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1

Stem-and-Leaf Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to stem-and-leaf plots as a graphical way to represent a data set. The lesson also reviews measures of central tendency with directions for finding mean, median, and mode are given. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to stem-and-leaf plots as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

Shodor

2012-04-02

2

Characterizing natural cellulose fibers from velvet leaf ( Abutilon theophrasti) stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velvet leaf (Abutilon theophrasti) that is currently considered a weed and an agricultural problem could be used as a source for high quality natural cellulose fibers. The fibers obtained from the velvet leaf stems are mainly composed of approximately 69% cellulose and 17% lignin. The single cells in the fiber have lengths of approximately 0.9mm, shorter than those in common

Narendra Reddy; Yiqi Yang

2008-01-01

3

Structure and enzymatic accessibility of leaf and stem from wheat straw before and after hydrothermal pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Biomass recalcitrance is affected by a number of chemical, physical and biological factors. In this study we looked into the differences in recalcitrance between two major anatomical fractions of wheat straw biomass, leaf and stem. A set of twenty-one wheat cultivars was fractionated and illustrated the substantial variation in leaf-to-stem ratio between cultivars. The two fractions were compared in terms of chemical composition, enzymatic convertibility, cellulose crystallinity and glucan accessibility. The use of water as a probe for assessing glucan accessibility was explored using low field nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy in combination with hydrogen-deuterium exchange. Results Leaves were clearly more degradable by lignocellulolytic enzymes than stems, and it was demonstrated that xylose removal was more linked to glucose yield for stems than for leaves. Comparing the locations of water in leaf and stem by low field NMR and FT-IR revealed that the glucan hydroxyl groups in leaves were more accessible to water than glucan hydroxyl groups in stems. No difference in crystallinity between leaf and stem was observed using wide angle x-ray diffraction. Hydrothermal pretreatment increased the accessibility towards water in stems but not in leaves. The results in this study indicate a correlation between the accessibility of glucan to water and to enzymes. Conclusions Enzymatic degradability of wheat straw anatomical fractions can be indicated by the accessibility of the hydroxyl groups to water. This suggests that water may be used to assess glucan accessibility in biomass samples. PMID:24860617

2014-01-01

4

Stem growth habit affects leaf morphology and gas exchange traits in soybean  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds and Aims The stem growth habit, determinate or indeterminate, of soybean, Glycine max, varieties affects various plant morphological and developmental traits. The objective of this study is to identify the effect of stem growth habit in soybean on the stomatal conductance of single leaves in relation to their leaf morphology in order to better understand the ecological and agronomic significance of this plant trait. Methods The stomatal conductance of leaves on the main stem was measured periodically under favourable field conditions to evaluate gmax, defined as the maximum stomatal conductance at full leaf expansion, for four varieties of soybean and their respective determinate or indeterminate near isogenic lines (NILs). Leaf morphological traits including stomatal density, guard cell length and vein density were also measured. Key Results The value of gmax ranged from 0·383 to 0·754 mol H2O m?2 s?1 across all the genotypes for both years. For the four pairs of varieties, the indeterminate lines exhibited significantly greater gmax, stomatal density, numbers of epidermal cells per unit area and total vein length per unit area than their respective determinate NILs in both years. The guard cell length, leaf mass per area and single leaf size all tended to be greater in the determinate types. The variation of gmax across genotypes and years was well explained by the product of stomatal density and guard cell length (r = 0·86, P < 0·01). Conclusions The indeterminate stem growth habit resulted in a greater maximum stomatal conductance for soybean than the determinate habit, and this was attributed to the differences in leaf structure. This raises the further hypothesis that the difference in stem growth habit results in different water use characteristics of soybean plants in the field. Stomatal conductance under favourable conditions can be modified by leaf morphological traits. PMID:19767605

Tanaka, Yu; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko

2009-01-01

5

Ethanol vapour reduces leaf blackening in cut flower Protea ‘Pink Ice’ stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ethanol vapour on postharvest leaf blackening of Protea susannae X compacta ‘Pink Ice’ stems stored in plastic bags under darkness at 20°C (±1°C) was assessed over a 19 day period. Application of ethanol vapour to the stems significantly reduced leaf blackening. Stems exposed to 5.6 g ethanol kg?1 stem weight, had the least amount of leaf blackening

S. G Crick; R McConchie

1999-01-01

6

Characterizing natural cellulose fibers from velvet leaf (Abutilon theophrasti) stems.  

PubMed

Velvet leaf (Abutilon theophrasti) that is currently considered a weed and an agricultural problem could be used as a source for high quality natural cellulose fibers. The fibers obtained from the velvet leaf stems are mainly composed of approximately 69% cellulose and 17% lignin. The single cells in the fiber have lengths of approximately 0.9 mm, shorter than those in common bast fibers, hemp and kenaf. However, the widths of single cells in velvet leaf fibers are similar to the single cells in hemp and kenaf. The fibers exhibited breaking tenacity from 2.4 to 3.9 g/denier (325-500 MPa), breaking elongation of 1.6-2.4% and Young's modulus of 140-294 g/denier (18-38 GPa). Overall, velvet leaf fibers have properties similar to that of common bast fibers such as hemp and kenaf. Velvet leaves fibers could be processed on the current kenaf processing machineries for textile, composite, automotive and other fibrous applications. PMID:17583497

Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

2008-05-01

7

Pharmacognostical evaluation of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. leaf and stem  

PubMed Central

Background: Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn (Sapindaceae) is an important medicinal plant in the traditional system of medicine, known as kar?aspho?a. The root of it is officially included in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia for its therapeutic uses such as jvara, ku??ha, p???u, k?aya and sandhiv?ta etc. As no detailed analysis of macroscopy, microscopy characters of the plant, except root, have been carried out till date, it was thought worth to carry out the detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of leaves and stem, following standard pharmacognostical procedures. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies of C. halicacabum were carried out, and in this, the macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, fluorescence and phytochemical analyses were done. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content, extractive values were determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf and stem components were observed. Results: Macroscopically the leaves are bi-ternate, ovate-lanceolate in shape with dentate margin. Microscopically, leaf shows prominent midrib and thin dorsiventral lamina. The midrib shows the presence of epidermal layers, angular collenchyma, palisade cells and vascular strands comprised of thin walled xylem and thick walled phloem elements. The lamina shows prominent, narrow and cylindrical upper epidermis. The upper epidermal cells are large and contain mucilage, whereas lower epidermis possesses thin, small and elliptical epidermal cells. The mesophyll was differentiated into two zones upper and lower. The upper zones show narrow cylindrical palisade cells and lower zone shows 2-3 layers of loosely arranged spongy parenchyma cells. In the Paradermal section of the lamina we observe anomocytic stomata. The transverse section of stem shows a pentagonal appearance with five short blunt ridges and prominent cuticle. Parenchymatous cells, cortical sclerenchyma, lignified xylem fibers, phloem and pit were also found. In the powder microscopy of whole plant, glandular trichomes, non-glandular trichomes, fragments of lamina, xylem elements, parenchyma cells and fibers are observed. Phytochemical screening reveals that the C. halicacabum extract contains glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and saponin. Conclusion: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in identification, quality, purity and standardization of C. halicacabum. PMID:25161325

Zalke, Ashish S.; Duraiswamy, B.; Gandagule, Upendra B.; Singh, Nidhi

2013-01-01

8

In vitro cytotoxic activity of ginseng leaf/stem extracts obtained by subcritical water extraction  

PubMed Central

Ginseng leaf/stem extract produced by subcritical water extraction at high temperature (190°C) possess higher cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines than ethanol extract. Subcritical water extraction can be a great candidate for extraction of functional substance from ginseng leaves/stems. PMID:25379009

Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Chang, Pahn-Shik; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2014-01-01

9

In vitro cytotoxic activity of ginseng leaf/stem extracts obtained by subcritical water extraction.  

PubMed

Ginseng leaf/stem extract produced by subcritical water extraction at high temperature (190°C) possess higher cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines than ethanol extract. Subcritical water extraction can be a great candidate for extraction of functional substance from ginseng leaves/stems. PMID:25379009

Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Chang, Pahn-Shik; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2014-10-15

10

Sorghum mutant RG displays antithetic leaf shoot lignin accumulation resulting in improved stem saccharification properties  

PubMed Central

Background Improving saccharification efficiency in bioenergy crop species remains an important challenge. Here, we report the characterization of a Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) mutant, named REDforGREEN (RG), as a bioenergy feedstock. Results It was found that RG displayed increased accumulation of lignin in leaves and depletion in the stems, antithetic to the trend observed in wild type. Consistent with these measurements, the RG leaf tissue displayed reduced saccharification efficiency whereas the stem saccharification efficiency increased relative to wild type. Reduced lignin was linked to improved saccharification in RG stems, but a chemical shift to greater S:G ratios in RG stem lignin was also observed. Similarities in cellulose content and structure by XRD-analysis support the correlation between increased saccharification properties and reduced lignin instead of changes in the cellulose composition and/or structure. Conclusion Antithetic lignin accumulation was observed in the RG mutant leaf-and stem-tissue, which resulted in greater saccharification efficiency in the RG stem and differential thermochemical product yield in high lignin leaves. Thus, the red leaf coloration of the RG mutant represents a potential marker for improved conversion of stem cellulose to fermentable sugars in the C4 grass Sorghum. PMID:24103129

2013-01-01

11

Leaf, stem and root tissue strategies across 758 Neotropical tree species  

E-print Network

) at opposite ends of Amazonia (French Guiana and Peru). 3. Woody root traits were closely aligned with stem Guiana, functional trade-offs, leaf economics, Peru, plant traits, tropical forest, wood economics, and store water and nutrients (Kozlowski & Pall- ardy 1997). Roots anchor the plant in the soil, absorb

Fine, Paul V.A.

12

Increasing the Number of STEM Graduates: Insights from the U.S. STEM Education & Modeling Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Business-Higher Education Forum's (BHEF's) Securing America's Leadership in STEM Initiative has broken new ground in addressing one of the nation's most critical challenges--increasing the number of students who are interested in and pursue careers in science, technology, engineering or mathematics, the so-called "STEM" fields. The Initiative,…

Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

13

Protective mechanism of desiccation tolerance in Reaumuria soongorica: leaf abscission and sucrose accumulation in the stem.  

PubMed

Reaumuria soongorica (Pall.) Maxim., a perennial semi-shrub, is widely found in semi-arid areas in northwestern China and can survive severe desiccation of its vegetative organs. In order to study the protective mechanism of desiccation tolerance in R. soongorica, diurnal patterns of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), water use efficiency (WUE) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Photosystem II (PSII), and sugar content in the source leaf and stem were investigated in 6-year-old plants during progressive soil drought imposed by the cessation of watering. The results showed that R. soongorica was characterized by very low leaf water potential, high WUE, photosynthesis and high accumulation of sucrose in the stem and leaf abscission under desiccation. The maximum Pn increased at first and then declined during drought, but intrinsic WUE increased remarkably in the morning with increasing drought stress. The maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and the quantum efficiency of noncyclic electric transport of PSII (phiPSII) decreased significantly under water stress and exhibited an obvious phenomenon of photoinhibition at noon. Drought stressed plants maintained a higher capacity of dissipation of the excitation energy (measured as NPQ) with the increasing intensity of stress. Conditions of progressive drought promoted sucrose and starch accumulation in the stems but not in the leaves. However, when leaf water potential was less than -21.3 MPa, the plant leaves died and then abscised. But the stem photosynthesis remained and, afterward the plants entered the dormant state. Upon rewatering, the shoots reactivated and the plants developed new leaves. Therefore, R. soongorica has the ability to reduce water loss through leaf abscission and maintain the vigor of the stem cells to survive desiccation. PMID:17393078

Liu, YuBing; Zhang, TengGuo; Li, XingRong; Wang, Gang

2007-02-01

14

Antioxidant and anti-dermatophytic properties leaf and stem bark of Xylosma longifolium clos  

PubMed Central

Background The present study was carried out to assess the phytochemical and anti-dermatophytic effect of the leaf and bark extracts of Xylosma longifolium Clos. The leaf and stem bark are used by the indigenous people of Manipur, India for treatment of skin diseases. Methods The leaves and stem barks of Xylosma longifolium were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol respectively. The different extracts of each plant parts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. The phenolic content was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Each extracts was further analysed by RP-HPLC to quantify some individual flavonoid components. The anti-dermatophytic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Microsporum boullardii MTCC 6059, M. canis (MTCC 2820 and MTCC 32700), M. gypseum MTCC 2819, Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878, T. rubrum (MTCC 296 and MTCC 3272). Results The free radical scavenging activity values were ranged from 0.7 to 1.41 mg/ml and 0.6 to 1.23 mg/ml, respectively for leaf and stem bark extracts. The amount of total phenolic contents of the extracts occurred in both leaf and bark in the range of 12 to 56.6 mg GAE/100 g and 16 to 58 mg GAE/100 g respectively. RP-HPLC analysis for flavonoids revealed the presence of two major flavonoid compounds, rutin and catechin. Kaempferol was in trace or absent. Methanol leaf extract showed significant low inhibitory effect against tested fungus Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878 (0.140625 mg/ml) as the most sensitive. These finding suggest that the methanol leaf extract tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. Conclusion The results of our study may partially justify the folkloric uses on the plant studied and further provide an evidence that the leaf extract of Xylosma longifolium might be indeed a potential sources of antimicrobial agents. PMID:23819459

2013-01-01

15

Changes in clonal poplar leaf chemistry caused by stem galls alter herbivory and leaf litter decomposition.  

PubMed

Gall-inducing insects are highly specialized herbivores that modify the phenotype of their host plants. Beyond the direct manipulation of plant morphology and physiology in the immediate environment of the gall, there is also evidence of plant-mediated effects of gall-inducing insects on other species of the assemblages and ecosystem processes associated with the host plant. We analysed the impact of gall infestation by the aphid Pemphigus spirothecae on chemical leaf traits of clonal Lombardy poplars (Populus nigra var. italica) and the subsequent effects on intensity of herbivory and decomposition of leaves across five sites. We measured the herbivory of two feeding guilds: leaf-chewing insects that feed on the blade (e.g. caterpillars and sawfly larvae) and skeletonising insects that feed on the mesophyll of the leaves (e.g. larvae of beetles). Galled leaves had higher phenol (35%) and lower nitrogen and cholorophyll contents (35% respectively 37%) than non-galled leaves, and these differences were stronger in August than in June. Total herbivory intensity was 27% higher on galled than on non-galled leaves; damage by leaf chewers was on average 61% higher on gall infested leaves, whereas damage by skeletonising insects was on average 39% higher on non-galled leaves. After nine months the decomposition rate of galled leaf litter was 15% lower than that of non-galled leaf litter presumably because of the lower nitrogen content of the galled leaf litter. This indicated after-life effects of gall infestation on the decomposers. We found no evidence for galling x environment interactions. PMID:24260333

Künkler, Nora; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

2013-01-01

16

Changes in Clonal Poplar Leaf Chemistry Caused by Stem Galls Alter Herbivory and Leaf Litter Decomposition  

PubMed Central

Gall-inducing insects are highly specialized herbivores that modify the phenotype of their host plants. Beyond the direct manipulation of plant morphology and physiology in the immediate environment of the gall, there is also evidence of plant-mediated effects of gall-inducing insects on other species of the assemblages and ecosystem processes associated with the host plant. We analysed the impact of gall infestation by the aphid Pemphigus spirothecae on chemical leaf traits of clonal Lombardy poplars (Populus nigra var. italica) and the subsequent effects on intensity of herbivory and decomposition of leaves across five sites. We measured the herbivory of two feeding guilds: leaf-chewing insects that feed on the blade (e.g. caterpillars and sawfly larvae) and skeletonising insects that feed on the mesophyll of the leaves (e.g. larvae of beetles). Galled leaves had higher phenol (35%) and lower nitrogen and cholorophyll contents (35% respectively 37%) than non-galled leaves, and these differences were stronger in August than in June. Total herbivory intensity was 27% higher on galled than on non-galled leaves; damage by leaf chewers was on average 61% higher on gall infested leaves, whereas damage by skeletonising insects was on average 39% higher on non-galled leaves. After nine months the decomposition rate of galled leaf litter was 15% lower than that of non-galled leaf litter presumably because of the lower nitrogen content of the galled leaf litter. This indicated after-life effects of gall infestation on the decomposers. We found no evidence for galling x environment interactions. PMID:24260333

Kunkler, Nora; Brandl, Roland; Brandle, Martin

2013-01-01

17

Gibberellin Signal Transduction in Stem Elongation & Leaf Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The effect of gibberellin (GA) on promoting stem growth was first discovered in 1930s by studies of the Bakanae(foolish seedling) disease in rice (57). Gibberella fujikuroi, a pathogenic fungus, produces gibberellic acid (GA3) that causes the infected rice plants to grow so tall that they fall over. Later studies of dwarf mutants and analysis of\\u000a their GA contents revealed that

Tai-ping Sun

18

Constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Helichrysum armenium.  

PubMed

The chemical constituents from the flower, leaf and stem of Helichrysum armenium DC. (Asteraceae) growing in Iran were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The oil of flower was characterized by higher amount of limonene (21.2%), alpha-cadinol (18.2%), borneol (11.9%), delta-cadinene (9.0%), bornyl acetate (8.0%) and alpha-humulene (7.3%). Twenty one constituents representing 96.2% of the chromatographical leaf oil were identified of which limonene (29.2%), alpha-pinene (14.4%), caryophyllene oxide (6.5%), alpha-gurjunene (6.3%), bornyl acetate (5.5%) and torreyol (5.2%) were the major components. The main components of the stem oil were limonene (23.6%), alpha-pinene (13.4%), spathulenol (6.4%), alpha-gurjunene (6.3%), caryophyllene oxide (5.3%), bornyl acetate (5.2%), beta-cubebene (4.8%) and delta-cadinene (4.3%). The composition of the oils is different, although the most abundant components are identical in leaf oil (96.2%). The antimicrobial effect of flower, leaf and stem essential oils from Helichrysum armenium was studied according to the agar diffusion cup method. The essential oils had a moderate effect on the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and had a substantial fungicidal effect on the fungi under study. PMID:22799105

Oji, Khodam-Ali; Shafaghat, Ali

2012-05-01

19

Ecological differentiation in xylem cavitation resistance is associated with stem and leaf structural traits.  

PubMed

Cavitation resistance is a critical determinant of drought tolerance in tropical tree species, but little is known of its association with life history strategies, particularly for seasonal dry forests, a system critically driven by variation in water availability. We analysed vulnerability curves for saplings of 13 tropical dry forest tree species differing in life history and leaf phenology. We examined how vulnerability to cavitation (P??) related to dry season leaf water potentials and stem and leaf traits. P??-values ranged from -0.8 to -6.2 MPa, with pioneers on average 38% more vulnerable to cavitation than shade-tolerants. Vulnerability to cavitation was related to structural traits conferring tissue stress vulnerability, being negatively correlated with wood density, and surprisingly maximum vessel length. Vulnerability to cavitation was negatively related to the Huber-value and leaf dry matter content, and positively with leaf size. It was not related to SLA. We found a strong trade-off between cavitation resistance and hydraulic efficiency. Most species in the field were operating at leaf water potentials well above their P??, but pioneers and deciduous species had smaller hydraulic safety margins than shade-tolerants and evergreens. A trade-off between hydraulic safety and efficiency underlies ecological differentiation across these tropical dry forest tree species. PMID:20946587

Markesteijn, Lars; Poorter, Lourens; Paz, Horacio; Sack, Lawren; Bongers, Frans

2011-01-01

20

Rapid mass propagation of Chrysanthemum morifolium by callus derived from stem and leaf explants.  

PubMed

A procedure for rapid multiplication of Chrysanthemum morifolium RAMAT cv. Birbal Sahni using leaf callus and stem (nodal/internodal) callus as well as node and apical shoots has been developed. Murashige and Skoog's medium (1962) supplemented with 2mg/1 2,4-D yielded good green calli from both leaf and stem segments within 2 weeks. About 1 cm × 1 cm callus regenerated 2-3 shoots after 3 weeks on MS solid medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l IAA and 0.2 mg/l BAP. Each of the regenerated shoots when transferred to the same shooting medium without agar yielded about 150 new shoots, which in turn regenerated roots after another week in MS half strength or modified White's media (Rangaswamy, 1961). It has been estimated that about 10(14) plantlets could be produced in a year from one expiant following the proposed protocol. PMID:24227173

Bhattacharya, P; Dey, S; Das, N; Bhattacharyya, B C

1990-12-01

21

Chemical composition of Callistemon polandii leaf and stem essential oils from the plains of Northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils were obtained by conventional hydrodistillation of leaf and stem of C. polandii in a Clevenger- type apparatus. Each gave essential oil in 0.008% and 0.004% yield (v\\/w) on a fresh weight basis. GC and GC\\/MS analysis of the oils resulted in the identification of a total of 60 and 44 constituents, representing 98.2% and 99.9% of the

M. Khan; S. K. Srivastava; K. V. Syamsundar; Anju K. Yadav

2008-01-01

22

Toxic effect of stem bark and leaf of Euphorbia hirta plant against freshwater vector snail Lymnaea acuminata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous stem bark and leaf extracts of plant Euphorbia hirta (family-Euphorbiaceae) have potent molluscicidal activity. Sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50) of aqueous stem bark and leaf extracts of this plant also significantly (P<0.05) alter the levels of total protein, total free amino acid, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and the activity of enzyme protease and acid and

Sunil Kumar Singh; Ram P. Yadav; Sudhanshu Tiwari; Ajay Singh

2005-01-01

23

A RING domain gene is expressed in different cell types of leaf trace, stem, and juvenile bundles in the stem vascular system of zinnia.  

PubMed

The in vitro zinnia (Zinnia elegans) mesophyll cell system, in which leaf mesophyll cells are induced to transdifferentiate into tracheary elements with high synchrony, has become an established model for studying xylogenesis. The architecture of the stem vascular system of zinnia cv Envy contains three anatomically distinct vascular bundles at different stages of development. Juvenile vascular strands of the subapical region develop into mature vascular strands with leaf trace segments and stem segments. Characteristic patterns of gene expression in juvenile, leaf trace, and stem bundles are revealed by a molecular marker, a RING domain-encoding gene, ZeRH2.1, originally isolated from a zinnia cDNA library derived from differentiating in vitro cultures. Using RNA in situ hybridization, we show that ZeRH2.1 is expressed preferentially in two specific cell types in mature zinnia stems. In leaf trace bundles, ZeRH2.1 transcript is abundant in xylem parenchyma cells, while in stem bundles it is abundant in phloem companion cells. Both of these cell types show wall ingrowths characteristic of transfer cells. In addition, ZeRH2.1 transcript is abundant in some phloem cells of juvenile bundles and in leaf palisade parenchyma. The complex and developmentally regulated expression pattern of ZeRH2.1 reveals heterogeneity in the vascular anatomy of the zinnia stem. We discuss a potential function for this gene in intercellular transport processes. PMID:15965022

Dahiya, Preeti; Milioni, Dimitra; Wells, Brian; Stacey, Nicola; Roberts, Keith; McCann, Maureen C

2005-07-01

24

Stem rust, leaf rust, and stripe rust comprise a complex of diseases that reduces wheat and barley  

E-print Network

Stem rust, leaf rust, and stripe rust comprise a complex of diseases that reduces wheat and barley grain production. These rust diseases occur in nearly all areas of the United States and Canada with current wheat varieties, crop growth stage, and weather conditions. Stem rust has been present in North

Murray, Timothy D.

25

Rapid hydraulic recovery in Eucalyptus pauciflora after drought: linkages between stem hydraulics and leaf gas exchange.  

PubMed

In woody plants, photosynthetic capacity is closely linked to rates at which the plant hydraulic system can supply water to the leaf surface. Drought-induced embolism can cause sharp declines in xylem hydraulic conductivity that coincide with stomatal closure and reduced photosynthesis. Recovery of photosynthetic capacity after drought is dependent on restored xylem function, although few data exist to elucidate this coordination. We examined the dynamics of leaf gas exchange and xylem function in Eucalyptus pauciflora seedlings exposed to a cycle of severe water stress and recovery after re-watering. Stomatal closure and leaf turgor loss occurred at water potentials that delayed the extensive spread of embolism through the stem xylem. Stem hydraulic conductance recovered to control levels within 6?h after re-watering despite a severe drought treatment, suggesting an active mechanism embolism repair. However, stomatal conductance did not recover after 10?d of re-watering, effecting tighter control of transpiration post drought. The dynamics of recovery suggest that a combination of hydraulic and non-hydraulic factors influenced stomatal behaviour post drought. PMID:23937187

Martorell, Sebastià; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Medrano, Hipólito; Ball, Marilyn C; Choat, Brendan

2014-03-01

26

Identification and mapping of leaf, stem and stripe rust resistance quantitative trait loci and their interactions in durum wheat.  

PubMed

Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.), stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. tritici Eriks.) and stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) cause major production losses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The objective of this research was to identify and map leaf, stripe and stem rust resistance loci from the French cultivar Sachem and Canadian cultivar Strongfield. A doubled haploid population from Sachem/Strongfield and parents were phenotyped for seedling reaction to leaf rust races BBG/BN and BBG/BP and adult plant response was determined in three field rust nurseries near El Batan, Obregon and Toluca, Mexico. Stripe rust response was recorded in 2009 and 2011 nurseries near Toluca and near Njoro, Kenya in 2010. Response to stem rust was recorded in field nurseries near Njoro, Kenya, in 2010 and 2011. Sachem was resistant to leaf, stripe and stem rust. A major leaf rust quantitative trait locus (QTL) was identified on chromosome 7B at Xgwm146 in Sachem. In the same region on 7B, a stripe rust QTL was identified in Strongfield. Leaf and stripe rust QTL around DArT marker wPt3451 were identified on chromosome 1B. On chromosome 2B, a significant leaf rust QTL was detected conferred by Strongfield, and at the same QTL, a Yr gene derived from Sachem conferred resistance. Significant stem rust resistance QTL were detected on chromosome 4B. Consistent interactions among loci for resistance to each rust type across nurseries were detected, especially for leaf rust QTL on 7B. Sachem and Strongfield offer useful sources of rust resistance genes for durum rust breeding. PMID:23396999

Singh, A; Pandey, M P; Singh, A K; Knox, R E; Ammar, K; Clarke, J M; Clarke, F R; Singh, R P; Pozniak, C J; Depauw, R M; McCallum, B D; Cuthbert, R D; Randhawa, H S; Fetch, T G

2013-02-01

27

[Allelopathic effect of Nelumbo nucifera stem and leaf tissue extract on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus quadricanda].  

PubMed

Effects of Nelumbo nucifera stem and leaf tissue extract on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus quadricanda were studied to verify its potential in entriphication control. Five concentrations of Nelumbo nucifera stem and leaf tissue extract were chosen to compare their inhibitory effects on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus quadricanda. The result showed that the leaf extract inhibited the algae bloom more effectively than the stem extract on the whole. When the leaf extract normality was 25 g x L(-1), the highest inhibition rate of Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus quadricanda was 71.33% and 78.14%, respectively, while for the stem extract, the values were 49.78% and 52.14%. Propanamide was found in both the stem and leaf tissue extracts of Nelumbo nucifera by GC-MS analysis, with concentrations of 1.1 mg x L(-1) and 0.2 mg x L(-1), respectively. The EC50 values of the two kinds of algae were calculated by the probability method. PMID:24027993

He, Lian-Sheng; Meng, Fan-Li; Diao, Xiao-Jun; Li, Yi-Wei; Meng, Rui; Xi, Bei-Dou; Shu, Jian-Min

2013-07-01

28

Brassica rapa stock description: F1 and F2 Non-purple stem, Yellow-green leaf stocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PDF containing seed stock profile information for and illustration of the F1 and F2 Non-Purple Stem, Yellow-Green Leaf variety of Brassica rapa (Fast Plants). This also includes some brief suggestions for their use as a model organism in teaching Mendelian genetics with a monohybrid cross using Wisconsin Fast Plants.

Program, The W.

29

Coordination of stem and leaf hydraulic conductance in southern California shrubs: a test of the hydraulic segmentation hypothesis.  

PubMed

Coordination of water movement among plant organs is important for understanding plant water use strategies. The hydraulic segmentation hypothesis (HSH) proposes that hydraulic conductance in shorter lived, 'expendable' organs such as leaves and longer lived, more 'expensive' organs such as stems may be decoupled, with resistance in leaves acting as a bottleneck or 'safety valve'. We tested the HSH in woody species from a Mediterranean-type ecosystem by measuring leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) and stem hydraulic conductivity (KS). We also investigated whether leaves function as safety valves by relating Kleaf and the hydraulic safety margin (stem water potential minus the water potential at which 50% of conductivity is lost (?stem-?50)). We also examined related plant traits including the operating range of water potentials, wood density, leaf mass per area, and leaf area to sapwood area ratio to provide insight into whole-plant water use strategies. For hydrated shoots, Kleaf was negatively correlated with KS , supporting the HSH. Additionally, Kleaf was positively correlated with the hydraulic safety margin and negatively correlated with the leaf area to sapwood area ratio. Consistent with the HSH, our data indicate that leaves may act as control valves for species with high KS , or a low safety margin. This critical role of leaves appears to contribute importantly to plant ecological specialization in a drought-prone environment. PMID:24860955

Pivovaroff, Alexandria L; Sack, Lawren; Santiago, Louis S

2014-08-01

30

Cell Stem Cell Dynamic Changes in the Copy Number of Pluripotency  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Resource Dynamic Changes in the Copy Number of Pluripotency and Cell Proliferation University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel 8Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Sue and Bill Gross Stem Cell 11Centro de Medicina Regenerativa de Barcelona, Barcelona E-08003, Spain 12International Stem Cell

Shamir, Ron

31

Sedative effects of Arachis hypogaea L. stem and leaf extracts on sleep-deprived rats  

PubMed Central

Arachis hypogaea L. stem and leaf extracts (AHSLE) are reputed to aid sleep. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sedative effects of AHSLE on sleep-deprived (SD) rats and the effect on energy system pathways. Furthermore, we analyzed the essential oil components of Arachis hypogaea L. stems and leaves (AHSL) to explain the sedative effects. AHSLE were obtained by extracting AHSL twice with water at 98°C for 3 h. Animal experiments were performed in the Laboratory Animal Resource Center, University of Tsukuba, Japan, and the levels of neurotransmitters were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The essential oil of the AHSL was obtained by simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Following treatment with AHSLE, the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels of the SD rats increased, which is a different effect from that previously observed in freely behaving rats. Adenosine (Ad) were not elevated by AHSLE uniformly throughout the brain, but accumulated in site-specific and time-prolonged manners. Following GC-MS analysis of the AHSL essential oil, a total of 37 compounds were identified; the major components were linalool (16.17%, which has sedative-like activity), n-hexadecanoic acid (16.42%), and 1-octen-3-ol (8.48%; a product of linalool decomposition). AHSLE affect the target neurotransmitters related to the rat circadian rhythms in specific brain regions, suggesting that AHSLE have the potential to increase sleep during the SD phase, and the sedative effects of AHSLE may be due to high levels of linalool and its decomposition products. AHSLE are potentially useful as sedatives or sleep aids in hypnotic therapy. PMID:24137234

ZU, XIAOYAN; ZHANG, ZHENYA; XIONG, GUANGQUAN; LIAO, TAO; QIAO, YU; LI, YITING; GENG, SHENGRONG; LI, XIN

2013-01-01

32

Toxic effect of stem bark and leaf of Euphorbia hirta plant against freshwater vector snail Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

The aqueous stem bark and leaf extracts of plant Euphorbia hirta (family-Euphorbiaceae) have potent molluscicidal activity. Sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50) of aqueous stem bark and leaf extracts of this plant also significantly (P<0.05) alter the levels of total protein, total free amino acid, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and the activity of enzyme protease and acid and alkaline phosphatase in various tissues of the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata in time and dose dependent manner. Euphorbia hirta (family-Euphorbiaceae) commonly known as Dudhi, is a common medicinal plant of India, which is used in variety of diseases i.e. cough, asthma, colic, dysentery, genito urinary diseases. PMID:15722098

Singh, Sunil Kumar; Yadav, Ram P; Tiwari, Sudhanshu; Singh, Ajay

2005-04-01

33

Anti-hyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity of methanol leaf and stem extract of Nypa fruticans Wurmb.  

PubMed

Nypa fruticans Wurmb. (Arecaceae) is a mangrove palm well-known for its traditional uses by the local practitioners against different ailments in southern regions of Bangladesh. However, the plant is yet to be scientifically studied. The present study was done to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic and antinociceptive potential of methanolic extract of leaf and stem of Nypa fruticans Wurmb. (MENF). The anti-hyperglycemic activity was tested on glucose loaded hyperglycemic mice whereas antinociceptive activity was evaluated using a model of acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The crude MENF was found to show significant oral anti-hyperglycemic activity on glucose loaded mice at every dose. Maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity was observed at a dose of 500 mg MENF/kg body weight, which was more than what was obtained with a standard drug glibenclamide at a dose of 10 mg glibenclamide/kg body weight). Significant antinociceptive activity was also demonstrated by MENF in acetic acid-induced writhing mice model. The extract caused a maximum of 39.88% (p<0.001) inhibition of writhing at the dose of 600 mg/kg body weight, which was better than the result obtained with a standard drug (200 mg aspirin/kg body weight, 49.34% inhibition). These findings indicate that MENF has significant anti-hyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity and thus have great potential as a source of natural products. PMID:21959809

Reza, Hasan; Haq, Wahid Mozammel; Das, Asish K; Rahman, Shahnaz; Jahan, Rownak; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

2011-10-01

34

Arachis hypogaea L. stem and leaf extract improves the sleep behavior of pentobarbital-treated rats  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the sedative effects of Arachis hypogaea L. stem and leaf extract (AHSLE) and determine its effect pathways through ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated channels on male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with pentobarbital. AHSLE was obtained from 98°C water (3 h, extracted twice). AHSLE and flumazenil (a GABA type A receptor antagonist) were administered to the rats orally, whereas pentobarbital sodium and muscimol (a GABA type A receptor agonist) were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.). The results demonstrated that AHSLE decreased sleep latency and increased sleep time in pentobarbital-treated rats (50 mg/kg, i.p.). The coadministration of AHSLE and muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) significantly increased sleep time and reduced sleep latency in pentobarbital-treated rats and these actions were significantly antagonized by flumazenil at a dose of 3.5 mg/kg. These results indicated that AHSLE improved the sleep behavior in pentobarbital-treated rats, possibly through GABA-gated channel-related mechanisms. PMID:24748980

ZU, XIAO-YAN; XIONG, GUANG-QUAN; GENG, SHENG-RONG; LIAO, TAO; LI, XIN; ZHANG, ZHEN-YA

2014-01-01

35

Feasibility study: Alfalfa leaf meal as a value-added crop and alfalfa stems as biomass fuel. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The grantee recognizes the importance of alfalfa production to agricultural economics in the western United States. With this grant, it secured the assistance of experts at the University of Wyoming to explore alternative uses for and, thus, ways to add value to alfalfa. The study was prompted by periodic unstable demand and price fluctuations for hay. The agricultural infrastructure and expertise for producing alfalfa is well established in the Western U.S. Alfalfa is a well-adapted, environmentally friendly crop which avoids a large fertilizer subsidy by fixing atmospheric nitrogen into a form utilized for plant growth. Leaf-stem fractions were evaluated for forage quality, biofuel energy content, and co-product yield due to seperation procedure. The feasibility of conducting alfalfa leaf-stem separations in both stationary and mobile plants was considered on the basis of three factors: (1) price received for each fraction, (2) cost of the hay to be processed, and (3) cost of processing the hay. Both stationary and mobile separation plants showed positive net income potentials. Alfalfa stem pellets could be marked at appreciably lower cost than equivalent wood pellets for use in wood stoves. The report recommends that sufficient quantities of high-quality alfalfa leaf meal be produced and tested for evaluation in dairy, beef, aquaculture, poultry, and swine rations.

Gray, A.; Kaan, D.

1996-05-28

36

Stilbenes and oligostilbenes from leaf and stem of Vitis amurensis and their cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

Chromatographic separation of the EtOAc fraction from the leaf and stem of Vitis amurensis led to the isolation of six oligostilbenoids (i.e., r-2-viniferin (1), trans-amurensin B (2), trans-epsilon-viniferin (3), gnetin H (4), amurensin G (5), (+)-ampelopsin A (8)) and four stilbenoids (i.e., trans-resveratrol (6), (+)-ampelopsin F (7), piceatannol (9), and trans-piceid (10)). The structures have been identified on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and physicochemical properties. The isolates were investigated for cytotoxic activity against three cancer cell lines in vitro using the MTT assay method. Amurensin G (5) and trans-resveratrol (6) showed significant cytotoxic activity against L1210, K562 and HTC116 cancer cell lines with IC(50) values ranging from 15.7 +/- 2.1 to 30.9 +/- 1.8 microM. (+)-Ampelopsin A (8) and trans-piceid (10) exhibited considerable cytotoxic activity against L1210 (IC(50) values of 30.6 +/- 4.1 and 28.7 +/- 2.81 microM, respectively) and K562 (IC(50) values of 38.6 +/- 0.82 and 24.6 +/- 0.76 microM, respectively). Gnetin H (4) showed only weak cytotoxic activity against L1210 with an IC(50) value of 40.1 +/- 4.23 microM. On the other hand, r-2-viniverin (1), trans-amurensin B (2), trans-epsilon-viniferin (3), (+)-ampelopsin F (7), and piceatannol (9) exhibited no activity on three cancer cell lines. PMID:19280145

Ha, Do Thi; Chen, Quan Cheng; Hung, Tran Manh; Youn, Ui Joung; Ngoc, Tran Minh; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Kim, Hong Jin; Seong, Yeon Hee; Min, Byung Sun; Bae, Kihwan

2009-02-01

37

Combination of Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai Leaf Extract and Cisplatin Suppresses the Cancer Stemness and Invasion of Human Lung Cancer Cells.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and most chemotherapeutic drugs have limited success in treating this disease. Furthermore, some drugs show undesirable side effects due to the enrichment of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are present, leading to resistance to conventional chemotherapy and tumor relapse. CSCs possess self-renewal characteristics, aggressive tumor initiating activity, and ability to facilitate tumor metastasis. Therefore, development of nontoxic agents that can potentiate chemotherapy and eliminate CSCs would be highly desirable. In the present study, we investigated whether Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extracts (SQE) and cisplatin (CIS), individually or in combination, would exert anti-CSC and antimetastatic effect in H1299 and A549 human lung cancer cells. Following these treatments, cell growth, phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-3 kinase, and activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin were inhibited. Decreased serial sphere formation, clonogenicity, and expression of major stem cell markers, such as CD44 and SOX-2, in CD44(+) cancer stem cells were also observed. In addition, inhibition of cell migration and invasion in both cell lines as well as inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and expression were detected. Importantly, the anticancer stemness and antimetastasis effects in each of these assays were greater for the combined treatment with SQE and CIS than with each treatment individually. In conclusion, the data suggest that SQE alone, or in combination with CIS, represents a promising therapeutic strategy for eliminating cancer stemness and cell invasion potential of CSCs, thereby treating and preventing metastatic lung cancer cells. PMID:24838270

Kim, Mina; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yuri

2014-11-01

38

Passage number affects the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells as judged by tetraploid embryo aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether the number of passages affected the developmental pluripotency of embryonic\\u000a stem (ES) cells as measured by the attainment of adult fertile mice derived from embryonic stem (ES) cell\\/tetraploid embryo\\u000a complementation. Thirty-six newborns were produced by the aggregation of tetraploid embryos and hybrid ES cells after various\\u000a numbers of passages. These newborns

Xiang-yun Li; Qing Jia; Ke-qian Di; Shu-min Gao; Xiao-hui Wen; Rong-yan Zhou; Wei Wei; Li-ze Wang

2007-01-01

39

The Ratio of Leaf to Total Photosynthetic Area Influences Shade Survival and Plastic Response to Light of Green?stemmed Leguminous Shrub Seedlings  

PubMed Central

Different plant species and organs within a plant differ in their plastic response to light. These responses influence their performance and survival in relation to the light environment, which may range from full sunlight to deep shade. Plasticity, especially with regard to physiological features, is linked to a greater capacity to exploit high light and is usually low in shade?tolerant species. Among photosynthetic organs, green stems, which represent a large fraction of the total photosynthetic area of certain species, are hypothesized to be less capable of adjustment to light than leaves, because of biomechanical and hydraulic constraints. The response to light by leaves and stems of six species of leguminous, green?stemmed shrubs from dry and high?light environments was studied by growing seedlings in three light environments: deep shade, moderate shade and sun (3, 30 and 100 % of full sunlight, respectively). Survival in deep shade ranged from 2 % in Retama sphaerocarpa to 74 % in Ulex europaeus. Survival was maximal at moderate shade in all species, ranging from 80 to 98 %. The six species differed significantly in their ratio of leaf to total photosynthetic area, which influenced their light response. Survival in deep shade increased significantly with increasing ratio of leaf to total photosynthetic area, and decreased with increasing plasticity in net photosynthesis and dark respiration. Responses to light differed between stems and leaves within each species. Mean phenotypic plasticity for the variables leaf or stem specific mass, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio, and carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio of leaves, was inversely related to that of stems. Although mean plasticity of stems increased with the ratio of leaf to total photosynthetic area, the mean plasticity of leaves decreased. Shrubs with green stems and a low ratio of leaf to total photosynthetic area are expected to be restricted to well?lit habitats, at least during the seedling stage, owing to their inefficient light capture and the low plasticity of their stems. PMID:12646502

VALLADARES, FERNANDO; HERNÁNDEZ, LIBERTAD G.; DOBARRO, IKER; GARCÍA?PÉREZ, CRISTINA; SANZ, RUBÉN; PUGNAIRE, FRANCISCO I.

2003-01-01

40

[Determination of myclobutanil 25% WG degradation dynamics in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil by HPLC-MS/MS].  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for determining degradation dynamics and final residues of myclobutanil 25% WG in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned-up with primary secondary amine (PSA) solid phase extraction cartridge, separated by Kromasil Eternity-5-C18 (2.1 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) column with a gradient of acetonitrile and 0.1% formate in water as mobile phases, and analyzed with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode by employing the external standard method. The average recoveries and the relative standard derivations (RSDs) of myclobutanil at the spiked level of 0.01-0.20 mg x kg(-1) were 80.9%-90.7% and 5.54%-9.29%, respectively, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.005 mg x kg(-1). The method with good reproducible, high precision and low detection limit could meet the requirements of residual analysis on ginseng production. The half-lives of myclobutanil were from 6.25 days to 9.94 days in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil at spraying dosage of 1 152 g x hm(-2) The final residues were below 0.060 1 mg x kg(-1) in root, below 0.081 7 mg x kg(-1) in stem, 0.006 0-0.102 2 mg x kg(-1) in leaf and below 0.037 6 mg x kg(-1) in soil at spraying dosage range from 576 to 1 152 g x hm(-2). It is recommended that the MRLs of myclobutanil in dried ginseng may be suggested to be 0.10 mg x kg(-1) temporarily, and the preharvest interval was set at 35 days. PMID:25276964

Wang, Yan; Wang, Chun-Wei; Gao, Jie; Cui, Li-Li; Xu, Yun-Cheng

2014-07-01

41

NATURE GENETICS | VOLUME 37 | NUMBER 11 | NOVEMBER 2005 1201 Mice in the world of stem cell biology  

E-print Network

stem cells as a source for cell replacement therapy Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were first. The potential for stem cell therapy extends to many disorders,includ- ing myocardial infarction4,ParkinsonNATURE GENETICS | VOLUME 37 | NUMBER 11 | NOVEMBER 2005 1201 Mice in the world of stem cell biology

Cai, Long

42

Protection of wheat against leaf and stem rust and powdery mildew diseases by inhibition of polyamine metabolism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In higher plants, polyamines arise from arginine by one of two pathways: via ornithine and ornithine decarboxylase or via agmatine and arginine decarboxylase but in fungi, only the ornithine decarboxylase pathway is present. Since polyamines are required for normal growth of microorganisms and plants and since the ornithine pathway can be irreversibly blocked by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) which has no effect on arginine decarboxylase, fungal infection of green plants might be controlled by the site-directed use of such a specific metabolic inhibitor. DFMO at relatively low concentrations provided effective control of the three biotrophic fungal pathogens studied, Puccinia recondita (leaf rust), P. graminis f. sp. tritici (stem rust), and Erysiphe graminis (powdery mildew) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Effective control of infection by leaf or stem rust fungi was obtained with sprays of DFMO that ranged from about 0.01 to 0.20 mM in experiments where the inhibitor was applied after spore inoculation. The powdery mildew fungus was somewhat more tolerant of DFMO, but good control of the pathogen was obtained at less than 1.0 mM. In general, application of DFMO after spore inoculation was more effective than application before inoculation. Less control was obtained following treatment with alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) but the relatively high degree of control obtained raises the possibility of a DFMA to DFMO conversion by arginase.

Weinstein, L. H.; Osmeloski, J. F.; Wettlaufer, S. H.; Galston, A. W.

1987-01-01

43

GENETIC CONTROL OF THE NUMBER OF NODES PER STEM IN MILLET (Panicum miliaceum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of nodes per stem in millet has a special contribution to plant growth and development, being directly, positively and significantly correlated with the number of leaves and panicles per plant, TKW, green mass, grain and protein yield. The researches performed at Agricultural Research and Development Station Podu- Iloaiei pointed out an average variability for this trait. Hybridological analyses

Mihai Pricop

44

Effect of sowing date and variety on main shoot leaf emergence and number of leaves of barley  

E-print Network

Effect of sowing date and variety on main shoot leaf emergence and number of leaves of barley of leaves on accumulated temperature showed that the rate was up to 80 per cent faster in the last sowing, similar to that found by other workers. There was evidence that the base temperature varied with date

Boyer, Edmond

45

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanol extract from the stem and leaf of Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae) at different harvest times.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic content, total flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract from stems (S) and leaves (L) of Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae), which were harvested in Korea on March 10, 2011 (S1 and L1), May 14, 2011 (S2 and L2), and July 5, 2011 (S3 and L3), respectively. Our results revealed that the total phenolic (79.55-103.94 mg CE/g extract) and flavonoid (57.43-104.28 mg QE/g extract) contents of leaf extract were higher (p < 0.01) than those of stem extract. Leaf extracts (L1, L2, and L3) exhibited stronger (p < 0.01) free radical scavenging activity (66.06, 63.71, and 72.19%, respectively) than that of the positive control. In terms of antimicrobial activity, leaf extracts showed higher inhibitory effects against microorganisms than those of stem extracts (S1, S2, and S3). Among the leaf extracts at different harvest times, L3 showed the greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive strains. From these results, the leaf extract from I. balsamina L. might be a valuable bioactive resource, and would seem to be applicable as a natural antioxidant in food preservation. PMID:23760032

Kang, Suk-Nam; Goo, Young-Min; Yang, Mi-Ra; Ibrahim, Rashid Ismael Hag; Cho, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Il-Suk; Lee, Ok-Hwan

2013-01-01

46

Effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera.  

PubMed

Moringa oleifera, Lam. (Moringaceae) is grown world-wide in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia and Africa and contains abundant various nutrients. This study describes the effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of M. oleifera grown in Taiwan. The results showed that the winter samples of Moringa had higher ash (except the stalk part), calcium and phenolic compounds (except the leaf part) and stronger antioxidative activity than summer samples. The methanolic extract of Moringa showed strong scavenging effect of DPPH radicals and reducing power. The trend of antioxidative activity as a function of the part of Moringa was: leaf > stem > stalk for samples from both seasons investigated. The Moringa extract showed strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and high Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity except the stalk part. PMID:22016645

Shih, Ming-Chih; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Kang, Sue-Ming; Tsai, Min-Lang

2011-01-01

47

Expression of Betapapillomavirus Oncogenes Increases the Number of Keratinocytes with Stem Cell-Like Properties  

PubMed Central

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) of genus Betapapillomavirus (betaPV) are associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) and immunosuppressed patients. Epidemiological and molecular studies suggest a carcinogenic activity of betaPV during early stages of cancer development. Since viral oncoproteins delay and perturb keratinocyte differentiation, they may have the capacity to either retain or confer a “stem cell-like” state on oncogene-expressing cells. The aim of this study was to determine (i) whether betaPV alters the expression of cell surface markers, such as CD44 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), that have been associated with epithelial stemness, and (ii) whether this confers functional stem cell-like properties to human cutaneous keratinocytes. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis revealed an increase in the number of cells with high CD44 and EpCAM expression in keratinocyte cultures expressing HPV type 8 (HPV8) oncogenes E2, E6, and E7. Particularly through E7 expression, a distinct increase in clonogenicity and in the formation and size of tumor spheres was observed, accompanied by reduction of the epithelial differentiation marker Calgranulin B. These stem cell-like properties could be attributed to the pool of CD44high EpCAMhigh cells, which was increased within the E7 cultures of HPV5, -8, and -20. Enhanced EpCAM levels were present in organotypic skin cultures of primary keratinocytes expressing E7 of the oncogenic HPV types HPV5, -8, and -16 and in clinical samples from EV patients. In conclusion, our data show that betaPV may increase the number of stem cell-like cells present during early carcinogenesis and thus enable the persistence and accumulation of DNA damage necessary to generate malignant stem cells. PMID:24006432

Biddle, Adrian; Borgogna, Cinzia; Gariglio, Marisa; Doorbar, John; Storey, Alan; Pfister, Herbert; Mackenzie, Ian; Akgul, Baki

2013-01-01

48

Expression of betapapillomavirus oncogenes increases the number of keratinocytes with stem cell-like properties.  

PubMed

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) of genus Betapapillomavirus (betaPV) are associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) and immunosuppressed patients. Epidemiological and molecular studies suggest a carcinogenic activity of betaPV during early stages of cancer development. Since viral oncoproteins delay and perturb keratinocyte differentiation, they may have the capacity to either retain or confer a "stem cell-like" state on oncogene-expressing cells. The aim of this study was to determine (i) whether betaPV alters the expression of cell surface markers, such as CD44 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), that have been associated with epithelial stemness, and (ii) whether this confers functional stem cell-like properties to human cutaneous keratinocytes. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis revealed an increase in the number of cells with high CD44 and EpCAM expression in keratinocyte cultures expressing HPV type 8 (HPV8) oncogenes E2, E6, and E7. Particularly through E7 expression, a distinct increase in clonogenicity and in the formation and size of tumor spheres was observed, accompanied by reduction of the epithelial differentiation marker Calgranulin B. These stem cell-like properties could be attributed to the pool of CD44(high) EpCAM(high) cells, which was increased within the E7 cultures of HPV5, -8, and -20. Enhanced EpCAM levels were present in organotypic skin cultures of primary keratinocytes expressing E7 of the oncogenic HPV types HPV5, -8, and -16 and in clinical samples from EV patients. In conclusion, our data show that betaPV may increase the number of stem cell-like cells present during early carcinogenesis and thus enable the persistence and accumulation of DNA damage necessary to generate malignant stem cells. PMID:24006432

Hufbauer, Martin; Biddle, Adrian; Borgogna, Cinzia; Gariglio, Marisa; Doorbar, John; Storey, Alan; Pfister, Herbert; Mackenzie, Ian; Akgül, Baki

2013-11-01

49

Changes in leaf hydraulic conductance correlate with leaf vein embolism in Cercis siliquastrum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of xylem cavitation and embolism on leaf ( K leaf) and stem ( K stem) hydraulic conductance was measured in current-year shoots of Cercis siliquastrum L. (Judas tree) using the vacuum chamber technique. K stem decreased at leaf water potentials (? L) lower than -1.0 MPa, while K leaf started to decrease only at ? L L K leaf

Andrea Nardini; Sebastiano Salleo; Fabio Raimondo

2003-01-01

50

Organogenesis in callus derived from stem and leaf tissues of apple and cherry rootstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus formation from stem internodes of the apple rootstocks M.9, M.25, M.26, M.27 and the cherry rootstock Colt, and from pith of Nicotiana tabacum cv. Wisconsin 38 was initiated on 4 a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)-based media (2.0–10.0 mg1-1). Transfer of callus to corresponding media lacking NAA allowed regeneration of shoots from callus of M.25, M.27, Colt and tobacco but not of

David J. James; Andrew J. Passey; Suman B. Malhotra

1984-01-01

51

Leaf and Stem CO(2) Uptake in the Three Subfamilies of the Cactaceae.  

PubMed

Net CO(2) uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO(2) uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO(2) uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO(2) uptake occurred at night. For leafy members of the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO(2) uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO(2) uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C(3) plants, whereas nocturnal CO(2) uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C(3) plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways. PMID:16664741

Nobel, P S; Hartsock, T L

1986-04-01

52

Leaf and Stem CO2 Uptake in the Three Subfamilies of the Cactaceae 1  

PubMed Central

Net CO2 uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO2 uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO2 uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO2 uptake occurred at night. For leafy members of the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO2 uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO2 uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C3 plants, whereas nocturnal CO2 uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C3 plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways. PMID:16664741

Nobel, Park S.; Hartsock, Terry L.

1986-01-01

53

Heterologous over-expression of ACC SYNTHASE8 (ACS8) in Populus tremula x P. alba clone 717-1B4 results in elevated levels of ethylene and induces stem dwarfism and reduced leaf size through separate genetic pathways  

PubMed Central

Plant height is an important agronomic and horticultural trait that impacts plant productivity, durability and esthetic appeal. A number of the plant hormones such as gibberellic acid (GA), auxin and ethylene have been linked to control of plant architecture and size. Reduction in GA synthesis and auxin transport result in dwarfism while ethylene may have a permissive or repressive effect on tissue growth depending upon the age of plant tissues or the environmental conditions considered. We describe here an activation-tagged mutant of Populus tremula x P. alba clone 717-1B4 identified from 2000 independent transgenic lines due to its significantly reduced growth rate and smaller leaf size. Named dwarfy, the phenotype is due to increased expression of PtaACC SYNTHASE8, which codes for an enzyme in the first committed step in the biosynthesis of ethylene. Stems of dwarfy contain fiber and vessel elements that are reduced in length while leaves contain fewer cells. These morphological differences are linked to PtaACS8 inducing different transcriptomic programs in the stem and leaf, with genes related to auxin diffusion and sensing being repressed in the stem and genes related to cell division found to be repressed in the leaves. Altogether, our study gives mechanistic insight into the genetics underpinning ethylene-induced dwarfism in a perennial model organism.

Plett, Jonathan M.; Williams, Martin; LeClair, Gaetan; Regan, Sharon; Beardmore, Tannis

2014-01-01

54

STORM: A General Model to Determine the Number and Adaptive Changes of Epithelial Stem Cells in Teleost, Murine and Human Intestinal Tracts  

E-print Network

Intestinal stem cells play a pivotal role in the epithelial tissue renewal, homeostasis and cancer development. The lack of a general marker for intestinal stem cells across species has hampered analysis of stem cell number ...

Wang, Zhengyuan

55

Marker concentration patterns of labelled leaf and stem particles in the rumen of cattle grazing bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) analysed by reference to a raft model.  

PubMed

Large (>1600 microm), ingestively masticated particles of bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) leaf and stem labelled with 169Yb and 144Ce respectively were inserted into the rumen digesta raft of heifers grazing bermuda grass. The concentration of markers in digesta sampled from the raft and ventral rumen were monitored at regular intervals over approximately 144 h. The data from the two sampling sites were simultaneously fitted to two pool (raft and ventral rumen-reticulum) models with either reversible or sequential flow between the two pools. The sequential flow model fitted the data equally as well as the reversible flow model but the reversible flow model was used because of its greater application. The reversible flow model, hereafter called the raft model, had the following features: a relatively slow age-dependent transfer rate from the raft (means for a gamma 2 distributed rate parameter for leaf 0.0740 v. stem 0.0478 h(-1)), a very slow first order reversible flow from the ventral rumen to the raft (mean for leaf and stem 0.010 h(-1)) and a very rapid first order exit from the ventral rumen (mean of leaf and stem 0.44 h(-1)). The raft was calculated to occupy approximately 0.82 total rumen DM of the raft and ventral rumen pools. Fitting a sequential two pool model or a single exponential model individually to values from each of the two sampling sites yielded similar parameter values for both sites and faster rate parameters for leaf as compared with stem, in agreement with the raft model. These results were interpreted as indicating that the raft forms a large relatively inert pool within the rumen. Particles generated within the raft have difficulty escaping but once into the ventral rumen pool they escape quickly with a low probability of return to the raft. It was concluded that the raft model gave a good interpretation of the data and emphasized escape from and movement within the raft as important components of the residence time of leaf and stem particles within the rumen digesta of cattle. PMID:11348570

Poppi, D P; Ellis, W C; Matis, J H; Lascano, C E

2001-05-01

56

Optimising Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Numbers for Clinical Application: A Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being investigated further for their use in stem cell therapies. However, as they are found in very low numbers in adult tissue, expansion in vitro is required to produce desired MSC numbers for clinical application. The need for effective cell-based therapies is increasing due to a rise in the ageing population, increasing the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. This review investigates how factors, age and gender of donor, as well as seeding density can affect MSC expansion. Age and gender of donor have received mixed results from studies, whereas seeding density studies have produced consistent results for numerous MSC sources, favouring lower seeding densities. Further research is required to reduce the risk of infection, loss of cell characterisation in cell culture, and making cell-based therapies more cost effective through creating rapid expansion of MSCs regardless of patient factors. PMID:22448172

Fossett, E.; Khan, W. S.

2012-01-01

57

Identification of drought-responsive microRNAs in leaf and stem tissues of Oryza sativa by Solexa sequencing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we profiled the microRNA (miRNA) sequences from three rice varieties: Vandana (droughttolerant), Aday Sel (drought-tolerant) and IR64 (drought-susceptible) in greenhouse conditions. Drought treatment was given to three week old seedlings by withholding watering until leaf rolling was observed while controls were given sufficient water. Among the 21 highly conserved miRNA families in rice, we found that 10 families have at least a common mature miRNA member that is differentially expressed between leaf and stem tissues. Our results also suggest that the predicted target genes in these differentially expressed conserved and non-conserved miRNAs are functionally diverse. A wide range of biological processes are found to be regulated by these target genes between both tissues, namely root development (5.3-5.7%), cell transport (13.2-18.4%), response to stress (10.5-11.3%), lignin catabolic process (3.8-5.3%), metabolic processes (32.1-39.5%), oxidation-reduction process (9.4-13.2%) and DNA replication (5.7-7.9%). Progress is still being made to study the expression profiles of differentially expressed miRNAs in our datasets in order to select the potential miRNA candidates that play major regulatory roles in plant molecular response under drought stress conditions. We hope that the miRNA profiling data will provide new information to better understand the regulation of drought-tolerant genes at the genome level.

Huat, Cheah Boon; Nadarajah, Kalaivani; Ratnam, Wickneswari

2014-09-01

58

Identification and characterization of miRNAome in root, stem, leaf and tuber developmental stages of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by high-throughput sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitous components of endogenous plant transcriptome. miRNAs are small, single-stranded and ~21 nt long RNAs which regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are known to play essential roles in various aspects of plant development and growth. Previously, a number of miRNAs have been identified in potato through in silico analysis and deep sequencing approach. However, identification of miRNAs through deep sequencing approach was limited to a few tissue types and developmental stages. This study reports the identification and characterization of potato miRNAs in three different vegetative tissues and four stages of tuber development by high throughput sequencing. Results Small RNA libraries were constructed from leaf, stem, root and four early developmental stages of tuberization and subjected to deep sequencing, followed by bioinformatics analysis. A total of 89 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 33 families), 147 potato-specific miRNAs (with star sequence) and 112 candidate potato-specific miRNAs (without star sequence) were identified. The digital expression profiling based on TPM (Transcripts Per Million) and qRT-PCR analysis of conserved and potato-specific miRNAs revealed that some of the miRNAs showed tissue specific expression (leaf, stem and root) while a few demonstrated tuberization stage-specific expressions. Targets were predicted for identified conserved and potato-specific miRNAs, and predicted targets of four conserved miRNAs, miR160, miR164, miR172 and miR171, which are ARF16 (Auxin Response Factor 16), NAM (NO APICAL MERISTEM), RAP1 (Relative to APETALA2 1) and HAM (HAIRY MERISTEM) respectively, were experimentally validated using 5? RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends). Gene ontology (GO) analysis for potato-specific miRNAs was also performed to predict their potential biological functions. Conclusions We report a comprehensive study of potato miRNAs at genome-wide level by high-throughput sequencing and demonstrate that these miRNAs have tissue and/or developmental stage-specific expression profile. Also, predicted targets of conserved miRNAs were experimentally confirmed for the first time in potato. Our findings indicate the existence of extensive and complex small RNA population in this crop and suggest their important role in pathways involved in diverse biological processes, including tuber development. PMID:24397411

2014-01-01

59

Piper nigrum Leaf and Stem Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial Activity Against Agricultural Plant Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Utilization of biological materials in synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the hottest topics in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present investigation, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using the leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation of the peak at 460?nm in the UV-vis spectra for leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Further, XRD analysis has been carried out to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The TEM images show that the leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles were within the size of about 7–50?nm and 9–30?nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis was performed to identify the possible functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, the antibacterial activity of the green-synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined against agricultural plant pathogens. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles is a beneficial application in the field of agricultural nanotechnology. PMID:24558336

Paulkumar, Kanniah; Gnanajobitha, Gnanadhas; Vanaja, Mahendran; Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

2014-01-01

60

Grain Amaranths Are Defoliation Tolerant Crop Species Capable of Utilizing Stem and Root Carbohydrate Reserves to Sustain Vegetative and Reproductive Growth after Leaf Loss  

PubMed Central

Tolerance to defoliation can be defined as the degree to which productivity is affected by photosynthetic area reduction. This trait was studied in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus), which are considered to be a highly defoliation-tolerant species. The physiological and biochemical responses to increasing levels of mechanical leaf removal up to total defoliation were quantified. Tolerance appeared to be dependent on various factors: ( i) amount of lost tissue; (ii) mechanics of leaf tissue removal; (iii) environment, and (iv) species tested. Thus, grain amaranth was found to be a highly tolerant species under green-house conditions when leaf tissue loss was performed by gradual perforation. However, tolerance was compromised under similar conditions when defoliation was done by gradual cutting of the leaf. Also tolerance in completely defoliated plants tended to decrease under field conditions, where differences between A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus were observed. All non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels were reduced in stems and roots of totally defoliated amaranths one day after treatment. Such depletion probably provided the carbon (C) resources needed to sustain the early recovery process in the absence of photosynthetic capacity. This was corroborated by shading of intact plants, which produced the same rapid and drastic reduction of NSC levels in these tissues. These results emphasize the role of stored NSCs, particularly starch, in buffering the impact of severe defoliation in amaranth. The fall in sucrose synthase and cell wall invertase activity observed in stems and roots soon after defoliation was consistent with their predicted shift from sink to source tissues. It is concluded that mobilization of C stores in stems and roots, is a physiologically important trait underlying tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth. PMID:23861825

Vargas-Ortiz, Erandi; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Tiessen, Axel; Delano-Frier, John Paul

2013-01-01

61

Grain amaranths are defoliation tolerant crop species capable of utilizing stem and root carbohydrate reserves to sustain vegetative and reproductive growth after leaf loss.  

PubMed

Tolerance to defoliation can be defined as the degree to which productivity is affected by photosynthetic area reduction. This trait was studied in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus), which are considered to be a highly defoliation-tolerant species. The physiological and biochemical responses to increasing levels of mechanical leaf removal up to total defoliation were quantified. Tolerance appeared to be dependent on various factors: ( i) amount of lost tissue; (ii) mechanics of leaf tissue removal; (iii) environment, and (iv) species tested. Thus, grain amaranth was found to be a highly tolerant species under green-house conditions when leaf tissue loss was performed by gradual perforation. However, tolerance was compromised under similar conditions when defoliation was done by gradual cutting of the leaf. Also tolerance in completely defoliated plants tended to decrease under field conditions, where differences between A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus were observed. All non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels were reduced in stems and roots of totally defoliated amaranths one day after treatment. Such depletion probably provided the carbon (C) resources needed to sustain the early recovery process in the absence of photosynthetic capacity. This was corroborated by shading of intact plants, which produced the same rapid and drastic reduction of NSC levels in these tissues. These results emphasize the role of stored NSCs, particularly starch, in buffering the impact of severe defoliation in amaranth. The fall in sucrose synthase and cell wall invertase activity observed in stems and roots soon after defoliation was consistent with their predicted shift from sink to source tissues. It is concluded that mobilization of C stores in stems and roots, is a physiologically important trait underlying tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth. PMID:23861825

Vargas-Ortiz, Erandi; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John Paul

2013-01-01

62

Two alternative recessive quantitative trait loci influence resistance to spring black stem and leaf spot in Medicago truncatula  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge of the genetic basis of plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens is incomplete and has been characterised in relatively few pathosystems. In this study, the cytology and genetics of resistance to spring black stem and leaf spot caused by Phoma medicaginis, an economically important necrotrophic pathogen of Medicago spp., was examined in the model legume M. truncatula. Results Macroscopically, the resistant response of accession SA27063 was characterised by small, hypersensitive-like spots following inoculation while the susceptible interaction with accessions A17 and SA3054 showed necrotic lesions and spreading chlorosis. No unique cytological differences were observed during early infection (<48 h) between the resistant and susceptible genotypes, except pathogen growth was restricted to one or a few host cells in SA27063. In both interactions reactive oxygen intermediates and phenolic compounds were produced, and cell death occurred. Two F2 populations segregating for resistance to spring black stem and leaf spot were established between SA27063 and the two susceptible accessions, A17 and SA3054. The cross between SA27063 and A17 represented a wider cross than between SA27063 and SA3054, as evidenced by higher genetic polymorphism, reduced fertility and aberrant phenotypes of F2 progeny. In the SA27063 × A17 F2 population a highly significant quantitative trait locus (QTL, LOD = 7.37; P < 0.00001) named resistance to the necrotroph Phoma medicaginis one (rnpm1) genetically mapped to the top arm of linkage group 4 (LG4). rnpm1 explained 33.6% of the phenotypic variance in the population's response to infection depicted on a 1–5 scale and was tightly linked to marker AW256637. A second highly significant QTL (LOD = 6.77; P < 0.00001), rnpm2, was located on the lower arm of LG8 in the SA27063 × SA3054 map. rnpm2 explained 29.6% of the phenotypic variance and was fine mapped to a 0.8 cM interval between markers h2_16a6a and h2_21h11d. rnpm1 is tightly linked to a cluster of Toll/Interleukin1 receptor-nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NBS-LRR) genes and disease resistance protein-like genes, while no resistance gene analogues (RGAs) are apparent in the genomic sequence of the reference accession A17 at the rnpm2 locus. Conclusion The induction of defence responses and cell death in the susceptible interaction following infection by P. medicaginis suggested this pathogen is not negatively affected by these responses and may promote them. A QTL for resistance was revealed in each of two populations derived from crosses between a resistant accession and two different susceptible accessions. Both loci are recessive in nature, and the simplest explanation for the existence of two separate QTLs is the occurrence of host genotype-specific susceptibility loci that may interact with undetermined P. medicaginis virulence factors. PMID:18366746

Kamphuis, Lars G; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Oliver, Richard P; Ellwood, Simon R

2008-01-01

63

Lsd1 restricts the number of germline stem cells by regulating multiple targets in escort cells.  

PubMed

Specialized microenvironments called niches regulate tissue homeostasis by controlling the balance between stem cell self-renewal and the differentiation of stem cell daughters. However the mechanisms that govern the formation, size and signaling of in vivo niches remain poorly understood. Loss of the highly conserved histone demethylase Lsd1 in Drosophila escort cells results in increased BMP signaling outside the cap cell niche and an expanded germline stem cell (GSC) phenotype. Here we present evidence that loss of Lsd1 also results in gradual changes in escort cell morphology and their eventual death. To better characterize the function of Lsd1 in different cell populations within the ovary, we performed Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). This analysis shows that Lsd1 associates with a surprisingly limited number of sites in escort cells and fewer, and often, different sites in cap cells. These findings indicate that Lsd1 exhibits highly selective binding that depends greatly on specific cellular contexts. Lsd1 does not directly target the dpp locus in escort cells. Instead, Lsd1 regulates engrailed expression and disruption of engrailed and its putative downstream target hedgehog suppress the Lsd1 mutant phenotype. Interestingly, over-expression of engrailed, but not hedgehog, results in an expansion of GSC cells, marked by the expansion of BMP signaling. Knockdown of other potential direct Lsd1 target genes, not obviously linked to BMP signaling, also partially suppresses the Lsd1 mutant phenotype. These results suggest that Lsd1 restricts the number of GSC-like cells by regulating a diverse group of genes and provide further evidence that escort cell function must be carefully controlled during development and adulthood to ensure proper germline differentiation. PMID:24625679

Eliazer, Susan; Palacios, Victor; Wang, Zhaohui; Kollipara, Rahul K; Kittler, Ralf; Buszczak, Michael

2014-03-01

64

Lsd1 Restricts the Number of Germline Stem Cells by Regulating Multiple Targets in Escort Cells  

PubMed Central

Specialized microenvironments called niches regulate tissue homeostasis by controlling the balance between stem cell self-renewal and the differentiation of stem cell daughters. However the mechanisms that govern the formation, size and signaling of in vivo niches remain poorly understood. Loss of the highly conserved histone demethylase Lsd1 in Drosophila escort cells results in increased BMP signaling outside the cap cell niche and an expanded germline stem cell (GSC) phenotype. Here we present evidence that loss of Lsd1 also results in gradual changes in escort cell morphology and their eventual death. To better characterize the function of Lsd1 in different cell populations within the ovary, we performed Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). This analysis shows that Lsd1 associates with a surprisingly limited number of sites in escort cells and fewer, and often, different sites in cap cells. These findings indicate that Lsd1 exhibits highly selective binding that depends greatly on specific cellular contexts. Lsd1 does not directly target the dpp locus in escort cells. Instead, Lsd1 regulates engrailed expression and disruption of engrailed and its putative downstream target hedgehog suppress the Lsd1 mutant phenotype. Interestingly, over-expression of engrailed, but not hedgehog, results in an expansion of GSC cells, marked by the expansion of BMP signaling. Knockdown of other potential direct Lsd1 target genes, not obviously linked to BMP signaling, also partially suppresses the Lsd1 mutant phenotype. These results suggest that Lsd1 restricts the number of GSC-like cells by regulating a diverse group of genes and provide further evidence that escort cell function must be carefully controlled during development and adulthood to ensure proper germline differentiation. PMID:24625679

Eliazer, Susan; Palacios, Victor; Wang, Zhaohui; Kollipara, Rahul K.; Kittler, Ralf; Buszczak, Michael

2014-01-01

65

Neuroprotection of the leaf and stem of Vitis amurensis and their active compounds against ischemic brain damage in rats and excitotoxicity in cultured neurons.  

PubMed

Vitis amurensis (Vitaceae) has been reported to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study investigated a methanol extract from the leaf and stem of V. amurensis for neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemic damage in rats and on excitotoxicity induced by glutamate in cultured rat cortical neurons. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 2h middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 24h reperfusion (MCAO/reperfusion) in rats. Orally administered V. amurensis (25-100 mg/kg) reduced MCAO/reperfusion-induced infarct and edema formation, neurological deficits, and neuronal death. Depletion of glutathione (GSH) level and lipid peroxidation induced by MCAO/reperfusion was inhibited by administration of V. amurensis. The increase of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and pro-apoptotic proteins and the decrease of anti-apoptotic protein in MCAO/reperfusion rats were significantly inhibited by treatment with V. amurensis. Exposure of cultured cortical neurons to 500 ?M glutamate for 12h induced neuronal cell death. V. amurensis (1-50 ?g/ml) and (+)-ampelopsin A, ?-2-viniferin, and trans-?-viniferin isolated from the leaf and stem of V. amurensis inhibited glutamate-induced neuronal death, the elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)), the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and changes of apoptosis-related proteins in cultured cortical neurons, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of V. amurensis may be partially attributed to these compounds. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of V. amurensis against focal cerebral ischemic injury might be due to its anti-apoptotic effect, resulting from anti-excitotoxic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects and that the leaf and stem of V. amurensis have possible therapeutic roles for preventing neurodegeneration in stroke. PMID:21778042

Kim, Joo Youn; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Kim, SeungHwan; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Bae, KiHwan; Seong, Yeon Hee

2012-01-15

66

Genetic basis for developmental homeostasis of germline stem cell niche number: a network of Tramtrack-Group nuclear BTB factors.  

PubMed

The potential to produce new cells during adult life depends on the number of stem cell niches and the capacity of stem cells to divide, and is therefore under the control of programs ensuring developmental homeostasis. However, it remains generally unknown how the number of stem cell niches is controlled. In the insect ovary, each germline stem cell (GSC) niche is embedded in a functional unit called an ovariole. The number of ovarioles, and thus the number of GSC niches, varies widely among species. In Drosophila, morphogenesis of ovarioles starts in larvae with the formation of terminal filaments (TFs), each made of 8-10 cells that pile up and sort in stacks. TFs constitute organizers of individual germline stem cell niches during larval and early pupal development. In the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, the number of ovarioles varies interspecifically from 8 to 20. Here we show that pipsqueak, Trithorax-like, batman and the bric-à-brac (bab) locus, all encoding nuclear BTB/POZ factors of the Tramtrack Group, are involved in limiting the number of ovarioles in D. melanogaster. At least two different processes are differentially perturbed by reducing the function of these genes. We found that when the bab dose is reduced, sorting of TF cells into TFs was affected such that each TF contains fewer cells and more TFs are formed. In contrast, psq mutants exhibited a greater number of TF cells per ovary, with a normal number of cells per TF, thereby leading to formation of more TFs per ovary than in the wild type. Our results indicate that two parallel genetic pathways under the control of a network of nuclear BTB factors are combined in order to negatively control the number of germline stem cell niches. PMID:23185495

Bartoletti, Mathieu; Rubin, Thomas; Chalvet, Fabienne; Netter, Sophie; Dos Santos, Nicolas; Poisot, Emilie; Paces-Fessy, Mélanie; Cumenal, Delphine; Peronnet, Frédérique; Pret, Anne-Marie; Théodore, Laurent

2012-01-01

67

Stems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some mature plants can produce new plants by cutting a piece of stem off of the original plant. Most members of the mint family and ivy family can do this readily. The new plant will grow its own root system.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

68

GC/MS analysis of volatiles obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous-distillation extraction from Rabdosia serra (MAXIM.) HARA leaf and stem.  

PubMed

Volatiles in Rabdosia serra were investigated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous-distillation extraction (SDE). The HS-SPME technique was previously evaluated to optimise sampling conditions. A total of 56 and 48 compounds including alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, carboxylic acid, ester, and aromatics were identified in leaf and stem by optimised HS-SPME method (CAR/PDMS fibre; incubation time, 10 min; extraction temperature, 50°C; extraction time, 40 min), respectively. 1-Octen-3-ol and (2E)-hexenal had significant contribution to R. serra aroma. Cluster analysis indicated that leaf and stem exhibited different volatile diversity. Air drying was favourable for the retention of the volatiles, while freeze- and sun-drying led to the loss of volatiles. SDE method preferred to the analysis of compounds with low volatility including fatty acids and esters. HS-SPME was a useful technique for the analysis of readily volatile components for the characteristics of R. serra aroma. PMID:23122097

Lin, Lianzhu; Zhuang, Mingzhu; Lei, Fenfen; Yang, Bao; Zhao, Mouming

2013-01-15

69

Leaf-induced gibberellin signaling is essential for internode elongation, cambial activity, and fiber differentiation in tobacco stems.  

PubMed

The gibberellins (GAs) are a group of endogenous compounds that promote the growth of most plant organs, including stem internodes. We show that in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) the presence of leaves is essential for the accumulation of bioactive GAs and their immediate precursors in the stem and consequently for normal stem elongation, cambial proliferation, and xylem fiber differentiation. These processes do not occur in the absence of maturing leaves but can be restored by application of C(19)-GAs, identifying the presence of leaves as a requirement for GA signaling in stems and revealing the fundamental role of GAs in secondary growth regulation. The use of reporter genes for GA activity and GA-directed DELLA protein degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana confirms the presence of a mobile signal from leaves to the stem that induces GA signaling. PMID:22253226

Dayan, Jonathan; Voronin, Nickolay; Gong, Fan; Sun, Tai-ping; Hedden, Peter; Fromm, Hillel; Aloni, Roni

2012-01-01

70

Assessment of Euphorbia hirta L. leaf, flower, stem and root extracts for their antibacterial and antifungal activity and brine shrimp lethality.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis), four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis) and one yeast (Candida albicans) species were screened. Inhibition zones ranged between 16-29 mm. Leaves extract inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms with large zones of inhibition, followed by that of flowers, which also inhibited all the bacteria except C. albicans. The most susceptible microbes to all extracts were S. aureus and Micrococcus sp. Root extract displayed larger inhibition zones against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria and had larger inhibition zones compared to stem extract. The lowest MIC values were obtained with E. coli and C. albicans (3.12 mg/mL), followed by S. aureus (12.50 mg/mL) and P. mirabilis (50.00 mg/mL). All the other bacteria had MIC values of 100.00 mg/mL. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) studies revealed that the cells exposed to leaf extract displayed a rough surface with multiple blends and invaginations which increased with increasing time of treatment, and cells exposed to leaf extract for 36 h showed the most damage, with abundant surface cracks which may be related to final cell collapse and loss of function. Time-kill assay of C. albicans indicated a primarily fungicidal effect at 1- and 2-fold MIC. E. hirta extracts had LC(50) values of 0.71, 0.66, 0.41 and 0.03 mg/mL for stems, leaves, roots and flowers, respectively against Artemia salina. Hence, these plants can be used to discover new bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals. PMID:20877206

Rajeh, Mohammad Abu Basma; Zuraini, Zakaria; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Amutha, Santhanam

2010-09-01

71

Phylogeny in Defining Model Plants for Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: A Comparative Study of Brachypodium distachyon, Wheat, Maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus Leaf and Stem Biomass  

PubMed Central

The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108–117 mg ethanol·g?1 dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type. PMID:25133818

Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A.

2014-01-01

72

Phylogeny in defining model plants for lignocellulosic ethanol production: a comparative study of Brachypodium distachyon, wheat, maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus leaf and stem biomass.  

PubMed

The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108-117 mg ethanol·g(-1) dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type. PMID:25133818

Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A

2014-01-01

73

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils Obtained From the Flower, Leaf and Stem of Artemisia campestris L. From Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oils obtained from the flowers, leaves and stems of Artemisia campestris L. were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Nineteen compounds representing 95.4% of the oil were identified in the flower oil, 22 compounds making up 90.3% of the oil were characterized in the oil obtained from leaves, and 14 compounds representing 96.7% of the stem

Masoud Kazemi; Maryam Tabatabaei-Anaraki; Abdolhossein Rustaiyan; Alireza Motevalizadeh; Shiva Masoudi

2009-01-01

74

CO[sub 2] and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO[sub 2] influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38[degree], but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28[degree]. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18[degree] due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO[sub 2] concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28[degree], resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree]. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28[degree], and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree] but decreased at 38[degree]. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO[sub 2], butt was greater at 38[degree]. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38[degree] relative to 28[degree], and elevated CO[sub 2] levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28[degree] but decreased leaf area at 38[degree].

Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1992-08-01

75

Changes in human bone marrow fat content associated with changes in hematopoietic stem cell numbers and cytokine levels with aging.  

PubMed

Hematological deficiencies increase with aging, including anemias, reduced responses to hematopoietic stress and myelodysplasias. This investigation tested the hypothesis that increased bone marrow (BM) fat content in humans with age was associated with decreased numbers of side population (SP) hematopoietic stem cells, and this decrease correlated with changes in cytokine levels. BM was obtained from the femoral head and trochanteric region of the femur removed at surgery for total hip replacement (N = 100 subjects). In addition, BM from cadavers (N = 36), with no evidence of hip disease, was evaluated for fat content. Whole trabecular marrow samples were ground in a sterile mortar and pestle, and cellularity and lipid content determined. Marrow cells were stained with Hoechst dye and SP profiles were acquired. Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1 and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured using ELISA. Fat content in the BM of human subjects and cadavers increased with age. The numbers of SP stem cells in BM as well as plasma IGF-1 and SDF-1 levels decreased in correlation with increased BM fat. IL-6 had no relationship to changes in marrow fat. These data suggest that increased BM fat may be associated with a decreased number of SP stem cells and IGF-1 and SDF-1 levels with aging. These data further raise a more general question as to the role of adipose cells in the regulation of tissue stem cells. PMID:21923862

Tuljapurkar, Sonal R; McGuire, Timothy R; Brusnahan, Susan K; Jackson, John D; Garvin, Kevin L; Kessinger, Margaret A; Lane, Judy T; O' Kane, Barbara J; Sharp, John G

2011-11-01

76

Cross-species patterns in the coordination between leaf and stem traits, and their implications for plant hydraulics  

E-print Network

for plant hydraulics Ian J. Wrighta *, Daniel S. Falstera , Melinda Pickupb and Mark Westobya a Department hydraulic properties and traits such as leaf size, WD and LM/SM are coordinated, and what the implications, Diaz et al. 2004). Questions that may be asked during this process include: (1) Is a greater proportion

Wright, Ian

77

Enhancement of humoral immune responses to inactivated Newcastle disease and avian influenza vaccines by oral administration of ginseng stem-and-leaf saponins in chickens.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are common in the poultry industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of ginseng stem-and-leaf saponins (GSLS) on the humoral immune responses of chickens to inactivated ND and AI vaccines. In experiment 1, oral administration of GSLS at a dose of 5 mg/kg of BW for 7 d on the immune response in chickens intramuscularly injected with inactivated ND vaccine was evaluated. Results showed that GSLS significantly increased the antibody level against ND in the serum of chickens. In experiment 2, the same regimen of GSLS was administered to chickens inoculated with inactivated AI vaccines, and an enhanced serum antibody response to AI vaccination was also observed. Considering the safety of GSLS, because no adverse effect was found throughout the experiments, GSLS may be a promising oral adjuvant to improve immunization in poultry. PMID:21844260

Zhai, L; Li, Y; Wang, W; Hu, S

2011-09-01

78

Leaf litter leachates have the potential to increase lifespan, body size, and offspring numbers in a clone of Moina macrocopa.  

PubMed

Leaf litter processing is one major pathway of the global organic carbon cycle. During this process, a variety of small reactive organic compounds are released and transported to the aquatic environment, and may directly impact aquatic organisms as natural xenobiotics. We hypothesize that different forest stockings produce different leachate qualities, which in turn, stress the aquatic communities and, eventually, separate sensitive from tolerant species. Particularly, leachates from coniferous trees are suspected to have strongly adverse impacts on sensitive species. We exposed individuals of a clone of the model organism, Moina macrocopa, to comparable concentrations (approximately 2mM) of litter leachates of Norway spruce, Picea abies, Colorado blue spruce, Picea pungens, black poplar, Populus nigra, and sessile oak, Quercus petraea. The animals were fed ad libitum. The following life trait variables were recorded: growth, lifespan, and lifetime offspring. To identify, whether or not exposure to litter leachates provokes an internal oxidative stress in the exposed animals we measured the superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity via photoluminescence. Except of P. abies, exposure to the leachates reduced this antioxidant capacity by approximately 50%. Leachate exposures, except that of Quercus, increased body size and extended lifespan; furthermore, particularly the leachates of both Picea species significantly increased the offspring numbers. This unexpected behavior of exposed Moina may be based on food supplements (e.g., high carbohydrate contents) in the leachates or on yet to be identified regulatory pathways of energy allocation. Overall, our results suggest that the potentially adverse effects of litter leachates can be overruled by either bacterial-growth supporting fractions in the leachates or an internal compensation mechanism in the Moina individuals. PMID:22115468

Hofmann, Sylva; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Putschew, Anke; Saul, Nadine; Menzel, Ralph; Steinberg, Christian E W

2012-03-01

79

Identification and correction of spectral contamination in 2H/1H and 18O/16O measured in leaf, stem, and soil water.  

PubMed

Plant water extracts typically contain organic materials that may cause spectral interference when using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS), resulting in errors in the measured isotope ratios. Manufacturers of IRIS instruments have developed post-processing software to identify the degree of contamination in water samples, and potentially correct the isotope ratios of water with known contaminants. Here, the correction method proposed by an IRIS manufacturer, Los Gatos Research, Inc., was employed and the results were compared with those obtained from isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Deionized water was spiked with methanol and ethanol to create correction curves for ?(18)O and ?(2)H. The contamination effects of different sample types (leaf, stem, soil) and different species from agricultural fields, grasslands, and forests were compared. The average corrections in leaf samples ranged from 0.35 to 15.73‰ for ?(2)H and 0.28 to 9.27‰ for ?(18)O. The average corrections in stem samples ranged from 1.17 to 13.70‰ for ?(2)H and 0.47 to 7.97‰ for ?(18)O. There was no contamination observed in soil water. Cleaning plant samples with activated charcoal had minimal effects on the degree of spectral contamination, reducing the corrections, by on average, 0.44‰ for ?(2)H and 0.25‰ for ?(18)O. The correction method eliminated the discrepancies between IRMS and IRIS for ?(18)O, and greatly reduced the discrepancies for ?(2)H. The mean differences in isotope ratios between IRMS and the corrected IRIS method were 0.18‰ for ?(18)O, and -3.39‰ for ?(2)H. The inability to create an ethanol correction curve for ?(2)H probably caused the larger discrepancies. We conclude that ethanol and methanol are the primary compounds causing interference in IRIS analyzers, and that each individual analyzer will probably require customized correction curves. PMID:22006400

Schultz, Natalie M; Griffis, Timothy J; Lee, Xuhui; Baker, John M

2011-11-15

80

Osmotic adjustment and the inhibition of leaf, root, stem and silk growth at low water potentials in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expansion growth of plant organs is inhibited at low water potentials (?w), but the inhibition has not been compared in different organs of the same plant. Therefore, we determined elongation rates of the roots, stems, leaves, and styles (silks) of maize (Zea mays L.) as soil water was depleted. The ?w was measured in the region of cell expansion

M. E. Westgate I; J. S. Boyer

1985-01-01

81

Original article Photosynthesis, leaf area and productivity  

E-print Network

Original article Photosynthesis, leaf area and productivity of 5 poplar clones during; The stem volume and biomass (stem + branches) production, net photosynthesis of mature leaves and leaf area found in volume production, woody biomass production, total leaf area and net photosynthesis. Above

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

Allometric estimation of total leaf area in the neotropical palm Euterpe oleracea at La Selva, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated the magnitude of the total leaf area of the neotropical palm Euterpe oleracea and examined its allometry relative to the variation in stem height and diameter at La Selva Biological Station in Costa\\u000a Rica. The allometric relationships between frond leaf area and frond length (from tip to base), and between frond leaf area\\u000a and number of leaflets, were

Gerardo Avalos; Olivia Sylvester

2010-01-01

83

Comparison of stem/progenitor cell number and transcriptomic profile in the mammary tissue of dairy and beef breed heifers.  

PubMed

Bovine mammary stem cells (MaSC) are a source of ductal and lobulo-alveolar tissue during the development of the mammary gland and its remodeling in repeating lactation cycles. We hypothesize that the number of MaSC, their molecular properties, and interactions with their niche may be essential in order to determine the mammogenic potential in heifers. To verify this hypothesis, we compared the number of MaSC and the transcriptomic profile in the mammary tissue of 20-month-old, non-pregnant dairy (Holstein-Friesian, HF) and beef (Limousin, LM) heifers. For the identification and quantification of putative stem/progenitor cells in mammary tissue sections, scanning cytometry was used with a combination of MaSC molecular markers: stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) and fibronectin type III domain containing 3B (FNDC3B) protein. Cytometric analysis revealed a significantly higher number of Sca-1(pos)FNDC3B(pos) cells in HF (2.94?±?0.35%) than in LM (1.72?±?0.20%) heifers. In HF heifers, a higher expression of intramammary hormones, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and transcription regulators was observed. The model of mammary microenvironment favorable for MaSC was associated with the regulation of genes involved in MaSC maintenance, self-renewal, proliferation, migration, differentiation, mammary tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism, and steroid and insulin signaling. In conclusion, the mammogenic potential in postpubertal dairy heifers is facilitated by a higher number of MaSC and up-regulation of mammary auto- and paracrine factors representing the MaSC niche. PMID:24748329

Osi?ska, Ewa; Wicik, Zofia; Godlewski, Micha? M; Paw?owski, Karol; Majewska, Alicja; Mucha, Joanna; Gajewska, Ma?gorzata; Motyl, Tomasz

2014-08-01

84

In Vitro Phytochemical, Antibacterial, and Antifungal Activities of Leaf, Stem, and Root Extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris  

PubMed Central

Adiantum capillus veneris is a medicinally essential plant used for the treatment of diverse infectious diseases. The study of phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria and medically important fungi is of immense significance. Extracts from the leaves, stems, and roots of Adiantum capillus veneris were extracted with water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane and screened for their antimicrobial activity against ten MDR bacterial strains and five fungal strains isolated from clinical and water samples. Ash, moisture, and extractive values were determined according to standard protocols. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy) studies were performed on different phytochemicals isolated from the extracts of Adiantum capillus Veneris. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, and reducing sugars. Water, methanol, and ethanol extracts of leaves, stems, and roots showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against most of the MDR bacterial and fungal strains. This study concluded that extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris have valuable phytochemicals and significant activities against most of the MDR bacterial strains and medically important fungal strains. PMID:24592156

Ishaq, Muhammad Saqib; Siddique Afridi, Muhammad; Khattak, Mahrukh; Ahmad, Sohail; Shakirullah

2014-01-01

85

Leaf rolling and stem fasciation in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) mutant are mediated through glutathione-dependent cellular and metabolic changes and associated with a metabolic diversion through cysteine during phenotypic reversal.  

PubMed

A Lathyrus sativus L. mutant isolated in ethylmethane sulfonate-treated M2 progeny of mother variety BioL-212 and designated as rlfL-1 was characterized by inwardly rolled-leaf and stem and bud fasciations. The mutant exhibited karyomorphological peculiarities in both mitosis and meiosis with origin of aneuploidy. The mitosis was vigorous with high frequency of divisional cells and their quick turnover presumably steered cell proliferations. Significant transcriptional upregulations of cysteine and glutathione synthesis and concomitant stimulations of glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense helped rlfL-1 mutant to maintain balanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolisms, as deduced by ROS-imaging study. Glutathione synthesis was shut down in buthionine sulfoximine- (BSO-) treated mother plant and mutant, and leaf-rolling and stems/buds fasciations in the mutant were reversed, accompanied by normalization of mitotic cell division process. Antioxidant defense was downregulated under low glutathione-redox but cysteine-desulfurations and photorespiratory glycolate oxidase transcripts were markedly overexpressed, preventing cysteine overaccumulation but resulted in excess H2O2 in BSO-treated mutant. This led to oxidative damage in proliferating cells, manifested by severe necrosis in rolled-leaf and fasciated stems. Results indicated vital role of glutathione in maintaining abnormal proliferations in plant organs, and its deficiency triggered phenotypic reversal through metabolic diversions of cysteine and concomitant cellular and metabolic modulations. PMID:24987684

Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

2014-01-01

86

Leaf Rolling and Stem Fasciation in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Mutant Are Mediated through Glutathione-Dependent Cellular and Metabolic Changes and Associated with a Metabolic Diversion through Cysteine during Phenotypic Reversal  

PubMed Central

A Lathyrus sativus L. mutant isolated in ethylmethane sulfonate-treated M2 progeny of mother variety BioL-212 and designated as rlfL-1 was characterized by inwardly rolled-leaf and stem and bud fasciations. The mutant exhibited karyomorphological peculiarities in both mitosis and meiosis with origin of aneuploidy. The mitosis was vigorous with high frequency of divisional cells and their quick turnover presumably steered cell proliferations. Significant transcriptional upregulations of cysteine and glutathione synthesis and concomitant stimulations of glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense helped rlfL-1 mutant to maintain balanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolisms, as deduced by ROS-imaging study. Glutathione synthesis was shut down in buthionine sulfoximine- (BSO-) treated mother plant and mutant, and leaf-rolling and stems/buds fasciations in the mutant were reversed, accompanied by normalization of mitotic cell division process. Antioxidant defense was downregulated under low glutathione-redox but cysteine-desulfurations and photorespiratory glycolate oxidase transcripts were markedly overexpressed, preventing cysteine overaccumulation but resulted in excess H2O2 in BSO-treated mutant. This led to oxidative damage in proliferating cells, manifested by severe necrosis in rolled-leaf and fasciated stems. Results indicated vital role of glutathione in maintaining abnormal proliferations in plant organs, and its deficiency triggered phenotypic reversal through metabolic diversions of cysteine and concomitant cellular and metabolic modulations. PMID:24987684

Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

2014-01-01

87

Adipocyte amino acid sensing controls adult germline stem cell number via the amino acid response pathway and independently of Target of Rapamycin signaling in Drosophila.  

PubMed

How adipocytes contribute to the physiological control of stem cells is a critical question towards understanding the link between obesity and multiple diseases, including cancers. Previous studies have revealed that adult stem cells are influenced by whole-body physiology through multiple diet-dependent factors. For example, nutrient-dependent pathways acting within the Drosophila ovary control the number and proliferation of germline stem cells (GSCs). The potential role of nutrient sensing by adipocytes in modulating stem cells in other organs, however, remains largely unexplored. Here, we report that amino acid sensing by adult adipocytes specifically modulates the maintenance of GSCs through a Target of Rapamycin-independent mechanism. Instead, reduced amino acid levels and the consequent increase in uncoupled tRNAs trigger activation of the GCN2-dependent amino acid response pathway within adipocytes, causing increased rates of GSC loss. These studies reveal a new step in adipocyte-stem cell crosstalk. PMID:25359724

Armstrong, Alissa R; Laws, Kaitlin M; Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela

2014-12-01

88

The Leaf Size-Twig Size Spectrum of Temperate Woody Species Along an Altitudinal Gradient: An Invariant Allometric Scaling Relationship  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The leaf size–twig size spectrum is one of the leading dimensions of plant ecological variation, and now it is under development. The purpose of this study was to test whether the relationship between leaf size and twig size is isometric or allometric, and to examine the relationship between plant allometric growth and life history strategies in the spectrum. • Methods Leaf and stem characters—including leaf and stem mass, total leaf area, individual leaf area, stem cross-sectional area, leaf number and stem length—at the twig level for 59 woody species were investigated along an altitudinal gradient on Changbaishan Mountain in the temperate zone of China. The environmental gradient ranges from temperate broad-leaved mixed forest at low altitude, to conifer forest at middle altitude, and to sub-alpine birch forest at high altitude. The scaling relationships between stem cross-sectional area and stem mass, stem mass and leaf mass, and leaf mass and leaf area at the twig level were simultaneously determined. • Key Results Twig cross-sectional area was found to have invariant allometric scaling relationships with the stem mass, leaf mass, total leaf area and individual leaf area, all with common slopes being significantly larger than 1, for three altitudinal-zoned vegetation types under investigation. However, leaf mass was found to be isometrically related to stem mass and leaf area along the environmental gradient. Based on the predictions of previous models, the exponent value of the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and total leaf area can be inferred to be 1·5, which falls between the confidence intervals of the relationship at each altitude, and between the confidence intervals of the common slope value (1·17–1·56) of this study. This invariant scaling relationship is assumed to result from the fractural network and/or developmental constraints of plants. The allometric constants (y-intercepts) of the relationships between the stem cross-sectional area and leaf area (both total leaf area and individual leaf area) were found to decrease significantly along the altitudinal gradient. This suggests that the species would support less leaf area at a given twig cross-sectional area with increasing environmental stress. • Conclusions This study demonstrated that plants respond to the environmental gradient by changing the y-intercepts of the relationship between leaf size–twig size, while keeping the exponent value of the allometric relationship as an invariant constant. The allometric growth in the twig size–leaf size spectrum is related to many other components of plant life history strategy, including the well established life history trade-off between efficiency and safety in the hydraulic transport of water. PMID:16254019

SUN, SHUCUN; JIN, DONGMEI; SHI, PEILI

2006-01-01

89

The Mitochondrial Genome of the Leaf-Cutter Ant Atta laevigata: A Mitogenome with a Large Number of Intergenic Spacers  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of the leaf-cutter ant Atta laevigata, assembled using transcriptomic libraries from Sanger and Illumina next generation sequencing (NGS), and PCR products. This mitogenome was found to be very large (18,729 bp), given the presence of 30 non-coding intergenic spacers (IGS) spanning 3,808 bp. A portion of the putative control region remained unsequenced. The gene content and organization correspond to that inferred for the ancestral pancrustacea, except for two tRNA gene rearrangements that have been described previously in other ants. The IGS were highly variable in length and dispersed through the mitogenome. This pattern was also found for the other hymenopterans in particular for the monophyletic Apocrita. These spacers with unknown function may be valuable for characterizing genome evolution and distinguishing closely related species and individuals. NGS provided better coverage than Sanger sequencing, especially for tRNA and ribosomal subunit genes, thus facilitating efforts to fill in sequence gaps. The results obtained showed that data from transcriptomic libraries contain valuable information for assembling mitogenomes. The present data also provide a source of molecular markers that will be very important for improving our understanding of genomic evolutionary processes and phylogenetic relationships among hymenopterans. PMID:24828084

Rodovalho, Cynara de Melo; Lyra, Mariana Lucio; Ferro, Milene; Bacci, Mauricio

2014-01-01

90

Conserved loci of leaf and stem rust fungi of wheat share synteny interrupted by lineage-specific influx of repeat elements  

PubMed Central

Background Wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks; Pt) and stem rust fungi (P. graminis f.sp. tritici; Pgt) are significant economic pathogens having similar host ranges and life cycles, but different alternate hosts. The Pt genome, currently estimated at 135 Mb, is significantly larger than Pgt, at 88 Mb, but the reason for the expansion is unknown. Three genomic loci of Pt conserved proteins were characterized to gain insight into gene content, genome complexity and expansion. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was made from P. triticina race 1, BBBD and probed with Pt homologs of genes encoding two predicted Pgt secreted effectors and a DNA marker mapping to a region of avirulence. Three BACs, 103 Kb, 112 Kb, and 166 Kb, were sequenced, assembled, and open reading frames were identified. Orthologous genes were identified in Pgt and local conservation of gene order (microsynteny) was observed. Pairwise protein identities ranged from 26 to 99%. One Pt BAC, containing a RAD18 ortholog, shares syntenic regions with two Pgt scaffolds, which could represent both haplotypes of Pgt. Gene sequence is diverged between the species as well as within the two haplotypes. In all three BAC clones, gene order is locally conserved, however, gene shuffling has occurred relative to Pgt. These regions are further diverged by differing insertion loci of LTR-retrotransposon, Gypsy, Copia, Mutator, and Harbinger mobile elements. Uncharacterized Pt open reading frames were also found; these proteins are high in lysine and similar to multiple proteins in Pgt. Conclusions The three Pt loci are conserved in gene order, with a range of gene sequence divergence. Conservation of predicted haustoria expressed secreted protein genes between Pt and Pgt is extended to the more distant poplar rust, Melampsora larici-populina. The loci also reveal that genome expansion in Pt is in part due to higher occurrence of repeat-elements in this species. PMID:23356831

2013-01-01

91

Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This engaging web site contains information and interactive applets related to various number systems: Egyptian, Babylonian, Chinese, Greek, Roman, Mayan, and Arabic. Users learn the history and structure of each system as well as how to count and write numbers. The site also allows users to explore finger systems, calculating machines, other number bases, and "interesting numbers." A series of pages on data and graphs includes information and activities on gathering, analyzing, graphing and sorting data. (Because the section on the Arabic number system is so extensive, it is cataloged separately as a related resource.)

Edkins, Jo

2006-01-01

92

Down-regulation of SlIAA15 in tomato altered stem xylem development and production of volatile compounds in leaf exudates.  

PubMed

The Aux/IAA family genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that function as transcriptional regulators in auxin signal transduction. Aux/IAA genes have been reported to control many processes of plant development. Our recent study showed that down-regulation of SlIAA15 in tomato reduced apical dominance, altered pattern of axillary shoot development, increased lateral root formation and leaves thickness. The SlIAA15 suppressed lines display strong reduction of trichome density, suggesting that SlIAA15 is involved in trichome formation. Here, we reported that SlIAA15-suppressed transgenic lines display increased number of xylem cells compared to wild-type plants. Moreover, the monoterpene content in trichome exudates are significantly reduced in SlIAA15 down-regulated leaves. The results provide the roles of SlIAA15 in production of volatile compounds in leaf exudates and xylem development, clearly indicating that members of the Aux/IAA gene family can play distinct and specific functions.  PMID:22836503

Deng, Wei; Yan, Fang; Liu, Minchun; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Zhengguo

2012-08-01

93

Leaf-Induced Gibberellin Signaling Is Essential for Internode Elongation, Cambial Activity, and Fiber Differentiation in Tobacco Stems[C][W  

PubMed Central

The gibberellins (GAs) are a group of endogenous compounds that promote the growth of most plant organs, including stem internodes. We show that in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) the presence of leaves is essential for the accumulation of bioactive GAs and their immediate precursors in the stem and consequently for normal stem elongation, cambial proliferation, and xylem fiber differentiation. These processes do not occur in the absence of maturing leaves but can be restored by application of C19-GAs, identifying the presence of leaves as a requirement for GA signaling in stems and revealing the fundamental role of GAs in secondary growth regulation. The use of reporter genes for GA activity and GA-directed DELLA protein degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana confirms the presence of a mobile signal from leaves to the stem that induces GA signaling. PMID:22253226

Dayan, Jonathan; Voronin, Nickolay; Gong, Fan; Sun, Tai-ping; Hedden, Peter; Fromm, Hillel; Aloni, Roni

2012-01-01

94

Evidence that an early pregnancy causes a persistent decrease in the number of functional mammary epithelial stem cells--implications for pregnancy-induced protection against breast cancer.  

PubMed

A completed pregnancy at a young age reduces a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer by up to 50%. A similar protective effect of an early pregnancy has been observed in rodent models using chemical carcinogens. However, the mechanisms responsible for this protective effect remain unclear. Stem cells have been proposed to be the cells of origin for breast cancer. We hypothesized that an early pregnancy reduces adult levels of either mammary stem cells or mammary multipotent progenitor cells. Unsorted mammary cells from adult mice that had undergone an early parity had the same mammosphere formation efficiency as cells from age-matched virgin mice. However, when we transplanted adult mammary cells in limiting dilutions into cleared fat pads of syngeneic mice, we found a significant reduction in the outgrowth potential of the cells from early parous mice compared with age-matched virgin mice. The extent of fat pad filling in successful outgrowths did not change, suggesting that although mammary stem cells in parous mice retained their functional competence, the number of mammary stem cells was reduced. Our results provide the first direct evidence that an early pregnancy has an effect on mammary stem cells. PMID:18787212

Siwko, Stefan K; Dong, Jie; Lewis, Michael T; Liu, Hao; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Li, Yi

2008-12-01

95

Evidence that an early pregnancy causes a persistent decrease in the number of functional mammary epithelial stem cells--implications for pregnancy-induced protection against breast cancer  

PubMed Central

A completed pregnancy at a young age reduces a woman’s lifetime risk of breast cancer by up to 50%. A similar protective effect of an early pregnancy has been observed in rodent models using chemical carcinogens. However, the mechanisms responsible for this protective effect remain unclear. Stem cells have been proposed to be the cells of origin for breast cancer. We hypothesized that an early pregnancy reduces adult levels of either mammary stem cells or mammary multipotent progenitor cells. Unsorted mammary cells from adult mice that had undergone an early parity had the same mammosphere formation efficiency as cells from age-matched virgin mice. However, when we transplanted adult mammary cells in limiting dilutions into cleared fat pads of syngeneic mice, we found a significant reduction in the outgrowth potential of the cells from early parous mice as compared with age-matched virgin mice. The extent of fat pad filling in successful outgrowths did not change, suggesting that while mammary stem cells in parous mice retained their functional competence, the number of mammary stem cells was reduced. Our results provide the first direct evidence that an early pregnancy has an effect on mammary stem cells. PMID:18787212

Siwko, Stefan K.; Dong, Jie; Lewis, Michael T.; Liu, Hao; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Li, Yi

2009-01-01

96

WOX13-like genes are required for reprogramming of leaf and protoplast cells into stem cells in the moss Physcomitrella patens.  

PubMed

Many differentiated plant cells can dedifferentiate into stem cells, reflecting the remarkable developmental plasticity of plants. In the moss Physcomitrella patens, cells at the wound margin of detached leaves become reprogrammed into stem cells. Here, we report that two paralogous P. patens WUSCHEL-related homeobox 13-like (PpWOX13L) genes, homologs of stem cell regulators in flowering plants, are transiently upregulated and required for the initiation of cell growth during stem cell formation. Concordantly, ?ppwox13l deletion mutants fail to upregulate genes encoding homologs of cell wall loosening factors during this process. During the moss life cycle, most of the ?ppwox13l mutant zygotes fail to expand and initiate an apical stem cell to form the embryo. Our data show that PpWOX13L genes are required for the initiation of cell growth specifically during stem cell formation, in analogy to WOX stem cell functions in seed plants, but using a different cellular mechanism. PMID:24715456

Sakakibara, Keiko; Reisewitz, Pascal; Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Friedrich, Thomas; Ando, Sayuri; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Tamada, Yosuke; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Kurata, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Masaki; Deguchi, Hironori; Rensing, Stefan A; Werr, Wolfgang; Murata, Takashi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Laux, Thomas

2014-04-01

97

Spring Wheat Leaf Appearance and Temperature: Extending the Paradigm?  

PubMed Central

Extensive research shows temperature to be the primary environmental factor controlling the phyllochron, or rate of leaf appearance, of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Experimental results suggest that soil temperature at crown depth, rather than air temperature above the canopy, would better predict wheat leaf appearance rates. To test this hypothesis, leaf appearance in spring wheat (‘Nordic’) was measured in a 2?year field experiment (Nunn clay loam soil; fine, smectitic, mesic Aridic, Argiustoll) with three planting dates and two soil temperature treatments. One temperature treatment (denoted +3C) consisted of heating the soil at crown depth to 3 °C above the ambient soil temperature (denoted +0C). Main stem cumulative leaf number was measured at least weekly until flag leaf emergence. Leaf appearance was essentially linear with both air and soil growing degree?days (GDD), although there was a stronger linear relationship with soil GDD in the +0C plants than in +3C plants. A weak positive relationship between planting date and the phyllochron was observed. Unexpectedly, we found that heating the soil did not increase the rate of leaf appearance, as the paradigm would predict. To explain these results, we propose extending the paradigm in two ways. First, three processes are involved in leaf appearance: (1) cell division at the shoot apex forms the primordium; (2) cell division in the intercalary meristem forms the cells that then (3) expand to produce the leaf. Cell division is predominately controlled by temperature, but cell expansion is considerably more affected by factors other than temperature, explaining the influence of other factors on the phyllochron. Secondly, the vertical distribution of the two meristems and region of cell expansion occur over a significant distance, where temperature varies considerably, and temperature at a specific point (e.g. crown depth) does not account for the entire temperature regime under which leaves are developing. PMID:12714367

MCMASTER, GREGORY S.; WILHELM, W. W.; PALIC, D. B.; PORTER, JOHN R.; JAMIESON, P. D.

2003-01-01

98

Human blood and marrow side population stem cell and Stro-1 positive bone marrow stromal cell numbers decline with age, with an increase in quality of surviving stem cells: correlation with cytokines.  

PubMed

Hematological deficiencies increase with aging leading to anemias, reduced hematopoietic stress responses and myelodysplasias. This study tested the hypothesis that side population hematopoietic stem cells (SP-HSC) would decrease with aging, correlating with IGF-1 and IL-6 levels and increases in bone marrow fat. Marrow was obtained from the femoral head and trochanteric region of the femur at surgery for total hip replacement (N=100). Whole trabecular marrow samples were ground in a sterile mortar and pestle and cellularity and fat content determined. Marrow and blood mononuclear cells were stained with Hoechst dye and the SP-HSC profiles acquired. Marrow stromal cells (MSC) were enumerated flow cytometrically employing the Stro-1 antibody, and clonally in the colony forming unit fibroblast (CFU-F) assay. Plasma levels of IGF-1 (ng/ml) and IL-6 (pg/ml) were measured by ELISA. SP-HSC in blood and bone marrow decreased with age but the quality of the surviving stem cells increased. MSC decreased non-significantly. IGF-1 levels (mean=30.7, SEM=2) decreased and IL-6 levels (mean=4.4, SEM=1) increased with age as did marrow fat (mean=1.2mmfat/g, SEM=0.04). There were no significant correlations between cytokine levels or fat and SP-HSC numbers. Stem cells appear to be progressively lost with aging and only the highest quality stem cells survive. PMID:21035480

Brusnahan, S K; McGuire, T R; Jackson, J D; Lane, J T; Garvin, K L; O'Kane, B J; Berger, A M; Tuljapurkar, S R; Kessinger, M A; Sharp, J G

2010-01-01

99

High-resolution DNA analysis of human embryonic stem cell lines reveals culture-induced copy number changes and loss of heterozygosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolonged culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can lead to adaptation and the acquisition of chromosomal abnormalities, underscoring the need for rigorous genetic analysis of these cells. Here we report the highest-resolution study of hESCs to date using an Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array containing 906,600 probes for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 946,000 probes for copy number variations (CNVs).

Reija Autio; Nelly Rahkonen; Lingjia Kong; Neil Harrison; Danny Kitsberg; Lodovica Borghese; Joseph Itskovitz-Eldor; Omid Rasool; Petr Dvorak; Outi Hovatta; Timo Otonkoski; Timo Tuuri; Wei Cui; Oliver Brüstle; Duncan Baker; Edna Maltby; Harry D Moore; Nissim Benvenisty; Peter W Andrews; Olli Yli-Harja; Elisa Närvä; Riitta Lahesmaa

2010-01-01

100

Plant Structure--Leaves, Stems, and Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Page one consists of a full color illustration of an idealized plant, showing various leaf, stem and root features. Page two illustrates various adaptations of plant flowers, leaves and stems. All illustrations are accompanied by explanations of the structures' functions.

2000-01-01

101

7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes...semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed from leaves, cuttings, clippings, trimmings, shorts, or...

2010-01-01

102

7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes...semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed from leaves, cuttings, clippings, trimmings, shorts, or...

2011-01-01

103

7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes...semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed from leaves, cuttings, clippings, trimmings, shorts, or...

2012-01-01

104

Role of algalization in rice growth, yield and incidence of infestation with the stem borerChilo agamemnon Bles. and the leaf minerHydrellia prosternalis Deeming in the Nile Delta.  

PubMed

Blue-green algae as a soil-based inoculum was applied to short-duration Indica rice in combination with 72 kg N/ha and compared with just N fertilization applied as 144 kg N/ha. Fertilizer N was applied in two equal doses 25 days after transplanting and at mid-tillering stage. The algal inoculum, which containedAnabaena cylindrica, Anabaena oryzae, Nostoc muscorum andTolypothrix tenuis, was applied at 100 kg/ha fresh material (90% moisture) 5 days after transplanting. Five different combinations of microelements were sprayed as a foliar application simultaneously with fertilizer N. Plant performance was enhanced by inoculation with algae and microelements compared with complete N fertilization only. Natural infestation with the stem borer,Chilo agamemnon, and leaf miner,Hydrellia prosternalis, decreased significantly during growth and up to harvesting with application of algae, Endosulfan, and increased with application of microelements. PMID:24430137

Yanni, Y G; Abdallah, F E

1990-12-01

105

Leaf Hydraulic Conductance for a Tank Bromeliad: Axial and Radial Pathways for Moving and Conserving Water  

PubMed Central

Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomical variables related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and numbers of vascular bundles (veins) were used with the Hagen–Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance, low stomatal density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and hydraulically well-suited to conserve water. PMID:23596446

North, Gretchen B.; Lynch, Frank H.; Maharaj, Franklin D. R.; Phillips, Carly A.; Woodside, Walter T.

2013-01-01

106

Original article Compatible stem taper and stem volume functions  

E-print Network

for oak performs relatively well considering the substantial number of forked oak trees. stem taper / stemOriginal article Compatible stem taper and stem volume functions for oak (Quercus robur L and Q - In this paper we develop compatible stem taper and stem volume functions for oak (Quercus robur L and Q petraea

Boyer, Edmond

107

Impact of different leaf velocities and dose rates on the number of monitor units and the dose-volume-histograms using intensity modulated radiotherapy with sliding-window technique  

PubMed Central

Background Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using sliding window technique utilises a leaf sequencing algorithm, which takes some control system limitations like dose rates (DR) and velocity of the leafs (LV) into account. The effect of altering these limitations on the number of monitor units and radiation dose to the organs at risk (OAR) were analysed. Methods IMRT plans for different LVs from 1.0 cm/sec to 10.0 cm/sec and different DRs from 100 MU/min to 600 MU/min for two patients with prostate cancer and two patients with squamous cell cancer of the scalp (SCCscalp) were calculated using the same "optimal fluence map". For each field the number of monitor units, the dose volume histograms and the differences in the "actual fluence maps" of the fields were analysed. Results With increase of the DR and decrease of the LV the number of monitor units increased and consequentially the radiation dose given to the OAR. In particular the serial OARs of patients with SCCscalp, which are located outside the end position of the leafs and inside the open field, received an additional dose of a higher DR and lower LV is used. Conclusion For best protection of organs at risk, a low DR and high LV should be applied. But the consequence of a low DR is both a long treatment time and also that a LV of higher than 3.0 cm/sec is mechanically not applicable. Our recommendation for an optimisation of the discussed parameters is a leaf velocity of 2.5 cm/sec and a dose rate of 300–400 MU/min (prostate cancer) and 100–200 MU/min (SCCscalp) for best protection of organs at risk, short treatment time and number of monitor units. PMID:18811954

Vorwerk, Hilke; Wagner, Daniela; Hess, Clemens F

2008-01-01

108

Early Disease Development and Stem and Leaf Water Content in the Seedlings of Pinus koraiensis Inoculated with Pinewood Nematodes in a Greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.), a five- needle pine, has recently been suffering pine wilt disease caused by non-native pinewood nematode, Bursaphe- lenchus xylophilus. Three-year-old Korean pine seedl- ings were inoculated with 10,000 pathogenic nematodes in a greenhouse to investigate disease development, water content and the density of nematodes in stems. Needle dehydration, xylem drying and pith browning

Kwan-Soo Woo; Jun-Hyuck Yoon

109

Leaf Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This straightforward tutorial on leaf identification comes from the Department of Horticulture at Penn State University. Simple diagrams, helpful photos, and clear explanations make short work of learning the basics of leaf identification. The website even includes a section on why anyone should bother learning this skill (i.e. it's not just for dedicated horticulturists and botanists). The tutorial covers leaf structure, blade shape, margins, venation, and so on. The self-testing component appears to be unavailable at this time, but this site as a whole is definitely worth a look.

2008-09-12

110

The effect of maleic hydrazide and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the carbohydrate content and leaf and stem rust response of wheat  

E-print Network

of herbicidal action of 2, 4-D might be found in the interference with phloem function. Corns (13) reports that the protein in the leaves of bindweed was decreased by 2, 4-D. Catalase, respiration, and protein content of stem was increased by 2, 4-D.... normally resistant. Ifaleic hydraside treated wheat seedlings were consistently more susceptible to P. ~ra- minis tritici than similar untreated plants in tests conducted by Bromfield and Peet (9) . Only one variety, I&hapli, changed from a resistant...

Lyles, William Earl

2012-06-07

111

The impact of copy number variation on local gene expression in mouse hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which differences in germline DNA copy number contribute to natural phenotypic variation is unknown. We analyzed the copy number content of the mouse genome to sub–10-kb resolution. We identified over 1,300 copy number variant regions (CNVRs), most of which are <10 kb in length, are found in more than one strain, and, in total, span 3.2% (85

Patrick Cahan; Yedda Li; Masayo Izumi; Timothy A Graubert

2009-01-01

112

Antibacterial activity and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Origanum vulgare ssp. viride growing wild in north-west Iran.  

PubMed

Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the flower oil, comprising 96.3% of the total, the major components were 1,8-cineole (11.6%), alpha-pinene (6.9%), and gamma-cadinene (4.8%). 1-Octen-3-ol (23.8%), and 1,8-cineole (8.5%) predominated in the leafoil. In the stem oil, other main constituents were bicyclogermacrene (9.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), borneol (5.1%), and pinocarvone (4.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future use of certain essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their safety and positive effect on shelf life. PMID:21941913

Shafaghat, Ali

2011-09-01

113

Novel strategy for successful long-term hematopoietic recovery after transplanting a limited number of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Various investigators have attempted to overcome the shortage of available hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) by facilitating their engraftment after transplantation. Preconditioning of HSPCs with the granulocyte-derived cationic peptide LL-37 has been suggested as a useful strategy to facilitate engraftment of transplanted cells by enhancing their responsiveness to CXCL12. In this study, we evaluated whether LL-37 preconditioning is acceptable for clinical application. We found that the effect of LL-37 preconditioning was specific to clonogenic cells and was mediated specifically by increased calcium influx with the activation of downstream signaling through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Because hyperactivation of mTORC1 and the disruption of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are known to deplete HSPC pools, we compared the repopulation capacity of HSPCs preconditioned with LL-37 and those preconditioned with AMPK activator (AICAR). In vivo competitive repopulation experiments revealed that LL-37 preconditioning impairs long-term repopulation of transplanted HSPCs, suggesting that this strategy might not acceptable for clinical applications in which long-term repopulation capacity is a prerequisite. AICAR preconditioning dramatically enhanced the long-term repopulation of transplanted HSPCs, however. Taken together, these results suggest that future strategies to ensure successful transplantation outcomes should focus on protecting HSPCs from various stimuli during their homing to the bone marrow niches rather than activating them before transplantation. PMID:24980112

Lee, Hakmo; Park, Ho Seon; Choi, Ok Kyung; Oh, Ju Eun; Chung, Sung Soo; Jung, Hye Seung; Park, Kyong Soo

2014-09-01

114

18 CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE, VOLUME 57, NUMBER 1 Non-oak native plants are main hosts for  

E-print Network

at the soil line, (C) madrone with foliar and stem lesions, (D) bay laurel/Oregon myrtle with leaf due to branch cankers, (G) big leaf maple with marginal leaf scorch, and (H) rhododendron showing with an undescribed species of Phytophthora causing a stem and leaf blight on ornamental rhododendron and viburnium

California at Berkeley, University of

115

Glucose Localization in Maize Ovaries When Kernel Number Decreases at Low Water Potential and Sucrose is Fed to the Stems  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Around the time of anthesis, young ovary development in maize (Zea mays) is vulnerable to 2 or 3 d of water deficits that inhibit photosynthesis. Abortion can result, and fewer kernels are produced. A breakdown of stored ovary starch is associated with the abortion and was investigated in the present study by localizing the breakdown product glucose in the ovaries. • Methods Ovary glucose was localized with fluorescent Resorufin. Insoluble invertase was localized in vivo and soluble invertase in situ. Sucrose was infused into the stems to vary the sugar flux to the ovaries. • Key Results At high water potential (high ?w), photosynthesis was rapid in the parent. The upper pedicel of the ovaries had a high activity of insoluble acid invertase and a large amount of glucose and starch. Because the invertase was wall?bound, sucrose hydrolysis appeared to occur in the pedicel apoplast. Soluble invertase was undetected inside the pedicel cells but was present in the nucellus cells where low concentrations of glucose occurred. This created a glucose gradient between pedicel and nucellus that favoured glucose uptake by the developing ovary. At low ?w, photosynthesis was inhibited, pedicel glucose and starch were depleted, the glucose gradient became negligible, and abortion occurred. When sucrose was fed, glucose, starch and the glucose gradient were maintained somewhat and were normally distributed in the ovaries. Abortion was diminished. • Conclusions The apoplast hydrolysis of sucrose unloaded from phloem is similar to that described by others during later development when embryo and endosperm are present and separated from the parent by an apoplast. The disappearance of the glucose gradient at low ?w may have inhibited glucose movement into the ovary. The low glucose in the ovaries may have a role in the abortion response. PMID:15159218

MCLAUGHLIN, JOHN E.; BOYER, JOHN S.

2004-01-01

116

Leaf Development  

PubMed Central

Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

2013-01-01

117

Leaf development.  

PubMed

Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

Tsukaya, Hirokazu

2013-01-01

118

STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…

Sanders, Mark

2009-01-01

119

Recovery of Leaf Area through Accelerated Shoot Ontogeny in Thrips?damaged Cotton Seedlings  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Leaf area of cotton seedlings (Gossypium hirsutum) can be reduced by as much as 50 % by early season thrips infestations, but it is well documented that plants can regain the difference in leaf area once infestation ceases. The processes involved in the recovery have not been identified. Hypotheses include enhancement of the photosynthetic rate of the damaged leaves, more efficient leaf construction (i.e. more leaf area per unit of dry matter invested in new leaves), and more branching. • Methods This 2?year field study examined these hypotheses and found that thrips?affected plants recovered from a 30 % reduction in total leaf area. During the recovery period, repeated measurements of gas exchange, leaf morphology and individual leaf areas at all nodes were made to assess their contribution to the recovery. • Key Results Recovery was not achieved through the previously proposed mechanisms. The pattern of nodal development indicated that the duration of leaf expansion of the smaller deformed leaves was shorter than that of control leaves, possibly because they had fewer cells. The production and expansion of healthy upper node leaves in thrips?affected plants could, therefore, begin sooner, about 1–2·5 nodes in advance of control plants. The proposed process of recovery was evident but weaker in the second year where thrips numbers were higher. • Conclusions It is concluded that thrips?affected plants overcame the leaf area disparity through an accelerated ontogeny of main stem leaves. By completing the expansion of smaller but normally functioning lower node leaves earlier, resources were made available to the unfolding of larger upper node leaves in advance of control plants. The generality of this mode of plant resistance in pest damage remains to be determined. PMID:15155380

LEI, TOM T.; WILSON, LEWIS J.

2004-01-01

120

Stem Cells  

MedlinePLUS

Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

121

``Stemness'': Transcriptional Profiling of Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcriptional profiles of mouse embryonic, neural, and hematopoietic stem cells were compared to define a genetic program for stem cells. A total of 216 genes are enriched in all three types of stem cells, and several of these genes are clustered in the genome. When compared to differentiated cell types, stem cells express a significantly higher number of genes

Miguel Ramalho-Santos; Soonsang Yoon; Yumi Matsuzaki; Richard C. Mulligan; Douglas A. Melton

2002-01-01

122

LeafJ: an ImageJ plugin for semi-automated leaf shape measurement.  

PubMed

High throughput phenotyping (phenomics) is a powerful tool for linking genes to their functions (see review and recent examples). Leaves are the primary photosynthetic organ, and their size and shape vary developmentally and environmentally within a plant. For these reasons studies on leaf morphology require measurement of multiple parameters from numerous leaves, which is best done by semi-automated phenomics tools. Canopy shade is an important environmental cue that affects plant architecture and life history; the suite of responses is collectively called the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Among SAS responses, shade induced leaf petiole elongation and changes in blade area are particularly useful as indices. To date, leaf shape programs (e.g. SHAPE, LAMINA, LeafAnalyzer, LEAFPROCESSOR) can measure leaf outlines and categorize leaf shapes, but can not output petiole length. Lack of large-scale measurement systems of leaf petioles has inhibited phenomics approaches to SAS research. In this paper, we describe a newly developed ImageJ plugin, called LeafJ, which can rapidly measure petiole length and leaf blade parameters of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. For the occasional leaf that required manual correction of the petiole/leaf blade boundary we used a touch-screen tablet. Further, leaf cell shape and leaf cell numbers are important determinants of leaf size. Separate from LeafJ we also present a protocol for using a touch-screen tablet for measuring cell shape, area, and size. Our leaf trait measurement system is not limited to shade-avoidance research and will accelerate leaf phenotyping of many mutants and screening plants by leaf phenotyping. PMID:23380664

Maloof, Julin N; Nozue, Kazunari; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Palmer, Christine M

2013-01-01

123

Anatomy of chewed leaf blade particles of Cenchrus ciliaris and Lolium perenne in relation to digestion  

E-print Network

Anatomy of chewed leaf blade particles of Cenchrus ciliaris and Lolium perenne in relation of Cenchrus ciliaris L. (buffel grass), a tropical grass of low di- gestibility, and Lolium perenne L to distinguish between leaf blade, leaf sheath and stem. The sheep ate C. ciliaris more slowly than L. perenne

Boyer, Edmond

124

Tree Leaf Identification and Leaf Display Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a tree leaf collection, identification, and display of dried and pressed leaves. It teaches students about distinguishing leaf characteristics as well as a way to display and label their collection.

Hansing, Rebecca

125

Changes in Leaf Trichomes and Epicuticular Flavonoids during Leaf Development in Three Birch Taxa  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Changes in number of trichomes and in composition and concentrations of their exudates throughout leaf development may have important consequences for plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic factors. In the present study, seasonal changes in leaf trichomes and epicuticular flavonoid aglycones in three Finnish birch taxa (Betula pendula, B. pubescens ssp. pubescens, and B. pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) were followed. • Methods Trichome number and ultrastructure were studied by means of light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, while flavonoid aglycones in ethanolic leaf surface extracts were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. • Key Results Density of both glandular and non-glandular trichomes decreased drastically with leaf expansion while the total number of trichomes per leaf remained constant, indicating that the final number of trichomes is established early in leaf development. Cells of glandular trichomes differentiate before those of the epidermis and produce secreted material only during the relatively short period (around 1–2 weeks) of leaf unfolding and expansion. In fully expanded leaves, glandular trichomes appeared to be at the post-secretory phase and function mainly as storage organs; they contained lipid droplets and osmiophilic material (probably phenolics). Concentrations (mg g?1 d. wt) of surface flavonoids decreased with leaf age in all taxa. However, the changes in total amount (µg per leaf) of flavonoids during leaf development were taxon-specific: no changes in B. pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, increase in B. pendula and in B. pubescens ssp. pubescens followed by the decline in the latter taxon. Concentrations of most of the individual leaf surface flavonoids correlated positively with the density of glandular trichomes within species, suggesting the participation of glandular trichomes in production of surface flavonoids. • Conclusions Rapid decline in the density of leaf trichomes and in the concentrations of flavonoid aglycones with leaf age suggests that the functional role of trichomes is likely to be most important at the early stages of birch leaf development. PMID:15238348

VALKAMA, ELENA; SALMINEN, JUHA-PEKKA; KORICHEVA, JULIA; PIHLAJA, KALEVI

2004-01-01

126

Artificial Stem Cell Niches  

PubMed Central

Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability to reproduce themselves (self-renew) and specialize (differentiate), yielding a plethora of daughter cells that maintain and regenerate tissues. In contrast to their embryonic counterparts, adult stem cells retain their unique functions only if they are in intimate contact with an instructive microenvironment, termed stem cell niche. In these niches, stem cells integrate a complex array of molecular signals that, in concert with induced cell-intrinsic regulatory networks, control their function and balance their numbers in response to physiologic demands. This progress report provides a perspective on how advanced materials technologies could be used (i) to engineer and systematically analyze specific aspects of functional stem cells niches in a controlled fashion in vitro and (ii) to target stem cell niches in vivo. Such “artificial niches” constitute potent tools for elucidating stem cell regulatory mechanisms with the capacity to directly impact the development of novel therapeutic strategies for tissue regeneration. PMID:20882496

Lutolf, Matthias P.; Blau, Helen M.

2011-01-01

127

Long-term Blue Light Effects on the Histology of Lettuce and Soybean Leaves and Stems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blue light (320 to 496 nm) alters hypocotyl and stem elongation and leaf expansion in short-term, cell-level experiments, but histological effects of blue light in long-term studies of whole plants have not been described. We measured cell size and number in stems of soybean (Glycine max L.) and leaves of soybean and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), at two blue light fractions. Short-term studies have shown that cell expansion in stems is rapidly inhibited when etiolated tissue is exposed to blue light. However, under long-term light exposure, an increase in the blue light fraction from less than 0.1% to 26% decreased internode length, specifically by inhibiting soybean cell division in stems. In contrast, an increase in blue light fraction from 6% to 26% reduced soybean leaf area by decreasing cell expansion. Surprisingly, lettuce leaf area increased with increasing blue light fraction (0% to 6%), which was attributed to a 3.1-fold increase in cell expansion and a 1.6-fold increase in cell division.

Dougher, Tracy A. O.; Bugbee, Bruce

2004-01-01

128

7 CFR 29.2553 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stem. 29.2553 Section 29.2553 Agriculture Regulations...u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2553 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2012-01-01

129

7 CFR 29.1061 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stem. 29.1061 Section 29.1061 Agriculture Regulations...Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1061 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2012-01-01

130

7 CFR 29.2301 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stem. 29.2301 Section 29.2301 Agriculture Regulations...Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2301 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2012-01-01

131

7 CFR 29.3549 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stem. 29.3549 Section 29.3549 Agriculture Regulations...s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3549 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2012-01-01

132

7 CFR 29.3059 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stem. 29.3059 Section 29.3059 Agriculture Regulations...Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3059 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2012-01-01

133

7 CFR 29.3549 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem. 29.3549 Section 29.3549 Agriculture Regulations...s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3549 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2010-01-01

134

7 CFR 29.3059 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem. 29.3059 Section 29.3059 Agriculture Regulations...Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3059 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2010-01-01

135

7 CFR 29.2553 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stem. 29.2553 Section 29.2553 Agriculture Regulations...u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2553 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2011-01-01

136

7 CFR 29.3059 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stem. 29.3059 Section 29.3059 Agriculture Regulations...Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3059 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2011-01-01

137

7 CFR 29.3549 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stem. 29.3549 Section 29.3549 Agriculture Regulations...s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3549 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2011-01-01

138

7 CFR 29.2301 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem. 29.2301 Section 29.2301 Agriculture Regulations...Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2301 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2010-01-01

139

7 CFR 29.2553 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem. 29.2553 Section 29.2553 Agriculture Regulations...u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2553 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2010-01-01

140

7 CFR 29.1061 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stem. 29.1061 Section 29.1061 Agriculture Regulations...Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1061 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2011-01-01

141

7 CFR 29.2301 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stem. 29.2301 Section 29.2301 Agriculture Regulations...Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2301 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2011-01-01

142

Damage loss assessment and control of the cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in winter wheat.  

PubMed

Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), invaded northern Alabama and Georgia more than a decade ago and since has become an economic pest of winter wheat and other cereal crops in the southeastern United States. A series of trials was conducted beginning in 1995 to determine optimal rate and timing of applications of selected foliar insecticides for managing cereal leaf beetle in soft red winter wheat. These trials, cage studies with larvae, and a manual defoliation experiment were used to provide information on cereal leafbeetle yield loss relationships and to develop economic decision rules for cereal leaf beetle in soft red winter wheat. Malathion, methomyl, carbaryl, and spinosad effectively controlled larval infestations when treatments were applied after most eggs had hatched. Encapsulated endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis, methyl parathion, and disulfoton applied at the lowest labeled rates were not effective treatments. Organophosphate insecticides generally were not effective when applied before most eggs had hatched. The most effective treatments were the low rates of lambda cyhalothrin when applied early while adults were still laying eggs and before or near 50% egg hatch. These early applications applied at or before spike emergence virtually eliminated cereal leaf beetle injury. The manual defoliation study demonstrated that defoliation before spike emergence has greater impact on grain yield and yield components than defoliation after spike emergence. Furthermore, flag leaf defoliation causes more damage than injury to lower leaves. Grain test weight and kernel weight were not affected by larval injury in most trials. Regression of larval numbers and yield losses calculated a yield loss of 12.65% or 459 kg/ha per larva per stem, which at current application costs suggested an economic threshold of 0.4 larvae per stem during the spike emergence to anthesis stages. PMID:15154458

Buntin, G David; Flanders, Kathy L; Slaughter, Robert W; DeLamar, Zandra D

2004-04-01

143

Regulation of leaf morphology by microRNA394 and its target LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS.  

PubMed

The present study identified Arabidopsis miR394 and its target, an F-box (SKP1-Cullin/CDC53-F-box) gene At1g27340 (here referred to as LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS, LCR), for regulation of leaf curling-related morphology. The loss-of-function lcr mutants exhibit pleiotropic defects with semi-dwarfism, altered leaf shape and a shorter stem. Overexpression of an miR394-resistant version of LCR under the 35S promoter (35S:m5LCR) and target mimicry MIM394 resulted in a curled-down leaf defect. Conversely, transgenic plants overexpressing 35S:MIR394a/b display a curled-up leaf phenotype. Detailed analyses show that there is a certain level of LCR that is optimal for leaf morphology, but lower or higher levels lead to abnormal leaf development, indicating that expression of miR394 in the leaf lamina is necessary for proper leaf morphology. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in leaf morphogenesis and patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter gene was used to monitor the auxin response. We show that DR5 expression patterns in lcr and 35S::m5LCR plants were significantly different from those in the wild type. Also, overexpression of LCR in 35S::m5LCR plants drastically decreased the expression of the auxin-responsive genes IAA3, AXR3 and IAMT1, whereas increased expression of the genes was found in 35S::MIR394a plants. These results indicate that miR394 and its target LCR are involved in the regulation of leaf development. PMID:22619471

Song, Jian Bo; Huang, Si Qi; Dalmay, Tamas; Yang, Zhi Min

2012-07-01

144

Seasonal variation in the effectiveness of the leaf-feeding beetle Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and stem-galling moth Epiblema strenuana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) as biocontrol agents on the weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the effectiveness of biocontrol agents on the weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. was evaluated at two properties (Mount Panorama and Plain Creek) in Queensland, Australia for four years (1996-2000) using a pesticide exclusion experiment. At Mount Panorama, higher levels of defoliation by the leaf- feeding beetle Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister and galling by the moth Epiblema strenuana Walker in 1996-97

K. Dhileepan

2003-01-01

145

Elm Leaf Beetle  

E-print Network

Elm leaf beetles damage all varieties of elm trees. Learn how to identify this insect and understand its biology and life cycle. There are suggestions for controlling elm leaf beetles, as well as a table of insecticides effective against...

Patrick, Carl D.

2002-05-22

146

Leaf life span spectrum of tropical woody seedlings: effects of light and ontogeny and consequences for survival  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Leaf life span is widely recognized as a key life history trait associated with herbivory resistance, but rigorous comparative data are rare for seedlings. The goal of this study was to examine how light environment affects leaf life span, and how ontogenetic development during the first year may influence leaf fracture toughness, lamina density and stem density that are relevant for herbivory resistance, leaf life span and seedling survival. Methods Data from three experiments encompassing 104 neotropical woody species were combined. Leaf life span, lamina and vein fracture toughness, leaf and stem tissue density and seedling survival were quantified for the first-year seedlings at standardized ontogenetic stages in shade houses and common gardens established in gaps and shaded understorey in a moist tropical forest in Panama. Mortality of naturally recruited seedlings till 1 year later was quantified in 800 1-m2 plots from 1994 to 2011. Key Results Median leaf life span ranged widely among species, always greater in shade (ranging from 151 to >1790 d in the understorey and shade houses) than in gaps (115–867 d), but with strong correlation between gaps and shade. Leaf and stem tissue density increased with seedling age, whereas leaf fracture toughness showed only a weak increase. All these traits were positively correlated with leaf life span. Leaf life span and stem density were negatively correlated with seedling mortality in shade, while gap mortality showed no correlation with these traits. Conclusions The wide spectrum of leaf life span and associated functional traits reflects variation in shade tolerance of first-year seedlings among coexisting trees, shrubs and lianas in this neotropical forest. High leaf tissue density is important in enhancing leaf toughness, a known physical defence, and leaf life span. Both seedling leaf life span and stem density should be considered as key functional traits that contribute to seedling survival in tropical forest understoreys. PMID:23532047

Kitajima, Kaoru; Cordero, Roberto A.; Wright, S. Joseph

2013-01-01

147

Can meristematic activity determine variation in leaf size and elongation rate among four Poa species? A kinematic study.  

PubMed

We studied inherent variation in final leaf size among four Poa spp. that live at different elevations. The average final length of leaf 7 of the main stem of the smallest species (Poa alpina) was only one-half that of the largest species (Poa trivialis); it was correlated with leaf elongation rate, but not with the duration of leaf elongation. A faster rate of leaf elongation rate was associated with (a) larger size of the zone of cell expansion, and (b) faster rates of cell production (per cell file) in the meristem, which in turn were due to greater numbers of dividing cells, whereas average cell division rates were very similar for all species (except Poa annua). Also we found that the proliferative fraction equaled 1 throughout the meristem in all species. It was remarkable that rates of cell expansion tended to be somewhat higher in the species with slower growing leaves. We discuss the results by comparing the spatial and material viewpoints, which lead to different interpretations of the role of cell division. Although the presented data do not strictly prove it, they strongly suggest a regulatory role for cell division in determining differences in growth rate among the present four Poa spp. PMID:11027732

Fiorani, F; Beemster, G T; Bultynck, L; Lambers, H

2000-10-01

148

Can Meristematic Activity Determine Variation in Leaf Size and Elongation Rate among Four Poa Species? A Kinematic Study1  

PubMed Central

We studied inherent variation in final leaf size among four Poa spp. that live at different elevations. The average final length of leaf 7 of the main stem of the smallest species (Poa alpina) was only one-half that of the largest species (Poa trivialis); it was correlated with leaf elongation rate, but not with the duration of leaf elongation. A faster rate of leaf elongation rate was associated with (a) larger size of the zone of cell expansion, and (b) faster rates of cell production (per cell file) in the meristem, which in turn were due to greater numbers of dividing cells, whereas average cell division rates were very similar for all species (except Poa annua). Also we found that the proliferative fraction equaled 1 throughout the meristem in all species. It was remarkable that rates of cell expansion tended to be somewhat higher in the species with slower growing leaves. We discuss the results by comparing the spatial and material viewpoints, which lead to different interpretations of the role of cell division. Although the presented data do not strictly prove it, they strongly suggest a regulatory role for cell division in determining differences in growth rate among the present four Poa spp. PMID:11027732

Fiorani, Fabio; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Bultynck, Lieve; Lambers, Hans

2000-01-01

149

Leaf Epicuticular Waxes of the Eceriferum Mutants in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

Wild-type Arabidopsis leaf epicuticular wax (EW) occurs as a smooth layer over the epidermal surface, whereas stem EW has a crystalline microstructure. Wild-type EW load was more than 10-fold lower on leaves than on stems. Compared with the EW on wild-type stems, EW on wild-type leaves had a much higher proportion of their total EW load in the form of alkanes and 1-alcohols; a large reduction in secondary alcohols, ketones, and esters; and a chain-length distribution for major EW classes that was skewed toward longer lengths. The eceriferum (cer) mutations often differentially affected leaf and stem EW chemical compositions. For example, the cer2 mutant EW phenotype was expressed on the stem but not on the leaf. Compared to wild type, the amount of primary alcohols on cer9 mutants was reduced on leaves but elevated on stems, whereas an opposite differential effect for primary alcohols was observed on cer16 leaves and stems. Putative functions for CER gene products are discussed. The CER4 and CER6 gene products may be involved in fatty aldehyde reduction and C26 fatty acylcoenzyme A elongation, respectively. CER1, CER8, CER9, and CER16 gene products may be involved in EW substrate transfer. The CER3 gene product may be involved in release of fatty acids from elongase complexes. CER2 gene product may have regulatory functions. PMID:12228482

Jenks, M. A.; Tuttle, H. A.; Eigenbrode, S. D.; Feldmann, K. A.

1995-01-01

150

Growth of prunus tree stems under simulated microgravity conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stem growth of Prunus trees under simulated microgravity conditions was examined using a three-dimensional clinostat. The stems elongated with bending under such conditions. Stem elongation and leaf expansion were both promoted, whereas the formation of xylem in the secondary thickening growth was inhibited under the simulated microgravity condition. In secondary xylem, sedimentable amyloplasts were observed in the 1g control. The present results suggest that stem elongation and leaf expansion may be inhibited at 1g, while growth direction and secondary xylem formation depend on a gravity stimulus. A space experiment is expected to advance research on thickening growth in trees.

Nakamura, T.; Sassa, N.; Kuroiwa, E.; Negishi, Y.; Hashimoto, A.; Yamashita, M.; Yamada, M.

1999-01-01

151

Asymmetric stem cell division: precision for robustness.  

PubMed

Asymmetric cell division (ACD) produces two daughter cells with distinct fates or characteristics. Many adult stem cells use ACD as a means of maintaining stem cell number and thus tissue homeostasis. Here, we review recent progress on ACD, discussing conservation between stem and non-stem cell systems, molecular mechanisms, and the biological meaning of ACD. PMID:23040475

Inaba, Mayu; Yamashita, Yukiko M

2012-10-01

152

STEM Career  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many groups and organizations in the United States working to encourage young people to enter STEM-related careers, and this website represents one of those endeavors. The STEM Career website was created by Professor Rich Feller of Colorado State University to help encourage young people to select just such a career path. The website contains updates on STEM career possibilities, and basic answers to questions like "Why STEM?" and "Why STEM Centric Career Development?" Visitors should also scan through the "STEM Disciplines" area on the homepage, as it contains resources about the job outlook for related STEM disciplines, such as biochemical engineering and engineering managers. Moving on, the site also features news updates from Professor Feller and his colleagues on subjects that include the ways in which corporations are promoting STEM education and women in STEM.

153

Ecological Modelling 134 (2000) 283297 Effects of leaf area profiles and canopy stratification on  

E-print Network

We investigated the effects of the shape of leaf area profiles and the number of canopy layersEcological Modelling 134 (2000) 283­297 Effects of leaf area profiles and canopy stratification leaf area in the vertical direction, how does the shape of the leaf area profile affect simulation

Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

154

Woody stem galls interact with foliage to affect community associations.  

PubMed

Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) hijack the physiology of their host plant to produce galls that house wasps throughout their immature stages. The gall-maker-host plant interaction is highly evolved, and galls represent an extended phenotype of the gall wasp. We evaluated two-way interactions between stem galls produced by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu on Castanea spp. (Fagales: Fagaceae) and foliage directly attached to galls (gall leaves) using gall leaf excision experiments and herbivore bioassays. Early season gall leaf excision decreased the dry weight per chamber (nutritive index) and thickness of the protective schlerenchyma layer and increased the number of empty chambers and the occurrence and size of exterior fungal lesions. Leaf excision also caused a modestly significant (alpha = 0.1) increase in the incidence of feeding chamber fungi and herbivory by Curculio sayi Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and a modest decrease in parasitoids. This study shows that gall leaves are important for stem gall development, quality, and defenses, adding support for the nutrient and enemy hypotheses. We also evaluated the effects of stem galls on the suitability of gall leaves to Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) herbivory to assess the extent of gall defenses in important source leaves. Relative growth rate of L. dispar larvae was greater on gall leaves compared with normal leaves, indicating that, despite their importance, gall leaves may be more suitable to generalist insect herbivores, suggesting limitations to the extended phenotype of the gall wasp. Our results improve our knowledge of host-cynipid interactions, gall source-sink relations, and D. kuriphilus community interactions. PMID:19389291

Cooper, W R; Rieske, L K

2009-04-01

155

Leaf and stem COâ uptake in the three subfamilies of the Cactaceae. [Pereskia aculeata; Pereskia grandifolia; Maihuenia poeppigii; Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Coryphantha vivipara; Mammillaria dioica; Opuntia ficus-inidica; Pereskiopsis porteri; Quiabentia chacoensis; Austrocylindropuntia subulata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net COâ uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot COâ uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara,

P. S. Nobel; T. L. Hartsock

1986-01-01

156

Stem Up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stem Up is a pilot program to aid the disadvantaged youth of Boyle Heights in Los Angeles. The intent of the program was to integrate STEM career pathways into schools and local communities. Visitors will find the K-12 Students tab near the top of the page to be filled with almost two dozen links for all levels of student learning about science and technology. Some of the sites include "Arrick Robotics", for 9-12 graders, "Extreme Science", for all ages, and "Fun Engineering" for kids aged 10-14. The "Boyle Heights" link is a great resource for residents of the LA neighborhood, as well as informative for those visitors unfamiliar with it. There is full contact information for the city and state representatives of the neighborhood, the Police Activities League, and a live theatre that performs outreach through theatre, and classical plays. The "Parents" link also provides a number of science and technology links that parents and kids can visit together.

157

Stem Cell Task Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides an overview of the activities of an NIH task force established to move the stem cell research agenda forward. The section titled Scientific Research may be of particular interest to researchers in this area. It provides links to the Web sites of stem cell-related research at a number of NIH institutes, as well as an extensive information index, a FAQs page about stem cell research, information on funding opportunities, and much more.

158

STEM Sell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1994 and 2003, employment in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields grew by a remarkable 23 percent, compared with 17 percent in non-STEM fields, according to federal data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts continued strong growth in STEM job openings through 2014, with emphasis on life sciences, environmental…

Pantic, Zorica

2007-01-01

159

Leaf and stem CO/sub 2/ uptake in the three subfamilies of the Cactaceae. [Pereskia aculeata; Pereskia grandifolia; Maihuenia poeppigii; Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Coryphantha vivipara; Mammillaria dioica; Opuntia ficus-inidica; Pereskiopsis porteri; Quiabentia chacoensis; Austrocylindropuntia subulata  

SciTech Connect

Net CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. For leafy members of the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C/sub 3/ plants, whereas nocturnal CO/sub 2/ uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C/sub 3/ plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways.

Nobel, P.S.; Hartsock, T.L.

1986-04-01

160

Leaf Pack Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Leaf Pack Network (LPN) is a network of teachers and students investigating their local stream ecosystems by participating in the leaf pack experiment, which involves creating an artificial leaf pack (dry leaves in a mesh bag), immersing it in a stream for 3-4 weeks, and examining it for signs of aquatic insects as indicators of stream health. Participating classrooms share their data through the internet. This activity highlights the connection between streamside forests and the ecology of rivers and streams.

161

Effects of Interactions between Low-temperature Treatments, Gibberellin (GA 3) and Photoperiod on Flowering and Stem Height of Spring Rape ( Brassica napus var. annua)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exogenous gibberellin A3(GA3) reduced the number of leaf nodes at flowering and time to flowering and increased the stem height at flowering in three genotypes of spring rape (Brassica napus var.annua L.). The responses to GA3were similar to those for long days (LD) and low-temperature treatments, suggesting that the effect of photoperiod and the vernalization response are probably mediated through

S. R. DAHANAYAKE; N. W. GALWEY

1999-01-01

162

STEM crisis or STEM surplus?  

E-print Network

The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce is a crucial driver of the U.S. economy. Over the last decade, there has been significant concern regarding the adequacy of the supply of STEM workers ...

Xue, Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

163

Renal Stem Cells and Kidney Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Significant advances have been made in stem cell research over the past decade. A number of non-hematopoietic sources of stem\\u000a cells (or progenitor cells) have been identified including endothelial stem cells and neural stem cells. These discoveries\\u000a have been a major step towards the potential regeneration of organs for clinical applications using stem cells. The worldwide\\u000a shortage of donor kidneys

Takashi Yokoo; Akira Fukui; Kei Matsumoto; Tetsuya Kawamura

164

Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of folklore: Mallotus peltatus leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ages Mallotus peltatus (Geist) Muell. Arg. var acuminatus (Euphorbiaceae) leaf and stem bark is used in folk medicine to cure intestinal ailments and skin infections. In several intestinal ailments, localized inflammation is of common occurrence and hence we have evaluated the antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory activity of M. peltatus leaf extract. The crude methanol extract of M. peltatus

Debprasad Chattopadhyay; G Arunachalam; Asit B Mandal; Tapas K Sur; Subash C Mandal; S. K Bhattacharya

2002-01-01

165

Stem Cell Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... Center Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Information Frequently Asked Questions What are stem cells? ... policy? More FAQs Links to related resources Stem Cell Research Center for Regenerative Medicine NIH Stem Cell ...

166

Leaf Hydraulics Lawren Sack1  

E-print Network

Leaf Hydraulics Lawren Sack1 and N. Michele Holbrook2 1 Department of Botany, University of Hawai influence rates of transpiration and photosynthesis. Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) varies more than 65. #12;Contents INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 LEAF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTANCE

Sack, Lawren

167

Coca leaf as a therapeutic agent.  

PubMed

South American Indians have used coca leaf as a remedy for thousands of years. Coca might be useful as a treatment for gastrointestinal ailments and motion sickness, as a fast-acting antidepressant medication, as a substitute stimulant for coffee in certain cases, and as an adjunct in programs of weight reduction and physical fitness. In leaf form, coca does not produce toxicity or dependence. Its effects are distinct from those of cocaine, which is but one of a number of active compounds in the leaf. Coca can be administered as a chewing gum containing a whole extract of the leaf, including alkaloids, natural flavors, and several nutrients. Legal mechanisms exist for importing, distributing, and dispensing coca, and experimentation with it by interested physicians would be valuable. PMID:696708

Weil, A T

1978-01-01

168

Phase identity of the maize leaf is determined after leaf initiation  

PubMed Central

The vegetative development of the maize shoot can be divided into juvenile and adult phases based on the types of leaves produced at different times in shoot development. Models for the regulation of phase change make explicit predictions about when the identity of these types of leaves is determined. To test these models, we examined the timing of leaf type determination in maize. Clones induced in transition leaf primordia demonstrated that the juvenile and adult regions of these leaves do not become clonally distinct until after the primordium is 700 ?m in length, implying that these cell fates were undetermined at this stage of leaf development. Adult shoot apices were cultured in vitro to induce rejuvenation. We found that leaf primordia as large as 3 mm in length can be at least partially rejuvenated by this treatment, and the location of rejuvenated tissue is correlated with the maturation pattern of the leaf. The amount and distribution of juvenile tissue in rejuvenated leaves suggests that rejuvenation occurs nearly simultaneously in all leaf primordia. In vitro culture rejuvenated existing leaf primordia and the P0 primordium, but did not change the identity of subsequent primordia or the total number of leaves produced by the shoot. This result suggests that leaf identity can be regulated independently of the identity of the shoot apical meristem, and it implies that vegetative phase change is not initiated by a change in the identity of the shoot apical meristem. PMID:10973480

Orkwiszewski, Joseph A. J.; Poethig, R. Scott

2000-01-01

169

Autophagy in stem cells  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process by which cytoplasmic components are sequestered in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis as well as remodeling during normal development, and dysfunctions in autophagy have been associated with a variety of pathologies including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and neurodegenerative disease. Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cells in the body, which are important in development, tissue renewal and a range of disease processes. Therefore, it is predicted that autophagy would be crucial for the quality control mechanisms and maintenance of cellular homeostasis in various stem cells given their relatively long life in the organisms. In contrast to the extensive body of knowledge available for somatic cells, the role of autophagy in the maintenance and function of stem cells is only beginning to be revealed as a result of recent studies. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of autophagy in embryonic stem cells, several tissue stem cells (particularly hematopoietic stem cells), as well as a number of cancer stem cells. We discuss how recent studies of different knockout mice models have defined the roles of various autophagy genes and related pathways in the regulation of the maintenance, expansion and differentiation of various stem cells. We also highlight the many unanswered questions that will help to drive further research at the intersection of autophagy and stem cell biology in the near future. PMID:23486312

Guan, Jun-Lin; Simon, Anna Katharina; Prescott, Mark; Menendez, Javier A.; Liu, Fei; Wang, Fen; Wang, Chenran; Wolvetang, Ernst; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Zhang, Jue

2013-01-01

170

Using Midday Stem Water Potential to Assess Irrigation Needs of Landscape  

E-print Network

Using Midday Stem Water Potential to Assess Irrigation Needs of Landscape Valley Oaks1 Ken Shackel2 of water stress (midday stem water potential or SWP) has been recently developed and found to be closely bag and allowed to equilibrate with the water potential in the stem at the point of leaf attachment

Standiford, Richard B.

171

Shifts in diversity and community structure of endophytic bacteria and archaea across root, stem and leaf tissues in the common reed, Phragmites australis, along a salinity gradient in a marine tidal wetland of northern China.  

PubMed

The effects of salt stress on endophytic prokaryotic communities in plants are largely unknown, and the distribution patterns of bacterial and archaeal endophytes in different tissues of a plant species are rarely compared. We investigated the endophytic bacterial and archaeal communities in roots, stems and leaves of the common reed, Phragmites australis, collected from three tidal zones along a salinity gradient, using terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) length polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. The results showed that the bacterial diversity in the roots was significantly higher than that in the leaves, whereas similar archaeal diversity was revealed for either plant tissues or tidal zones. Network analysis revealed that T-RFs were grouped largely by tissue, and the major groups were generally linked by a few common T-RFs. Unique T-RFs in roots were mainly present in plants growing in the supratidal zone, but unique T-RFs in stems and leaves were mainly present in those from the middle and high tidal zones. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination and analysis of similarity revealed that bacterial communities were significantly different among tissues (P < 0.05), but similar among tidal zones (P = 0.49). However, the archaeal communities differed among tidal zones (P < 0.05), but were similar among tissues (P = 0.89). This study indicates that: (1) the endophytic archaeal communities are influenced more significantly than the endophytic bacterial communities by soil salinity, and (2) the differential distribution patterns of bacterial and archaeal endophytes in plant tissues along a salinity gradient imply that these two groups play different roles in coastal hydrophytes. PMID:23897211

Ma, Bin; Lv, Xiaofei; Warren, Alan; Gong, Jun

2013-11-01

172

Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has recently released the Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry in response to the President's announcement on August 9, 2001 to allow federal funds for stem cell research. The site lists the eleven laboratories or companies that meet the specific criteria for approved stem cell lines and explains the criteria themselves. The NIH gives the number of actual lines for each entity, the NIC and providers code for each, as well as contact information. The Website also provides links to those seeking additional information about NIH stem cell information, grants and funding opportunities, technology transfer issues, and further facts about the NIH.

2001-01-01

173

Microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica leaf  

PubMed Central

Objective To study detail microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica (D. indica) leaf. Methods Fresh leaf sample and dried power of the leaf were studied macroscopically and microscopically. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of plant material was done. Other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were also performed. Results The detail microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, unicellular trichome, xylem fibres, calcium oxalate crystals, vascular bundles, etc. Leaf constants such as stomatal number, stomatal index, vein-islet number and veinlet termination numbers were also measured. Physiochemical parameters such as ash values, loss on drying, extractive values, percentage of foreign matters, swelling index, etc. were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, glycosides, fatty acids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates. Conclusions The microscopic and physiochemical analysis of the D. indica leaf is useful in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification. PMID:23569789

Kumar, S; Kumar, V; Prakash, Om

2011-01-01

174

Leaf Tissue Senescence  

PubMed Central

During winter, excised leaf tissue from Rumex obtusifolius degrades chlorophyll at twice the summer rate but the plant hormones, gibberellic acid and zeatin, inhibit the senescence rate by a constant percentage, regardless of season. PMID:16659225

Manos, Peter J.; Goldthwaite, Jonathan

1975-01-01

175

Leaf to Landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The capacity of terrestrial plant leaves for photosynthetic CO2 fixation per unit gram of leaf varies over 10-fold (Reich et al. 1997). The results of CO2 fixation, processing and subsequent accumulation of mass (Fig. 8.1) gives plants the most enormous variation in size of organisms\\u000a on earth (Niklas and Enquist 2001). The variation in photosynthetic capacity and in leaf form

David S. Ellsworth; Ülo Niinemets; Peter B. Reich

176

Leaf to Landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One fundamental “problem” for maximizing carbon gain at the leaf and higher organizational levels entails the link between\\u000a light capture and leaf energy budgets. The balance between the two processes, however, depends on the environment. For example,\\u000a shade environments limit carbon gain due to low light levels, and so we would expect plants to display traits that maximize\\u000a light interception

Stanley D. Smith; Elke Naumburg; ÜLo Niinemets; Matthew J. Germino

177

Treatment of oral mucositis in hematologic patients undergoing autologous or allogeneic transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells: a prospective, randomized study with a mouthwash containing camelia sinensis leaf extract.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis is an important side effect of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCST), mainly due to toxicity of conditioning regimens. It produces significant pain and morbidity. The present study reports a prospective, randomized, non-blinded study testing the efficacy of a new mouthwash, called Baxidil Onco(®) (Sanitas Farmaceutici Srl, Tortona, Italy) in 60 hematologic patients undergoing HCST (28 autologous, 32 allogeneic). Baxidil Onco(®), used three times a day from Day -1 to Day +30, in addition to standard prophylactic schedules, was administered to 14 patients undergoing autologous and 14 patients undergoing allogeneic HCST. The remaining 32 patients (14 autologous and 18 HCST) were treated only with standard prophylactic schedules and served as control. In our study, the overall incidence of oral mucositis, measured according to the World Health Organization 0-4 scale, was 50% in the Baxidl Onco(®) group versus 82% in the control group (P=0.022). In addition, a significant reduction in scale 2-4 oral mucositis was observed in the Baxidil Onco(®) group (25% vs 56.2%; P=0.0029). The results obtained indicate that incidence, severity and duration of oral mucositis induced by conditioning regimens for HCST can be significantly reduced by oral rinsing with Baxidil Onco(®), in addition to the standard prophylaxis scheme. Since Camelia Sinensin extract, which is used to produce green tea, is the main agent in this mouthwash, we hypothesize that the anti-oxidative properties of polyphenolic compounds of tea might exert protective effects on oral mucosa. PMID:23888242

Carulli, Giovanni; Rocco, Melania; Panichi, Alessia; Chios, Chiara Feira; Ciurli, Ester; Mannucci, Chiara; Sordi, Elisabetta; Caracciolo, Francesco; Papineschi, Federico; Benedetti, Edoardo; Petrini, Mario

2013-01-25

178

Treatment of Oral Mucositis in Hematologic Patients Undergoing Autologous or Allogeneic Transplantation of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells: a Prospective, Randomized Study with a Mouthwash Containing Camelia Sinensis Leaf Extract  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis is an important side effect of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCST), mainly due to toxicity of conditioning regimens. It produces significant pain and morbidity. The present study reports a prospective, randomized, non-blinded study testing the efficacy of a new mouthwash, called Baxidil Onco® (Sanitas Farmaceutici Srl, Tortona, Italy) in 60 hematologic patients undergoing HCST (28 autologous, 32 allogeneic). Baxidil Onco®, used three times a day from Day -1 to Day +30, in addition to standard prophylactic schedules, was administered to 14 patients undergoing autologous and 14 patients undergoing allogeneic HCST. The remaining 32 patients (14 autologous and 18 HCST) were treated only with standard prophylactic schedules and served as control. In our study, the overall incidence of oral mucositis, measured according to the World Health Organization 0-4 scale, was 50% in the Baxidl Onco® group versus 82% in the control group (P=0.022). In addition, a significant reduction in scale 2-4 oral mucositis was observed in the Baxidil Onco® group (25% vs 56.2%; P=0.0029). The results obtained indicate that incidence, severity and duration of oral mucositis induced by conditioning regimens for HCST can be significantly reduced by oral rinsing with Baxidil Onco®, in addition to the standard prophylaxis scheme. Since Camelia Sinensin extract, which is used to produce green tea, is the main agent in this mouthwash, we hypothesize that the anti-oxidative properties of polyphenolic compounds of tea might exert protective effects on oral mucosa. PMID:23888242

Carulli, Giovanni; Rocco, Melania; Panichi, Alessia; Chios, Chiara Feira; Ciurli, Ester; Mannucci, Chiara; Sordi, Elisabetta; Caracciolo, Francesco; Papineschi, Federico; Benedetti, Edoardo; Petrini, Mario

2013-01-01

179

Stem Cells and Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Can Stem Cells Help my Medical Condition? Stem Cell Information Frequently Asked Questions What are stem cells? ... policy? More FAQs Links to related resources Stem Cell Research Center for Regenerative Medicine NIH Stem Cell ...

180

STEM At Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

STEM (Science Technology Engineering & Math) at work, presented by the Florida Advanced Technological Education Center, includes a number of educational puzzles for use in the classroom. Puzzles include an energy audit exercise, measurement of air bag movement, and diesel fuel additive volatility.

2011-03-17

181

Restoring stemness.  

PubMed

This essay is focused on a specific line of research toward regenerative therapies that is based on the use of embryonic stem cells but tries to avoid cloning techniques that are the heart of current ethical debates. PMID:16351688

Westphal, Heiner

2005-12-01

182

Physics strategies for sparing neural stem cells during whole-brain radiation treatments  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Currently, there are no successful long-term treatments or preventive strategies for radiation-induced cognitive impairments, and only a few possibilities have been suggested. One such approach involves reducing the dose to neural stem cell compartments (within and outside of the hippocampus) during whole-brain radiation treatments for brain metastases. This study investigates the fundamental physics issues associated with the sparing of neural stem cells during photon radiotherapy for brain metastases. Methods: Several factors influence the stem cell dose: intracranial scattering, collimator leakage, beam energy, and total number of beams. The relative importance of these factors is investigated through a set of radiation therapy plans, which are all variations of an initial 6 MV intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan designed to simultaneously deliver a whole-brain dose of 30 Gy and maximally reduce stem cell compartment dose. Additionally, an in-house leaf segmentation algorithm was developed that utilizes jaw motion to minimize the collimator leakage. Results: The plans are all normalized such that 50% of the PTV receives 30 Gy. For the initial 6 MV IMRT plan, 50% of the stem cells receive a dose greater than 6.3 Gy. Calculations indicate that 3.6 Gy of this dose originates from intracranial scattering. The jaw-tracking segmentation algorithm, used in conjunction with direct machine parameter optimization, reduces the 50% stem cell dose to 4.3 and 3.7 Gy for 6 and 10 MV treatment beams, respectively. Conclusions: Intracranial scattering alone is responsible for a large dose contribution to the stem cell compartment. It is, therefore, important to minimize other contributing factors, particularly the collimator leakage, to maximally reduce dose to these critical structures. The use of collimator jaw tracking in conjunction with modern collimators can minimize this leakage.

Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean; Hwang, Andrew; Barani, Igor J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

2011-10-15

183

BOREAS TE-9 NSA Leaf Chlorophyll Density  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS TE-9 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. These data were collected to help provide an explanation of potential seasonal and spatial changes of leaf pigment properties in boreal forest species at the NSA. At different dates (FFC-Winter, FFC-Thaw, IFC-1, IFC-2, and IMC-3), foliage samples were collected from the upper third of the canopy for five NSA sites (YJP, OJP, OBS, UBS, and OA) near Thompson, Manitoba. Subsamples of 100 needles for black spruce, 20 needles for jack pine, and single leaf for trembling aspen were cut into pieces and immersed in a 20-mL DMF aliquot in a Nalgene test tube. The extracted foliage materials were then oven-dried at 68 C for 48 hours and weighed. Extracted leaf dry weight was converted to a total leaf area basis to express the chlorophyll content in mg/sq cm of total leaf area. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Margolis, Hank; Sy, Mikailou

2000-01-01

184

STEM Transitions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Under the direction of the Center for Occupational Research and Development (CORD), the STEM Transitions initiative has worked with 40 community college faculty to create integrated curriculum projects for use in math, science, and technical courses in the six STEM-related clusters. Much of this work has been funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Vocational and Adult Education. First-time visitors can get an overview in the "Using This Site" area and then visit the "Integrated Projects" area. After signing up for a free account, they can take advantage of over 60 lesson plans and activities such as "The Secret Ingredient: Nutrient Analysis of Selected Food Items" and "Good Dirty, Bad Dirty: Soil Types and Erosion Potential." The site also provides information about upcoming webinars and workshops sponsored by the STEM Transitions, along with information about their faculty affiliates.

185

A high proportion of blue light increases the photosynthesis capacity and leaf formation rate of Rosa × hybrida but does not affect time to flower opening.  

PubMed

Alterations in light quality affect plant morphogenesis and photosynthetic responses but the effects vary significantly between species. Roses exhibit an irradiance-dependent flowering control but knowledge on light quality responses is scarce. In this study we analyzed, the responses in morphology, photosynthesis and flowering of Rosa × hybrida to different blue (B) light proportions provided by light-emitting diodes (LED, high B 20%) and high pressure sodium (HPS, low B 5%) lamps. There was a strong morphological and growth effect of the light sources but no significant difference in total dry matter production and flowering. HPS-grown plants had significantly higher leaf area and plant height, yet a higher dry weight proportion was allocated to leaves than stems under LED. LED plants showed 20% higher photosynthetic capacity (Amax ) and higher levels of soluble carbohydrates. The increase in Amax correlated with an increase in leaf mass per unit leaf area, higher stomata conductance and CO2 exchange, total chlorophyll (Chl) content per area and Chl a/b ratio. LED-grown leaves also displayed a more sun-type leaf anatomy with more and longer palisade cells and a higher stomata frequency. Although floral initiation occurred at a higher leaf number in LED, the time to open flowers was the same under both light conditions. Thereby the study shows that a higher portion of B light is efficient in increasing photosynthesis performance per unit leaf area, enhancing growth and morphological changes in roses but does not affect the total Dry Matter (DM) production or time to open flower. PMID:23020549

Terfa, Meseret Tesema; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Gislerød, Hans Ragnar; Olsen, Jorunn Elisabeth; Torre, Sissel

2013-05-01

186

An investigation of leaf mosaics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study of leaf mosaics of various species of flowering plants was undertaken as part of a course in photosynthesis. The work required little or no theoretical background knowledge. Leaf mosaics were observed, described, and classified into types. Features of the morphology and growth of each species which contributed to the formation of a leaf mosaic were recorded. The

E. L. Oxlade

1998-01-01

187

The stem xylem of Patagonian shrubs operates far from the point of catastrophic dysfunction and is additionally protected from drought-induced embolism by leaves and roots.  

PubMed

Hydraulic architecture was studied in shrub species differing in rooting depth in a cold desert in Southern Argentina. All species exhibited strong hydraulic segmentation between leaves, stems and roots with leaves being the most vulnerable part of the hydraulic pathway. Two types of safety margins describing the degree of conservation of the hydraulic integrity were used: the difference between minimum stem or leaf water potential (?) and the ? at which stem or leaf hydraulic function was reduced by 50% (? - ?50), and the difference between leaf and stem ?50. Leaf ?50 - stem ?50 increased with decreasing rooting depth. Large diurnal decreases in root-specific hydraulic conductivity suggested high root vulnerability to embolism across all species. Although stem ?50 became more negative with decreasing species-specific ?soil and minimum stem ?, leaf ?50 was independent of ? and minimum leaf ?. Species with embolism-resistant stems also had higher maximum stem hydraulic conductivity. Safety margins for stems were >2.1 MPa, whereas those for leaves were negative or only slightly positive. Leaves acted as safety valves to protect the integrity of the upstream hydraulic pathway, whereas embolism in lateral roots may help to decouple portions of the plant from the impact of drier soil layers. PMID:23639077

Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Peschiutta, Maria Laura; Arias, Nadia S; Meinzer, Frederick C; Goldstein, Guillermo

2013-12-01

188

Stem Cell Transplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) began in humans in the late 1950s and since that time more than 800,000 people have\\u000a been treated with this procedure. To date 150,000 patients are living 5 years or more post transplant, with this number expanding\\u000a rapidly [1]. As advances have been made in refining HSCT and making it more accessible, a larger proportion

Jean C. Yi; Karen L. Syrjala

189

Leaf drop in evergreen Ceanothus velutinus as a means of reducing herbivory.  

PubMed

Conventional explanations for deciduousness do not include losses to herbivory. However, a recent explanation posits that deciduous leaf drop allows trees to reduce their herbivore loads and that this benefit of the deciduous habit may partly offset lost opportunities for photosynthesis. Much of the damage caused by chewing herbivores occurs early in the season when adult insects colonize as new leaves are expanding; trees without leaves from previous leaf flushes at this time are less attractive and suffer less cost of herbivory. I tested this hypothesis using Ceanothus velutinus, an evergreen shrub that shows considerable individual variation in leaf retention. Stems that held more leaves through winter experienced more chewing damage the following season. Stems with leaves experimentally removed through winter also were less likely to receive chewing damage the following season. At least some herbivores in this system make oviposition decisions before new leaves have expanded, and old leaves may provide cues about the suitability of the stem. Holding leaves through winter increased the likelihood of herbivory, and experimental protection from herbivores caused 60% greater inflorescence production compared to unprotected stems. However, the cost of leaf retention was more than offset by an overall benefit. Stems that were allowed to keep winter leaves produced larger new leaves in summer and expanded them more rapidly in the season than stems with winter leaves experimentally removed. As a result, stems with leaves through winter experienced higher survival, four times as many inflorescences, and 40 times as many fruits as shoots that were experimentally defoliated. Losses to herbivores may be an unappreciated cost of leaf retention, and cost-benefit models of deciduous and evergreen behavior should include these losses. PMID:18831166

Karban, Richard

2008-09-01

190

Linking xylem hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to the leaf economics spectrum-a cross-species study of 39 evergreen and deciduous broadleaved subtropical tree species.  

PubMed

While the fundamental trade-off in leaf traits related to carbon capture as described by the leaf economics spectrum is well-established among plant species, the relationship of the leaf economics spectrum to stem hydraulics is much less known. Since carbon capture and transpiration are coupled, a close connection between leaf traits and stem hydraulics should be expected. We thus asked whether xylem traits that describe drought tolerance and vulnerability to cavitation are linked to particular leaf traits. We assessed xylem vulnerability, using the pressure sleeve technique, and anatomical xylem characteristics in 39 subtropical tree species grown under common garden conditions in the BEF-China experiment and tested for correlations with traits related to the leaf economics spectrum as well as to stomatal control, including maximum stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit at maximum stomatal conductance and vapor pressure deficit at which stomatal conductance is down-regulated. Our results revealed that specific xylem hydraulic conductivity and cavitation resistance were closely linked to traits represented in the leaf economic spectrum, in particular to leaf nitrogen concentration, as well as to log leaf area and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio but not to any parameter of stomatal conductance. The study highlights the potential use of well-known leaf traits from the leaf economics spectrum to predict plant species' drought resistance. PMID:25423316

Kröber, Wenzel; Zhang, Shouren; Ehmig, Merten; Bruelheide, Helge

2014-01-01

191

The effects of leaf rust on yield and yield components of wheat treated with varying dosages of a systemic fungicide  

E-print Network

optimally at loner ten- Ieratures than stem rust. Therefore, spring temperatures are )nore ". it- able for leaf rt st. Atkins and Futrell (1) stated that leaf rust found in Texas nearlv any time during the I'ally winter, or spri. -g. It This thesis... resistant cultivar. Peturson and NevAon (27) found tha* a severe irfection oi' leaf. rust reduceu yiclu up fo &1. 17'j in two cultivar - of spring wheat in Canaua. Peturson et al. (28) concluded. that leaf rust very adver ely affects susceptible cul...

Linsley, Dwight Les

2012-06-07

192

Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

Schurer, Kees

1994-01-01

193

Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell States, Fates,  

E-print Network

and Stem Cell Research, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden 4Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, LundCell Stem Cell Review Stem Cell States, Fates, and the Rules of Attraction Tariq Enver,1 Martin

Peterson, Carsten

194

Variable depth recursion algorithm for leaf sequencing  

SciTech Connect

The processes of extraction and sweep are basic segmentation steps that are used in leaf sequencing algorithms. A modified version of a commercial leaf sequencer changed the way that the extracts are selected and expanded the search space, but the modification maintained the basic search paradigm of evaluating multiple solutions, each one consisting of up to 12 extracts and a sweep sequence. While it generated the best solutions compared to other published algorithms, it used more computation time. A new, faster algorithm selects one extract at a time but calls itself as an evaluation function a user-specified number of times, after which it uses the bidirectional sweeping window algorithm as the final evaluation function. To achieve a performance comparable to that of the modified commercial leaf sequencer, 2-3 calls were needed, and in all test cases, there were only slight improvements beyond two calls. For the 13 clinical test maps, computation speeds improved by a factor between 12 and 43, depending on the constraints, namely the ability to interdigitate and the avoidance of the tongue-and-groove under dose. The new algorithm was compared to the original and modified versions of the commercial leaf sequencer. It was also compared to other published algorithms for 1400, random, 15x15, test maps with 3-16 intensity levels. In every single case the new algorithm provided the best solution.

Siochi, R. Alfredo C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Street, Iowa City, Iowa 52240 (United States)

2007-02-15

195

The potential of biomonitoring of air quality using leaf characteristics of white willow ( Salix alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we assess the potential of white willow (Salix alba L.) as bioindicator for monitoring of air quality. Therefore, shoot biomass, specific leaf area, stomatal density, stomatal\\u000a pore surface, and stomatal resistance were assessed from leaves of stem cuttings. The stem cuttings were introduced in two\\u000a regions in Belgium with a relatively high and a relatively low level

Tatiana Wuytack; Kris Verheyen; Karen Wuyts; Fatemeh Kardel; Sandy Adriaenssens; Roeland Samson

2010-01-01

196

Stem cell therapy for osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Current osteoporosis treatments are predominantly bone-resorbing drugs that are associated with several side effects. The use of stem cells for tissue regeneration has raised great hope in various fields of medicine, including musculoskeletal disorders. Stem cell therapy for osteoporosis could potentially reduce the susceptibility of fractures and augment lost mineral density by either increasing the numbers or restoring the function of resident stem cells that can proliferate and differentiate into bone-forming cells. Such osteoporosis therapies can be carried out by exogenous introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), typically procured from bone marrow, adipose, and umbilical cord blood tissues or through treatments with drugs or small molecules that recruit endogenous stem cells to osteoporotic sites. The main hurdle with cell-based osteoporosis therapy is the uncertainty of stem cell fate and biodistribution following cell transplantation. Therefore, future advancements will focus on long-term engraftment and differentiation of stem cells at desired bone sites for tangible clinical outcome. PMID:24407712

Antebi, Ben; Pelled, Gadi; Gazit, Dan

2014-03-01

197

Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

198

Wounding-induced xylem occlusion in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers : roles of peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wounding-induced xylem occlusion, resulting in severe leaf wilting, occurs in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers (Dendranthema grandiflora), cv. Vyking. The blockage develops after about 1 h in flowers held in air at 20 °C. It is initially located in the lowermost 2 cm of the stem and upon prolonged exposure to air it is also found above 2 cm.

Doorn van W. G; N. Vaslier

2002-01-01

199

Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B colonization on okra- and normal-leaf upland cotton strains and cultivars.  

PubMed

We compared smooth-leaf okra- and normal-leaf upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) strains and cultivars for susceptibility to colonization by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Experiments were conducted at seven field sites, five at Holtville, CA, and two at Maricopa, AZ, during 1996-2000. Okra-leaf strains and cultivars, as a group, had lower numbers of adults, eggs, and nymphs compared with normal-leaf strains and cultivars indicating the potential of okra-leaf genetic traits for reducing colonization by B. tabaci. Results also suggest that okra-leaf shape may provide less favorable micro-environmental conditions for the habitat of B. tabaci because of more open canopy as evidenced by higher leaf perimeter to leaf area ratio. The okra-leaf cultivar 'Siokra L-23' appears to have genetic traits that should be examined further as a source of B. tabaci resistance. PMID:12216814

Chu, Chan-Chi; Natwick, Eric T; Henneberry, Thomas J

2002-08-01

200

Radiative characteristics of plant leaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing leaf radiation models are reviewed. A new concept of the optical model of the leaf as a multiphase system containing\\u000a three aggregate ensembles of particles significantly different in microphysical and optical characteristics is proposed. The\\u000a proposed model is based on the reconstruction of the particle size distribution function from the experimental leaf absorption\\u000a spectrum. Based on the obtained microphysical

G. M. Krekov; M. M. Krekova; A. A. Lisenko; A. Ya. Sukhanov

2009-01-01

201

Hemopoietic stem cells: Sources and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classically hemopoietic stem cells to be used for transplantation or autologous reinfusion have been harvested from the bone\\u000a marrow which has remained the major source of stem cells for allogeneic transplantation. However, pluripotent stem cells also\\u000a circulate in peripheral blood under physiological conditions and can be “mobilized” to appearin very large numbers in peripheral blood by treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy,

Dae-Sik Hong; H. Joachim Deeg

1994-01-01

202

Pluripotent stem cells and their niches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of stem cells to self-renew and to replace mature cells is fundamental to ontogeny and tissue regeneration. Stem\\u000a cells of the adult organism can be categorized as mono-, bi-, or multipotent, based on the number of mature cell types to\\u000a which they can give rise. In contrast, pluripotent stem cells of the early embryo have the ability to

M. William Lensch; Laurence Daheron; Thorsten M. Schlaeger

2006-01-01

203

A comparison of leaf thionin sequences of barley cultivars and wild barley species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf thionins of several barley cultivars and wild barley species were analysed. We found large differences in the numbers of leaf thionin genes in different Hordeum species. While, for instance, cultivars of Hordeum vulgare (Section Hordeum) contain more than 50 copies of thionin genes per haploid genome, the numbers are much lower in Hordeum species belonging to the sections Critesion

Susanna Bunge; Jörn Wolters; Klaus Apel

1992-01-01

204

Response to stem bending in forest shrubs: stem or shoot reorientation and shoot release.  

PubMed

Shrubs in the forest understory may be bent by their own weight or by overstory debris. To maintain height growth they must respond to bending by vertical growth of new shoots, reorientation of older axes, or by releasing preventitious buds to form epicormic shoots. I tested for these responses in Ilex verticillata L., Cornus amomum Mill., Gaylussacia baccata (Wang.) K. Koch, Viburnum cassinoides L., Hamamelis virginiana L., and Kalmia latifolia L. For each species, I removed potentially supporting vegetation adjacent to 20 stems, left 10 stems untreated to test for bending by self weight, and bent the remaining 10 stems to 45 degrees to simulate effects of fallen debris. Stem angles and curvatures were measured from before leaf out until just before leaf fall to detect either sagging from self weight or upward bending from tension wood action. Control stems initially leaned out of vertical and five of six species sagged further into a cantilever form. Several control stems failed and bent to the ground. Stems of H. virginiana, I. verticillata, and C. amomum formed tension wood, but only the first two species bent upward. Viburnum cassinoides, G. baccata, and K. latifolia formed no tension wood and sagged further down after being bent. Epicormic shoots formed with varying frequencies in all species except K. latifolia. Epicormic shoots were the major response in C. amomum, V. cassinoides, and G. baccata. New terminal shoots on bent stems recovered toward vertical in I. verticillata and K. latifolia. Negative gravitropic response of shoots was the only recovery mechanism for K. latifolia. PMID:11540964

Wilson, B F

1997-10-01

205

The stem cell patent landscape as relevant to cancer vaccines.  

PubMed

Cancer vaccine targeting cancer stem cells is proposed to serve as a potent immunotherapy. Thus, it would be useful to examine the main trends in stem cell patenting activity as a guide for those seeking to develop such cancer vaccines. We found that a substantial number of stem cell patents were granted up to the end of 2010, including ~2000 issued in the US. Many of these have been filed since 2001, including 7,551 applications in the US. Stem cell development, as evidenced by the numbers of PubMed articles, has matured steadily in recent years. However, the other metrics, such as the number of patent applications, the technology-science linkage and the number of patent assignees, have been stagnant. Moreover, the ownership of stem cell patents is still quiet fragmented across multiple organizations, and the number of stem cell patent assignees from the business sector has not increased significantly. Academic and nonprofit institutions not only account for a large share of stem cell patents but also apply for patents continually. Based on this analysis, the strength of stem cell resources seems to remain stagnant in recent years due to the ban on government funding of embryonic stem cell research. Furthermore, the patent prosecution or technical barriers in the field of stem cells would be another main reason that the number of US-issued stem cell patents for each application have been in gradual decline since 2000. Therefore, we consider stem cell technology to still be under development. PMID:21957493

Wang, Shyh-Jen

2011-10-01

206

Leaf surface and histological perturbations of leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Helianthus annuus after exposure to simulated acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial injury to adaxial leaf surfaces of Phaseolus vulgaris and Helianthus annuus occurred near trichomes and stomata after exposure to simulated sulfate acid rain. Lesion frequency was not correlated with density of either stomata or trichomes but was correlated with degree of leaf expansion. The number of lesions per unit area increased with total leaf area. Results suggest that characteristics

Lance S. Evans; Nicholas F. Gmur; Filomena Da Costa

1977-01-01

207

Quantitative Analysis of Transpiration Stream Dynamics in an Intact Cucumber Stem by a Heat Flux Control Method  

PubMed Central

Water flux of transpiration stream in an intact stem of the 10 leaf stage cucumber plant (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chojitsu-Ochiai) was measured by a novel system of heat flux control method with a resolution of 1 × 10?3 grams per second and a time constant of 1 minute; two heat flux control sensors were attached to the seventh internode and the stem base. The transpiration stream responded clearly to leaf transpiration and root water absorption when the plant was exposed to light, and the water flux at the stem base corresponded to the transpiration rate per plant in steady state. Root water absorption lagged about 10 minutes behind leaf transpiration. Dynamics of water fluxes were affected by the lag of water absorption in roots, and temporary water loss caused by rapid increase in leaf transpiration was buffered by about 5% of the water content in the stem. PMID:16666595

Kitano, Masaharu; Eguchi, Hiromi

1989-01-01

208

Leaf orientation and sunlit leaf area distribution in cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diurnal leaf orientation behaviour of row-planted cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. ‘DES 119’) and its relationship to sunlit leaf area distribution at three stages of development were studied in the field. Electromagnetic digitizing was used for plant geometrical structure measurement for three periods of 2 h during the day. Cotton leaves showed a diaheliotropic response throughout the day.

Sornprach Thanisawanyangkura; Herve Sinoquet; Pierre Rivet; Michel Cretenet; Eric Jallas

1997-01-01

209

Estimation of Moisture in Maize Leaf by Measuring Leaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf moisture of maize was estimated by variation of dielectric constant. These variations are measured via designed and manufactured capacitive sensors. Capacitance was measured at two frequencies (100 kHz & 1 MHz). The results showed that in all cases the best fitted curve for variations of dielectric constant in relation to leaf moisture percentage was in the form of y=aebx

AMIN AFZAL; SAYED-FARHAD MOUSAVI

210

Short communication Leaf optical properties and photosynthetic leaf absorptances  

E-print Network

assessments of the photo-physiology of seagrasses (Beer et al., 2001). Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at the leaf surface and the fraction of the PAR absorbed by the leaf (Beer et al., 1998, 2000, 2001; Beer and Bjo¨rk, 2000; Schreiber, 2004). The fraction of incident PAR

Durako, Michael J.

211

29 CFR 780.516 - “Prior to the stemming process.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...employee engaged in stemming, the removal of the midrib from the tobacco leaf (McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op. Ass'n., 80 F. Supp. 953, affirmed 181 F. 2d 697), or in any operations on the tobacco which are performed after...

2013-07-01

212

29 CFR 780.516 - “Prior to the stemming process.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...employee engaged in stemming, the removal of the midrib from the tobacco leaf (McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op. Ass'n., 80 F. Supp. 953, affirmed 181 F. 2d 697), or in any operations on the tobacco which are performed after...

2011-07-01

213

29 CFR 780.516 - “Prior to the stemming process.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...employee engaged in stemming, the removal of the midrib from the tobacco leaf (McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op. Ass'n., 80 F. Supp. 953, affirmed 181 F. 2d 697), or in any operations on the tobacco which are performed after...

2012-07-01

214

29 CFR 780.516 - “Prior to the stemming process.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...employee engaged in stemming, the removal of the midrib from the tobacco leaf (McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op. Ass'n., 80 F. Supp. 953, affirmed 181 F. 2d 697), or in any operations on the tobacco which are...

2010-07-01

215

The artificial leaf.  

PubMed

To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a corner-sharing, head-to-tail dimer. The ability to perform the oxygen-evolving reaction in water at neutral or near-neutral conditions has several consequences for the construction of the artificial leaf. The NiMoZn alloy may be used in place of Pt to generate hydrogen. To stabilize silicon in water, its surface is coated with a conducting metal oxide onto which the Co-OEC may be deposited. The net result is that immersing a triple-junction Si wafer coated with NiMoZn and Co-OEC in water and holding it up to sunlight can effect direct solar energy conversion via water splitting. By constructing a simple, stand-alone device composed of earth-abundant materials, the artificial leaf provides a means for an inexpensive and highly distributed solar-to-fuels system that employs low-cost systems engineering and manufacturing. Through this type of system, solar energy can become a viable energy supply to those in the non-legacy world. PMID:22475039

Nocera, Daniel G

2012-05-15

216

Effect of CO sub 2 enriched air on the kinetics of leaf expansion. [Pisum sativa; Glycine max  

SciTech Connect

Vegetative plants of Pisum sativum (pea) and Glycine max (soybean) were transferred from 350 to 1,200 ppm CO{sub 2} when they had one (pea) or two (soybean) mature leaves and several developing leaves. Controls were kept at 350 ppm. For pea, high CO{sub 2} for 8 days increased dry mass of root, stem, and leaf fractions by 30-50%. Leaf dry mass increase was due primarily to carbohydrate, particularly starch. Dawn levels of starch increased 10-fold within 1 day at high CO{sub 2} and 20-fold at 2 days. At 2 days after transfer leaf starch levels were 1.0 mg cm{sup {minus}2} of leaf area or nearly 30% of leaf dry weight. Soybean data are less complete, but 10 days at high CO{sub 2} increased leaf + stem dry mass by 50% and leaf weight per unit area increased by 14 and 48% at dawn within 1 and 2 days, respectively, at high CO{sub 2}. However 8-10 days at high CO{sub 2} increased total leaf area only slightly (about 15%) for both species, with all the leaf area increase occurring at nodes that were nearly microscopic at the time of transfer. For soybean, most of the increased leaf area due to high CO{sub 2} was from lateral bud break despite a high CO{sub 2} did not stimulated more leaves per plant. Apparently, extra photosynthate had a delayed effect on leaf expansion and did not increase nodes along the main axis. Leaf expansion under high CO{sub 2} was not limited by photosynthate.

Potter, J.R. (Dept. of Agriculture, Corvallis, OR (United States))

1991-05-01

217

Does transpiration matter to the hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf wax n-alkanes? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transpiration and evaporation from soils both affect he hydrogen isotope composition of leaf water, but the extent to which they effect the hydrogen isotope ratio of leaf wax lipids is still under debate. To address this question, we analyzed hydrogen isotope ratios of high-molecular weight n-alkanes (?Dl) and oxygen isotope ratios of ?-cellulose (?18OC) for C3 and C4 grasses grown in the field and in controlled-environment growth chambers. The relatively firm understanding of 18O-enrichment in leaf water and ?-cellulose was used to elucidate fractionation patterns of ?Dl signatures. In the different relative humidity environments of the growth chambers, we observed clear and predictable effects of leaf-water enrichment on ?18OC values. Using a Craig-Gordon model, we demonstrate that leaf water in the growth chamber grasses should have experienced significant D-enriched due to transpiration. Nonetheless, we found no effect of transpirational D-enrichment on the ?Dl values. In field samples, we saw clear evidence of enrichment (correlating with relative humidity of the field sites) in both ?18OC and ?Dl. These seemingly contrasting results can be explained if leaf waxes are synthesized in an environment that is isotopically similar to water entering plant roots due to either temporal or spatial isolation from evaporatively enriched leaf waters. For grasses in the controlled environment, there was no enrichment of source water, whereas enrichment of grass source water via evaporation from soils and/or stems was likely for grass samples grown in the field. Based on these results, evaporation from soils and/or stems appears to affect ?Dl, but transpiration from leaves does not. Further evidence for this conclusion is found in modeling expected net evapotranspirational enrichment. A Craig-Gordon model applied to each of the field sites yields leaf water oxygen isotope ratios that can be used to accurately predict the observed ?18OC values. In contrast, the calculated leaf water hydrogen isotope ratios are more enriched than what is required to predict observed ?Dl values. These calculations lend support to the conclusion that while ?18OC reflects both soil evaporation and transpiration, ?Dl appears to only record evaporation from soils and/or stems. Therefore, the ?D of n-alkanes can likely be used to reconstruct the ?D of water entering a leaf, supporting the soil-enrichment model of Smith and Freeman (2006). In both the field and controlled studies, we found significant photosynthetic pathway effects on n-alkane ?D suggesting that biochemical pathways or plant phylogeny have a greater effect on leaf wax ?D than leaf-water enrichment in grasses.

McInerney, F. A.; Helliker, B. R.; Freeman, K. H.

2010-12-01

218

Stem Cell Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every living thing is made up of cells — including the human body. ... can become new cells like this. Blood Stem Cells When you hear about stem cell transplants, they ...

219

BOREAS TE-5 Leaf Carbon Isotope Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. This documentation describes leaf carbon isotope data that were collected in 1993 and 1994 at the NSA and SSA OJP sites, the SSA OBS site, and the NSA UBS site. In addition, leaf carbon isotope data were collected in 1994 only at the NSA and SSA OA sites. These data was collected to provide seasonal integrated physiological information for 10 to 15 common species at these 6 BOREAS sites. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

2000-01-01

220

BOREAS TE-5 Leaf Gas Exchange Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. The leaf photosynthetic gas exchange data were collected in the BOREAS NSA and the SSA from 06-Jun- 1994 to 13-Sep- 1994 using a LI-COR 6200 portable photosynthesis system. The data were collected to compare the photosynthetic capacity, stomata] conductance, and leaf intercellular CO, concentrations among the major tree species at the BOREAS sites. The data are average values from diurnal measurements on the upper canopy foliage (sun leaves). The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

2000-01-01

221

Boosting STEM Interest in High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most critical labor shortages facing the U.S. involves the number of young adults entering careers in what's now commonly referred to as STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics). Equally troubling is that the participation of blacks and Hispanics in STEM careers continues to lag that of whites and Asians. High school is…

Schneider, Barbara; Judy, Justina; Mazuca, Christina

2012-01-01

222

Diet, Stem Cells, and Breast Cancer Prevention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer is considered to be initiated by mutations in a limited population of undifferentiated cells termed stem cells that 'sit' at the top of the mammary epithelial hierarchy. Over-expansion of the stem cell population leads to increased numbers o...

R. C. Simmen

2009-01-01

223

Temperature influences on leaf CO 2exchange, cell viability and cultivation range for Agave tequilana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agave tequilana, a species exhibiting crassulacean acid metabolism, is cultivated in Mexico for its stem and attached leaf bases from which the distilled beverage tequila is obtained. The physiological reasons why its cultivation was mostly restricted to regions in Jalisco with minimum air temperatures in 1996 above ?4°C and maximum temperatures below 36°C was investigated using plants under controlled conditions

Park S. Nobel; Miguel Castañeda; Gretchen North; Eulogio Pimienta-Barrios; Ariel Ruiz

1998-01-01

224

7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture ...INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its...

2010-01-01

225

7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture ...INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its...

2011-01-01

226

Alterations in soybean leaf development and photosynthesis in a CO sub 2 -enriched atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to characterize changes in the canopy photosynthetic leaf area of developing soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Lee) exposed to a CO{sub 2}-enriched atmosphere. Young, vegetative plants were exposed to 350 or 700 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2} for 15 d. Plant dry mass and total leaf area were greater in the CO{sub 2}-enriched environment. Emergence and expansion rates of main stem leaves increased at high CO{sub 2}, but the areas of individual leaves at full expansion were affected very little (5%-10% greater than controls). More rapid leaf expansion rates occurred in the light and dark. Under CO{sub 2}-enriched conditions, the net CO{sub 2} exchange rates of all leaves on the main stem were higher before and after full expansion. Stomatal conductance was lower in high CO{sub 2} only after leaves approached full expansion. Leaf development on the lateral branches also was increased at high CO{sub 2}, accounting for 40% of the total increase in leaf area by the end of the experiment. The authors conclude that more rapid rates of leaf development under CO{sub 2} enrichment likely resulted from increased photosynthesis rates and that both direct and indirect effects were involved.

Cure, J.D. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Rufty, T.W. Jr.; Israel, D.W. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

1989-12-01

227

The mitochondrial contribution to stem cell biology.  

PubMed

The distribution and functions of mitochondria in stem cells have not been examined, yet the contributions of these organelles to stem cell viability and differentiation must be vitally important in view of their critical roles in all other cell types. A key role for mitochondria in stem cells is indicated by reports that they translocate in the oocyte during fertilisation to cluster around the pronuclei and can remain in a perinuclear pattern during embryo development. This clustering appears to be essential for normal embryonic development. Because embryonic stem cells are derived from fertilised oocytes, and eventually can differentiate into 'adult' stem cells, it was hypothesised that mitochondrial perinuclear clustering persists through preimplantation embryo development into the stem cells, and that this localisation is indicative of stem cell pluripotency. Further, it was predicted that mitochondrial activity, as measured by respiration and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, would correlate with the degree of perinuclear clustering. It was also predicted that these morphological and metabolic measurements could serve as indicators of 'stemness.' This article reviews the distribution and metabolism of mitochondria in a model stem cell line and how this information is related to passage number, differentiation and/or senescence. In addition, it describes mitochondrial DNA deletions in oocytes and embryos that could adversely affect stem cell performance. PMID:17147931

Bavister, Barry D

2006-01-01

228

Effects of Pot Size on Leaf Production and Essential Oil Content and Composition of Eucalyptus citriodora hook. (Lemon-Scented Gum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of pot size on plant height, stem diameter, dry leaf biomass, essential oil content, and composition of Eucalyptus citriodora was investigated in this experiment. Both the physical and the chemical properties of pot-grown plants were significantly affected by pot size. Plants grown in larger pots were generally taller, had thicker stems and wider canopies, grew more branches, and

Yiftach Vaknin; Nativ Dudai; Leonid Murkhovsky; Lev Gelfandbein; Ravit Fischer; Anny Degani

2009-01-01

229

Genetic control of duration of pre-anthesis phases in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and relationships to leaf appearance, tillering, and dry matter accumulation  

PubMed Central

The duration of pre-anthesis developmental phases is of interest in breeding for improved adaptation and yield potential in temperate cereals. Yet despite numerous studies on the genetic control of anthesis (flowering) time and floral initiation, little is known about the genetic control of other pre-anthesis phases. Furthermore, little is known about the effect that changes in the duration of pre-anthesis phases could have on traits related to leaf appearance and tillering, or dry matter accumulation before terminal spikelet initiation (TS). The genetic control of the leaf and spikelet initiation phase (LS; from sowing to TS), the stem elongation phase (SE; from TS to anthesis), and, within the latter, from TS to flag leaf appearance and from then to anthesis, was studied in two doubled-haploid, mapping bread wheat populations, Cranbrook×Halberd and CD87×Katepwa, in two field experiments (ACT and NSW, Australia). The lengths of phases were estimated from measurements of both TS and the onset of stem elongation. Dry weight per plant before TS, rate of leaf appearance, tillering rate, maximum number of tillers and number of leaves, and dry weight per plant at TS were also estimated in the Cranbrook×Halberd population. More genomic regions were identified for the length of the different pre-anthesis phases than for total time to anthesis. Although overall genetic correlations between LS and SE were significant and positive, independent genetic variability between LS and SE, and several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with different effects on both phases were found in the two populations. Several of these QTLs (which did not seem to coincide with reported major genes) could be of interest for breeding purposes since they were only significant for either LS or SE. There was no relationship between LS and the rate of leaf appearance. LS was strongly and positively correlated with dry weight at TS but only slightly negatively correlated with early vigour (dry weight before TS). Despite significant genetic correlations between LS and some tillering traits, shortening LS so as to lengthen SE without modifying total time to anthesis would not necessarily reduce tillering capacity, as QTLs for tillering traits did not coincide with those QTLs significant only for LS or SE. Therefore, the study of different pre-anthesis phases is relevant for a better understanding of genetic factors regulating developmental time and may offer new tools for fine-tuning it in breeding for both adaptability and yield potential. PMID:21920907

Borras-Gelonch, Gisela; Rebetzke, Greg J.; Richards, Richard A.; Romagosa, Ignacio

2012-01-01

230

Change in hydraulic properties and leaf traits in a tall rainforest tree species subjected to long-term throughfall exclusion in the perhumid tropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-scale replicated throughfall exclusion experiment was conducted in a pre-montane perhumid rainforest in Sulawesi (Indonesia) exposing the trees for two years to pronounced soil desiccation. The lack of regularly occurring dry periods and shallow rooting patterns distinguish this experiment from similar experiments conducted in the Amazonian rainforest. We tested the hypotheses that a tree's sun canopy is more affected by soil drought than its shade crown, making tall trees particularly vulnerable even under a perhumid climate, and that extended drought periods stimulate an acclimation in the hydraulic system of the sun canopy. In the abundant and tall tree species Castanopsis acuminatissima (Fagaceae), we compared 31 morphological, anatomical, hydraulic and chemical variables of leaves, branches and the stem together with stem diameter growth between drought and control plots. There was no evidence of canopy dieback. However, the drought treatment led to a 30 % reduction in sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity of sun canopy branches, possibly caused by the formation of smaller vessels and/or vessel filling by tyloses. Drought caused an increase in leaf size, but a decrease in leaf number, and a reduction in foliar calcium content. The ?13C and ?18O signatures of sun canopy leaves gave no indication of a permanent down-regulation of stomatal conductance during the drought, indicating that pre-senescent leaf shedding may have improved the water status of the remaining leaves. Annual stem diameter growth decreased during the drought, while the density of wood in the recently produced xylem increased in both the stem and sun canopy branches (marginally significant). The sun canopy showed a more pronounced drought response than the shade crown indicating that tall trees with a large sun canopy are more vulnerable to drought stress. We conclude that the extended drought prompted a number of medium- to long-term responses in the leaves, branches and the trunk, which may have reduced drought susceptibility. However, unlike a natural drought, our drought simulation experiment was carried out under conditions of high humidity, which may have dampened drought induced damages.

Schuldt, B.; Leuschner, C.; Horna, V.; Moser, G.; Köhler, M.; van Straaten, O.; Barus, H.

2011-08-01

231

Quantitative relationship between indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid during leaf growth in Coleus blumei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative determinations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ofindole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in growing leaves ofColeusblumei plants show parallel declines in leaf concentrations of bothhormones,except in leaf number 3 (about three-fourths of full size) where IAA level wasthe lowest of those measured. Expansion of the most recently unfurled leaf tofull size serves, in effect, to dilute both IAA and

Clifford LaMotte; Xiaoyue Li; William Jacobs; Ephraim Epstein

2002-01-01

232

Office of Strategic Initiatives LA-STEM Research Scholars Program  

E-print Network

junctures Multi-faceted data-based decision making Pre-College Background Academic Advising Undergraduate continues to rise. Less than 50 percent of STEM freshmen complete STEM degrees. A number of factors impact not imagine my college experience without LA-STEM. Every aspect of my collegiate career--degree plan, research

Harms, Kyle E.

233

Robotic cell culture system for stem cell assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on the advantages of a robotic time-lapsed microscopic imaging system for tracking stem cells in in vitro biological assays which measure stem cell activities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The unique aspects of the system include robotic movement of stem cell culture flasks which enables selection of a large number of regions of

Benjamin T. Schmidt; Joseph M. Feduska; Ashley M. Witt; Bridget M. Deasy

2008-01-01

234

Stem cell therapy in ischemic heart disease.  

PubMed

Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death in the Western world. The high impact of its main sequelae, acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure (CHF), on the quality of life of patients and the cost of health care drives the search for new therapies. The recent finding that stem cells contribute to neovascularization and possibly improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction makes stem cell therapy the most highly active research area in cardiology. Although the concept of stem cell therapy may revolutionize heart failure treatment, several obstacles need to be addressed. To name a few: 1) Which patient population should be considered for stem cell therapy? 2) What type of stem cell should be used? 3) What is the best route for cell delivery? 4) What is the optimum number of cells that should be used to achieve functional effects? 5) Is stem cell therapy safer and more effective than conventional therapies? The published studies vary significantly in design, making it difficult to draw conclusions on the efficacy of this treatment. For example, different models of ischemia, species of donors and recipients, techniques of cell delivery, cell types, cell numbers and timing of the experiments have been used. However, these studies highlight the landmark concept that stem cell therapy may play a major role in treating cardiovascular diseases in the near future. It should be noted that stem cell therapy is not limited to the treatment of ischemic cardiac disease. Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, peripheral vascular disease, and aging may be treated by stem cells. Stem cells could be used as vehicle for gene therapy and eliminate the use of viral vectors. Finally, stem cell therapy may be combined with pharmacological, surgical, and interventional therapy to improve outcome. Here we attempt a systematic overview of the science of stem cells and their effects when transplanted into ischemic myocardium. PMID:14647535

Sunkomat, Julia N E; Gaballa, Mohamed A

2003-01-01

235

Leaf hydraulics II: vascularized tissues.  

PubMed

Current models of leaf hydration employ an Ohm's law analogy of the leaf as an ideal capacitor, neglecting the resistance to flow between cells, or treat the leaf as a plane sheet with a source of water at fixed potential filling the mid-plane, neglecting the discrete placement of veins as well as their resistance. We develop a model of leaf hydration that considers the average conductance of the vascular network to a representative areole (region bounded by the vascular network), and represent the volume of tissue within the areole as a poroelastic composite of cells and air spaces. Solutions to the 3D flow problem are found by numerical simulation, and these results are then compared to 1D models with exact solutions for a range of leaf geometries, based on a survey of temperate woody plants. We then show that the hydration times given by these solutions are well approximated by a sum of the ideal capacitor and plane sheet times, representing the time for transport through the vasculature and tissue respectively. We then develop scaling factors relating this approximate solution to the 3D model, and examine the dependence of these scaling factors on leaf geometry. Finally, we apply a similar strategy to reduce the dimensions of the steady state problem, in the context of peristomatal transpiration, and consider the relation of transpirational gradients to equilibrium leaf water potential measurements. PMID:24012489

Rockwell, Fulton E; Holbrook, N Michele; Stroock, Abraham D

2014-01-01

236

STEM Attrition: College Students' Paths into and out of STEM Fields. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2014-001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Producing sufficient numbers of graduates who are prepared for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations has become a national priority in the United States. To attain this goal, some policymakers have targeted reducing STEM attrition in college, arguing that retaining more students in STEM fields in college is a…

Chen, Xianglei

2013-01-01

237

Isolation of 6-hydroxykynurenic acid from the tobacco leaf  

PubMed Central

1. 6-Hydroxykynurenic acid (4,6-dihydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid, 6-HKA) was isolated in crystalline form from both green and cured tobacco leaves. 2. A method for the determination of 6-HKA by paper chromatography and fluorimetry is described. 3. The content of 6-HKA in the flowers, stem and roots of the tobacco plant was much lower than that in the leaf. 4. The 6-HKA content increased throughout leaf development and senescence. 5. 6-HKA was detected in the leaves of plants representing 11 out of 27 families sampled. 6. 6-HKA was found to be devoid of antibacterial and antifungal activity, and was inactive in the Avena-coleoptile and cress-seed-germination tests. 7. The presence of 6-HKA is taken as evidence in plants of the tryptophan-catabolic pathway already known in mammals and micro-organisms. PMID:5665251

Macnicol, P. K.

1968-01-01

238

Isolation of Stem Cells from Multiple Sites in the CNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting neural stem cell populations is intrinsically different from selecting hematopoietic stem cells due to the variable\\u000a sources of cells, the variety of stem cells described, and our ability to maintain neural stem cells in culture for prolonged\\u000a time periods. Success is likely given the number of markers that have now become available. To ensure success, however, one\\u000a will have

Mahendra S. Rao; Larysa Pevny

239

Effects of Roads on Castanopsis carlesii Seedlings and Their Leaf Herbivory in a Subtropical Forest in China  

PubMed Central

The effects of a forest road on Castanopsis carlesii (Hemsley) Hayata (Fagales: Fagaceae) seedlings and their leaf herbivory were investigated in a subtropical forest at Jiulianshan National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, China. A total of 1124 seedlings, 33949 leaves, 468 leaf mines, and 205 leaf galls were found. Generally, individual numbers, tree heights, and leaf numbers of C. carlesii seedlings became lower with increasing distances from the road. These results might indicate that old seedlings were fewer and survival rate of seedlings was lower in forest interiors. Leaf miners preferred the seedlings close to the forest road, while leaf gallers preferred the seedlings about 2 m from the road. Species diversity of leaf miners was higher in the forest interior area, while species diversity of leaf gallers was higher near the road. However, both leaf miners and leaf gallers decreased in general from the road to the interior forest. There were interspecific differences in the effects of roads on leaf miner species and leaf galler species. The effects of the road on seedlings and insects could be explained by varying microhabitat conditions and different ecological strategies. PMID:25373164

Dai, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Jia-Sheng; Cai, Lu-Rong

2014-01-01

240

Effects of roads on Castanopsis carlesii seedlings and their leaf herbivory in a subtropical forest in China.  

PubMed

The effects of a forest road on Castanopsis carlesii (Hemsley) Hayata (Fagales: Fagaceae) seedlings and their leaf herbivory were investigated in a subtropical forest at Jiulianshan National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, China. A total of 1124 seedlings, 33949 leaves, 468 leaf mines, and 205 leaf galls were found. Generally, individual numbers, tree heights, and leaf numbers of C. carlesii seedlings became lower with increasing distances from the road. These results might indicate that old seedlings were fewer and survival rate of seedlings was lower in forest interiors. Leaf miners preferred the seedlings close to the forest road, while leaf gallers preferred the seedlings about 2 m from the road. Species diversity of leaf miners was higher in the forest interior area, while species diversity of leaf gallers was higher near the road. However, both leaf miners and leaf gallers decreased in general from the road to the interior forest. There were interspecific differences in the effects of roads on leaf miner species and leaf galler species. The effects of the road on seedlings and insects could be explained by varying microhabitat conditions and different ecological strategies. PMID:25373164

Dai, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Jia-Sheng; Cai, Lu-Rong

2014-01-01

241

Dental Pulp Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postnatal stem cells have been isolated from a variety of tissues. These stem cells are thought to possess great therapeutic potential for repairing damaged and\\/or defective tissues. Clinically, hematopoietic stem cells have been successfully used for decades in the treatment of various diseases and disorders. However, the therapeutic potential of other postnatal stem cell populations has yet to be realized,

He Liu; Stan Gronthos; Songtao Shi

2006-01-01

242

Stem cells in urology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem

Tamer Aboushwareb; Anthony Atala

2008-01-01

243

Toward ‘SMART’ stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell research is at the heart of regenerative medicine, which holds great promise for the treatment of many devastating disorders. However, in addition to hurdles posed by well-publicized ethical issues, this emerging field presents many biological challenges. What is a stem cell? How are embryonic stem cells different from adult stem cells? What are the physiological bases for therapeutically

T Cheng

2008-01-01

244

Stem Cell Image Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Stem Cell Resources website is "to provide timely, reliable, high-quality and scientifically credible stem cell information for the educational community worldwide." This section of their site, the Stem Cell Image Library, presents a collection of microscope images of stem cells in various phases.

2012-11-13

245

Number Track  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can use this interactive Flash applet to practice ordering whole numbers within 20. The applet displays a track and number tiles, which the user drags to create the correct sequence of numbers 1 through 20. Users may choose from four levels: place 5 missing numbers, place 10 numbers, arrange all 20 numbers, or create your own challenge.

Bunker, Dan

2010-01-01

246

Cardiac Stem and Progenitor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the early days of cardiovascular biology, it has been believed that mammalian adult cardiomyocytes exit from the cell\\u000a cycle soon after birth, with the total number of cardiomyocytes being pre-determined. Recently, the identification of resident\\u000a cardiac stem\\/progenitor cells by several independent laboratories has challenged this long-held paradigm and has provoked\\u000a an exponential increase in the number of investigations. As

Ronglih Liao; Regina L. Sohn

247

H-Isotopic Fractionation During Biosynthesis of Leaf Waxes in C3 Plants: Trees vs. Grasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies indicate that hydrogen isotope (D/H) ratios of higher-plant leaf waxes in lake sediments have great potential to be used as a proxy for reconstructing past source water isotope composition and/or relative humidity on continents. However, hydrogen isotopic fractionation during biosynthesis of leaf waxes in various terrestrial plants remains poorly understood. A recent study of 7 terrestrial and aquatic plant types from a single site in Massachusetts shows that D/H ratios among different plant types can vary as much as 70‰, with the largest difference occurring between tree and grasses (Hou et al., in review). This variability may have been caused by different degrees of evapotranspiration among different plant types (e.g., trees vs. grasses), but could also be attributed to different biosynthetic isotopic fractionation. We designed a series of growth chamber experiments to trace the sources of hydrogen isotopic difference between trees and grasses. Five tree species [white ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), spruce (Picea sp.) and white cedar (Thuja occidentalis)] and three grass species [orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), timothy weed (Phleum pratense), Foxtail (Setaria sp.)] were grown in a growth chamber under controlled conditions. Plants were irrigated with the same source water. We tracked hydrogen isotopic variation of water from source water to stem water to leaf water, and eventually to leaf waxes. Fifty-three leaf and stem samples were harvested. Water from these samples was vacuum-extracted and analyzed for D/H ratios, and compared with D/H ratios of corresponding leaf waxes. Our results allow us to determine whether evapotranspiration rates or intrinsic isotopic fractionation during biosynthesis was the dominant factor controlling the H isotopic ratios of leaf waxes in trees and grasses. Our results are also helpful for interpreting hydrogen isotopic variations of sedimentary leaf waxes.

Toney, J. L.; Hou, J.; Huang, Y.

2006-12-01

248

Leaf structural characteristics are less important than leaf chemical properties in determining the response of leaf mass per area and photosynthesis of Eucalyptus saligna to industrial-age changes in [CO2] and temperature.  

PubMed

The rise in atmospheric [CO(2)] is associated with increasing air temperature. However, studies on plant responses to interactive effects of [CO(2)] and temperature are limited, particularly for leaf structural attributes. In this study, Eucalyptus saligna plants were grown in sun-lit glasshouses differing in [CO(2)] (290, 400, and 650 µmol mol(-1)) and temperature (26 °C and 30 °C). Leaf anatomy and chloroplast parameters were assessed with three-dimensional confocal microscopy, and the interactive effects of [CO(2)] and temperature were quantified. The relative influence of leaf structural attributes and chemical properties on the variation of leaf mass per area (LMA) and photosynthesis within these climate regimes was also determined. Leaf thickness and mesophyll size increased in higher [CO(2)] but decreased at the warmer temperature; no treatment interaction was observed. In pre-industrial [CO(2)], warming reduced chloroplast diameter without altering chloroplast number per cell, but the opposite pattern (reduced chloroplast number per cell and unchanged chloroplast diameter) was observed in both current and projected [CO(2)]. The variation of LMA was primarily explained by total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) concentration rather than leaf thickness. Leaf photosynthetic capacity (light- and [CO(2)]-saturated rate at 28 °C) and light-saturated photosynthesis (under growth [CO(2)] and temperature) were primarily determined by leaf nitrogen contents, while secondarily affected by chloroplast gas exchange surface area and chloroplast number per cell, respectively. In conclusion, leaf structural attributes are less important than TNC and nitrogen in affecting LMA and photosynthesis responses to the studied climate regimes, indicating that leaf structural attributes have limited capacity to adjust these functional traits in a changing climate. PMID:22915750

Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Salih, Anya; Ghannoum, Oula; Tissue, David T

2012-10-01

249

Stem Cell Biobanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term\\u000a storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific\\u000a clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed\\u000a through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment.

Silvana Bardelli

2010-01-01

250

Understanding the effect of carbon status on stem diameter variations  

PubMed Central

Background Carbon assimilation and leaf-to-fruit sugar transport are, along with plant water status, the driving mechanisms for fruit growth. An integrated comprehension of the plant water and carbon relationships is therefore essential to better understand water and dry matter accumulation. Variations in stem diameter result from an integrated response to plant water and carbon status and are as such a valuable source of information. Methods A mechanistic water flow and storage model was used to relate variations in stem diameter to phloem sugar loading and sugar concentration dynamics in tomato. The simulation results were compared with an independent model, simulating phloem sucrose loading at the leaf level based on photosynthesis and sugar metabolism kinetics and enabled a mechanistic interpretation of the ‘one common assimilate pool’ concept for tomato. Key Results Combining stem diameter variation measurements and mechanistic modelling allowed us to distinguish instantaneous dynamics in the plant water relations and gradual variations in plant carbon status. Additionally, the model combined with stem diameter measurements enabled prediction of dynamic variables which are difficult to measure in a continuous and non-destructive way, such as xylem water potential and phloem hydrostatic potential. Finally, dynamics in phloem sugar loading and sugar concentration were distilled from stem diameter variations. Conclusions Stem diameter variations, when used in mechanistic models, have great potential to continuously monitor and interpret plant water and carbon relations under natural growing conditions. PMID:23186836

De Swaef, Tom; Driever, Steven M.; Van Meulebroek, Lieven; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Marcelis, Leo F. M.; Steppe, Kathy

2013-01-01

251

Change in hydraulic properties and leaf traits of a tall rainforest tree species subjected to long-term throughfall exclusion in the perhumid tropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a throughfall displacement experiment on Sulawesi, Indonesia, three 0.16 ha stands of a premontane perhumid rainforest were exposed to a two-year soil desiccation period that reduced the soil moisture in the upper soil layers beyond the conventional wilting point. About 25 variables, including leaf morphological and chemical traits, stem diameter growth and hydraulic properties of the xylem in the trunk and terminal twigs, were investigated in trees of the tall-growing tree species Castanopsis acuminatissima (Fagaceae) by comparing desiccated roof plots with nearby control plots. We tested the hypotheses that this tall and productive species is particularly sensitive to drought, and the exposed upper sun canopy is more affected than the shade canopy. Hydraulic conductivity in the xylem of terminal twigs normalised to vessel lumen area was reduced by 25%, leaf area-specific conductivity by 10-33% during the desiccation treatment. Surprisingly, the leaves present at the end of the drought treatment were significantly larger, but not smaller in the roof plots, though reduced in number (about 30% less leaves per unit of twig sapwood area), which points to a drought effect on the leaf bud formation while the remaining leaves may have profited from a surplus of water. Mean vessel diameter and axial conductivity in the outermost xylem of the trunk were significantly reduced and wood density increased, while annual stem diameter increment decreased by 26%. In contradiction to our hypotheses, (i) we found no signs of major damage to the C. acuminatissima trees nor to any other drought sensitivity of tall trees, and (ii) the exposed upper canopy was not more drought susceptible than the shade canopy.

Schuldt, B.; Leuschner, C.; Horna, V.; Moser, G.; Köhler, M.; Barus, H.

2010-11-01

252

Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling using Fresnel's equation (Kumar and Silva, 1973) and Snell's Law successfully approximated the spectral curve for a 0.25-mm turgid oak leaf lying on a Halon background. Calculations were made for ten interfaces, air-wax, wax-cellulose, cellulose-water, cellulose-air, air-water, and their inverses. A water path of 0.5 mm yielded acceptable results, and it was found that assignment of more weight to those interfaces involving air versus water or cellulose, and less to those involving wax, decreased the standard deviation of the error for all wavelengths. Data suggest that the air-cell interface is not the only important contributor to the overall reflectance of a leaf. Results also argue against the assertion that the near infrared plateau is a function of cell structure within the leaf.

Parrish, J. B.

1985-01-01

253

Experiments in Whole Leaf Photosynthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a simple experimental system, which uses radioactive carbon dioxide to study whole leaf photosynthesis under a variety of conditions. Other experiments and simple apparatus for the experiments are also described. (Author/RH)

Stewart, J. C.; And Others

1974-01-01

254

Leaf waxes in riparian trees: hydrogen isotopes, concentrations, and chain-length patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stable hydrogen isotope ratios of epicuticular leaf wax n-alkanes record aspects of a plant's ecophysiological conditions. However, it remains unclear as to whether n-alkane hydrogen isotope values (?2H) directly reflect environmental water (source water or tissue water) or environmental water in combination with a biochemical fractionation. Furthermore, it is uncertain if leaf n-alkane ?2H values reflect a single time interval during leaf expansion or if n-alkane ?2H values record the combination of inputs throughout the entire lifespan of a leaf. These different possibilities will influence how leaf wax biomarkers are interpreted in both ecological and environmental reconstruction contexts. To address these issues, we sampled leaves/buds, stems, and water sources of five common western U.S. riparian species under natural field conditions throughout the growing season. Riparian species were selected because the input water source is most likely to be nearly constant through the growing season. We found that species in this study demonstrated marked and systematic variations in n-alkane concentration, average chain length, and ?2H values. Intraspecific patterns were consistent: average chain lengths and ?2H values increased from bud opening through full leaf expansion with little variation during the remainder of the sampling interval, while leaf-wax concentration as a fraction of total biomass increased throughout the growing season. These data imply that leaf-wax ?2H values reflect multiple periods of wax growth and that the leaf wax is continually produced throughout a leaf's lifespan.

Tipple, B. J.; Ehleringer, J.; Doman, C.; Khachaturyan, S.

2011-12-01

255

Inhibitors of oxidative enzymes affect water uptake and vase life of cut Acacia holosericea and Chamelaucium uncinatum stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cut Acacia holosericea (Velvet Leaf Wattle) foliage has a short vase life, possibly because of blockage in xylem vessels. We indirectly investigated a hypothesised role for peroxidase and phenoloxidase enzyme activities in xylem occlusion of Acacia stems by using their inhibitors. We also tested these inhibitors with cut Chamelaucium uncinatum (Geraldton waxflower), another woody stemmed cut flower.The peroxidase inhibitors used

Fisun G. Çelikel; Daryl C. Joyce; John D. Faragher

2011-01-01

256

Wounding-induced xylem occlusion in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers: roles of peroxidase and cathechol oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wounding-induced xylem occlusion, resulting in severe leaf wilting, occurs in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers (Dendranthema grandiflora), cv. Vyking. The blockage develops after about 1 h in flowers held in air at 20°C. It is initially located in the lowermost 2 cm of the stem and upon prolonged exposure to air it is also found above 2 cm. We

Wouter G van Doorn; Nicolas Vaslier

2002-01-01

257

QTLs for shelf life in lettuce co-locate with those for leaf biophysical properties but not with those for leaf developmental traits.  

PubMed

Developmental and biophysical leaf characteristics that influence post-harvest shelf life in lettuce, an important leafy crop, have been examined. The traits were studied using 60 informative F9 recombinant inbed lines (RILs) derived from a cross between cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas) and wild lettuce (L. serriola acc. UC96US23). Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for shelf life co-located most closely with those for leaf biophysical properties such as plasticity, elasticity, and breakstrength, suggesting that these are appropriate targets for molecular breeding for improved shelf life. Significant correlations were found between shelf life and leaf size, leaf weight, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf stomatal index, and epidermal cell number per leaf, indicating that these pre-harvest leaf development traits confer post-harvest properties. By studying the population in two contrasting environments in northern and southern Europe, the genotype by environment interaction effects of the QTLs relevant to leaf development and shelf life were assessed. In total, 107 QTLs, distributed on all nine linkage groups, were detected from the 29 traits. Only five QTLs were common in both environments. Several areas where many QTLs co-located (hotspots) on the genome were identified, with relatively little overlap between developmental hotspots and those relating to shelf life. However, QTLs for leaf biophysical properties (breakstrength, plasticity, and elasticity) and cell area correlated well with shelf life, confirming that the ideal ideotype lettuce should have small cells with strong cell walls. The identification of QTLs for leaf development, strength, and longevity will lead to a better understanding of processability at a genetic and cellular level, and allow the improvement of salad leaf quality through marker-assisted breeding. PMID:17347132

Zhang, Fang Z; Wagstaff, Carol; Rae, Anne M; Sihota, Arinder K; Keevil, C William; Rothwell, Steve D; Clarkson, Graham J J; Michelmore, Richard W; Truco, María José; Dixon, Mark S; Taylor, Gail

2007-01-01

258

BOREAS TE-12 Leaf Gas Exchange Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS TE-12 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the reflectance, transmittance, and gas exchange of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of leaf gas exchange conducted in the SSA during the growing seasons of 1994 and 1995 using a portable gas exchange system. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Arkebauer, Timothy J.; Yang, Litao

2000-01-01

259

Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?  

PubMed

Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm(2) leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf tie due to food limitation and interactions with other caterpillars, but this is a costly behavior. PMID:24109557

Sliwinski, Michelle; Sigmon, Elisha

2013-01-01

260

Stem cell therapy without the cells  

PubMed Central

As an example of the burgeoning importance of stem cell therapy, this past month the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) has approved $70 million to create a new network of stem cell clinical trial centers. Much work in the last decade has been devoted to developing the use of autologous and allogeneic adult stem cell transplants to treat a number of conditions, including heart attack, dementia, wounds, and immune system-related diseases. The standard model teaches us that adult stem cells exists throughout most of the body and provide a means to regenerate and repair most tissues through replication and differentiation. Although we have often witnessed the medical cart placed in front of the scientific horse in the development of stem cell therapies outside of academic circles, great strides have been made, such as the use of purified stem cells1 instead of whole bone marrow transplants in cancer patients, where physicians avoid re-injecting the patients with their own cancer cells.2 We most often think of stem cell therapy acting to regenerate tissue through replication and then differentiation, but recent studies point to the dramatic effects adult stem cells exert in the repair of various tissues through the release of paracrine and autocrine substances, and not simply through differentiation. Indeed, up to 80% of the therapeutic effect of adult stem cells has been shown to be through paracrine mediated actions.3 That is, the collected types of molecules released by the stem cells, called the secretome, or stem cell released molecules (SRM), number in the 100s, including proteins, microRNA, growth factors, antioxidants, proteasomes, and exosomes, and target a multitude of biological pathways through paracrine actions. The composition of the different molecule types in SRM is state dependent, and varies with cell type and conditions such as age and environment. PMID:24567776

Maguire, Greg

2013-01-01

261

Stem cells supporting other stem cells  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cell therapies are increasingly prevalent for the treatment of damaged or diseased tissues, but most of the improvements observed to date are attributed to the ability of stem cells to produce paracrine factors that have a trophic effect on existing tissue cells, improving their functional capacity. It is now clear that this ability to produce trophic factors is a normal and necessary function for some stem cell populations. In vivo adult stem cells are thought to self-renew due to local signals from the microenvironment where they live, the niche. Several niches have now been identified which harbor multiple stem cell populations. In three of these niches – the Drosophila testis, the bulge of the mammalian hair follicle, and the mammalian bone marrow – one type of stem cell has been found to produce factors that contribute to the maintenance of a second stem cell population in the shared niche. In this review, I will examine the architecture of these three niches and discuss the molecular signals involved. Together, these examples establish a new paradigm for stem cell behavior, that stem cells can promote the maintenance of other stem cells. PMID:24348512

Leatherman, Judith

2013-01-01

262

Stem Cells, Phenotypic Inversion, and Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Stem cells possess the potential to cure a myriad of ailments ranging from congenital diseases to illnesses acquired through the physiological process of aging. In the adult, these cells are extremely rare and often difficult to isolate in numbers sufficient to apply to medical treatment. Ex vivo expansion of these cells will be required for most meaningful interventions. The discovery of stem/progenitor cell inversion offers a new avenue for obtaining sufficient numbers of stem cells. Adult progenitor cells are much more common than quiescent stem cells and can be isolated with minimal interventions; therefore, inversion of progenitors to stem cells may become a feasible approach for therapeutic purposes. Stem cells are known to possess few mitochondria, and mitochondrial biogenesis is required for stem cell differentiation. The microtubule cytoskeleton is a major regulator for mitochondrial biogenesis. Investigations in the area of controlling cell differentiation and inducing phenotypic inversion, possibly through manipulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, may contribute to stem cell-based therapies. PMID:19079683

Siggins, Robert W.; Zhang, Ping; Welsh, David; LeCapitaine, Nicole J.; Nelson, Steve

2008-01-01

263

Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hacker has given you a challenge. Heâll run his number machine to create a number. Then youâll get three numbers between one and nine. The challenge is to make a number that is larger than the one on Hackerâs machine. Be careful though--Hacker will give you numbers that canât be bigger than his!

2008-01-01

264

Addressing the STEM Teacher Shortage in American Schools: Ways to Recruit and Retain Effective STEM Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The shortage of certified science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teachers is of concern throughout the United States because of significant numbers needed over the next over the next 10 years. Addressing this issue in education, this study examined the experiences of three new STEM teachers who entered teaching through different…

Hutchison, Laveria F.

2012-01-01

265

Hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf wax n-alkanes in grasses are insensitive to transpiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed hydrogen isotope ratios of high-molecular weight n-alkanes ( ?D l) and oxygen isotope ratios of ?-cellulose ( ?18O C) for C 3 and C 4 grasses grown in the field and in controlled-environment growth chambers. The relatively firm understanding of 18O-enrichment in leaf water and ?-cellulose was used to elucidate fractionation patterns of ?D l signatures. In the different relative humidity environments of the growth chambers, we observed clear and predictable effects of leaf-water enrichment on ?18O C values. Using a Craig-Gordon model, we demonstrate that leaf water in the growth chamber grasses should have experienced significant D-enriched due to transpiration. Nonetheless, we found no effect of transpirational D-enrichment on the ?D l values. In field samples, we saw clear evidence of enrichment (correlating with relative humidity of the field sites) in both ?18O C and ?D l. These seemingly contrasting results could be explained if leaf waxes are synthesized in an environment that is isotopically similar to water entering plant roots due to either temporal or spatial isolation from evaporatively enriched leaf waters. For grasses in the controlled environment, there was no enrichment of source water, whereas enrichment of grass source water via evaporation from soils and/or stems was likely for grass samples grown in the field. Based on these results, evaporation from soils and/or stems appears to affect ?D l, but transpiration from leaves does not. Further evidence for this conclusion is found in modeling expected net evapotranspirational enrichment. A Craig-Gordon model applied to each of the field sites yields leaf water oxygen isotope ratios that can be used to accurately predict the observed ?18O C values. In contrast, the calculated leaf water hydrogen isotope ratios are more enriched than what is required to predict observed ?D l values. These calculations lend support to the conclusion that while ?18O C reflects both soil evaporation and transpiration, ?D l appears to only record evaporation from soils and/or stems. Therefore, the ?D of n-alkanes can likely be used to reconstruct the ?D of water entering a leaf, supporting the soil-enrichment model of Smith and Freeman (2006). In both the field and controlled studies, we found significant photosynthetic pathway effects on n-alkane ?D suggesting that biochemical pathways or plant phylogeny have a greater effect on leaf wax ?D than leaf-water enrichment in grasses.

McInerney, Francesca A.; Helliker, Brent R.; Freeman, Katherine H.

2011-01-01

266

Leaf exsertion, leaf elongation, and leaf senescence in Eriophorum vaginatum and Carex Bigelowii  

SciTech Connect

Most of the common sedges of arctic vegetation show a pattern of leaf production in which the exsertion and elongation of new leaves is more or less simultaneous with the senescence of old leaves. The present study was designed to increase our understanding of the variability sequential leaf production by arctic sedges, and to determine some of the controls on that variability. We did this in two ways: first, we compared the sequential patterns of leaf growth and senescence in E. vaginatum with those of Carex Bigelowii Torr. at two tussock tundra sites near Toolik Lake on the North Slope of Alaska. Second, we compared the responses of leaf growth in these species in control and fertilized plots and in two microenvironments thought to differ sharply in nutrient availability and total productivity. 29 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

Shaver, G.R.; Yandow, T.; Laundre, J.

1990-01-01

267

Number Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app helps students to visualize number sentences and create models for addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division. The number line can be adjusted to represent multiples of numbers from one to one hundred.

Clarity Innovations, Inc.

2013-11-22

268

STEm Minority Graduate Program  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT The state of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in the United States has seen some unfavorable assessments over the past decade. In early February, 2010 the House of Representatives heard testimony on undergraduate and graduate education. The message from the panel, which included experts from academia, STEM-based industries, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) was dire and required an urgent response. The experts along with the committee���¢��������s chairperson, U. S. Representative Daniel Lipinski (D-IL) cited that the complexity of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics applications and coursework and the methodology utilized to teach these subjects are forcing students out of these disciplines. As the National Academies described in its 2007 report Rising Above the Gathering Storm, successful STEM education is not just an academic pursuit���¢��������it���¢��������s a necessity for competing in the knowledge-based economy that the United States had a key role in creating. The potential for action is being made available again as the America COMPETES Act of 2007 is up for reauthorization. Its initial focus was on STEM education at the K-12 levels, but efforts at the undergraduate and graduate levels are needed to retain students to fill the jobs left vacant as baby boomers retire. The Educational Advancement Alliance, Inc. (EAA) has for two decades created programs that have not only addressed the issues of ensuring that students are aptly prepared for college but have focused its efforts over the past decade on increasing the number of students who pursue degrees in STEM disciplines. For the EAA, the introduction of the wonders of science begins at the elementary and middle school level via the Learning Lab, a state-of-the-art mobile science laboratory that visits students in grades 4-6 at the various schools throughout Philadelphia and The Math/Tech Academy which meets on Saturdays for students in grades 5-7. For the past two years the EAA has assisted college graduates in their quest to attain advanced degrees in STEM by providing fellowships. The EAA continued this effort by recruiting and providing fellowships to students who aspired to continue their education at the graduate level. The fellowships provided funding for tuition, fees, books, technology, and stipends to assist with room, board, and living expenses during the academic year and salary, transportation, and living expenses to those students who secured internships with the Department of Energy. Additionally the EAA designed and implemented needed support systems to ensure successful completion of the Masters degree programs, including but not limited to membership in professional associations, attendance at industry and academic conferences, and professional development workshops, and tutorial assistance if needed. This program assisted over 80 students directly and society-at-large by helping to educate and develop future physicists, engineers, biostatisticians, and researchers who will have the necessary skillsets to fill the increasing numbers of positions that require such expertise.

Kaen E. Nicholas

2012-09-20

269

Multi-trait interactions, not phylogeny, fine-tune leaf size reduction with increasing altitude  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Despite long-held interest, knowledge on why leaf size varies widely among species is still incomplete. This study was conducted to assess whether abiotic factors, phylogenetic histories and multi-trait interactions act together to shape leaf size. Methods Fifty-seven pairs of altitudinal vicariant species were selected in northern Spain, and leaf area and a number of functionally related leaf, shoot and whole plant traits were measured for each pair. Structural equation modelling helped unravel trait interactions affecting leaf size, and Mantel tests weighed the relative relevance of phylogeny, environment and trait interactions to explain leaf size reduction with altitude. Key Results Leaves of highland vicariants were generally smaller than those of lowlands. However, the extent of leaf size reduction with increasing altitude was widely variable among genera: from approx. 700 cm2 reduction (96 % in Polystichum) to approx. 30 cm2 increase (37 % in Sorbus). This was partially explained by shifts in leaf, shoot and whole plant traits (35–64 % of explained variance, depending on models), with size/number trade-offs more influential than shifts in leaf form and leaf economics. Shifts in traits were more important than phylogenetic distances or site-specific environmental variation in explaining the degree of leaf size reduction with altitude. Conclusions Ecological filters, constraints due to phylogenetic history (albeit modest in the study system), and phenotypic integration contribute jointly to shape single-trait evolution. Here, it was found that phenotypic change was far more important than shared ancestry to explaine leaf size differences of closely related species segregated along altitudes. PMID:21199835

Milla, Ruben; Reich, Peter B.

2011-01-01

270

POLICY NUMBER 2006-16 August 11. 2006  

E-print Network

POLICY NUMBER 2006-16 August 11. 2006 POLICY: HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH AT UCHC PURPOSE: To ensure that all human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research conducted at the Institution is approved research involving in-eligible human embryonic stem cell lines. In 2005, the state of Connecticut

Oliver, Douglas L.

271

Structural Adaptation of the Leaf Mesophyll to Shading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural characteristics of the mesophyll were studied in five boreal grass species experiencing a wide range of light and water supply conditions. Quantitative indices of the palisade and spongy mesophyll tissues (cell and chloroplast sizes, the number of chloroplasts per cell, the total cell and chloroplast surface area per unit leaf surface area) were determined in leaves of each of

L. A. Ivanova; V. I. P'yankov

2002-01-01

272

Number Factory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game develops fluency and flexibility with whole number operations. In each round the player is given 4 single-digit whole numbers, presented in the context of a factory. The player uses each number exactly once with the interactive calculator to arrive as close as possible to a given target number.

Doorman, Michiel

2003-01-01

273

From thin to thick: major transitions during stem development  

PubMed Central

The variability of shoot architecture in plants is striking and one of the most extreme examples of adaptive growth in higher organisms. Mediated by the differential activity of apical and lateral meristems, flexibility in stem growth essentially contributes to this variability. In spite of this importance, the regulation of major events in stem development is largely unexplored. Recently, however, novel approaches exploiting knowledge from root and leaf development are starting to shed light on molecular mechanisms that regulate this essential plant organ. In this review, we summarize our understanding of initial patterning events in stems, discuss prerequisites for the initiation of lateral stem growth and highlight the burning questions in this context. PMID:22189413

Sanchez, Pablo; Nehlin, Lilian; Greb, Thomas

2012-01-01

274

Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of Careya arborea Roxb.  

PubMed Central

Objective To study detailed pharmacognostic profile of leaves and stem of Careya arborea (C. arborea) Roxb. (Lecthyidaceae), an important medicinal plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Leaf and stem samples of C. arborea were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, broadly obovate in shape, acuminate apex with crenate, dentate margin, petioles (0.1–1.8 cm) long. Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of median large size vascular bundle covered with fibrous bundle sheath, arrangement of xylem in cup shape and presence of cortical vascular bundle, patches of sclerenchyma, phloem fibers in groups and brown pigment containing cells in stem are some of the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study. Powder microscopy of leaf revealed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem with pitted vessels and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. The investigations also included leaf surface data; quantitative leaf microscopy and fluorescence analysis. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, swelling index, extractive values and ash values were also determined and results showed that total ash of the stem bark was about two times higher than leaf and water soluble extractive value of leaf and stem bark was two times higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Conclusions The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications. PMID:23569939

Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Sharma, Nisha; Rao, Ch V

2012-01-01

275

Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online math game from Cyberchase, learners play against Hacker in a place value game. The goal is to make a number bigger than the one created by Hacker's number machine. Learners select the numbers in the order in which they want them to go into their machine. The challenge is to either make a number larger than the one on Hacker's machine or realize that it's impossible to make a number bigger than Hacker's, no matter what the combination.

Wnet

2011-01-01

276

Mesenchymal stem cells secreting angiopoietin-like-5 support efficient expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells without compromising their repopulating potential  

E-print Network

Clinical and preclinical applications of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are often limited by scarcity of cells. Expanding human HSCs to increase their numbers while maintaining their stem cell properties has therefore ...

Drake, Adam

277

STEM Learning Quality Indicator Map  

E-print Network

STEM Learning Quality Indicator Map Quality Indicator Initiation Involvement Implementation Innovation Student Engagement STEM learning experiences are engaging and inspire creativity and imagination STEM learning experience is activity driven with specific step by step directions STEM learning

US Army Corps of Engineers

278

Choosing a STEM Career  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will view video clips about graduate and middle school students with interests in STEM careers and compare technologies from yesterday with today. They will explore careers on-line before writing about their futures as STEM professionals.

Wpsu

2009-11-10

279

STEM Club Participation and STEM Schooling Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To develop a more robust understanding of the relationship between non-formal, school-based STEM activities and students' success and persistence in STEM fields, this study evaluates how math club participation influences math GPA and how science club participation influences science GPA. Additionally, this study evaluates how math or science…

Gottfried, Michael A.; Williams, Darryl N.

2013-01-01

280

A stem cell for stem cells in murine haematopoiesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature erythrocytes and granulocytes have limited lifespans, do not replicate and must therefore be replenished constantly. They are derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) which are capable of self-renewal1. The numbers and properties of PSCs can be inferred in part from studies of their progeny. Such studies have depended largely on highly artificial experimental systems, involving such procedures as X-ray

D. I. Burton; J. D. Ansell; R. A. Gray; H. S. Micklem

1982-01-01

281

Umbilical Cord Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue\\u000a types (1–3). Generally, stem cells are categorized as one of three types: embryonic stem cells (ES), embryonic germ cells (EG), or adult\\u000a stem cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastula (Fig. 1). They

Kathy E. Mitchell

282

Influence of elevated CO{sub 2} on leaf starch of field-grown cotton  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) upon cotton grown in fields near Yazoo City, MS and Maricopa, AZ. Among the measured responses was the starch content of cotton leaves. Leaf starch is an important carbon pool in cotton, since its degradation during the night and subsequent translocation of the products from the leaf is the major process supplying substrates for energy necessary for nocturnal growth and metabolism in this species. The nocturnal carbon supply is of particular importance in cotton as it provides the energy for a number of significant growth events which occur during dark periods, including flowering, fruit set and leaf growth. Earlier work has shown that the magnitude of cotton leaf carbon export during dark periods could be established by comparing the starch content in leaf samples collected from the same leaf at dusk and dawn. The difference between evening and morning leaf starch content equals the nocturnal contribution of carbon from that particular leaf to the growth and respiration of the plant. Moreover, the cotton growth model COTCO2 accounts for such diurnal changes in the starch pool and observations of actual leaf starch content can provide data with which to validate this aspect of the model. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Hendrix, D.L. [Western Cotton Lab., Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1992-12-31

283

Leaf-inhabiting genera of the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales  

PubMed Central

The Gnomoniaceae are characterised by ascomata that are generally immersed, solitary, without a stroma, or aggregated with a rudimentary stroma, in herbaceous plant material especially in leaves, twigs or stems, but also in bark or wood. The ascomata are black, soft-textured, thin-walled, and pseudoparenchymatous with one or more central or eccentric necks. The asci usually have a distinct apical ring. The Gnomoniaceae includes species having ascospores that are small, mostly less than 25 ?m long, although some are longer, and range in septation from non-septate to one-septate, rarely multi-septate. Molecular studies of the Gnomoniaceae suggest that the traditional classification of genera based on characteristics of the ascomata such as position of the neck and ascospores such as septation have resulted in genera that are not monophyletic. In this paper the concepts of the leaf-inhabiting genera in the Gnomoniaceae are reevaluated using multiple genes, specifically nrLSU, translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-?), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) for 64 isolates. ITS sequences were generated for 322 isolates. Six genera of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae are defined based on placement of their type species within the multigene phylogeny. The new monotypic genus Ambarignomonia is established for an unusual species, A. petiolorum. A key to 59 species of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae is presented and 22 species of Gnomoniaceae are described and illustrated. PMID:19287541

Sogonov, M.V.; Castlebury, L.A.; Rossman, A.Y.; Mejia, L.C.; White, J.F.

2008-01-01

284

Stem cell culture engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells have the capacity for self renewal and undergo multilineage differentiation. Stem cells isolated from both blastocysts and adult tissues represent valuable sources of cells for applications in cell therapy, drug screening and tissue engineering. While expanding stem cells in culture, it is critical to maintain their self?renewal and differentiation capacity. In generating particular cell types for specific applications,

Gargi Seth; Catherine M. Verfaillie

2005-01-01

285

Number Cruncher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks interactive game helps students increase their logic and decision making skills by challenging a player to consider a series of mathematical processes to find a path from a starting number to a goal number in a math maze. The activity appears as a 5x5 matrix of numbers, each of which has an operation symbol next to it, indicating whether it will be added to, subtracted from, or multiplied by the previous number. Starting in the center with a given number, players choose an adjoining number to complete the next step and they proceed until successfully reaching the goal number or until they have run out of usable numbers on the game board. To add an additional challenge to the game, a player can limit each level to reaching the target in seven or fewer steps.

2011-10-13

286

Effects of mechanical stress or abscisic acid on growth, water status and leaf abscisic acid content of eggplant seedlings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Container-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings were conditioned with brief, periodic mechanical stress or abscisic acid (ABA) in a greenhouse prior to outdoor exposure. Mechanical stress consisted of seismic (shaking) or thigmic (stem flexing) treatment. Exogenous ABA (10(-3) or 10(-4)M) was applied as a soil drench 3 days prior to outdoor transfer. During conditioning, only thigmic stress reduced stem elongation and only 10(-3) M ABA reduced relative growth rate (RGR). Both conditioning treatments increased leaf specific chlorophyll content, but mechanical stress did not affect leaf ABA content. Outdoor exposure of unconditioned eggplant seedlings decreased RGR and leaf-specific chlorophyll content, but tended to increase leaf ABA content relative to that of plants maintained in the greenhouse. Conditioning did not affect RGR of plants subsequently transferred outdoors, but did reduce stem growth. Seismic stress applied in the greenhouse reduced dry weight gain by plants subsequently transferred outdoors. Mechanical stress treatments increased leaf water potential by 18-25% relative to that of untreated plants.

Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.

1988-01-01

287

NUMBER SENSE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice counting to 100, making numbers with base ten blocks and practicing ordinal numbers! Math is FUN! Lets have fun practicing counting to 100 ! Click when you are ready!Counting Now that you have practiced counting to 100, lets use the base ten blocks to make the number that is on the screen. Click when you are ready!Working with Base Ten Blocks We have now practiced counting and making numbers, lets ...

Simpson, Ms.

2007-10-27

288

Number Factory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet promotes number sense, estimation, and provides practice with order of operations. The player's goal is to make a numerical expression using the four given numbers and the four basic operations with the result being the target number (or as close as they can get to it). The student can also use brackets in their calculation.

Doorman, Michiel

2012-01-07

289

Storage of Adipose Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are becoming the cells of choice for an increasing number of clinical trials, and they\\u000a promise to be in the next decade the preferential cell type used in cell therapies. Here we describe how they can be isolated\\u000a from adipose tissue, prepared for storage, and eventually conserved in liquid nitrogen, waiting for future cell therapy applications.

Giorgio Bronz; Gianni Soldati

290

Influence of light availability on leaf structure and growth of two Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus provenances.  

PubMed

Light availability strongly affects leaf structure of the distinctive ontogenetic leaf forms of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus. Late-maturing plants from St. Marys, Tasmania and early maturing plants from Wilsons Promontory, Victoria (hereafter referred to as Wilsons Prom.) were grown for 9 months in 100, 50 or 10% sunlight. Growth, biomass and leaf area were significantly reduced when plants were grown in 10% sunlight. Provenance differences were minimal despite retention of the juvenile leaf form by the Tasmanian plants throughout the study. The time taken for initiation of vegetative phase change by the Wilsons Prom. saplings increased with decreasing light availability, but the nodal position of change on the main stem remained the same. Both juvenile and adult leaves remained horizontal in low light conditions, but became vertical with high irradiance. Leaf dimensions changed with ontogenetic development, but were unaffected by light availability. Juvenile leaves retained a dorsiventral anatomy and adult Wilsons Prom. leaves retained an isobilateral structure despite a tenfold difference in light availability. Stomatal density and distribution showed ontogenetic and treatment differences. At all irradiances, juvenile leaves produced the smallest stomata and adult leaves the largest stomata. Amphistomy decreased with decreasing irradiance. Detrended, correspondence analysis ordination highlighted the structural changes influenced by ontogenetic development and light availability. Adult leaves had characteristics similar to the xeromorphic, sun-leaf type found in arid, high-light conditions. Although juvenile leaves had characteristics typical of mesomorphic leaves, several structural features suggest that these leaves are more sun-adapted than adult leaves. PMID:11305455

James, S A; Bell, D T

2000-09-01

291

Ozone induced leaf loss and decreased leaf production of European Holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) over multiple seasons.  

PubMed

European Holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) was used to study the impact of one short (28 day) ozone fumigation episode on leaf production, leaf loss and stomatal conductance (g(s)), in order to explore potential longer term effects over 3 growing seasons. Young I. aquifolium plants received an episode of either charcoal-filtered air or charcoal-filtered air with 70 nl l(-1) O(3) added for 7 h d(-1) over a 28 day period from June 15th 1996, then placed into ambient environment, Stoke-on-Trent, U.K. Data were collected per leaf cohort over the next three growing seasons. Ozone exposure significantly increased leaf loss and stomatal conductance and reduced leaf production over all subsequent seasons. Impact of the initial ozone stress was still detected in leaves that had no direct experimental ozone exposure. This study has shown the potential of ozone to introduce long-term phenological perturbations into ecosystems by influencing productivity over a number of seasons. PMID:16713048

Ranford, Jonathan; Reiling, Kevin

2007-01-01

292

An Innovative Way to Monitor Leaf Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthony John Garnello, Karina Paredes, Uyen Khanh Ho Trinh, Jin Wu, Scott Saleska Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Leaf age is an important characteristic for controlling plant functional performance and is associated with the changes of leaf physical, chemical, and physiological properties. Understanding how plant physiology changes over time will allow more accurate predictions of growth patterns, and a more comprehensive understanding of vegetative life histories. There still lacks an efficient technique in monitoring leaf age, tagging leaves is still the only way to accurately monitor leaf age. The goal of this study is to develop a multi-metric, accurate technique for better monitoring of leaf age. In order to acquire true leaf age records, 10 individual plant species were selected at the University of Arizona campus, and newly flushing leaves were tagged and monitored during the Monsoon season (from early June, 2013, to mid October, 2013). Every 2 weeks, 10 to 15 leaves in relative age order were harvested from each 1-meter branch to measure multiple key leaf metrics, including leaf thickness (via micrometer), fresh and dry weight, fresh and dry area (via ImageJ software), and leaf hyperspectral reflectance (via a handheld ASD Field Pro). Other leaf traits were also derived from our measurements, such as specific leaf area (SLA), leaf density (fresh weight/leaf volume), water percentage, and shrinkage ratio (1-dry area/fresh area). The hyperspectral version of vegetation index (a ratio derived from two spectral channels) was generated for each branch sample, by randomly selecting two channels from within the spectral domain of 350 nm to 2500 nm. The preliminary result documents three types of hyperspectral vegetation index (VI) which are highly related with leaf relative age order (R2>0.9). These include the sensitive spectral domains correlated with (a) leaf pigments (~550nm) and leaf physical structure (750nm-1000nm), (b) leaf pigments (~550nm) and leaf water concentration (1400nm-2300nm), and (c) leaf physical structure (750nm-1000nm) and leaf water concentration (1400nm-2300nm). Preliminary results showed that (1) among the key leaf traits, leaf shrinkage is the only trait that showed a consistent correlation with relative age order across the samples; (2) a power function best modeled the interspecies relationship between leaf shrinkage and leaf age (R2 = 0.81, p-value < 0.01, 22 data points for 7 species); (3) a strong correlation was found between the predicted leaf age using the species specific power functions of leaf shrinkage and true leaf age (R2= 0.96, p-value < 0.01), suggesting that leaf shrinkage could be a useful trait for prediction of absolute leaf age in the future. In the next step, we will integrate leaf shrinkage based leaf age prediction with hyperspectral VI framework, aiming to derive some reliable VIs which can be universal for leaf aging prediction among all the species.

Garnello, A.; Paredes, K.; Trinh, U.; Saleska, S. R.; Wu, J.

2013-12-01

293

7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf....

2010-01-01

294

SHADE TREE LEAF SCORCH1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term scorch is commonly used to describe foliar symptoms of marginal and interveinal dessication. A diversity of abiotic and biotic agents cause scorch symptoms in shade trees. Thus there are many physiologic and pathologic bases for leaf scorch. Little research has been performed to define these bases; however, recent research involving fastidious xylem-inhabiting bacteria (FXIB) in elm, sycamore, oak,

R. Hammerschlag; J. Sherald; S. Kostka

1983-01-01

295

Leaf Photosynthesis Under Drought Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic apparatus is resistant to drought. Net CO2 uptake of a leaf submitted to a mild desiccation decreases because of stomatal closure. As aresult, CO2 concentration in the chloroplast decreases in plants exposed to water shortage. This drop in the chloroplast CO2 concentration causes: (i) a decrease in photochemical yield of open PS II centers and, consequently, an increase

Gabriel Cornic; Angelo Massacci

296

Comparison of modeled and observed environmental influences on the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of leaf water in Phaseolus vulgaris L  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors describe how a model of stable isotope fractionation processes, originally developed by H. Craig and L.I. Gordon for evaporation of water from the ocean, can be applied to leaf transpiration. The original model was modified to account for turbulent conditions in the leaf boundary layer. Experiments were conducted to test the factors influencing the stable isotopic composition of leaf water under controlled environment conditions. At steady state, the observed leaf water isotopic composition was enriched above that of stem water with the extent of the enrichment dependent on the leaf-air vapor pressure difference (VPD) and the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor (AMV). The higher the VPD, the larger was the observed heavy isotope content of leaf water. At a constant VPD, leaf water was relatively enriched in heavy isotopes when exposed to AWV with a large heavy isotope composition. However, the observed heavy isotope composition of leaf water was always less than that predicted by the model. The extent of the discrepancy between the modeled and observed leaf water isotopic composition was a strong linear function of the leaf transpiration rate.

Flanagan, L.B.; Comstock, J.P.; Ehleringer, J.R. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States))

1991-06-01

297

Associations between leaf structure, orientation, and sunlight exposure in five Western Australian communities.  

PubMed

Five plant communities in Western Australia, as well as selected desert and Rocky Mountain species of the western USA, were surveyed to evaluate associations among leaf structure, orientational properties, and the sunlight exposure and precipitation characteristic of each community. Selected leaf structural features have been associated previously with photosynthetic function and included shape, thickness, the ratio of thickness to width, stomatal distribution, leaf surface coloration, and the number and distribution of palisade cell layers. Decreases in annual precipitation (<4 to over 15 cm/yr) and increases in total daily sunlight (4.2 to 29.2 mol photons/m1) corresponded strongly to an increase in the percentage of species in a given community with more inclined (more inclined than +/- 45 degrees from horizontal) or thicker leaf mesophyll (>0.4 mm) leaves. Also, the percentage of species with a leaf thickness to width ratio >0.1, which were amphistomatous, or which had palisade cell layers beneath both leaf surfaces, increased from >20% in the highest rainfall and lowest sunlight community to >80% in the community with least rainfall but greatest sunlight exposure. Over 70% of the species in the most mesic, shaded community had lighter abaxial than adaxial leaf surfaces (leaf bicoloration). All of the above structural features were positively associated with a more inclined leaf orientation (r1 = 0.79), except for leaf bicoloration, which was negatively associated (r1 = 0.75). The ratio of adaxial to abaxial light was more strongly associated with leaf bicoloration (r1 = 0.83) and the presence of multiple adaxial and isobilateral palisade cell layers(r1 = 0.80) than with total incident sunlight on just the adaxial leaf surface (r1 = 0.69 and 0.73, respectively). These results provide field evidence that leaf orientation and structure may have evolved in concert to produce a photosynthetic symmetry in leaf structure in response to the amount of sunlight and other limiting factors of the community. This structural symmetry may serve fundamentally to regulate the distribution of both light and CO2 levels inside the leaf and, thus, increase photosynthetic CO2 uptake per unit leaf biomass. PMID:21684880

Smith, W; Bell, D; Shepherd, K

1998-01-01

298

Testing the adaptive plasticity of Iris pumila leaf traits to natural light conditions using phenotypic selection analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multivariate selection analysis has been used to test the adaptiveness of several Iris pumila leaf traits that display plasticity to natural light conditions. Siblings of a synthetic population comprising 31 families of two populations from contrasting light habitats were grown at an open dune site and in the understory of a Pinus nigra stand in order to score variation in phenotypic expression of six leaf traits: number of senescent leaves, number of live leaves, leaf length, leaf width, leaf angle, and specific leaf area. The ambient light conditions affected the values of all traits studied except for specific leaf area. In accordance to ecophysiological expectations for an adaptive response to light, both leaf length and width were significantly greater while the angle between sequential leaves was significantly smaller in the woodland understory than at the exposed dune site. The relationship between leaf traits and vegetative fitness (total leaf area) differed across light habitats as predicted by functional hypotheses. The standardized linear selection gradient ( ?') for leaf length and width were positive in sign in both environments, but their magnitude for leaf length was higher in the shade than under full sunlight. Since plasticity of leaf length in the woodland shade has been recognized as adaptive, fitness cost of producing plastic change in leaf length was assessed. In both of the available methods used, the two-step and the multivariate regression procedures, a rather high negative association between the fitness value and the plasticity of leaf length was obtained, indicating a cost of plasticity. The selection gradient for leaf angle was weak and significant only in the woodland understory. Genetic correlations between trait expressions in contrasting light environments were negative in sign and low in magnitude, implying a significant genetic variation for plasticity in these leaf traits. Furthermore, leaf length and leaf width were found to be genetically positively coupled, which indicates that there is a potential for these two traits to evolve toward their optimal phenotypic values even faster than would be expected if they were genetically independent.

Tuci?, Branka; Tomi?, Vladimir; Avramov, Stevan; Pemac, Danijela

1998-12-01

299

Growth and leaf physiology of monkeyflowers with different altitude ranges.  

PubMed

Every species is limited both geographically and ecologically to a subset of available habitats, yet for many species the causes of distribution limits are unknown. Temperature is thought to be one of the primary determinants of species distributions along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. This study examined leaf physiology and plant performance under contrasting temperature regimes of sister species of monkeyflower, Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii (Phrymaceae), that differ in altitude distribution to test the hypothesis that temperature is the primary determinant of differences in fitness versus altitude. Each species attained greatest aboveground biomass, net photosynthetic rate, and effective quantum yield of photosystem II when grown under temperatures characteristic of the altitudinal range center. Although both species exhibited greater stem length, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration in hot than in cold temperatures, these traits showed much greater reductions under cold temperature for M. cardinalis than for M. lewisii. Survival of M. lewisii was also sensitive to temperature, showing a striking decrease in hot temperatures. Within each temperature regime, the species native to that temperature displayed greatest growth and leaf physiological capacity. Populations from the altitude range center and range margin of each species were used to examine population differentiation, but central and marginal populations did not differ in most growth or leaf physiological responses to temperature. This study provides evidence that M. cardinalis and M. lewisii differ in survival, growth, and leaf physiology under temperature regimes characterizing their contrasting low and high altitude range centers, and suggests that the species' altitude range limits may arise, in part, due to metabolic limitations on growth that ultimately decrease survival and limit reproduction. PMID:16468056

Angert, Amy Lauren

2006-06-01

300

SEMI-ROLLED LEAF1 Encodes a Putative Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Protein and Modulates Rice Leaf Rolling by Regulating the Formation of Bulliform Cells1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Leaf rolling is an important agronomic trait in rice (Oryza sativa) breeding and moderate leaf rolling maintains the erectness of leaves and minimizes shadowing between leaves, leading to improved photosynthetic efficiency and grain yields. Although a few rolled-leaf mutants have been identified and some genes controlling leaf rolling have been isolated, the molecular mechanisms of leaf rolling still need to be elucidated. Here we report the isolation and characterization of SEMI-ROLLED LEAF1 (SRL1), a gene involved in the regulation of leaf rolling. Mutants srl1-1 (point mutation) and srl1-2 (transferred DNA insertion) exhibit adaxially rolled leaves due to the increased numbers of bulliform cells at the adaxial cell layers, which could be rescued by complementary expression of SRL1. SRL1 is expressed in various tissues and is expressed at low levels in bulliform cells. SRL1 protein is located at the plasma membrane and predicted to be a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein. Moreover, analysis of the gene expression profile of cells that will become epidermal cells in wild type but probably bulliform cells in srl1-1 by laser-captured microdissection revealed that the expression of genes encoding vacuolar H+-ATPase (subunits A, B, C, and D) and H+-pyrophosphatase, which are increased during the formation of bulliform cells, were up-regulated in srl1-1. These results provide the transcript profile of rice leaf cells that will become bulliform cells and demonstrate that SRL1 regulates leaf rolling through inhibiting the formation of bulliform cells by negatively regulating the expression of genes encoding vacuolar H+-ATPase subunits and H+-pyrophosphatase, which will help to understand the mechanism regulating leaf rolling. PMID:22715111

Xiang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guang-Heng; Qian, Qian; Xue, Hong-Wei

2012-01-01

301

Tree branch angle: maximizing effective leaf area.  

PubMed

In a computer simulation of branching pattern and leaf cluster in Terminalia catappa, right and left branch angles were varied, and the effective leaf surface areas were calculated. Theoretical branch angles that result in maximum effective leaf area are close to the values observed in nature. PMID:17757590

Honda, H; Fisher, J B

1978-02-24

302

Tree Branch Angle: Maximizing Effective Leaf Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a computer simulation of branching pattern and leaf cluster in Terminalia catappa, right and left branch angles were varied, and the effective leaf surface areas were calculated. Theoretical branch angles that result in maximum effective leaf area are close to the values observed in nature.

Hisao Honda; Jack B. Fisher

1978-01-01

303

7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

2010-01-01

304

7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

2011-01-01

305

7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

2013-01-01

306

7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.  

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

2014-01-01

307

7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

2012-01-01

308

7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture ...Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its...

2010-01-01

309

7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture ...Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its...

2011-01-01

310

Number Grids and Number Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice counting, counting by tens, place value, and fact families by entering your answers into the blank boxes; click the big blue and green buttons to check your work. Each of the five levels of Number Grid activities displays a section of a matrix containing a set of of consecutive whole numbers. A move from one number to the next within a row corresponds to a change of one; a move from one number to the next within a column refers to a change of ten. The three levels of Number Triangle activities provide practice with fact families and inverse relationships through flash cards. An addition/subtraction Number Triangle has two addends and a sum; a multiplication/division Number Triangle has two factors and a product.

Brown, Quincy; Fetter, Annie

2006-08-01

311

STEM Disability Transition Group A representative from Royal Holloway, University of London will act as Chair.  

E-print Network

greater numbers of young people with disabilities developing STEM skills and working in STEM industries. Where a vote has to be taken, decisions will be by simple majority of members present. Decisions

Royal Holloway, University of London

312

Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Somatic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can differentiate to generate more specialized cell types responsible for tissue-specific\\u000a function. During development, the differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells leads to the production of specialized\\u000a somatic cells that are ultimately responsible for the structure and function of all adult tissues and organs. “Naturally”\\u000a pluripotent cells exist only at the earliest stages of

Kah Yong Tan; Francis S. Kim; Amy J. Wagers; Shane R. Mayack

313

Cancer stem cells - normal stem cells \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence has accumulated that cancer develops from a population of quiescent tissue committed\\/pluripotent stem cells (TCSC\\/PSC) or cells developmentally closely related to them that are distributed in various organs. To support this notio n, stem cells (SC) are long lived cells and thus may become the subject of accumulating mutations that are crucial for initiation\\/progression of cancer. More important, they

Mariusz Z. Ratajczak

2005-01-01

314

Leafing patterns and leaf traits of four evergreen shrubs in the Patagonian Monte, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assessed leafing patterns (rate, timing, and duration of leafing) and leaf traits (leaf longevity, leaf mass per area and leaf-chemistry) in four co-occurring evergreen shrubs of the genus Larrea and Chuquiraga (each having two species) in the arid Patagonian Monte of Argentina. We asked whether species with leaves well-defended against water shortage (high LMA, leaf longevity, and lignin concentration, and low N concentration) have lower leaf production, duration of the leafing period, and inter-annual variation of leafing than species with the opposite traits. We observed two distinctive leafing patterns each related to one genus. Chuquiraga species produced new leaves concentrated in a massive short leafing event (5-48 days) while new leaves of Larrea species emerged gradually (128-258 days). Observed leafing patterns were consistent with simultaneous and successive leafing types previously described for woody plants. The peak of leaf production occurred earlier in Chuquiraga species (mid September) than in Larrea species (mid October-late November). Moreover, Chuquiraga species displayed leaves with the longest leaf lifespan, while leaves of Larrea species had the lowest LMA and the highest N and soluble phenolics concentrations. We also observed that only the leaf production of Larrea species increased in humid years. We concluded that co-occurring evergreen species in the Patagonian Monte displayed different leafing patterns, which were associated with some relevant leaf traits acting as plant defenses against water stress and herbivores. Differences in leafing patterns could provide evidence of ecological differentiation among coexisting species of the same life form.

Campanella, María Victoria; Bertiller, Mónica B.

2009-11-01

315

Number Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Brignell, Professor Emeritus from the Department of Electronics & Computer Science at the University of Southampton, is the author of this informal website "devoted to the monitoring of the misleading numbers that rain down on us via the media." Brignell says he aims to "nail" a few of the "Single Issue Fanatics (SIFs), politicians, bureaucrats, quasi-scientists (junk, pseudo- or just bad)," who use misleading numbers to write catchy articles or who try to keep numbers away from public notice. Since April 2000, he has been posting a "number of the month" as well as a "number for the year," which offer his commentary on media usage of misleading numbers and explanations for why the numbers are misleading. He also posts book reviews and an extensive list of online resources on statistics and statistics education. The FAQ section includes answers to some interesting questions, such as "Is there such a thing as average global temperature?" and some more basic questions such as "What is the Normal Distribution and what is so normal about it?" The Bits and Pieces section includes a variety of short articles on statistics and his definitions for some terms he uses on the website. Visitors are also invited to join the discussion forum (complete with a few advertisements) and view comments by others who want to discuss "wrong numbers in science, politics and the media." A few comments sent to Brignell and his responses are also posted online. This site is also reviewed in the February 11, 2005_NSDL MET Report_.

316

nature biotechnology volume 29 number 5 may 2011 443 1Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA. 2Center for  

E-print Network

of retroviruses expressing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC and Venus (4Y = OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC and Venus, whereas 3Y = OCT4, Sox2, KLF4 and Venus). An increase in number of colonies with human ESC-like morphology), as well as endogenous expression of pluripotency mark- ers, such as OCT3/4, SOX2, NANOG and DNMT3B

Derynck, Rik

317

Time to Reconsider Stem Cell Induction Strategies  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in stem cell research suggest that it may be time to reconsider the current focus of stem cell induction strategies. During the previous five years, approximately, the induction of pluripotency in somatic cells, i.e., the generation of so-called ‘induced pluripotent stem cells’ (iPSCs), has become the focus of ongoing research in many stem cell laboratories, because this technology promises to overcome limitations (both technical and ethical) seen in the production and use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A rapidly increasing number of publications suggest, however, that it is now possible to choose instead other, alternative ways of generating stem and progenitor cells bypassing pluripotency. These new strategies may offer important advantages with respect to ethics, as well as to safety considerations. The present communication discusses why these strategies may provide possibilities for an escape from the dilemma presented by pluripotent stem cells (self-organization potential, cloning by tetraploid complementation, patenting problems and tumor formation risk). PMID:24710555

Denker, Hans-Werner

2012-01-01

318

Leaf area dynamics of conifer forests  

SciTech Connect

Estimating the surface area of foliage supported by a coniferous forest canopy is critical for modeling its biological properties. Leaf area represents the surface area available for the interception of energy, the absorption of carbon dioxide, and the diffusion of water from the leaf to the atmosphere. The concept of leaf area is pertinent to the physiological and ecological dynamics of conifers at a wide range of spatial scales, from individual leaves to entire biomes. In fact, the leaf area of vegetation at a global level can be thought of as a carbon-absorbing, water-emitting membrane of variable thickness, which can have an important influence on the dynamics and chemistry of the Earth`s atmosphere over both the short and the long term. Unless otherwise specified, references to leaf area herein refer to projected leaf area, i.e., the vertical projection of needles placed on a flat plane. Total leaf surface area is generally from 2.0 to 3.14 times that of projected leaf area for conifers. It has recently been suggested that hemisurface leaf area, i.e., one-half of the total surface area of a leaf, a more useful basis for expressing leaf area than is projected area. This chapter is concerned with the dynamics of coniferous forest leaf area at different spatial and temporal scales. In the first part, we consider various hypotheses related to the control of leaf area development, ranging from simple allometric relations with tree size to more complex mechanistic models that consider the movement of water and nutrients to tree canopies. In the second part, we consider various aspects of leaf area dynamics at varying spatial and temporal scales, including responses to perturbation, seasonal dynamics, genetic variation in crown architecture, the responses to silvicultural treatments, the causes and consequences of senescence, and the direct measurement of coniferous leaf area at large spatial scales using remote sensing.

Margolis, H.; Oren, R.; Whitehead, D.; Kaufmann, M.R.

1995-07-01

319

Drought adaptation of stay-green sorghum is associated with canopy development, leaf anatomy, root growth, and water uptake  

PubMed Central

Stay-green sorghum plants exhibit greener leaves and stems during the grain-filling period under water-limited conditions compared with their senescent counterparts, resulting in increased grain yield, grain mass, and lodging resistance. Stay-green has been mapped to a number of key chromosomal regions, including Stg1, Stg2, Stg3, and Stg4, but the functions of these individual quantitative trait loci (QTLs) remain unclear. The objective of this study was to show how positive effects of Stg QTLs on grain yield under drought can be explained as emergent consequences of their effects on temporal and spatial water-use patterns that result from changes in leaf-area dynamics. A set of four Stg near-isogenic lines (NILs) and their recurrent parent were grown in a range of field and semicontrolled experiments in southeast Queensland, Australia. These studies showed that the four Stg QTLs regulate canopy size by: (1) reducing tillering via increased size of lower leaves, (2) constraining the size of the upper leaves; and (3) in some cases, decreasing the number of leaves per culm. In addition, they variously affect leaf anatomy and root growth. The multiple pathways by which Stg QTLs modulate canopy development can result in considerable developmental plasticity. The reduction in canopy size associated with Stg QTLs reduced pre-flowering water demand, thereby increasing water availability during grain filling and, ultimately, grain yield. The generic physiological mechanisms underlying the stay-green trait suggest that similar Stg QTLs could enhance post-anthesis drought adaptation in other major cereals such as maize, wheat, and rice. PMID:25381433

Borrell, Andrew K.; Mullet, John E.; George-Jaeggli, Barbara; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Hammer, Graeme L.; Klein, Patricia E.; Jordan, David R.

2014-01-01

320

Drought adaptation of stay-green sorghum is associated with canopy development, leaf anatomy, root growth, and water uptake.  

PubMed

Stay-green sorghum plants exhibit greener leaves and stems during the grain-filling period under water-limited conditions compared with their senescent counterparts, resulting in increased grain yield, grain mass, and lodging resistance. Stay-green has been mapped to a number of key chromosomal regions, including Stg1, Stg2, Stg3, and Stg4, but the functions of these individual quantitative trait loci (QTLs) remain unclear. The objective of this study was to show how positive effects of Stg QTLs on grain yield under drought can be explained as emergent consequences of their effects on temporal and spatial water-use patterns that result from changes in leaf-area dynamics. A set of four Stg near-isogenic lines (NILs) and their recurrent parent were grown in a range of field and semicontrolled experiments in southeast Queensland, Australia. These studies showed that the four Stg QTLs regulate canopy size by: (1) reducing tillering via increased size of lower leaves, (2) constraining the size of the upper leaves; and (3) in some cases, decreasing the number of leaves per culm. In addition, they variously affect leaf anatomy and root growth. The multiple pathways by which Stg QTLs modulate canopy development can result in considerable developmental plasticity. The reduction in canopy size associated with Stg QTLs reduced pre-flowering water demand, thereby increasing water availability during grain filling and, ultimately, grain yield. The generic physiological mechanisms underlying the stay-green trait suggest that similar Stg QTLs could enhance post-anthesis drought adaptation in other major cereals such as maize, wheat, and rice. PMID:25381433

Borrell, Andrew K; Mullet, John E; George-Jaeggli, Barbara; van Oosterom, Erik J; Hammer, Graeme L; Klein, Patricia E; Jordan, David R

2014-11-01

321

The potential of biomonitoring of air quality using leaf characteristics of white willow (Salix alba L.).  

PubMed

In this study, we assess the potential of white willow (Salix alba L.) as bioindicator for monitoring of air quality. Therefore, shoot biomass, specific leaf area, stomatal density, stomatal pore surface, and stomatal resistance were assessed from leaves of stem cuttings. The stem cuttings were introduced in two regions in Belgium with a relatively high and a relatively low level of air pollution, i.e., Antwerp city and Zoersel, respectively. In each of these regions, nine sampling points were selected. At each sampling point, three stem cuttings of white willow were planted in potting soil. Shoot biomass and specific leaf area were not significantly different between Antwerp city and Zoersel. Microclimatic differences between the sampling points may have been more important to plant growth than differences in air quality. However, stomatal pore surface and stomatal resistance of white willow were significantly different between Zoersel and Antwerp city. Stomatal pore surface was 20% lower in Antwerp city due to a significant reduction in both stomatal length (-11%) and stomatal width (-14%). Stomatal resistance at the adaxial leaf surface was 17% higher in Antwerp city because of the reduction in stomatal pore surface. Based on these results, we conclude that stomatal characteristics of white willow are potentially useful indicators for air quality. PMID:20033771

Wuytack, Tatiana; Verheyen, Kris; Wuyts, Karen; Kardel, Fatemeh; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Samson, Roeland

2010-12-01

322

A Leaf-Derived Signal Is a Quantitative Determinant of Floral Form in Impatiens  

PubMed Central

The completion of flower development in Impatiens balsamina requires continuous inductive (short-day) conditions. We have previously shown that a leaf-derived signal has a role in floral maintenance. The research described here analyzes the role of the leaf in flower development. Leaf removal treatments, in which plants were restricted to a specified number of leaves, resulted in flowers with increased petal number, up to double that of the undefoliated control. Similar petal number increases (as well as changes in bract number or morphology) were recorded when plants began their inductive treatment at a late developmental age or when plants of a nonreverting line (capable of floral maintenance in the absence of continuous short days) were transferred from short days to long days. Our data imply that the increased petal number was neither a response to stress effects associated with leaf removal nor a result of alterations in primordium initiation rates or substitutions of petals for stamens. Rather, the petal initiation phase was prolonged when the amounts of a leaf-derived signal were limiting. We conclude that a leaf-derived signal has a continuous and quantitative role in flower development and propose a temporal model for the action of organ identity genes in Impatiens. This work adds a new dimension to the prevailing ABC model of flower development and may provide an explanation for the wide variety and instabilities of floral form seen among certain species in nature. PMID:11041880

Tooke, Fiona; Battey, Nick H.

2000-01-01

323

A leaf-derived signal is a quantitative determinant of floral form in Impatiens.  

PubMed

The completion of flower development in Impatiens balsamina requires continuous inductive (short-day) conditions. We have previously shown that a leaf-derived signal has a role in floral maintenance. The research described here analyzes the role of the leaf in flower development. Leaf removal treatments, in which plants were restricted to a specified number of leaves, resulted in flowers with increased petal number, up to double that of the undefoliated control. Similar petal number increases (as well as changes in bract number or morphology) were recorded when plants began their inductive treatment at a late developmental age or when plants of a nonreverting line (capable of floral maintenance in the absence of continuous short days) were transferred from short days to long days. Our data imply that the increased petal number was neither a response to stress effects associated with leaf removal nor a result of alterations in primordium initiation rates or substitutions of petals for stamens. Rather, the petal initiation phase was prolonged when the amounts of a leaf-derived signal were limiting. We conclude that a leaf-derived signal has a continuous and quantitative role in flower development and propose a temporal model for the action of organ identity genes in Impatiens. This work adds a new dimension to the prevailing ABC model of flower development and may provide an explanation for the wide variety and instabilities of floral form seen among certain species in nature. PMID:11041880

Tooke, F; Battey, N H

2000-10-01

324

Stem Cell 101 What is a stem cell?  

E-print Network

and stem cells found in the skin generally form skin. However, some research suggests that certain adultStem Cell 101 What is a stem cell? A stem cell is a parent cell in the body that has two specific into all types of tissue in the body ­ this is called differentiation. Where are stem cells found

Minnesota, University of

325

A cross-species transcriptomics approach to identify genes involved in leaf development  

PubMed Central

Background We have made use of publicly available gene expression data to identify transcription factors and transcriptional modules (regulons) associated with leaf development in Populus. Different tissue types were compared to identify genes informative in the discrimination of leaf and non-leaf tissues. Transcriptional modules within this set of genes were identified in a much wider set of microarray data collected from leaves in a number of developmental, biotic, abiotic and transgenic experiments. Results Transcription factors that were over represented in leaf EST libraries and that were useful for discriminating leaves from other tissues were identified, revealing that the C2C2-YABBY, CCAAT-HAP3 and 5, MYB, and ZF-HD families are particularly important in leaves. The expression of transcriptional modules and transcription factors was examined across a number of experiments to select those that were particularly active during the early stages of leaf development. Two transcription factors were found to collocate to previously published Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for leaf length. We also found that miRNA family 396 may be important in the control of leaf development, with three members of the family collocating with clusters of leaf development QTL. Conclusion This work provides a set of candidate genes involved in the control and processes of leaf development. This resource can be used for a wide variety of purposes such as informing the selection of candidate genes for association mapping or for the selection of targets for reverse genetics studies to further understanding of the genetic control of leaf size and shape. PMID:19061504

Street, Nathaniel Robert; Sjödin, Andreas; Bylesjö, Max; Gustafsson, Petter; Trygg, Johan; Jansson, Stefan

2008-01-01

326

Tumor Angiogenesis and the Cancer Stem Cell Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, research and interest in the area of cancer stem cells has grown tremendously. An increasing number of studies\\u000a are finding that many different cancers contain a subpopulation of tumor cells that display several defining characteristics\\u000a of adult tissue stem cells, including multipotent differentiation potential, long-term self-renewal capacity, and the expression\\u000a of various molecular markers of stemness. Most

Chris Folkins; Robert S. Kerbel

327

Mobilization of Stem Cells\\/Progenitor Cells by Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A number of publications have provided evidence that exercise and physical activity are linked to the activation, mobilization,\\u000a and differentiation of various types of stem cells. Exercise may improve organ regeneration and function. This review characterizes\\u000a different stem and progenitor cells and their sources and summarizes mechanisms by which exercise contributes to stem-cell-induced\\u000a regeneration and adaptation in different tissues. The

Patrick Wahl; Wilhelm Bloch

328

Amnion-derived stem cells: in quest of clinical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the promising field of regenerative medicine, human perinatal stem cells are of great interest as potential stem cells\\u000a with clinical applications. Perinatal stem cells could be isolated from normally discarded human placentae, which are an ideal\\u000a cell source in terms of availability, the fewer number of ethical concerns, less DNA damage, and so on. Numerous studies have\\u000a demonstrated that

Toshio Miki

2011-01-01

329

Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells  

SciTech Connect

The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications.

Matikainen, Tiina [Program of Developmental and Reproductive Biology, Biomedicum Helsinki and Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Laine, Jarmo [Stem Cell and Transplantation Services, Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Kivihaantie 7, FIN 00310, Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: jarmo.laine@bts.redcoss.fi

2005-09-01

330

De Novo Kidney Regeneration with Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have reported on techniques to mobilize and activate endogenous stem-cells in injured kidneys or to introduce exogenous stem cells for tissue repair. Despite many recent advantages in renal regenerative therapy, chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality and the number of CKD patients has been increasing. When the sophisticated structure of the kidneys is totally disrupted by end stage renal disease (ESRD), traditional stem cell-based therapy is unable to completely regenerate the damaged tissue. This suggests that whole organ regeneration may be a promising therapeutic approach to alleviate patients with uncured CKD. We summarize here the potential of stem-cell-based therapy for injured tissue repair and de novo whole kidney regeneration. In addition, we describe the hurdles that must be overcome and possible applications of this approach in kidney regeneration. PMID:23251079

Yokote, Shinya; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Yokoo, Takashi

2012-01-01

331

Pluripotent Stem Cells and Gene Therapy  

PubMed Central

Human pluripotent stem cells represent an accessible cell source for novel cell-based clinical research and therapies. With the realization of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), it is possible to produce almost any desired cell type from any patient's cells. Current developments in gene modification methods have opened the possibility for creating genetically corrected human iPSCs for certain genetic diseases that could be used later in autologous transplantation. Promising preclinical studies have demonstrated correction of disease-causing mutations in a number of hematological, neuronal and muscular disorders. This review aims to summarize these recent advances with a focus on iPSC generation techniques, as well as gene modification methods. We will then further discuss some of the main obstacles remaining to be overcome before successful application of human pluripotent stem cell-based therapy arrives in the clinic and what the future of stem cell research may look like. PMID:23353080

Simara, Pavel; Motl, Jason A.; Kaufman, Dan S.

2013-01-01

332

Algorithm for retrieving vegetative canopy and leaf parameters from multi- and hyperspectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years hyper-spectral data has been used to retrieve information about vegetative canopies such as leaf area index and canopy water content. For the environmental scientist these two parameters are valuable, but there is potentially more information to be gained as high spatial resolution data becomes available. We developed an Amoeba (Nelder-Mead or Simplex) based program to invert a vegetative canopy radiosity model coupled with a leaf (PROSPECT5) reflectance model and modeled for the background reflectance (e.g. soil, water, leaf litter) to a measured reflectance spectrum. The PROSPECT5 leaf model has five parameters: leaf structure parameter Nstru, chlorophyll a+b concentration Cab, carotenoids content Car, equivalent water thickness Cw and dry matter content Cm. The canopy model has two parameters: total leaf area index (LAI) and number of layers. The background reflectance model is either a single reflectance spectrum from a spectral library() derived from a bare area pixel on an image or a linear mixture of soil spectra. We summarize the radiosity model of a layered canopy and give references to the leaf/needle models. The method is then tested on simulated and measured data. We investigate the uniqueness, limitations and accuracy of the retrieved parameters on canopy parameters (low, medium and high leaf area index) spectral resolution (32 to 211 band hyperspectral), sensor noise and initial conditions.

Borel, Christoph

2009-05-01

333

Water Deficit and Spatial Pattern of Leaf Development. Variability in Responses Can Be Simulated Using a Simple Model of Leaf Development1  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the effect of short-term water deficits at different periods of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf development on the spatial and temporal patterns of tissue expansion and epidermal cell division. Six water-deficit periods were imposed with similar and constant values of soil water content, predawn leaf water potential and [ABA] in the xylem sap, and with negligible reduction of the rate of photosynthesis. Water deficit did not affect the duration of expansion and division. Regardless of their timing, deficits reduced relative expansion rate by 36% and relative cell division rate by 39% (cells blocked at the G0-G1 phase) in all positions within the leaf. However, reductions in final leaf area and cell number in a given zone of the leaf largely differed with the timing of deficit, with a maximum effect for earliest deficits. Individual cell area was only affected during the periods when division slowed down. These behaviors could be simulated in all leaf zones and for all timings by assuming that water deficit affects relative cell division rate and relative expansion rate independently, and that leaf development in each zone follows a stable three-phase pattern in which duration of each phase is stable if expressed in thermal time (C. Granier and F. Tardieu [1998b] Plant Cell Environ 21: 695–703). PMID:9952457

Granier, Christine; Tardieu, François

1999-01-01

334

Stem Cell Transplants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transplanting embryonic stem cells from embryo into adult as a means of rejuvenating diseased cells, tissues, and organs poses ethical and moral challenges. In recent years, stem cell-derived nerve and glandular tissue has been transplanted into the brains and pancreas of Parkinson's disease and diabetes patients, respectively, with mixed results. This chapter provides background information on stem cell research, the future treatment of Parkinson's disease, and the controversy surrounding this sensitive issue.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

335

Leaf surface flavonoids of Chrysothamnus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-six flavonoid aglycones have been identified from eight plants covering three species of Chrysothamnus that were collected in eastern Oregon. The flavonoids were identified by NMR spectroscopy, tandem mass spectrometry and co-TLC with authentic markers. Chrysothamnus nauseosus yielded methyl ethers of apigenin, isoscutellarein, luteolin, kaempferol, herbacetin and quercetin. O-Methylated kaempferol and quercetin derivatives were isolated from the leaf exudate of

Jan F Stevens; Eckhard Wollenweber; Monika Ivancic; Victor L Hsu; Scott Sundberg; Max L Deinzer

1999-01-01

336

Stem Cell Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Stem Cell Resources website is "to provide timely, reliable, high-quality and scientifically credible stem cell information for the educational community worldwide." The website is a division of Bioscience Network which publishes online science education materials. On the site, visitors will find a stem cell image library, a multimedia area, and a special section titled "For Educators". In the "For Educators" area, visitors will find links to a primer on stem cells and links to educational resources on stem cells from curriculum to case studies to lesson plans from such trusted sources as the Australian Stem Cell Centre and the National Institutes of Health. Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes videos that show how embryonic stem cell lines are made, along with other animations and graphics on the topic. Additionally, the site's "SCR Library" area includes the link to the Stem Cell Image Library, which provides dozens of photos of stem cells taken from researchers at the University of Cambridge and other institutions.

337

Stem cells and reproduction  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To review the latest developments in reproductive tract stem cell biology. Recent findings In 2004, two studies indicated that ovaries contain stem cells which form oocytes in adults and that can be cultured in vitro into mature oocytes. A live birth after orthotopic transplantation of cyropreserved ovarian tissue in a woman whose ovaries were damaged by chemotherapy demonstrates the clinical potential of these cells. In the same year, another study provided novel evidence of endometrial regeneration by stem cells in women who received bone marrow transplants. This finding has potential for the use in treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the cause of endometriosis, which may have its origin in ectopic transdifferentiation of stem cells. Several recent studies have demonstrated that fetal cells enter the maternal circulation and generate microchimerism in the mother. The uterus is a dynamic organ permeable to fetal stem cells, capable of transdifferentiation and an end organ in which bone marrow stem cells may differentiate. Finally stem cell transformation can be an underlying cause of ovarian cancer. Summary Whereas we are just beginning to understand stem cells, the potential implications of stem cells to reproductive biology and medicine are apparent. PMID:20305558

Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S.

2011-01-01

338

Environmental modification of yield and nutrient composition of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaf number, dry weight, and nutrient composition of Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green leaves were compared following 9 days of treatment in a controlled environment room under various combinations of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF:350 vs 800 micromoles m-2 s-1), atmospheric CO2 level (ambient vs 1500 micromoles mol-1), and single-strength (1X:15 mM) vs double-strength (2X:30 mM) nitrogen (N) as NO3- alone or as NH4(+) + NO3- (1:5 molar ratio). CO2 enrichment greatly enhanced leaf number under all PPF and N conditions, but increased leaf dry weight only at high PPF. Conditions favoring high photosynthesis enhanced leaf starch content 3-fold, and protein content increased as much as 64% with 2X NH4(+)+NO3-. Free sugar content was 6 to 9% of leaf dry weight for all treatment combinations, while fat was 1.5 to 3.5%. Ash content varied from 15 to 20% of leaf dry weight. Modified controlled environments can be used to enhance the nutritional content as well as the yield of crops to be used for life support in space-deployed, self-sustaining human habitats. Leaf lettuce is a useful model crop for demonstrating the potential of nutritional value added by environmental manipulation.

Mitchell, C. A.; Chun, C.; Brandt, W. E.; Nielsen, S. S.

1997-01-01

339

Leaf architectural, vascular and photosynthetic acclimation to temperature in two biennials.  

PubMed

Acclimation of leaf features to growth temperature was investigated in two biennials (whose life cycle spans summer and winter seasons) using different mechanisms of sugar loading into exporting conduits, Verbascum phoeniceum (employs sugar-synthesizing enzymes driving symplastic loading through plasmodesmatal wall pores of phloem cells) and Malva neglecta (likely apoplastic loader transporting sugar via membrane transport proteins of phloem cells). In both species, acclimation to lower temperature involved greater maximal photosynthesis rates and vein density per leaf area in close correlation with modification of minor vein cellular features. While the symplastically loading biennial exhibited adjustments in the size of minor leaf vein cells (consistent with adjustment of the level of sugar-synthesizing enzymes), the putative apoplastic biennial exhibited adjustments in the number of cells (consistent with adjustment of cell membrane area for transporter placement). This upregulation of morphological and anatomical features at lower growth temperature likely contributes to the success of both the species during the winter. Furthermore, while acclimation to low temperature involved greater leaf mass per area in both species, this resulted from greater leaf thickness in V. phoeniceum vs a greater number of mesophyll cells per leaf area in M. neglecta. Both types of adjustments presumably accommodate more chloroplasts per leaf area contributing to photosynthesis. Both biennials exhibited high foliar vein densities (particularly the solar-tracking M. neglecta), which should aid both sugar export from and delivery of water to the leaves. PMID:24818515

Muller, Onno; Stewart, Jared J; Cohu, Christopher M; Polutchko, Stephanie K; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W

2014-12-01

340

American Journal of Botany 96(4): 738750. 2009. The sensitivity of leaf teeth to climate is well known and  

E-print Network

738 American Journal of Botany 96(4): 738­750. 2009. The sensitivity of leaf teeth to climate and number of teeth also correlate negatively with MAT (Huff et al., 2003; Royer et al., 2005, 2008). However, despite leaf teeth being strongly linked to temperature, less is known about their sensitivity to most

Royer, Dana

341

Alfalfa stem feedstock for IGCC power system fuel  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study has been completed for an integrated gasification combined cycle power generation (IGCC) system that involves a set of inter-related processes between the alfalfa separation plant and the power plant. The alfalfa fractionation process reduces the stem size, improves the bulk density for feeding and provides a uniform moisture feed. Alfalfa stem material was evaluated as a fuel for the system. The leaf meal, animal feed co-product is separated from the alfalfa plant. The pressurized gasification process is the RENUGAS{trademark} system licensed to Tampella Power Corporation. The adaptation of the process to alfalfa stems results in low-Btu fuel gas suitable for combustion turbines. The gasification process is expected to obtain very high carbon conversion, overcome ash agglomeration, control volatile alkali species, and remove particulate matter with a hot gas filter system. The collected ash residues are expected to be returned to the land that grew the alfalfa.

DeLong, M.M.; Onischak, M.; Schmid, M.R. [and others

1995-12-31

342

The serrate leaf margined Juniperus (Section Sabina) of the western hemisphere: systematics and evolution based on leaf essential oils and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs).  

PubMed

The volatile leaf essential compositions of all 17 serrate leaf margin species of Juniperus (sect. Sabina) of the western hemisphere are reported and compared: J. angosturana, J. ashei, J. californica, J. coahuilensis, J. comitana, J. deppeana, J. durangensis, J. flaccida, J. gamboana, J. jaliscana, J. monosperma, J. monticola, J. osteosperma, J. occidentalis, J. pinchotii, J. saltillensis, and J. standleyi. A number of previously unidentified compounds of the leaf essential oils have now been identified. In addition, DNA data (RAPDs) of all these species were analyzed. Both the leaf essential oils and DNA show these species to be quite distinct with few apparent subgroups, such that the species groupings were not strong in either data set. These data support the hypothesis that this group of junipers originated in Mexico as part of the Madro-Tertiary flora by rapid radiation into new arid land habitats, leaving few extant intermediate taxa. PMID:10996262

Adams

2000-12-01

343

Leaf Optical Properties in Higher Plants: Linking Spectral Characteristics with Plant Stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of studies have addressed responses of leaf spectral reflectance, transmittance, or absorptance to physiological stress. Stressors included dehydration, ozone, herbicides, disease, insufficient mycorrhizae and N fertilization, flooding and insects. Species included conifers, grasses, and broadleaved trees. Increased reflectance with maximum responses near 700 nm wavelength occurred in all cases. Varying the chlorophyll content in leaves or pigment extracts can simulate this effect. Thus, common optical responses to stress result from decreases in leaf chlorophyll contents or the capacity of chloroplasts to absorb light. Leaf optic can be quite sensitive to any stressor that alters soil-plant-atmosphere processes.

Carter, Gregory A.; Knapp, Alan K.

1999-01-01

344

Leaf drop affects herbivory in oaks.  

PubMed

Leaf phenology is important to herbivores, but the timing and extent of leaf drop has not played an important role in our understanding of herbivore interactions with deciduous plants. Using phylogenetic general least squares regression, we compared the phenology of leaves of 55 oak species in a common garden with the abundance of leaf miners on those trees. Mine abundance was highest on trees with an intermediate leaf retention index, i.e. trees that lost most, but not all, of their leaves for 2-3 months. The leaves of more evergreen species were more heavily sclerotized, and sclerotized leaves accumulated fewer mines in the summer. Leaves of more deciduous species also accumulated fewer mines in the summer, and this was consistent with the idea that trees reduce overwintering herbivores by shedding leaves. Trees with a later leaf set and slower leaf maturation accumulated fewer herbivores. We propose that both leaf drop and early leaf phenology strongly affect herbivore abundance and select for differences in plant defense. Leaf drop may allow trees to dispose of their herbivores so that the herbivores must recolonize in spring, but trees with the longest leaf retention also have the greatest direct defenses against herbivores. PMID:23774946

Pearse, Ian S; Karban, Richard

2013-11-01

345

Canalization-based vein formation in a growing leaf.  

PubMed

Vein formation is an important process in plant leaf development. The phytohormone auxin is known as the most important molecule for the control of venation patterning; and the canalization model, in which cells experiencing higher auxin flux differentiate into specific cells for auxin transportation, is widely accepted. To date, several mathematical models based on the canalization hypothesis have been proposed that have succeeded in reproducing vein patterns similar to those observed in actual leaves. However, most previous studies focused on patterning in fixed domains, and, in a few exceptional studies, limited tissue growth - such as cell proliferation at leaf margins and small deformations without large changes in cell number - were dealt with. Considering that, in actual leaf development, venation patterning occurs in an exponentially growing tissue, whether the canalization hypothesis still applies is an important issue to be addressed. In this study, we first show through a pilot simulation that the coupling of chemical dynamics for canalization and tissue growth as independent models cannot reproduce normal venation patterning. We then examine conditions sufficient for achieving normal patterning in a growing leaf by introducing various constraints on chemical dynamics, tissue growth, and cell mechanics; in doing so, we found that auxin flux- or differentiation-dependent modification of the cell cycle and elasticity of cell edges are essential. The predictions given by our simulation study will serve as guideposts in experiments aimed at finding the key factors for achieving normal venation patterning in developing plant leaves. PMID:24632445

Lee, Sang-Woo; Feugier, Francois Gabriel; Morishita, Yoshihiro

2014-07-21

346

Stemming vision loss with stem cells  

PubMed Central

Dramatic advances in the field of stem cell research have raised the possibility of using these cells to treat a variety of diseases. The eye is an excellent target organ for such cell-based therapeutics due to its ready accessibility, the prevalence of vasculo- and neurodegenerative diseases affecting vision, and the availability of animal models to demonstrate proof of concept. In fact, stem cell therapies have already been applied to the treatment of disease affecting the ocular surface, leading to preservation of vision. Diseases in the back of the eye, such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and inherited retinal degenerations, present greater challenges, but rapidly emerging stem cell technologies hold the promise of autologous grafts to stabilize vision loss through cellular replacement or paracrine rescue effects. PMID:20811157

Marchetti, Valentina; Krohne, Tim U.; Friedlander, David F.; Friedlander, Martin

2010-01-01

347

Intracoronary Autologous CD34+ Stem Cell Therapy for Intractable Angina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives: A large number of patients with coronary artery disease experience angina that is not suitable for revascularization and is refractory to conventional medical therapy. Laboratory and preclinical studies have provided evidence for the safety and potential efficacy of autologous CD34+ stem cell therapies as treatment for angina. Clinical studies investigating intramyocardial transplantation of autologous CD34+ stem cells by catheter

Shihong Wang; Junyu Cui; Wei Peng; Min Lu

2010-01-01

348

Colonization of adjacent stem cell compartments by mutant keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key step in cancer development is clonal expansion. The increased number of mutant cells allows a clinical phenotype and increases the probability that one of the cells will be mutated in an additional gene. For skin cancer, observations on p53-mutant keratinocyte clones in epidermal sheets of UVB-irradiated mice reveal that mutant stem cells are normally restrained within their stem

Douglas E. Brash; Wengeng Zhang; Douglas Grossman; Seiji Takeuchi

2005-01-01

349

Number Guessing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…

Sezin, Fatin

2009-01-01

350

Numbers, Please!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

Thelin, John R.

2013-01-01

351

Stem cells in dermatology*  

PubMed Central

Preclinical and clinical research have shown that stem cell therapy could be a promising therapeutic option for many diseases in which current medical treatments do not achieve satisfying results or cure. This article describes stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications in dermatology today. PMID:24770506

Ogliari, Karolyn Sassi; Marinowic, Daniel; Brum, Dario Eduardo; Loth, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

352

Skeletal muscle stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells responsible for the post-natal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on the basic biology of the satellite cell with emphasis on its role in muscle repair and parallels between embryonic myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Recent advances have altered the long-standing view of the satellite cell as a committed myogenic stem

Jennifer CJ Chen; David J Goldhamer

2003-01-01

353

Bioreactors Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Keywords Bioreactors Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine Tissue Engineering Pharmacology » Prof. M.; yeZhelyev, M.; eMMrich, F.; o'regan, r.; bader, a. Quantum dots for human mesenchymal stem cells and mechanical forces mediated to the cells by the matrix. The in vivo extracellular matrix constitutes

Schüler, Axel

354

Lock For Valve Stem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple, cheap device locks valve stem so its setting cannot be changed by unauthorized people. Device covers valve stem; cover locked in place with standard padlock. Valve lock made of PVC pipe and packing band. Shears, drill or punch, and forming rod only tools needed.

Burley, Richard K.; Guirguis, Kamal S.

1991-01-01

355

STEM Careers Ambassadors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is designed to help teachers feel more confident in their work with STEM Ambassadors to further enhance enrichment activities. Skills shortages in Science, Technology, Engineering, Maths (STEM) and the Built Environment are well documented, and will continue to be an issue whether people are in a period of recession or recovery. The…

Eaton, Denise

2011-01-01

356

Hormonal changes during salinity-induced leaf senescence in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)  

PubMed Central

Leaf senescence is one of the most limiting factors to plant productivity under salinity. Both the accumulation of specific toxic ions (e.g. Na+) and changes in leaf hormone relations are involved in the regulation of this process. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Moneymaker) were cultivated for 3 weeks under high salinity (100?mM NaCl) and leaf senescence-related parameters were studied during leaf development in relation to Na+ and K+ contents and changes in abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Na+ accumulated to a similar extent in both leaves 4 and 5 (numbering from the base of the plant) and more quickly during the third week, while concurrently K+ contents sharply decreased. However, photosystem II efficiency, measured as the Fv/Fm ratio, decreased from the second week of salinization in leaf 4 but only at the end of the third week in the younger leaf 5. In the prematurely senescent leaf 4, ABA content increased linearly while IAA strongly decreased with salinization time. Although zeatin (Z) levels were scarcely affected by salinity, zeatin-riboside (ZR) and the total cytokinin content (Z+ZR) progressively decreased by 50% from the imposition of the stress. ACC was the only hormonal compound that increased in leaf tissue coincident with the onset of oxidative damage and the decline in chlorophyll fluorescence, and prior to massive Na+ accumulation. Indeed, (Z+ZR) and ACC contents and their ratio (Z+ZR/ACC) were the hormonal parameters best correlated with the onset and progression of leaf senescence. The influence of different hormonal changes on salt-induced leaf senescence is discussed. PMID:18573798

Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Albacete, Alfonso; Martinez-Andujar, Cristina; Acosta, Manuel; Romero-Aranda, Remedios; Dodd, Ian C.; Lutts, Stanley; Perez-Alfocea, Francisco

2008-01-01

357

Performance of stem flow gauges in greenhouse and desert environments  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and general performance of a heat balance method for estimating transpirational sap flow through plant stems on two tree species in greenhouse and field experiments in Tucson, Arizona. Sap flow through 20-mm diameter stems of oak (Quercus virginiana `Heritage`) and mesquite (Prosopis alba `Colorado`.) trees in containers was measured using stem flow gauges and a precision balance, from January to October, 1991. Overall gauge accuracy, and the effects of gauge location on the tree stem, gauge ventilation, gauge insulation, sheath conductance factor (Ksh) selection method, and increased numbers of vertical thermocouple pairs on gauge performance were evaluated.

Levitt, D.G. [Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Simpson, J.R. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Horticulture; Tipton, J.L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Plant Sciences

1995-06-01

358

What's missing? Discussing stem cell translational research in educational information on stem cell "tourism".  

PubMed

Stem cell tourism is a growing industry in which patients pursue unproven stem cell therapies for a wide variety of illnesses and conditions. It is a challenging market to regulate due to a number of factors including its international, online, direct-to-consumer approach. Calls to provide education and information to patients, their families, physicians, and the general public about the risks associated with stem cell tourism are mounting. Initial studies examining the perceptions of patients who have pursued stem cell tourism indicate many are highly critical of the research and regulatory systems in their home countries and believe them to be stagnant and unresponsive to patient needs. We suggest that educational material should include an explanation of the translational research process, in addition to other aspects of stem cell tourism, as one means to help promote greater understanding and, ideally, curb patient demand for unproven stem cell interventions. The material provided must stress that strong scientific research is required in order for therapies to be safe and have a greater chance at being effective. Through an analysis of educational material on stem cell tourism and translational stem cell research from patient groups and scientific societies, we describe essential elements that should be conveyed in educational material provided to patients. Although we support the broad dissemination of educational material on stem cell translational research, we also acknowledge that education may simply not be enough to engender patient and public trust in domestic research and regulatory systems. However, promoting patient autonomy by providing good quality information to patients so they can make better informed decisions is valuable in itself, irrespective of whether it serves as an effective deterrent of stem cell tourism. PMID:23581669

Master, Zubin; Zarzeczny, Amy; Rachul, Christen; Caulfield, Timothy

2013-01-01

359

Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.  

PubMed

A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis. PMID:23835358

Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

2013-09-01

360

On using the dosimetric leaf gap to model the rounded leaf ends in VMAT/RapidArc plans.  

PubMed

Partial transmission through rounded leaf ends of Varian multileaf collimators (MLC) is accounted for with a parameter called the dosimetric leaf gap (DLG). Verification of the value of the DLG is needed when the dose delivery is accompanied by gantry rotation in VMAT plans. We compared the doses measured with GAFCHROMIC film and an ionization chamber to treatment planning system (TPS) calculations to identify the optimum values of the DLG in clinical plans of the whole brain with metastases transferred to a phantom. We noticed the absence of a single value of the DLG that properly models all VMAT plans in our cohort (the optimum DLG varied between 0.93 ± 0.15 mm and 2.2 ± 0.2 mm). The former value is considerably different from the optimum DLG in sliding window plans (about 2.0 mm) that approximate IMRT plans. We further found that a single-value DLG model cannot accurately reproduce the measured dose profile even of a uniform static slit at a fixed gantry, which is the simplest MLC-delimited field. The calculation overestimates the measurement in the proximal penumbra, while it underestimates in the distal penumbra. This prompted us to expand the DLG parameter from a plan-specific number to a mathematical concept of the DLG being a function of the distance in the beam's eye view (BEV) between the dose point and the leaf ends. Such function compensates for the difference between the penumbras in a beam delimited with a rounded leaf MLC and delimited with solid jaws. Utilization of this concept allowed us generating a pair of step-and-shoot MLC plans for which we could qualitatively predict the value of the DLG providing best match to ionization chamber measurements. The plan for which the leafs stayed predominantly at positions requiring low values of the DLG (as seen in the profiles of 1D slits) yielded the combined DLG of 1.1 ± 0.2 mm, while the plan with leafs staying at positions requiring larger values of the DLG yielded the DLG 2.4 ± 0.2 mm. Considering the DLG to be a function of the distance (in BEV) between the dose point and the leaf ends allowed us to provide an explanation as to why conventional single-number DLG is plan-specific in VMAT plans. PMID:24710433

Szpala, Stanislaw; Cao, Fred; Kohli, Kirpal

2014-01-01

361

I-STEM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has developed a multi-pronged approach to remedying the lack of academic emphasis on the STEM subjects, from preschool through college, as well as the lack of interest in STEM subjects on the part of youth in the United States. Visitors can read about the University's four goals under the "Goals" tab at the top of any page. The "STEM Ed Projects" tab contains a directory of externally funded projects divided into four categories, and which are then further divided into subcategories. Visitors will find such projects as "Improving Supply and Demand Data for the Preparation of Secondary Science and Math Teachers" and "Clean Energy Education Workshop", under the category that aims to shape policy and advocate for STEM education. The "Resources" tab contains half a dozen categories under which visitors will find Outreach Resources, Teacher Development and Resources, and Policy and Advocacy for STEM Ed.

362

Intraoperative Stem Cell Therapy  

PubMed Central

Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the potential regenerative mechanisms and the roles of different cell populations in the regeneration process are discussed. Although intraoperative stem cell therapies have been shown to be safe and effective for several indications, there are still critical challenges to be tackled prior to adoption into the standard surgical armamentarium. PMID:22809140

Coelho, Monica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

363

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

More than 25,000 hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) are performed each year for the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, immune-deficiency illnesses, congenital metabolic defects, hemoglobinopathies, and myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative syndromes. Before transplantation, patients receive intensive myeloablative chemoradiotherapy followed by stem cell “rescue.” Autologous HSCT is performed using the patient’s own hematopoietic stem cells, which are harvested before transplantation and reinfused after myeloablation. Allogeneic HSCT uses human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched stem cells derived from a donor. Survival after allogeneic transplantation depends on donor–recipient matching, the graft-versus-host response, and the development of a graft versus leukemia effect. This article reviews the biology of stem cells, clinical efficacy of HSCT, transplantation procedures, and potential complications. PMID:24198516

Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Tuthill, Mark

2010-01-01

364

"Mesenchymal" stem cells.  

PubMed

Two opposing descriptions of so-called mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exist at this time. One sees MSCs as the postnatal, self-renewing, and multipotent stem cells for the skeleton. This cell coincides with a specific type of bone marrow perivascular cell. In skeletal physiology, this skeletal stem cell is pivotal to the growth and lifelong turnover of bone and to its native regeneration capacity. In hematopoietic physiology, its role as a key player in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells in their niche and in regulating the hematopoietic microenvironment is emerging. In the alternative description, MSCs are ubiquitous in connective tissues and are defined by in vitro characteristics and by their use in therapy, which rests on their ability to modulate the function of host tissues rather than on stem cell properties. Here, I discuss how the two views developed, conceptually and experimentally, and attempt to clarify the confusion arising from their collision. PMID:25150008

Bianco, Paolo

2014-10-11

365

Stem cells and nuclear reprogramming.  

PubMed

Derivation of human embryonic stem (ES) cells from preimplantation embryos ten years ago raised great hopes that they may be an excellent source of cells for cell replacement therapy. However, serious ethical concerns and the risk of immune rejection of allotransplanted cells have hindered the translation of ES cell-based therapies into the clinic. In an attempt to circumvent these barriers, a number of methods have been developed for converting adult somatic cells into a pluripotent state from which ethically acceptable patient-specific mature cells of interest could be derived. These efforts, backed by advances in elucidating the molecular basis of pluripotency, have culminated in successful reprogramming of fibroblasts into ES cell-like cells, termed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, by ectopic expression of only a handful of "stemness" factors. iPS cells possess morphological, molecular and developmental features of conventional blastocyst-derived ES cells and have the potential to serve as a source of therapeutic cells for customized tissue repair, gene therapy, drug discovery, toxicological testing and for studying the molecular basis of human disease. The goal of this review is to provide the current state-of-the-art in this very exciting and dynamic field and to discuss barriers that remain to be removed before the therapeutic potential of iPS cells can be fully realized. PMID:18465442

Saric, Tomo; Hescheler, Juergen

2008-01-01

366

Brain Cancer Stem Cells Display Preferential Sensitivity to Akt Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Malignant brain tumors are among the most lethal cancers, and conventional therapies are largely limited to palliation. Novel therapies targeted against specific molecular pathways may offer improved efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to conventional therapies, but initial clinical trials of molecular targeted agents in brain cancer therapy have been frequently disappointing. In brain tumors and other cancers, subpopulations of tumor cells have recently been characterized by their ability to self-renew and initiate tumors. Although these cancer stem cells, or tumor initiating cells, are often only present in small numbers in human tumors, mounting evidence suggests that cancer stem cells contribute to tumor maintenance and therapeutic resistance. Thus, the development of therapies that target cancer stem cell signal transduction and biologies may improve brain tumor patient survival. We now demonstrate that populations enriched for cancer stem cells are preferentially sensitive to an inhibitor of Akt, a prominent cell survival and invasion signaling node. Treatment with an Akt inhibitor more potently reduced the numbers of viable brain cancer stem cells relative to matched non-stem cancer cells associated with a preferential induction of apoptosis and a suppression of neurosphere formation. Akt inhibition also reduced the motility and invasiveness of all tumor cells but had a greater impact on cancer stem cell behaviors. Furthermore, inhibition of Akt activity in cancer stem cells increased survival of immunocompromised mice bearing human glioma xenografts in vivo. Together, these results suggest that Akt inhibitors may function as effective anti-cancer stem cell therapies. PMID:18802038

Eyler, Christine E.; Foo, Wen-Chi; LaFiura, Katherine M.; McLendon, Roger E.; Hjelmeland, Anita B.; Rich, Jeremy N.

2009-01-01

367

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. I. The leaf-shaped antenna of the pupa from diapause to apolysis.  

PubMed

The antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus is a featherlike structure consisting of a central stem and ca. 120 side branches, which altogether carry about 70,000 olfactory sensilla. We investigate the development during the pupal phase. At the end of diapause, the antennal rudiment consists of a leaf-shaped, one-layered epidermal sac. It is supplied with oxygen via a central main trachea, which gives off numerous thin side branches. These are segmentally arranged into bundles which run to the periphery of the antennal blade. When the epidermis retracts from the pupal cuticle (apolysis; stage 1), it consists of cells which are morphologically uniform. The epidermal cells form a network of long, irregular basal protrusions (epidermal feet), which crisscross the antennal lumen. During the first day post-apolysis (stage 2), the antennal epidermis differentiates into alternating thick 'sensillogenic' and thin 'non-sensillogenic' areas arranged in stripes which run in parallel to the tracheal bundles. Numerous dark, elongated cells, which might be the sensillar stem cells, are scattered in the sensillogenic epithelium. A number of very early sensilla has been found at the distal edges of the sensillogenic stripes in positions which later will be occupied by sensilla chaetica. The whole antennal blade is enveloped by the transparent ecdysial membrane, consisting of the innermost layers of the pupal cuticle which are detached during apolysis. PMID:18620306

Keil, T A; Steiner, C

1990-01-01

368

The HPV16 oncogenes cause aberrant stem cell mobilization  

PubMed Central

Human Papilloma Virus related epithelial cancers have been speculated to derive from virus-infected tissue stem cells. Stem cells also are thought to provide a reservoir of latently infected cells that can persist for long periods. In this study we have examined the effects of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes on multipotent epithelial stem cells, using in vivo systems. Our results show that expression of HPV16 oncogenes reduces the number of bulge label-retaining cells within hair follicles at telogen suggesting aberrant mobilization, a result supported by increased mobilization upon acute anagen induction. Importantly the loss of relative quiescence, a hallmark feature of stem cells, occurs in the absence of a reduction in other stem cell markers. This points to an atypical stem cell compartment in the context of E6 and E7 expression. We hypothesize that this aberrant compartment may have important roles in the viral life cycle and/or ensuing carcinogenesis. PMID:23664148

Michael, Stella; Lambert, Paul F.; Strati, Katerina

2014-01-01

369

Effects of coal-smoke pollutants from different sources on the growth, chlorophyll content, stem anatomy and cuticular traits of Euphorbia hirta L.  

PubMed

Variations occurred in the growth, assimilate partitioning, chlorophyll content, stem anatomy and leaf cuticular traits of Euphorbia hirta L. on long-term exposure to coal-smoke pollutants prevailing at two sites, one situated close to a railway loco shed (site B) and another in the vicinity of a thermal power plant (site C). The Botanical Garden of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, was considered as a control site (A). Site C possessed a greater load of coal-smoke pollutants than site B. The present study had shown that coal-smoke pollutants have led to a decrease in plant height, jeopardised the production of leaves and enhanced their fall, and caused a reduction in leaf area, leading to decreases of the total photosynthetic area of the plants, with increasing pollution load. The losses incurred in chlorophyll a were relatively more than chlorophyll b and, as a result, the total chlorophyll contents of leaves were decreased in polluted plants. The dry weights of stems, roots and leaves were decreased to different degrees, whereas the shoot/root dry weight ratio was found to increase in the polluted environment. The growth of stem cortex and pith were slightly affected on site B, but showed significant decreases on site C, due to a greater load of pollutants. Decreased area of xylem tissue was found to couple with an increasing number of vessels of reduced sizes. The stomatal density, pore size and index showed decreases, while the epidermal cells were larger and trichomes longer, on both surfaces of polluted leaves. PMID:15092709

Gupta, M C; Ghouse, A K

1987-01-01

370

Classification and quantification of leaf curvature.  

PubMed

Various mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in polarity, cell division, and auxin response are characterized by certain types of leaf curvature. However, comparison of curvature for clarification of gene function can be difficult without a quantitative measurement of curvature. Here, a novel method for classification and quantification of leaf curvature is reported. Twenty-two mutant alleles from Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic lines deficient in leaf flatness were selected. The mutants were classified according to the direction, axis, position, and extent of leaf curvature. Based on a global measure of whole leaves and a local measure of four regions in the leaves, the curvature index (CI) was proposed to quantify the leaf curvature. The CI values accounted for the direction, axis, position, and extent of leaf curvature in all of the Arabidopsis mutants grown in growth chambers. Comparison of CI values between mutants reveals the spatial and temporal variations of leaf curvature, indicating the strength of the mutant alleles and the activities of the corresponding genes. Using the curvature indices, the extent of curvature in a complicated genetic background becomes quantitative and comparable, thus providing a useful tool for defining the genetic components of leaf development and to breed new varieties with leaf curvature desirable for the efficient capture of sunlight for photosynthesis and high yields. PMID:20400533

Liu, Zhongyuan; Jia, Liguo; Mao, Yanfei; He, Yuke

2010-06-01

371

Yield and leaf blade area comparisons of extra leafy to normal leafed maize (Zea mays L.)  

E-print Network

YIELD AND LEAF BLADE AREA COMPARISONS OF EXTRA LEAFY TO NORMAL LEAFED MAIZE ( Zea ~nays L. ) A Thesis RONALD WAYNE RUSHING Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1996 Major Subject: Plant Breeding YIELD AND LEAF BLADE AREA COMPARISONS OF EXTRA LEAFY TO NORMAL LEAFED MAIZE ( Zea mays L) A Thesis RONALD WAYNE RUSHING Submitted to Texas ASSAM University in partial...

Rushing, Ronald Wayne

2012-06-07

372

Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesoderm and Cardiac Cells  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesoderm and Cardiac Cells Using Size pluripotent stem cell-derived cell types at sufficiently high numbers and in a reproducible manner for the differentiation of pluripotent cells such as human embryonic stem cells (hESC) rely on the generation

Zandstra, Peter W.

373

If a Stem Cell Dies in the Crypt, and No One Is Around to See It.  

E-print Network

If a Stem Cell Dies in the Crypt, and No One Is Around to See It. Ysbrand M. Nusse1,2 and Ophir D repair after damage. A small number of self-re- newing stem cells are the source of new cells in many epithelia. The identification of these stem cells has been the focus of intense investigation

Klein, Ophir

374

Nuclear envelope defects cause stem cell dysfunction in premature-aging mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

uclear lamina alterations occur in physiologi- cal aging and in premature aging syndromes. Because aging is also associated with abnormal stem cell homeostasis, we hypothesize that nuclear enve- lope alterations could have an important impact on stem cell compartments. To evaluate this hypothesis, we exam- ined the number and functional competence of stem cells in Zmpste24 -null progeroid mice, which

J. Espada; I. Varela; I. Flores; A. P. Ugalde; J. Cadinanos; A. M. Pendas; C. L. Stewart; K. Tryggvason; M. A. Blasco; J. M. P. Freije; C. Lopez-Otin

2008-01-01

375

(vii) Current developments in short stem femoral implants for hip replacement surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone-saving hip arthroplasty using metaphyseal stems is gaining importance because the number of young patients is on the increase and hip resurfacing is not always indicated. This article outlines the recent developments in short stem hip replacement following the concept of conservative hip implants. The individual decision for use of a particular type of implant remains crucial because a stem

Wolfram H. Kluge

2009-01-01

376

Sustained Levels of FGF2 Maintain Undifferentiated Stem Cell Cultures with Biweekly Feeding  

PubMed Central

An essential aspect of stem cell culture is the successful maintenance of the undifferentiated state. Many types of stem cells are FGF2 dependent, and pluripotent stem cells are maintained by replacing FGF2-containing media daily, while tissue-specific stem cells are typically fed every 3rd day. Frequent feeding, however, results in significant variation in growth factor levels due to FGF2 instability, which limits effective maintenance due to spontaneous differentiation. We report that stabilization of FGF2 levels using controlled release PLGA microspheres improves expression of stem cell markers, increases stem cell numbers and decreases spontaneous differentiation. The controlled release FGF2 additive reduces the frequency of media changes needed to maintain stem cell cultures, so that human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can be maintained successfully with biweekly feedings. PMID:23437109

Lotz, Steven; Goderie, Susan; Tokas, Nicolas; Hirsch, Sarah E.; Ahmad, Faizzan; Corneo, Barbara; Le, Sheila; Banerjee, Akhilesh; Kane, Ravi S.; Stern, Jeffrey H.; Temple, Sally; Fasano, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

377

Comparison of Photoperiodic Sensitivity of Green-Leafed and Red-Leafed Perilla12  

PubMed Central

The flowering responses of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. (green-leafed Perilla) and P. crispa (Thunb.) Tanaka (red-leafed Perilla) to different 24-hour photoperiodic regimes were compared quantitatively. Although both taxa are short-day plants, P. frutescens was less strict in its short-day requirement, forming macroscopically visible inflorescence primordia and open flowers even in continuous light after 77 to 85 and 132 days, respectively, compared to 12 and 22 days in 8-hour days. P. crispa took only 4 days longer to reach the same stages in 8-hour short days, but exhibited a sharply defined critical day-length between 14 and 16 hours. Two-hour light-breaks in the middle of a 16-hour night were more effective in inhibiting floral development in P. crispa than in P. frutescens, for which they had a small effect compared to true long-days, particularly on the formation of inflorescence primordia. The number of short days needed to obtain the flowering in P. frutescens plants raised in continuous light decreased in a linear manner with the age of the plants upon transfer to short days. PMID:16662466

Jacobs, William P.

1982-01-01

378

7 CFR 28.467 - Leaf Grade 7.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 7. 28.467 Section 28.467 Agriculture...Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.467 Leaf Grade 7. Leaf Grade 7 is leaf which is...

2010-01-01

379

Foliage height influences specific leaf area of three conifer species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific leaf area (SLA), the ratio of projected leaf area to leaf dry mass, is a critical parameter in many forest process models. SLA describes the efficiency with which the leaf captures light relative to the biomass invested in the leaf. It increases from top to bottom of a canopy, but it is unclear why. We sampled stands with low

John D. Marshall; Robert A. Monserud

2003-01-01

380

Stem-cell therapies for blood diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, transplantation of haematopoietic stem cells - either unmodified, or genetically modified to correct genetic disorders - has been used to treat disorders of the blood and immune systems. The present challenge is to reduce the risk of such transplants and increase the number of patients who can safely access this treatment. In developing countries, such `one-shot' treatments are

Claudio Bordignon

2006-01-01

381

Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell Epigenetics: Looking Forward  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Voices Stem Cell Epigenetics: Looking Forward Epigenetics in Adult SCs The integrity of tissues is maintained by adult stem cells during adulthood. How- ever, recent work indicates that tissues often contain more than one population of stem cells that are located at distinct niches and display

Sander, Maike

382

Cell Stem Cell Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical  

E-print Network

, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA 5Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana StateCell Stem Cell Review Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical Interactions with the Extracellular.06.016 A diverse array of environmental factors contributes to the overall control of stem cell activity

Chen, Christopher S.

383

Elevated CO sub 2 does not delay leaf senescence in white oak or yellow-poplar seedlings in the field  

SciTech Connect

We hypothesized that the higher rates of photosynthesis in plants grown in elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} would delay the onset and progression of autumn leaf senescence. An effect of CO{sub 2} on leaf duration could be an important determinant of growth and could alter the processes of nutrient conservation and winter hardening. In May of 1989, white oak and yellow-poplar seedlings were planted in the ground in open-top chambers. The plants were exposed continuously to regulated CO{sub 2} concentrations (ambient, ambient+150 {mu}l{center dot}l{sup {minus}1}, and ambient+300 {mu}l{center dot}l{sup {minus}1}), with two chambers per treatment and up to 10 plants of each species per chamber. Photosynthesis and stem growth were measured throughout the growing season. Leaf senescence was monitored beginning in September by measuring pigment concentrations, salt-extractable protein concentrations, and free amino acids in upper leaves. Leaf area was measured as the leaves abscised. Photosynthesis remained significantly higher in the elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations throughout the growing season. Stem growth was enhanced in the ambient+300 treatment (both species) and ambient+150 treatment (white oak) relative to plants in ambient CO{sub 2}. Chlorophyll concentrations decreased with increasing CO{sub 2} concentration, but CO{sub 2} had no effect on the timing of chlorophyll loss, and there was no other evidence of an effect of CO{sub 2} concentration on leaf senescence. In both species the time required for 50% of total leaf area to abscise varied by less than 2 days between treatments. The conclusion that CO{sub 2} concentration does not affect leaf senescence under field conditions contrasts with the results from some growth chamber studies.

Norby, R.J.; O'Neill, E.G. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA)); Cockrill, M. (Kalamazoo College, MI (USA))

1990-05-01

384

Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plantwater environment at leaf ush  

E-print Network

Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plant­water environment at leaf ush Brett J. Tipple1 , Melissa A, UT, and approved December 26, 2012 (received for review August 13, 2012) Leaf-wax n-alkanes 2 H/1 H- ship between n-alkanes 2 H values and climate is appreciated, the quantitative details of the proxy

Tipple, Brett

385

Composition of speciose leaf litter alters stream detritivore growth, feeding activity and leaf breakdown  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf litter derived from riparian trees can control secondary production of detritivores in forested streams. Species-rich assemblages of leaf litter reflect riparian plant species richness and represent a heterogeneous resource for stream consumers. Such variation in resource quality may alter consumer growth and thus the feedback on leaf breakdown rate via changes in feeding activity. To assess the consequences of

Christopher M. Swan; Margaret A. Palmer

2006-01-01

386

Co-ordinated development of the leaf midrib xylem with the lamina in Nicotiana tabacum  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The water-transport capacity of leaf venation is positively related to the leaf-lamina area, because the number and diameter of vein-xylem conduits are controlled to match the lamina area. This study aimed to investigate how this co-ordinated relationship between the leaf-lamina area and vein-xylem characteristics is achieved by examining the midrib xylem of tobacco leaves. Methods The changes in the midrib-xylem characteristics over time were quantified using leaves with four different final lamina areas. The measured data were fitted to sigmoidal functions. From the constants of the fitted curves, the final values in mature leaves, maximal developmental rates (VDev) and developmental duration (TDev) were estimated for each of the xylem characteristics. Whether it is the lamina or the midrib xylem that drives the co-ordinated development was examined by lamina removal from unfolding leaves. The effects of the application of 0·1 % IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) to leaves with the laminas removed were also analysed. Key Results For both the leaf lamina and the midrib-xylem characteristics, the differences in final values among leaves with different lamina areas were more strongly associated with those in VDev. Notably, the VDev values of the midrib-xylem characteristics were related to those of the leaf-lamina area. By lamina removal, the conduit diameter was reduced but the number of conduits did not significantly change. By IAA application, the decrease in the conduit diameter was halted, and the number of conduits in the midrib xylem increased. Conclusions According to the results, the VDev values of the lamina area and the midrib-xylem characteristics changed in a co-ordinated manner, so that the water-transport capacity of the midrib xylem was positively related to the leaf-lamina area. The results also suggest that IAA derived from the leaf lamina plays a crucial role in the development of the leaf venation. PMID:22589329

Taneda, Haruhiko; Terashima, Ichiro

2012-01-01

387

The effect of experimental warming on leaf functional traits, leaf structure and leaf biochemistry in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The leaf is an important plant organ, and how it will respond to future global warming is a question that remains unanswered. The effects of experimental warming on leaf photosynthesis and respiration acclimation has been well studied so far, but relatively little information exists on the structural and biochemical responses to warming. However, such information is very important to

Biao Jin; Li Wang; Jing Wang; Ke-Zhen Jiang; Yang Wang; Xiao-Xue Jiang; Cheng-Yang Ni; Yu-Long Wang; Nian-Jun Teng

2011-01-01

388

Maintaining neural stem cell identity in the brain  

PubMed Central

In the developing fruit fly brain, a protein called Trithorax increases the number of neural cells produced from a single stem cell, in part by regulating the transcription of the target genes buttonhead and pointed. PMID:25375200

Jiang, Yanrui

2014-01-01

389

Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Stems, Leaves, Fruits and Roots of Smyrnium cordifolium Boiss. from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the stems, leaves, fruits and roots of Smyrnium cordifolium Boiss. growing wild in the northwest of Iran were investigated by GC and GC\\/MS. The major constituents of the stem and fruit oils appeared to be curzerene (22.7% and 45.7%) and curzerenone (19.2% and 23.9%). The leaf and root oils were also characterized by

Hamzeh Amiri; Ramezan A. Khavari-Nejad; Shiva Masoud; Firoozeh Chalabian; Abdolhossein Rustaiyan

2006-01-01

390

Influence of irradiation, soil water potential, and leaf temperature on leaf morphology of a desert broadleaf, Encelia farinosa Gray (Compositae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate observed seasonal changes in leaf morphology of the desert perennial shrub, Encelia farinosa Gray. Plants were grown under low or high conditions of photosynthetically active irradiation, soil water potential (Psi\\/sup soil\\/), and leaf temperature (8 different experimental regimes). The relative growth rate, leaf water vapor conductance, leaf water potential, and leaf length were all

William K. Smith; Park S. Nobel

1978-01-01

391

"Breath figures" on leaf surfaces-formation and effects of microscopic leaf wetness.  

PubMed

"Microscopic leaf wetness" means minute amounts of persistent liquid water on leaf surfaces which are invisible to the naked eye. The water is mainly maintained by transpired water vapor condensing onto the leaf surface and to attached leaf surface particles. With an estimated average thickness of less than 1 ?m, microscopic leaf wetness is about two orders of magnitude thinner than morning dewfall. The most important physical processes which reduce the saturation vapor pressure and promote condensation are cuticular absorption and the deliquescence of hygroscopic leaf surface particles. Deliquescent salts form highly concentrated solutions. Depending on the type and concentration of the dissolved ions, the physicochemical properties of microscopic leaf wetness can be considerably different from those of pure water. Microscopic leaf wetness can form continuous thin layers on hydrophobic leaf surfaces and in specific cases can act similar to surfactants, enabling a strong potential influence on the foliar exchange of ions. Microscopic leaf wetness can also enhance the dissolution, the emission, and the reaction of specific atmospheric trace gases e.g., ammonia, SO2, or ozone, leading to a strong potential role for microscopic leaf wetness in plant/atmosphere interaction. Due to its difficult detection, there is little knowledge about the occurrence and the properties of microscopic leaf wetness. However, based on the existing evidence and on physicochemical reasoning it can be hypothesized that microscopic leaf wetness occurs on almost any plant worldwide and often permanently, and that it significantly influences the exchange processes of the leaf surface with its neighboring compartments, i.e., the plant interior and the atmosphere. The omission of microscopic water in general leaf wetness concepts has caused far-reaching, misleading conclusions in the past. PMID:24167510

Burkhardt, Juergen; Hunsche, Mauricio

2013-01-01

392

Information on Stem Cell Research  

MedlinePLUS

Information on Stem Cell Research Research @ NINDS Stem Cell Highlights Submit a hESC line for NIH review (9/21/09) NIH Opens Website ... here: Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells NINDS Stem Cell Research on Campus The Intramural Research Program of ...

393

LESSON PLAN Stem Cell Discussion  

E-print Network

of stem cell research · research the current research situation · debate the future of stem cell of the ethical, moral and social implications of stem cell research. Photocopy these pages and distribute to students to read. · Make a list of advantages and disadvantages of using embryonic stem cells in research

Rambaut, Andrew

394

Stem cells and brain cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing body of research is showing that cancers might contain their own stem cells. In fact, cancer cells, like stem cells, can proliferate indefinitely through a deregulated cellular self-renewal capacity. This raises the possibility that some features of tumor cells may be due to cancer stem cells. Stem cell-like cancer cells were isolated from several solid tumors. Now, evidence

U Galderisi; M Cipollaro; A Giordano

2006-01-01

395

Haute Culture: Tailoring stem cells  

E-print Network

Biology, Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University Massachusetts General Hospital Fernando Camargo, PhD Assistant Professor of Stem Cell Regenerative Biology, Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University Children's Hospital Boston Stem Cell Program #12

Chou, James

396

Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress Rapid Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Automated implementations of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their deriva- tives further increase interest in strategies the marked improvements that control of feed- back signaling can offer primary stem cell culture

Zandstra, Peter W.

397

[Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation : Bone marrow and blood stem cells].  

PubMed

The number of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations is continuously increasing. On the one hand reduced intensity conditioning and improved supportive therapies allow for transplantations in patients with significant comorbidities and up to their eighth decade of life. Due to this development the number of complex and critically ill patients in need of intensive care is constantly growing. Recent developments in general critical care such as sepsis bundles and non-invasive ventilation contribute to a better outcome of these patients. However, treatment algorithms that identify patients potentially benefitting from intensive care but also reduce overtreatment of moribund patients represent a central multidisciplinary challenge not only for the treating transplant physician and intensivist. PMID:25323808

von Bergwelt-Baildon, M; Holtick, U; Hallek, M J; Scheid, C

2014-11-01

398

Mesenchymal stem cells in the tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic, multipotent cells, which are able to differentiate to bone, adipose and cartilage tissue. MSCs have the characteristic of migration to injured areas or tumor microenvironment following induction by chemokines or inflammatory factors. An increasing number of studies have reported that MSCs recruited to the tumor microenvironment play various roles in tumor cell development and tumor progression. In this study, we reviewed the studies related to the tumor-promoting roles of MSCs from several aspects, such as increasing stemness of tumor cells, mediating migration, promoting angiogenesis, suppressing immune response and inducing drug resistance. PMID:24648978

GUAN, JIAN; CHEN, JIE

2013-01-01

399

Stem-cell therapies for blood diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decades, transplantation of haematopoietic stem cells - either unmodified, or genetically modified to correct genetic disorders - has been used to treat disorders of the blood and immune systems. The present challenge is to reduce the risk of such transplants and increase the number of patients who can safely access this treatment. In developing countries, such `one-shot' treatments are highly desirable because chronic treatments are difficult to sustain. To make these therapies more accessible and effective it will be important to improve clinical protocols and gene-delivery vectors, and to gain a deeper understanding of stem cells.

Bordignon, Claudio

2006-06-01

400

The future for stem cell research.  

PubMed

Stem cells have offered much hope by promising to greatly extend the numbers and range of patients who could benefit from transplants, and to provide cell replacement therapy to treat debilitating diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. The issue of stem cell research is politically charged, prompting biologists to begin engaging in ethical debates, and generating in the general public an unusually high level of interest in this aspect of biology. But excitement notwithstanding, there is a long way to go in basic research before new therapies will be established, and now the pressure is on for scientists and clinicians to deliver. PMID:11689952

Lovell-Badge, R

2001-11-01

401

Feeding behavior of leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding behavior of adult leaf beetles (41 species from 18 genera and 8 subfamilies) was studied for the first time. Beetles\\u000a of the genera Chrysolina, Chrysomela, Cryptocephalus, Galeruca, Gastrophysa, Labidostomis, Leptinotarsa, Timarcha, and Cassida stigmatica gnaw a leaf from the edge, whereas the representatives of Donacia, Galerucella, Lema, Lilioceris, Oulema, Phyllobrotica, Plagiodera, Zeugophora, Hypocassida, and most species of Cassida

A. O. Bie?kowski

2010-01-01

402

7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See Elements of Quality, § 29.3586.) [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr. 20,...

2013-01-01

403

7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.  

...u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements of quality.) [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 49 FR 16758, Apr. 20,...

2014-01-01

404

7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.  

...11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See Elements of Quality Chart.) [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 49 FR 16755, Apr. 20, 1984,...

2014-01-01

405

7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See Elements of Quality, § 29.3586.) [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr. 20,...

2011-01-01

406

7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See Elements of Quality Chart.) [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 49 FR 16755, Apr. 20, 1984,...

2011-01-01

407

7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, § 29.2601.) [37 FR 13626, July 12, 1972. Redesignated at 49 FR 16757, Apr. 20,...

2010-01-01

408

7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.  

...Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, § 29.2601.) [37 FR 13626, July 12, 1972. Redesignated at 49 FR 16757, Apr. 20,...

2014-01-01

409

7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See Elements of Quality, § 29.3586.) [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr. 20,...

2010-01-01

410

7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See Elements of Quality, § 29.3586.) [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr. 20,...

2012-01-01

411

7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, § 29.2601.) [37 FR 13626, July 12, 1972. Redesignated at 49 FR 16757, Apr. 20,...

2011-01-01

412

7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements of quality.) [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 49 FR 16758, Apr. 20,...

2012-01-01

413

7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements of quality.) [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 49 FR 16758, Apr. 20,...

2013-01-01

414

7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See Elements of Quality Chart.) [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 49 FR 16755, Apr. 20, 1984,...

2012-01-01

415

7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements of quality.) [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 49 FR 16758, Apr. 20,...

2011-01-01

416

7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.  

...Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See Elements of Quality, § 29.3586.) [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr. 20,...

2014-01-01

417

7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, § 29.2601.) [37 FR 13626, July 12, 1972. Redesignated at 49 FR 16757, Apr. 20,...

2013-01-01

418

7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See Elements of Quality Chart.) [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 49 FR 16755, Apr. 20, 1984,...

2013-01-01

419

7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, § 29.2601.) [37 FR 13626, July 12, 1972. Redesignated at 49 FR 16757, Apr. 20,...

2012-01-01

420

7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements of quality.) [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 49 FR 16758, Apr. 20,...

2010-01-01

421

Springboard to STEM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Springboard to STEM program is "to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) and provide training and classroom materials for teachers." On this website, visitors can take advantage of free educational materials like worksheets, lesson plans, and discussion questions. Visitors need to fill out a form on the site before they can access all of the materials, but this only takes a minute or two. Moving on, the News and Links area contains links to their work around STEM education and the project's Twitter feed. The Marketplace is another great feature of the site which contains links to high quality STEM-related resources, such as books and classroom DVDs, that are available for purchase.

422

Springboard to STEM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Springboard to STEM program is "to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) and provide training and classroom materials for teachers." On this website, visitors can take advantage of free educational materials like worksheets, lesson plans, and discussion questions. Visitors need to fill out a form on the site before they can access all of the materials, but this only takes a minute or two. Moving on, the News and Links area contains links to their work around STEM education and the project's Twitter feed. The Marketplace is another great feature of the site which contains links to high quality STEM-related resources, such as books and classroom DVDs, that are available for purchase.

2013-11-26

423

STEM Careers Grad Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief video from WPSU introduces a diverse group of graduate students with interests in STEM careers. From deep sea diving to creating video games, each graduate student is pursuing activities beyond the stereotypical view of a nerdy scientist.

Wpsu

2009-11-10

424

Isotopic characteristics of canopies in simulated leaf assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geologic history of closed-canopy forests is of great interest to paleoecologists and paleoclimatologists alike. Closed canopies have pronounced effects on local, continental and global rainfall and temperature patterns. Although evidence for canopy closure is difficult to reconstruct from the fossil record, the characteristic isotope gradients of the “canopy effect” could be preserved in leaves and proxy biomarkers. To assess this, we employed new carbon isotopic data for leaves collected in diverse light environments within a deciduous, temperate forest (Maryland, USA) and for leaves from a perennially closed canopy, moist tropical forest (Bosque Protector San Lorenzo, Panamá). In the tropical forest, leaf carbon isotope values range 10‰, with higher ?13Cleaf values occurring both in upper reaches of the canopy, and with higher light exposure and lower humidity. Leaf fractionation (?leaf) varied negatively with height and light and positively with humidity. Vertical 13C enrichment in leaves largely reflects changes in ?leaf, and does not trend with ?13C of CO2 within the canopy. At the site in Maryland, leaves express a more modest ?13C range (?6‰), with a clear trend that follows both light and leaf height. Using a model we simulate leaf assemblage isotope patterns from canopy data binned by elevation. The re-sampling (bootstrap) model determined both the mean and range of carbon isotope values for simulated leaf assemblages ranging in size from 10 to over 1000 leaves. For the tropical forest data, the canopy's isotope range is captured with 50 or more randomly sampled leaves. Thus, with a sufficient number of fossil leaves it is possible to distinguish isotopic gradients in an ancient closed canopy forest from those in an open forest. For very large leaf assemblages, mean isotopic values approximate the ?13C of carbon contributed by leaves to soil and are similar to observed ?13Clitter values at forested sites within Panamá, including the site where leaves were sampled. The model predicts a persistent ?1‰ difference in ?13Clitter for the two sites which is consistent with higher water availability in the tropical forests. This work provides a new framework for linking contemporary ecological observations to the geochemical record using flux-weighted isotope data and lends insights to the effect of forest architecture on organic and isotopic records of ancient terrestrial ecosystems. How many leaves from a litter assemblage are necessary to distinguish the isotopic gradient characteristics of canopy closure? Are mean ?13Cleaf values for a litter assemblage diagnostic of a forest biome? Can we predict the ?13C values of cumulative litter, soil organic matter, and organic carbon in sedimentary archives using litter flux and isotope patterns in canopies? We determined the ?13C range and mean for different sized assemblages of leaves sampled from data for each forest. We re-sampled very high numbers of leaves in order to estimate the isotopic composition of cumulative carbon delivered to soils as litter, and compared these results to available data from forest soils. Modeled leaf and soil organic carbon isotope patterns in this study offer insights to how forest structure can be derived from carbon isotope measurements of fossil leaves, as well as secondary material - such as teeth, hair, paleosol carbonates, or organic soil carbon (van der Merwe and Medina, 1989; Koch, 1998; Secord et al., 2008; Levin et al., 2011).Distinct climate and seasonal difference in the Panamá and Maryland, USA forests are reflected in their canopy isotope gradients. In the tropical forest of Panamá, leaves are produced throughout the year within a canopy that is both extensively and persistently closed (Leigh, 1975; Lowman and Wittman, 1996). In the temperate forest of Maryland leaves are produced during the spring when canopy conditions are relatively open (Korner and Basler, 2010).

Graham, Heather V.; Patzkowsky, Mark E.; Wing, Scott L.; Parker, Geoffrey G.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

2014-11-01

425

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade...

2011-01-01

426

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

...2014-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade...

2014-01-01

427

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade...

2013-01-01

428

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade...

2012-01-01

429

STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT Volume 18, Number 2, 2009  

E-print Network

production, many groups are employing a "chondrogenic" base medium consisting of ITS+ [insulin, transferrin to the controls. Coculture with brochondrocytes resulted in up to a 9.8-fold increase in collagen II production proliferation and GAG production compared to either treat- ment alone. This study determined two powerful

Athanasiou, Kyriacos

430

Paleotemperature Proxies from Leaf Fossils Reinterpreted in Light of Evolutionary History  

PubMed Central

Present-day correlations between leaf physiognomic traits (shape and size) and climate are widely used to estimate paleoclimate using fossil floras. For example, leaf-margin analysis estimates paleotemperature using the modern relation of mean annual temperature (MAT) and the site-proportion of untoothed-leaf species (NT). This uniformitarian approach should provide accurate paleoclimate reconstructions under the core assumption that leaf-trait variation principally results from adaptive environmental convergence, and because variation is thus largely independent of phylogeny it should be constant through geologic time. Although much research acknowledges and investigates possible pitfalls in paleoclimate estimation based on leaf physiognomy, the core assumption has never been explicitly tested in a phylogenetic comparative framework. Combining an extant dataset of 21 leaf traits and temperature with a phylogenetic hypothesis for 569 species-site pairs at 17 sites, we found varying amounts of non-random phylogenetic signal in all traits. Phylogenetic vs. standard regressions generally support prevailing ideas that leaf-traits are adaptively responding to temperature, but wider confidence intervals, and shifts in slope and intercept, indicate an overall reduced ability to predict climate precisely due to the non-random phylogenetic signal. Notably, the modern-day relation of proportion of untoothed taxa with mean annual temperature (NT-MAT), central in paleotemperature inference, was greatly modified and reduced, indicating that the modern correlation primarily results from biogeographic history. Importantly, some tooth traits, such as number of teeth, had similar or steeper slopes after taking phylogeny into account, suggesting that leaf teeth display a pattern of exaptive evolution in higher latitudes. This study shows that the assumption of convergence required for precise, quantitative temperature estimates using present-day leaf traits is not supported by empirical evidence, and thus we have very low confidence in previously published, numerical paleotemperature estimates. However, interpreting qualitative changes in paleotemperature remains warranted, given certain conditions such as stratigraphically closely-spaced samples with floristic continuity. PMID:21203554

Little, Stefan A.; Kembel, Steven W.; Wilf, Peter

2010-01-01

431

The advantages of hair follicle pluripotent stem cells over embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multipotent adult stem cells have many potential therapeutic applications. Our recent findings suggest that hair follicles are a promising source of easily accessible multipotent stem cells. Stem cells in the hair follicle area express the neural stem cell marker nestin, suggesting that hair-follicle stem cells and neural stem cells have common features. Nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can form neurons

Yasuyuki Amoh; Kensei Katsuoka; Robert M. Hoffman

2010-01-01

432

The Neural Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neural stem cells represent a heterogeneous population of mitotically active, self-renewing and multipotent cells of both\\u000a the developing and the adult central nervous system (CNS) showing complex patterns of gene expression that may vary in both\\u000a space and time. Endogenous stem cells residing within CNS germinal niches might concur to nervous system repair owing to their\\u000a ability to drive neurogenesis

Stefano Pluchino; Marco Bacigaluppi; Elena Brini; Erica Butti; Chiara Cossetti; Melania Cusimano; Lucia Zanotti; Gianvito Martino

433

Stem CAM in arborescent succulents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem CAM with a peripheral chlorenchyma in stem succulents growing up to arborescent sizes and life forms appears to be a\\u000a unique evolution as it requires delayed and reduced bark formation and stem stomata. However, stem succulence as a convergent\\u000a morphotype and with it the stem CAM physiotype evolved polyphyletically in many divergent taxa of the dicotyledonous angiosperms.\\u000a Controlling water

U. Lüttge

2008-01-01