derivation and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells raised hopes that normal cells could be generated to replace diseased or injured tissue. At the same time, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that somatic cells of one tissue are capable of generating cells of another tissue. It was theorized that any cell might be reprogrammed, by exposure to a new environment, to become another cell type. This concept contradicts two established hypotheses: (1) that only specific tissues are generated from the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm and (2) that tissue cells arise from a rare population of tissue-specific stem cells in a hierarchical fashion. SCNT, cell fusion experiments, and most recent gene transfer studies also contradict these hypotheses, as they demonstrate that mature somatic cells can be reprogrammed to regain pluripotent (or even totipotent) stem cell capacity. On the basis of the stem cell theory, hierarchical cancer stem cell differentiation models have been proposed. Cancer cell plasticity is an established phenomenon that supports the notion that cellular phenotype and function might be altered. Therefore, mechanisms of cellular plasticity should be exploited and the clinical significance of the cancer stem cell theory cautiously assessed. PMID:19778860

  1. Laser biomodulation on stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Li, Xue-Feng; Tan, Li-Ling; Liu, Songhao

    2001-08-01

    Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.

  2. Stem cells today: B1. Bone marrow stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RG Edwards

    2004-01-01

    This review is the second in a series of four devoted to the analysis of recent studies on stem cells. The first considered embryo stem cells (ES). This review covers bone marrow stem cells. They are analysed initially in a historical perspective, and then in relation to foundation studies in the later 20th century before a detailed analysis is presented

  3. Human motor neuron generation from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nizzardo; C. Simone; M. Falcone; F. Locatelli; G. Riboldi; G. P. Comi; S. Corti

    2010-01-01

    Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a group of neurological disorders that selectively affect motor neurons. There are currently\\u000a no cures or efficacious treatments for these diseases. In recent years, significant developments in stem cell research have\\u000a been applied to MNDs, particularly regarding neuroprotection and cell replacement. However, a consistent source of motor neurons\\u000a for cell replacement is required. Human embryonic

  4. Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Velázquez, Marco A.; Homsi, Nora; De La Fuente, Marisol; Pestell, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that express stem cell-associated markers and have a high capacity for tumor generation in vivo. Identification of BCSCs from tumor samples or breast cancer cell lines has been based mainly on CD44+/CD24?/low or ALDH+ phenotypes. BCSCs isolation has allowed the analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in their origin, self-renewal, differentiation into tumor cells, resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and invasiveness and metastatic ability. Molecular genetic analysis using knockout animals and inducible transgenics have identified NF-?B, c-Jun, p21CIP1, and Forkhead-like-protein Dach1 in BCSC expansion and fate. Clinical analyses of BCSCs in breast tumors have found a correlation between the proportion of BCSCs and poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapies that specifically target BCSCs are an urgent need. We summarize recent evidence that partially explain the biological characteristics of BCSCs. PMID:22249027

  5. Neural Stem Cell Self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanhong; Sun, Guoqiang; Zhao, Chunnian; Stewart, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Two fundamental properties of stem cells are their ability to self-renew and to differentiate. Self-renewal is an integration of proliferation control with the maintenance of an undifferentiated state. Stem cell self-renewal is regulated by the dynamic interplay between transcription factors, epigenetic control, microRNA (miRNA) regulators, and cell-extrinsic signals from the microenvironment in which stem cells reside. Recent progress in defining specific roles for cell-intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors in regulating stem cell self-renewal starts to unfold the multilayered regulatory networks. This review focuses on cell-intrinsic regulators, including orphan nuclear receptor TLX, polycomb transcriptional repressor Bmi1, high-mobility-group DNA binding protein Sox2, basic helix-loop-helix Hes genes, histone modifying enzymes and chromatin remodeling proteins, and small RNA modulators, as well as cell-extrinsic signaling molecules, such as Wnt, Notch, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), TGF?, EGF, and FGF. Unraveling the mechanisms by which neural stem cells renew themselves will provide insights into both basic neurosciences and clinical applications of stem cell-based cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:17644000

  6. [Multiple myeloma stem cell].

    PubMed

    Hosen, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells. MM patients harbor phenotypic CD19+ B cells expressing the immunoglobulin gene sequence and the idiotype unique to the individual myeloma clone. However, in most MM patients CD19+ clonotypic B cells do not reconstitute MM disease upon transplantation into immune-deficient mice. In the SCID-rab and SCID-hu models, which enable engraftment of human MM in vivo, CD19-CD38++ plasma cells engrafted and rapidly propagated MM. These results indicate that MM-initiating cells are derived from plasma cells, which are terminally differentiated cells. It should be now clarified whether all MM plasma cells can exert as MM-initiating cells when located in the appropriate niche or only distinct myeloma stem cells can propagate MM. PMID:25626303

  7. Biomaterials as Stem Cell Niche: Cardiovascular Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ge Zhang; Laura J. Suggs

    \\u000a A tissue-specific stem cell niche functions to direct either self-renewal or differentiation. The niche comprises all local\\u000a cues that can be sensed by the cell including soluble and insoluble signals, physical forces and cell–cell contacts. Approximating\\u000a the stem cell niche through the utilization of biomaterials may give rise to a greater understanding of the biology of the\\u000a stem cell niche

  8. Cell Stem Cell Patient-Specific Pluripotent Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    Yamanaka1,2,* 1Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan: yamanaka@cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.06.009 In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Staerk et al and ethical issues regarding the usage of human embryos (Yamanaka, 2009). Patient-specific iPSCs, especially

  9. Stem Cell Interaction with Topography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin K. K. Teo; Soneela Ankam; Evelyn K. F. Yim

    \\u000a The growth and differentiation of stem cells are regulated by biochemical and biophysical cues in the extracellular microenvironment.\\u000a Increasing evidences have shown that substrate topography, one of the biophysical properties of the microenvironment, can\\u000a affect stem cell fate, such as the maintenance of embryonic stem cells and the differentiation of adult and embryonic stem\\u000a cells. The underlying mechanism of how

  10. Microtechnology for Stem Cell Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Serena; Elisa Cimetta; Camilla Luni; Nicola Elvassore

    \\u000a Advances in stem cell research in recent decades have been aided by progress in the development of novel technologies aimed\\u000a at biological systems. At the same time mimicking stem cell niches in vitro has become crucial for both basic stem cell research\\u000a and the development of innovative therapies based on stem cells. Innovative microscale technologies can contribute to our\\u000a quantitative

  11. Stemming heart failure with cardiac- or reprogrammed-stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Kento; Takehara, Naofumi; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oh, Hidemasa

    2008-12-01

    Despite extensive efforts to control myocyte growth by genetic targeting of the cell cycle machinery and small molecules for cardiac repair, adult myocytes themselves appeared to divide a limited number of times in response to a variety of cardiac muscle stresses. Rare tissue-resident stem cells are thought to exist in many adult organs that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation and possess a range of actions that are potentially therapeutic. Recent studies suggest that a population of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) is maintained after cardiac development in the adult heart in mammals including human beings; however, homeostatic cardiomyocyte replacement might be stem cell-dependent, and functional myocardial regeneration after cardiac muscle damage is not yet considered as sufficient to fully maintain or reconstitute the cardiovascular system and function. Although it is clear that adult CSCs have limitations in their capabilities to proliferate extensively and differentiate in response to injury in vivo for replenishing mature car-diomyocytes and potentially function as resident stem cells. Transplantation of CSCs expanded ex vivo seems to require an integrated strategy of cell growth-enhancing factor(s) and tissue engineering technologies to support the donor cell survival and subsequent proliferation and differentiation in the host microenvironment. There has been substantial interest regarding the evidence that mammalian fibroblasts can be genetically reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which closely resemble embryonic stem (ES) cell properties capable of differentiating into functional cardiomyocytes, and these cells may provide an alternative cell source for generating patient-specific CSCs for therapeutic applications. PMID:18754813

  12. Materials as stem cell regulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-06-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.

  13. Embryonic Stem Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Erdmann, Deanne

    2006-07-20

    BioEd Online is an "educational resource for educators, students, and parents" from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The "Hot Topics" section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are "receiving national attention." The controversy surrounding embryonic stem cells, and coverage it receives in news and research publications in the United States and around the world definitely warrants a closer look at this issue. This "Hot Topic" compiled by Joseph Marx, PhD, Nancy Moreno, PhD, and Deanne Erdmann, MS, contains a brief discussion of the stem cell debate, and includes references and links for further reading. Related news articles can be found as well. Be sure to check out the related slide sets for both embryonic stem cells and stem cells. These slide shows are an excellent resource to use in the classroom. Just add the slides you wish to use to your tray and then view or download your slide tray for an instant visual resource.

  14. Epidermal stem cells arise from the hair follicle after wounding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vered Levy; Catherine Lindon; Ying Zheng; Brian D. Harfe; Bruce A. Morgan

    2007-01-01

    During normal development, the epider- mis and hair follicle are distinct lineage compartments maintained by independent stem cell populations. Both epidermal and follicular keratinocytes are recruited to participate in epidermal repair in response to injury. However, it is generally thought that follicular cells contribute to the wound epidermis only transiently and are ultimately replaced by the progeny of stem cells

  15. Current state of stem cell research for the treatment of Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gerlach; H. Braak; A. Hartmann; W. H. Jost; P. Odin; J. Priller; J. Schwarz

    2002-01-01

    Current findings suggest that multipotent stem cells may be suitable for cell replacement therapies in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells isolated from the inner cell mass of the preimplantation blastocyst, which give rise to all cells in the organism. Similarly, multipotent stem cells are also able to regenerate, but are believed to have

  16. Epigenetic programming of mesenchymal stem cells from human adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew C. Boquest; Agate Noer; Philippe Collas

    2006-01-01

    Stromal stem cells identified in various adult mesenchymal tissues (commonly called mesenchymal stem cells [MSCs]) have in\\u000a past years received more attention as a result of their potential interest as replacement cells in regenerative medicine.\\u000a An abundant and easily accessible source of adult human MSCs are stem cells harvested from liposuction material. Similarly\\u000a to bone marrow-derived MSCs, human adipose tissue-derived

  17. Harnessing the therapeutic potential of myogenic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason D. White; Miranda D. Grounds

    2003-01-01

    The potential clinical use of stem cells for cell transplantation therapies to replace defective genes in myopathies is an\\u000a area of intense investigation. Precursor cells derived from non-muscle tissue with myogenic potential have been identified\\u000a in many tissues, including bone marrow and dermis, although the status of these putative stem cells requires clarification.\\u000a The incorporation of circulating bone-marrow derived stem

  18. Stem cells find their niche

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Spradling; Daniela Drummond-Barbosa; Toshie Kai

    2001-01-01

    The concept that stem cells are controlled by particular microenvironments known as 'niches' has been widely invoked. But niches have remained largely a theoretical construct because of the difficulty of identifying and manipulating individual stem cells and their surroundings. Technical advances now make it possible to characterize small zones that maintain and control stem cell activity in several organs, including

  19. Cell-replacement therapy and neural repair in the retina.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Christian W; Wohl, Stefanie G; Isenmann, Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Visual impairment severely affects the quality of life of patients and their families and is also associated with a deep economic impact. The most common pathologies responsible for visual impairment and legally defined blindness in developed countries include age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. These conditions share common pathophysiological features: dysfunction and loss of retinal neurons. To date, two main approaches are being taken to develop putative therapeutic strategies: neuroprotection and cell replacement. Cell replacement is a novel therapeutic approach to restore visual capabilities to the degenerated adult neural retina and represents an emerging field of regenerative neurotherapy. The discovery of a population of proliferative cells in the mammalian retina has raised the possibility of harnessing endogenous retinal stem cells to elicit retinal repair. Furthermore, the development of suitable protocols for the reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent state further increases the therapeutic potential of stem-cell-based technologies for the treatment of major retinal diseases. Stem-cell transplantation in animal models has been most effectively used for the replacement of photoreceptors, although this therapeutic approach is also being used for inner retinal pathologies. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the development of cell-replacement approaches for the treatment of currently incurable degenerative retinal diseases. PMID:22354517

  20. Cardiomyocyte generation using stem cells and directly reprogrammed cells.

    PubMed

    Ieda, Masaki; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes are terminally differentiated cells with limited regenerative capacity in the adult heart, making cell replacement therapy an attractive option to repair injured hearts. Embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are pluripotent and capable of infinite expansion in vitro, implicating them as ideal cell types for cell replacement therapy. During the past several years, significant advances in iPS cell generation technology, cardiac differentiation, and cell purification protocols were achieved for the development of stem cell-based heart therapies. The discovery of iPS cells has also sparked the novel idea of direct conversion of mature cell types into another cell type without passing through a pluripotent stem cell state. Functional cardiomyocytes could therefore be directly reprogrammed from differentiated somatic cells by transduction of the three cardiac transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5. Herein, we review the recent research achievements and discuss future challenges in stem cell-based cardiac generation and direct cardiac reprogramming technology for heart regeneration. PMID:22652883

  1. Advances in Stem Cell Mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Hopman, Rusudan K.; DiPersio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Use of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)–mobilized peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) has largely replaced bone marrow (BM) as a source of stem cells for both autologous and allogeneic cell transplantation. With G-CSF alone, up to 35% of patients are unable to mobilize sufficient numbers of CD34 cells/kg to ensure successful and consistent multi-lineage engraftment and sustained hematopoietic recovery. To this end, research is ongoing to identify new agents or combinations which will lead to the most effective and efficient stem cell mobilization strategies, especially in those patients who are at risk for mobilization failure. We describe both established agents and novel strategies at various stages of development. The latter include but are not limited to drugs that target the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, S1P agonists, VCAM/VLA-4 inhibitors, parathyroid hormone, proteosome inhibitors, Gro?, and agents that stabilize HIF. While none of the novel agents have yet gained an established role in HPC mobilization in clinical practice, many early studies exploring these new pathways show promising results and warrant further investigation. PMID:24476957

  2. Uterine stem cells: What is the evidence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Gargett

    2007-01-01

    The mucosal lining (endometrium) of the human uterus undergoes cyclical processes of regeneration, differentiation and shedding as part of the menstrual cycle. Endometrial regeneration also follows parturition, almost complete resection and in post-menopausal women taking estrogen replacement therapy. In non-menstruating species, there are cycles of endometrial growth and apoptosis rather than physical shedding. The concept that endometrial stem\\/ progenitor cells

  3. Melanocytes, melanocyte stem cells, and melanoma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Deborah; Mascarenhas, Joseph B.; Shea, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Melanocyte stem cells differ greatly from melanoma stem cells; the former provide pigmented cells during normal tissue homeostasis and repair, while the latter play an active role in a lethal form of cancer. These two cell types share several features and can be studied by similar methods. Aspects held in common by both melanocyte stem cells and melanoma stem cells include their expression of shared biochemical markers, a system of similar molecular signals necessary for their maintenance, and a requirement for an ideal niche microenvironment for providing these factors. This review provides a perspective of both these cell types and discusses potential models of stem cell growth and propagation. Recent findings provide a strong foundation for the development of new therapeutics directed at isolating and manipulating melanocyte stem cells for tissue engineering or at targeting and eradicating melanoma specifically, while sparing non-tumor cells. PMID:23438380

  4. Normal Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells: The Niche Matters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linheng Li; William B. Neaves

    Scientists have tried for decades to understand cancer development in the context of therapeutic strategies. The realization that cancers may rely on ''cancer stem cells'' that share the self-renewal feature of normal stem cells has changed the perspective with regard to new approaches for treating the disease. In this review, we propose that one of the differences between normal stem

  5. [Perinatal sources of stem cells].

    PubMed

    Piskorska-Jasiulewicz, Magdalena Maria; Witkowska-Zimny, Ma?gorzata

    2015-01-01

    Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Successful application of hematopoietic stem cells in hematology has led to the search for other sources of stem cells and expanding the scale of their application. Perinatal stem cells are a versatile cell population, and they are interesting for both scientific and practical objectives. Stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in the case of genetic disorders. In this review paper we focus on the extraction and therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from perinatal tissues such as the placenta, the amnion, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and Wharton's jelly. PMID:25748624

  6. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cell therapies for spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee-Kubli, Corinne A; Lu, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The greatest challenge to successful treatment of spinal cord injury is the limited regenerative capacity of the central nervous system and its inability to replace lost neurons and severed axons following injury. Neural stem cell grafts derived from fetal central nervous system tissue or embryonic stem cells have shown therapeutic promise by differentiation into neurons and glia that have the potential to form functional neuronal relays across injured spinal cord segments. However, implementation of fetal-derived or embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell therapies for patients with spinal cord injury raises ethical concerns. Induced pluripotent stem cells can be generated from adult somatic cells and differentiated into neural stem cells suitable for therapeutic use, thereby providing an ethical source of implantable cells that can be made in an autologous fashion to avoid problems of immune rejection. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury, as well as addressing potential mechanisms, future perspectives and challenges. PMID:25788906

  7. Prostate epithelial stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh-Joon; Xin, Li

    2014-01-01

    The classic androgen ablation and replacement experiment demonstrates that prostate epithelia possess extensive regenerative capacities and implies the existence of the prostate stem/progenitor cells. These cells may serve as the cells of origin for prostate cancer and their intrinsic property may dictate the clinical behaviors of the resulting diseases. Therefore, detailed characterization of these cells will potentially benefit disease prevention, diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we describe several major in vitro and in vivo approaches that have been employed in the studies of the prostate stem cell activities, summarize the major progress that has been made during the last two decades regarding the identity of prostate stem/progenitor cells and their niches, and discuss some remaining outstanding questions in the field. PMID:25374923

  8. Cell Stem Cell Sic Transit Gloria

    E-print Network

    Simons, Ben

    Cell Stem Cell Review Sic Transit Gloria: Farewell to the Epidermal Transit Amplifying Cell? Philip, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK 4Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK *Correspondence: phj20@hutchison-mrc.cam.ac.uk DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2007.09.014 For the past 30

  9. Marrow Stromal Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia B. Ripoll; Bruce A. Bunnell

    \\u000a The broad definition of a stem cell is a population of cells that has the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into\\u000a one or more types of specialized terminally differentiated cells. It has become evident that stem cells persist in and can\\u000a be isolated from many organs postnatally. Stem cells isolated from various sources have been demonstrated to vary in

  10. Adult skeletal muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sambasivan, Ramkumar; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles in vertebrates have a phenomenal regenerative capacity. A muscle that has been crushed can regenerate fully both structurally and functionally within a month. Remarkably, efficient regeneration continues to occur following repeated injuries. Thousands of muscle precursor cells are needed to accomplish regeneration following acute injury. The differentiated muscle cells, the multinucleated contractile myofibers, are terminally withdrawn from mitosis. The source of the regenerative precursors is the skeletal muscle stem cells-the mononucleated cells closely associated with myofibers, which are known as satellite cells. Satellite cells are mitotically quiescent or slow-cycling, committed to myogenesis, but undifferentiated. Disruption of the niche after muscle damage results in their exit from quiescence and progression towards commitment. They eventually arrest proliferation, differentiate, and fuse to damaged myofibers or make de novo myofibers. Satellite cells are one of the well-studied adult tissue-specific stem cells and have served as an excellent model for investigating adult stem cells. They have also emerged as an important standard in the field of ageing and stem cells. Several recent reviews have highlighted the importance of these cells as a model to understand stem cell biology. This chapter begins with the discovery of satellite cells as skeletal muscle stem cells and their developmental origin. We discuss transcription factors and signalling cues governing stem cell function of satellite cells and heterogeneity in the satellite cell pool. Apart from satellite cells, a number of other stem cells have been shown to make muscle and are being considered as candidate stem cells for amelioration of muscle degenerative diseases. We discuss these "offbeat" muscle stem cells and their status as adult skeletal muscle stem cells vis-a-vis satellite cells. The ageing context is highlighted in the concluding section. PMID:25344672

  11. Synergistic effects of combining adult neural stem cells with mesenchymal stem cells as a transplant therapy in the transgenic rat model of Huntington's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. ROSSIGNOL; K. K. DAVIS; S. C. CLERC; S. A. LOWRANCE; J. J. MATCHYNSKI; M. C. BOMBARD; K. D. FINK; K. RABER; S. VON HÖRSTEN; L. LESCAUDRON; G. L. DUNBAR

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is marked by choreic movements and a decline in cognitive abilities. Adult stem cells such as adult neural stem cells (ANSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit the ability to differentiate into neural lineages representing an attractive source for cell replacement therapy in neurological disorders, such as HD. ANSCs have been

  12. ``Stemness'': Transcriptional Profiling of Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Ramalho-Santos; Soonsang Yoon; Yumi Matsuzaki; Richard C. Mulligan; Douglas A. Melton

    2002-01-01

    The transcriptional profiles of mouse embryonic, neural, and hematopoietic stem cells were compared to define a genetic program for stem cells. A total of 216 genes are enriched in all three types of stem cells, and several of these genes are clustered in the genome. When compared to differentiated cell types, stem cells express a significantly higher number of genes

  13. Stem cell quest.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Alexandra

    2015-03-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia has been a valuable model system for experimental haematologists for many years. Virtually all patients (>95 %) have the same genetic change which has driven the development of the first targeted therapies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Since the introduction of TKIs in 2000 it has become clear that this approach has significantly improved the outcome for these patients. Nevertheless drug resistance inevitably develops and it is clear that the disease is controlled rather than eradicated. The recent publication by Herrmann et al. has defined a sub-population of leukaemic stem cells which are responsible for propagating the disease. CD26 now provides a new specific target for the malignant stem cells and offers the possibility of true curative therapy. PMID:25698663

  14. Spermatogonial Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk G. de Rooij

    \\u000a New developments in the field of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) research have been reviewed. Novel techniques have rendered\\u000a interesting results in studies on SSC kinetics in nonprimate mammals as well as in primates, and the classical views on the\\u000a nature and the behavior of SSC are being challenged. However, no definite conclusions can yet be drawn. Many new proteins\\u000a have

  15. Insulin-producing Surrogate ?-cells From Embryonic Stem Cells: Are We There Yet?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ortwin Naujok; Chris Burns; Peter M Jones; Sigurd Lenzen

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) harbor the potential to generate every cell type of the body by differentiation. The use of hESCs holds great promise for potential cell replacement therapies for degenerative diseases including diabetes mellitus. The recently discovered induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) exhibit immense potential for regenerative medicine as they allow the generation of autologous cells tailored to the

  16. Stem cells in the eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Boulton; Julie Albon

    2004-01-01

    In the adult organism, all tissue renewal and regeneration depends ultimately on somatic stem cells, and the eye is no exception. The importance of limbal stem cells in the maintenance of the corneal epithelium has long been recognised, and such cells are now used clinically for repair of a severely damaged cornea. The slow cycling nature of lens epithelial cells

  17. Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martine Geraerts; Catherine M. Verfaillie

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out,\\u000a with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether\\u000a adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of

  18. Stem Cells in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Yunis, Edmond J.; Zúńiga, Joaquin; Koka, Prasad S.; Husain, Zaheed; Romero, Viviana; Stern, Joel N.H.; Fridkis-Hareli, Masha

    2008-01-01

    Aging is a genetically programmed decline in the functional effectiveness of the organism. It is manifested by a collective group of changes in cells or organs that occur over the course of a lifespan, limiting the duration of life. Longevity usually refers to long-lived members of a population within species. Organs develop and can involute according to specific timetables. Such timetables correlate with a preordained proliferative capacity of cells mediated by cell and organ clocks. In this review, we discuss different aspects related to genetic and environmental factors that are involved in determining life span. We discuss the influence of ontogenic, genetic and environmental factors in aging. The genetic factors can be studied in embryonic stem cells (ESC) and in niches (microenvironments) of stem cells (SC) using cellular or experimental animal models. We discuss molecular mechanisms involving genes and proteins associated with death pathways, niches, or hubs, on longevity. Moreover, we also discuss genes and proteins, associated with death pathways, on longevity. Unraveling these mechanisms may further our understanding of human aging leading to development of therapeutic interventions with the potential of prolonging life. PMID:19030125

  19. Identification, quantification and transcriptional profile of potential stem cells in bovine mammary gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasz Motyl; Joanna B. Bier?a; Marcin Koz?owski; Ma?gorzata Gajewska; Barbara Gajkowska; Miros?awa Koronkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Mammary gland is an organ with remarkable regenerative capacity apparent during successive reproductive cycles. It is implicated that this regenerative capacity is caused by existence of competent mammary stem cells (MaSCs), which provide for expansion of cell populations, cell renewal, and replacement. Although stem cell research has often focused on mammary development, information regarding bovine mammary stem\\/progenitor cell population is

  20. Stem Cells and Asymmetric Cell Division

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Hirth

    \\u000a Asymmetric stem cell division is a fundamental process used to generate cellular diversity and to provide a source of new\\u000a cells in developing and adult organisms. Asymmetric stem cell division leads to another stem cell via self-renewal, and a\\u000a second cell type which can be either a differentiating progenitor or a postmitotic cell. Experimental studies in model organisms\\u000a including the

  1. Pancreatic cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ya-Yun; Yuan, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Studies are emerging in support of the cancer stem cells (CSCs) theory which considers that a tiny subset of cancer cells is exclusively responsible for the initiation and malignant behavior of a cancer. This cell population, also termed CSCs, possesses the capacity both to self-renew, producing progeny that have the identical tumorigenic potential, and to differentiate into the bulk of cancer cells, helping serve the formation of the tumor entities, which, altogether, build the hierarchically organized structure of a cancer. In this review, we try to articulate the complicated signaling pathways regulating the retention of the characteristics of pancreatic CSCs, and in the wake of which, we seek to offer insights into the CSCs-relevant targeted therapeutics which are, in the meantime, confronted with bigger challenges than ever.

  2. Cancer Stem Cells in Breast

    PubMed Central

    Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Monville, Florence; Ginestier, Christophe; Dontu, Gabriela; Birnbaum, Daniel; Wicha, Max S.

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the cancer stem cell hypothesis, which holds that cancers are driven by a cellular subcomponent that has stem cell properties, that is, self-renewal, tumorigenicity and multilineage differentiation capacity. The cancer stem cell hypothesis modifies our conceptual approach of oncogenesis and shall have implications in breast cancer prevention, detection and treatment, especially in metastatic breast cancer for which no curative treatment exists. Given the specific stem cell features, novel therapeutic pathways can be targeted. Following this approach, new molecules are currently in development. Focusing on the cross-talk between stem cells and their microenvironment is also a promising way to explore how to better target cancer stem cells and be curative. PMID:18544962

  3. Stem cell therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Aguayo-Mazzucato; Susan Bonner-Weir

    2010-01-01

    The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine holds great promise for the cure of many diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Any potential stem-cell-based cure for T1DM should address the need for ?-cell replacement, as well as control of the autoimmune response to cells which express insulin. The ex vivo generation of ? cells suitable for transplantation to

  4. Modeling Stem Cell Induction Processes

    E-print Network

    Grácio, Filipe

    Technology for converting human cells to pluripotent stem cell using induction processes has the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine. However, the production of these so called iPS cells is still quite inefficient ...

  5. Pluripotent stem cells from the adult mouse inner ear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huawei Li; Hong Liu; Stefan Heller

    2003-01-01

    In mammals, the permanence of acquired hearing loss is mostly due to the incapacity of the cochlea to replace lost mechanoreceptor cells, or hair cells. In contrast, damaged vestibular organs can generate new hair cells, albeit in limited numbers. Here we show that the adult utricular sensory epithelium contains cells that display the characteristic features of stem cells. These inner

  6. Stem cells in veterinary medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A Fortier; Alexander J Travis

    2011-01-01

    The stem cell field in veterinary medicine continues to evolve rapidly both experimentally and clinically. Stem cells are\\u000a most commonly used in clinical veterinary medicine in therapeutic applications for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries\\u000a in horses and dogs. New technologies of assisted reproduction are being developed to apply the properties of spermatogonial\\u000a stem cells to preserve endangered animal species. The

  7. Stem Cell Transplants at Childbirth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Sanberg; Dong-Hyuk Park; Cesar V. Borlongan

    2010-01-01

    Autologous transplantation of stem cells is a natural phenomenon at birth in mammals via the umbilical cord. Here, we discuss\\u000a that a delay in the cord clamping may increase stem cell supply to the baby, thereby allowing an innate stem cell therapy\\u000a that can render acute benefits in the case of neonatal disease, as well as long-term benefits against age-related

  8. Cell Stem Cell Endogenous Bone Marrow MSCs

    E-print Network

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    ). The existence of multipotent bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), or skeletal/mesenchymal stem cells (SSCs.02.003 SUMMARY Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) commonly defined by in vitro functions have entered clinical bone- marrow-derived, Mx1+ stromal cells with ``MSC'' features. These cells respond to tissue stress

  9. Stem cell differentiation: Multipotency retained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrksich, Milan

    2011-08-01

    Stem cells that are cultured in the laboratory differentiate in response to the mechanical properties of the substrate and its topography. It is now shown that mesenchymal stem cell multipotency is prolonged when the cells are cultured on a surface patterned with an ordered arrangement of nanoscale pits.

  10. Stem cells from adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malgorzata Witkowska-Zimny; Katarzyna Walenko

    2011-01-01

    This is a review of the growing scientific interest in the developmental plasticity and therapeutic potential of stromal cells\\u000a isolated from adipose tissue. Adipose-derived stem\\/stromal cells (ASCs) are multipotent somatic stem cells that are abundant\\u000a in fat tissue. It has been shown that ASCs can differentiate into several lineages, including adipose cells, chondrocytes,\\u000a osteoblasts, neuronal cells, endothelial cells, and cardiomyocytes.

  11. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has recently released the Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry in response to the President's announcement on August 9, 2001 to allow federal funds for stem cell research. The site lists the eleven laboratories or companies that meet the specific criteria for approved stem cell lines and explains the criteria themselves. The NIH gives the number of actual lines for each entity, the NIC and providers code for each, as well as contact information. The Website also provides links to those seeking additional information about NIH stem cell information, grants and funding opportunities, technology transfer issues, and further facts about the NIH.

  12. Stem cells in gastroenterology and hepatology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Quante; Timothy C. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract and liver depends on stem cells with properties of longevity, self-renewal and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential esophageal, gastric, intestinal, colonic, hepatic and pancreatic stem cells provides hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. Embryonic stem cells and induced

  13. Stem Cell Basics About this document

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    1 Stem Cell Basics About this document This primer on stem cells is intended for anyone who wishes to learn more about the biological properties of stem cells, the important questions about stem cells that are the focus of scientific research, and the potential use of stem cells in research and in treating disease

  14. Skeletal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Paolo; Robey, Pamela G

    2015-03-15

    Skeletal stem cells (SSCs) reside in the postnatal bone marrow and give rise to cartilage, bone, hematopoiesis-supportive stroma and marrow adipocytes in defined in vivo assays. These lineages emerge in a specific sequence during embryonic development and post natal growth, and together comprise a continuous anatomical system, the bone-bone marrow organ. SSCs conjoin skeletal and hematopoietic physiology, and are a tool for understanding and ameliorating skeletal and hematopoietic disorders. Here and in the accompanying poster, we concisely discuss the biology of SSCs in the context of the development and postnatal physiology of skeletal lineages, to which their use in medicine must remain anchored. PMID:25758217

  15. Stem Cell Glycolipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Yanagisawa

    Glycolipids are compounds containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety.\\u000a Because of their expression patterns and the intracellular localization patterns, glycolipids, including stage-specific embryonic\\u000a antigens (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, and possibly SSEA-1) and gangliosides (e.g., GD3, GD2, and A2B5 antigens), have been used as marker\\u000a molecules of stem cells. In this review, I will

  16. Investigation of growth factors and cytokines that suppress adult stem cell asymmetric cell kinetics

    E-print Network

    Ganz, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Adult stem cells are potentially useful in many biomedical applications that can save lives and increase the quality of a patient's life, such as tissue engineering, cell replacement, and gene therapy. However, these ...

  17. The Clinical Status of Stem Cell Therapy for Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianyun; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Fan; Li, Jing; Li, Yaqi; Tan, Zirui; Hu, Jie; Qi, Yixin; Yan, Baoyong

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) is becoming a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the whole world. Stem cell-based therapy is emerging as a promising option for treatment of ICM. Several stem cell types including cardiac-derived stem cells (CSCs), bone marrow-derived stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), skeletal myoblasts (SMs), and CD34+ and CD 133+ stem cells have been applied in clinical researches. The clinical effect produced by stem cell administration in ICM mainly depends on the transdifferentiation and paracrine effect. One important issue is that low survival and residential rate of transferred stem cells in the infracted myocardium blocks the effective advances in cardiac improvement. Many other factors associated with the efficacy of cell replacement therapy for ICM mainly including the route of delivery, the type and number of stem cell infusion, the timing of injection, patient's physical condition, the particular microenvironment onto which the cells are delivered, and clinical condition remain to be addressed. Here we provide an overview of the pros and cons of these transferred cells and discuss the current state of their therapeutic potential. We believe that stem cell translation will be an ideal option for patients following ischemic heart disease in the future.

  18. EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Concise Review: Maturation Phases of Human Pluripotent Stem

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    maturity? How well do hPS-CM model embryonic or adult CM in vitro? How does maturity change during in vitroEMBRYONIC STEM CELLS/INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Concise Review: Maturation Phases of Human · In vitro cell culture · Maturity ABSTRACT Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPS-CM) may

  19. Differentiating Gametes from Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Isabel Marqués-Marí; José Vicente Medrano; Carlos Simón

    \\u000a Embryonic stem cell lines derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst are pluripotent (they can differentiate into\\u000a all the different cell types) and have the ability to self-renewal in vitro, remaining undifferentiated. It has been demonstrated\\u000a that murine embryonic stem cells can give rise to structures very similar to sperm and oocytes in vitro. These differentiated cells are

  20. Metastasis and stem cell pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan C. Barnhart; M. Celeste Simon

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have described a small population of self-renewing and multipotent cells within tumors termed “cancer stem\\u000a cells.” These cells share many traits with somatic and embryonic stem cells and are thought to be responsible for driving\\u000a tumor progression in a growing list of neoplastic diseases. Cells within solid tumors encounter hypoxia due to poor vascular\\u000a function. Both long-standing and

  1. Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

  2. The new stem cell biology.

    PubMed Central

    Quesenberry, Peter J.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Frimberger, Angela E.; Dooner, Mark S.; Mcauliffe, Christina I.; Miller, Caroline; Becker, Pamela; Badiavas, Evangelis; Falanga, Vincent J.; Elfenbein, Gerald; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stem cells are capable of generating muscle, cardiac, hepatic, renal, and bone cells. Purified hematopoietic stem cells have generated cardiac and hepatic cells and reversed disease manifestations in these tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells also alter phenotype with cell cycle transit or circadian phase. During a cytokine stimulated cell cycle transit, reversible alterations of differentiation and engraftment occur. Primitive hematopoietic stem cells express a wide variety of adhesion and cytokine receptors and respond quickly with migration and podia extensions on exposure to cytokines. These data suggest an "Open Chromatin" model of stem cell regulation in which there is a fluctuating continuum in the stem cell/progenitor cell compartments, rather than a hierarchical relationship. These observations, along with progress in using low dose treatments and tolerization approaches, suggest many new therapeutic strategies involving stem cells and the creation of a new medical specialty; stemology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:12053709

  3. Breast cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Thomas W.; Naylor, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarize what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically. PMID:23986719

  4. Genomic regulation of neural stem cells in mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. V. Pavlova; V. E. Okhotin; L. I. Korochkin; A. V. Revishchin

    2008-01-01

    The evidence obtained in the last 15 years has shed new light on the functioning of the brain tissue in norm and pathology.\\u000a It has been shown that proliferating stem cells exist in the adult brain. Under certain conditions, these cells can participate\\u000a in posttraumatic repair, replacing perished cells. The involvement of stem cells in the development of malignant tumors

  5. Bioprinting for stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest to apply bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized proteins can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cell of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics. PMID:23260439

  6. Stem Cells behind the Barrier.

    PubMed

    Cangkrama, Michael; Ting, Stephen B; Darido, Charbel

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal stem cells sustain the adult skin for a lifetime through self-renewal and the production of committed progenitors. These stem cells generate progeny that will undergo terminal differentiation leading to the development of a protective epidermal barrier. Whereas the molecular mechanisms that govern epidermal barrier repair and renewal have been extensively studied, pathways controlling stem cell differentiation remain poorly understood. Asymmetric cell divisions, small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs), chromatin remodeling complexes, and multiple differentiation factors tightly control the balance of stem and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, and disruption of this balance leads to skin diseases. In this review, we summarize and discuss current advances in our understanding of the mechanisms regulating epidermal stem and progenitor cell differentiation, and explore new relationships for maintenance of skin barrier function. PMID:23812084

  7. Stem Cells, Colorectal Cancer and Cancer Stem Cell Markers Correlations

    PubMed Central

    CHERCIU, IRINA; B?RB?LAN, A.; PIRICI, D.; M?RG?RITESCU, C.; S?FTOIU, A.

    2014-01-01

    : The idea of stem cells as being progenitors of cancer was initially controversial, but later supported by research in the field of leukemia and solid tumors. Afterwards, it was established that genetic abnormalities can affect the stem and progenitor cells, leading to uncontrolled replication and deregulated differentiation. These alterations will cause the changeover to cancerous stem cells (CSC) having two main characteristics: tumor initiation and maintenance. This review will focus on the colorectal cancer stem cell (CR-CSCs) theory which provides a better understanding of different tumor processes: initiation, aggressive growth, recurrence, treatment resistance and metastasis. A search in PubMed/Medline was performed using the following keywords: colorectal cancer stem cells (CR-CSCs), colorectal neoplasms stem cells, colorectal cancer stem cell (CR-CSCs) markers, etc. Electronic searches were supplemented by hand searching reference lists, abstracts and proceedings from meetings. Isolation of CR-CSCs can be achieved by targeting and selecting subpopulation of tumor cells based on expression of one or multiple cell surface markers associated with cancer self-renewal, markers as: CD133, CD166, CD44, CD24, beta1 integrin-CD29, Lgr5, EpCAM (ESA), ALDH-1, Msi-1, DCAMLK1 or EphB receptors. The identification and localization of CR-CSCs through different markers will hopefully lead to a better stratification of prognosis and treatment response, as well as the development of new effective strategies for cancer management. PMID:25729599

  8. Stem cells, colorectal cancer and cancer stem cell markers correlations.

    PubMed

    Cherciu, Irina; B?rb?lan, A; Pirici, D; M?rg?ritescu, C; S?ftoiu, A

    2014-01-01

    : The idea of stem cells as being progenitors of cancer was initially controversial, but later supported by research in the field of leukemia and solid tumors. Afterwards, it was established that genetic abnormalities can affect the stem and progenitor cells, leading to uncontrolled replication and deregulated differentiation. These alterations will cause the changeover to cancerous stem cells (CSC) having two main characteristics: tumor initiation and maintenance. This review will focus on the colorectal cancer stem cell (CR-CSCs) theory which provides a better understanding of different tumor processes: initiation, aggressive growth, recurrence, treatment resistance and metastasis. A search in PubMed/Medline was performed using the following keywords: colorectal cancer stem cells (CR-CSCs), colorectal neoplasms stem cells, colorectal cancer stem cell (CR-CSCs) markers, etc. Electronic searches were supplemented by hand searching reference lists, abstracts and proceedings from meetings. Isolation of CR-CSCs can be achieved by targeting and selecting subpopulation of tumor cells based on expression of one or multiple cell surface markers associated with cancer self-renewal, markers as: CD133, CD166, CD44, CD24, beta1 integrin-CD29, Lgr5, EpCAM (ESA), ALDH-1, Msi-1, DCAMLK1 or EphB receptors. The identification and localization of CR-CSCs through different markers will hopefully lead to a better stratification of prognosis and treatment response, as well as the development of new effective strategies for cancer management. PMID:25729599

  9. Stem cell therapy for glaucoma: science or snake oil?

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Williams, Alice; Waisbourd, Michael; Iacovitti, Lorraine; Katz, L Jay

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been substantial progress in developing stem cell treatments for glaucoma. As a downstream approach that targets the underlying susceptibility of retinal ganglion and trabecular meshwork cells, stem cell therapy has the potential to both replace lost, and protect damaged, cells by secreting neurotrophic factors. A variety of sources, including embryonic cells, adult cells derived from the central nervous system, and induced pluripotent stem cells show promise as therapeutic approaches. Even though safety concerns and ethical controversies have limited clinical implementation, some institutions have already commercialized stem cell therapy and are using direct-to-consumer advertising to attract patients with glaucoma. We review the progress of stem cell therapy and its current commercial availability. PMID:25132498

  10. Progenitor and stem cells for bone and cartilage regeneration.

    PubMed

    El Tamer, M K; Reis, R L

    2009-07-01

    Research in regenerative medicine is developing at a significantly quick pace. Cell-based bone and cartilage replacement is an evolving therapy aiming at the treatment of patients who suffer from limb amputation, damaged tissues and various bone and cartilage-related disorders. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the capability to regenerate into one or more committed cell lineages. Stem cells isolated from multiple sources have been finding widespread use to advance the field of tissue repair. The present review gives a comprehensive overview of the developments in stem cells originating from different tissues and suggests future prospects for functional bone and cartilage tissue regeneration. PMID:19418440

  11. Plasticity of Adult Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy J Wagers; Irving L Weissman

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen much excitement over the possibility that adult mammalian stem cells may be capable of differentiating across tissue lineage boundaries, and as such may represent novel, accessible, and very versatile effectors of therapeutic tissue regeneration. Yet studies proposing such “plasticity” of adult somatic stem cells remain controversial, and in general, existing evidence suggests that in vivo such

  12. Derivation of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vít?zslav Bryja; Sonia Bonilla; Ernest Arenas

    2006-01-01

    Here we describe a simple and efficient protocol for derivation of germline chimera-competent mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) from embryonic day 3.5 (E3.5) blastocysts. The protocol involves the use of early-passage mouse embryonic fibroblast feeders (MEF) and the alternation of fetal bovine serum– and serum replacement (SR)–containing media. As compared to other available protocols for mESCs derivation, our protocol differs

  13. Gastrointestinal stem cell up-to-date

    PubMed Central

    Pirvulet, V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract depends on stem cells with properties of self-renewal, clonogenicity, and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential gastric, intestinal, colonic stem cells new markers and the signaling pathways provide hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. This review provides an overview of the different types of stem cells, focusing on tissue-restricted adult stem cells. PMID:25866586

  14. Stem cell mechanics: Auxetic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning

    2014-06-01

    The nuclei of naive mouse embryonic stem cells that are transitioning towards differentiation expand when the cells are stretched and contract when they are compressed. What drives this auxetic phenotype is, however, unclear.

  15. Engineering stem cells for therapy.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Pertuz, Marinela; Hughes, Chris; Annenkov, Alex; Daly, Gordon; Chernajovsky, Yuti

    2006-07-01

    The differentiation of a stem cell is dependent on the environmental cues that it receives and can be modulated by the expression of different master regulators or by secreted factors or inducers. The use of genetically modified stem cells to express the required factors can direct differentiation along the requisite pathway. This approach to the engineering of stem cells is important, as control of the pluripotentiality of stem cells is necessary in order to avoid unwanted growth, migration or differentiation to nontarget tissues. The authors provide an overview of the stem cell engineering field, highlighting challenges and solutions, and focusing on recent developments in therapeutic applications in areas such as autoimmunity, CNS lesions, bone and joint diseases, cancer and myocardial infarction. PMID:17465851

  16. Cancer stem cells and “stemness” genes in neuro-oncology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia K. Nicolis

    2007-01-01

    The main properties of stem cells include long-term self-renewal and the capacity to give rise to one or more types of differentiated progeny. Recently, much evidence was provided that leukemia and tumor maintenance and growth are sustained by a small proportion of cells exhibiting stem cell properties. In neural tumors, stem cells have been detected in glioblastoma, medulloblastoma and ependymoma.

  17. Cell replacement therapy: lessons from teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Zupanc, Günther K H; Sîrbulescu, Ruxandra F

    2015-01-01

    Many disorders of the CNS are characterized by a massive loss of neurons. A promising therapeutic strategy to cure such conditions is based on the activation of endogenous stem cells. Implementation of this strategy will benefit from a better understanding of stem cell dynamics and the local CNS microenvironment in regeneration-competent vertebrate model systems. Using a spinal cord injury paradigm in zebrafish larvae, Briona and Dorsky (2014) have provided evidence for the existence of two distinct neural stem cell populations. One population has the characteristics of radial glia and expresses the homeobox transcription factor Dbx. The other lacks Dbx but expresses Olig2. These results are placed in the context of other studies that also support the notion of heterogeneity of adult stem cells in the CNS. The implication that differences among stem cell populations, in combination with specific factors from the local cellular microenvironment, might have a decisive impact on the fate choices of the new cells, is discussed. Reviewed evidence suggests that rather few modifications in the signaling pathways involved in the control of stem cell behavior have led, in the course of evolution, to the pronounced differences between mammals and regeneration-competent organisms. As a consequence, rather minor pharmacological manipulations may be sufficient to reactivate the hidden neurogenic potential of the mammalian CNS, and thus make it available for therapeutic applications. PMID:25448008

  18. Cell Stem Cell Dietary and Metabolic Control

    E-print Network

    Sabatini, David M.

    Cell Stem Cell Review Dietary and Metabolic Control of Stem Cell Function in Physiology and Cancer in rodents have been audited by using two extremes of nutrient availability: calorie restriction and dietary or genetic models of obesity. Calorie restriction (also referred to as dietary restriction) in many animal

  19. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Tetsuo

    2014-09-01

    Human endometrium regenerates and regresses with each menstrual cycle under hormonal control throughout a woman's reproductive life. The cyclical regeneration and remodeling potentials allude to the existence of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium. There is increasing evidence that human endometrium contains small numbers of stem-like cells capable of self-renewal, multiple differentiation and tissue reconstitution. Although the precise identity of endometrial stem/progenitor cells remains elusive, these cells are thought to play pivotal role(s) in the physiological remodeling and regeneration of the human endometrium and also in the pathogenesis of endometrium-associated diseases, such as endometriosis. PMID:25160689

  20. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany) [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China); Li, Yuan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China)] [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China); Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)] [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kaufmann, Andreas M. [Clinic for Gynecology CCM/CBF, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)] [Clinic for Gynecology CCM/CBF, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Albers, Andreas E., E-mail: andreas.albers@charite.de [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  1. Developmental and Potential Therapeutic Aspects of Mammalian Neural Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bai; S. L. Gerson; R. H. Miller

    Advances in our understanding of the biology of stem cells, including neural, hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, have\\u000a opened new avenues for cell-based therapeutic approaches to replace damaged or lost neurons. The mature central nervous system\\u000a (CNS) has traditionally been considered an unfavourable environment for the regeneration of damaged axons or the generation\\u000a of new neurons. The recent realization that

  2. Stem cell sources for regenerative medicine: the immunological point of view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Preynat-Seauve; Karl-Heinz Krause

    Stem cell transplantation consists in the introduction of stem cells or derived products in a diseased organism. Because of\\u000a the differentiation properties of stem cells, the goal is to replace damaged cells or tissues. Numbers of stem cell were identified\\u000a and isolated from embryos, fetuses, or adult organs, harboring different properties, and thus providing multiple strategies\\u000a of regenerative medicine for

  3. The multifaceted adult epidermal stem cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laure Gambardella; Yann Barrandon

    2003-01-01

    Adult epidermal stem cells renew the epithelial compartment of the skin throughout life and are the most accessible of all adult stem cells. Most importantly, epidermal stem cells can be efficiently cultivated and transplanted, a significant advantage for cell and gene therapy. Recent work has pointed to the hair follicle as the main repository of multipotent stem cells in skin.

  4. 28. Embryonic and adult stem cell therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl T. Henningson; Marisha A. Stanislaus; Alan M. Gewirtz

    2003-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by the ability to remain undifferentiated and to self-renew. Embryonic stem cells derived from blastocysts are pluripotent (able to differentiate into many cell types). Adult stem cells, which were traditionally thought to be monopotent multipotent, or tissue restricted, have recently also been shown to have pluripotent properties. Adult bone marrow stem cells have been shown to

  5. Comparison of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Markers in Multiple Human Adult Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Masoud; Ghanbarvand, Farideh; Reza Behvarz, Mohammad; Ejtemaei, Mehri; Ghadirkhomi, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells which identified by adherence to plastic, expression of cell surface markers including CD44, CD90, CD105, CD106, CD166, and Stro-1, lack of the expression of hematopoietic markers, no immunogenic effect and replacement of damaged tissues. These properties led to development of progressive methods to isolation and characterization of MSCs from various sources for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine. Methods: We isolated MSC-like cells from testis biopsies, ovary, hair follicle and umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly and investigated the expression of specific cell surface antigens using flow cytometry in order to verify stemness properties of these cells. Results: All four cell types adhered to plastic culture flask a few days after primary culture. All our cells positively expressed common MSC- specific cell surface markers. Moreover, our results revealed the expression of CD19and CD45 antigens in these cells. Conclusion: According to our results, high expression of CD44 in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs),granulosa cells (GCs)and Wharton’s jelly- MSCs (WJ-MSCs)may help them to maintain stemness properties. Furthermore, we suggest that CD105+SSCs, HFSCs and WJ-MSCs revealed the osteogenic potential of these cells. Moreover, high expression of CD90 in SSCs and HFSCs may associate to higher growth and differentiation potential of these cells. Further, the presence of CD19 on SSCs and GCs may help them to efficiency in response to trans-membrane signals. Thus, these four types of MSCs may be useful in clinical applications and cell therapy. PMID:25473449

  6. Regenerating cochlear hair cells: quo vadis stem cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk Beisel; Laura Hansen; Garrett Soukup; Bernd Fritzsch

    2008-01-01

    Many elderly people worldwide lose the neurosensory part of their ear and turn deaf. Cochlear implants to restore some hearing\\u000a after neurosensory hearing loss are, at present, the only therapy for these people. In contrast to this therapy, replacement\\u000a of hair cells via stem cell therapies holds the promise for a cure. We review here current insights into embryonic, adult,

  7. Stem Cells in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoming; Driskell, Ryan R.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2007-01-01

    The lung is composed of two major anatomically distinct regions—the conducting airways and gas-exchanging airspaces. From a cell biology standpoint, the conducting airways can be further divided into two major compartments, the tracheobronchial and bronchiolar airways, while the alveolar regions of the lung make up the gas-exchanging airspaces. Each of these regions consists of distinct epithelial cell types with unique cellular physiologies and stem cell compartments. This chapter focuses on model systems with which to study stem cells in the adult tracheobronchial airways, also referred to as the proximal airway of the lung. Important in such models is an appreciation for the diversity of stem cell niches in the conducting airways that provide localized environmental signals to both maintain and mobilize stem cells in the setting of airway injury and normal cellular turnover. Because cellular turnover in airways is relatively slow, methods for analysis of stem cells in vivo have required prior injury to the lung. In contrast, ex vivo and in vitro models for analysis of airway stem cells have used genetic markers to track lineage relationships together with reconstitution systems that mimic airway biology. Over the past decades, several widely acceptable methods have been developed and used in the characterization of adult airway stem/ progenitor cells. These include localization of label-retaining cells (LRCs), retroviral tagging of epithelial cells seeded into xenografts, air–liquid interface cultures to track clonal proliferative potential, and multiple transgenic mouse models. This chapter reviews the biologic context and use of these models while providing detailed methods for several of the more broadly useful models for studying adult airway stem/progenitor cell types. PMID:17141060

  8. Stem cells-the hidden treasure: A strategic review

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Hitesh; Hans, Manoj Kumar; Shetty, Shashit

    2013-01-01

    In today's scenario, medical and dental professionals face a mammoth task while treating perplexing medical situations like organ failure or tissue loss. Though, different strategies exist to replace them, but ideal one is the same natural tissue or organ. In this aspect, stem cells have emerged in a promising way to provide an ideal replacement. There are different types of stem cells starting from the embryonic stage referred to as human embryonic stem cells to adult stem cells. Though in dentistry stem cell research is lagging as compared to the medical field but still a lot progress has been achieved in recent years. The stem cells have been isolated from dental pulp, human exfoliated deciduous teeth, and apical papilla and so on. These stem cells have provided exciting results like dentin-pulp regeneration, periodontal regeneration but ambiguity still prevails. As a result, much has to be further researched before its clinical application becomes a reality. Hence, these stem cells opened a new avenue in the field of regenerative dentistry. PMID:24130574

  9. Cell Stem Cell Adult SVZ Stem Cells Lie in a Vascular

    E-print Network

    Lin, Gang

    Cell Stem Cell Article Adult SVZ Stem Cells Lie in a Vascular Niche: A Quantitative Analysis Susan K. Goderie,1 Badrinath Roysam,3 and Sally Temple1,2,* 1New York Neural Stem Cell Institute, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan *Correspondence: sallytemple@nynsci.org DOI 10.1016/j.stem

  10. Paving the road for lung stem cell biology: bronchioalveolar stem cells and other putative distal lung stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla F. Kim

    2007-01-01

    New discoveries in stem cell biology are making the biology of solid tissues increasingly complex. Important seminal studies demonstrating the presence of damage-resistant cell populations together with new isolation and characterization techniques suggest that stem cells exist in the adult lung. More detailed in vivo molecular and cellular characterization of bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs), other putative lung stem and progenitor

  11. Progress in myeloma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Richard Dela; Tricot, Guido; Zangari, Maurizio; Zhan, Fenghuang

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy in the United States and affects about 4 in 100,000 Americans. Even though much progress has been made in MM therapy, MM remains an incurable disease for the vast majority of patients. The existence of MM stem cell is considered one of the major causes of MM drug-resistance, leading to relapse. This highlights the importance and urgency of developing approaches to target MM stem cells. However, very little is known about the molecular characteristics of the MM stem cells, which makes it difficult to target MM stem cells therapeutically. Evidence of the existence of a myeloma stem cell has been provided by Matsui et al. showing that the CD138- and CD20+ fraction, which is a minor population of the MM cells, has a greater clonogenic potential and has the phenotype of a memory B-cell (CD19+, CD27+). In this review, we report recent progress of cell surface markers in cancer stem cells, especially in myeloma and the molecular mechanisms related to drug resistance and myeloma disease progression. PMID:22432075

  12. Progress in myeloma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Richard Dela; Tricot, Guido; Zangari, Maurizio; Zhan, Fenghuang

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy in the United States and affects about 4 in 100,000 Americans. Even though much progress has been made in MM therapy, MM remains an incurable disease for the vast majority of patients. The existence of MM stem cell is considered one of the major causes of MM drug-resistance, leading to relapse. This highlights the importance and urgency of developing approaches to target MM stem cells. However, very little is known about the molecular characteristics of the MM stem cells, which makes it difficult to target MM stem cells therapeutically. Evidence of the existence of a myeloma stem cell has been provided by Matsui et al. showing that the CD138- and CD20+ fraction, which is a minor population of the MM cells, has a greater clonogenic potential and has the phenotype of a memory B-cell (CD19+, CD27+). In this review, we report recent progress of cell surface markers in cancer stem cells, especially in myeloma and the molecular mechanisms related to drug resistance and myeloma disease progression. PMID:22432075

  13. Microarrayed Materials for Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold remarkable promise for applications in disease modeling, cancer therapy and regenerative medicine. Despite the significant progress made during the last decade, designing materials to control stem cell fate remains challenging. As an alternative, materials microarray technology has received great attention because it allows for high throughput materials synthesis and screening at a reasonable cost. Here, we discuss recent developments in materials microarray technology and their applications in stem cell engineering. Future opportunities in the field will also be reviewed. PMID:24311967

  14. Human embryonic stem cells express an immunogenic nonhuman sialic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria J Martin; Alysson Muotri; Fred Gage; Ajit Varki

    2005-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (HESC) can potentially generate every body cell type, making them excellent candidates for cell- and tissue-replacement therapies. HESC are typically cultured with animal-derived 'serum replacements' on mouse feeder layers. Both of these are sources of the nonhuman sialic acid Neu5Gc, against which many humans have circulating antibodies. Both HESC and derived embryoid bodies metabolically incorporate substantial

  15. Cancer stem cell subsets and their relationships

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cancer stem cells account for the initiation and progression of cancer. While many types of cancer stem cells with specific markers have been isolated and identified, a variety of differences among them began to be appreciated. Cancer stem cells are hierarchical populations that consist of precancerous stem cells, primary cancer stem cells, migrating cancer stem cells and chemoradioresistant cancer stem cells, playing different roles in cancer initiation and progression. Here we propose a new concept "horizontal hierarchy of cancer stem cells" to distinguish them from vertical hierarchy cancer stem cells, cancer transient-amplifying cells and cancer differentiated cells, and summarize our current understanding of these subsets of cancer stem cells with the aim to open up novel therapeutic strategies for cancer based on this understanding. PMID:21542915

  16. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Aging: Wrinkles In Stem Cell Potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Chambers; M. A. Goodell

    2007-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) continuously replenish the blood and immune systems. Their activity must be sustained throughout\\u000a life to support optimal immune responses. It has been thought that stem cells may be somewhat protected from age because of\\u000a their perpetual requirement to replenish the blood, however studies over the past 10 years have revealed dramatic changes\\u000a in HSC function and phenotype

  17. Diabetes and Stem Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Fujimaki, Shin; Wakabayashi, Tamami; Takemasa, Tohru; Asashima, Makoto; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common serious metabolic diseases that results in hyperglycemia due to defects of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. The present review focuses on the alterations to the diabetic neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle, including stem cells in both tissues, and the preventive effects of physical activity on diabetes. Diabetes is associated with various nervous disorders, such as cognitive deficits, depression, and Alzheimer's disease, and that may be caused by neural stem cell dysfunction. Additionally, diabetes induces skeletal muscle atrophy, the impairment of energy metabolism, and muscle weakness. Similar to neural stem cells, the proliferation and differentiation are attenuated in skeletal muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. However, physical activity is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration to the neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle. Physical activity improves neurogenic capacity of neural stem cells and the proliferative and differentiative abilities of satellite cells. The present review proposes physical activity as a useful measure for the patients in diabetes to improve the physiological functions and to maintain their quality of life. It further discusses the use of stem cell-based approaches in the context of diabetes treatment.

  18. Cell Stem Cell Molecular Pathway and Cell State Responsible

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    Cell Stem Cell Article Molecular Pathway and Cell State Responsible for Dissociation-Induced Apoptosis in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Masatoshi Ohgushi,1,2 Michiru Matsumura,1,2 Mototsugu Eiraku,1 Sasai1,2,* 1Organogenesis and Neurogenesis Group 2Division of Human Stem Cell Technology 3Laboratory

  19. Renal Stem Cells and Kidney Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Yokoo; Akira Fukui; Kei Matsumoto; Tetsuya Kawamura

    \\u000a Significant advances have been made in stem cell research over the past decade. A number of non-hematopoietic sources of stem\\u000a cells (or progenitor cells) have been identified including endothelial stem cells and neural stem cells. These discoveries\\u000a have been a major step towards the potential regeneration of organs for clinical applications using stem cells. The worldwide\\u000a shortage of donor kidneys

  20. Matrix Elasticity Directs Stem Cell Lineage Specification

    E-print Network

    Discher, Dennis

    and also for therapeu- tic uses of stem cells. INTRODUCTION Adult stem cells, as part of normalMatrix Elasticity Directs Stem Cell Lineage Specification Adam J. Engler,1,2 Shamik Sen,1,2 H. Lee.06.044 SUMMARY Microenvironments appear important in stem cell lineage specification but can be difficult

  1. Stem Cell Migration in Health and Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Dittmar; Susannah H. Kassmer; Benjamin Kasenda; Jeanette Seidel; Bernd Niggemann; Kurt S. Zänker

    2010-01-01

    Within the past years, our knowledge about stem cells in health and disease has changed dramatically. To date, it is feasible to isolate and propagate human pluripotent stem cells from various sources, such as cord blood, bone marrow or adipose tissue, and to generate donor-specific ethically harmless induced pluripotent stem cells, which exhibits embryonic stem cell properties. However, irrespective of

  2. Stem Cell Research: Elephants in the Room

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NEIL D. THEISE

    2003-01-01

    hen groups of stem cell researchers meet or when stem cell researchers publish their data and interpre- tations in scientific journals, a small cluster of important issues loom over the discussions yet often go unremarked. These issues influence much of the nature, direction, and funding of stem cell investigations, particularly those in- volving adult stem cells. The unmentionable issues are

  3. Differentiation potential of adult stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Clarke; Jonas Frisén

    2001-01-01

    In many different adult tissues, stem cells generate new cells either continuously or in response to injury. Such cells were thought to be limited to generating the types of cells normally present in the tissue where the stem cell resides. However, several different stem-cell populations in the adult have been found recently to be capable of generating additional cell types

  4. Cell Stem Cell Wnts as Self-Renewal Factors

    E-print Network

    Verheyen, Esther M.

    Cell Stem Cell Previews Wnts as Self-Renewal Factors: Mammary Stem Cells and Beyond Esther M, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada 2Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell.clevers@hubrecht.eu DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.05.004 Adult stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine, yet

  5. World stem cell summit 2014.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kouichi; Asada, Takashi; Sengoku, Shintaro; Nakatsuji, Norio

    2015-05-01

    World Stem Cell Summit 2014 3-5 December 2014, San Antonio, TX, USA Among the many international conferences in the field of stem cells and regenerative medicine, WSCS is distinct in focusing its efforts to serve as the meeting point by multisector communities of research, clinics, industry, regulation, policy making and ethics. All are aiming at advancing stem cell innovation and new therapies, under the banner of 'connect, collaborate and cure'. As same as past years, presenters and attendees included not only researchers but also clinicians, funding agencies, government officials, industries and patients. Thus, many sessions focused on the clinical translation from basic research. Another important agenda were industrial and social aspects, and problems to be solved before realization of practical and sustainable stem cell-based therapies. PMID:26022760

  6. Controlled differentiation of stem cells?

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Nathaniel S.; Varghese, Shyni; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular microenvironment plays a significant role in controlling cellular behavior. Identification of appropriate biomaterials that support cellular attachment, proliferation and, most importantly in the case of human embryonic stem cells, lineage-specific differentiation is critical for tissue engineering and cellular therapy. In addition to growth factors and morphogenetic factors known to induce lineage commitment of stem cells, a number of scaffolding materials, including synthetic and naturally-derived biomaterials, have been utilized in tissue engineering approaches to direct differentiation. This review focuses on recent emerging findings and well-characterized differentiation models of human embryonic stem cells. Additionally, we also discuss about various strategies that have been used in stem cell expansion. PMID:18006108

  7. Columbia Stem Cell Initiative Tapping the potential of stem cells for human health

    E-print Network

    Adams, Mark

    Columbia Stem Cell Initiative Tapping the potential of stem cells for human health Tenure Track Faculty Positions in Stem Cell Research at Columbia University Medical Center The Columbia Stem Cell Initiative (CSCI; www.ColumbiaStemCell.org) brings together more than 120 groups working to tap the potential

  8. EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS or INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS? A DNA INTEGRITY PERSPECTIVE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS or INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS? A DNA INTEGRITY PERSPECTIVE Qiang Bai Gene Therapy 2013;13(2):93-8" #12;2 ABSTRACT Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are two types of pluripotent stem cells that hold great promise for biomedical research

  9. Curr Gene Ther . Author manuscript Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells? A DNA integrity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Curr Gene Ther . Author manuscript Page /1 7 Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells should be addressed to: John De Vos Abstract Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are two types of pluripotent stem cells that hold great promise for biomedical

  10. Cancer Stem Cells and Microenvironment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Federico; Antonio Giordano

    \\u000a The theory of the cancer stem cell (CSC) is fairly recent and has both challenged and disrupted the previous understandings\\u000a of cancer biology. From the initial findings of cancer-driving cellular sub-populations, the interest in the CSC theory has\\u000a flourished. Here we discuss the biology behind both embryonic and adult stem cells and how this biology is the basis for our

  11. The stem cell debate CNN

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    As most of our readers no doubt know, President Bush made a determination on federal funding for embryonic stem cell research in August 2001, agreeing to release federal funds for research involving already existing stem cell lines. Information on this contentious topic is available at CNN's in-depth special, which features articles, analysis, video clips, and message boards devoted to the many aspects of the debate.

  12. Stem Cells Promises to Keep?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lauren E. Yaich

    2002-01-01

    Samantha and her husband Brad have two children, conceived with the help of in vitro fertilization treatments. After viewing a TV program on stem cells and their potential medical uses, Samantha is convinced that they should donate the remaining frozen embryos they have to medical research, an idea Brad strongly objects to. The case teaches about stem cells and their medical applications as well as the ethical dilemmas posed by their use.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nóra Varga; Zoltán Veréb; Éva Rajnavölgyi; Katalin Német; Ferenc Uher; Balázs Sarkadi; Ágota Apáti

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated

  14. Future Research in Adipose Stem Cell Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan

    \\u000a Adipose stem cells have a bright prospect in regenerative medicine for tissue\\/organ engineering. However, some hurdles may\\u000a hinder the progress of adipose stem cell engineering. Therefore this chapter highlights the advances in adipose stem cell\\u000a researches, and focuses on prospective researches that are needed to overcome the hurdles in adipose stem cell engineering,\\u000a i.e., to identify the various stem cells

  15. Stem cells from residual IVF-embryos – Continuation of life justifies isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ger P. A. Bongaerts; René S. V. M. Severijnen

    2007-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated pluripotent cells that can indefinitely grow in vitro. They are derived from the inner mass of early embryos. Because of their ability to differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers, and finally into specialized somatic cell types, human embryonic stem cells represent important material for studying developmental biology and cell replacement therapy. They are usually

  16. Plasticity of spermatogonial stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Paul S; Simon, Liz; Nanjappa, Manjunatha K; Medrano, Theresa I; Berry, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    There have been significant breakthroughs over the past decade in the development and use of pluripotent stem cells as a potential source of cells for applications in regenerative medicine. It is likely that this methodology will begin to play an important role in human clinical medicine in the years to come. This review describes the plasticity of one type of pluripotent cell, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and their potential therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine and male infertility. Normally, SSCs give rise to sperm when in the testis. However, both human and murine SSCs can give rise to cells with embryonic stem (ES) cell-like characteristics that can be directed to differentiate into tissues of all three embryonic germ layers when placed in an appropriate inductive microenvironment, which is in contrast to other postnatal stem cells. Previous studies have reported that SSCs expressed an intermediate pluripotent phenotype before differentiating into a specific cell type and that extended culture was necessary for this to occur. However, recent studies from our group using a tissue recombination model demonstrated that SSCs differentiated rapidly into another tissue, in this case, prostatic epithelium, without expression of pluripotent ES cell markers before differentiation. These results suggest that SSCs are capable of directly differentiating into other cell types without going through an intermediate ES cell-like stage. Because SSCs do not require reprogramming to achieve a pluripotent state, they are an attractive source of pluripotent cells for use in regenerative medicine. PMID:25677134

  17. Biomaterials for stem cell differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen Dawson; Gazell Mapili; Kathryn Erickson; Sabia Taqvi; Krishnendu Roy

    2008-01-01

    The promise of cellular therapy lies in the repair of damaged organs and tissues in vivo as well as generating tissue constructs in vitro for subsequent transplantation. Unfortunately, the lack of available donor cell sources limits its ultimate clinical applicability. Stem cells are a natural choice for cell therapy due to their pluripotent nature and self-renewal capacity. Creating reserves of

  18. Cell Stem Cell Wnt Proteins Are Self-Renewal Factors

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    Cell Stem Cell Article Wnt Proteins Are Self-Renewal Factors for Mammary Stem Cells and Promote.03.020 SUMMARY Adult stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to generate specialized cells. Self the organ develops postnatally, arises from stem cells, and is readily generated from transplanted cells. We

  19. Biomaterial Approaches for Stem Cell-Based Myocardial Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Cutts, Josh; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Brafman, David A

    2015-01-01

    Adult and pluripotent stem cells represent a ready supply of cellular raw materials that can be used to generate the functionally mature cells needed to replace damaged or diseased heart tissue. However, the use of stem cells for cardiac regenerative therapies is limited by the low efficiency by which stem cells are differentiated in vitro to cardiac lineages as well as the inability to effectively deliver stem cells and their derivatives to regions of damaged myocardium. In this review, we discuss the various biomaterial-based approaches that are being implemented to direct stem cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. First, we discuss the stem cell types available for cardiac repair and the engineering of naturally and synthetically derived biomaterials to direct their in vitro differentiation to the cell types that comprise heart tissue. Next, we describe biomaterial-based approaches that are being implemented to enhance the in vivo integration and differentiation of stem cells delivered to areas of cardiac damage. Finally, we present emerging trends of using stem cell-based biomaterial approaches to deliver pro-survival factors and fully vascularized tissue to the damaged and diseased cardiac tissue.

  20. Molecular mechanism involved in the maintenance of pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond Ching-Bong; Donovan, Peter J; Pébay, Alice

    2011-01-01

    The idea of growing human cells in vitro to yield a renewable source of cells for transplantation has captured the imagination of scientists for many years. The derivation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) represented a major milestone in achieving this goal. hESC are pluripotent and can proliferate in vitro indefinitely, rendering them an ideal source for cell replacement therapy. Moreover, recent advances in reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) have enabled us to unravel some of the key master regulators of stem cell pluripotency. By integrating recent findings of molecular mechanism involved in maintenance of these different pluripotent stem cell types, we aim to present a global picture of how extracellular signals, intracellular signal transduction pathways and transcriptional networks cooperate together to determine the cell fate of pluripotent stem cells. Unraveling the signaling networks that control stem cell pluripotency will be helpful in deriving novel methods to maintain these pluripotent stem cells in vitro. PMID:23550339

  1. Cell Stem Cell FoxO3 Regulates Neural Stem Cell Homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Brunet, Anne

    recently found to play an important role in NSC self-renewal by negatively regu- lating the cell cycle important implications for counteracting brain aging in long-lived species. INTRODUCTION Neural stem cellsCell Stem Cell Article FoxO3 Regulates Neural Stem Cell Homeostasis Vale´ rie M. Renault,1 Victoria

  2. Adult stem cell-based apexogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yao; Shu, Li-Hong; Yan, Ming; Dai, Wen-Yong; Li, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Dong; Yu, Jin-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Generally, the dental pulp needs to be removed when it is infected, and root canal therapy (RCT) is usually required in which infected dental pulp is replaced with inorganic materials (paste and gutta percha). This treatment approach ultimately brings about a dead tooth. However, pulp vitality is extremely important to the tooth itself, since it provides nutrition and acts as a biosensor to detect the potential pathogenic stimuli. Despite the reported clinical success rate, RCT-treated teeth are destined to be devitalized, brittle and susceptible to postoperative fracture. Recently, the advances and achievements in the field of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have inspired novel biological approaches to apexogenesis in young patients suffering from pulpitis or periapical periodontitis. This review mainly focuses on the benchtop and clinical regeneration of root apex mediated by adult stem cells. Moreover, current strategies for infected pulp therapy are also discussed here. PMID:25332909

  3. Ferreting out stem cells from their niches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Horsley; Elaine Fuchs

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that many tissues have regenerative capabilities. The challenge has been to find the stem cells or progenitors that are responsible for tissue renewal and repair. The revolution in technological advances that permit sophisticated spatial, temporal and kinetic analyses of stem cells has allowed stem cell hunters to ferret out where stem

  4. Endometrial stem cell transplantation in MPTP- exposed primates: an alternative cell source for treatment of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin F; Mutlu, Levent; Massasa, Efi E; Elsworth, John D; Eugene Redmond, D; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Cell-replacement therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to slow down or replace neuronal loss. Compared to other stem cell types, endometrium-derived stem cells (EDSCs) are an attractive source of stem cells for cellular therapies because of their ease of collection and vast differentiation potential. Here we demonstrate that endometrium-derived stem cells may be transplanted into an MPTP exposed monkey model of PD. After injection into the striatum, endometrium-derived stem cells engrafted, exhibited neuron-like morphology, expressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and increased the numbers of TH positive cells on the transplanted side and dopamine metabolite concentrations in vivo. Our results suggest that endometrium-derived stem cells may provide a therapeutic benefit in the primate model of PD and may be used in stem cell based therapies. PMID:25283241

  5. Pluripotent Stem Cells: Sources and Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean P. Palecek

    \\u000a Pluripotent human stem cells, including embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, hold tremendous\\u000a promise as a source of progenitor cells and terminally differentiated cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine\\u000a applications. Pluripotent stem cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and have the ability to differentiate to clinically\\u000a relevant cell types in each of the three germ

  6. Harnessing Pluripotency from Differentiated Cells: A Regenerative Source for Tissue-Specific Stem Cell Therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilham Saleh Abuljadayel

    2006-01-01

    Processes involving conversion of mature adult cells into undifferentiated cells have tremendous therapeutic potential in treating a variety of malignant and non-malignant disorders, including degenerative diseases. This can be achieved in autologous or allogeneic settings, by replacing either defective cells or regenerating those that are in deficit through reprogramming more commited cells into stem cells. The concept behind reprogramming differentiated

  7. Senescent dermal fibroblasts enhance stem cell migration through CCL2/CCR2 axis.

    PubMed

    Ohgo, Shiro; Hasegawa, Seiji; Hasebe, Yuichi; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Akamatsu, Hirohiko

    2015-07-01

    During aging, increases in the number of senescent cells are seen in various tissues. On the other hand, stem cells play crucial roles in tissue repair and homeostasis. Therefore, it is likely that stem cells give rise to new cells that replace senescent cells. However, how stem cells contribute to homeostasis in the dermis has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of factors secreted from senescent fibroblasts on stem cells. We found that senescent human dermal fibroblast (HDF) conditioned medium (CM) significantly enhanced stem cell migration compared with young HDF CM. The senescent HDF CM strongly secreted chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). Furthermore, CCL2 was found to enhance stem cell migration, and the inhibition of CCR2, a receptor for CCL2, reduced stem cell migration. These results suggest that senescent fibroblasts recruit stem cells by secreting various factors and that the CCL2/CCR2 axis is one of the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. PMID:25808810

  8. Generation of a prostate from a single adult stem cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin G. Leong; Bu-Er Wang; Leisa Johnson; Wei-Qiang Gao

    2008-01-01

    The existence of prostate stem cells (PSCs) was first postulated from the observation that normal prostate regeneration can occur after repeated cycles of androgen deprivation and replacement in rodents. Given the critical role of PSCs in maintaining prostate tissue integrity and their potential involvement in prostate tumorigenesis, it is important to define specific markers for normal PSCs. Several cell-surface markers

  9. MICROFLUIDIC CONTROL OF STEM CELL DIFFUSIBLE SIGNALING

    E-print Network

    Voldman, Joel

    MICROFLUIDIC CONTROL OF STEM CELL DIFFUSIBLE SIGNALING Katarina Blagovi, Lily Y. Kim, Alison M cell differentiation. KEYWORDS: Embryonic stem cells, microfluidic perfusion, diffusible signaling; they secrete molecules to which they respond. Microfluidics offers a potential solution to this challenge

  10. Stem cell differentiation: Sticky mechanical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyckmans, Jeroen; Chen, Christopher S.

    2014-06-01

    Physical cues from the extracellular environment influence the lineage commitment of stem cells. Now, experiments on human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on photodegradable hydrogels show that the cells' fate can also be determined by past physical environments.

  11. Control of the Embryonic Stem Cell State

    E-print Network

    Young, Richard A.

    Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine. These cells can be propagated in culture in an undifferentiated state but can be induced to differentiate into specialized ...

  12. Neural stem and progenitor cells in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Ladran, Ian; Tran, Ngoc; Topol, Aaron; Brennand, Kristen J.

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) have the potential to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and/or oligodendrocytes. Because these cells can be expanded in culture, they represent a vast source of neural cells. With the recent discovery that patient fibroblasts can be reprogrammed directly into induced NSPCs, the regulation of NSPC fate and function, in the context of cell-based disease models and patient-specific cell-replacement therapies, warrants review. PMID:24068527

  13. Neural stem and progenitor cells in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Ladran, Ian; Tran, Ngoc; Topol, Aaron; Brennand, Kristen J

    2013-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) have the potential to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and/or oligodendrocytes. Because these cells can be expanded in culture, they represent a vast source of neural cells. With the recent discovery that patient fibroblasts can be reprogrammed directly into induced NSPCs, the regulation of NSPC fate and function, in the context of cell-based disease models and patient-specific cell-replacement therapies, warrants review. PMID:24068527

  14. Tumour stem cells and drug resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tito Fojo; Susan Bates; Michael Dean

    2005-01-01

    The contribution of tumorigenic stem cells to haematopoietic cancers has been established for some time, and cells possessing stem-cell properties have been described in several solid tumours. Although chemotherapy kills most cells in a tumour, it is believed to leave tumour stem cells behind, which might be an important mechanism of resistance. For example, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters

  15. Self-Renewal of Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vorotelyak, Ye.A.; Vasiliev, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric division is one of the most fundamental characteristics of adult stem cells , which ensures one daughter cell maintains stem cell status and the other daughter cell becomes committed to differentiation. New data emerged recently that allow us to conclude that asymmetric division has another important aspect: it enables self-maintenance of stem cells. PMID:22649603

  16. Adult Stem Cell Plasticity Revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Mezey

    \\u000a Cell biologists have long realized that most cells do not live as long as the organisms they comprise; thus, cells in almost\\u000a every tissue need to be renewed\\/replaced during the natural lifespan of the organism. Depending on the turnover rate of cells\\u000a in any given organ, this process can be very frequent or very rare. Epithelial cells in the mouth

  17. Cancer stem cells and cancer therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Soltanian; Maryam M. Matin

    2011-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumour cells that possess the stem cell properties of self-renewal and differentiation.\\u000a Stem cells might be the target cells responsible for malignant transformation, and tumour formation may be a disorder of stem\\u000a cell self-renewal pathway. Epigenetic alterations and mutations of genes involved in signal transmissions may promote the\\u000a formation of CSCs. These

  18. Improved Embryonic Stem Cell Technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Draper; A. Nagy

    Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells have become an indispensable tool for investigating genetic function both in vitro and, importantly, in vivo. Recent advances, including tetraploid aggregation, new site-specific recombinases and RNAi, have enabled more sophisticated manipulation of the ES cell genome. For instance, it is now possible to control gene expression in both a temporally and spatially restricted manner. Such

  19. In Appreciation of Stem Cell Research Doners..............................................................1 Glossary ..........................................................................................................................4

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Ehud

    #12;#12;In Appreciation of Stem Cell Research Doners ..........................................................................................................................4 Stem Cell Research at the Weizmann Institute of Science......................................................9 Germ-Line Stem Cell Differentiation

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Sensebé, L; Krampera, M; Schrezenmeier, H; Bourin, P; Giordano, R

    2010-02-01

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells/Multipotent Marrow Stromal Cells (MSC) are multipotent adult stem cells present in all tissues, as part of the perivascular population. As multipotent cells, MSCs can differentiate into different tissues originating from mesoderm ranging from bone and cartilage, to cardiac muscle. Conflicting data show that MSCs could be pluripotent and able to differentiate into tissues and cells of non-mesodermic origin as neurons or epithelial cells. Moreover, MSCs exhibit non-HLA restricted immunosuppressive properties. This wide range of properties leads to increasing uses of MSC for immunomodulation or tissue repair. Based on their immunosuppressive properties MSC are used particularly in the treatment of graft versus host disease, For tissue repair, MSCs can work by different ways from cell replacement to paracrine effects through the release of cytokines and to regulation of immune/inflammatory responses. In regenerative medicine, trials are in progress or planed for healing/repair of different tissue or organs as bone, cartilage, vessels, myocardium, or epithelia. Although it has been demonstrated that ex-vivo expansion processes using fetal bovine serum, recombinant growth factors (e.g. FGF2) or platelet lysate are feasible, definitive standards to produce clinical-grade MSC are still lacking. MSCs have to be produced according GMP and regulation constraints. For answering to the numerous challenges in this fast developing field of biology and medicine, integrative networks linking together research teams, cell therapy laboratories and clinical teams are needed. PMID:19663934

  1. Stem Cells: It's Good To Have Choices

    PubMed Central

    Bellayr, Ian H.; Li, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Three types of stem cells, embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, are currently studied by scientists. Barack Obama's presidency has opened the door for stem cell research by revoking statements and orders made during the former President Bush's administration. This provisional period will allow the National Institute of Health to rewrite policies governing how federal funds are distributed for stem cell research. These new regulations will grant more freedom to researchers wishing to use stem cells in their research and challenge them to determine the most appropriate stem cell treatment for a given disorder. PMID:20161527

  2. Cell reprogramming for the creation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells by defined factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiqun Yin; Heng Wang; Hongguo Cao; Yunhai Zhang; Yong Tao; Xiaorong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), characterized by being able to differentiate into various types of cells, are generally regarded\\u000a as the most promising sources for cell replacement therapies. However, as typical PSCs, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are still\\u000a far away from human clinics so far due to ethical issues and immune rejection response. One way to avoid such problems is\\u000a to

  3. Mammary Stem Cells and Breast Cancer—Role of Notch Signalling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian Farnie; Robert B. Clarke

    2007-01-01

    Adult stem cells are found in numerous tissues of the body and play a role in tissue development, replacement and repair.\\u000a Evidence shows that breast stem cells are multipotent and can self renew, which are key characteristics of stem cells, and\\u000a a single cell enriched with cell surface markers has the ability to grow a fully functional mammary gland in

  4. Specification of neuronal and glial subtypes from human pluripotent stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huisheng Liu; Su-Chun Zhang

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), provide\\u000a a dynamic tool for revealing early embryonic development, modeling pathological processes, and developing therapeutics through\\u000a drug discovery and potential cell replacement. The first step toward the utilities of human PSCs is directed differentiation\\u000a to functionally specialized cell\\/tissue types. Following developmental principles, human ESCs,

  5. Multipotent somatic stem cells contribute to the stem cell niche in the Drosophila testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Voog; Cecilia D'Alterio; D. Leanne Jones

    2008-01-01

    Adult stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments, or niches, that have an important role in regulating stem cell behaviour. Therefore, tight control of niche number, size and function is necessary to ensure the proper balance between stem cells and progenitor cells available for tissue homeostasis and wound repair. The stem cell niche in the Drosophila male gonad is located at

  6. Stem Cell Reports CRIPTO/GRP78 Signaling Maintains Fetal and Adult Mammary Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Wahl, Geoffrey M.

    Stem Cell Reports Report CRIPTO/GRP78 Signaling Maintains Fetal and Adult Mammary Stem Cells Ex://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). SUMMARY Little is known about the extracellular signaling factors that govern mammary stem cell behavior. Here, we identify CRIPTO and its cell- surface receptor GRP78 as regulators of stem cell

  7. Stem cell aging in the Drosophila ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris Waskar; Yishi Li; John Tower

    2005-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that with time human stem cells may become defective or depleted, thereby contributing to aging\\u000a and aging-related diseases. Drosophila provides a convenient model system in which to study stem cell aging. The adult Drosophila ovary contains two types of stem cells: the germ-line stem cells give rise to the oocyte and its supporting nurse cells,\\u000a while the

  8. Tracking of Stem Cells In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingli Fu; Dara L. Kraitchman

    \\u000a Clinical and basic studies of stem-cell-based therapies have shown promising results for cardiovascular diseases. Despite\\u000a a rapid transition from animal studies to clinical trials, the mechanisms of action by which stem cells improve heart function\\u000a remain largely unknown. To optimize stem cell therapies in patients, a method to noninvasively monitor stem cell delivery\\u000a and to evaluate cell survival, biodistribution, and

  9. Stem Cells in the Infarcted Heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dinender K. Singla

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is currently generating a significant interest for use in the future treatment of cardiovascular\\u000a diseases. Stem cell populations are rapidly increasing, and we are still in the search of optimal cell types to use in clinical\\u000a trials as bone marrow stem cells did not show significant improvement in cardiac function following transplantation. Experimental\\u000a stem cell studies raised

  10. --Taking STem Cell SCienCe from

    E-print Network

    Bieber, Michael

    -- Taking STem Cell SCienCe from Theory To TherapieS While The healing poTenTial of STem Cell one. produCed by our bodieS in an undifferenTiaTed STaTe, STem CellS evenTually SpeCialize Through na be tempered with a realistic as- sessment of where the development of stem cell therapies now stands. Most

  11. Adult Stem Cells: Sources and Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Okochi

    \\u000a Basic and clinical research on adult stem cells is progressing rapidly. New technology that can generate iPS (induced pluripotent\\u000a stem cells) cells from various types of tissue may completely change the stem cell world and regenerative medicine. In terms\\u000a of clinical applications, both bone marrow and skin are very attractive sources of adult stem cells because they are highly\\u000a accessible

  12. Controls of Germline Stem Cells, Entry into

    E-print Network

    Kimble, Judith

    reserved 1081-0706/07/1110-0405$20.00 Key Words stem cell niche, mitosis/meiosis decision, Notch signaling stem cell main- tenance, the cell cycle transition from mitosis to meiosis, and the choice of sexual. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 REGULATORS OF GERMLINE STEM CELL MAINTENANCE AND THE MITOSIS/MEIOSIS DECISION

  13. The hematopoietic stem cell in its place

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor B Adams; David T Scadden

    2006-01-01

    A signature characteristic of stem cells is their ability to self-renew, affording a theoretically limitless ability to produce daughter cells and their descendents. This near-timeless dimension of stem cell function is not free of the constraints of place. The idea that highly specialized 'microenvironmental' cues participate in the regulation of stem cells has evidence in classic embryology and more recently

  14. Generalized Potential of Adult Neural Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana L. Clarke; Clas B. Johansson; Johannes Wilbertz; Biborka Veress; Erik Nilsson; Helena Karlström; Urban Lendahl; Jonas Frisén

    2000-01-01

    The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation

  15. Extinction models for cancer stem cell therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Sehl; Hua Zhou; Janet S. Sinsheimer; Kenneth L. Lange

    Cells with stem cell-like properties are now viewed as initiating and sustaining many cancers. This suggests that cancer can be cured by driving these cancer stem cells to extinction. The problem with this strategy is that ordinary stem cells are apt to be killed in the process. This paper sets bounds on the killing differential (difference between death rates of

  16. *Institute for Stem Cell Research, GSF --National

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    *Institute for Stem Cell Research, GSF -- National Research Center for Environment and Health neural stem cells. THE CELL BIOLOGY OF NEUROGENESIS Magdalena Götz* and Wieland B. Huttner Abstract | During the development of the mammalian central nervous system, neural stem cells and their derivative

  17. Stem Cell Therapy: A New Treatment for Burns?

    PubMed Central

    Arno, Anna; Smith, Alexandra H.; Blit, Patrick H.; Shehab, Mohammed Al; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising new approach in almost every medicine specialty. This vast, heterogeneous family of cells are now both naturally (embryonic and adult stem cells) or artificially obtained (induced pluripotent stem cells or iPSCs) and their fates have become increasingly controllable, thanks to ongoing research in this passionate new field. We are at the beginning of a new era in medicine, with multiple applications for stem cell therapy, not only as a monotherapy, but also as an adjunct to other strategies, such as organ transplantation or standard drug treatment. Regrettably, serious preclinical concerns remain and differentiation, cell fusion, senescence and signalling crosstalk with growth factors and biomaterials are still challenges for this promising multidisciplinary therapeutic modality. Severe burns have several indications for stem cell therapy, including enhancement of wound healing, replacement of damaged skin and perfect skin regeneration – incorporating skin appendages and reduced fibrosis –, as well as systemic effects, such as inflammation, hypermetabolism and immunosuppression. The aim of this review is to describe well established characteristics of stem cells and to delineate new advances in the stem cell field, in the context of burn injury and wound healing.

  18. Neural tissue engineering using embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the recent start of the first clinical trial evaluating a human embryonic stem cell-derived therapy for the treatment of acute spinal cord injury, it is important to review the current literature examining the use of embryonic stem cells for neural tissue engineering applications with a focus on diseases and disorders that affect the central nervous system. Embryonic stem cells exhibit pluripotency and thus can differentiate into any cell type found in the body, including those found in the nervous system. A range of studies have investigated how to direct the differentiation of embryonic cells into specific neural phenotypes using a variety of cues to achieve the goal of replacing diseased or damaged neural tissue. Additionally, the recent development of induced pluripotent stem cells provides an intriguing alternative to the use of human embryonic stem cell lines for these applications. This review will discuss relevant studies that have used embryonic stem cells to replicate the tissue found in the central nervous system as well as evaluate the potential of induced pluripotent stem cells for the aforementioned applications. PMID:21539726

  19. Do we Still Need Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Stem Cell-Based Therapies? Epistemic and Ethical Aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina Hug; Göran Hermerén

    While scientific community disagrees about similarities and differences between human embryonic stem (hES) cells and human\\u000a induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells, some politicians embrace translational hiPS cell research as a replacement for translational\\u000a hES cell research. We examine the ethical relevance of the main differences between hES and hiPS cell-based therapies and\\u000a discuss whether, given the current state of knowledge,

  20. Modulation of Stem Cell Differentiation with Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyeon-Ki; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Differentiation of stem cells can be controlled with interactions with microenvironments of the stem cells. The interactions contain various signals including soluble growth factor signal, cell adhesion signal, and mechanical signal, which can modulate differentiation of stem cells. Biomaterials can provide these types of signals to induce desirable cellular differentiation. Biomaterials can deliver soluble growth factors locally to stem cells at a controlled rate for a long period. Stem cell adhesion to specific adhesion molecules presented by biomaterials can induce specific differentiation. Mechanical signals can be delivered to stem cells seeded onto biomaterial scaffolds. These approaches would be invaluable for direction of stem cell differentiation and in vivo tissue regeneration using stem cells. PMID:24855545

  1. Getting the right stuff: Controlling neural stem cell state and fate in vivo and in vitro with biomaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana I Teixeira; Joshua K Duckworth; Ola Hermanson

    2007-01-01

    Stem cell therapy holds great promises in medical treatment by, e.g., replacing lost cells, re-constitute healthy cell populations and also in the use of stem cells as vehicles for factor and gene delivery. Embryonic stem cells have rightfully attracted a large interest due to their proven capacity of differentiating into any cell type in the embryo in vivo. Tissue-specific stem

  2. Autologous stem cell transplantation and multiple myeloma cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Matsui, William; Borrello, Ivan; Mitsiades, Constantine

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that high-dose therapy (HDT) combined with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) produces superior response rates and progression-free survival compared with conventional chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Accordingly, MM currently represents the most common indication for ASCT. Despite these clinical improvements, the impact of ASCT on overall survival is unclear because the vast majority of patients eventually experience disease relapse and progression. The continual risk of relapse suggests that malignant cells resistant to HDT possess the clonogenic growth potential to mediate tumor regrowth, and in several diseases cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified that are both highly tumorigenic and resistant to standard anticancer approaches. Putative CSCs have been identified in MM, and their characterization may lead to the development of novel maintenance strategies that inhibit the production of new tumor cells, prevent disease relapse, and improve overall survival. PMID:22226109

  3. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Signals Regulate Neural Stem Cell Fate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lianhua Bai; Arnold Caplan; Donald Lennon; Robert H. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes depending on their location within the\\u000a central nervous system (CNS). The cellular and molecular cues mediating end-stage cell fate choices are not completely understood.\\u000a The retention of multipotent NSCs in the adult CNS raises the possibility that selective recruitment of their progeny to specific\\u000a lineages may facilitate repair in a

  4. Stem Cell Properties of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gronthos; J. Brahim; W. Li; L. W. Fisher; N. Cherman; A. Boyde; P. DenBesten; P. Gehron Robey; S. Shi

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the self-renewal capability, multi-lineage differentiation capacity, and clonogenic efficiency of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). DPSCs were capable of forming ectopic dentin and associated pulp tissue in vivo. Stromal-like cells were reestablished in culture from primary DPSC transplants and re-transplanted into immunocompromised mice to generate a dentin-pulp-like tissue, demonstrating their self-renewal capability. DPSCs were

  5. Cell replacement and visual restoration by retinal sheet transplants

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Magdalene J.; Aramant, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) affect millions of people. Replacing lost cells with new cells that connect with the still functional part of the host retina might repair a degenerating retina and restore eyesight to an unknown extent. A unique model, subretinal transplantation of freshly dissected sheets of fetal-derived retinal progenitor cells, combined with its retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), has demonstrated successful results in both animals and humans. Most other approaches are restricted to rescue endogenous retinal cells of the recipient in earlier disease stages by a ‘nursing’ role of the implanted cells and are not aimed at neural retinal cell replacement. Sheet transplants restore lost visual responses in several retinal degeneration models in the superior colliculus (SC) corresponding to the location of the transplant in the retina. They do not simply preserve visual performance – they increase visual responsiveness to light. Restoration of visual responses in the SC can be directly traced to neural cells in the transplant, demonstrating that synaptic connections between transplant and host contribute to the visual improvement. Transplant processes invade the inner plexiform layer of the host retina and form synapses with presumable host cells. In a Phase II trial of RP and ARMD patients, transplants of retina together with its RPE improved visual acuity. In summary, retinal progenitor sheet transplantation provides an excellent model to answer questions about how to repair and restore function of a degenerating retina. Supply of fetal donor tissue will always be limited but the model can set a standard and provide an informative base for optimal cell replacement therapies such as embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived therapy. PMID:22771454

  6. Retinal Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ani V. Das; Jackson James; Sreekumaran Edakkot; Iqbal Ahmad

    The vertebrate retina is a well-characterized central nervous system (CNS) structure, consisting of seven major cell types,\\u000a which in adult are arranged in a stereotypical laminar organization. These cell types are born in an evolutionarily conserved\\u000a temporal sequence: the majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), horizontal cells, amacrine cells, and cone photoreceptors\\u000a are born during early histogenesis, whereas the majority

  7. Cell Stem Cell Prediction and Testing of Novel Transcriptional

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell Stem Cell Article Prediction and Testing of Novel Transcriptional Networks Regulating Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Commitment Emily Walker,1 Minako Ohishi,1 Ryan E. Davey,1 Wen Zhang,2.stanford@utoronto.ca DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2007.04.002 SUMMARY Stem cell fate is governed by the integration of intrinsic

  8. Cell Stem Cell An Expanded Oct4 Interaction Network: Implications

    E-print Network

    Babu, M. Madan

    Cell Stem Cell Resource An Expanded Oct4 Interaction Network: Implications for Stem Cell Biology.ac.uk (M.P.), jc4@sanger.ac.uk (J.C.) DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.03.004 SUMMARY The transcription factor Oct4 is key in embryonic stem cell identity and reprogramming. Insight into its part- ners should illuminate

  9. Cell Stem Cell Stage-Specific Differences in the

    E-print Network

    Hay, Bruce A.

    Cell Stem Cell Article Stage-Specific Differences in the Requirements for Germline Stem CellDepartment of Biochemistry, Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Washington Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158-0725, USA *Correspondence: hannele@u.washington.edu DOI 10.1016/j.stem

  10. Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Their Niche

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Iwasaki; Toshio Suda

    \\u000a The stem cells’ major capabilities (i.e., the pluripotency and the self-renewal) are the keys to sustain the lifelong functionality\\u000a of the organ. Stem cells reside in the special microenvironment called niche. The niche and stem cells adhere to each other\\u000a via adhesion molecules and exchange the molecular signals that maintain the stem cell features. It has been suggested that\\u000a tumor

  11. The Niche Regulation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Iwasaki; Toshio Suda

    \\u000a Stem cells’ major capabilities, that is, pluripotency and self-renewal, are key to sustaining the lifelong functionality of\\u000a organs. Stem cells reside in the special microenvironment called the niche. The niche and stem cells adhere to each other\\u000a via adhesion molecules and exchange the molecular signals that maintain stem cell features. It has been suggested that tumor\\u000a tissue also contains such

  12. Stem cells and tooth tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda H.-H. Yen; Paul T. Sharpe

    2008-01-01

    The notion that teeth contain stem cells is based on the well-known repairing ability of dentin after injury. Dental stem\\u000a cells have been isolated according to their anatomical locations, colony-forming ability, expression of stem cell markers,\\u000a and regeneration of pulp\\/dentin structures in vivo. These dental-derived stem cells are currently under increasing investigation\\u000a as sources for tooth regeneration and repair. Further

  13. Notch signalling in cancer stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Bolós; Moisés Blanco; Vanessa Medina; Guadalupe Aparicio; Silvia Díaz-Prado; Enrique Grande

    2009-01-01

    A new theory about the development of solid tumours is emerging from the idea that solid tumours, like normal adult tissues,\\u000a contain stem cells (called cancer stem cells) and arise from them. Genetic mutations encoding for proteins involved in critical\\u000a signalling pathways for stem cells such as BMP, Notch, Hedgehog and Wnt would allow stem cells to undergo uncontrolled proliferation

  14. Stem Cell Research Policies around the World

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Deepali; Hsi-en Ho, John

    2009-01-01

    The proliferation of stem cell research, conflated with its ethical and moral implications, has led governments to attempt regulation of both the science and funding of stem cells. Due to a diversity of opinions and cultural viewpoints, no single policy or set of rules exist to govern stem cell research. Instead, each country has developed its own policy. The following map catalogs the general legal and political milleu regarding stem cell research by country. PMID:19774124

  15. Epidermal Stem Cells and Their Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qi; Jin, Hongchuan; Wang, Xian

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells play an essential role in embryonic development, cell differentiation and tissue regeneration. Tissue homeostasis in adults is maintained by adult stem cells resident in the niches of different tissues. As one kind of adult stem cell, epidermal stem cells have the potential to generate diversified types of progeny cells in the skin. Although its biology is still largely unclarified, epidermal stem cells are widely used in stem cell research and regenerative medicine given its easy accessibility and pluripotency. Despite the same genome, cells within an organism have different fates due to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In this review, we will briefly discuss the current understanding of epigenetic modulation in epidermal stem cells. PMID:23999591

  16. College Students’ Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Concannon; Marcelle A. Siegel; Kristy Halverson; Sharyn Freyermuth

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors’ conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before and after instruction. Two goals of the

  17. Stem Cell Rev . Author manuscript Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: a systematic reappraisal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stem Cell Rev . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: a systematic (acronym for Adult mesenchymal stem cells engineering for connective tissue disorders. From the bench Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) biological properties and repair capacity. Part of Genostem activity has been

  18. Stem Cell Reports Quality Metrics for Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes

    E-print Network

    Stem Cell Reports Article Quality Metrics for Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes Sean P. Sheehy,1, provided the original author and source are credited. SUMMARY Advances in stem cell manufacturing methods have made it possible to produce stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes at industrial scales for in vitro

  19. Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Cardiac Repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei-Zhong; Hauch, Kip; Xu, Chunhui; Laflamme, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The muscle lost after a myocardial infarction is replaced with non-contractile scar tissue, often initiating heart failure. Whole-organ cardiac transplantation is the only currently available clinical means of replacing the lost muscle, but this option is limited by the inadequate supply of donor hearts. Thus, cell-based cardiac repair has attracted considerable interest as an alternative means of ameliorating cardiac injury. Because of their tremendous capacity for expansion and unquestioned cardiac potential, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an attractive candidate cell source for obtaining cardiomyocytes and other useful mesenchymal cell types for such therapies. hESC-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) exhibit a committed cardiac phenotype and robust proliferative capacity, and recent testing in rodent infarct models indicates that they can partially remuscularize injured hearts and improve contractile function. Although the latter successes give good reason for optimism, considerable challenges remain to the successful application of hESCs to cardiac repair, including the need for preparations of high cardiac purity, improved methods of delivery, and approaches to overcome immune rejection and other causes of graft cell death. This review will describe the phenotype of hESC-CMs and preclinical experience with these cells and will consider strategies to overcoming the aforementioned challenges. PMID:18657407

  20. Miscreant myeloproliferative disorder stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C H M Jamieson; C F Barroga; W P Vainchenker; CHM Jamieson

    2008-01-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), typified by robust marrow and extramedullary hematopoiesis, have a propensity to progress to acute leukemia. Although the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) origin of MPDs was suggested over 30 years ago, only recently the HSC-specific effects of MPD molecular mutations have been investigated. The pivotal role of BCR-ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) development provided the rationale for

  1. Stem Cells for Liver Repopulation

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Yagi, Hiroshi; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The capacity of the liver to regenerate and maintain a constant size despite injury is unique. However, the exact mechanisms are not completely clear. Cell transplantation has been proposed as an alternative treatment of liver diseases. Recent progress has been reported on the generation of stem/progenitor cells that may differentiate towards the hepatic lineage. However, it is currently difficult to determine which of the stem/progenitor cell populations are the best for therapy of a given disease. Recent findings The limited access to donor human hepatocytes has opened a great interest on the generation of hepatocyte-like cells. Several potential cell sources have been identified. However, general standardization of the methods to evaluate these cells is particularly important for the promise of stem/progenitor-derived hepatocyte-based therapies. Moreover, innovations aimed at improving hepatocyte delivery, survival and engraftment have recently opened the field of organ engineering that may improve the perspective of liver repopulation. Summary Here we review current evidence reported from the perspective of potential clinical applications of different hepatic cell sources with repopulation capacities and the future perspectives and tools that can facilitate the translation of laboratory work into clinical success. PMID:19779345

  2. Cell competition promotes phenotypically silent cardiomyocyte replacement in the mammalian heart.

    PubMed

    Villa del Campo, Cristina; Clavería, Cristina; Sierra, Rocío; Torres, Miguel

    2014-09-25

    Heterogeneous anabolic capacity in cell populations can trigger a phenomenon known as cell competition, through which less active cells are eliminated. Cell competition has been induced experimentally in stem/precursor cell populations in insects and mammals and takes place endogenously in early mouse embryonic cells. Here, we show that cell competition can be efficiently induced in mouse cardiomyocytes by mosaic overexpression of Myc during both gestation and adult life. The expansion of the Myc-overexpressing cardiomyocyte population is driven by the elimination of wild-type cardiomyocytes. Importantly, this cardiomyocyte replacement is phenotypically silent and does not affect heart anatomy or function. These results show that the capacity for cell competition in mammals is not restricted to stem cell populations and suggest that stimulated cell competition has potential as a cardiomyocyte-replacement strategy. PMID:25199831

  3. Determination of Somatic and Cancer Stem Cell Self-Renewing Symmetric Division Rate Using Sphere Assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loic P. Deleyrolle; Geoffery Ericksson; Brian J. Morrison; J. Alejandro Lopez; Kevin Burrage; Pamela Burrage; Angelo Vescovi; Rodney L. Rietze; Brent A. Reynolds; Mike O. Karl

    2011-01-01

    Representing a renewable source for cell replacement, neural stem cells have received substantial attention in recent years. The neurosphere assay represents a method to detect the presence of neural stem cells, however owing to a deficiency of specific and definitive markers to identify them, their quantification and the rate they expand is still indefinite. Here we propose a mathematical interpretation

  4. Recent Progress on Tissue-Resident Adult Stem Cell Biology and Their Therapeutic Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murielle Mimeault; Surinder K. Batra

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in the field of the stem cell research has given new hopes to treat and even cure diverse degenerative disorders\\u000a and incurable diseases in human. Particularly, the identification of a rare population of adult stem cells in the most tissues\\/organs\\u000a in human has emerged as an attractive source of multipotent stem\\/progenitor cells for cell replacement-based therapies and\\u000a tissue

  5. Spermatogonial stem cells: questions, models and perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Ehmcke; Joachim Wistuba; Stefan Schlatt

    2006-01-01

    This review looks into the phylogeny of spermatogonial stem cells and describes their basic biological features. We are focusing on species-specific differences of spermatogonial stem cell physiology. We propose revised models for the clonal expansion of spermatogonia and for the potential existence of true stem cells and progenitors in primates but not in rodents. We create a new model for

  6. A niche opportunity for stem cell therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G B Adams; D T Scadden

    2008-01-01

    The success of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-based therapies relies on the ability of the stem cells to both engraft and self-renew sufficiently in the bone marrow microenvironment. Previous studies identified that a number of components of bone contribute to the regulation of HSCs indicating that they participate in a stem cell ‘niche’. This niche is a dynamic microenvironment that changes

  7. Metabolic oxidation regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Yanes; Julie Clark; Diana M Wong; Gary J Patti; Antonio Sánchez-Ruiz; H Paul Benton; Sunia A Trauger; Caroline Desponts; Sheng Ding; Gary Siuzdak

    2010-01-01

    Metabolites offer an important unexplored complementary approach to understanding the pluripotency of stem cells. Using MS-based metabolomics, we show that embryonic stem cells are characterized by abundant metabolites with highly unsaturated structures whose levels decrease upon differentiation. By monitoring the reduced and oxidized glutathione ratio as well as ascorbic acid levels, we demonstrate that the stem cell redox status is

  8. How Embryonic Stem Cell Lines are Made

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Use of embryonic stem cells in research has been hotly debated for several years. This animation presents the basics on how stem cell lines are established. This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents how embryonic stem cell lines are made through a series of illustrations of the processes involved.

  9. Spontaneous Human Adult Stem Cell Transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Rubio; Javier Garcia-Castro; Maria C. Martin; Juan C. Cigudosa; Alison C. Lloyd; Antonio Bernad

    2005-01-01

    Human adult stem cells are being evaluated widely for various therapeutic approaches. Several recent clinical trials have reported their safety, showing them to be highly resistant to transformation. The clear similarities between stem cell and cancerstemcellgeneticprogramsarenonethelessthebasisofa recent proposal that some cancer stem cells could derive from humanadultstemcells.Hereweshowthatalthoughtheycanbe managed safely during the standard ex vivo expansion period (6-8 weeks), human mesenchymal

  10. Signaling pathways governing stem-cell fate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrika Blank; Goran Karlsson; Stefan Karlsson

    2008-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are his- torically the most thoroughly character- ized type of adult stem cell, and the hematopoietic system has served as a principal model structure of stem-cell bi- ology for several decades. However, para- doxically, although HSCs can be defined by function and even purified to near- homogeneity, the intricate molecular ma- chinery and the signaling mechanisms

  11. Epithelial stem cells, wound healing and cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther N. Arwert; Esther Hoste; Fiona M. Watt

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that tissue repair depends on stem cells and that chronic wounds predispose to tumour formation. However, the association between stem cells, wound healing and cancer is poorly understood. Lineage tracing has now shown how stem cells are mobilized to repair skin wounds and how they contribute to skin tumour development. The signalling pathways, including WNT and

  12. Stem and Progenitor Cells in the Retina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilanjana Sengupta; Sergio Caballero; Nicanor Moldovan; Maria B. Grant

    2010-01-01

    Regardless of the debate regarding moral issues of using stem cells in research, they are unequivocally useful for understanding pathological angiogenesis, particularly so in the retina. Some important stem cell concepts include a niche, as well as the ideas of self-renewal and plasticity. Self-renewal is the maintenance of a stem cell population, through production of both undifferentiated and further differentiated

  13. Epigenetic regulation of aging stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E A Pollina; A Brunet

    2011-01-01

    The function of adult tissue-specific stem cells declines with age, which may contribute to the physiological decline in tissue homeostasis and the increased risk of neoplasm during aging. Old stem cells can be ‘rejuvenated’ by environmental stimuli in some cases, raising the possibility that a subset of age-dependent stem cell changes is regulated by reversible mechanisms. Epigenetic regulators are good

  14. Stem Cell Research in Pakistan; Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Sayeda Anum; Muzavir, Sayed Raheel; Ashraf, Sadia; Ahmad, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Stem cells have proved to have great therapeutic potential as stem cell treatment is replacing traditional ways of treatment in different disorders like cancer, aplastic anemia, stroke, heart disorders. The developed and developing countries are investing differently in this area of research so research output and clinical translation of research greatly vary among developed and developing countries. Present study was done to investigate the current status of stem cells research in Pakistan and ways to improve it. Results Many advanced countries (USA, UK and Canada etc.) are investing heavily in stem cell research and treatment. Different developing countries like Iran, Turkey and India are also following the developed countries and investing a lot in stem cells research. Pakistan is also making efforts in establishing this field to get desired benefits but unfortunately the progress is at very low pace. If Government plays an active role along with private sector, stem cell research in Pakistan can be boosted up. The numbers of publications from Pakistan are very less compared to developed and neighboring countries and Pakistan also has very less number of institutes working in this area of research. Conclusions Stem cells research is at its initial stages in Pakistan and there is great need to bring Government, academia and industry together so they could make serious efforts to promote research in this very important field. This will help millions of patients suffering from incurable disorders and will also reduce economic loss. PMID:26019749

  15. Methods for Stem Cell Production and Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo (Inventor); Valluri, Jagan V. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for rapidly expanding a stem cell population with or without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention relates to methods for rapidly increasing the life span of stem cell populations without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention also relates to methods for increasing the sensitivity of cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions and in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The methods of the present invention can also be used to proliferate cancer cells by culturing them in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The present invention also relates to methods for testing the sensitivity of cancer cells and cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer cells and cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce tissue for use in transplantation by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors to promote differentiation of cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions.

  16. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Emery; Tamon Nishino; Ken Murata; Michalis Fragkos; George Stamatoyannopoulos

    2002-01-01

    Gene therapy applications that target hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) offer great potential for the treatment of hematologic\\u000a disease. Despite this promise, clinical success has been limited by poor rates of gene transfer, poor engraftment of modified\\u000a cells, and poor levels of gene expression. We describe here the basic approach used for HSC gene therapy, briefly review some\\u000a of the seminal

  17. Hormonal control of stem cell systems.

    PubMed

    Gancz, Dana; Gilboa, Lilach

    2013-01-01

    Many organs respond to physiological challenges by changing tissue size or composition. Such changes may originate from tissue-specific stem cells and their supportive environment (niche). The endocrine system is a major effector and conveyor of physiological changes and as such could alter stem cell behavior in various ways. In this review, we examine how hormones affect stem cell biology in four different organs: the ovary, intestine, hematopoietic system, and mammary gland. Hormones control every stage of stem cell life, including establishment, expansion, maintenance, and differentiation. The effects can be cell autonomous or non-cell autonomous through the niche. Moreover, a single hormone can affect different stem cells in different ways or affect the same stem cell differently at various developmental times. The vast complexity and diversity of stem cell responses to hormonal cues allow hormones to coordinate the body's reaction to physiological challenges. PMID:23875645

  18. Muscle stem cells at a glance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu Xin; Dumont, Nicolas A.; Rudnicki, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Muscle stem cells facilitate the long-term regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. This self-renewing population of satellite cells has only recently been defined through genetic and transplantation experiments. Although muscle stem cells remain in a dormant quiescent state in uninjured muscle, they are poised to activate and produce committed progeny. Unlike committed myogenic progenitor cells, the self-renewal capacity gives muscle stem cells the ability to engraft as satellite cells and capitulate long-term regeneration. Similar to other adult stem cells, understanding the molecular regulation of muscle stem cells has significant implications towards the development of pharmacological or cell-based therapies for muscle disorders. This Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster will review satellite cell characteristics and therapeutic potential, and provide an overview of the muscle stem cell hallmarks: quiescence, self-renewal and commitment. PMID:25300792

  19. Complexity of cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Eiji; Saya, Hideyuki

    2013-03-15

    Heterogeneity of tumor tissue has been accounted for in recent years by a hierarchy-based model in which cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the ability both to self-renew and to give rise to differentiated tumor cells and are responsible for the overall organization of a tumor. Research into CSCs has progressed rapidly and concomitantly with recent advances in the biology of normal tissue stem cells, resulting in the identification of CSCs in a wide range of human tumors. Studies of mouse models of human cancer have provided further insight into the characteristics of CSCs as well as a basis for the development of novel therapies targeted to these cells. However, recent studies have revealed complexities, such as plasticity of stem cell properties and clonal diversity of CSCs, in certain tumor types that have led to revision of the original CSC model. In this review, we summarize the history of the discovery and characterization of CSCs, as well as address recent advances that have revealed the complexity of these cells and their therapeutic implications. PMID:23180591

  20. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Liposuction Technique on Adipose-derived Stem Cell Viability and Abundance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P Murphy

    2012-01-01

    The potential of stem cells to replace damaged or malfunctioning tissues has been studied for some time. Recent studies using adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have shown promise for adult stem cells as a rich, clinically relevant population. Our lab has previously determined that the quantity and quality of ADSCs varies depending on patient age and sex, anatomical location of

  1. From Stem Cells to Oligodendrocytes: Prospects for Brain Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cui P. Chen; Mary E. Kiel; Dorota Sadowski; Randall D. McKinnon

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that destroys myelin-forming oligodendrocytes of the CNS. While the damage can\\u000a be partially controlled using anti-inflammatory cytokines and steroids, endogenous repair is insufficient to replace lost\\u000a cells. Until now cell replenishment (transplant therapy) has been viewed as unlikely to succeed due to allograft rejection\\u000a in this sensitized immune environment. However, advances in stem cell

  2. Generation of Trophoblast Stem Cells from Rabbit Embryonic Stem Cells with BMP4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Tan; Xianghui Tang; Jing Zhang; Yuyu Niu; Hongwei Chen; Bin Li; Qiang Wei; Weizhi Ji; Anton Wutz

    2011-01-01

    Trophoblast stem (TS) cells are ideal models to investigate trophectoderm differentiation and placental development. Herein, we describe the derivation of rabbit trophoblast stem cells from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Rabbit ES cells generated in our laboratory were induced to differentiate in the presence of BMP4 and TS-like cell colonies were isolated and expanded. These cells expressed the molecular markers of

  3. Endometrial stem cells in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Verdi, Javad; Tan, Aaron; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    First described in 2004, endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) are adult stem cells isolated from the endometrial tissue. EnSCs comprise of a population of epithelial stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and side population stem cells. When secreted in the menstrual blood, they are termed menstrual stem cells or endometrial regenerative cells. Mounting evidence suggests that EnSCs can be utilized in regenerative medicine. EnSCs can be used as immuno-modulatory agents to attenuate inflammation, are implicated in angiogenesis and vascularization during tissue regeneration, and can also be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. Furthermore, EnSCs can be used in tissue engineering applications and there are several clinical trials currently in place to ascertain the therapeutic potential of EnSCs. This review highlights the progress made in EnSC research, describing their mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal potentials both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25097665

  4. Encapsulated stem cells for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells have inherent tumor?trophic migratory properties and can serve as vehicles for delivering effective, targeted therapy to isolated tumors and metastatic disease, making them promising anti?cancer agents. Encapsulation of therapeutically engineered stem cells in hydrogels has been utilized to provide a physical barrier to protect the cells from hostile extrinsic factors and significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy of transplanted stem cells in different models of cancer. This review aims to discuss the potential of different stem cell types for cancer therapy, various engineered stem cell based therapies for cancer, stem cell encapsulation process and provide an in depth overview of current applications of therapeutic stem cell encapsulation in the highly malignant brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), as well as the prospects for their clinical translation. PMID:23507920

  5. Encapsulated stem cells for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells have inherent tumor?trophic migratory properties and can serve as vehicles for delivering effective, targeted therapy to isolated tumors and metastatic disease, making them promising anti?cancer agents. Encapsulation of therapeutically engineered stem cells in hydrogels has been utilized to provide a physical barrier to protect the cells from hostile extrinsic factors and significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy of transplanted stem cells in different models of cancer. This review aims to discuss the potential of different stem cell types for cancer therapy, various engineered stem cell based therapies for cancer, stem cell encapsulation process and provide an in depth overview of current applications of therapeutic stem cell encapsulation in the highly malignant brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), as well as the prospects for their clinical translation. PMID:23507920

  6. Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Myocardial Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Orlic; Richard O. Cannon III

    Adult bone marrow consists of several populations of stem cells that are the focus of investigations into their potential\\u000a to regenerate nonhematopoietic tissues. According to this hypothesis, bone marrow stem cells display a plasticity not previously\\u000a recognized. Although data supporting bone marrow stem cell plasticity is extensive, many researchers dispute this concept.\\u000a One of the most controversial aspects of stem

  7. Stem Cell Chronicles: Autobiographies Within Genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darryl Shibata; Simon Tavaré

    2007-01-01

    Human stem cell studies are difficult because many of the powerful experimental approaches that mark and follow stem cells\\u000a and their progeny are impractical. Moreover, humans are long-lived, and it would literally take a lifetime to follow stem\\u000a cell fates prospectively. Considering these hurdles, an ideal method would not require prior experimental manipulations but\\u000a still allow “observations” of human stem

  8. Adult stem cells in the endometrium.

    PubMed

    Gargett, Caroline E; Masuda, Hirotaka

    2010-11-01

    Rare cells with adult stem cell activity were recently discovered in human endometrium. Endometrial stem/progenitor cell candidates include epithelial, mesenchymal and endothelial cells, and all may contribute to the rapid endometrial regeneration following menstruation, rather than a single candidate. Endometrial mesenchymal stem-like cells (eMSC) are prospectively isolated as CD146(+)PDGF-R?(+) cells and are found in both basalis and functionalis as perivascular cells. Epithelial progenitor cells are detected in colony forming unit assays but their identity awaits elucidation. They are postulated to reside in the basalis in gland bases. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells may be derived from endogenous stem cells, but emerging evidence suggests a bone marrow contribution. Endometrial endothelial progenitor cells are detected as side population cells, which express several endothelial cell markers and differentiate into endometrial glandular epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells. Investigating endometrial stem cell biology is crucial to understanding normal endometrial physiology and to determine their roles in endometrial proliferative diseases. The nature of endometriosis suggests that initiation of ectopic endometrial lesions involves endometrial stem/progenitor cells, a notion compatible with Sampson's retrograde menstruation theory and supported by the demonstration of eMSC in menstrual blood. Evidence of cancer stem cells (CSC) in endometrial cancer indicates that new avenues for developing therapeutic options targeting CSC may become available. We provide an overview of the accumulating evidence for endometrial stem/progenitor cells and their possible roles in endometrial proliferative disorders, and discuss the unresolved issues. PMID:20627991

  9. Challenges for heart disease stem cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hoover-Plow, Jane; Gong, Yanqing

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. The use of stem cells to improve recovery of the injured heart after myocardial infarction (MI) is an important emerging therapeutic strategy. However, recent reviews of clinical trials of stem cell therapy for MI and ischemic heart disease recovery report that less than half of the trials found only small improvements in cardiac function. In clinical trials, bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood cells were used as the source of stem cells delivered by intracoronary infusion. Some trials administered only a stem cell mobilizing agent that recruits endogenous sources of stem cells. Important challenges to improve the effectiveness of stem cell therapy for CVD include: (1) improved identification, recruitment, and expansion of autologous stem cells; (2) identification of mobilizing and homing agents that increase recruitment; and (3) development of strategies to improve stem cell survival and engraftment of both endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. This review is an overview of stem cell therapy for CVD and discusses the challenges these three areas present for maximum optimization of the efficacy of stem cell therapy for heart disease, and new strategies in progress. PMID:22399855

  10. Saving Superman: Ethics and Stem Cell Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Doug M. Post

    2006-01-01

    This case explores the political and ethical issues associated with stem cell research. Students read the case describing Christopher Reeve’s accident and injuries and his advocacy for stem cell research along with background readings on stem cells and the ethics of stem cell research. They are then assigned to one of four stakeholder groups and asked to develop a position on whether or not the U.S. Senate should expand stem cell research with a focus on the ethics underlying the issue.  They present their positions in class in a simulated public hearing.

  11. Neural stem cell engineering: directed differentiation of adult and embryonic stem cells into neurons Matthew J. Robertson1

    E-print Network

    Schaffer, David V.

    Neural stem cell engineering: directed differentiation of adult and embryonic stem cells. Adult neural stem cells and neurogenesis 3.1. Hippocampal stem cells 3.2. Subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb stem cells 3.3. Progenitors derived from non-neurogenic regions 3.4. Adult neural stem cell

  12. Regenerative Endodontics in light of the stem cell paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Vinicius; Botero, Tatiana M.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells play a critical role in development and in tissue regeneration. The dental pulp contains a small sub-population of stem cells that are involved in the response of the pulp to caries progression. Specifically, stem cells replace odontoblasts that have undergone cell death as a consequence of the cariogenic challenge. Stem cells also secrete factors that have the potential to enhance pulp vascularization and provide the oxygen and nutrients required for the dentinogenic response that is typically observed in teeth with deep caries. However, the same angiogenic factors that are required for dentin regeneration may ultimately contribute to the demise of the pulp by enhancing vascular permeability and interstitial pressure. Recent studies focused on the biology of dental pulp stem cells revealed that the multipotency and angiogenic capacity of these cells could be exploited therapeutically in dental pulp tissue engineering. Collectively, these findings suggest new treatment paradigms in the field of Endodontics. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential impact of dental pulp stem cells to Regenerative Endodontics. PMID:21726222

  13. Noninvasive monitoring of stem cell transfer for muscle disorders.

    PubMed

    Walter, Glenn A; Cahill, Kevin S; Huard, Johnny; Feng, Huisheng; Douglas, T; Sweeney, H Lee; Bulte, Jeff W M

    2004-02-01

    In this study the ability of magnetodendrimers to efficiently label cultured muscle stem cells and allow for subsequent in vivo cell detection was determined. Magnetodendrimer-labeled cells exhibited normal growth rates in culture, and retained their capacity to undergo proliferation and form normal myotubes. Labeled stem cells possessed high in vivo proton relaxivities that enhanced MRI contrast properties and enabled us to noninvasively monitor the stem cells' incorporation into dystrophic muscle. Well defined regions of decreased signal intensity were observed in both T2- and T1-weighted image sequences. MRI was used to longitudinally follow stem cell dynamics in dystrophic muscle with in-plane resolutions on the order of a single muscle fiber (22 x 43 microm2). Regions of decreased signal intensity were well correlated with iron accumulation and other histochemical markers of stem cell incorporation. We concluded that this technique may be useful for continuous noninvasive readouts of stem cell transfer, replacing sequential muscle biopsies and tissue harvesting. PMID:14755651

  14. Combination Cell Therapy with Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neural Stem Cells for Brain Stroke in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Razi, Zahra; Delavari, Somayeh; Shakibajahromi, Benafsheh; Sarvestani, Fatemeh Sabet; Kazemi, Sepehr; Semsar, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Brain stroke is the second most important events that lead to disability and morbidity these days. Although, stroke is important, there is no treatment for curing this problem. Nowadays, cell therapy has opened a new window for treating central nervous system disease. In some previous studies the Mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we have designed an experiment to assess the combination cell therapy (Mesenchymal and Neural stem cells) effects on brain stroke. Method and Materials The Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adult rat bone marrow and the neural stem cells were isolated from ganglion eminence of rat embryo 14 days. The Mesenchymal stem cells were injected 1 day after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the neural stem cells transplanted 7 day after MCAO. After 28 days, the neurological outcomes and brain lesion volumes were evaluated. Also, the activity of Caspase 3 was assessed in different groups. Result The group which received combination cell therapy had better neurological examination and less brain lesion. Also the combination cell therapy group had the least Caspase 3 activity among the groups. Conclusions The combination cell therapy is more effective than Mesenchymal stem cell therapy and neural stem cell therapy separately in treating the brain stroke in rats. PMID:26019759

  15. Understanding cancer stem cell heterogeneity and plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean G Tang

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity is an omnipresent feature of mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. It has been recently realized that even mouse and human embryonic stem cells under the best culture conditions are heterogeneous containing pluripotent as well as partially committed cells. Somatic stem cells in adult organs are also heterogeneous, containing many subpopulations of self-renewing cells with distinct regenerative capacity.

  16. New insights into liver stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gaudio; G. Carpino; V. Cardinale; A. Franchitto; P. Onori; D. Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic progenitor cells are bi-potential stem cells residing in human and animal livers that are able to differentiate towards the hepatocytic and the cholangiocytic lineages. In adult livers, hepatic progenitor cells are quiescent stem cells with a low proliferating rate, representing a reserve compartment that is activated only when the mature epithelial cells of the liver are continuously damaged or

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells in health and disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Moretta; Vito Pistoia; Antonio Uccelli

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous subset of stromal stem cells that can be isolated from many adult tissues. They can differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineage, such as adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, as well as cells of other embryonic lineages. MSCs can interact with cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to the modulation

  18. [Adult stem cells: their scientific interest and therapeutic future].

    PubMed

    Coulombel, L

    2007-09-01

    Fascinating and provocative findings have shaken the stem cell field during these past years, which may be exploited in the future in cell replacement therapies. Continuous renewal of blood, skin, and gut cells, has long be attributed to stem cells, but it was more unexpected to identify cells that fulfil the requirements for stem-progenitor cells in many tissues with a slow turnover such as heart, kidney, muscle and brain. However, despite their lack of risk and immunological barrier, adult stem cells are yet of poor therapeutic value in many diseases, because they are available in scarce number, are poorly amplified, and loose potential with ageing, among many obstacles. Thus, the identification in adult, and more recently fetal tissues, of cells with a high proliferative capacity and multi-lineage differentiation potential has been wellcome, although their existence is still a matter of controversy. An alternative would be to activate stem cells in situ, by acting on components of the niche as recently exemplified in the hematopoetic system. Finally, as fiction meets reality, it may become possible to reprogram human adult cells in pluripotent ES cells-like, as recently demonstrated in mice. PMID:17766162

  19. Cancerous stem cells: deviant stem cells with cancer-causing misbehavior.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Julie M; Lagasse, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells maintain homeostasis in adult tissues via self-renewal and generation of terminally differentiated cells. Alterations in this intricate balance can result in disease. It has become increasingly evident that cancer can be initiated at the level of stem cells. Therefore, understanding what causes stem cells to become cancerous may lead to new therapeutic approaches. Multiple signaling pathways ultimately affect stem cell survival and proliferation, thus maintaining homeostasis in the gut. Changes in these pathways could perturb normal stem cell behavior, leading to cancerous stem cells. In addition, cancerous stem cells show resistance to current therapies and may lead to a dangerous selection process resulting in recurrence and metastasis. Genomic instability, the driving force of mutation and resistance, may give cancerous stem cells an adaptive advantage, especially when subjected to cancer therapies. Targeting the unique characteristics of cancerous stem cells to promote either terminal differentiation or destruction would effectively eradicate cancer and improve patient care and survival. PMID:20587011

  20. Cancer Stem Cells: Lessons From Melanoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caterina La Porta

    2009-01-01

    The model of cancer stem cells in tumor development states that tumors contain a subset of cells that both self renew and\\u000a give rise to differentiated progeny. Like normal adult tissue stem cells, cancer stem cells are a minority of the whole tumor\\u000a and are the only cells that are able to maintain tumor growth indefinitely. In the present review

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Stem Cells in Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Roche; R. Enseńat-Waser; J. A. Reig; J. Jones; T. León-Quinto; B. Soria

    Stem cells possess the ability to self-renew by symmetric divisions and, under certain circumstances, differentiate to a committed\\u000a lineage by asymmetric cell divisions. Depending on the origin, stem cells are classified as either embryonic or adult. Embryonic\\u000a stem cells are obtained from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, a structure that appears during embryonic development\\u000a at day 6 in

  2. Contribution of Stem Cells to Kidney Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedetta Bussolati; Peter Viktor Hauser; Raquel Carvalhosa; Giovanni Camussi

    2009-01-01

    A current explanation for development of chronic renal injury is the imbalance between injurious mechanism and regenerative repair. The possibility that stem cells contribute to the repair of glomerular and tubular damage is of great interest for basic and translational research. Endogenous bone marrow-derived stem cells have been implicated in the repair of renal tissue, although the lineage of stem

  3. The skeletal muscle satellite cell: stem cell or son of stem cell?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter S. Zammit; Jonathan R. Beauchamp

    2001-01-01

    The concept of the adult tissue stem cell is fundamental to models of persistent renewal in functionally post-mitotic tissues. Although relatively ignored by stem cell biology, skeletal muscle is a prime example of an adult tissue that can generate terminally differentiated cells uniquely specialized to carry out tissue-specific functions. This capacity is attributed to satellite cells, a population of undifferentiated,

  4. Direct cell contact influences bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell fate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen G Ball; Adrian C Shuttleworth; Cay M Kielty

    2004-01-01

    Adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can differentiate into various cell types of mesenchymal origin, but mechanisms regulating such cellular changes are unclear. We have conducted co-culture experiments to examine whether mesenchymal stem cell differentiation is influenced by indirect or direct contact with differentiated cells. Cultured adult mesenchymal stem cells showed some characteristics of synthetic state vascular smooth muscle

  5. Interplay between Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L.; Zhao, Y.; Shi, S.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to their potential for replacing damaged and diseased tissues by differentiating into tissue-specific cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to interact closely with immune cells, such as lymphocytes. In this review, we will discuss current research regarding the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs and the effects of lymphocytes on MSCs. We will suggest how these findings could be translated to potential clinical treatment. MSCs can regulate immune response by inducing activated T-cell apoptosis through the FAS ligand (FASL)/FAS-mediated death pathway via cell-cell contact, leading to up-regulation of regulatory T-cells (Tregs), which ultimately results in immune tolerance. Conversely, lymphocytes can impair survival and osteogenic differentiation of implanted MSCs by secreting the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-? and TNF-? and/or through the FASL/FAS-mediated death pathway, thereby negatively affecting MSC-mediated tissue regeneration. One novel strategy to improve MSC-based tissue engineering involves the reduction of IFN-? and TNF-? concentration by systemic infusion of Tregs or local application of aspirin. Further understanding of the mechanisms underlying the interplay between lymphocytes and MSCs may be helpful in the development of promising approaches to improve cell-based regenerative medicine and immune therapies. PMID:22988011

  6. Leukaemia stem cells and the evolution of cancer-stem-cell research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J. P. Huntly; D. Gary Gilliland

    2005-01-01

    Many cancers seem to depend on a small population of 'cancer stem cells' for their continued growth and propagation. The leukaemia stem cell (LSC) was the first such cell to be described. The origins of these cells are controversial, and their biology — like that of their normal-tissue counterpart, the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) — is still not fully elucidated.

  7. NIH Stem Cell Research Guidelines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A hot topic of recent news has been the lifting of the ban, put in place by the NIH in January 1999, on research using human pluripotent stem cells derived from human embryos and fetal tissue. The ban was lifted on August 25, 2000 with the strong endorsement of President Clinton. Now, the National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Research Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells is available online in HTML format. According to the site, "The NIH received approximately 50,000 comments from members of Congress, patient advocacy groups, scientific societies, religious organizations, and private citizens. This Notice presents the final Guidelines together with NIH's response to the substantive public comments that addressed provisions of the Guidelines." (For more on the NIH guidelines, see the August 25, 2000 Scout Report).

  8. Pregnancy and Stem Cell Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay-Uwe Wagner; Gilbert H. Smith

    2005-01-01

    The identification of cancer-initiating epithelial subtypes (i.e. cancer stem cells) is important for gaining a more comprehensive understanding of the process of neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis. Since reproductive history has a major impact on breast tumorigenesis, it is reasonable to assume that pregnancy and lactation have enduring effects on the cancer susceptibility of multipotent progenitors. Using the Cre-lox technology as

  9. CANCER STEM CELLS AND RADIORESISTANCE

    PubMed Central

    K, Rycaj; D.G, Tang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Radiation therapy has made significant contributions to cancer therapy. However, despite continuous improvements, tumor recurrence and therapy resistance still occur in a high proportion of patients. One underlying reason for this radioresistance might be attributable to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Conclusions This review discusses CSC-specific mechanisms that confer radiation resistance with a focus on breast cancer and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), thereby emphasizing the addition of these potential therapeutic targets in order to potentiate radiotherapy efficacy. PMID:24527669

  10. Stem Cell Markers in Gliomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Dell’Albani

    2008-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) and a frequent cause of mental impairment and death.\\u000a Treatment of malignant gliomas is often palliative because of their infiltrating nature and high recurrence. Genetic events\\u000a that lead to brain tumours are mostly unknown. A growing body of evidence suggests that gliomas may rise from cancer stem\\u000a cells

  11. Elimination of Cancer Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sagrera; J. Pérez-Losada; M. Pérez-Caro; R. Jiménez; I. Sánchez-García; C. Cobaleda

    \\u000a The acceptance of the Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) concept has revolutionized all aspects of our understanding of cancer biology,\\u000a from the cellular origin of cancer to its growth and expansion, shedding new light into the interrelations of all the cellular\\u000a components of the tumour and their role in its progression. From the therapeutic point of view, the existence of CSCs

  12. Assessing stem cell research productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Ho; C. H. Chiu; T. M. Tseng; W. T. Chiu

    2003-01-01

    Honour Index (HoI), a method to evaluate research performance within different research fields, was derived from the impact\\u000a factor (IF). It can be used to rate and compare different categories of journals. HoI was used in this study to determine\\u000a the scientific productivity of stem cell research in the Asian Four Dragons (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan)\\u000a from

  13. Stem cells in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Soto, Angel R; Oakley, Derek H; Wichterle, Hynek; Stein, Joel; Doetsch, Fiona K; Henderson, Christopher E

    2014-11-01

    Given their capacity to regenerate cells lost through injury or disease, stem cells offer new vistas into possible treatments for degenerative diseases and their underlying causes. As such, stem cell biology is emerging as a driving force behind many studies in regenerative medicine. This review focuses on the current understanding of the applications of stem cells in treating ailments of the human brain, with an emphasis on neurodegenerative diseases. Two types of neural stem cells are discussed: endogenous neural stem cells residing within the adult brain and pluripotent stem cells capable of forming neural cells in culture. Endogenous neural stem cells give rise to neurons throughout life, but they are restricted to specialized regions in the brain. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms regulating these cells is key in determining their therapeutic potential as well as finding mechanisms to activate dormant stem cells outside these specialized microdomains. In parallel, patient-derived stem cells can be used to generate neural cells in culture, providing new tools for disease modeling, drug testing, and cell-based therapies. Turning these technologies into viable treatments will require the integration of basic science with clinical skills in rehabilitation. PMID:24800720

  14. SHED - Basic Structure for Stem Cell Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that stem cells from dental pulp are capable of differentiating into endothelial cells raised the exciting possibility that these cells can be a single source of odontoblasts and vascular networks in dental tissue engineering. These so-called mesenchymal stem cell populations have been identified from human exfoliated deciduous teeth because of their ability to generate clonogenic adherent colonies when grown and expanded. In addition to these stem cells, other population of stem cells can be from adult human dental pulp and periodontal ligament. The identification and isolation of these stem cells in adult dental pulp was first reported by Gronthos and co-workers in 2000.These dental pulp stem cells have clonogenic abilities, rapid proliferative rates and the capacity to form mineralized tissues both in vitro and in vivo. The stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth are distinct from dental pulp stem cells by virtue of their proliferation rate, increased cell population doublings and osteoinductive capacity in vivo. It is further demonstrated that human exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells may not be a single-cell type, may well be a heterogenous population of cells from the pulp. PMID:25954717

  15. Are human dental papilla-derived stem cell and human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantations suitable for treatment of Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung Ho; Min, Joongkee; Shin, Nari; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Mo; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Hwang, Onyou; Jeon, Sang Ryong

    2013-05-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells has been reported as a possible approach for replacing impaired dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we tested the efficacy of early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells and human brain-derived neural stem cells in rat models of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease. Rats received a unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into right medial forebrain bundle, followed 3 weeks later by injections of PBS, early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells, or human brain-derived neural stem cells into the ipsilateral striatum. All of the rats in the human dental papilla-derived stem cell group died from tumor formation at around 2 weeks following cell transplantation. Postmortem examinations revealed homogeneous malignant tumors in the striatum of the human dental papilla-derived stem cell group. Stepping tests revealed that human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantation did not improve motor dysfunction. In apomorphine-induced rotation tests, neither the human brain-derived neural stem cell group nor the control groups (PBS injection) demonstrated significant changes. Glucose metabolism in the lesioned side of striatum was reduced by human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantation. [(18)F]-FP-CIT PET scans in the striatum did not demonstrate a significant increase in the human brain-derived neural stem cell group. Tyrosine hydroxylase (dopaminergic neuronal marker) staining and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (A9 dopaminergic neuronal marker) were positive in the lesioned side of striatum in the human brain-derived neural stem cell group. The use of early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells confirmed its tendency to form tumors. Human brain-derived neural stem cells could be partially differentiated into dopaminergic neurons, but they did not secrete dopamine. PMID:25206413

  16. Neutral competition of stem cells is skewed by proliferative changes downstream of Hh and Hpo.

    PubMed

    Amoyel, Marc; Simons, Benjamin D; Bach, Erika A

    2014-10-16

    Neutral competition, an emerging feature of stem cell homeostasis, posits that individual stem cells can be lost and replaced by their neighbors stochastically, resulting in chance dominance of a clone at the niche. A single stem cell with an oncogenic mutation could bias this process and clonally spread the mutation throughout the stem cell pool. The Drosophila testis provides an ideal system for testing this model. The niche supports two stem cell populations that compete for niche occupancy. Here, we show that cyst stem cells (CySCs) conform to the paradigm of neutral competition and that clonal deregulation of either the Hedgehog (Hh) or Hippo (Hpo) pathway allows a single CySC to colonize the niche. We find that the driving force behind such behavior is accelerated proliferation. Our results demonstrate that a single stem cell colonizes its niche through oncogenic mutation by co-opting an underlying homeostatic process. PMID:25092766

  17. Application of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Experimental Nephrology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahito Ito; Akira Suzuki; Masaru Okabe; Enyu Imai; Masatsugu Hori

    2001-01-01

    Recent advancement in developmental biology has led to the discovery of immature mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow and several established organs. The therapeutic potentials of such stem cells for treating serious diseases constitute a major rationale for every research effort, and clinical trials for replacing some damaged tissues such as cartilage are currently under way. Although the feasibility of

  18. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)] [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)] [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)] [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)] [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  19. Tissue Engineering Using Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahar Cohen; Lucy Leshanski

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of using stem cells for tissue engineering has greatly encouraged scientists to design new platforms in the field of regenerative and reconstructive medicine. Stem cells have the ability to rejuvenate and repair damaged tissues and can be derived from both embryonic and adult sources. Among cell types suggested as a cell source for tissue engineering (TE), human embryonic

  20. Adult stem cells and tissue repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Körbling; Z Estrov; R Champlin

    2003-01-01

    Recently, adult stem cells originating from bone marrow or peripheral blood have been suggested to contribute to repair and genesis of cells specific for liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, gut, and brain tissue. The mechanism involved has been termed transdifferentiation, although other explanations including cell fusion have been postulated. Using adult stem cells to generate or repair solid organ tissue

  1. Embryonic stem cell markers expression in cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthieu Schoenhals; Alboukadel Kassambara; John De Vos; Dirk Hose; Jérôme Moreaux; Bernard Klein

    2009-01-01

    The transcription factors Oct4 and Sox2 are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells. In conjunction with Klf4 and c-Myc, their over-expression can induce pluripotency in both mouse and human somatic cells, indicating that these factors are key regulators of the signaling network necessary for ES cell pluripotency. Self-renewal is a hallmark of stem cells and cancer and stemness programming

  2. Pluripotency of male germline stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sungtae Kim; Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte

    The ethical issues and public concerns regarding the use of embryonic stem (ES) cells in human therapy have motivated considerable\\u000a research into the generation of pluripotent stem cell lines from non-embryonic sources. Numerous reports have shown that pluripotent\\u000a cells can be generated and derived from germline stem cells (GSCs) in mouse and human testes during in vitro cultivation. The gene

  3. Neural stem cell self-renewal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanhong Shi; Guoqiang Sun; Chunnian Zhao; Richard Stewart

    2008-01-01

    Two fundamental properties of stem cells are their ability to self-renew and to differentiate. Self-renewal is an integration of proliferation control with the maintenance of an undifferentiated state. Stem cell self-renewal is regulated by the dynamic interplay between transcription factors, epigenetic control, microRNA (miRNA) regulators, and cell-extrinsic signals from the microenvironment in which stem cells reside. Recent progress in defining

  4. Transdifferentiation of Stem Cells: A Critical View

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ina Gruh; Ulrich Martin

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Recently a large amount of new data on the plasticity of stem cells of various lineages have emerged, providing new perspectives\\u000a especially for the therapeutic application of adult stem cells. Previously unknown possibilities of cell differentiation beyond\\u000a the known commitment of a given stem cell have been described using keywords such as “blood to liver,” or “bone to brain.”\\u000a Controversies

  5. Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from pig somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Ezashi, Toshihiko; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Alexenko, Andrei P; Sachdev, Shrikesh; Sinha, Sunilima; Roberts, R Michael

    2009-07-01

    For reasons that are unclear the production of embryonic stem cells from ungulates has proved elusive. Here, we describe induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from porcine fetal fibroblasts by lentiviral transduction of 4 human (h) genes, hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF4, and hc-MYC, the combination commonly used to create iPSC in mouse and human. Cells were cultured on irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and in medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and FGF2. Compact colonies of alkaline phosphatase-positive cells emerged after approximately 22 days, providing an overall reprogramming efficiency of approximately 0.1%. The cells expressed porcine OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 and had high telomerase activity, but also continued to express the 4 human transgenes. Unlike human ESC, the porcine iPSC (piPSC) were positive for SSEA-1, but negative for SSEA-3 and -4. Transcriptional profiling on Affymetrix (porcine) microarrays and real time RT-PCR supported the conclusion that reprogramming to pluripotency was complete. One cell line, ID6, had a normal karyotype, a cell doubling time of approximately 17 h, and has been maintained through >220 doublings. The ID6 line formed embryoid bodies, expressing genes representing all 3 germ layers when cultured under differentiating conditions, and teratomas containing tissues of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm origin in nude mice. We conclude that porcine somatic cells can be reprogrammed to form piPSC. Such cell lines derived from individual animals could provide a means for testing the safety and efficacy of stem cell-derived tissue grafts when returned to the same pigs at a later age. PMID:19541600

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW Stem cells in bone tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong Min Seong; Byung-Chul Kim; Jae-Hong Park; Il Keun Kwon; Anathathios Mantalaris; Yu-Shik Hwang

    2010-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have

  7. Stem cell applications for pathologies of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Noha A; Abou-Taleb, Hisham A; Orabi, Hazem

    2015-06-26

    New stem cell based therapies are undergoing intense research and are widely investigated in clinical fields including the urinary system. The urinary bladder performs critical complex functions that rely on its highly coordinated anatomical composition and multiplex of regulatory mechanisms. Bladder pathologies resulting in severe dysfunction are common clinical encounter and often cause significant impairment of patient's quality of life. Current surgical and medical interventions to correct urinary dysfunction or to replace an absent or defective bladder are sub-optimal and are associated with notable complications. As a result, stem cell based therapies for the urinary bladder are hoped to offer new venues that could make up for limitations of existing therapies. In this article, we review research efforts that describe the use of different types of stem cells in bladder reconstruction, urinary incontinence and retention disorders. In particular, stress urinary incontinence has been a popular target for stem cell based therapies in reported clinical trials. Furthermore, we discuss the relevance of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the development of bladder cancer. A key subject that should not be overlooked is the safety and quality of stem cell based therapies introduced to human subjects either in a research or a clinical context. PMID:26131312

  8. Stem cell applications for pathologies of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Noha A; Abou-Taleb, Hisham A; Orabi, Hazem

    2015-01-01

    New stem cell based therapies are undergoing intense research and are widely investigated in clinical fields including the urinary system. The urinary bladder performs critical complex functions that rely on its highly coordinated anatomical composition and multiplex of regulatory mechanisms. Bladder pathologies resulting in severe dysfunction are common clinical encounter and often cause significant impairment of patient’s quality of life. Current surgical and medical interventions to correct urinary dysfunction or to replace an absent or defective bladder are sub-optimal and are associated with notable complications. As a result, stem cell based therapies for the urinary bladder are hoped to offer new venues that could make up for limitations of existing therapies. In this article, we review research efforts that describe the use of different types of stem cells in bladder reconstruction, urinary incontinence and retention disorders. In particular, stress urinary incontinence has been a popular target for stem cell based therapies in reported clinical trials. Furthermore, we discuss the relevance of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the development of bladder cancer. A key subject that should not be overlooked is the safety and quality of stem cell based therapies introduced to human subjects either in a research or a clinical context. PMID:26131312

  9. Preclinical Assessment of Stem Cell Therapies for Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Joers, Valerie L.; Emborg, Marina E.

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells, as subjects of study for use in treating neurological diseases, are envisioned as a replacement for lost neurons and glia, a means of trophic support, a therapeutic vehicle, and, more recently, a tool for in vitro modeling to understand disease and to screen and personalize treatments. In this review we analyze the requirements of stem cell–based therapy for clinical translation, advances in stem cell research toward clinical application for neurological disorders, and different animal models used for analysis of these potential therapies. We focus on Parkinson’s disease (typically defined by the progressive loss of dopaminergic nigral neurons), stroke (neurodegeneration associated with decreased blood perfusion in the brain), and multiple sclerosis (an autoimmune disorder that generates demyelination, axonal damage, astrocytic scarring, and neurodegeneration in the brain and spinal cord). We chose these disorders for their diversity and the number of people affected by them. An additional important consideration was the availability of multiple animal models in which to test stem cell applications for these diseases. We also discuss the relationship between the limited number of systematic stem cell studies performed in animals, in particular nonhuman primates and the delayed progress in advancing stem cell therapies to clinical success. PMID:20075496

  10. Label Retaining Cells and Cutaneous Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasily V. Terskikh; Andrey V. Vasiliev; Ekaterina A. Vorotelyak

    This is a comprehensive review on label retaining cells (LRC) in epidermal development and homeostasis. The precise in vivo\\u000a identification and location of epidermal stem cells is a crucial issue in cutaneous biology. We discuss here the following\\u000a problems: (1) Identification and location of LRC in the interfollicular epithelium and hair follicle; (2) The proliferative\\u000a potential of LRC and their

  11. Stem Cell Origin of Testicular Seminoma

    PubMed Central

    Som, Avik; Wen, Sijin; Tu, Shi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    A major question regarding cancer is its cells of origin. The discovery of diverse tumors being derived from a hierarchy of stem cells may pave the way to prove the theory of a stem cell origin of cancers. To our knowledge, we have evidence for the first time in human samples that unique germ cell tumors are linked to particular germline stem cells on the basis of their molecular expression profile. We postulated that distinct malignant subtypes arise from certain stem cells in a stem cell hierarchy. Introduction A major question concerning cancer is its cells of origin. We hypothesized that distinct cancer subtypes arise from unique cancer-initiating cells. By performing a microarray meta-analysis of seminomas and spermatogonial stem cells, we investigated a putative cell of origin for seminoma. Materials and Methods We obtained published microarray data for 6 human adult germ cell lines, 16 embryonic stem cell lines, 3 normal testicular tissue samples, and 40 seminomas from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. By assessing correlations between various tissue microarrays, we determined the number of transitional events and the distance between seminomas and human spermatogonial stem cells. Results Our meta-analysis showed that spermatogonial stem cells correlated similarly with seminoma (95% CI of Spearman ?, 0.33–0.44) and with normal somatic testicular tissue cells (95% CI, 0.39–0.40), which suggests parallel paths of cellular origins. Conclusion Analysis of our results suggests that a unique cancer subtype, namely seminoma, may have originated from an undifferentiated cell with stemness features rather than from a differentiated cell that acquired stemness features. PMID:23850550

  12. Prospects for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Drummond; James A. Ross; P. Joseph Mee

    \\u000a Although diabetes can be managed clinically with the use of insulin injections, it remains an incurable and inconvenient disorder.\\u000a In the long term it is associated with a number of clinical complications, and there is a desire to see new methodologies\\u000a to replace defective cells and provide a lasting normality without the need for drug treatment. Pluripotent stem cells offer

  13. Cell Stem Cell Contractile Forces Sustain and Polarize

    E-print Network

    Discher, Dennis

    matrix is already known to modulate differentiation of marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs-renewal and differentiation of stem cells depend on asymmetric division and polarized motility pro- cesses that in other cell in stem cell and progenitor maintenance and division with likely relation- ships to differentiation

  14. Cell Stem Cell Developmental Stage and Time Dictate the Fate

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    Cell Stem Cell Article Developmental Stage and Time Dictate the Fate of Wnt/b-Catenin-Responsive Stem Cells in the Mammary Gland Rene´ e van Amerongen,1,2,* Angela N. Bowman,1 and Roel Nusse1,* 1 a role for stem cells. Yet their origin, identity, and behavior in the intact tissue remain unknown

  15. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, cells

    E-print Network

    Gifford, David K.

    Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, cells Sinisa Hrvatina , Charles W. O , David K. Giffordb , and Douglas A. Meltona,e,1 a Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard Stem Cell Institute and e Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138

  16. Stem cell research and cell transplantation for myocardial regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Siepe; Claudia Heilmann; Patrick von Samson; Philippe Menasché; Friedhelm Beyersdorf

    2005-01-01

    Summary Several human organs are not capable of functional regeneration following a tissue defect and react with scar formation. In stem cell transplantation, undifferentiated or partly differentiated precursor cells are applied to defective tissue for therapeutic regeneration. After promising preclinical investigations, the transplantation of autologous stem cells for myocardial infarction treatment is being transferred to clinical use. Mesenchymal stem cells

  17. Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization therapy accelerates recovery of renal function independent of stem cell contribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geurt Stokman; Jaklien C. Leemans; Nike Claessen; Jan J. Weening; Sandrine Florquin

    2005-01-01

    Acute renal failure and tubular cell loss as a result of ischemia constitute major challenges in renal pathophysiology. Increasing evidence suggests important roles for bone marrow stem cells in the regeneration of renal tissue after injury. This study investigated whether the enhanced availability of hematopoietic stem cells, induced by stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, to the injured kidney

  18. Establishment of a Mesenchymal Stem Cell Bank

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Khushnuma; Viswanathan, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Adult stem cells have generated great amount of interest amongst the scientific community for their potential therapeutic applications for unmet medical needs. We have demonstrated the plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the umbilical cord matrix. Their immunological profile makes it even more interesting. We have demonstrated that the umbilical cord is an inexhaustible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Being a very rich source, instead of discarding this tissue, we worked on banking these cells for regenerative medicine application for future use. The present paper gives a detailed account of our experience in the establishment of a mesenchymal stem cell bank at our facility. PMID:21826152

  19. Establishment of a mesenchymal stem cell bank.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Khushnuma; Viswanathan, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Adult stem cells have generated great amount of interest amongst the scientific community for their potential therapeutic applications for unmet medical needs. We have demonstrated the plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the umbilical cord matrix. Their immunological profile makes it even more interesting. We have demonstrated that the umbilical cord is an inexhaustible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Being a very rich source, instead of discarding this tissue, we worked on banking these cells for regenerative medicine application for future use. The present paper gives a detailed account of our experience in the establishment of a mesenchymal stem cell bank at our facility. PMID:21826152

  20. Stem Cell Plasticity in the Hematopoietic System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Heike; Tatsutoshi Nakahata

    2004-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) contains hematopoietic stem cells, which differentiate into all mature blood cells, and marrow stromal cells\\u000a that provide the microenvironment for hematopoietic stem\\/progenitor cells along with the capability to differentiate into\\u000a mature cells of multiple mesenchymal tissues including fat, bone, and cartilage. Recent studies indicate that adult BM also\\u000a contains cells that can differentiate into nonhematopoietic cells of

  1. Stem Cell Therapy for Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed the publication of a large number of clinical trials primarily using bone marrow-derived stem cells as the injected cell. These “first-generation” clinical trials have advanced our understanding and shown us that (1) cell therapy is safe, (2) cell therapy has been modestly effective, and (3) in humans, bone marrow-derived stem cells do not transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes or new blood vessels (or at least in sufficient numbers to have any effect). The primary mechanism of action for cell therapy is now believed to be through paracrine effects that include the release of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors that inhibit apoptosis and fibrosis, enhance contractility, and activate endogenous regenerative mechanisms through endogenous circulating or site-specific stem cells. The new direction for clinical trials includes the use of stem cells capable of cardiac lineage, such as endogenous cardiac stem cells. PMID:24298308

  2. [Cancer stem cells and the niches].

    PubMed

    Kunisaki, Yuya

    2015-05-01

    The fate of stem cells is tightly controlled by specialized microenvironments (niches). Cell cycle quiescence is a key behavior of stem cells, which protects them from being exhausted by exogenous insults. Since the discovery of cancer stem cells, which are quiescent and thus resistant to anti-cancer therapy, there has been considerable interest regarding whether or not there are distinct niches for quiescent and expanding cancer cells, respectively. In our recent study using whole-mount immunofluorescence imaging techniques, we found that arteriolar niches promote hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) dormancy and that the NG2+ peri-arteriolar niche cells themselves are quiescent, suggesting that bone marrow arterioles comprise a specialized microenvironment that promotes quiescence of both HSCs and niche cells. In this review, we will argue about the advance of our knowledge on normal stem cell niches and the roles of microenvironments in cancer. PMID:25985624

  3. Stem cell therapy for retinal diseases: update

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Distinct stem cell types have been established from embryos and identified in the fetal tissues and umbilical cord blood as well as in specific niches in many adult mammalian tissues and organs such as bone marrow, brain, skin, eyes, heart, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, breast, ovaries, and prostate. All stem cells are undifferentiated cells that exhibit unlimited self-renewal and can generate multiple cell lineages or more restricted progenitor populations that can contribute to tissue homeostasis by replenishing the cells or to tissue regeneration after injury. The remarkable progress of regenerative medicine in the last few years indicates promise for the use of stem cells in the treatment of ophthalmic disorders. Experimental and human studies with intravitreal bone marrow-derived stem cells have begun. This paper reviews recent advances and potential sources of stem cells for cell therapy in retinal diseases. PMID:22206617

  4. Applications of Microfluidics in Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiucen; Austin, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell research can significantly benefit from recent advances of microfluidics technology. In a rationally designed microfluidics device, analyses of stem cells can be done in a much deeper and wider way than in a conventional tissue culture dish. Miniaturization makes analyses operated in a high-throughput fashion, while controls of fluids help to reconstruct the physiological environments. Through integration with present characterization tools like fluorescent microscope, microfluidics offers a systematic way to study the decision-making process of stem cells, which has attractive medical applications. In this paper, recent progress of microfluidics devices on stem cell research are discussed. The purpose of this review is to highlight some key features of microfluidics for stem cell biologists, as well as provide physicists/engineers an overview of how microfluidics has been and could be used for stem cell research. PMID:23336098

  5. Fueling Hope: Stem Cells in Social Media.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Julie M; Cabral, Emanuel; Hennessey, Craig; Kwon, Brian K; Illes, Judy

    2015-08-01

    Social media is broadening opportunities to engage in discussions about biomedical advances such as stem cell research. However, little is known about how information pertaining to stem cells is disseminated on platforms such as Twitter. To fill this gap, we conducted a content analysis of tweets containing (i) a stem cell keyword, and (ii) a keyword related to either spinal cord injury (SCI) or Parkinson disease (PD). We found that the discussion about stem cells and SCI or PD revolves around different aspects of the research process. We also found that the tone of most tweets about stem cells is either positive or neutral. The findings contribute new knowledge about Twitter as a connecting platform for many voices and as a key tool for the dissemination of information about stem cells and disorders of the central nervous system. PMID:25893594

  6. Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells

    SciTech Connect

    LaBarge, Mark A; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2007-06-01

    In most adult tissues there reside pools of stem and progenitor cells inside specialized microenvironments referred to as niches. The niche protects the stem cells from inappropriate expansion and directs their critical functions. Thus guided, stem cells are able to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout the ebb and flow of metabolic and physical demands encountered over a lifetime. Indeed, a pool of stem cells maintains mammary gland structure throughout development, and responds to the physiological demands associated with pregnancy. This review discusses how stem cells were identified in both human and mouse mammary glands; each requiring different techniques that were determined by differing biological needs and ethical constraints. These studies together create a robust portrait of mammary gland biology and identify the location of the stem cell niche, elucidate a developmental hierarchy, and suggest how the niche might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

  7. Two-photon imaging of stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchugonova, A.; Gorjup, E.; Riemann, I.; Sauer, D.; König, K.

    2008-02-01

    A variety of human and animal stem cells (rat and human adult pancreatic stem cells, salivary gland stem cells, dental pulpa stem cells) have been investigated by femtosecond laser 5D two-photon microscopy. Autofluorescence and second harmonic generation have been imaged with submicron spatial resolution, 270 ps temporal resolution, and 10 nm spectral resolution. In particular, NADH and flavoprotein fluorescence was detected in stem cells. Major emission peaks at 460nm and 530nm with typical mean fluorescence lifetimes of 1.8 ns and 2.0 ns, respectively, were measured using time-correlated single photon counting and spectral imaging. Differentiated stem cells produced the extracellular matrix protein collagen which was detected by SHG signals at 435 nm.

  8. Generation of Thyroid Follicular Cells from Pluripotent Stem Cells: Potential for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Will; Lin, Reigh-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 12% of the population in the United States will be afflicted with a thyroid related disorder during their lifetime. Common treatment approaches are tailored to the specific disorder and include surgery, radioactive iodine ablation, antithyroid drugs, thyroid hormone replacement, external beam radiation, and chemotherapy. Regenerative medicine endeavors to combat disease by replacing or regenerating damaged, diseased, or dysfunctional body parts. A series of achievements in pluripotent stem cell research have transformed regenerative medicine in many ways by demonstrating “repair” of a number of body parts in mice, of which, the thyroid has now been inducted into this special group. Seminal work in pluripotent cells, namely embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, have made possible their path to becoming key tools and biological building blocks for cell-based regenerative medicine to combat the gamut of human diseases, including those affecting the thyroid. PMID:24995001

  9. The topographical regulation of embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Patricia; Edgar, David

    2004-01-01

    The potential use of pluripotent stem cells for tissue repair or replacement is now well recognized. While the ability of embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate into all cells of the body is undisputed, their use is currently restricted by our limited knowledge of the mechanisms controlling their differentiation. This review discusses recent work by ourselves and others investigating the intercellular signalling events that occur within aggregates of mouse ES cells. The work illustrates that the processes of ES cell differentiation, epithelialization and programmed cell death are dependent upon their location within the aggregates and coordinated by the extracellular matrix. Establishment of the mechanisms involved in these events is not only of use for the manipulation of ES cells themselves, but it also throws light on the ways in which differentiation is coordinated during embryogenesis. PMID:15306413

  10. Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes for Cardiac Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lundy, Scott D.; Gantz, Jay A.; Pagan, Chelsea M.; Filice, Dominic; Laflamme, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion Statement The adult mammalian heart has limited capacity for generation, so a major injury such as a myocardial infarction results in the permanent loss of up to one billion cardiomyocytes. The field of cardiac cell therapy aims to replace these lost contractile units with de novo cardiomyocytes to restore lost systolic function and prevent progression to heart failure. Arguably the ideal cell for this application is the human cardiomyocyte itself, which can electromechanically couple with host myocardium and contribute active systolic force. Pluripotent stem cells from both human embryonic or induced pluripotent lineages are attractive sources for cardiomyocytes, and preclinical investigation of these cells is in progress. Recent work has focused on efficient generation and purification of cardiomyocytes, tissue engineering efforts, and examining the consequences of cell transplantation from mechanical, vascular, and electrical standpoints. Here we discuss historical and contemporary aspects of pluripotent stem cell-based cardiac cell therapy, with an emphasis on recent preclinical studies with translational goals. PMID:24838687

  11. Mismatch repair deficiencies transforming stem cells into cancer stem cells and therapeutic implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minal Vaish

    2007-01-01

    For the exceptional self-renewal capacity, regulated cell proliferation and differential potential to a wide variety of cell types, the stem cells must maintain the intact genome. The cells under continuous exogenous and endogenous genotoxic stress accumulate DNA errors, drive proliferative expansion and transform into cancer stem cells with a heterogeneous population of tumor cells. These cells are a common phenomenon

  12. Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells

    E-print Network

    Kim, K.

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer and transcription-factor-based reprogramming revert adult cells to an embryonic state, and yield pluripotent stem cells that can generate all tissues. Through different mechanisms and kinetics, ...

  13. Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. LaBarge; Ole W. Petersen; Mina J. Bissell

    2007-01-01

    In most adult tissues there reside pools of stem and progenitor cells inside specialized microenvironments referred to as\\u000a niches. The niche protects the stem cells from inappropriate expansion and directs their critical functions. Thus guided,\\u000a stem cells are able to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout the ebb and flow of metabolic and physical demands encountered\\u000a over a lifetime. Indeed, a pool

  14. Towards predictive models of stem cell fate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sowmya Viswanathan; Peter W. Zandstra

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative approaches are essential for the advancement of strategies to manipulate stem cells or their derivatives for\\u000a therapeutic applications. Predictive models of stem cell systems would provide the means to pose and validate non-intuitive\\u000a hypotheses and could thus serve as an important tool for discerning underlying regulatory mechanisms governing stem cell fate\\u000a decisions. In this paper we review the development

  15. Stem cell banking: between traceability and identifiability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bartha M Knoppers; Rosario Isasi

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell banks are increasingly seen as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational research.\\u000a Stem cell banks support transnational access to quality-controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines from different origins\\u000a and of varying grades. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, advances in regenerative medicine\\u000a are leading to the development of a

  16. Clinical trials for stem cell therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Trounson; Rahul G. Thakar; Geoff Lomax; Don Gibbons

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, clinical trials with stem cells have taken the emerging field in many new directions. While numerous teams\\u000a continue to refine and expand the role of bone marrow and cord blood stem cells for their vanguard uses in blood and immune\\u000a disorders, many others are looking to expand the uses of the various types of stem cells found

  17. Stem cell sources for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Ali M; Kwon, Sarah Y; Stanford, William L

    2009-01-01

    Tissue-resident stem cells or primitive progenitors play an integral role in homeostasis of most organ systems. Recent developments in methodologies to isolate and culture embryonic and somatic stem cells have many new applications poised for clinical and preclinical trials, which will enable the potential of regenerative medicine to be realized. Here, we overview the current progress in therapeutic applications of various stem cells and discuss technical and social hurdles that must be overcome for their potential to be realized. PMID:19089350

  18. Identification of Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenwei Li; David G. Heidt; Piero Dalerba; Charles F. Burant; Lanjing Zhang; Volkan Adsay; Max Wicha; Michael F. Clarke; Diane M. Simeone

    Emerging evidence has suggested that the capability of a tumor to grow and propagate is dependent on a small subset of cells within a tumor, termed cancer stem cells. Although data have been provided to support this theory in human blood, brain, and breast cancers, the identity of pancreatic cancer stem cells has not been determined. Using a xenograft model

  19. Stem Cells, Phenotypic Inversion, and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Siggins, Robert W.; Zhang, Ping; Welsh, David; LeCapitaine, Nicole J.; Nelson, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells possess the potential to cure a myriad of ailments ranging from congenital diseases to illnesses acquired through the physiological process of aging. In the adult, these cells are extremely rare and often difficult to isolate in numbers sufficient to apply to medical treatment. Ex vivo expansion of these cells will be required for most meaningful interventions. The discovery of stem/progenitor cell inversion offers a new avenue for obtaining sufficient numbers of stem cells. Adult progenitor cells are much more common than quiescent stem cells and can be isolated with minimal interventions; therefore, inversion of progenitors to stem cells may become a feasible approach for therapeutic purposes. Stem cells are known to possess few mitochondria, and mitochondrial biogenesis is required for stem cell differentiation. The microtubule cytoskeleton is a major regulator for mitochondrial biogenesis. Investigations in the area of controlling cell differentiation and inducing phenotypic inversion, possibly through manipulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, may contribute to stem cell-based therapies. PMID:19079683

  20. Wnt signalling in stem cells and cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tannishtha Reya; Hans Clevers

    2005-01-01

    The canonical Wnt cascade has emerged as a critical regulator of stem cells. In many tissues, activation of Wnt signalling has also been associated with cancer. This has raised the possibility that the tightly regulated self-renewal mediated by Wnt signalling in stem and progenitor cells is subverted in cancer cells to allow malignant proliferation. Insights gained from understanding how the

  1. Stem Cells and Tissue-Engineered Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Charruyer; R. Ghadially

    2009-01-01

    Advances in tissue engineering of skin are needed for clinical applications (as in wound healing and gene therapy) for cutaneous and systemic diseases. In this paper we review the use of epidermal stem cells as a source of cells to improve tissue-engineered skin. We discuss the importance and limitations of epidermal stem cell isolation using biomarkers, in quest of a

  2. Induced pluripotent stem cells from goat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Gu, Chenghao; Wang, Ziyu; Dong, Fulu; Wang, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful model for genetic engineering, studying developmental biology, and modeling disease. To date, ESCs have been established from the mouse (Evans and Kaufman, 1981, Nature 292:154-156), non-human primates (Thomson et al., , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 92:7844-7848), humans (Thomson et al., 1998, Science 282:1145-1147), and rats (Buehr et al., , Cell 135:1287-1298); however, the derivation of ESCs from domesticated ungulates such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs have not been successful. Alternatively, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells with several combinations of genes encoding transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG). To date, iPSCs have been isolated from various species, but only limited information is available regarding goat iPSCs (Ren et al., 2011, Cell Res 21:849-853). The objectives of this study were to generate goat iPSCs from fetal goat primary ear fibroblasts using lentiviral transduction of four human transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The goat iPSCs were successfully generated by co-culture with mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts using medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and human basic fibroblast growth factor. The goat iPSCs colonies are flat, compact, and closely resemble human iPSCs. They have a normal karyotype; stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and NANOG; express endogenous pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, and NANOG); and can spontaneously differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24123501

  3. Stem Cell Differentiation DOI: 10.1002/anie.201108746

    E-print Network

    Kilian, Kristopher A.

    Stem Cell Differentiation DOI: 10.1002/anie.201108746 Directing Stem Cell Fate by Controlling and Milan Mrksich* Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adherent multipotent stem cells from bone marrow that of embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells, and are an established model for these applications.[7] We prepared

  4. The nature of stem cells: state rather than entity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dov Zipori

    2004-01-01

    Stem cells are endowed with self-renewal and multipotential differentiation capacities. Contrary to the expectation that stem cells would selectively express specific genes, these cells have a highly promiscuous gene-expression pattern. Here, I suggest that the transient stem cell state, termed the 'stem state', may be assumed by any cell and that the search for specific genes expressed by all stem

  5. Targeting the stem cell niche: squeezing blood from bones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Ballen

    2007-01-01

    During human development, stem cells establish themselves in specific anatomic locations or niches. The niche harbors the stem cells, and regulates how stem cells proliferate. The interaction between stem cells and their niche affects stem cell function, and offers an opportunity to improve the marrow microenvironment. Osteoblasts produce hematopoietic growth factors and are activated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). A calcium

  6. New perspectives in human stem cell therapeutic research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Trounson

    2009-01-01

    Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but

  7. Substrates for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Cultures in Conditioned Medium of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Ueda; Satoshi Fujita; Tatsuya Nishigaki; Yusuke Arima; Hiroo Iwata

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a culture system of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), free from xenogeneic proteins, Matrigel and conditioned medium of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The conditioned culture medium consisted of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human bone marrow. We examined surface properties suitable for hPSC

  8. III. Stem Cells and Their Asymmetric Cell Divisions Stem cells to synapses: regulation of self-renewal and differentiation in

    E-print Network

    Kazama, Hokto

    III. Stem Cells and Their Asymmetric Cell Divisions Stem cells to synapses: regulation of self The Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge UK CB2 1QN Discovering how stem fates is a key step in the therapeutic use of stem cells to repair tissues after damage or disease. We

  9. Stem cell research, in Parliament.

    PubMed

    Late autumn and early winter have seen a flurry of Parliamentary activity about the law and ethics of embryonic stem cell research. This follows publication of the Chief Medical Officer's Expert Group's report on the subject (see Bulletin 160), the first recommendation of which was that such research should be permitted by means of a regulation under the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. The following records some of the episodes in that activity with extracts from some of the speeches made. PMID:11831256

  10. Cell Stem Cell Limited Acquisition of Chromosomal Aberrations

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cell Stem Cell Letters Limited Acquisition of Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Adult Mesenchymal 4Emory University Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA 5Section of Hematology, Stem Cell.sensebe@efs.sante.fr DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2011.12.005 In their recent article entitled ``Large-Scale Analysis Reveals

  11. Increased survival and migration of engrafted mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rodents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Hellmann; H. Panet; Y. Barhum; E. Melamed; D. Offen

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Attempted replacement of these neurons by stem cells has proved inconclusive. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent, differentiating into a variety of cells, including neuron-like cells. We used the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) animal model of Parkinson's disease to assess migration and differentiation of transplanted MSC.

  12. Adult stem-like cells in kidney

    PubMed Central

    Hishikawa, Keiichi; Takase, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Taro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent cells are promising for treatment for kidney diseases, but the protocols for derivation of kidney cell types are still controversial. Kidney tissue regeneration is well confirmed in several lower vertebrates such as fish, and the repair of nephrons after tubular damages is commonly observed after renal injury. Even in adult mammal kidney, renal progenitor cell or system is reportedly presents suggesting that adult stem-like cells in kidney can be practical clinical targets for kidney diseases. However, it is still unclear if kidney stem cells or stem-like cells exist or not. In general, stemness is defined by several factors such as self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potency and characteristic gene expression profiles. The definite use of stemness may be obstacle to understand kidney regeneration, and here we describe the recent broad findings of kidney regeneration and the cells that contribute regeneration. PMID:25815133

  13. Adult stem-like cells in kidney.

    PubMed

    Hishikawa, Keiichi; Takase, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Taro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-26

    Human pluripotent cells are promising for treatment for kidney diseases, but the protocols for derivation of kidney cell types are still controversial. Kidney tissue regeneration is well confirmed in several lower vertebrates such as fish, and the repair of nephrons after tubular damages is commonly observed after renal injury. Even in adult mammal kidney, renal progenitor cell or system is reportedly presents suggesting that adult stem-like cells in kidney can be practical clinical targets for kidney diseases. However, it is still unclear if kidney stem cells or stem-like cells exist or not. In general, stemness is defined by several factors such as self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potency and characteristic gene expression profiles. The definite use of stemness may be obstacle to understand kidney regeneration, and here we describe the recent broad findings of kidney regeneration and the cells that contribute regeneration. PMID:25815133

  14. Nonclinical safety strategies for stem cell therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Michaela E., E-mail: michaela_sharpe@yahoo.com [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom); Morton, Daniel [Exploratory Drug Safety, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, 02140 (United States)] [Exploratory Drug Safety, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, 02140 (United States); Rossi, Annamaria [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom)] [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology, especially the development of the induced pluripotent stem cell techniques, have generated tremendous enthusiasm and efforts to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapies are being considered for the treatment of degenerative diseases, inflammatory conditions, cancer and repair of damaged tissue. The safety of a stem cell therapy depends on many factors including the type of cell therapy, the differentiation status and proliferation capacity of the cells, the route of administration, the intended clinical location, long term survival of the product and/or engraftment, the need for repeated administration, the disease to be treated and the age of the population. Understanding the product profile of the intended therapy is crucial to the development of the nonclinical safety study design.

  15. The potential of stem cells for the restoration of auditory function in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhengqing; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most common disabilities, affecting approximately 10% of the population. Hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons are usually damaged in most cases of hearing loss. Currently, there is virtually no biological approach to replace damaged hearing cells. Recent developments in stem cell technology provide new opportunities for the treatment of deafness. Two major strategies have been investigated: differentiation of endogenous stem cells into new hair cells; and introduction of exogenous cells into the inner ear to substitute injured hearing neurons. Although there is still a learning curve in stem cell-based replacement, the probability exists to utilize personalized stem cells to eventually provide a novel intervention for patients with deafness in future clinical research trials. PMID:23627825

  16. Stem cells and lineages of the intestine: a developmental and evolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Shigeo; Gold, David; Hartenstein, Volker

    2012-01-01

    The intestine consists of epithelial cells that secrete digestive enzymes and mucus (gland cells), absorb food particles (enterocytes), and produce hormones (endocrine cells). Intestinal cells are rapidly turned over and need to be replaced. In cnidarians, mitosis of differentiated intestinal cells accounts for much of the replacement; in addition, migratory, multipotent stem cells (interstitial cells) contribute to the production of intestinal cells. In other phyla, intestinal cell replacement is solely the function of stem cells entering the gut from the outside (such as in case of the neoblasts of platyhelmints) or intestinal stem cells located within the midgut epithelium (as in both vertebrates or arthropods). We will attempt in the following to review important aspects of midgut stem cells in different animal groups: where are they located, what types of lineages do they produce, and how do they develop. We will start out with a comparative survey of midgut cell types found across the animal kingdom; then briefly look at the specification of these cells during embryonic development; and finally focus on the stem cells that regenerate midgut cells during adult life. In a number of model systems, including mouse, zebrafish and Drosophila, the molecular pathways controlling ISC proliferation and the specification of intestinal cell types are under intensive investigation. We will highlight findings of the recent literature, focusing on aspects that are shared between the different models and that point at evolutionary ancient mechanisms of intestinal cell formation. PMID:23179635

  17. Stem cell research and transplantation: science leading ethics.

    PubMed

    Daar, A S; Bhatt, A; Court, E; Singer, P A

    2004-10-01

    One of the most exciting developments in the biological sciences in the past decade has been the discovery and characterization of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The interest to transplanters is the potential applications of stem cells in regenerative medicine (RM), which may involve tissue engineering, genetic engineering, and other techniques to repair, replace, or regenerate failing tissues and organs. There is little controversy surrounding human adult stem cells. However, human ESCs are surrounded by a number of ethical controversies, the extent of which is partly dependent on their source. Those derived from currently existing embryonic stem cell lines are less controversial than those derived from "excess" embryos from in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics, while ESCs derived from IVF embryos specifically created for the purpose are not acceptable to many people arguing from religious and other moral perspectives. Somatic cell nuclear transfer, or therapeutic cloning, must be distinguished from reproductive cloning. It holds the most promise for regenerative medicine. ESCs can also be derived from gonadal ridges of aborted fetuses. The transplant community must strive to uphold societal values in its effort to find remedies for their ailing patients and address the perennial problem of organ shortage. Transplanters also have a responsibility to engage the public in their efforts to gain public understanding and support, and policy makers must take into account public opinion. Only in this way can we realize the great potential of stem cell research for organ transplantation. PMID:15561296

  18. Nanoparticles Based Stem Cell Tracking in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Edmundson, Matthew; Thanh, Nguyen TK; Song, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapies offer great potentials in the treatment for a wide range of diseases and conditions. With so many stem cell replacement therapies going through clinical trials currently, there is a great need to understand the mechanisms behind a successful therapy, and one of the critical points of discovering them is to track stem cell migration, proliferation and differentiation in vivo. To be of most use tracking methods should ideally be non-invasive, high resolution and allow tracking in three dimensions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the ideal methods, but requires a suitable contrast agent to be loaded to the cells to be tracked, and one of the most wide-spread in stem cell tracking is a group of agents known as magnetic nanoparticles. This review will explore the current use of magnetic nanoparticles in developing and performing stem cell therapies, and will investigate their potential limitations and the future directions magnetic nanoparticle tracking is heading in. PMID:23946823

  19. Isolation and directed differentiation of neural crest stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabsang Lee; Hyesoo Kim; Yechiel Elkabetz; George Al Shamy; Georgia Panagiotakos; Tiziano Barberi; Viviane Tabar; Lorenz Studer

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate neural crest development depends on pluripotent, migratory precursor cells. Although avian and murine neural crest stem (NCS) cells have been identified, the isolation of human NCS cells has remained elusive. Here we report the derivation of NCS cells from human embryonic stem cells at the neural rosette stage. We show that NCS cells plated at clonal density give rise

  20. Stiffness optimisation of cement and stem materials in total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Hedia, H S

    2001-01-01

    It is acknowledged that bone resorption and fatigue fracture of cement in total hip replacement may cause feature problems. The solution is frequently sought associated with the stiffness of cement and stem. The purpose of this paper is firstly to describe the effect of changes in modulus of elasticity of the cement material for the implanted prosthesis on the fatigue notch factor (Kf). The paper further describes a method of numerical optimisation to determine the optimal stiffness characteristics of cement and stem materials, which minimises the probability of fatigue fracture of cement at all interfaces with the stem and the bone, while limiting the amount of bone resorbed. The parameters describing the elastic moduli of cement and stem were considered as design variables. The method was applied to an equivalent 2D finite element model of femoral hip replacement in combination with an optimisation procedure using the ANSYS program. The results of the first study suggest that lower modulus of elasticity of cement material decreases Kf in the cement at all interfaces and proximal bone while higher values increase Kf. For the second aim, Young's moduli of about 0.6 and 22 GPa are optimal for cement and stem materials, respectively. These characteristics decreased the probability of fatigue fracture of cement at all interfaces with the stem and the bone as a result of decreasing Kf in cement at all interfaces, while limiting the amount of bone resorbed as a result of increasing Kf in the proximal bone. PMID:11281574

  1. Control of Embryonic Stem Cell State

    PubMed Central

    Young, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, which can be propagated in culture in an undifferentiated state but induced to differentiate into specialized cell types, hold great promise for regenerative medicine. Moreover, these cells provide a powerful model system for studies of cellular identity and early mammalian development. Insights into the transcriptional control of embryonic stem cell state, including the regulatory circuitry underlying pluripotency and cellular reprogramming, have emerged from the study of these cells. These studies have also revealed fundamental mechanisms that control vertebrate gene expression, connect gene expression to chromosome structure, and contribute to human disease. PMID:21414485

  2. Synthetic Niches for Stem Cell Differentiation into T cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ankur Singh; Krishnendu Roy

    \\u000a T cell development from hematopoietic stem cells takes place in the thymus under precisely controlled intercellular signaling\\u000a between the stem cells and thymic stromal and epithelial cells. In vitro or ex vivo development of mature T cells from stem\\u000a cells faces two primary hurdles; one being the inability of culture conditions to provide a three dimensional thymic niche\\u000a with lineage-specific

  3. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Somatic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junying Yu; Maxim A. Vodyanik; Kim Smuga-Otto; Jessica Antosiewicz-Bourget; Jennifer L. Frane; Shulan Tian; Jeff Nie; Gudrun A. Jonsdottir; Victor Ruotti; Ron Stewart; Igor I. Slukvin; James A. Thomson

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows trans-acting factors present in the mammalian oocyte to reprogram somatic cell nuclei to an undifferentiated state. We show that four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28) are sufficient to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells that exhibit the essential characteristics of embryonic stem (ES) cells. These induced pluripotent human stem cells have normal

  4. Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tata, Purushothama Rao; Mou, Hongmei; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Zhao, Rui; Prabhu, Mythili; Prabhu, Mythili; Law, Brandon M.; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Cho, Josalyn L.; Breton, Sylvie; Sahay, Amar; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cellular plasticity contributes to the regenerative capacity of plants, invertebrates, teleost fishes, and amphibians. In vertebrates, differentiated cells are known to revert into replicating progenitors, but these cells do not persist as stable stem cells. We now present evidence that differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. Following the ablation of airway stem cells, we observed a surprising increase in the proliferation of committed secretory cells. Subsequent lineage tracing demonstrated that the luminal secretory cells had dedifferentiated into basal stem cells. Dedifferentiated cells were morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells and they functioned as well as their endogenous counterparts to repair epithelial injury. Indeed, single secretory cells clonally dedifferentiated into multipotent stem cells when they were cultured ex vivo without basal stem cells. In contrast, direct contact with a single basal stem cell was sufficient to prevent secretory cell dedifferentiation. In analogy to classical descriptions of amphibian nuclear reprogramming, the propensity of committed cells to dedifferentiate was inversely correlated to their state of maturity. This capacity of committed cells to dedifferentiate into stem cells may play a more general role in the regeneration of many tissues and in multiple disease states, notably cancer. PMID:24196716

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells: A promising candidate in regenerative medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye Chen; Jian-Zhong Shao; Li-Xin Xiang; Xue-Jun Dong; Guo-Rong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells were initially characterized as plastic adherent, fibroblastoid cells. In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on mesenchymal stem cells since they have great plasticity and are potential for therapeutic applications. Mesenchymal stem cells or mesenchymal stem cell-like cells have been shown to reside within the connective tissues of most organs. These cells can differentiate into

  6. Stem Cell Biology and it Application to Biotechnology

    E-print Network

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    Stem Cell Biology and it Application to Biotechnology Srivatsan Kidambi, Ph.D. Assistant Professor.edu Stem Cell Engineering-What, Why, How?? #12;Cells of the Human Body · The human body is composed of many cells have the same potential ­Some cells remain "immature"--these are stem cells ­When stem cells

  7. Spermatogenesis From Transplanted Spermatogenic Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Griswold; Derek McLean

    Spermatogenesis is a biological process that results in the conversion of the relatively undifferentiated germ cell into the\\u000a highly differentiated spermatozoan. In man, the process initiates at puberty and may be continuous for the adult life of the\\u000a individual. The cells that replenish the differentiating cells are the spermatogenic stem cells. These male germ line stem\\u000a cells can both self-renew

  8. Cancer stem cells in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Lathia, Justin D; Mack, Stephen C; Mulkearns-Hubert, Erin E; Valentim, Claudia L L; Rich, Jeremy N

    2015-06-15

    Tissues with defined cellular hierarchies in development and homeostasis give rise to tumors with cellular hierarchies, suggesting that tumors recapitulate specific tissues and mimic their origins. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant primary brain tumor and contains self-renewing, tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contribute to tumor initiation and therapeutic resistance. As normal stem and progenitor cells participate in tissue development and repair, these developmental programs re-emerge in CSCs to support the development and progressive growth of tumors. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that govern CSCs has informed the development of novel targeted therapeutics for GBM and other brain cancers. CSCs are not self-autonomous units; rather, they function within an ecological system, both actively remodeling the microenvironment and receiving critical maintenance cues from their niches. To fulfill the future goal of developing novel therapies to collapse CSC dynamics, drawing parallels to other normal and pathological states that are highly interactive with their microenvironments and that use developmental signaling pathways will be beneficial. PMID:26109046

  9. Stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Runhui

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify global research trends of stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrievals for stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease from 2002 to 2011 using the Web of Science. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed articles on stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease which were published and indexed in the Web of Science; (b) type of articles: original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material and news items; (c) year of publication: 2002–2011. Exclusion criteria: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) we excluded documents that were not published in the public domain; (c) we excluded a number of corrected papers from the total number of articles. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Type of literature; (2) annual publication output; (3) distribution according to journals; (4) distribution according to subject areas; (5) distribution according to country; (6) distribution according to institution; (7) comparison of countries that published the most papers on stem cell transplantation from different cell sources for treating Parkinson's disease; (8) comparison of institutions that published the most papers on stem cell transplantation from different cell sources for treating Parkinson's disease in the Web of Science from 2002 to 2011; (9) comparison of studies on stem cell transplantation from different cell sources for treating Parkinson's disease RESULTS: In total, 1 062 studies on stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease appeared in the Web of Science from 2002 to 2011, almost one third of which were from American authors and institutes. The number of studies on stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease had gradually increased over the past 10 years. Papers on stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease appeared in journals such as Stem Cells and Experimental Neurology. Although the United States published more articles addressing neural stem cell and embryonic stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease, China ranked first for articles published on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease. CONCLUSION: From our analysis of the literature and research trends, we found that stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease may offer further benefits in regenerative medicine. PMID:25709626

  10. Induced pluripotent stem cells and reprogramming: seeing the science through the hype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte; James Ellis; Konrad Hochedlinger; Shinya Yamanaka

    2009-01-01

    No-one can have failed to notice the splash that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have made in the few years since somatic cells were first reprogrammed to pluripotency. But what is their real promise, where should research efforts be focused, and are we at a stage where we can replace embryonic stem cells? Four pioneering iPS cell researchers offer their

  11. Transdifferentiation of Stem Cells: A Critical View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruh, Ina; Martin, Ulrich

    Recently a large amount of new data on the plasticity of stem cells of various lineages have emerged, providing new perspectives especially for the therapeutic application of adult stem cells. Previously unknown possibilities of cell differentiation beyond the known commitment of a given stem cell have been described using keywords such as "blood to liver," or "bone to brain." Controversies on the likelihood, as well as the biological significance, of these conversions almost immediately arose within this young field of stem cell biology. This chapter will concentrate on these controversies and focus on selected examples demonstrating the technical aspects of stem cell transdifferentiation and the evaluation of the tools used to analyze these events.

  12. Human mesenchymal stem cells support unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cells and suppress T-cell activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Maitra; E Szekely; K Gjini; M J Laughlin; J Dennis; S E Haynesworth; O N Koç

    2004-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to interact with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and immune cells, and represent potential cellular therapy to enhance allogeneic hematopoietic engraftment and prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We investigated the role of human MSCs in NOD-SCID mice repopulation by unrelated human hematopoietic cells and studied the immune interactions between human MSCs and unrelated donor

  13. Emergence of Patterned Stem Cell Differentiation Within Multicellular Structures

    E-print Network

    Chen, Christopher S.

    , Pennsylvania, USA Key Words. Mesenchymal stem cells · Differentiation · Three-dimensional · Patterning ABSTRACTEmergence of Patterned Stem Cell Differentiation Within Multicellular Structures SAMI ALOM RUIZ The ability of stem cells to differentiate into specified lineages in the appropriate locations is vital

  14. Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays CONNIEEAVES,CINDYMILLER,JOHANNE CASHMAN Columbia, Canada Key Words.Hematopoietic stem cells Transplantation Cord blood. Expansion Growthfactors murine hematopoietic stem cells to be quantitated. Measurements of murine CRU have shown

  15. Kidney tubular epithelium is restored without replacement with bone marrow–derived cells during repair after ischemic injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEREMY S DUFFIELD; JOSEPH V BONVENTRE

    2005-01-01

    Kidney tubular epithelium is restored without replacement with bone marrow–derived cells during repair after ischemic injury. The kidney has the ability to restore the structural and functional integrity of the proximal tubule, which undergoes extensive epithelial cell death after prolonged exposure to ischemia. In order to study the role that adult bone marrow–derived stem cells might play in kidney remodeling

  16. Implication of femoral stem on performance of articular surface replacement (ASR) XL total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cip, Johannes; von Strempel, Archibald; Bach, Christian; Luegmair, Matthias; Benesch, Thomas; Martin, Arno

    2014-11-01

    Taper junctions of large diameter metal-on-metal femoral heads and femoral stems were described as metal ion generator due to accelerated wear and corrosion. However, literature about the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) total hip arthroplasty (THA) invariably deals with stems manufactured by DePuy Orthopedics (Warsaw, IN, USA). Nothing is known whether different stems with common 12/14 mm tapers affect failure rate or ion release. 99 ASR THA (88 patients) implanted with CoxaFit or ARGE Geradschaft stems (K-Implant, Hannover, Germany) were retrospectively analyzed. After a mean follow-up of 3.5 years revision rate was 24.5%, mostly due to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). CT scan revealed component loosening in 10.3% and pseudotumoral lesions in 12.6%. Elevated ion concentrations (>7 ?g/l) were found in 38.6%. PMID:25108735

  17. Stem-cell hierarchy in skin cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesus Perez-Losada; Allan Balmain

    2003-01-01

    Tumour architecture mimics many of the features of normal tissues, with a cellular hierarchy that regulates the balance between cell renewal and cell death. Although many tumours contain cells with the characteristics of stem cells, the identity of the normal cells that acquire the first genetic hits leading to initiation of carcinogenesis has remained elusive. Identification of the primary cell

  18. Small molecules, big roles – the chemical manipulation of stem cell fate and somatic cell reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Wenlin; Laurent, Timothy; Ding, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Summary Despite the great potential of stem cells for basic research and clinical applications, obstacles – such as their scarce availability and difficulty in controlling their fate – need to be addressed to fully realize their potential. Recent achievements of cellular reprogramming have enabled the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or other lineage-committed cells from more accessible and abundant somatic cell types by defined genetic factors. However, serious concerns remain about the efficiency and safety of current genetic approaches to cell reprogramming and traditional culture systems that are used for stem cell maintenance. As a complementary approach, small molecules that target specific signaling pathways, epigenetic processes and other cellular processes offer powerful tools for manipulating cell fate to a desired outcome. A growing number of small molecules have been identified to maintain the self-renewal potential of stem cells, to induce lineage differentiation and to facilitate reprogramming by increasing the efficiency of reprogramming or by replacing genetic reprogramming factors. Furthermore, mechanistic investigations of the effects of these chemicals also provide new biological insights. Here, we examine recent achievements in the maintenance of stem cells, including pluripotent and lineage-specific stem cells, and in the control of cell fate conversions, including iPSC reprogramming, conversion of primed to naďve pluripotency, and transdifferentiation, with an emphasis on manipulation with small molecules. PMID:23420199

  19. Adult Stem Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Berardi, Emanuele; Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Satellite cells are unipotent stem cells involved in muscle regeneration. However, the skeletal muscle microenvironment exerts a dominant influence over stem cell function. The cell intrinsic complexity of the skeletal muscle niche located within the connective tissue between fibers includes motor neurons, tendons, blood vessels, immune response mediators and interstitial cells. All these cell types modulate the trafficking of stimuli responsible of muscle fiber regeneration. In addition, several stem cell types have been discovered in skeletal muscle tissue, mainly located in the interstitium. The majority of these stem cells appears to directly contribute to myogenic differentiation, although some of them are mainly implicated in paracrine effects. This review focuses on adult stem cells, which have been used for therapeutic purposes, mainly in animal models of chronic muscle degeneration. Emerging literature identifies other myogenic progenitors generated from pluripotent stem cells as potential candidates for the treatment of skeletal muscle degeneration. However, adult stem cells still represent the gold standard for future comparative studies. PMID:26122100

  20. How Stem Cells Speak with Host Immune Cells in Inflammatory Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pluchino, Stefano; Cossetti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised great expectations that diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) may be ameliorated by the development of non-hematopoietic stem cell medicines. Yet, the application of adult stem cells as CNS therapeutics is challenging and the interpretation of some of the outcomes ambiguous. In fact, the initial idea that stem cell transplants work only via structural cell replacement has been challenged by the observation of consistent cellular signaling between the graft and the host. Cellular signaling is the foundation of coordinated actions and flexible responses, and arises via networks of exchanging and interacting molecules that transmit patterns of information between cells. Sustained stem cell graft-to-host communication leads to remarkable trophic effects on endogenous brain cells and beneficial modulatory actions on innate and adaptive immune responses in vivo, ultimately promoting the healing of the injured CNS. Among a number of adult stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are being extensively investigated for their ability to signal to the immune system upon transplantation in experimental CNS diseases. Here, we focus on the main cellular signaling pathways that grafted MSCs and NPCs use to establish a therapeutically relevant cross talk with host immune cells, while examining the role of inflammation in regulating some of the bidirectionality of these communications. We propose that the identification of the players involved in stem cell signaling might contribute to the development of innovative, high clinical impact therapeutics for inflammatory CNS diseases. PMID:23633288

  1. Transplantation and Fate of Tissue Engineered Skins Comprising Human Epidermal Stem Cells and Acellular Amniotic Membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dewu Liu; Jianping Chen; Yuangui Mao

    2009-01-01

    Tissue engineered skins have the potential to overcome the limitations of present large area of skin replacements. To achieve this, we investigated the effect and fate of tissue engineered skins comprising human epidermal stem cells and acellular amniotic membrane after their transplantation to full-thickness skin defect wound, so as to lay a foundation for clinic application. The human epidermal stem

  2. Comparative aspects of adult neural stem cell activity in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Grandel, Heiner; Brand, Michael

    2013-03-01

    At birth or after hatching from the egg, vertebrate brains still contain neural stem cells which reside in specialized niches. In some cases, these stem cells are deployed for further postnatal development of parts of the brain until the final structure is reached. In other cases, postnatal neurogenesis continues as constitutive neurogenesis into adulthood leading to a net increase of the number of neurons with age. Yet, in other cases, stem cells fuel neuronal turnover. An example is protracted development of the cerebellar granular layer in mammals and birds, where neurogenesis continues for a few weeks postnatally until the granular layer has reached its definitive size and stem cells are used up. Cerebellar growth also provides an example of continued neurogenesis during adulthood in teleosts. Again, it is the granular layer that grows as neurogenesis continues and no definite adult cerebellar size is reached. Neuronal turnover is most clearly seen in the telencephalon of male canaries, where projection neurons are replaced in nucleus high vocal centre each year before the start of a new mating season--circuitry reconstruction to achieve changes of the song repertoire in these birds? In this review, we describe these and other examples of adult neurogenesis in different vertebrate taxa. We also compare the structure of the stem cell niches to find common themes in their organization despite different functions adult neurogenesis serves in different species. Finally, we report on regeneration of the zebrafish telencephalon after injury to highlight similarities and differences of constitutive neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration. PMID:23179636

  3. Stem cell transplantation for rheumatic autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hügle; Jacob M van Laar

    2008-01-01

    Immunoablative therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an intensive treatment modality aimed at 'resetting' the dysregulated immune system of a patient with immunoablative therapy and allow outgrowth of a nonautogressive immune system from reinfused hematopoietic stem cells, either from the patient (autologous HSCT) or a healthy donor (allogeneic HSCT). HSCT has been shown to induce profound alterations of

  4. Get to know your stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Momma; Clas B Johansson; Jonas Frisén

    2000-01-01

    Our view of the central nervous system has changed dramatically over the past few years. It is now well established that new neurons are generated continuously in adult mammals, including humans. These neurons derive from self-renewing multipotent neural stem cells. The identity of these stem cells has recently been unveiled.

  5. Stem Cell Imaging: Tips, Tricks & Best Practices

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    n/a n/a (AAAS; )

    2011-09-21

    This webinar focus on best practices for the manipulation and imaging of stem cells in the laboratory, and explains how the latest imaging solutions have been successfully applied for advancement of our understanding of stem cells and their application in disease treatment.

  6. Matrix Elasticity Directs Stem Cell Lineage Specification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam J. Engler; Shamik Sen; H. Lee Sweeney; Dennis E. Discher

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Microenvironments appear important in stem cell lineage specification but can be difficult to adequately characterize or control with soft tis- sues. Naive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) areshownheretospecifylineageandcommitto phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to tissue- level elasticity. Soft matrices that mimic brain are neurogenic, stiffer matricesthat mimicmus- cle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. During

  7. Adult stem cell therapy for the heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K Fraser; Ronda E Schreiber; Patricia A Zuk; Marc H Hedrick

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize current data leading to and arising from recent clinical application of cellular therapy for acute myocardial infarct (heart attack) and congestive heart failure. We specifically focus on use of adult stem cells and compare and contrast bone marrow and adipose tissue; two different sources from which stem cells can be harvested in

  8. Stem cell banking: between traceability and identifiability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell banks are increasingly seen as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational research. Stem cell banks support transnational access to quality-controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines from different origins and of varying grades. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, advances in regenerative medicine are leading to the development of a bioeconomy, 'a world where biotechnology contributes to a significant share of economic output'. Consequently, stem cell banks are destined to constitute a pillar of the bioeconomy in many countries. While certain ethical and legal concerns are specific to the nature of stem cells, stem cell banking could do well to examine the approaches fostered by tissue banking generally. Indeed, the past decade has seen a move to simplify and harmonize biological tissue and data banking so as to foster international interoperability. In particular, the issues of consent and of traceability illustrate not only commonalities but the opportunity for stem cell banking to appreciate the lessons learned in biobanking generally. This paper analyzes convergence and divergence in issues surrounding policy harmonization, transnational sharing, informed consent, traceability and return of results in the context of stem cell banks. PMID:20923580

  9. Gastrointestinal stem cells in development and cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Brabletz; O Schmalhofer; T Brabletz

    2008-01-01

    An enormous body of knowledge about the biology of stem cells and their role in development, tissue homeostasis and cancer formation has been gained in the last 20 years. This review gives a comprehensive overview on knowledge about localization and regulation of normal gastrointestinal stem cells and links it to our understanding of gastrointestinal tumourigenesis and malignant progression in the

  10. Electrospun scaffolds for stem cell engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn H. Lim; Hai-Quan Mao

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells interact with and respond to a myriad of signals emanating from their extracellular microenvironment. The ability to harness the regenerative potential of stem cells via a synthetic matrix has promising implications for regenerative medicine. Electrospun fibrous scaffolds can be prepared with high degree of control over their structure creating highly porous meshes of ultrafine fibers that resemble the

  11. Neural Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells In Vitro: A Road Map to Neurogenesis in the Embryo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elsa Abranches; Margarida Silva; Laurent Pradier; Herbert Schulz; Oliver Hummel; Domingos Henrique; Evguenia Bekman; Gianni Parise

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundThe in vitro generation of neurons from embryonic stem (ES) cells is a promising approach to produce cells suitable for neural tissue repair and cell-based replacement therapies of the nervous system. Available methods to promote ES cell differentiation towards neural lineages attempt to replicate, in different ways, the multistep process of embryonic neural development. However, to achieve this aim in

  12. Cancer stem cells: markers or biomarkers?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy A. Woodward; Erik P. Sulman

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  The lineages assumed by stem cells during hematopoiesis can be identified by the pattern of protein markers present on the\\u000a surface of cells at different stages of differentiation. Specific antibodies directed at these markers have facilitated the\\u000a isolation of hematopoietic stem cells by flow cytometry.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  Similarly, stem cells in solid organs also can be identified using cell surface markers. In

  13. Personalized cardiac regeneration by stem cells–Hype or hope?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Marc Becher; Vedat Tiyerili; Dirk Skowasch; Georg Nickenig; Nikos Werner

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac diseases are the leading cause of death and reach epidemic proportions with aging. Advanced heart disease results\\u000a from an abrupt or progressive loss of contractile cardiomyocytes. Following percutaneous coronary intervention and revascularization\\u000a regenerative medicine aims at effectively repair damaged tissue and replacement of lost cardiomyocytes. However, mixed results\\u000a were obtained from trials using bone marrow-derived stem cells. Benefits were

  14. INTRODUCTION Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are cells that have been

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    INTRODUCTION Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are cells that have been demonstrated to have in a variety of ways since Dexter named them `stromal cells' in the 1980's (6). Caplan designated the term mesenchymal stem cells in the 1990's (7), while others still refer to them as marrow stro- mal cells

  15. 525. Optimized Gene Transfer into Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Embryonic Stem Cells by Modified Adenovirus Vectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Mizuguchi; Kenji Kawabata; Fuminori Sakurai; Tomomi Sasaki; Teruhide Yamaguchi; Takao Hayakawa

    2005-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and embryonic stem (ES) cells are considered a source of cells for regenerative medicine and for cell and gene therapy. Efficient gene transfer into MSCs and ES cells is essential for basic research into cellular differentiation and developmental biology and for therapeutic applications in gene-modified regenerative medicine. In this study, we optimized the transduction of MSCs

  16. Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Bunnell, Bruce A.; Frazier, Trivia; Rowan, Brian; Shah, Forum; Thomas-Porch, Caasy; Wu, Xiying

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the complexity of adipose tissue and its physiological role was not well appreciated. This changed with the discovery of adipokines such as leptin. The cellular composition of adipose tissue is heterogeneous and changes as a function of diabetes and disease states such as diabetes. Tissue engineers view adipose tissue as a rich source of adult stromal/stem cells isolated by collagenase digestion. In vitro and in vivo studies have documented that adipose stromal/stem cells are multipotent, with the ability to differentiate along the adipocyte, chondrocyte, osteoblast and other lineage pathways. The adipose stromal/stem cells secrete a wide range of cytokines and growth factors with potential paracrine actions. Furthermore, adipose stromal/stem cells exert immunomodulatory functions when added to mixed lymphocyte reactions, suggesting that they can be transplanted allogeneically. This review article focuses on these mechanisms of adipose stromal/stem cell action and their potential utility as cellular therapeutics. PMID:23538753

  17. [Stem cells--cloning, plasticity, bioethic].

    PubMed

    Pflegerl, Pamina; Keller, Thomas; Hantusch, Brigitte; Hoffmann, Thomas Sören; Kenner, Lukas

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells with certain characteristics have become promising tools for molecular medicine. They have the potential to self-regenerate and to differentiate into specific tissues. Besides their great potential, embryonic stem cells (ESC) run the risk of enhanced tumorigenesis. The use of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is ethically problematic because their isolation involves the destruction of human embryos. Recently developed methods generate are able to pluripotent stem cells from fibroblasts. Alternatives for ESC are adult stem cells (ASC) derived from bone marrow, cord blood, amniotic fluid and other tissues. The following article is on the basis of testimony of Lukas Kenner for the German Bundestag about the use of ESC for research, therapy and drug development. Ethical aspects are taken into consideration. PMID:18807240

  18. Two Updates on Stem Cell Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In a recent press briefing, stem cell research pioneers James Thomson and John Gearhart announced that, despite political obstacles and limited funding, stem cell research is progressing and clinical trials on human beings should begin within the next five years. The Why Files chronicles the first five years of embryonic stem cell research, covering the science, the politics, and the ethical issues behind this contentious topic (and a closer look at the both the promise and doubt in adult stem cells). The second website -- from CBS News -- covers the press briefing held by Thomson and Gearhart, and offers two interactive features on stem cell research and human cloning, as well as links to related CBS News stories.

  19. Nanotopographical Control of Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Laura E.; McMurray, Rebecca J.; Biggs, Manus J. P.; Kantawong, Fahsai; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Dalby, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into various lineages, and the ability to reliably direct stem cell fate determination would have tremendous potential for basic research and clinical therapy. Nanotopography provides a useful tool for guiding differentiation, as the features are more durable than surface chemistry and can be modified in size and shape to suit the desired application. In this paper, nanotopography is examined as a means to guide differentiation, and its application is described in the context of different subsets of stem cells, with a particular focus on skeletal (mesenchymal) stem cells. To address the mechanistic basis underlying the topographical effects on stem cells, the likely contributions of indirect (biochemical signal-mediated) and direct (force-mediated) mechanotransduction are discussed. Data from proteomic research is also outlined in relation to topography-mediated fate determination, as this approach provides insight into the global molecular changes at the level of the functional effectors. PMID:21350640

  20. Breast cancer stem cells and radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Tiffany Marie

    2007-12-01

    The present studies explore the response of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC's) to radiation and the implications for clinical cancer treatment. Current cancer therapy eliminates bulky tumor mass but may fail to eradicate a critical tumor initiating cell population termed "cancer stem cells". These cells are potentially responsible for tumor formation, metastasis, and recurrence. Recently cancer stem cells have been prospectively identified in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The breast cancer stem cell has been identified by the surface markers CD44+/CD24 -(low). In vitro mammosphere cultures allow for the enrichment of the cancer stem cell population and were utilized in order to study differential characteristics of BCSC's. Initial studies found that BCSC's display increased radiation resistance as compared to other non-stem tumor cells. This resistance was accompanied by decreased H2AX phosphorylation, decreased reactive oxygen species formation, and increased phosphorylation of the checkpoint protein Chk1. These studies suggest differential DNA damage and repair within the BCSC population. Studies then examined the consequences of fractionated radiation on the BCSC population and found a two-fold increase in BCSC's following 5 x 3Gy. This observation begins to tie cancer stem cell self-renewal to the clinical stem cell phenomenon of accelerated repopulation. Accelerated repopulation is observed when treatment gaps increase between sequential fractions of radiotherapy and may be due to cancer stem cell symmetric self-renewal. The balance between asymmetric and symmetric stem cell division is vital for proper maintenance; deregulation is likely linked to cancer initiation and progression. The developmental Notch-1 pathway was found to regulate BCSC division. Over-expressing the constitutively active Notch-1-ICD in MCF7 cells produced an increase in the BCSC population. Additionally, radiation was observed to increase the expression of the Notch-1 ligand, Jagged-1, and this was complemented by radiation induced Notch-1 activation. Studies also linked hypoxia and BCSC renewal through Epo signaling. Treatment with rhEpo induced an increase in BCSC's, which again was due to rhEpo induced Jagged-1 expression and subsequent Notch-1 activation. This thesis suggests that radiation and rhEpo induce Jagged-1 expression in non-stem cells, which then induce Notch-1 activation in adjacent stem cells, and results in symmetric cancer stem cell self-renewal.

  1. SHED: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masako Miura; Stan Gronthos; Mingrui Zhao; Bai Lu; Larry W. Fisher; Pamela Gehron Robey; Songtao Shi

    2003-01-01

    To isolate high-quality human postnatal stem cells from accessible resources is an important goal for stem-cell research. In this study we found that exfoliated human deciduous tooth contains multipotent stem cells [stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED)]. SHED were identified to be a population of highly proliferative, clonogenic cells capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types

  2. DNA damage response in adult stem cells: pathways and consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pankaj K. Mandal; Cédric Blanpain; Derrick J. Rossi

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to postmitotic or short-lived somatic cells, tissue-specific stem cells must persist and function throughout life to ensure tissue homeostasis and repair. The enormous functional demands and longevity of stem cells raises the possibility that stem cells might be uniquely equipped to maintain genomic integrity in ways different than somatic cells. Indeed, evidence suggests that stem cell compartments possess

  3. 2011 Annual Report Institute for Stem Cell Biology

    E-print Network

    Quake, Stephen R.

    and Cancer iPS Cells and Skin Diseases Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Research Embryonic and iPS Cells stem cell science through collaboration across every area of scientific research. We have succeeded of these researchers are working on creating tissue- specific stem cells from pluripotent stem cells. Central to our

  4. Smart Drugs for Smarter Stem Cells: Making SENSe (Sphingolipid-Enhanced Neural Stem Cells) of Ceramide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erhard Bieberich

    2008-01-01

    Ceramide and its derivative sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are important signaling sphingolipids for neural stem cell apoptosis and differentiation. Most recently, our group has shown that novel ceramide analogs can be used to eliminate teratoma (stem cell tumor)-forming cells from a neural stem cell graft. In new studies, we found that S1P promotes survival of specific neural precursor cells that undergo differentiation

  5. Pluripotent stem cells induced from adult neural stem cells by reprogramming with two factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong Beom Kim; Holm Zaehres; Guangming Wu; Luca Gentile; Kinarm Ko; Vittorio Sebastiano; Marcos J. Araúzo-Bravo; David Ruau; Dong Wook Han; Martin Zenke; Hans R. Schöler

    2008-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells is a valuable tool to understand the mechanisms of regaining pluripotency and further opens up the possibility of generating patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. Reprogramming of mouse and human somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells, designated as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, has been possible with the expression of the transcription factor quartet Oct4 (also known as

  6. Cytokine control of adult neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sylvian

    2009-02-01

    The neuropoietic cytokine family includes interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), among others. These cytokines have been shown to alter neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and progenitor cell division and differentiation, which could be mediated by the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. Using neurospheres from the adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ), we found that acute or chronic exposure to LIF or CNTF differentially affects sphere development and sphere growth. Both cytokines also favor the amplification of NSCs. Contrasting results were obtained with IL-6 or leptin, although both cytokines also activate the JAK/STAT pathway. Stimulating NSC self-renewal in vivo could be of therapeutic interest for treating neurodegeneration. When applied to the adult mouse brain, chronic LIF stimulates NSC self-renewal but prevents the emergence of more differentiated progeny. On the other hand, acute LIF treatment stimulates SVZ regeneration, most likely through an increase in NSCs. These results reveal that cytokine effects could vary as a function of exposure duration and suggest that, in the search for strategies to promote brain repair, in vivo acute LIF treatment could promote cell replacement. PMID:19236327

  7. Embryonic stem cells to beta-cells by understanding pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Best, Marie; Carroll, Michael; Hanley, Neil A; Piper Hanley, Karen

    2008-06-25

    Insulin injections treat but do not cure Type 1 diabetes (T1DM). The success of islet transplantation suggests cell replacement therapies may offer a curative strategy. However, cadaver islets are of insufficient number for this to become a widespread treatment. To address this deficiency, the production of beta-cells from pluripotent stem cells offers an ambitious far-sighted opportunity. Recent progress in generating insulin-producing cells from embryonic stem cells has shown promise, highlighting the potential of trying to mimic normal developmental pathways. Here, we provide an overview of the current methodology that has been used to differentiate stem cells toward a beta-cell fate. Parallels are drawn with what is known about normal development, especially regarding the human pancreas. PMID:18487011

  8. Human Neural Stem Cells for Biopharmaceutical Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilian Hook; Norma Fulton; Gregor Russell; Timothy Allsopp

    Neural stem cells, cells which have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into three neural lineages, hold great\\u000a potential for many applications in biomedical research, cellular therapy and drug discovery. However, the use of neural stem\\u000a cells for these applications has been hampered by the lack of availability of stable, pure cell lines. In this review we describe\\u000a the

  9. Basics of Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew T. Harting

    \\u000a This chapter will define key terms and introduce important basic information about the fundamental building blocks of the\\u000a entire text: the stem and progenitor cells. After a brief discussion of terminology central to the field, we will explore\\u000a the various stem and progenitor cells including bone marrow-derived cell populations, specific niche-derived cell populations,\\u000a as well as special situations such as

  10. ADULT STEM CELL PLASTICITY: Fact or Artifact?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Raff

    2003-01-01

    ? Abstract There has been unprecedented recent interest in stem cells, mainly be- cause of the hope they offer for cell therapy. Adult stem cells are an attractive source of cells for therapy, especially in view of the recent claims that they are remarkably plastic in their developmental,potential when,exposed,to new,environments. Some of these claims have been either difficult to reproduce

  11. Artificial gametes from stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Míguez-Forjan, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The generation of artificial gametes is a real challenge for the scientific community today. In vitro development of human eggs and sperm will pave the way for the understanding of the complex process of human gametogenesis and will provide with human gametes for the study of infertility and the onset of some inherited disorders. However, the great promise of artificial gametes resides in their future application on reproductive treatments for all these people wishing to have genetically related children and for which gamete donation is now their unique option of parenthood. This is the case of infertile patients devoid of suitable gametes, same sex couples, singles and those fertile couples in a high risk of transmitting serious diseases to their progeny. In the search of the best method to obtain artificial gametes, many researchers have successfully obtained human germ cell-like cells from stem cells at different stages of differentiation. In the near future, this field will evolve to new methods providing not only viable but also functional and safe artificial germ cells. These artificial sperm and eggs should be able to recapitulate all the genetic and epigenetic processes needed for the correct gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis leading to the birth of a healthy and fertile newborn.

  12. Brain repair how stem cells are changing neurology.

    PubMed

    Modo, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The concept that everything can die, but nothing can regenerate in the brain has been replaced with new hope that stem cells will provide avenues to repair the damaged central nervous system (CNS). The treatment of brain damage has been demonstrated preclinically using a variety of stem cell sources. The prototypical cell that gives rise to the CNS is the neural stem cell (NSC). NSCs differentiate into site-appropriate phenotypes when transplanted into the damage brain and can recover lost functions. In some cases, cells can be pre-differentiated into a particular neuronal phenotype, such as dopaminergic cells, that can then be transplanted ectopically to promote behavioural improvements in conditions like Parkinson's disease. Early clinical studies in PD have demonstrated the proof of principle that this approach can improve neurodegenerative disease. The current review will discuss the different sources of stem cells in their preclinical and clinical application, as well as providing an overview as to the issues that need to be addressed to ensure a successful translation from bench to bedside. PMID:18561598

  13. Smart drugs for smarter stem cells: making SENSe (sphingolipid-enhanced neural stem cells) of ceramide.

    PubMed

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2008-01-01

    Ceramide and its derivative sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are important signaling sphingolipids for neural stem cell apoptosis and differentiation. Most recently, our group has shown that novel ceramide analogs can be used to eliminate teratoma (stem cell tumor)-forming cells from a neural stem cell graft. In new studies, we found that S1P promotes survival of specific neural precursor cells that undergo differentiation to cells expressing oligodendroglial markers. Our studies suggest that a combination of novel ceramide and S1P analogs eliminates tumor-forming stem cells and at the same time, triggers oligodendroglial differentiation. This review discusses recent studies on the function of ceramide and S1P for the regulation of apoptosis, differentiation, and polarity in stem cells. We will also discuss results from ongoing studies in our laboratory on the use of sphingolipids in stem cell therapy. PMID:18253053

  14. Cancer Stem Cells in Brain Tumor Biology

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Jeremy N.; Eyler, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    Tumors are aberrant organ systems containing a complex interplay between the neoplastic compartment and recruited vascular, inflammatory, and stromal elements. Further, most cancers display a hierarchy of differentiation states within the tumor cell population. Molecular signals that drive tumor formation and maintenance commonly overlap with those involved in normal development and wound responses – two processes in which normal stem cells function. It is therefore not surprising that cancers invoke stem cell programs that promote tumor malignancy. Stem cell-like cancer cells (or cancer stem cells) need not be derived from normal stem cells but may be subjected to evolutionary pressures that select for the capacity to self renew extensively or differentiate depending on conditions. Current cancer model systems may not fully recapitulate the cellular complexity of cancers, perhaps partially explaining the lack of power of these models in predicting clinical outcomes. New methods are enabling researchers to identify and characterize cancer stem cells. Our laboratory focuses on the roles of brain tumor stem cells in clinically relevant tumor biology, including therapeutic resistance, angiogenesis, and invasion/metastasis. We hope that these studies will translate into improved diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches for these lethal cancers. PMID:19329578

  15. Embryonic stem cell application in drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yi-jia; Liang, Xing-guang

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells and their differentiated progeny offer tremendous potential for regenerative medicine, even in the field of drug discovery. There is an urgent need for clinically relevant assays that make use of ES cells because of their rich biological utility. Attention has been focused on small molecules that allow the precise manipulation of cells in vitro, which could allow researchers to obtain homogeneous cell types for cell-based therapies and discover drugs for stimulating the regeneration of endogenous cells. Such therapeutics can act on target cells or their niches in vivo to promote cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and homing. In the present paper, we reviewed the use of ES cell models for high-throughput/content drug screening and toxicity assessment. In addition, we examined the role of stem cells in large pharmaceutical companies' R&D and discussed a novel subject, nicheology, in stem cell-related research fields. PMID:21217770

  16. Endothelial Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Blancas, Alicia A.; Lauer, Nicholas E.; McCloskey, Kara E.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular progenitor cells derived from stem cells could potentially lead to a variety of clinically relevant applications including cell-based therapies and tissue engineering. Here we describe methods for isolating purified proliferating populations of vascular endothelial cells from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) using Flk-1 positive sorted cells, VEGF supplementation, and a rigorous manual selection technique required for endothelial cell purification and expansion. Using this in vitro derivation procedure, it is possible to obtained millions of cells at various stages of differentiation, with the potential for up to 25 population doublings. PMID:18819086

  17. Generation of skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cells from murine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yuta; Chang, Hsi; Umeda, Katsutsugu; Niwa, Akira; Iwasa, Toru; Awaya, Tomonari; Fukada, So-ichiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Heike, Toshio

    2010-07-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which are a type of pluripotent stem cell generated from reprogrammed somatic cells, are expected to have potential for patient-oriented disease investigation, drug screening, toxicity tests, and transplantation therapies. Here, we demonstrated that murine iPS cells have the potential to develop in vitro into skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cells, which are almost equivalent to murine embryonic stem cells. Cells with strong in vitro myogenic potential effectively were enriched by fluorescence-activated cell sorting using the anti-satellite cell antibody SM/C-2.6. Furthermore, on transplantation into mdx mice, SM/C-2.6(+) cells exerted sustained myogenic lineage differentiation in injured muscles, while providing long-lived muscle stem cell support. Our data suggest that iPS cells have the potential to be used in clinical treatment of muscular dystrophies. PMID:20181939

  18. [Allogenic stem cell transplantations in lymphoma patients].

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Esa; Jyrkkiö, Sirkku; Kuittinen, Outi; Lehtinen, Tuula; Janes, Rita; Elonen, Erkki; Volin, Liisa

    2010-01-01

    The disease recurs in a significant proportion of lymphoma patients after the first-line treatment. Intensive treatment supported by the patient's own cells (autologic stem cell transplantation) has long been utilized in selected cases, but restrictions of this form of therapy are well known. Allogenic transplantation with another person's stem cells provides a possibility to treat lymphoma having a poor prognosis even in cases where other methods of treatments have failed. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is, however, associated with a significant risk of death. PMID:20405602

  19. www.cell-research.com | Cell Research Wnt signaling and stem cell control

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    www.cell-research.com | Cell Research Roel Nusse 523 npg REVIEW Wnt signaling and stem cell control types of stem cells and may act as a niche factor to maintain stem cells in a self-renewing state proliferation and differentiation. Isolated Wnt proteins are active on a variety of stem cells, including neural

  20. Spatial Organization of Embryonic Stem Cell Responsiveness to Autocrine Gp130 Ligands Reveals an Autoregulatory Stem

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Spatial Organization of Embryonic Stem Cell Responsiveness to Autocrine Gp130 Ligands Reveals an Autoregulatory Stem Cell Niche RYAN E. DAVEY,a PETER W. ZANDSTRA a,b a Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical, Ontario, Canada Key Words. Autocrine signaling · Embryonic stem cell · Niche · Self-renewal · Stem cell

  1. Engineering microenvironments to control stem cell fate and function

    E-print Network

    Schaffer, David V.

    ), StemBook, ed. The Stem Cell Research Community, StemBook, doi/10.3824/stembook.1.5.1, httpEngineering microenvironments to control stem cell fate and function Shawdee Eshghi and David V . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2. Sequential factors to program stem cell differentiation

  2. Stem Cell Biomarkers in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yun; Forrest, Donna; Smith, Clayton; Eaves, Allen; Eaves, Connie

    2008-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal multi-step myeloproliferative disease that is initially produced and ultimately sustained by a rare subpopulation of BCR-ABL+ cells with multi-lineage stem cell properties. These BCR-ABL+ CML stem cells are phenotypically similar to normal hematopoietic stem cells which are also maintained throughout the course of the disease at varying levels in different patients. Defining the unique properties of the leukemic stem cells that produce the chronic phase of CML has therefore had to rely heavily on access to samples from rare patients in which the stem cell compartment is dominated by leukemic elements. Here we review past and ongoing approaches using such samples to identify biologically and clinically relevant biomarkers of BCR-ABL+ stem cells that explain their unusual biology and that may help to design, or at least predict, improved treatment responses in CML patients. These studies are of particular interest in light of recent evidence that chronic phase CML stem cells are not only innately resistant to imatinib mesylate and other drugs that target the BCR-ABL oncoprotein, but are also genetically unstable. PMID:18525114

  3. Biomaterials and Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhanpeng; Gupte, Melanie J.; Ma, Peter X.

    2013-01-01

    Importance of the field Organ failure and tissue loss are challenging health issues due to widespread injury, the lack of organs for transplantation, and limitations of conventional artificial implants. The field of tissue engineering aims to provide alternative living substitutes that restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Areas covered in this review In this paper, a wide range of porous scaffolds are reviewed, with an emphasis on phase separation techniques that generate advantageous nanofibrous 3D scaffolds for stem cell-based tissue engineering applications. In addition, methods for presentation and delivery of bioactive molecules to mimic the properties of stem cell niche are summarized. Recent progress in using these bio-instructive scaffolds to support stem cell differentiation and tissue regeneration is also presented. What the reader will gain Stem cells have great clinical potential because of their capability to differentiate into multiple cell types. Biomaterials have served as artificial extracellular environments to regulate stem cell behavior. Biomaterials with various physical, mechanical, and chemical properties can be designed to control stem cell development for regeneration. Take home message The research at the interface of stem cell biology and biomaterials has made and will continue to make exciting advances in tissue engineering. PMID:23327471

  4. Time to Reconsider Stem Cell Induction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Denker, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in stem cell research suggest that it may be time to reconsider the current focus of stem cell induction strategies. During the previous five years, approximately, the induction of pluripotency in somatic cells, i.e., the generation of so-called ‘induced pluripotent stem cells’ (iPSCs), has become the focus of ongoing research in many stem cell laboratories, because this technology promises to overcome limitations (both technical and ethical) seen in the production and use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A rapidly increasing number of publications suggest, however, that it is now possible to choose instead other, alternative ways of generating stem and progenitor cells bypassing pluripotency. These new strategies may offer important advantages with respect to ethics, as well as to safety considerations. The present communication discusses why these strategies may provide possibilities for an escape from the dilemma presented by pluripotent stem cells (self-organization potential, cloning by tetraploid complementation, patenting problems and tumor formation risk). PMID:24710555

  5. Renal differentiation from adult spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Heer, Rakesh; Hepburn, Anastasia C; Williamson, Stuart C; Kennedy, Amy; El-Sherif, Amira; Soomro, Naeem A; Brown, Colin D A; Robson, Craig N

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the use of multi-potent stem cells in kidney tissue regeneration. We studied if spermatogonial stem cells have the ability to undergo kidney differentiation. Spermatogonial stem cell differentiation was induced using in vitro and ex vivo co-culture techniques. Conditioned media from human kidney fibroblasts induced the expression of epithelial and endothelial lineages in spermatogonial stem cells, consistent with nephrogenesis. Furthermore, we showed that these cells up-regulated renal tubular-specific markers alkaline phosphatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, renal epithelial sodium channel and sodium-glucose transporter-2 (p<0.05). GFP-labeled spermatogonial stem cells were engrafted into metanephric kidney organ cultures harvested from E12.5 mouse embryos. After 5 days of organ culture, focal anti-GFP staining was detectable in all inoculated kidneys demonstrating integration of spermatogonial stem cells into the developing kidney (p<0.01). Histological assessment showed early nephron-like architecture. In summary, we show that spermatogonial stem cells have the potential to generate renal tissue and lay the foundations for further investigations into a novel therapeutic approach for renal insufficiency. PMID:23991628

  6. Transformation of intestinal stem cells into gastric stem cells on loss of transcription factor Cdx2

    PubMed Central

    Simmini, Salvatore; Bialecka, Monika; Huch, Meritxell; Kester, Lennart; van de Wetering, Marc; Sato, Toshiro; Beck, Felix; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Clevers, Hans; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The endodermal lining of the adult gastro-intestinal tract harbours stem cells that are responsible for the day-to-day regeneration of the epithelium. Stem cells residing in the pyloric glands of the stomach and in the small intestinal crypts differ in their differentiation programme and in the gene repertoire that they express. Both types of stem cells have been shown to grow from single cells into 3D structures (organoids) in vitro. We show that single adult Lgr5-positive stem cells, isolated from small intestinal organoids, require Cdx2 to maintain their intestinal identity and are converted cell-autonomously into pyloric stem cells in the absence of this transcription factor. Clonal descendants of Cdx2null small intestinal stem cells enter the gastric differentiation program instead of producing intestinal derivatives. We show that the intestinal genetic programme is critically dependent on the single transcription factor encoding gene Cdx2. PMID:25500896

  7. Embryonic Stem Cells and the Cardiovascular System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neta Lavon; Nissim Benvenisty

    Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos. These\\u000a cells are capable of self-renewal and can differentiate into many cell types. In vivo, human ES cells injected into immune-deficient\\u000a mice yield teratomas with ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal cell derivatives. In vitro, spontaneous aggregation of human\\u000a ES cells results in the formation

  8. Schwann cell mediated trophic effects by differentiated mesenchymal stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daljeet Mahay; Giorgio Terenghi; Susan G. Shawcross

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from the bone marrow of rats and differentiated to provide a functional substitute for slow growing Schwann cells for peripheral nerve regeneration. To assess the properties of the differentiated mesenchymal stem cell, the cells were co-cultured with dorsal root ganglia and the secretion of the neurotrophic factors and the neurite outgrowth was evaluated. The neurite

  9. Embryonic stem cells: Understanding their history, cell biology and signalling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruairi Friel; Sjaak van der Sar; Patrick J. Mee

    2005-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells offer enormous potential as a source of a variety of differentiated cells for cell therapy, drug discovery and toxicology screening. With the creation of human embryonic stem cell lines we now have a resource with the potential to differentiate into every tissue of the body. To fully harness this resource it is necessary to understand their biology.

  10. Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells in Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jalees Rehman; Keith L. March

    Few topics in cardiovascular research have generated as much promise and controversy as that of using stem cells or progenitor\\u000a cells to improve cardiovascular function. The first section of this chapter will discuss general principles of stem and progenitor\\u000a cell biology and therapy. The second section will illustrate these principles with specific stem and progenitor cell types\\u000a used or proposed

  11. Stem Cells and Cell–Matrix Interactions in Lung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viranuj Sueblinvong; Jesse Roman

    \\u000a Stem cells have become the focus of many investigations owing to emerging data implicating their role in normal physiological\\u000a processes and as potential targets for the development of therapeutic interventions. The factors that control the functions\\u000a of stem cells related to migration, homing, and differentiation, among others, remain incompletely elucidated, but it is evident\\u000a that, like other cells, stem cells

  12. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into gonad and adrenal steroidogenic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Takashi; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Kaoru; Umezawa, Akihiro; Taniguchi, Takanobu

    2014-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy is necessary for patients with adrenal and gonadal failure. Steroid hormone treatment is also employed in aging people for sex hormone deficiency. These patients undergo such therapies, which have associated risks, for their entire life. Stem cells represent an innovative tool for tissue regeneration and the possibility of solving these problems. Among various stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to differentiate into steroidogenic cells both in vivo and in vitro. In particular, they can effectively be differentiated into steroidogenic cells by expressing nuclear receptor 5A subfamily proteins (steroidogenic factor-1 and liver receptor homolog-1) with the aid of cAMP. This approach will provide a source of cells for future regenerative medicine for the treatment of diseases caused by steroidogenesis deficiencies. It can also represent a useful tool for studying the molecular mechanisms of steroidogenesis and its related diseases. PMID:24772247

  13. Seeing Stem Cells at Work In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Amit K.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell based-therapies are novel therapeutic strategies that hold key for developing new treatments for diseases conditions with very few or no cures. Although there has been an increase in the number of clinical trials involving stem cell-based therapies in the last few years, the long-term risks and benefits of these therapies are still unknown. Detailed in vivo studies are needed to monitor the fate of transplanted cells, including their distribution, differentiation, and longevity over time. Advancements in non-invasive cellular imaging techniques to track engrafted cells in real-time present a powerful tool for determining the efficacy of stem cell-based therapies. In this review, we describe the latest approaches to stem cell labeling and tracking using different imaging modalities. PMID:23975604

  14. Hepatic differentiation capability of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sai-Nan Shu; Lai Wei; Jiang-Hua Wang; Yu-Tao Zhan; Hong-Song Chen; Yu Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the different effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) on hepatic differentiation. METHODS: MSCs from rat bone marrow were isolated and cultured by standard methods. HSCs from rat bone marrow were isolated and purified by magnetic activated cell sorting. Both cell subsets were induced. Morphology, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry were used to identify the

  15. Lessons from the Embryonic Neural Stem Cell Niche for Neural Lineage Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeriya Solozobova; Nicolas Wyvekens; Jan Pruszak

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells offer an abundant and malleable source for the generation of differentiated cells for transplantation as well as for in vitro screens. Patterning and differentiation protocols have been developed to generate neural progeny from human embryonic or induced pluripo- tent stem cells. However, continued refinement is required to enhance efficiency and to prevent the generation of unwanted cell

  16. Stem Cell Reports FOXO3 Promotes Quiescence in Adult Muscle Stem Cells during the Process

    E-print Network

    Brunet, Anne

    and involves a complex orchestration of cell-cycle and metabolic transitions (Groszer et al., 2001; He et al or in combina- tion with Foxo1 and Foxo4 results in increased cell cycling and reduction of the hematopoieticStem Cell Reports Report FOXO3 Promotes Quiescence in Adult Muscle Stem Cells during the Process

  17. Stem cells: novel players in the treatment of erectile dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiyang Zhang; Maarten Albersen; Xunbo Jin; Guiting Lin

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are defined by their capacity for both self-renewal and directed differentiation; thus, they represent great promise for regenerative medicine. Historically, stem cells have been categorized as either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or adult stem cells (ASCs). It was previously believed that only ESCs hold the ability to differentiate into any cell type, whereas ASCs have the capacity to

  18. 2981DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS RESEARCH ARTICLE INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Brand, Andrea

    2981DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS RESEARCH ARTICLE INTRODUCTION Neurons must be generated the balance between self-renewing neural stem cells and their differentiated progeny. Stem cells can divide, neuroepithelial cells initially divide symmetrically to expand the stem cell pool. Later in development

  19. RESEARCH Open Access Mesenchymal stem cells generate a CD4+

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Mesenchymal stem cells generate a CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cell. Stem Cell Research & Therapy 2013, 4:65 http://stemcellres.com/content/4/3/65 #12;Introduction * Abstract Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult, multipotent, stem cells

  20. Applications Proposing Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Reviewer Guidance

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or research involving certain uses of human induced pluripotent stem cells. Refer to the NIH web resource for stem cell research (http://stemcells.nih.gov/) for general and updated: · Specify a cell line(s) from the NIH Stem Cell Registry that will be used in the proposed research

  1. [Effects of different culture system of isolating and passage of sheep embryonic stem-like cells].

    PubMed

    Bai, Changming; Liu, Chousheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xinzhuang

    2008-07-01

    In this research, we use mouse embryonic fibroblasts as feeder layers. To eliminate the influence of serum and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) conditioned medium (ESCCM) on self-renewal of sheep embryonic stem-like cells, knockout serum replacement (KSR) was used to replace serum, then supplanted with ESCCM for the isolation and cloning of sheep embryonic stem-like cells. We found when inner cell masses (ICMs) cultured in the control group with medium supplanted with fetal bovine serum (FBS), sheep ES-like cells could not survive for more than 3 passages. However, sheep embryonic stem-like cells could remain undifferentiated for 5 passages when cultured in the medium that FBS was substituted by KSR. The result indicates that KSR culture system was more suitable for the isolation and cloning of sheep embryonic stem-like cells compared to FBS culture system. Finally we applied medium with 15% KSR as basic medium supplanted with 40% ESCCM as a new culture system to isolate sheep embryonic stem-like cells, we found one embryonic stem-like cell line still maintained undifferentiating for 8 passages, which characterized with a normal and stable karyotype and high expression of alkaline phosphatase. These results suggest that it is suitable to culture sheep ICM in the new culture system with 15% KSR as basic medium and supplanted with 40% ESCCM, which indicated that mouse ES cells might secrete factors playing important roles in promoting sheep ES-like cells' self-renewal. PMID:18837407

  2. Paracrine mechanisms of stem cell reparative and regenerative actions in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Mirotsou, Maria; Jayawardena, Tilanthi M; Schmeckpeper, Jeffrey; Gnecchi, Massimiliano; Dzau, Victor J

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells play an important role in restoring cardiac function in the damaged heart. In order to mediate repair, stem cells need to replace injured tissue by differentiating into specialized cardiac cell lineages and/or manipulating the cell and molecular mechanisms governing repair. Despite early reports describing engraftment and successful regeneration of cardiac tissue in animal models of heart failure, these events appear to be infrequent and yield too few new cardiomyocytes to account for the degree of improved cardiac function observed. Instead, mounting evidence suggests that stem cell mediated repair takes place via the release of paracrine factors into the surrounding tissue that subsequently direct a number of restorative processes including myocardial protection, neovascularization, cardiac remodeling, and differentiation. The potential for diverse stem cell populations to moderate many of the same processes as well as key paracrine factors and molecular pathways involved in stem cell-mediated cardiac repair will be discussed in this review. PMID:20727900

  3. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Lisa B; Tuan, Rocky S

    2014-01-21

    Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan. PMID:24757526

  4. Technology advancement for integrative stem cell analyses.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yoon; Choi, Jonghoon; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2014-12-01

    Scientists have endeavored to use stem cells for a variety of applications ranging from basic science research to translational medicine. Population-based characterization of such stem cells, while providing an important foundation to further development, often disregard the heterogeneity inherent among individual constituents within a given population. The population-based analysis and characterization of stem cells and the problems associated with such a blanket approach only underscore the need for the development of new analytical technology. In this article, we review current stem cell analytical technologies, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each, followed by applications of these technologies in the field of stem cells. Furthermore, while recent advances in micro/nano technology have led to a growth in the stem cell analytical field, underlying architectural concepts allow only for a vertical analytical approach, in which different desirable parameters are obtained from multiple individual experiments and there are many technical challenges that limit vertically integrated analytical tools. Therefore, we propose--by introducing a concept of vertical and horizontal approach--that there is the need of adequate methods to the integration of information, such that multiple descriptive parameters from a stem cell can be obtained from a single experiment. PMID:24874188

  5. Analytical strategies for studying stem cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, James M.; Choi, William T.; Sreekumar, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Owing to their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency, stem cells possess untold potential for revolutionizing the field of regenerative medicine through the development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Central to developing these strategies is improving our understanding of biological mechanisms responsible for governing stem cell fate and self-renewal. Increasing attention is being given to the significance of metabolism, through the production of energy and generation of small molecules, as a critical regulator of stem cell functioning. Rapid advances in the field of metabolomics now allow for in-depth profiling of stem cells both in vitro and in vivo, providing a systems perspective on key metabolic and molecular pathways which influence stem cell biology. Understanding the analytical platforms and techniques that are currently used to study stem cell metabolomics, as well as how new insights can be derived from this knowledge, will accelerate new research in the field and improve future efforts to expand our understanding of the interplay between metabolism and stem cell biology.

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Stem cells engineering for cell-based therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taupin, Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Stem cells carry the promise to cure a broad range of diseases and injuries, from diabetes, heart and muscular diseases, to neurological diseases, disorders and injuries. Significant progresses have been made in stem cell research over the past decade; the derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from human tissues, the development of cloning technology by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and the confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain and that neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS), including that of humans. Despite these advances, there may be decades before stem cell research will translate into therapy. Stem cell research is also subject to ethical and political debates, controversies and legislation, which slow its progress. Cell engineering has proven successful in bringing genetic research to therapy. In this review, I will review, in two examples, how investigators are applying cell engineering to stem cell biology to circumvent stem cells' ethical and political constraints and bolster stem cell research and therapy.

  7. Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into retinal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Liang, Jun; Cui, Hongping; Wang, Xinmei; Rong, Hua; Shao, Bin; Cui, Hao

    2013-07-01

    Human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from fetal umbilical cord. Cells were cultured in serum-free neural stem cell-conditioned medium or neural stem cell-conditioned medium supplemented with Dkk-1, a Wnt/? catenin pathway antagonist, and LeftyA, a Nodal signaling pathway antagonist to induce differentiation into retinal progenitor cells. Inverted microscopy showed that after induction, the spindle-shaped or fibroblast-like Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells changed into bulbous cells with numerous processes. Immunofluorescent cytochemical ing and reverse-transcription PCR showed positive expression of retinal progenitor cell markers, Pax6 and Rx, as well as weakly down-regulated nestin expression. These results demonstrate that Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells are capable of differentiating into retinal progenitor cells in vitro. PMID:25206475

  8. The Paradoxical Dynamism of Marrow Stem Cells: Considerations of Stem Cells, Niches, and Microvesicles

    PubMed Central

    Aliotta, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Marrow stem cell regulation represents a complex and flexible system. It has been assumed that the system was intrinsically hierarchical in nature, but recent data has indicated that at the progenitor/stem cell level the system may represent a continuum with reversible alterations in phenotype occurring as the stem cells transit cell cycle. Short and long-term engraftment, in vivo and in vitro differentiation, gene expression, and progenitor numbers have all been found to vary reversibly with cell cycle. In essence, the stem cells appear to show variable potential, probably based on transcription factor access, as they proceed through cell cycle. Another critical component of the stem cell regulation is the microenvironment, so-called niches. We propose that there are not just several unique niche cells, but a wide variety of niche cells which continually change phenotype to appropriately interact with the continuum of stem cell phenotypes. A third component of the regulatory system is microvesicle transfer of genetic information between cells. We have shown that marrow cells can express the genetic phenotype of pulmonary epithelial cells after microvesicle transfer from lung to marrow cells. Similar transfers of tissue specific mRNA occur between liver, brain, and heart to marrow cells. Thus, there would appear to be a continuous genetic modulation of cells through microvesicle transfer between cells. We propose that there is an interactive triangulated Venn diagram with continuously changing stem cells interacting with continuously changing areas of influence, both being modulated by transfer of genetic information by microvesicles. PMID:18665337

  9. Corneal Epithelial Stem Cells: Deficiency and Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Genevieve A. Secker; Julie T. Daniels

    2008-01-01

    The corneal epithelium is continuously renewed by a population of stem cells that reside in the corneoscleral junction, otherwise\\u000a known as the limbus. These limbal epithelial stem cells (LESC) are imperative for corneal maintenance with deficiencies leading\\u000a to in-growth of conjunctival cells, neovascularisation of the corneal stroma and eventual corneal opacity and visual loss.\\u000a One such disease that has traditionally

  10. Searching for naďve human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Simone Aparecida Siqueira; Costas, Roberta Montero; Pereira, Lygia Veiga

    2015-01-01

    Normal mouse pluripotent stem cells were originally derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocysts and shown to be the in vitro equivalent of those pre-implantation embryonic cells, and thus were called embryonic stem cells (ESCs). More than a decade later, pluripotent cells were isolated from the ICM of human blastocysts. Despite being called human ESCs, these cells differ significantly from mouse ESCs, including different morphology and mechanisms of control of pluripotency, suggesting distinct embryonic origins of ESCs from the two species. Subsequently, mouse pluripotent stem cells were established from the ICM-derived epiblast of post-implantation embryos. These mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are morphological and epigenetically more similar to human ESCs. This raised the question of whether cells from the human ICM are in a more advanced differentiation stage than their murine counterpart, or whether the available culture conditions were not adequate to maintain those human cells in their in vivo state, leading to a transition into EpiSC-like cells in vitro. More recently, novel culture conditions allowed the conversion of human ESCs into mouse ESC-like cells called naďve (or ground state) human ESCs, and the derivation of naďve human ESCs from blastocysts. Here we will review the characteristics of each type of pluripotent stem cells, how (and whether) these relate to different stages of embryonic development, and discuss the potential implications of naďve human ESCs in research and therapy. PMID:25914771

  11. Polyester ?-assay chip for stem cell studies

    PubMed Central

    Piraino, Francesco; Selimovi?, Šeila; Adamo, Marco; Pero, Alessandro; Manoucheri, Sam; Bok Kim, Sang; Demarchi, Danilo; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The application of microfluidic technologies to stem cell research is of great interest to biologists and bioengineers. This is chiefly due to the intricate ability to control the cellular environment, the reduction of reagent volume, experimentation time and cost, and the high-throughput screening capabilities of microscale devices. Despite this importance, a simple-to-use microfluidic platform for studying the effects of growth factors on stem cell differentiation has not yet emerged. With this consideration, we have designed and characterized a microfluidic device that is easy to fabricate and operate, yet contains several functional elements. Our device is a simple polyester-based microfluidic chip capable of simultaneously screening multiple independent stem cell culture conditions. Generated by laser ablation and stacking of multiple layers of polyester film, this device integrates a 10?×?10 microwell array for cell culture with a continuous perfusion system and a non-linear concentration gradient generator. We performed numerical calculations to predict the gradient formation and calculate the shear stress acting on the cells inside the device. The device operation was validated by culturing murine embryonic stem cells inside the microwells for 5 days. Furthermore, we showed the ability to maintain the pluripotency of stem cell aggregates in response to concentrations of leukemia inhibitory factor ranging from 0 to ?1000 U/ml. Given its simplicity, fast manufacturing method, scalability, and the cell-compatible nature of the device, it may be a useful platform for long-term stem cell culture and studies. PMID:24278097

  12. Neuroprotection by Pergolide Against Levodopa-Induced Cytotoxicity of Neural Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Guo Liu; Yan Chen; Biao Li; Guo-Qiang Lu; Sheng-Di Chen

    2004-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are currently considered very hopeful candidates for cell replacement therapy in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), but like embryonic neural tissue transplantation, levodopa medication may still be required to improve symptoms even after cell transplantation. The issues of whether levodopa induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis of NSCs following transplantation, as well as the means to

  13. Recent Progress on Tissue-Resident Adult Stem Cell Biology and Their Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in the field of the stem cell research has given new hopes to treat and even cure diverse degenerative disorders and incurable diseases in human. Particularly, the identification of a rare population of adult stem cells in the most tissues/organs in human has emerged as an attractive source of multipotent stem/progenitor cells for cell replacement-based therapies and tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. The tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells offer the possibility to stimulate their in vivo differentiation or to use their ex vivo expanded progenies for cell replacement-based therapies with multiple applications in human. Among the human diseases that could be treated by the stem cell-based therapies, there are hematopoietic and immune disorders, multiple degenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzeimeher’s diseases, type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus as well as eye, liver, lung, skin and cardiovascular disorders and aggressive and metastatic cancers. In addition, the genetically-modified adult stem/progenitor cells could also be used as delivery system for expressing the therapeutic molecules in specific damaged areas of different tissues. Recent advances in cancer stem/progenitor cell research also offer the possibility to targeting these undifferentiated and malignant cells that provide critical functions in cancer initiation and progression and disease relapse for treating the patients diagnosed with the advanced and metastatic cancers which remain incurable in the clinics with the current therapies. PMID:18288619

  14. Lipid metabolism greases the stem cell engine.

    PubMed

    Folmes, Clifford D L; Park, Sungjo; Terzic, Andre

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic plasticity is increasingly postulated to be vital in the transition between stemness maintenance and lineage specification. Knobloch et al. (2012) now demonstrate that regulation of lipogenesis by fatty acid synthase and Spot14-dependent malonyl-CoA supply determines the proliferative activity of resident neural stem cells, contributing to adult neurogenesis. PMID:23395162

  15. Stem cells for ischemic brain injury: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Burns, Terry C; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Low, Walter C

    2009-07-01

    No effective therapy is currently available to promote recovery following ischemic stroke. Stem cells have been proposed as a potential source of new cells to replace those lost due to central nervous system injury, as well as a source of trophic molecules to minimize damage and promote recovery. We undertook a detailed review of data from recent basic science and preclinical studies to investigate the potential application of endogenous and exogenous stem cell therapies for treatment of cerebral ischemia. To date, spontaneous endogenous neurogenesis has been observed in response to ischemic injury, and can be enhanced via infusion of appropriate cytokines. Exogenous stem cells from multiple sources can generate neural cells that survive and form synaptic connections after transplantation in the stroke-injured brain. Stem cells from multiple sources cells also exhibit neuroprotective properties that may ameliorate stroke deficits. In many cases, functional benefits observed are likely independent of neural differentiation, although the exact mechanisms remain poorly understood. Future studies of neuroregeneration will require the demonstration of function in endogenously born neurons following focal ischemia. Further, methods are currently lacking to demonstrate definitively the therapeutic effect of newly introduced neural cells. Increased plasticity following stroke may facilitate the functional integration of new neurons, but the loss of appropriate guidance cues and supporting architecture in the infarct cavity will likely impede the restoration of lost circuitry. Thus careful investigation of the mechanisms underlying trophic benefits will be essential. Evidence to date suggests that continued development of stem cell therapies may ultimately lead to viable treatment options for ischemic brain injury. PMID:19399885

  16. Perspectives for computational modeling of cell replacement for neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, James B.; Weick, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of anatomically-constrained neural networks has provided significant insights regarding the response of networks to neurological disorders or injury. A logical extension of these models is to incorporate treatment regimens to investigate network responses to intervention. The addition of nascent neurons from stem cell precursors into damaged or diseased tissue has been used as a successful therapeutic tool in recent decades. Interestingly, models have been developed to examine the incorporation of new neurons into intact adult structures, particularly the dentate granule neurons of the hippocampus. These studies suggest that the unique properties of maturing neurons, can impact circuit behavior in unanticipated ways. In this perspective, we review the current status of models used to examine damaged CNS structures with particular focus on cortical damage due to stroke. Secondly, we suggest that computational modeling of cell replacement therapies can be made feasible by implementing approaches taken by current models of adult neurogenesis. The development of these models is critical for generating hypotheses regarding transplant therapies and improving outcomes by tailoring transplants to desired effects. PMID:24223548

  17. Epithelial stem cells and tissue engineered intestine.

    PubMed

    Day, Richard M

    2006-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa has an amazing regenerative capacity, enabling rapid restoration of its physiological functions following injury. The ability to do this resides with the epithelial stem cells located within glandular invaginations in the mucosal surface. Recent advances toward the isolation and characterization of epithelial stem cells has paved the way for exploring novel therapeutic approaches for gastrointestinal disease. Possible stem cell-based therapy of gastrointestinal disorders range from the repair of damaged mucosa through to tissue engineering of artificial intestinal constructs for patients with short bowel syndrome. Before these benefits are realized further information is required on the biological characteristics of intestinal stem cells, their interactions with surrounding cells, and the environment in which they reside. This includes discovering markers to assist in the identification and purification of stem cell populations and techniques to manipulate the cells both in vivo and in vitro. Because intestinal transplantation for patients still represents a significant challenge, it is hoped that one day a tissue-engineered intestine will provide a feasible option for patients with short bowel syndrome. This review aims to introduce the reader to the main characteristics of epithelial stem cells and provide an overview of the current status of intestinal tissue engineering and the problems still being faced. PMID:18220860

  18. p53, Stem Cells, and Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Spike, Benjamin T.; Wahl, Geoffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    p53 is well recognized as a potent tumor suppressor. In its classic role, p53 responds to genotoxic insults by inducing cell cycle exit or programmed cell death to limit the propagation of cells with corrupted genomes. p53 is also implicated in a variety of other cellular processes in which its involvement is less well understood including self-renewal, differentiation, and reprogramming. These activities represent an emerging area of intense interest for cancer biologists, as they provide potential mechanistic links between p53 loss and the stem cell–like cellular plasticity that has been suggested to contribute to tumor cell heterogeneity and to drive tumor progression. Despite accumulating evidence linking p53 loss to stem-like phenotypes in cancer, it is not yet understood how p53 contributes to acquisition of “stemness” at the molecular level. Whether and how stem-like cells confer survival advantages to propagate the tumor also remain to be resolved. Furthermore, although it seems reasonable that the combination of p53 deficiency and the stem-like state could contribute to the genesis of cancers that are refractory to treatment, direct linkages and mechanistic underpinnings remain under investigation. Here, we discuss recent findings supporting the connection between p53 loss and the emergence of tumor cells bearing functional and molecular similarities to stem cells. We address several potential molecular and cellular mechanisms that may contribute to this link, and we discuss implications of these findings for the way we think about cancer progression. PMID:21779509

  19. Mobilization of Stem Cells\\/Progenitor Cells by Physical Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Wahl; Wilhelm Bloch

    \\u000a A number of publications have provided evidence that exercise and physical activity are linked to the activation, mobilization,\\u000a and differentiation of various types of stem cells. Exercise may improve organ regeneration and function. This review characterizes\\u000a different stem and progenitor cells and their sources and summarizes mechanisms by which exercise contributes to stem-cell-induced\\u000a regeneration and adaptation in different tissues. The

  20. The New York Stem Cell Foundation: Fifth Annual Translational Stem Cell Research Conference.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Caroline; Wang, George Kai; Cimetta, Elisa; Talchai, Chutima; Egli, Dieter; Shim, Jae-won; Martin, Ian; Ahmad, Faizzan; Sproul, Andrew; Chen, Ting; Fossati, Valentina; McKeon, David; Smith, Kristin; Solomon, Susan L

    2011-05-01

    The New York Stem Cell Foundation's "Fifth Annual Translational Stem Cell Research Conference" convened on October 12-13, 2010 at the Rockefeller University in New York City. The conference attracted over 400 scientists, patient advocates, and stem cell research supporters from 16 countries. In addition to poster and platform presentations, the conference featured panels entitled "Road to the Clinic" and "Regulatory Roadblocks." PMID:21615750