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1

Stem-and-Leaf Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to stem-and-leaf plots as a graphical way to represent a data set. The lesson also reviews measures of central tendency. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to stem-and-leaf plots as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

2010-01-01

2

Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem

Hongwei Wang; Dacheng Peng; Jingtian Xie

2009-01-01

3

Leaf and stem morphoanatomy of Petiveria alliacea.  

PubMed

Petiveria alliacea is a perennial herb native to the Amazonian region and used in traditional medicine for different purposes, such as diuretic, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory. The morphoanatomical characterization of the leaf and stem was carried out, in order to contribute to the medicinal plant identification. The plant material was fixed, freehand sectioned and stained either with toluidine blue or astra blue and basic fuchsine. Microchemical tests were also applied. The leaf is simple, alternate and elliptic. The blade exhibits paracytic stomata on the abaxial side, non-glandular trichomes and dorsiventral mesophyll. The midrib is biconvex and the petiole is plain-convex, both traversed by collateral vascular bundles adjoined with sclerenchymatic caps. The stem, in incipient secondary growth, presents epidermis, angular collenchyma, starch sheath and collateral vascular organization. Several prisms of calcium oxalate are seen in the leaf and stem. PMID:16242265

Duarte, M R; Lopes, J F

2005-12-01

4

[Pharmacognostical studies on the stem and leaf of Chinese Alyxia].  

PubMed

About the stem and leaf of Chinese alyxia, pharmacognostical studies on the character, microscopical and physichemical aspects are made, The results are certifed that the methods of determination on the character and microscopical may be adopt for stem and leaf Chinese alyxia. There are a rich amino acids and trace elements. It provide scientific basis for its comprehensive development and utilization. PMID:12572443

Zhang, G; Zhang, L; Tanaka, T; Takada, A

1997-03-01

5

Structure and enzymatic accessibility of leaf and stem from wheat straw before and after hydrothermal pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Biomass recalcitrance is affected by a number of chemical, physical and biological factors. In this study we looked into the differences in recalcitrance between two major anatomical fractions of wheat straw biomass, leaf and stem. A set of twenty-one wheat cultivars was fractionated and illustrated the substantial variation in leaf-to-stem ratio between cultivars. The two fractions were compared in terms of chemical composition, enzymatic convertibility, cellulose crystallinity and glucan accessibility. The use of water as a probe for assessing glucan accessibility was explored using low field nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy in combination with hydrogen-deuterium exchange. Results Leaves were clearly more degradable by lignocellulolytic enzymes than stems, and it was demonstrated that xylose removal was more linked to glucose yield for stems than for leaves. Comparing the locations of water in leaf and stem by low field NMR and FT-IR revealed that the glucan hydroxyl groups in leaves were more accessible to water than glucan hydroxyl groups in stems. No difference in crystallinity between leaf and stem was observed using wide angle x-ray diffraction. Hydrothermal pretreatment increased the accessibility towards water in stems but not in leaves. The results in this study indicate a correlation between the accessibility of glucan to water and to enzymes. Conclusions Enzymatic degradability of wheat straw anatomical fractions can be indicated by the accessibility of the hydroxyl groups to water. This suggests that water may be used to assess glucan accessibility in biomass samples. PMID:24860617

2014-01-01

6

Characterizing natural cellulose fibers from velvet leaf (Abutilon theophrasti) stems.  

PubMed

Velvet leaf (Abutilon theophrasti) that is currently considered a weed and an agricultural problem could be used as a source for high quality natural cellulose fibers. The fibers obtained from the velvet leaf stems are mainly composed of approximately 69% cellulose and 17% lignin. The single cells in the fiber have lengths of approximately 0.9 mm, shorter than those in common bast fibers, hemp and kenaf. However, the widths of single cells in velvet leaf fibers are similar to the single cells in hemp and kenaf. The fibers exhibited breaking tenacity from 2.4 to 3.9 g/denier (325-500 MPa), breaking elongation of 1.6-2.4% and Young's modulus of 140-294 g/denier (18-38 GPa). Overall, velvet leaf fibers have properties similar to that of common bast fibers such as hemp and kenaf. Velvet leaves fibers could be processed on the current kenaf processing machineries for textile, composite, automotive and other fibrous applications. PMID:17583497

Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

2008-05-01

7

First Report of Myrothecium roridum Causing Leaf and Stem Rot Disease on Peperomia quadrangularis in Korea  

PubMed Central

In 2010, symptoms of leaf and stem rot were observed on potted plants (Peperomia quadrangularis) in a greenhouse in Yongin, Korea. The causative pathogen was identified as Myrothecium roridum based on morphological data, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. roridum causing leaf and stem rot disease on P. quadrangularis in Korea and elsewhere worldwide. PMID:25071393

Han, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Chan; Park, Jong-Han; Cho, Myoung-Rae

2014-01-01

8

First Report of Myrothecium roridum Causing Leaf and Stem Rot Disease on Peperomia quadrangularis in Korea.  

PubMed

In 2010, symptoms of leaf and stem rot were observed on potted plants (Peperomia quadrangularis) in a greenhouse in Yongin, Korea. The causative pathogen was identified as Myrothecium roridum based on morphological data, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. roridum causing leaf and stem rot disease on P. quadrangularis in Korea and elsewhere worldwide. PMID:25071393

Han, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Chan; Park, Jong-Han; Cho, Myoung-Rae; Park, Mi-Jeong

2014-06-01

9

Stem hydraulic traits and leaf water-stress tolerance are co-ordinated with the leaf phenology of angiosperm trees in an Asian tropical dry karst forest  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The co-occurring of evergreen and deciduous angiosperm trees in Asian tropical dry forests on karst substrates suggests the existence of different water-use strategies among species. In this study it is hypothesized that the co-occurring evergreen and deciduous trees differ in stem hydraulic traits and leaf water relationships, and there will be correlated evolution in drought tolerance between leaves and stems. Methods A comparison was made of stem hydraulic conductivity, vulnerability curves, wood anatomy, leaf life span, leaf pressure–volume characteristics and photosynthetic capacity of six evergreen and six deciduous tree species co-occurring in a tropical dry karst forest in south-west China. The correlated evolution of leaf and stem traits was examined using both traditional and phylogenetic independent contrasts correlations. Key Results It was found that the deciduous trees had higher stem hydraulic efficiency, greater hydraulically weighted vessel diameter (Dh) and higher mass-based photosynthetic rate (Am); while the evergreen species had greater xylem-cavitation resistance, lower leaf turgor-loss point water potential (?0) and higher bulk modulus of elasticity. There were evolutionary correlations between leaf life span and stem hydraulic efficiency, Am, and dry season ?0. Xylem-cavitation resistance was evolutionarily correlated with stem hydraulic efficiency, Dh, as well as dry season ?0. Both wood density and leaf density were closely correlated with leaf water-stress tolerance and Am. Conclusions The results reveal the clear distinctions in stem hydraulic traits and leaf water-stress tolerance between the co-occurring evergreen and deciduous angiosperm trees in an Asian dry karst forest. A novel pattern was demonstrated linking leaf longevity with stem hydraulic efficiency and leaf water-stress tolerance. The results show the correlated evolution in drought tolerance between stems and leaves. PMID:22585930

Fu, Pei-Li; Jiang, Yan-Juan; Wang, Ai-Ying; Brodribb, Tim J.; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Zhu, Shi-Dan; Cao, Kun-Fang

2012-01-01

10

In vitro cytotoxic activity of ginseng leaf/stem extracts obtained by subcritical water extraction  

PubMed Central

Ginseng leaf/stem extract produced by subcritical water extraction at high temperature (190°C) possess higher cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines than ethanol extract. Subcritical water extraction can be a great candidate for extraction of functional substance from ginseng leaves/stems. PMID:25379009

Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Chang, Pahn-Shik; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2014-01-01

11

In vitro cytotoxic activity of ginseng leaf/stem extracts obtained by subcritical water extraction.  

PubMed

Ginseng leaf/stem extract produced by subcritical water extraction at high temperature (190°C) possess higher cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines than ethanol extract. Subcritical water extraction can be a great candidate for extraction of functional substance from ginseng leaves/stems. PMID:25379009

Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Chang, Pahn-Shik; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2014-10-15

12

First Report of Macrophomina phaseolina Causing Leaf and Stem Blight of Tropical Soda Apple in Florida.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In August 2006 progressive leaf necrosis was observed in tropical soda apple (SOLVI ) plants in Fort Pierce, FL. Leaves of the five month old plants presented progressive necrosis, then dried out and dropped. Necrosis progressed quickly from petioles through the stems and caused entire stems to di...

13

Antioxidative effect of ginseng stem-leaf saponins on oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide in chickens.  

PubMed

Previous investigation demonstrated that oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins in chickens could enhance the immune response. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of ginseng stem-leaf saponins on oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide in chickens. One hundred and twenty chickens were randomly divided into 5 groups. Groups 1 to 4 received intramuscular injection of cyclophosphamide to induce oxidative stress while group 5 was injected with saline solution and served as control. Following administration of cyclophosphamide, groups 1 to 3 were orally administered ginseng stem-leaf saponins at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg BW in drinking water for 7 d, respectively. After that, the spleen, thymus, bursa, and serum were collected to measure the indices of the organs and oxidative parameters. The results showed that ginseng stem-leaf saponins significantly inhibited cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress by increasing the organ indices, total antioxidant capacity, and the levels of glutathione, ascorbic acid, and ?-tocopherol, while elevating the activity of total superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as decreasing the protein carbonyl content and malondialdehyde. Therefore, ginseng stem-leaf saponins could be a promising agent against oxidative stress in the poultry industry. PMID:25713395

Yu, J; Chen, Y; Zhai, L; Zhang, L; Xu, Y; Wang, S; Hu, S

2015-05-01

14

Wheat leaf and stem rust in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a common and widespread disease of wheat in the US. On an annual basis, over 50 races of the leaf rust fungus are detected. There are at least 5 major groups of genetically distinct P. triticina isolates in the US based on allelic variation at microsatellite loci. Distinct regional race populations of P.

J. A. KolmerA; Y. Jin; D. L. LongA

2007-01-01

15

Sorghum mutant RG displays antithetic leaf shoot lignin accumulation resulting in improved stem saccharification properties  

PubMed Central

Background Improving saccharification efficiency in bioenergy crop species remains an important challenge. Here, we report the characterization of a Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) mutant, named REDforGREEN (RG), as a bioenergy feedstock. Results It was found that RG displayed increased accumulation of lignin in leaves and depletion in the stems, antithetic to the trend observed in wild type. Consistent with these measurements, the RG leaf tissue displayed reduced saccharification efficiency whereas the stem saccharification efficiency increased relative to wild type. Reduced lignin was linked to improved saccharification in RG stems, but a chemical shift to greater S:G ratios in RG stem lignin was also observed. Similarities in cellulose content and structure by XRD-analysis support the correlation between increased saccharification properties and reduced lignin instead of changes in the cellulose composition and/or structure. Conclusion Antithetic lignin accumulation was observed in the RG mutant leaf-and stem-tissue, which resulted in greater saccharification efficiency in the RG stem and differential thermochemical product yield in high lignin leaves. Thus, the red leaf coloration of the RG mutant represents a potential marker for improved conversion of stem cellulose to fermentable sugars in the C4 grass Sorghum. PMID:24103129

2013-01-01

16

Antibacterial activity of stem and leaf extract of Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn.  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of chloroform extracts of stem and leaf of Kedrostis foetidissima (jacq.) cogn. (Cucurbitaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae. was carried out using agar disc diffusion technique. The results revealed that the chloroform extract of stem presented the highest zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa others show significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557304

Priyavardhini, S.; Gowri, S. Shyamala; Vasantha, K.; Umadevi, M.

2008-01-01

17

POPULATION DENSITY AND HARVEST MATURITY EFFECTS ON LEAF AND STEM QUALITY IN ALFALFA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A system has been proposed using alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as a biofuel feedstock where the stems would be processed to produce energy and the leaves used as a livestock feed. A management regime reducing population density, delaying harvest, and cutting two times per season to maximize leaf and ...

18

Genetic Improvement of Sorghum as a Biofuel Feedstock: II. QTL for Stem and Leaf Structural Carbohydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digestion and fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., structural carbohydrates) are pre- dicted to deliver higher yields of energy per hectare than sugar and starch (nonstructural car- bohydrates), yet little research on genetic varia- tion in crop feedstock biomass traits has been conducted. We investigated the genetic basis of leaf and stem biomass yield and composition in a population derived from

Seth C. Murray; William L. Rooney; Sharon E. Mitchell; Arun Sharma; Patricia E. Klein; John E. Mullet; Stephen Kresovich

2008-01-01

19

Stability of Sweet Potato Cultivars to Alternaria Leaf and Stem Blight Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternaria leaf petiole and stem blight is an economically important disease of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus L) in tropical and sub-tropical environments. Published research on cultivar resistance to the sweet potato disease is limited. To evaluate cultivar reaction and stability to the disease, mu...

20

Leaf and Stem Area Relationships to Masses and Their Height Distributions in Native Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

i A recently developed wind erasion model (wind erosion prediction system, WEPS) for mop lands is being extended for estimating soil emsion from rangelands, military lands, and desert emsystem,. Wind velocity near the soil surface is calculated as a function of the serial distribution of stem silhouette area and leaf ares of both live plants and standing residue. Grasses either

Amare Retta; Dean V. Armbrust; Lawrence J. Hagen; Edward L. Skidmore

2000-01-01

21

Antioxidant and anti-dermatophytic properties leaf and stem bark of Xylosma longifolium clos  

PubMed Central

Background The present study was carried out to assess the phytochemical and anti-dermatophytic effect of the leaf and bark extracts of Xylosma longifolium Clos. The leaf and stem bark are used by the indigenous people of Manipur, India for treatment of skin diseases. Methods The leaves and stem barks of Xylosma longifolium were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol respectively. The different extracts of each plant parts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. The phenolic content was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Each extracts was further analysed by RP-HPLC to quantify some individual flavonoid components. The anti-dermatophytic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Microsporum boullardii MTCC 6059, M. canis (MTCC 2820 and MTCC 32700), M. gypseum MTCC 2819, Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878, T. rubrum (MTCC 296 and MTCC 3272). Results The free radical scavenging activity values were ranged from 0.7 to 1.41 mg/ml and 0.6 to 1.23 mg/ml, respectively for leaf and stem bark extracts. The amount of total phenolic contents of the extracts occurred in both leaf and bark in the range of 12 to 56.6 mg GAE/100 g and 16 to 58 mg GAE/100 g respectively. RP-HPLC analysis for flavonoids revealed the presence of two major flavonoid compounds, rutin and catechin. Kaempferol was in trace or absent. Methanol leaf extract showed significant low inhibitory effect against tested fungus Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878 (0.140625 mg/ml) as the most sensitive. These finding suggest that the methanol leaf extract tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. Conclusion The results of our study may partially justify the folkloric uses on the plant studied and further provide an evidence that the leaf extract of Xylosma longifolium might be indeed a potential sources of antimicrobial agents. PMID:23819459

2013-01-01

22

Changes in Clonal Poplar Leaf Chemistry Caused by Stem Galls Alter Herbivory and Leaf Litter Decomposition  

PubMed Central

Gall-inducing insects are highly specialized herbivores that modify the phenotype of their host plants. Beyond the direct manipulation of plant morphology and physiology in the immediate environment of the gall, there is also evidence of plant-mediated effects of gall-inducing insects on other species of the assemblages and ecosystem processes associated with the host plant. We analysed the impact of gall infestation by the aphid Pemphigus spirothecae on chemical leaf traits of clonal Lombardy poplars (Populus nigra var. italica) and the subsequent effects on intensity of herbivory and decomposition of leaves across five sites. We measured the herbivory of two feeding guilds: leaf-chewing insects that feed on the blade (e.g. caterpillars and sawfly larvae) and skeletonising insects that feed on the mesophyll of the leaves (e.g. larvae of beetles). Galled leaves had higher phenol (35%) and lower nitrogen and cholorophyll contents (35% respectively 37%) than non-galled leaves, and these differences were stronger in August than in June. Total herbivory intensity was 27% higher on galled than on non-galled leaves; damage by leaf chewers was on average 61% higher on gall infested leaves, whereas damage by skeletonising insects was on average 39% higher on non-galled leaves. After nine months the decomposition rate of galled leaf litter was 15% lower than that of non-galled leaf litter presumably because of the lower nitrogen content of the galled leaf litter. This indicated after-life effects of gall infestation on the decomposers. We found no evidence for galling x environment interactions. PMID:24260333

Künkler, Nora; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

2013-01-01

23

In vitro evaluation of cytotoxic activity of flower, leaf, stem and root extracts of five Artemisia species.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to investigate cytotoxic activity of flower, leaf, stem and root extracts of five Artemisia species against breast cancer cell line (MCF7) and human embryonic kidney normal cell line (HEK293). The studied Artemisia species were A. absinthium, A. vulgaris, A. incana, A. fragrans and A. spicigera. The cytotoxic activity was measured by MTT assay at different concentrations (62.5, 125, 250, 500 ?g/ml). Among these five species, methanol extracts of flower, leaf, stem and root of A. absinthium and A. vulgaris exhibited considerable cytotoxic activity. The flower extracts of these two species were found to have higher cytotoxic effect on MCF7 cell with an IC50 value of 221.5 and >500 ?g/ml, respectively. Leaf methanol extract of A. incana also showed cytotoxic activity. Cytotoxic activity of different extracts of A. absinthium, A. vulgaris and A. incana against MCF7 was 10%-40% more than HEK293 cells. Not only the extracts of A. spicigera and A. fragrans did not show any cytotoxic effect against both cell lines, but also increased the number of cells. This study revealed that A. absinthium and A. vulgaris may have a great potential to explore new anticancer drugs. PMID:25657777

Gordanian, B; Behbahani, M; Carapetian, J; Fazilati, M

2014-01-01

24

In vitro evaluation of cytotoxic activity of flower, leaf, stem and root extracts of five Artemisia species  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to investigate cytotoxic activity of flower, leaf, stem and root extracts of five Artemisia species against breast cancer cell line (MCF7) and human embryonic kidney normal cell line (HEK293). The studied Artemisia species were A. absinthium, A. vulgaris, A. incana, A. fragrans and A. spicigera. The cytotoxic activity was measured by MTT assay at different concentrations (62.5, 125, 250, 500 ?g/ml). Among these five species, methanol extracts of flower, leaf, stem and root of A. absinthium and A. vulgaris exhibited considerable cytotoxic activity. The flower extracts of these two species were found to have higher cytotoxic effect on MCF7 cell with an IC50 value of 221.5 and >500 ?g/ml, respectively. Leaf methanol extract of A. incana also showed cytotoxic activity. Cytotoxic activity of different extracts of A. absinthium, A. vulgaris and A. incana against MCF7 was 10%-40% more than HEK293 cells. Not only the extracts of A. spicigera and A. fragrans did not show any cytotoxic effect against both cell lines, but also increased the number of cells. This study revealed that A. absinthium and A. vulgaris may have a great potential to explore new anticancer drugs. PMID:25657777

Gordanian, B.; Behbahani, M.; Carapetian, J.; Fazilati, M.

2014-01-01

25

Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var. alata  

PubMed Central

Objective: Labisia pumila var. alata, commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia, is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties. Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat. Thus, this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila. Methods: The capabilities of callus, shoot, and root formation were evaluated by culturing both explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various PGRs at the concentrations of 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 mg/L. Results: Medium supplemented with 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) showed the optimal callogenesis from both leaf and stem explants with (72.34±19.55)% and (70.40±14.14)% efficacy, respectively. IBA was also found to be the most efficient PGR for root induction. A total of (50.00±7.07)% and (77.78±16.47)% of root formation were obtained from the in vitro stem and leaf explants after being cultured for (26.5±5.0) and (30.0±8.5) d in the medium supplemented with 1 and 3 mg/L of IBA, respectively. Shoot formation was only observed in stem explant, with the maximum percentage of formation ((100.00±0.00)%) that was obtained in 1 mg/L zeatin after (11.0±2.8) d of culture. Conclusions: Callus, roots, and shoots can be induced from in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila through the manipulation of types and concentrations of PGRs. PMID:23825148

Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Tan, Kinn Poay; Hussein, Sobri

2013-01-01

26

Toxic effect of stem bark and leaf of Euphorbia hirta plant against freshwater vector snail Lymnaea acuminata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous stem bark and leaf extracts of plant Euphorbia hirta (family-Euphorbiaceae) have potent molluscicidal activity. Sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50) of aqueous stem bark and leaf extracts of this plant also significantly (P<0.05) alter the levels of total protein, total free amino acid, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and the activity of enzyme protease and acid and

Sunil Kumar Singh; Ram P. Yadav; Sudhanshu Tiwari; Ajay Singh

2005-01-01

27

Changes in leaf, stem, and root anatomy of Chrysanthemum cv. Lillian Hoek following paclobutrazol application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants ofChrysanthemum cv. Lillian Hoek were treated with a paclobutrazol (PBZ) soil drench and histologically examined after 3 months. PBZ application\\u000a resulted in thicker leaves, reduced stem diameter, and roots with an increased diameter and an unusual segmented appearance.\\u000a Increased leaf thickness was partly due to an additional layer of palisade mesophyll, although individual palisade cells were\\u000a shorter, of smaller

G. E. Burrows; T. S. Boag; W. P. Stewart

1992-01-01

28

Essential Oil Gland Number and Ultrastructure During Mentha arvensis Leaf Ontogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in essential oil gland number, distribution and fine structure, and the oil content in the leaf of Mentha arvensis\\u000a L. were examined during its growth and senescence. Accumulation of essential oil occurred predominantly during the rapid leaf\\u000a expansion phase followed by a similar decline. The oil gland (trichome) number increased upto leaf maturation and declined\\u000a thereafter. Initially, cuticle remains

S. Shanker; P. V. Ajayakumar; Sangwan; S. Kumar; R. S. Sangwan

1999-01-01

29

Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid reduces neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25–35)?  

PubMed Central

Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid might attenuate learning/memory impairment and neuronal loss in rats induced by amyloid beta-peptide. This study aimed to explore the effects of Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid on amyloid beta-peptide-induced neuronal apoptosis and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in the rat hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were given intragastric administration of Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid, 50 or 100 mg/kg, once per day. On day 8 after administration, 10 ?g amyloid beta-peptide (25–35) was injected into the bilateral hippocampus of rats to induce neuronal apoptosis. On day 20, hippocampal tissue was harvested and probed with the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay. Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid at 50 and 100 mg/kg reduced neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25–35) in the rat hippocampus. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assay revealed that expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, cytochrome c and caspase-3 was significantly diminished by 50 and 100 mg/kg Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid, while expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was increased. Moreover, 100 mg/kg Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid had a more dramatic effect than the lower dosage. These experimental findings indicate that Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid dose-dependently attenuates neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide in the hippocampus, and it might mediate this by regulating the expression of Bax, cytochrome c, caspase-3 and Bcl-2. PMID:25206402

Wang, Ruiting; Shen, Xingbin; Xing, Enhong; Guan, Lihua; Xin, Lisheng

2013-01-01

30

Increasing the Number of STEM Graduates: Insights from the U.S. STEM Education & Modeling Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Business-Higher Education Forum's (BHEF's) Securing America's Leadership in STEM Initiative has broken new ground in addressing one of the nation's most critical challenges--increasing the number of students who are interested in and pursue careers in science, technology, engineering or mathematics, the so-called "STEM" fields. The Initiative,…

Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

31

Rapid hydraulic recovery in Eucalyptus pauciflora after drought: linkages between stem hydraulics and leaf gas exchange.  

PubMed

In woody plants, photosynthetic capacity is closely linked to rates at which the plant hydraulic system can supply water to the leaf surface. Drought-induced embolism can cause sharp declines in xylem hydraulic conductivity that coincide with stomatal closure and reduced photosynthesis. Recovery of photosynthetic capacity after drought is dependent on restored xylem function, although few data exist to elucidate this coordination. We examined the dynamics of leaf gas exchange and xylem function in Eucalyptus pauciflora seedlings exposed to a cycle of severe water stress and recovery after re-watering. Stomatal closure and leaf turgor loss occurred at water potentials that delayed the extensive spread of embolism through the stem xylem. Stem hydraulic conductance recovered to control levels within 6?h after re-watering despite a severe drought treatment, suggesting an active mechanism embolism repair. However, stomatal conductance did not recover after 10?d of re-watering, effecting tighter control of transpiration post drought. The dynamics of recovery suggest that a combination of hydraulic and non-hydraulic factors influenced stomatal behaviour post drought. PMID:23937187

Martorell, Sebastià; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Medrano, Hipólito; Ball, Marilyn C; Choat, Brendan

2014-03-01

32

[Allelopathic effect of Nelumbo nucifera stem and leaf tissue extract on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus quadricanda].  

PubMed

Effects of Nelumbo nucifera stem and leaf tissue extract on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus quadricanda were studied to verify its potential in entriphication control. Five concentrations of Nelumbo nucifera stem and leaf tissue extract were chosen to compare their inhibitory effects on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus quadricanda. The result showed that the leaf extract inhibited the algae bloom more effectively than the stem extract on the whole. When the leaf extract normality was 25 g x L(-1), the highest inhibition rate of Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus quadricanda was 71.33% and 78.14%, respectively, while for the stem extract, the values were 49.78% and 52.14%. Propanamide was found in both the stem and leaf tissue extracts of Nelumbo nucifera by GC-MS analysis, with concentrations of 1.1 mg x L(-1) and 0.2 mg x L(-1), respectively. The EC50 values of the two kinds of algae were calculated by the probability method. PMID:24027993

He, Lian-Sheng; Meng, Fan-Li; Diao, Xiao-Jun; Li, Yi-Wei; Meng, Rui; Xi, Bei-Dou; Shu, Jian-Min

2013-07-01

33

Dependence of fluence errors in dynamic IMRT on leaf-positional errors varying with time and leaf number.  

PubMed

In d-MLC based IMRT, leaves move along a trajectory that lies within a user-defined tolerance (TOL) about the ideal trajectory specified in a d-MLC sequence file. The MLC controller measures leaf positions multiple times per second and corrects them if they deviate from ideal positions by a value greater than TOL. The magnitude of leaf-positional errors resulting from finite mechanical precision depends on the performance of the MLC motors executing leaf motions and is generally larger if leaves are forced to move at higher speeds. The maximum value of leaf-positional errors can be limited by decreasing TOL. However, due to the inherent time delay in the MLC controller, this may not happen at all times. Furthermore, decreasing the leaf tolerance results in a larger number of beam hold-offs, which, in turn leads, to a longer delivery time and, paradoxically, to higher chances of leaf-positional errors (< or = TOL). On the other end, the magnitude of leaf-positional errors depends on the complexity of the fluence map to be delivered. Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to determine the actual distribution of leaf-positional errors either by the imaging of moving MLC apertures with a digital imager or by analysis of a MLC log file saved by a MLC controller. This leads next to an important question: What is the relation between the distribution of leaf-positional errors and fluence errors. In this work, we introduce an analytical method to determine this relation in dynamic IMRT delivery. We model MLC errors as Random-Leaf Positional (RLP) errors described by a truncated normal distribution defined by two characteristic parameters: a standard deviation sigma and a cut-off value deltax0 (deltaxo approximately TOL). We quantify fluence errors for two cases: (i) deltax0 > sigma (unrestricted normal distribution) and (ii) deltax0 < sigma (deltax0--limited normal distribution). We show that an average fluence error of an IMRT field is proportional to (i) sigma/ALPO and (ii) deltax0/ALPO, respectively, where ALPO is an Average Leaf Pair Opening (the concept of ALPO was previously introduced by us in Med. Phys. 28, 2220-2226 (2001). Therefore, dose errors associated with RLP errors are larger for fields requiring small leaf gaps. For an N-field IMRT plan, we demonstrate that the total fluence error (if we neglect inhomogeneities and scatter) is proportional to 1/square root of N, where N is the number of fields, which slightly reduces the impact of RLP errors of individual fields on the total fluence error. We tested and applied the analytical apparatus in the context of commercial inverse treatment planning systems used in our clinics (Helios and BrainScan). We determined the actual distribution of leaf-positional errors by studying MLC controller (Varian Mark II and Brainlab Novalis MLCs) log files created by the controller after each field delivery. The analytically derived relationship between fluence error and RLP errors was confirmed by numerical simulations. The equivalence of relative fluence error to relative dose error was verified by a direct dose calculation. We also experimentally verified the truthfulness of fluences derived from the log file data by comparing them to film data. PMID:14596312

Zygmanski, Piotr; Kung, Jong H; Jiang, Steve B; Chin, Lee

2003-10-01

34

Separating soil and leaf water 18O isotopic signals in plant stem cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxygen-18 signal of soil and leaf water are both recorded in heterotrophically synthesized plant stem cellulose. Presently, these signals can only be teased apart with modeling and assumptions on the nature of the isotopic enrichment of leaf water. A method by which these two signals are chemically separated and analyzed is tested here. Heterotrophically synthesized cellulose from germinating seeds having a mixture of isotopic signals from the reserve carbohydrate (starch) and that of the water during cellulose synthesis was hydrolyzed and the resulting glucose converted to glucose phenylosazone. The analysis of the 18O/ 16O ratios of cellulose and of glucose phenylosazone were used to calculate the oxygen isotope ratio of the oxygen attached to the second carbon of the glucose moieties of the cellulose molecule. The calculated ? 18O value of this oxygen was highly correlated with that of the water available for cellulose synthesis showing a nearly one-to-one relationship (slope = 1.027) and leading to the conclusion that it completely exchanges with water during heterotrophic cellulose synthesis. Once this method is refined so as to increase precision, it will be possible to derive the ? 18O values of soil water available to plants from the oxygen isotope analysis of stem cellulose and its derivative.

Sternberg, Leonel da Silveira Lobo; Anderson, William T.; Morrison, Kanema

2003-07-01

35

Control of Leaf and Stem Growth in Light-grown Pea Seedlings by Two High Irradiance Responses 1  

PubMed Central

The control exerted by light on leaf and stem growth in light-grown Alaska pea seedlings was studied during the main photoperiod. Two high irradiance responses were observed. The action spectrum for one had a single sharp peak at 600 nanometers. The action spectrum for the other showed a broad peak between 440 and 470 nanometers. These two light responses must be activated simultaneously for any inhibition of stem growth or promotion of leaf growth. Both action spectra may be explained in terms of the high irradiance response of phytochrome. PMID:16660822

Elliott, William M.

1979-01-01

36

Brassica rapa stock description: F1 and F2 Non-purple stem, Yellow-green leaf stocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PDF containing seed stock profile information for and illustration of the F1 and F2 Non-Purple Stem, Yellow-Green Leaf variety of Brassica rapa (Fast Plants). This also includes some brief suggestions for their use as a model organism in teaching Mendelian genetics with a monohybrid cross using Wisconsin Fast Plants.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

37

The effect of leaf presence on the rooting of stem cutting of bitter melon and on changes in polyamine levels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study was conducted to investigate the optimal hormone treatment for rooting in bitter melon and the effect of defoliation on rooting and polyamine levels. Commercial preparation (diluted 1:10 and 1: 20) gave extensive rooting within five days after treatment. The presence of leaf with the stem ...

38

Coordination of stem and leaf hydraulic conductance in southern California shrubs: a test of the hydraulic segmentation hypothesis.  

PubMed

Coordination of water movement among plant organs is important for understanding plant water use strategies. The hydraulic segmentation hypothesis (HSH) proposes that hydraulic conductance in shorter lived, 'expendable' organs such as leaves and longer lived, more 'expensive' organs such as stems may be decoupled, with resistance in leaves acting as a bottleneck or 'safety valve'. We tested the HSH in woody species from a Mediterranean-type ecosystem by measuring leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) and stem hydraulic conductivity (KS). We also investigated whether leaves function as safety valves by relating Kleaf and the hydraulic safety margin (stem water potential minus the water potential at which 50% of conductivity is lost (?stem-?50)). We also examined related plant traits including the operating range of water potentials, wood density, leaf mass per area, and leaf area to sapwood area ratio to provide insight into whole-plant water use strategies. For hydrated shoots, Kleaf was negatively correlated with KS , supporting the HSH. Additionally, Kleaf was positively correlated with the hydraulic safety margin and negatively correlated with the leaf area to sapwood area ratio. Consistent with the HSH, our data indicate that leaves may act as control valves for species with high KS , or a low safety margin. This critical role of leaves appears to contribute importantly to plant ecological specialization in a drought-prone environment. PMID:24860955

Pivovaroff, Alexandria L; Sack, Lawren; Santiago, Louis S

2014-08-01

39

Coordination of stem and leaf hydraulic conductance in southern California shrubs: a test of the hydraulic segmentation  

E-print Network

Coordination of stem and leaf hydraulic conductance in southern California shrubs: a test of the hydraulic segmentation hypothesis Alexandria L. Pivovaroff1 , Lawren Sack2 and Louis S. Santiago1 1 2014 New Phytologist (2014) 203: 842­850 doi: 10.1111/nph.12850 Key words: chaparral, hydraulic

Sack, Lawren

40

Neural stem cells and regulation of cell number.  

PubMed

Normal CNS development involves the sequential differentiation of multipotent stem cells. Alteration of the numbers of stem cells, their self-renewal ability, or their proliferative capacity will have major effects on the appropriate development of the nervous system. In this review, we discuss different mechanisms that regulate neural stem cell differentiation. Proliferation signals and cell cycle regulators may regulate cell kinetics or total number of cell divisions. Loss of trophic support and cytokine receptor activation may differentially contribute to the induction of cell death at specific stages of development. Signaling from differentiated progeny or asymmetric distribution of specific molecules may alter the self-renewal characteristics of stem cells. We conclude that the final decision of a cell to self-renew, differentiate or remain quiescent is dependent on an integration of multiple signaling pathways and at each instant will depend on cell density, metabolic state, ligand availability, type and levels of receptor expression, and downstream cross-talk between distinct signaling pathways. PMID:11897403

Sommer, Lukas; Rao, Mahendra

2002-01-01

41

The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Apium graveolens Leaf on the Number of Sexual Cells and Testicular Structure in Rat  

PubMed Central

Background: Use of medicinal plants with high antioxidant properties could be effective to increase fertility and improvement of disorders such as hormonal imbalance, impotency, oligospermia and immotile sperm. Celery (Apium graveolens) is rich in antioxidant agents. The leaf and stems of celery contain phenols, furanocoumarin and luteolin. Apigenin is one of the main flavonoids of celery leaf. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of celery on histological properties of testis and number of sexual cells in male rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight rats each. Control, did not receive any medication; sham, received normal saline; and two groups received celery extract orally in dosages of 100 and 200 mg/kg/BW once every two days for 60 days. At the end, animals were anesthetized, and caudal part of the right epididymis was used for sperm counting. After fixation of testis, tissue sections were prepared and studied microscopically to evaluate morphometric (lumen diameter, number of primary spermatocyte and sertoli cell) and histological changes. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test using SPSS15 software. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There was a significant increase in the number of sperms, sertoli cells, and primary spermatocyte (P < 0.05) in groups receiving extract; however, structural changes were not observed in the groups. Conclusions: It seems that celery increases spermatogenesis in male rats, but has no destructive effects on testicular tissue. PMID:25625050

Kooti, Wesam; Mansouri, Esrafil; Ghasemiboroon, Maryam; Harizi, Mahmoud; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Afrisham, Reza

2014-01-01

42

Composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from leaf, stem and root of Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh. from Iran.  

PubMed

The water distilled essential oils from leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh. were analyzed by GC and GC/MS methods. The leaf oil was characterized by a high amount of camphor (56.4%), whereas in the stem oil, camphor (26.0%), trans-beta-ocimene (23.6%) and germacrene-d (15.0%) were the major constituents. The main components of the root oil were alpha-pinene (50.0%), trans-beta-farnesene (13.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (11.0%). Antibacterial activity of the leaf, stem and root oil were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. The oils showed inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi, but were not active against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:19634337

Shafaghat, Ali; Sadeghi, Hajar; Oji, Khodamali

2009-06-01

43

Toxic effect of stem bark and leaf of Euphorbia hirta plant against freshwater vector snail Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

The aqueous stem bark and leaf extracts of plant Euphorbia hirta (family-Euphorbiaceae) have potent molluscicidal activity. Sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50) of aqueous stem bark and leaf extracts of this plant also significantly (P<0.05) alter the levels of total protein, total free amino acid, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and the activity of enzyme protease and acid and alkaline phosphatase in various tissues of the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata in time and dose dependent manner. Euphorbia hirta (family-Euphorbiaceae) commonly known as Dudhi, is a common medicinal plant of India, which is used in variety of diseases i.e. cough, asthma, colic, dysentery, genito urinary diseases. PMID:15722098

Singh, Sunil Kumar; Yadav, Ram P; Tiwari, Sudhanshu; Singh, Ajay

2005-04-01

44

Sedative effects of Arachis hypogaea L. stem and leaf extracts on sleep-deprived rats.  

PubMed

Arachis hypogaea L. stem and leaf extracts (AHSLE) are reputed to aid sleep. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sedative effects of AHSLE on sleep-deprived (SD) rats and the effect on energy system pathways. Furthermore, we analyzed the essential oil components of Arachis hypogaea L. stems and leaves (AHSL) to explain the sedative effects. AHSLE were obtained by extracting AHSL twice with water at 98°C for 3 h. Animal experiments were performed in the Laboratory Animal Resource Center, University of Tsukuba, Japan, and the levels of neurotransmitters were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The essential oil of the AHSL was obtained by simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Following treatment with AHSLE, the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels of the SD rats increased, which is a different effect from that previously observed in freely behaving rats. Adenosine (Ad) were not elevated by AHSLE uniformly throughout the brain, but accumulated in site-specific and time-prolonged manners. Following GC-MS analysis of the AHSL essential oil, a total of 37 compounds were identified; the major components were linalool (16.17%, which has sedative-like activity), n-hexadecanoic acid (16.42%), and 1-octen-3-ol (8.48%; a product of linalool decomposition). AHSLE affect the target neurotransmitters related to the rat circadian rhythms in specific brain regions, suggesting that AHSLE have the potential to increase sleep during the SD phase, and the sedative effects of AHSLE may be due to high levels of linalool and its decomposition products. AHSLE are potentially useful as sedatives or sleep aids in hypnotic therapy. PMID:24137234

Zu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhenya; Xiong, Guangquan; Liao, Tao; Qiao, Yu; Li, Yiting; Geng, Shengrong; Li, Xin

2013-08-01

45

Evaluation of Antimalarial Activity of Various Fractions of Morinda lucida Leaf Extract and Alstonia boonei Stem Bark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation into antimalaria activity of various fractions of Morinda lucida leaf extract and Alstonia boonei stem bark was conducted using standard techniques. The present study confirms the antimalarial activity of Morinda lucida and Alstonia boonei. Morinda lucida exhibited MIC of 0.6mg\\/ml and Alstonia boonei MIC 0.2mg\\/ml. The anti plasmodia activity of both plants were found to reside majorly in the

I. S. Bello; T. Oduola; O. G. Adeosun; G. O. Raheem; A. A. Ademosun

2009-01-01

46

Feasibility study: Alfalfa leaf meal as a value-added crop and alfalfa stems as biomass fuel. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The grantee recognizes the importance of alfalfa production to agricultural economics in the western United States. With this grant, it secured the assistance of experts at the University of Wyoming to explore alternative uses for and, thus, ways to add value to alfalfa. The study was prompted by periodic unstable demand and price fluctuations for hay. The agricultural infrastructure and expertise for producing alfalfa is well established in the Western U.S. Alfalfa is a well-adapted, environmentally friendly crop which avoids a large fertilizer subsidy by fixing atmospheric nitrogen into a form utilized for plant growth. Leaf-stem fractions were evaluated for forage quality, biofuel energy content, and co-product yield due to seperation procedure. The feasibility of conducting alfalfa leaf-stem separations in both stationary and mobile plants was considered on the basis of three factors: (1) price received for each fraction, (2) cost of the hay to be processed, and (3) cost of processing the hay. Both stationary and mobile separation plants showed positive net income potentials. Alfalfa stem pellets could be marked at appreciably lower cost than equivalent wood pellets for use in wood stoves. The report recommends that sufficient quantities of high-quality alfalfa leaf meal be produced and tested for evaluation in dairy, beef, aquaculture, poultry, and swine rations.

Gray, A.; Kaan, D.

1996-05-28

47

Arachis hypogaea L. stem and leaf extract improves the sleep behavior of pentobarbital-treated rats.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the sedative effects of Arachis hypogaea L. stem and leaf extract (AHSLE) and determine its effect pathways through ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated channels on male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with pentobarbital. AHSLE was obtained from 98°C water (3 h, extracted twice). AHSLE and flumazenil (a GABA type A receptor antagonist) were administered to the rats orally, whereas pentobarbital sodium and muscimol (a GABA type A receptor agonist) were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.). The results demonstrated that AHSLE decreased sleep latency and increased sleep time in pentobarbital-treated rats (50 mg/kg, i.p.). The coadministration of AHSLE and muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) significantly increased sleep time and reduced sleep latency in pentobarbital-treated rats and these actions were significantly antagonized by flumazenil at a dose of 3.5 mg/kg. These results indicated that AHSLE improved the sleep behavior in pentobarbital-treated rats, possibly through GABA-gated channel-related mechanisms. PMID:24748980

Zu, Xiao-Yan; Xiong, Guang-Quan; Geng, Sheng-Rong; Liao, Tao; Li, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-Ya

2014-05-01

48

Cell Stem Cell Dynamic Changes in the Copy Number of Pluripotency  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Resource Dynamic Changes in the Copy Number of Pluripotency and Cell Proliferation University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel 8Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Sue and Bill Gross Stem Cell 11Centro de Medicina Regenerativa de Barcelona, Barcelona E-08003, Spain 12International Stem Cell

Shamir, Ron

49

The Ratio of Leaf to Total Photosynthetic Area Influences Shade Survival and Plastic Response to Light of Green?stemmed Leguminous Shrub Seedlings  

PubMed Central

Different plant species and organs within a plant differ in their plastic response to light. These responses influence their performance and survival in relation to the light environment, which may range from full sunlight to deep shade. Plasticity, especially with regard to physiological features, is linked to a greater capacity to exploit high light and is usually low in shade?tolerant species. Among photosynthetic organs, green stems, which represent a large fraction of the total photosynthetic area of certain species, are hypothesized to be less capable of adjustment to light than leaves, because of biomechanical and hydraulic constraints. The response to light by leaves and stems of six species of leguminous, green?stemmed shrubs from dry and high?light environments was studied by growing seedlings in three light environments: deep shade, moderate shade and sun (3, 30 and 100 % of full sunlight, respectively). Survival in deep shade ranged from 2 % in Retama sphaerocarpa to 74 % in Ulex europaeus. Survival was maximal at moderate shade in all species, ranging from 80 to 98 %. The six species differed significantly in their ratio of leaf to total photosynthetic area, which influenced their light response. Survival in deep shade increased significantly with increasing ratio of leaf to total photosynthetic area, and decreased with increasing plasticity in net photosynthesis and dark respiration. Responses to light differed between stems and leaves within each species. Mean phenotypic plasticity for the variables leaf or stem specific mass, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio, and carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio of leaves, was inversely related to that of stems. Although mean plasticity of stems increased with the ratio of leaf to total photosynthetic area, the mean plasticity of leaves decreased. Shrubs with green stems and a low ratio of leaf to total photosynthetic area are expected to be restricted to well?lit habitats, at least during the seedling stage, owing to their inefficient light capture and the low plasticity of their stems. PMID:12646502

VALLADARES, FERNANDO; HERNÁNDEZ, LIBERTAD G.; DOBARRO, IKER; GARCÍA?PÉREZ, CRISTINA; SANZ, RUBÉN; PUGNAIRE, FRANCISCO I.

2003-01-01

50

[Determination of myclobutanil 25% WG degradation dynamics in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil by HPLC-MS/MS].  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for determining degradation dynamics and final residues of myclobutanil 25% WG in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned-up with primary secondary amine (PSA) solid phase extraction cartridge, separated by Kromasil Eternity-5-C18 (2.1 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) column with a gradient of acetonitrile and 0.1% formate in water as mobile phases, and analyzed with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode by employing the external standard method. The average recoveries and the relative standard derivations (RSDs) of myclobutanil at the spiked level of 0.01-0.20 mg x kg(-1) were 80.9%-90.7% and 5.54%-9.29%, respectively, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.005 mg x kg(-1). The method with good reproducible, high precision and low detection limit could meet the requirements of residual analysis on ginseng production. The half-lives of myclobutanil were from 6.25 days to 9.94 days in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil at spraying dosage of 1 152 g x hm(-2) The final residues were below 0.060 1 mg x kg(-1) in root, below 0.081 7 mg x kg(-1) in stem, 0.006 0-0.102 2 mg x kg(-1) in leaf and below 0.037 6 mg x kg(-1) in soil at spraying dosage range from 576 to 1 152 g x hm(-2). It is recommended that the MRLs of myclobutanil in dried ginseng may be suggested to be 0.10 mg x kg(-1) temporarily, and the preharvest interval was set at 35 days. PMID:25276964

Wang, Yan; Wang, Chun-Wei; Gao, Jie; Cui, Li-Li; Xu, Yun-Cheng

2014-07-01

51

Leaf Arrangement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustrated guide to leaf arrangement shows students how leaves attached at a stem node can be in alternate, opposite, or whorled arrangements. This single Web page can be easily printed for use at field sites.

52

Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activity controls plant growth by promoting leaf cell number.  

PubMed

A changing global environment, rising population and increasing demand for biofuels are challenging agriculture and creating a need for technologies to increase biomass production. Here we demonstrate that the inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity is a promising technology to achieve this under non-stress conditions. Furthermore, we investigate the basis of this growth enhancement via leaf series and kinematic cell analysis as well as single leaf transcriptomics and plant metabolomics under non-stress conditions. These data indicate a regulatory function of PARP within cell growth and potentially development. PARP inhibition enhances growth of Arabidopsis thaliana by enhancing the cell number. Time course single leaf transcriptomics shows that PARP inhibition regulates a small subset of genes which are related to growth promotion, cell cycle and the control of metabolism. This is supported by metabolite analysis showing overall changes in primary and particularly secondary metabolism. Taken together the results indicate a versatile function of PARP beyond its previously reported roles in controlling plant stress tolerance and thus can be a useful target for enhancing biomass production. PMID:24587323

Schulz, Philipp; Jansseune, Karel; Degenkolbe, Thomas; Méret, Michaël; Claeys, Hannes; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Teige, Markus; Willmitzer, Lothar; Hannah, Matthew A

2014-01-01

53

Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase Activity Controls Plant Growth by Promoting Leaf Cell Number  

PubMed Central

A changing global environment, rising population and increasing demand for biofuels are challenging agriculture and creating a need for technologies to increase biomass production. Here we demonstrate that the inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity is a promising technology to achieve this under non-stress conditions. Furthermore, we investigate the basis of this growth enhancement via leaf series and kinematic cell analysis as well as single leaf transcriptomics and plant metabolomics under non-stress conditions. These data indicate a regulatory function of PARP within cell growth and potentially development. PARP inhibition enhances growth of Arabidopsis thaliana by enhancing the cell number. Time course single leaf transcriptomics shows that PARP inhibition regulates a small subset of genes which are related to growth promotion, cell cycle and the control of metabolism. This is supported by metabolite analysis showing overall changes in primary and particularly secondary metabolism. Taken together the results indicate a versatile function of PARP beyond its previously reported roles in controlling plant stress tolerance and thus can be a useful target for enhancing biomass production. PMID:24587323

Schulz, Philipp; Jansseune, Karel; Degenkolbe, Thomas; Méret, Michaël; Claeys, Hannes; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Teige, Markus; Willmitzer, Lothar; Hannah, Matthew A.

2014-01-01

54

Leaf and stem of Vitis amurensis and its active components protect against amyloid ? protein (25-35)-induced neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

This study investigated a methanol extract from the leaf and stem of Vitis amurensis (Vitaceae) for possible neuroprotective effects on neurotoxicity induced by amyloid ? protein (A?) (25-35) in cultured rat cortical neurons and also for antidementia activity in mice. Exposure of cultured cortical neurons to 10 ?M A? (25-35) for 36 h induced neuronal apoptotic death. At concentrations of 1-10 ?g/mL, V. amurensis inhibited neuronal death, the elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), all of which were induced by A? (25-35) in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. Memory loss induced by intracerebroventricular injection of ICR mice with 16 nmol A? (25-35) was inhibited by chronic treatment with V. amurensis extract (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days), as measured by a passive avoidance test. Amurensin G, r-2-viniferin and trans-?-viniferin isolated from V. amurensis also inhibited neuronal death, the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) and the generation of ROS induced by A? (25-35) in cultured rat cortical neurons. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of V. amurensis may be partially attributable to these compounds. These results suggest that the antidementia effect of V. amurensis is due to its neuroprotective effect against A? (25-35)-induced neurotoxicity and that the leaf and stem of V. amurensis have possible therapeutic roles for preventing the progression of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21052941

Jeong, Ha Yeon; Kim, Joo Youn; Lee, Hong Kyu; Ha, Do Thi; Song, Kyung-Sik; Bae, KiHwan; Seong, Yeon Hee

2010-10-01

55

Protection of wheat against leaf and stem rust and powdery mildew diseases by inhibition of polyamine metabolism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In higher plants, polyamines arise from arginine by one of two pathways: via ornithine and ornithine decarboxylase or via agmatine and arginine decarboxylase but in fungi, only the ornithine decarboxylase pathway is present. Since polyamines are required for normal growth of microorganisms and plants and since the ornithine pathway can be irreversibly blocked by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) which has no effect on arginine decarboxylase, fungal infection of green plants might be controlled by the site-directed use of such a specific metabolic inhibitor. DFMO at relatively low concentrations provided effective control of the three biotrophic fungal pathogens studied, Puccinia recondita (leaf rust), P. graminis f. sp. tritici (stem rust), and Erysiphe graminis (powdery mildew) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Effective control of infection by leaf or stem rust fungi was obtained with sprays of DFMO that ranged from about 0.01 to 0.20 mM in experiments where the inhibitor was applied after spore inoculation. The powdery mildew fungus was somewhat more tolerant of DFMO, but good control of the pathogen was obtained at less than 1.0 mM. In general, application of DFMO after spore inoculation was more effective than application before inoculation. Less control was obtained following treatment with alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) but the relatively high degree of control obtained raises the possibility of a DFMA to DFMO conversion by arginase.

Weinstein, L. H.; Osmeloski, J. F.; Wettlaufer, S. H.; Galston, A. W.

1987-01-01

56

Mapping of QTLs for leaf developmental behavior in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf developmental behavior in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the important agronomic characteristics, which not only determines vegetative growth but also influences grain yield. This study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for total number of leaves (TNL), days to the emergence of flag-leaf (DEF) and the leaf emergence rates (LER) on main stem, which mainly

Yanjun Dong; Hiroshi Kamiunten; Tsugufumi Ogawa; Eiji Tsuzuki; Hiroyuki Terao; Dongzhi Lin; Mitsuhiro Matsuo

2004-01-01

57

Inheritance of flower, stem, leaf, and disease traits in three diploid interspecific rose populations  

E-print Network

interspecific backcross populations to observe the segregation of several morphological and disease resistance traits. The qualitative traits of bloom habit, flower color, flower form, and presence of stem prickles were characterized in two locations in College...

Shupert, David Andrew

2006-10-30

58

MOLECULAR VARIABILITY OF A MINNESOTA POPULATION OF PHOMA MEDICAGINIS VAR. MEDICAGINIS, THE CAUSAL AGENT OF SPRING BLACK STEM AND LEAF SPOT OF ALFALFA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spring black stem and leaf spot of alfalfa caused by Phoma medicaginis Malbr. & Roum. is an important disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in temperate regions of the United States, causing yield losses and decreasing forage quality. Isolates of the fungus have been shown previously to vary in mo...

59

An Immunocapture RT-PCR Procedure Using Apple stem grooving virus Antibodies Facilitates Molecular Genetic Characterization of Citrus tatter leaf virus from the Original Meyer Lemon Host  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A magnetic bead-based immonocapture system using polyclonal antiserum against Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) successfully facilitated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of sequences from three Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV) isolates originally isolated from the citrus host Meyer lemon....

60

RESISTANCE TO LEAF RUST, STRIPE RUST, AND STEM RUST IN AEGILOPS SPECIES IN ISRAEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A total of 1,323 single plant accessions of Aegilops bicornis, Ae. kotschyi, Ae. longissima, Ae. ovata, Ae. searsii, Ae. sharonensis, Ae. speltoides, and Ae. variabilis collected from 18 regions in Israel and adjacent regions of Lebanon and Egypt were evaluated for leaf rust and stripe rust resistan...

61

LEAF RUST AND STEM RUST RESISTANCE IN TRITICUM DICOCCOIDES POPULATIONS IN ISRAEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A total of 742 single plant accessions of Triticum dicoccoides were collected from 26 locations in Israel. All accessions were evaluated for leaf rust resistance in field plots, and subsets of 284 and 468 accessions were tested in the greenhouse in Tel Aviv and St. Paul, MN, respectively, for seedli...

62

Effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera.  

PubMed

Moringa oleifera, Lam. (Moringaceae) is grown world-wide in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia and Africa and contains abundant various nutrients. This study describes the effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of M. oleifera grown in Taiwan. The results showed that the winter samples of Moringa had higher ash (except the stalk part), calcium and phenolic compounds (except the leaf part) and stronger antioxidative activity than summer samples. The methanolic extract of Moringa showed strong scavenging effect of DPPH radicals and reducing power. The trend of antioxidative activity as a function of the part of Moringa was: leaf > stem > stalk for samples from both seasons investigated. The Moringa extract showed strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and high Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity except the stalk part. PMID:22016645

Shih, Ming-Chih; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Kang, Sue-Ming; Tsai, Min-Lang

2011-01-01

63

The endophytic mycoflora of bark, leaf, and stem tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) from Varanasi (India).  

PubMed

A systematic study was made of the endophytes of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (the neem tree) growing in several of its natural habitats in India. A total of 233 isolates of endophytic fungi representing 18 fungal taxa were obtained from segments of bark, stem, and leaves of this tree. Hyphomycetes (62.2%) were the most prevalent followed by the Coelomycetes (27.4%) and Mycelia Sterilia (7.7%). As mathematically determined, the maximum species richness and frequency of colonization of endophytes appeared in leaf segments rather than stem and bark tissues from each location. Endophytic colonization frequency was also greater in leaves (45.5%) than bark (31.5%). The leaf samples from all locations were nearly constant in their endophytic composition, whereas bark samples showed maximum diversity at different locations. Inter-site comparisons for endophytic diversity, however, were not significantly different with Loc1 and Loc2 having a maximum of 66.67% Jc. The smallest similarity was between Loc2 and Loc3 of 54.17% Jc. The dominant endophytic fungi isolated were Phomopsis oblonga, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Pestalotiopsis sp., Trichoderma sp, and Aspergillus sp. Genera such as Periconia, Stenella, and Drechslera are reported here for the first time as endophytes from this host plant. This report illustrates the value of sampling different tissues of a given plant in several locations to obtain the greatest species diversity of endophytes. The rich and sizeable collection of endophytic fungi from this specific plant may represent a unique source of one or more of the interesting and useful bioactive compounds normally associated with A. indica such as the azadirachtins and related tetranortriterpenoids. PMID:17394041

Verma, V C; Gond, S K; Kumar, A; Kharwar, R N; Strobel, Gary

2007-07-01

64

Effects of Potato-Psyllid-Vectored 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' Infection on Potato Leaf and Stem Physiology.  

PubMed

The bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' is associated with zebra chip disease (ZC), a threat to potato production in North America and New Zealand. It is vectored by potato psyllids. Previous studies observed that 'Ca. L. solanacearum' infection causes potato tubers to undergo ZC-symptom-associated shifts in physiology, such as increased levels of amino acids, sugars, and phenolics. However, little is known about how 'Ca. L. solanacearum' infections caused by psyllid vector feeding may affect metabolism in potato foliage and stems. This study compared metabolism in potato plants fed upon by 'Ca. L. solanacearum'-positive psyllids with potato plants not exposed to psyllids. Foliar levels of asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, fructose, glucose, sucrose, a ferulic acid derivative, and quinic acid were lower in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'-inoculated than noninfected plants. However, foliar levels of proline, serine, four phenolic compounds, and most terpenoids were greater in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'-inoculated than noninfected plants. Upper stem levels of asparagine and aspartic acid, upper and lower stem levels of ellagitannins and most monoterpenoids, and lower stem level of sesquiterpenoids were greater in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'-inoculated than noninfected plants. These results suggest that many defense-related terpenoid compounds might increase in plants which had psyllids inoculate 'Ca. L. solanacearum'. This could impact progression and spread of ZC. PMID:25469656

Wallis, C M; Rashed, A; Chen, J; Paetzold, L; Workneh, F; Rush, C M

2015-02-01

65

Alfalfa leaf protein and stem cell wall polysaccharide yields under hay and biomass management systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been proposed as a biofuel feedstock in which the stems would be processed to produce ethanol and the leaves sold separately as a livestock feed. We propose a modified management regime with reduced population density and delayed, less frequent harvests be implemente...

66

Heterologous over-expression of ACC SYNTHASE8 (ACS8) in Populus tremula x P. alba clone 717-1B4 results in elevated levels of ethylene and induces stem dwarfism and reduced leaf size through separate genetic pathways  

PubMed Central

Plant height is an important agronomic and horticultural trait that impacts plant productivity, durability and esthetic appeal. A number of the plant hormones such as gibberellic acid (GA), auxin and ethylene have been linked to control of plant architecture and size. Reduction in GA synthesis and auxin transport result in dwarfism while ethylene may have a permissive or repressive effect on tissue growth depending upon the age of plant tissues or the environmental conditions considered. We describe here an activation-tagged mutant of Populus tremula x P. alba clone 717-1B4 identified from 2000 independent transgenic lines due to its significantly reduced growth rate and smaller leaf size. Named dwarfy, the phenotype is due to increased expression of PtaACC SYNTHASE8, which codes for an enzyme in the first committed step in the biosynthesis of ethylene. Stems of dwarfy contain fiber and vessel elements that are reduced in length while leaves contain fewer cells. These morphological differences are linked to PtaACS8 inducing different transcriptomic programs in the stem and leaf, with genes related to auxin diffusion and sensing being repressed in the stem and genes related to cell division found to be repressed in the leaves. Altogether, our study gives mechanistic insight into the genetics underpinning ethylene-induced dwarfism in a perennial model organism. PMID:25414707

Plett, Jonathan M.; Williams, Martin; LeClair, Gaetan; Regan, Sharon; Beardmore, Tannis

2014-01-01

67

Organogenesis in callus derived from stem and leaf tissues of apple and cherry rootstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus formation from stem internodes of the apple rootstocks M.9, M.25, M.26, M.27 and the cherry rootstock Colt, and from pith of Nicotiana tabacum cv. Wisconsin 38 was initiated on 4 a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)-based media (2.0–10.0 mg1-1). Transfer of callus to corresponding media lacking NAA allowed regeneration of shoots from callus of M.25, M.27, Colt and tobacco but not of

David J. James; Andrew J. Passey; Suman B. Malhotra

1984-01-01

68

Fertilizer Facts: April 1997, Number 16 Correcting Physiologic Leaf Spot Damage in  

E-print Network

' and Other Winter Wheat Cultivars Richard Engel Assoc. Prof., Soil Fertility/Plant Nutrition Land Resources and Environmental Sciences Dept. Montana State University A winter wheat leaf spot complex of unknown origin referred to as a "physiological leaf spot" by plant pathologists and breeders, meaning it could

Lawrence, Rick L.

69

Identification of drought-responsive microRNAs in leaf and stem tissues of Oryza sativa by Solexa sequencing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we profiled the microRNA (miRNA) sequences from three rice varieties: Vandana (droughttolerant), Aday Sel (drought-tolerant) and IR64 (drought-susceptible) in greenhouse conditions. Drought treatment was given to three week old seedlings by withholding watering until leaf rolling was observed while controls were given sufficient water. Among the 21 highly conserved miRNA families in rice, we found that 10 families have at least a common mature miRNA member that is differentially expressed between leaf and stem tissues. Our results also suggest that the predicted target genes in these differentially expressed conserved and non-conserved miRNAs are functionally diverse. A wide range of biological processes are found to be regulated by these target genes between both tissues, namely root development (5.3-5.7%), cell transport (13.2-18.4%), response to stress (10.5-11.3%), lignin catabolic process (3.8-5.3%), metabolic processes (32.1-39.5%), oxidation-reduction process (9.4-13.2%) and DNA replication (5.7-7.9%). Progress is still being made to study the expression profiles of differentially expressed miRNAs in our datasets in order to select the potential miRNA candidates that play major regulatory roles in plant molecular response under drought stress conditions. We hope that the miRNA profiling data will provide new information to better understand the regulation of drought-tolerant genes at the genome level.

Huat, Cheah Boon; Nadarajah, Kalaivani; Ratnam, Wickneswari

2014-09-01

70

Increasing the Number of Homegrown STEM Majors: What Works and What Doesn't  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University of Nebraska-Omaha (UNO) and Metropolitan Community College (MCC) have recently completed a five-year NSF STEP project to increase the number of homegrown STEM graduates. The overall project has been quite successful, and the numbers of degrees granted has increased. However, some strategies have worked much better than others. Among the…

Heidel, Jack; Ali, Hesham; Corbett, Bernadette; Liu, Jenny; Morrison, Brad; O'Connor, Michele; Richter-Egger, Dana; Ryan, Carey

2011-01-01

71

Piper nigrum Leaf and Stem Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial Activity Against Agricultural Plant Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Utilization of biological materials in synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the hottest topics in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present investigation, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using the leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation of the peak at 460?nm in the UV-vis spectra for leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Further, XRD analysis has been carried out to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The TEM images show that the leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles were within the size of about 7–50?nm and 9–30?nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis was performed to identify the possible functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, the antibacterial activity of the green-synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined against agricultural plant pathogens. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles is a beneficial application in the field of agricultural nanotechnology. PMID:24558336

Paulkumar, Kanniah; Gnanajobitha, Gnanadhas; Vanaja, Mahendran; Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

2014-01-01

72

Effects of broccoli stem and leaf meal on broiler performance, skin pigmentation, antioxidant function, and meat quality.  

PubMed

Three hundred sixty 1-d-old Ross 308 male broilers were used to study the effects of broccoli stem and leaf meal (BSLM) on growth performance, skin pigmentation, antioxidant function, and meat quality. The chicks were fed 4 diets containing different levels (0, 4.0, 8.0, and 12.0%) of BSLM as partial replacement for corn and soybean meal for a period of 42 d. The results showed that dietary supplementation of BSLM had no effect (P > 0.05) on growth performance. As compared with control, dietary 4%, 8%, and 12% BSLM increased (P < 0.05) b value (yellowness) both in shank and breast skin, increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of xanthophylls in abdominal fat and breast skin, improved (P < 0.05) total antioxidant capability, lowered malondialdehyde concentration, and decreased drip loss percentage of breast muscle. Dietary 8% and 12% BSLM decreased (P < 0.05) shank L values (lightness), increased (P < 0.05) shank a value (redness), and increased (P < 0.05) the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase of breast muscle as compared with control. The results indicated that dietary supplementation of BSLM in broiler chickens improved the poultry products quality with the more skin pigmentation and the less drip loss percentage of breast meat. The more skin pigmentation mainly related to the high amount of xanthophylls in BSLM. The decreased meat drip loss fed BSLM may be caused by the antioxidative function of BSLM. PMID:22912457

Hu, C H; Wang, D G; Pan, H Y; Zheng, W B; Zuo, A Y; Liu, J X

2012-09-01

73

Stem girdling manipulates leaf sugar concentrations and anthocyanin expression in sugar maple trees during autumn.  

PubMed

To better understand the effects of sugar accumulation on red color development of foliage during autumn, we compared carbohydrate concentration, anthocyanin expression and xylem pressure potential of foliage on girdled versus non-girled (control) branches of 12 mature, open-grown sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees. Half of the study trees were known to exhibit mostly yellow foliar coloration and half historically displayed red coloration. Leaves from both girdled and control branches were harvested at peak color expression (i.e., little or no chlorophyll present). Disruption of phloem export by girdling increased foliar sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations regardless of historical tree color patterns. Branch girdling also increased foliar anthocyanin expression from 50.4 to 66.7% in historically red trees and from 11.7 to 54.2% in historically yellow trees, the latter representing about a fivefold increase compared with control branches. Correlation analyses indicated a strong and consistent relationship between foliar red coloration and sugar concentrations, particularly glucose and fructose, in both girdled and control branches. Measures of xylem pressure potentials confirmed that girdling was a phloem-specific treatment and had no effect on water transport to distal leaves. Results indicate that stem girdling increased foliar sugar concentrations and enhanced anthocyanin expression during autumn in sugar maple foliage. Native environmental stresses (e.g., low autumn temperatures) that reduce phloem transport may promote similar physiological outcomes. PMID:18708328

Murakami, P F; Schaberg, P G; Shane, J B

2008-10-01

74

Grain amaranths are defoliation tolerant crop species capable of utilizing stem and root carbohydrate reserves to sustain vegetative and reproductive growth after leaf loss.  

PubMed

Tolerance to defoliation can be defined as the degree to which productivity is affected by photosynthetic area reduction. This trait was studied in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus), which are considered to be a highly defoliation-tolerant species. The physiological and biochemical responses to increasing levels of mechanical leaf removal up to total defoliation were quantified. Tolerance appeared to be dependent on various factors: ( i) amount of lost tissue; (ii) mechanics of leaf tissue removal; (iii) environment, and (iv) species tested. Thus, grain amaranth was found to be a highly tolerant species under green-house conditions when leaf tissue loss was performed by gradual perforation. However, tolerance was compromised under similar conditions when defoliation was done by gradual cutting of the leaf. Also tolerance in completely defoliated plants tended to decrease under field conditions, where differences between A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus were observed. All non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels were reduced in stems and roots of totally defoliated amaranths one day after treatment. Such depletion probably provided the carbon (C) resources needed to sustain the early recovery process in the absence of photosynthetic capacity. This was corroborated by shading of intact plants, which produced the same rapid and drastic reduction of NSC levels in these tissues. These results emphasize the role of stored NSCs, particularly starch, in buffering the impact of severe defoliation in amaranth. The fall in sucrose synthase and cell wall invertase activity observed in stems and roots soon after defoliation was consistent with their predicted shift from sink to source tissues. It is concluded that mobilization of C stores in stems and roots, is a physiologically important trait underlying tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth. PMID:23861825

Vargas-Ortiz, Erandi; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John Paul

2013-01-01

75

Grain Amaranths Are Defoliation Tolerant Crop Species Capable of Utilizing Stem and Root Carbohydrate Reserves to Sustain Vegetative and Reproductive Growth after Leaf Loss  

PubMed Central

Tolerance to defoliation can be defined as the degree to which productivity is affected by photosynthetic area reduction. This trait was studied in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus), which are considered to be a highly defoliation-tolerant species. The physiological and biochemical responses to increasing levels of mechanical leaf removal up to total defoliation were quantified. Tolerance appeared to be dependent on various factors: ( i) amount of lost tissue; (ii) mechanics of leaf tissue removal; (iii) environment, and (iv) species tested. Thus, grain amaranth was found to be a highly tolerant species under green-house conditions when leaf tissue loss was performed by gradual perforation. However, tolerance was compromised under similar conditions when defoliation was done by gradual cutting of the leaf. Also tolerance in completely defoliated plants tended to decrease under field conditions, where differences between A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus were observed. All non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels were reduced in stems and roots of totally defoliated amaranths one day after treatment. Such depletion probably provided the carbon (C) resources needed to sustain the early recovery process in the absence of photosynthetic capacity. This was corroborated by shading of intact plants, which produced the same rapid and drastic reduction of NSC levels in these tissues. These results emphasize the role of stored NSCs, particularly starch, in buffering the impact of severe defoliation in amaranth. The fall in sucrose synthase and cell wall invertase activity observed in stems and roots soon after defoliation was consistent with their predicted shift from sink to source tissues. It is concluded that mobilization of C stores in stems and roots, is a physiologically important trait underlying tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth. PMID:23861825

Vargas-Ortiz, Erandi; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John Paul

2013-01-01

76

STORM: A General Model to Determine the Number and Adaptive Changes of Epithelial Stem Cells in Teleost, Murine and Human Intestinal Tracts  

E-print Network

Intestinal stem cells play a pivotal role in the epithelial tissue renewal, homeostasis and cancer development. The lack of a general marker for intestinal stem cells across species has hampered analysis of stem cell number ...

Wang, Zhengyuan

77

Reduction of stem growth and site dependency of leaf injury in Massachusetts black cherries exhibiting ozone symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf ozone symptoms in natural ecosystems are increasingly reported but ozone effects on tree growth and the mediation of site conditions are still little documented. This study tests two hypotheses: (1) leaf injury in black cherry is associated with decline in radial growth, (2) symptoms are more prevalent on mesic sites. On sites supporting black cherry across Massachusetts, tree growth

P. Vollenweider; H. Woodcock; M. J. Kelty; R.-M. Hofer

2003-01-01

78

A multiple resistance locus on chromosome arm 3BS in wheat confers resistance to stem rust (Sr2), leaf rust (Lr27) and powdery mildew.  

PubMed

Sr2 is the only known durable, race non-specific adult plant stem rust resistance gene in wheat. The Sr2 gene was shown to be tightly linked to the leaf rust resistance gene Lr27 and to powdery mildew resistance. An analysis of recombinants and mutants suggests that a single gene on chromosome arm 3BS may be responsible for resistance to these three fungal pathogens. The resistance functions of the Sr2 locus are compared and contrasted with those of the adult plant resistance gene Lr34. PMID:21573954

Mago, R; Tabe, L; McIntosh, R A; Pretorius, Z; Kota, R; Paux, E; Wicker, T; Breen, J; Lagudah, E S; Ellis, J G; Spielmeyer, W

2011-08-01

79

An evaluation of the relationship of the leaf area index of forage grasses to the survival of Haemonchus contortus third stage larvae  

E-print Network

versus number of days after seeding on 30-40 cm flats. 22 23 24 Leaf area index versus number of days after seeding on 10-20 cm flats. 26 Leaf area index versus number of days after seeding on 20-30 cm flats. 27 Leaf area index versus number... 100X magnification. Leaf area index was assessed by taking random samples from each flat for nine days following the seeding of larvae on the flat. The forage samples were then separated into leaf and stem sections. The leaves were then placed...

Jewell, Roxanne Elizabeth

1984-01-01

80

Evidence That Sucrose Loaded into the Phloem of a Poplar Leaf Is Used Directly by Sucrose Synthase Associated with Various ?-Glucan Synthases in the Stem  

PubMed Central

Sucrose (Suc) synthase (SuSy) is believed to function in channeling UDP-Glc from Suc to various ?-glucan synthases. We produced transgenic poplars (Populus alba) overexpressing a mutant form (S11E) of mung bean (Vigna radiata) SuSy, which appeared in part in the microsomal membranes of the stems. Expression of SuSy in these membranes enhanced the incorporation of radioactive Suc into cellulose, together with the metabolic recycling of fructose (Fru), when dual-labeled Suc was fed directly into the phloem of the leaf. This overexpression also enhanced the direct incorporation of the glucosyl moiety of Suc into the glucan backbone of xyloglucan and increased recycling of Fru, although the Fru recycling system for cellulose synthesis at the plasma membrane might differ from that for xyloglucan synthesis in the Golgi network. These findings suggest that some of the Suc loaded into the phloem of a poplar leaf is used directly by SuSys associated with xyloglucan and cellulose synthases in the stem. This may be a key function of SuSy because the high-energy bond between the Glc and Fru moieties of Suc is conserved and used for polysaccharide syntheses in this sink tissue. PMID:14988476

Konishi, Teruko; Ohmiya, Yasunori; Hayashi, Takahisa

2004-01-01

81

Early Life Nutrition Modulates Muscle Stem Cell Number: Implications for Muscle Mass and Repair  

PubMed Central

Suboptimal nutrition during prenatal and early postnatal development is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes during adult life. A hallmark of such diabetes risk is altered body composition, including reduced lean mass and increased adiposity. Since stem cell number and activity are important determinants of muscle mass, modulation of perinatal nutrition could alter stem cell number/function, potentially mediating developmentally programmed reductions in muscle mass. Skeletal muscle precursors (SMP) were purified from muscle of mice subjected to prenatal undernutrition and/or early postnatal high-fat diet (HFD)—experimental models that are both associated with obesity and diabetes risk. SMP number was determined by flow cytometry, proliferative capacity measured in vitro, and regenerative capacity of these cells determined in vivo after muscle freeze injury. Prenatally undernutrition (UN) mice showed significantly reduced SMP frequencies [Control (C) 4.8%±0.3% (% live cells) vs. UN 3.2%±0.4%, P=0.015] at 6 weeks; proliferative capacity was unaltered. Reduced SMP in UN was associated with 32% decrease in regeneration after injury (C 16%±3% of injured area vs. UN 11%±2%; P<0.0001). SMP frequency was also reduced in HFD-fed mice (chow 6.4%±0.6% vs. HFD 4.7%±0.4%, P=0.03), and associated with 44% decreased regeneration (chow 16%±2.7% vs. HFD 9%±2.2%; P<0.0001). Prenatal undernutrition was additive with postnatal HFD. Thus, both prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition reduce myogenic stem cell frequency and function, indicating that developmentally established differences in muscle-resident stem cell populations may provoke reductions in muscle mass and repair and contribute to diabetes risk. PMID:21247245

Woo, Melissa; Isganaitis, Elvira; Cerletti, Massimiliano; Fitzpatrick, Connor; Wagers, Amy J.; Jimenez-Chillaron, Jose

2011-01-01

82

Phylogeny in defining model plants for lignocellulosic ethanol production: a comparative study of Brachypodium distachyon, wheat, maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus leaf and stem biomass.  

PubMed

The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108-117 mg ethanol·g(-1) dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type. PMID:25133818

Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A

2014-01-01

83

Assessment of Euphorbia hirta L. leaf, flower, stem and root extracts for their antibacterial and antifungal activity and brine shrimp lethality.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis), four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis) and one yeast (Candida albicans) species were screened. Inhibition zones ranged between 16-29 mm. Leaves extract inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms with large zones of inhibition, followed by that of flowers, which also inhibited all the bacteria except C. albicans. The most susceptible microbes to all extracts were S. aureus and Micrococcus sp. Root extract displayed larger inhibition zones against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria and had larger inhibition zones compared to stem extract. The lowest MIC values were obtained with E. coli and C. albicans (3.12 mg/mL), followed by S. aureus (12.50 mg/mL) and P. mirabilis (50.00 mg/mL). All the other bacteria had MIC values of 100.00 mg/mL. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) studies revealed that the cells exposed to leaf extract displayed a rough surface with multiple blends and invaginations which increased with increasing time of treatment, and cells exposed to leaf extract for 36 h showed the most damage, with abundant surface cracks which may be related to final cell collapse and loss of function. Time-kill assay of C. albicans indicated a primarily fungicidal effect at 1- and 2-fold MIC. E. hirta extracts had LC(50) values of 0.71, 0.66, 0.41 and 0.03 mg/mL for stems, leaves, roots and flowers, respectively against Artemia salina. Hence, these plants can be used to discover new bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals. PMID:20877206

Rajeh, Mohammad Abu Basma; Zuraini, Zakaria; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Amutha, Santhanam

2010-09-01

84

Leaf-induced gibberellin signaling is essential for internode elongation, cambial activity, and fiber differentiation in tobacco stems.  

PubMed

The gibberellins (GAs) are a group of endogenous compounds that promote the growth of most plant organs, including stem internodes. We show that in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) the presence of leaves is essential for the accumulation of bioactive GAs and their immediate precursors in the stem and consequently for normal stem elongation, cambial proliferation, and xylem fiber differentiation. These processes do not occur in the absence of maturing leaves but can be restored by application of C(19)-GAs, identifying the presence of leaves as a requirement for GA signaling in stems and revealing the fundamental role of GAs in secondary growth regulation. The use of reporter genes for GA activity and GA-directed DELLA protein degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana confirms the presence of a mobile signal from leaves to the stem that induces GA signaling. PMID:22253226

Dayan, Jonathan; Voronin, Nickolay; Gong, Fan; Sun, Tai-ping; Hedden, Peter; Fromm, Hillel; Aloni, Roni

2012-01-01

85

Changes in chloroplast number during pea leaf development : An analysis of a protoplast population.  

PubMed

Protoplasts were prepared from pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves throughout development and their contents spread in a monolayer to determine the number of chloroplasts per cell. This approach permitted the rapid analysis of more than 100 cells at each stage of development. The average number of chloroplasts per cell increased from 24±10 to 64±20 during greening and expansion of the first true foliage leaves; all cells containing chloroplasts apparently increase their chloroplast number. A parallel increase in the amount of DNA per nucleus was not observed. As the leaves senesced the chloroplast number gradually decreased to 44±12. We have correlated these changes with our previous results on the percentage of chloroplast DNA per cell. Chloroplast multiplication resulted in a 2.7-fold dilution (from 272 to 102) of the number of copies of the chloroplast DNA molecule per plastid. PMID:24310184

Lamppa, G K; Elliot, L V; Bendich, A J

1980-10-01

86

Stem rust, leaf rust, and stripe rust comprise a complex of diseases that reduces wheat and barley  

E-print Network

reduc- tions in yield. Stem rust normally survives the winter months in the southern United States allow members of the fungal population to overcome the genetic resistance of the plant. The rust fungi

Murray, Timothy D.

87

Original article Photosynthesis, leaf area and productivity  

E-print Network

Original article Photosynthesis, leaf area and productivity of 5 poplar clones during; The stem volume and biomass (stem + branches) production, net photosynthesis of mature leaves and leaf area found in volume production, woody biomass production, total leaf area and net photosynthesis. Above

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

Allometric estimation of total leaf area in the neotropical palm Euterpe oleracea at La Selva, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated the magnitude of the total leaf area of the neotropical palm Euterpe oleracea and examined its allometry relative to the variation in stem height and diameter at La Selva Biological Station in Costa\\u000a Rica. The allometric relationships between frond leaf area and frond length (from tip to base), and between frond leaf area\\u000a and number of leaflets, were

Gerardo Avalos; Olivia Sylvester

2010-01-01

89

Nucleotide sequences of a Korean isolate of apple stem grooving virus associated with black necrotic leaf spot disease on pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).  

PubMed

Pear black necrotic leaf spot (PBNLS) is a disease of pears caused by capillovirus-like particles, which can be observed under the electron microscope. The disease was analyzed by Western blot analysis with antisera raised against apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) coat protein. cDNAs covering the entire genome were synthesized by RT-PCR and RACE using RNA isolated from Chenopodium quinoa infected with sap extracted from pear leaves carrying black necrotic spot disease. The complete genome sequence of the putative pear virus, 6497 nucleotides in length excluding the poly (A) tail, was determined and analyzed. It contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1, spans from nucleotide position 37 to 6354, producing a putative protein of 241 kDa. ORF2, which is in a different reading frame within ORF1, begins at nucleotide 4788 and terminates at 5750, and produces a putative protein of 36 kDa. The 241 kDa protein contains sequences related to the NTP-binding motifs of helicases and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. The 36-kDa protein contains the consensus sequence GDSG found in the active sites of several cellular and viral serine proteases. Morphological and serological analysis, and sequence comparison between the putative pear virus, ASGV, citrus tatter leaf virus and cherry virus A of the capillovirus suggest that PBNLS may be caused by a Korean isolate of ASGV. PMID:15528995

Shim, Hyekyung; Min, Yeonju; Hong, Sungyoul; Kwon, Moonsik; Kim, Daehyun; Kim, Hyunran; Choi, Yongmoon; Lee, Sukchan; Yang, Jaemyung

2004-10-31

90

STEM?!?!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's son has been an engineer since birth. He never asked "why" as a toddler, it was always "how's it work?" So that he wanted a STEM-based home education was no big surprise. In this article, the author considers what kind of curricula would work best for her complex kid.

Merrill, Jen

2012-01-01

91

Myrothecium roridum leaf spot and stem canker on watermelon in the southern Great Plains: Possible factors for its outbreak  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases are generally the greatest yield-limiting factor for watermelon across the U.S. In 2010, a foliar and stem-lesion disease was observed for the first time in Oklahoma causing moderate to severe defoliation. Using microscopic examination, the physical features of the fungus were consistent ...

92

Root and stem xylem embolism, stomatal conductance, and leaf turgor in Acer grandidentatum populations along a soil moisture gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine how adjustment in stomatal conductance (gs) and turgor loss point (?tlp) between riparian (wet) and neighboring slope (dry) populations of Acer grandidentum Nutt. was associated with the susceptibility of root versus stem xylem to embolism. Over two summers of study (1993–1994), the slope site had substantially lower xylem pressures (?px) and gs

N. N. Alder; J. S. Sperry; W. T. Pockman

1996-01-01

93

ALFALFA LEAF PROTEIN AND STEM CELL WALL POLYSACCHARIDE YIELDS AND THEORETICAL ETHANOL PRODUCTION UNDER HAY AND BIOMASS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been proposed as a biofuel feedstock, where the stems would be processed to produce ethanol and the leaves sold separately as a livestock feed. We propose a different management regime reducing population density, delaying harvest, and cutting less frequently per gro...

94

Effect of cell number on mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a canine disc degeneration model.  

PubMed

Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) inhibits the progression of disc degeneration in animal models. We know of no study to determine the optimal number of cells to transplant into the degenerated intervertebral disc (IVD). To determine the optimal donor cell number for maximum benefit, we conducted an in vivo study using a canine disc degeneration model. Autologous MSCs were transplanted into degenerative discs at 10(5), 10(6), or 10(7)?cells per disc. The MSC-transplanted discs were evaluated for 12 weeks using plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and gross and microscopic evaluation. Preservation of the disc height, annular structure was seen in MSC-transplantation groups compared to the operated control group with no MSC transplantation. Result of the number of remaining transplanted MSCs, the survival rate of NP cells, and apoptosis of NP cells in transplanted discs showed both structural microenvironment and abundant extracellular matrix maintained in 10(6) MSCs transplanted disc, while less viable cells were detected in 10(5) MSCs transplanted and more apoptotic cells in 10(7) MSCs transplanted discs. The results of this study demonstrate that the number of cells transplanted affects the regenerative capability of MSC transplants in experimentally induced degenerating canine discs. It is suggested that maintenance of extracellular matrix by its production from transplanted cells and/or resident cells is important for checking the progression of structural disruption that leads to disc degeneration. PMID:20839317

Serigano, Kenji; Sakai, Daisuke; Hiyama, Akihiko; Tamura, Futoshi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Mochida, Joji

2010-10-01

95

DRYING KINETICS OF CORIANDER (Coriandrum sativum) LEAF AND STEM CINÉTICAS DE SECADO DE HOJA Y TALLO DE CILANTRO (Coriandrum sativum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drying kinetics of coriander leaves and stems, with or without blanching, was studied at several temperatures (50, 60, 70, and 80°C) at constant air velocity (1.5 m s) in a fixed-bed dryer. Three drying models, Henderson and Pabis, Midilli et al., and the Logarithmic, were fitted to the experimental data. According to the results obtained, it was verified that

A. S. Silva; F. de A. C. Almeida; E. E. Lima; F. L. H. Silva; J. P. Gomes

2008-01-01

96

Stem, root, and older leaf N:P ratios are more responsive indicators of soil nutrient availability than new foliage.  

PubMed

Foliar nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratios are widely used to indicate soil nutrient availability and limitation, but the foliar ratios of woody plants have proven more complicated to interpret than ratios from whole biomass of herbaceous species. This may be related to tissues in woody species acting as nutrient reservoirs during active growth, allowing maintenance of optimal N:P ratios in recently produced, fully expanded leaves (i.e., "new" leaves, the most commonly sampled tissue). Here we address the hypothesis that N:P ratios of newly expanded leaves are less sensitive indicators of soil nutrient availability than are other tissue types in woody plants. Seedlings of five naturally established tree species were harvested from plots receiving two years of fertilizer treatments in a lowland tropical forest in the Republic of Panama. Nutrient concentrations were determined in new leaves, old leaves, stems, and roots. For stems and roots, N:P ratios increased after N addition and decreased after P addition, and trends were consistent across all five species. Older leaves also showed strong responses to N and P addition, and trends were consistent for four of five species. In comparison, overall N:P ratio responses in new leaves were more variable across species. These results indicate that the N:P ratios of stems, roots, and older leaves are more responsive indicators of soil nutrient availability than are those of new leaves. Testing the generality of this result could improve the use of tissue nutrient ratios as indices of soil nutrient availability in woody plants. PMID:25230458

Schreeg, L A; Santiago, L S; Wright, S J; Turner, B L

2014-08-01

97

Evidence of hydraulic lift for pre-rainy season leaf out and dry-season stem water enrichment in Sclerocarya birrea, a tropical agroforestry tree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use stable isotopes of water as tracers to follow water use by five Sclerocarya birrea trees in a catchment in South Eastern Burkina Faso interspersed with millet fields, gallery forest, Sudanian savanna, and fallow fields. Isotopic ratios were determined from water extracted from stems of the trees and sub-canopy soil of two of them, while nearby ground water, precipitation, and surface water was sampled weekly. A unique configuration of sensors connected with a wireless sensor network of meteorological stations measured sub-canopy shading, the temperature and humidity in the canopy, through-fall, and soil moisture under two of the trees. Both water extracted from sap and water extracted from soil is extremely enriched in the dry season, but drop to levels close to the ground water in February or March, which coincides with the growth of leaves. Dates of leaf out were confirmed by changes in ?DH and ?O18 concentrations of water, photographic documentation & pixel analysis, and analysis of sub-canopy radiation and proceeded the rise in humidity and flow that was later detected in the sub-canopy soil, the trunk of the tree (sap-flow), and atmosphere (canopy VPD). Examination of the isotopic signature suggests that size of tree plays an important role in duration and timing of this leaf-out as well as the degree of enrichment during the peak of the dry season. Further examination of the isotopic signatures of the roots suggested that the trees are performing hydraulic redistribution, or lifting the ground water and "sharing it" with the soil in the rooting zone in the dry season. The enriched level of xylem in this case is a product of water loss, and enrichment, along the travel path of the water from the roots to the tip of the stem, as evidenced by the variation according to size of tree. Vapor pressure deficit, soil water, and soil moisture interactions support this picture of interacting controls, separate from hydrologic triggers on the water movement in the tree.

Ceperley, Natalie; Mande, Theophile; Rinaldo, Andrea; Parlange, Marc B.

2014-05-01

98

Determinants of leaf litter patchiness in mixed species New Jersey pine barrens forest and its possible influence on soil and soil biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified the importance of ground layer ericaceous shrub density as a determinant of leaf litter patch size in\\u000a upland oak\\/pine communities of the New Jersey pine barrens. Litter patch area is directly proportional to the number of ericaceous\\u000a stems. This observation has been confirmed by experimentation where leaf litter patches accumulated under artificial stems\\u000a for a period of

J. Dighton; A. S. Morale Bonilla; R. A. Jimînez-Nûñez; N. Martînez

2000-01-01

99

In Vitro Phytochemical, Antibacterial, and Antifungal Activities of Leaf, Stem, and Root Extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris  

PubMed Central

Adiantum capillus veneris is a medicinally essential plant used for the treatment of diverse infectious diseases. The study of phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria and medically important fungi is of immense significance. Extracts from the leaves, stems, and roots of Adiantum capillus veneris were extracted with water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane and screened for their antimicrobial activity against ten MDR bacterial strains and five fungal strains isolated from clinical and water samples. Ash, moisture, and extractive values were determined according to standard protocols. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy) studies were performed on different phytochemicals isolated from the extracts of Adiantum capillus Veneris. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, and reducing sugars. Water, methanol, and ethanol extracts of leaves, stems, and roots showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against most of the MDR bacterial and fungal strains. This study concluded that extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris have valuable phytochemicals and significant activities against most of the MDR bacterial strains and medically important fungal strains. PMID:24592156

Ishaq, Muhammad Saqib; Siddique Afridi, Muhammad; Khattak, Mahrukh; Ahmad, Sohail; Shakirullah

2014-01-01

100

Effect of Urtica dioica Leaf Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts on the Number and the Diameter of the Islets in Diabetic Rats.  

PubMed

Urtica dioica has been known as a plant that decreases blood glucose. Despite the importance of this plant in herbal medicine, relatively little research has been down on effects of this plant on islets yet. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the number and the diameter of the islets and histological parameters in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Six rats were used in each group. Group I: Normal rats were administered saline daily for 8 weeks. Group II: Diabetic rats were administered streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg of body weight; Group III: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf aqueous extracts for 8 weeks; Group IV: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic extracts for 8 weeks. The animals, groups of diabetic and normal, were sacrificed by ether anaesthesia. Whole pancreas was dissected. The tissue samples were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for microscopic examination. Histologic examination and grading were carried out on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. The effects of administration of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts to diabetic rats were determined by histopathologic examination. The pancreas from control rats showed normal pancreatic islets histoarchitecture. Our results also, indicate that the pancreas from diabetic rats show injury of pancreas tissue while the pancreas from diabetic rats treated with dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts show slight to moderate rearrangement of islets. According to our findings, dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts can cause a suitable repair of pancreatic tissue in streptozocin-induced diabetic experimental model. PMID:24551786

Qujeq, Durdi; Tatar, Mohsen; Feizi, Farideh; Parsian, Hadi; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Halalkhor, Sohrab

2013-01-01

101

Leaf Rolling and Stem Fasciation in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Mutant Are Mediated through Glutathione-Dependent Cellular and Metabolic Changes and Associated with a Metabolic Diversion through Cysteine during Phenotypic Reversal  

PubMed Central

A Lathyrus sativus L. mutant isolated in ethylmethane sulfonate-treated M2 progeny of mother variety BioL-212 and designated as rlfL-1 was characterized by inwardly rolled-leaf and stem and bud fasciations. The mutant exhibited karyomorphological peculiarities in both mitosis and meiosis with origin of aneuploidy. The mitosis was vigorous with high frequency of divisional cells and their quick turnover presumably steered cell proliferations. Significant transcriptional upregulations of cysteine and glutathione synthesis and concomitant stimulations of glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense helped rlfL-1 mutant to maintain balanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolisms, as deduced by ROS-imaging study. Glutathione synthesis was shut down in buthionine sulfoximine- (BSO-) treated mother plant and mutant, and leaf-rolling and stems/buds fasciations in the mutant were reversed, accompanied by normalization of mitotic cell division process. Antioxidant defense was downregulated under low glutathione-redox but cysteine-desulfurations and photorespiratory glycolate oxidase transcripts were markedly overexpressed, preventing cysteine overaccumulation but resulted in excess H2O2 in BSO-treated mutant. This led to oxidative damage in proliferating cells, manifested by severe necrosis in rolled-leaf and fasciated stems. Results indicated vital role of glutathione in maintaining abnormal proliferations in plant organs, and its deficiency triggered phenotypic reversal through metabolic diversions of cysteine and concomitant cellular and metabolic modulations. PMID:24987684

Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

2014-01-01

102

Leaf mines: their effect on leaf longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a number of factors, notably leaf mining insects, on the longevity of beech and holm oak leaves have been studied. The regular monitoring of individually labelled leaves was complemented by analysis of leaf fall data. Both methods confirm that these mining insects have only a slight impact on their host trees. The presence of first generation Phyllonorycter

I. M. Pritchard; R. James

1984-01-01

103

Individual and combined effect of mercury and manganese on phenol and proline content in leaf and stem of mungbean seedlings.  

PubMed

Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczelk cv. Pusa Baisakhi seedlings were raised in individual (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ppm) and combined solutions (1 : 1, 10: 1, 1: 0 ppm Hg : Mn) of mercury and manganese for 6 days. Phenol and proline were found to accumulate in leaves in response to treatment with heavy metals. The magnitude of accumulation correlated with concentration of metals. However, a reverse trend was noticed in stem for phenol. Accumulation of phenol in response to heavy metal treatment was organ specific and occurred at higher rate in plant parts, which faced the stress mostly. However, accumulation of proline helped the plant to survive stress situation. In combined solutions, amelioration of mercurial toxicity by manganese was recorded. PMID:12674387

Roy, Samadrita Barman; Bera, A K

2002-10-01

104

The Leaf Size–Twig Size Spectrum of Temperate Woody Species Along an Altitudinal Gradient: An Invariant Allometric Scaling Relationship  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The leaf size–twig size spectrum is one of the leading dimensions of plant ecological variation, and now it is under development. The purpose of this study was to test whether the relationship between leaf size and twig size is isometric or allometric, and to examine the relationship between plant allometric growth and life history strategies in the spectrum. • Methods Leaf and stem characters—including leaf and stem mass, total leaf area, individual leaf area, stem cross-sectional area, leaf number and stem length—at the twig level for 59 woody species were investigated along an altitudinal gradient on Changbaishan Mountain in the temperate zone of China. The environmental gradient ranges from temperate broad-leaved mixed forest at low altitude, to conifer forest at middle altitude, and to sub-alpine birch forest at high altitude. The scaling relationships between stem cross-sectional area and stem mass, stem mass and leaf mass, and leaf mass and leaf area at the twig level were simultaneously determined. • Key Results Twig cross-sectional area was found to have invariant allometric scaling relationships with the stem mass, leaf mass, total leaf area and individual leaf area, all with common slopes being significantly larger than 1, for three altitudinal-zoned vegetation types under investigation. However, leaf mass was found to be isometrically related to stem mass and leaf area along the environmental gradient. Based on the predictions of previous models, the exponent value of the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and total leaf area can be inferred to be 1·5, which falls between the confidence intervals of the relationship at each altitude, and between the confidence intervals of the common slope value (1·17–1·56) of this study. This invariant scaling relationship is assumed to result from the fractural network and/or developmental constraints of plants. The allometric constants (y-intercepts) of the relationships between the stem cross-sectional area and leaf area (both total leaf area and individual leaf area) were found to decrease significantly along the altitudinal gradient. This suggests that the species would support less leaf area at a given twig cross-sectional area with increasing environmental stress. • Conclusions This study demonstrated that plants respond to the environmental gradient by changing the y-intercepts of the relationship between leaf size–twig size, while keeping the exponent value of the allometric relationship as an invariant constant. The allometric growth in the twig size–leaf size spectrum is related to many other components of plant life history strategy, including the well established life history trade-off between efficiency and safety in the hydraulic transport of water. PMID:16254019

SUN, SHUCUN; JIN, DONGMEI; SHI, PEILI

2006-01-01

105

Further studies on the effects of insecticides on aphid vector numbers and spread of cucumber mosaic virus in narrow-leafed lupins ( Lupinus angustifolius)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) was sown in five field experiments over three years to investigate the effects of applying imidacloprid, alpha-cypermethrin, triazamate and methamidophos insecticides on aphid vector numbers, spread of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), resulting yield losses and CMV transmission to seed. Of the colonising aphid species, Acyrthosiphon kondoi and Aphis craccivora were most effectively controlled by alpha-cypermethrin and

D. J. Thackray; R. A. C. Jones; A. M. Bwye; B. A. Coutts

2000-01-01

106

Chemical composition of essential oil and anti trichomonas activity of leaf, stem, and flower of Rheum ribes L. extracts  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans and is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Nowadays, increasing resistance to drugs such as metronidazole resulted in many problem, so new effective remedies are needed. In this study, we evaluate constituents of essential oil and anti-trichomonas activity of Rheum ribes. Materials and Methods: The essential oil from Rheum ribes L. flower growing wild in Iran was analyzed by GC/MS. The parasites were treated with different extract and fractions of the flower, stem, and leave of the plant. Anti-trichomonas activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay. Results: In all, 19 compounds were identified; palmitic acid [27.08%], n-eicosane [9.9%], n-tetracosane [7.34%], linoleic acid [6.56%], and ethyl linoleate [4.76%] were the main components of the oil. Rheum ribes extracts and fractions concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites to growth. This was associated with polarity of solvent used for fractionation and plant parts used for extraction. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate the potential of Rheum ribes extracts as an anti-trichomonas agent for human use. Further studies are required to evaluate its toxicity and safety. PMID:25050317

Naemi, Forough; Asghari, Gholamreza; Yousofi, Hossein; Yousefi, Hossein Ali

2014-01-01

107

New multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis tool for surveillance and local epidemiology of bacterial leaf blight and bacterial leaf streak of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae.  

PubMed

Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) is efficient for routine typing and for investigating the genetic structures of natural microbial populations. Two distinct pathovars of Xanthomonas oryzae can cause significant crop losses in tropical and temperate rice-growing countries. Bacterial leaf streak is caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, and bacterial leaf blight is caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzae. For the latter, two genetic lineages have been described in the literature. We developed a universal MLVA typing tool both for the identification of the three X. oryzae genetic lineages and for epidemiological analyses. Sixteen candidate variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci were selected according to their presence and polymorphism in 10 draft or complete genome sequences of the three X. oryzae lineages and by VNTR sequencing of a subset of loci of interest in 20 strains per lineage. The MLVA-16 scheme was then applied to 338 strains of X. oryzae representing different pathovars and geographical locations. Linkage disequilibrium between MLVA loci was calculated by index association on different scales, and the 16 loci showed linear Mantel correlation with MLSA data on 56 X. oryzae strains, suggesting that they provide a good phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, analyses of sets of strains for different lineages indicated the possibility of using the scheme for deeper epidemiological investigation on small spatial scales. PMID:25398857

Poulin, L; Grygiel, P; Magne, M; Gagnevin, L; Rodriguez-R, L M; Forero Serna, N; Zhao, S; El Rafii, M; Dao, S; Tekete, C; Wonni, I; Koita, O; Pruvost, O; Verdier, V; Vernière, C; Koebnik, R

2015-01-01

108

Leaf development: a cellular perspective  

PubMed Central

Through its photosynthetic capacity the leaf provides the basis for growth of the whole plant. In order to improve crops for higher productivity and resistance for future climate scenarios, it is important to obtain a mechanistic understanding of leaf growth and development and the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the process. Cells are both the basic building blocks of the leaf and the regulatory units that integrate genetic and environmental information into the developmental program. Therefore, to fundamentally understand leaf development, one needs to be able to reconstruct the developmental pathway of individual cells (and their progeny) from the stem cell niche to their final position in the mature leaf. To build the basis for such understanding, we review current knowledge on the spatial and temporal regulation mechanisms operating on cells, contributing to the formation of a leaf. We focus on the molecular networks that control exit from stem cell fate, leaf initiation, polarity, cytoplasmic growth, cell division, endoreduplication, transition between division and expansion, expansion and differentiation and their regulation by intercellular signaling molecules, including plant hormones, sugars, peptides, proteins, and microRNAs. We discuss to what extent the knowledge available in the literature is suitable to be applied in systems biology approaches to model the process of leaf growth, in order to better understand and predict leaf growth starting with the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25132838

Kalve, Shweta; De Vos, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.

2014-01-01

109

Leaf Shape  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustrated guide is designed to help students recognize and learn the different types of leaf shapes. The single Web page, which can be easily printed for use at field sites, shows five leaf shapes.

110

Leaf Margins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustrated guide is designed to help students recognize and learn the difference between entire and toothed leaf margins. The single Web page can be easily printed for use at field sites. Both leaf margin illustrations identify the leaf blade and the petiole.

111

The Mitochondrial Genome of the Leaf-Cutter Ant Atta laevigata: A Mitogenome with a Large Number of Intergenic Spacers  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of the leaf-cutter ant Atta laevigata, assembled using transcriptomic libraries from Sanger and Illumina next generation sequencing (NGS), and PCR products. This mitogenome was found to be very large (18,729 bp), given the presence of 30 non-coding intergenic spacers (IGS) spanning 3,808 bp. A portion of the putative control region remained unsequenced. The gene content and organization correspond to that inferred for the ancestral pancrustacea, except for two tRNA gene rearrangements that have been described previously in other ants. The IGS were highly variable in length and dispersed through the mitogenome. This pattern was also found for the other hymenopterans in particular for the monophyletic Apocrita. These spacers with unknown function may be valuable for characterizing genome evolution and distinguishing closely related species and individuals. NGS provided better coverage than Sanger sequencing, especially for tRNA and ribosomal subunit genes, thus facilitating efforts to fill in sequence gaps. The results obtained showed that data from transcriptomic libraries contain valuable information for assembling mitogenomes. The present data also provide a source of molecular markers that will be very important for improving our understanding of genomic evolutionary processes and phylogenetic relationships among hymenopterans. PMID:24828084

Rodovalho, Cynara de Melo; Lyra, Mariana Lúcio; Ferro, Milene; Bacci, Maurício

2014-01-01

112

WOX13-like genes are required for reprogramming of leaf and protoplast cells into stem cells in the moss Physcomitrella patens.  

PubMed

Many differentiated plant cells can dedifferentiate into stem cells, reflecting the remarkable developmental plasticity of plants. In the moss Physcomitrella patens, cells at the wound margin of detached leaves become reprogrammed into stem cells. Here, we report that two paralogous P. patens WUSCHEL-related homeobox 13-like (PpWOX13L) genes, homologs of stem cell regulators in flowering plants, are transiently upregulated and required for the initiation of cell growth during stem cell formation. Concordantly, ?ppwox13l deletion mutants fail to upregulate genes encoding homologs of cell wall loosening factors during this process. During the moss life cycle, most of the ?ppwox13l mutant zygotes fail to expand and initiate an apical stem cell to form the embryo. Our data show that PpWOX13L genes are required for the initiation of cell growth specifically during stem cell formation, in analogy to WOX stem cell functions in seed plants, but using a different cellular mechanism. PMID:24715456

Sakakibara, Keiko; Reisewitz, Pascal; Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Friedrich, Thomas; Ando, Sayuri; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Tamada, Yosuke; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Kurata, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Masaki; Deguchi, Hironori; Rensing, Stefan A; Werr, Wolfgang; Murata, Takashi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Laux, Thomas

2014-04-01

113

7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed from leaves, cuttings, clippings, trimmings, shorts, or...

2010-01-01

114

Frozen Cord Blood Hematopoietic Stem Cells Differentiate into Higher Numbers of Functional Natural Killer Cells In Vitro than Mobilized Hematopoietic Stem Cells or Freshly Isolated Cord Blood Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Adoptive natural killer (NK) cell therapy relies on the acquisition of large numbers of NK cells that are cytotoxic but not exhausted. NK cell differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) has become an alluring option for NK cell therapy, with umbilical cord blood (UCB) and mobilized peripheral blood (PBCD34+) being the most accessible HSC sources as collection procedures are less invasive. In this study we compared the capacity of frozen or freshly isolated UCB hematopoietic stem cells (CBCD34+) and frozen PBCD34+ to generate NK cells in vitro. By modifying a previously published protocol, we showed that frozen CBCD34+ cultures generated higher NK cell numbers without loss of function compared to fresh CBCD34+ cultures. NK cells generated from CBCD34+ and PBCD34+ expressed low levels of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors but high levels of activating receptors and of the myeloid marker CD33. However, blocking studies showed that CD33 expression did not impact on the functions of the generated cells. CBCD34+-NK cells exhibited increased capacity to secrete IFN-? and kill K562 in vitro and in vivo as compared to PBCD34+-NK cells. Moreover, K562 killing by the generated NK cells could be further enhanced by IL-12 stimulation. Our data indicate that the use of frozen CBCD34+ for the production of NK cells in vitro results in higher cell numbers than PBCD34+, without jeopardizing their functionality, rendering them suitable for NK cell immunotherapy. The results presented here provide an optimal strategy to generate NK cells in vitro for immunotherapy that exhibit enhanced effector function when compared to alternate sources of HSC. PMID:24489840

Luevano, Martha; Domogala, Anna; Blundell, Michael; Jackson, Nicola; Pedroza-Pacheco, Isabela; Derniame, Sophie; Escobedo-Cousin, Michelle; Querol, Sergio; Thrasher, Adrian; Madrigal, Alejandro; Saudemont, Aurore

2014-01-01

115

Plant Structure--Leaves, Stems, and Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Page one consists of a full color illustration of an idealized plant, showing various leaf, stem and root features. Page two illustrates various adaptations of plant flowers, leaves and stems. All illustrations are accompanied by explanations of the structures' functions.

2000-01-01

116

Evidence that the number of hematopoietic stem cells per animal is conserved in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans and larger mammals require more blood cells per lifetime than mice because of their larger size and longer life expectancy. To investigate this evolution- ary adaptation, we calculated the total number of nucleated marrow cells (NMCs) per cat, observing the distribution of 59Fe to marrow, then multiplied this value (1.9 0.9 1010 (mean SD)) times the frequency of feline

Janis L. Abkowitz; Sandra N. Catlin; Monica T. McCallie; Peter Guttorp

2002-01-01

117

Leaf Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

Mingie, Walter

118

Leaf Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This straightforward tutorial on leaf identification comes from the Department of Horticulture at Penn State University. Simple diagrams, helpful photos, and clear explanations make short work of learning the basics of leaf identification. The website even includes a section on why anyone should bother learning this skill (i.e. it's not just for dedicated horticulturists and botanists). The tutorial covers leaf structure, blade shape, margins, venation, and so on. The self-testing component appears to be unavailable at this time, but this site as a whole is definitely worth a look.

2008-09-12

119

Does leaf manipulation affect leaf appearance in italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mechanical stimuli such as rubbing, shaking, or flexing plants can alter their growth rates and morphologies. Plant response to mechanical stress can result in delayed plant growth, reduced leaf size, shorten and thicken stems, and reduced yields. Repeated measurements, such as leaf counting or me...

120

Evidence That Sucrose Loaded into the Phloem of a Poplar Leaf Is Used Directly by Sucrose Synthase Associated with Various  Glucan Synthases in the Stem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose (Suc) synthase (SuSy) is believed to function in channeling UDP-Glc from Suc to various -glucan synthases. We produced transgenic poplars (Populus alba) overexpressing a mutant form (S11E) of mung bean (Vigna radiata) SuSy, which appeared in part in the microsomal membranes of the stems. Expression of SuSy in these membranes enhanced the incorporation of radioactive Suc into cellulose, together

Teruko Konishi; Yasunori Ohmiya; Takahisa Hayashi

2004-01-01

121

The role of effective leaf mixing length in the relationship between the ?18 O of stem cellulose and source water across a salinity gradient.  

PubMed

Previous mangrove tree ring studies attempted, unsuccessfully, to relate the ?(18) O of trunk cellulose (?(18) O(CELL) ) to the ?(18) O of source water (?(18) O(SW) ). Here, we tested whether biochemical fractionation associated with one of the oxygen in the cellulose glucose moiety or variation in leaf water oxygen isotope fractionation (?(LW) ) can interfere with the ?(18) O(SW) signal as it is recorded in the ?(18) O(CELL) of mangrove (saltwater) and hammock (freshwater) plants. We selected two transects experiencing a salinity gradient, located in the Florida Keys, USA. The ?(18) O(CELL) throughout both transects did not show the pattern expected based on that of the ?(18) O(SW) . We found that in one of the transects, biochemical fractionation interfered with the ?(18) O(SW) signal, while in the other transect ?(LW) differed between mangrove and hammock plants. Observed differences in ?(LW) between mangroves and hammocks were caused by a longer effective leaf mixing length (L) of the water pathway in mangrove leaves compared to those of hammock leaves. Changes in L could have caused the ?(18) O(CELL) to record not only variations in the ?(18) O(SW) but also in ?(LW) making it impossible to isolate the ?(18) O(SW) signal. PMID:22716972

Ellsworth, Patricia V; Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Anderson, William T; Sternberg, Leonel S L

2013-01-01

122

Test plan for composting studies involving weight and volume reduction of leaf and stalk biomass: DOE/OTD TTP{number_sign} SR17SS53 {ampersand} TTP{number_sign} SR18SS41  

SciTech Connect

SRTC and a panel of experts from off-site previously determined that composting was the most attractive alternative for reducing the volume and weight of biomass that was slightly radioactive. The SRTC proposed scope of work for Subtask 2 of TTP{number_sign} SR17SS53 and TTP{number_sign} SR18SS41 involves bench scale studies to assess the rates and efficiencies of various composting schemes for volume and weight reduction of leaf and stalk biomass (SB). Ultimately, the data will be used to design a composting process for biomass proposed by MSE for phytoremediation studies at SRS. This could drastically reduce costs for transporting and disposing of contaminated biomass resulting from a future major phytoremediation effort for soil clean-up at the site. The composting studies at SRTC includes collaboration with personnel from the University of Georgia, who will conduct chemical analyses of the plant material after harvest, pre-treatment, and composting for specific time periods. Parameters to be measured will include: lignin, hemicellulose, cellulose, carbon and nitrogen. The overall objective of this project is to identify or develop: (1) an inexpensive source of inoculum (consisting of nutrients and/or microorganisms) capable of significantly enhancing biomass degradation, (2) an optimum range of operating parameters for the composting process, and (3) a process design for the solid state degradation of lignocellulosic biomass contaminated with radionuclides that is superior to existing alternatives for dealing with such waste.

Wilde, E.W.; Kastner, J.; Murphy, C.; Santo Domingo, J.

1997-05-28

123

Perspectives on leaf dorsoventral polarity.  

PubMed

Leaves occur in a vast array of shapes and sizes, with complex diversity contributing to optimization of the principal function of photosynthesis. The program of development from a self-renewing stem cell population to a mature leaf has been of interest to biologists for years. Many genes involved in this process have been identified, particularly in the model eudicot Arabidopsis, so that now we have a greater understanding of mechanisms of stem cell maintenance, cell differentiation and organogenesis. One aspect of leaf development that is of particular interest is the establishment of dorsoventral polarity: the distinct adaxial (upper) and abaxial (lower) sides of the leaf. Early studies postulated conceptual models of how establishment of polarity leads to the development of planar leaves. Studies over the past decade have defined genetic details of this model, and uncovered diverse mechanisms of gene regulation that facilitate development of leaf dorsoventral polarity, including transcriptional regulation, chromatin modification, DNA modification, regulation by short RNAs and translational and post-translational regulation. This review will discuss these regulatory mechanisms in the context of leaf dorsoventrality, and will conclude with unresolved questions and areas of future research. PMID:20369373

Szakonyi, Dóra; Moschopoulos, Alexis; Byrne, Mary E

2010-05-01

124

Leaf Development  

PubMed Central

Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

2013-01-01

125

Leaf Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor fall activity, learners find out what living in or under a layer of leaves is like. Learners will discover that animals that live in leaf litter use different senses to find prey, avoid predators, and to navigate through the litter. Learners role play predator and prey—the "prey" hides in a large pile of leaves, and the "predator" tries to "strike" by reaching straight into the leaf pile to grab the "prey." Learners also consider what body adaptations help organisms that spend part of their life under the leaves.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1981-01-01

126

Habitat Complexity of Stream Leaf Packs: Effects on Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Leaf Litter Breakdown  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated two attributes of leaf-pack complexity (i.e., leaf-pack mass and leaf surface area) on fish predation, colonization of benthic macroinvertebrates, and leaf breakdown rates in a coldwater Michigan stream. We manipulated three factors using a factorial design: fish (exclusion or control cage), leaf-pack mass (1, 3, or 5 g dry mass), and leaf surface area (<7, 7-10, or >10 cm leaf width). Acer leaves were fastened into leaf packs. Exclusion cages had mesh on all sides; control cages lacked mesh on two sides to provide access to fishes. Two replicate leaf packs were randomly collected after 25-31 d from two sections of the stream (n = 4). Common shredders were Gammarus, Pycnopsyche, and Lepidostoma. We did not detect a significant effect of fish predation on benthic macroinvertebrates or leaf breakdown (i.e., mass loss). Colonization of benthic macroinvertebrates appeared proportional to leaf-pack mass but was unaffected by the surface area of leaves. Leaf breakdown was more rapid among leaf packs with fewer leaves (i.e., leaves with large surface area and leaf packs with low mass) and greater numbers of shredders. We suspect that physical fragmentation is the primary mechanism for higher breakdown rates among leaf packs with fewer leaves.

Ruetz, C. R.; Vanhaitsma, D. L.; Breen, M. J.

2005-05-01

127

Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this video tutorial is to review a couple ways in which we think about numbers. Thinking in terms of street numbers, money in bank accounts, and quantum particles (e.g. Bose-Einstein condensate) is contrasted with focusing on associating numbers with distinguishable manipulatives, as is more familiar in K-8 courses. This video concludes with a reminder that the symbol "infinity" is not, itself, a number.

2013-06-14

128

Leaf Type  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustrated guide to leaf types is designed to help students understand the differences between compound and simple leaves. This single Web page can be easily printed for use at field sites. Along with an explanation of both types, the guide includes a short description of related terms.

129

Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This engaging web site contains information and interactive applets related to various number systems: Egyptian, Babylonian, Chinese, Greek, Roman, Mayan, and Arabic. Users learn the history and structure of each system as well as how to count and write numbers. The site also allows users to explore finger systems, calculating machines, other number bases, and "interesting numbers." A series of pages on data and graphs includes information and activities on gathering, analyzing, graphing and sorting data. (Because the section on the Arabic number system is so extensive, it is cataloged separately as a related resource.)

Jo Edkins

2006-01-01

130

Variable number of tandem repeat markers in the genome sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana (Musa spp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We searched the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis for molecular markers that would allow population genetics analysis of this plant pathogen. M. fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently, the entire genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. We screened this database for

S. A. L. Garcia; Lee van der T. A. J; C. F. Ferreira; Lintel Hekkert te B; M. F. Zapater; S. B. Goodwin; M. Guzmán; G. H. J. Kema; M. T. Souza

2010-01-01

131

18 CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE, VOLUME 57, NUMBER 1 Non-oak native plants are main hosts for  

E-print Network

at the soil line, (C) madrone with foliar and stem lesions, (D) bay laurel/Oregon myrtle with leaf due to branch cankers, (G) big leaf maple with marginal leaf scorch, and (H) rhododendron showing with an undescribed species of Phytophthora causing a stem and leaf blight on ornamental rhododendron and viburnium

California at Berkeley, University of

132

IGF-1/IGFBP-1 increases blastocyst formation and total blastocyst cell number in mouse embryo culture and facilitates the establishment of a stem-cell line  

PubMed Central

Background Apoptosis occurs frequently for blastocysts cultured in vitro, where conditions are suboptimal to those found in the natural environment. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays an important role in preventing apoptosis in the early development of the embryo, as well as in the progressive regulation of organ development. We hypothesize that IGF-1 and its dephosphorylated binding protein (IGFBP-1) may be able to improve embryo culture with an associated reduced cell death, and that the resultant increase in the total cell number of the embryo could increase the chances of establishing an embryonic stem-cell line. Results In vivo fertilized zygotes were cultured in medium containing supplementary IGF-1, or IGFBP-1/IGF-1. The stages of the resultant embryos were evaluated at noon on day five post-hCG injection. The extent of apoptosis and necrosis was evaluated using Annexin V and propidium iodine staining under fluorescent microscopy. The establishment of embryonic stem-cell lines was performed using the hatching blastocysts that were cultured in the presence of IGF-1 or IGFBP-1/IGF-1. The results show that the rate of blastocyst formation in a tissue-culture system in the presence of IGF-1 was 88.7% and IGFBP-1/IGF-1 it was 94.6%, respectively, and that it was significantly greater than the figure for the control group (81.9%). IGFBP-1/IGF-1 also resulted in a higher hatching rate than was the case for the control group (68.8% vs. 48.6% respectively). IGF-1 also increased the number of Annexin V-free and propidium iodine-free blastocysts in culture (86.8% vs. 75.9% respectively). Total cell number of blastocyst in culture was increased by 18.9% for those examples cultured with dephosphorylated IGFBP-1/IGF-1. For subsequent stem-cell culture, the chances of the successful establishment of a stem-cell line was increased for the IGF-1 and IGFBP-1/IGF-1 groups (IGF-1 vs. IGFBP-1/IGF-1 vs. control: 45.8% vs. 59.6% vs. 27.3% respectively). Conclusion IGF-1 or dephosphorylated IGFBP-1/IGF-1 supplement does result in an anti-apoptotic effect for early embryo development in culture, with a subsequent increased total cell number resulting from cell culture. The effect is beneficial for the later establishment of a stem-cell line. PMID:14499003

Lin, Ta-Chin; Yen, Jui-Mei; Gong, Kun-Bing; Hsu, Teng-Tsao; Chen, Lih-Ren

2003-01-01

133

Enrichment of cardiac differentiation by a large starting number of embryonic stem cells in embryoid bodies is mediated by the Wnt11-JNK pathway.  

PubMed

Embryoid bodies (EBs) with large starting numbers of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have a greater degree of cardiac differentiation than from low numbers of EBs. However, the biological roles of signaling molecules in these effects are not well understood. Here, we show that groups of EBs with different starting numbers of ESCs had differential gene expression patterns for Wnt5a and Wnt11. Wnt11 significantly increased the percentage of beating EBs by up-regulating the expression of the cardiac-specific genes. Wnt5a did not show these effects. Moreover, Wnt11 significantly increased the level of phosphorylated Jun N-terminal kinase. The inhibition of the JNK pathway by SP600125 blocked the effects of Wnt11. Thus, enrichment of cardiac differentiation in groups of EBs with a larger starting number of ESCs is mediated by the Wnt11-JNK pathway. PMID:25312921

Chen, Ming; Qian, Cheng; Bi, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Guang-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Quan; Gan, Xue-Dong; Wang, Yang-Gan

2015-02-01

134

Can Meristematic Activity Determine Variation in Leaf Size and Elongation Rate among Four Poa Species? A Kinematic Study1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied inherent variation in final leaf size among four Poa spp. that live at different elevations. The average final length of leaf 7 of the main stem of the smallest species (Poa alpina) was only one-half that of the largest species (Poa trivialis); it was correlated with leaf elongation rate, but not with the duration of leaf elongation. A

Fabio Fiorani; Gerrit T. S. Beemster; Lieve Bultynck; Hans Lambers

2000-01-01

135

STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…

Sanders, Mark

2009-01-01

136

The Analysis of Leaf Shape Using Fractal Geometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes ways to examine leaf structure and shape using fractal geometry. Students can test hypotheses using the leaves of replicated plants to look for non-linear trends in leaf shape along the stems of plants, across species, and under different environmental growth conditions. (SAH)

Hartvigsen, Gregg

2000-01-01

137

Understanding STEM: Current Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many ways, the push for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education appears to have grown from a concern for the low number of future professionals to fill STEM jobs and careers and economic and educational competitiveness. The proponents of STEM education believe that by increasing math and science requirements in…

Brown, Ryan; Brown, Joshua; Reardon, Kristin; Merrill, Chris

2011-01-01

138

Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves 85 Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves  

E-print Network

on the same plant. One aspect of understanding plants is to be able to figure out what is root, stem, and leaf of the stem between the nodes (Figure 1). Figure 1. Shoot structure. #12;Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves 86 meristem, the differentiating cells produce the root cap, a structure that protects the root apical

Koptur, Suzanne

139

Stem Cells  

MedlinePLUS

Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

140

``Stemness'': Transcriptional Profiling of Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcriptional profiles of mouse embryonic, neural, and hematopoietic stem cells were compared to define a genetic program for stem cells. A total of 216 genes are enriched in all three types of stem cells, and several of these genes are clustered in the genome. When compared to differentiated cell types, stem cells express a significantly higher number of genes

Miguel Ramalho-Santos; Soonsang Yoon; Yumi Matsuzaki; Richard C. Mulligan; Douglas A. Melton

2002-01-01

141

Tree Leaf Identification and Leaf Display Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a tree leaf collection, identification, and display of dried and pressed leaves. It teaches students about distinguishing leaf characteristics as well as a way to display and label their collection.

Rebecca Hansing

142

Mitochondrial DNA copy number is regulated by DNA methylation and demethylation of POLGA in stem and cancer cells and their differentiated progeny.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is strictly regulated during differentiation so that cells with a high requirement for ATP generated through oxidative phosphorylation have high mtDNA copy number, whereas those with a low requirement have few copies. Using immunoprecipitation of DNA methylation on 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which distinguish between de novo DNA methylation and demethylation, respectively, we set out to determine whether DNA methylation at exon 2 of the human mtDNA-specific polymerase (DNA polymerase gamma A (POLGA)) regulates cell-specific mtDNA copy number in highly proliferative and terminally differentiated cells. Highly proliferative cancer and pluripotent and multipotent cells possessed low mtDNA copy number and were highly methylated at exon 2 of POLGA in contrast to post-mitotic cells. Unlike neural stem cells, cancer cells were unable to differentiate and remained extensively DNA methylated at exon 2 of POLGA. However, mtDNA depletion of cancer cells reduced DNA methylation at exon 2 of POLGA as they replenished mtDNA to form tumours in mice. Glioblastoma cells treated with the DNA demethylation agent 5-azacytidine over 28 days of astrocyte-induced differentiation demethylated exon 2 of POLGA leading to increased mtDNA copy number and expression of the astrocyte endpoint marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, the demethylation agent vitamin C (VitC) was unable to sustain increased mtDNA copy number and differentiation, as was the case when VitC was withdrawn after short-term treatment. These data demonstrate that DNA demethylation of POLGA is an essential regulator of mtDNA copy number and cellular fate and that cancer cells are only able to modulate DNA methylation of POLGA and mtDNA copy number in the presence of a DNA demethylation agent that inhibits de novo methyltransferase 1 activity. PMID:25719248

Lee, W; Johnson, J; Gough, D J; Donoghue, J; Cagnone, G L M; Vaghjiani, V; Brown, K A; Johns, T G; St John, J C

2015-01-01

143

Long-term Blue Light Effects on the Histology of Lettuce and Soybean Leaves and Stems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blue light (320 to 496 nm) alters hypocotyl and stem elongation and leaf expansion in short-term, cell-level experiments, but histological effects of blue light in long-term studies of whole plants have not been described. We measured cell size and number in stems of soybean (Glycine max L.) and leaves of soybean and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), at two blue light fractions. Short-term studies have shown that cell expansion in stems is rapidly inhibited when etiolated tissue is exposed to blue light. However, under long-term light exposure, an increase in the blue light fraction from less than 0.1% to 26% decreased internode length, specifically by inhibiting soybean cell division in stems. In contrast, an increase in blue light fraction from 6% to 26% reduced soybean leaf area by decreasing cell expansion. Surprisingly, lettuce leaf area increased with increasing blue light fraction (0% to 6%), which was attributed to a 3.1-fold increase in cell expansion and a 1.6-fold increase in cell division.

Dougher, Tracy A. O.; Bugbee, Bruce

2004-01-01

144

Single high doses of cyclophosphamide enable the collection of high numbers of hemopoietic stem cells from the peripheral blood.  

PubMed

We used single high doses of cyclophosphamide (4 g/m2) to produce rebound increases in peripheral blood (PB) stem cells (PBSC) during recovery from myelosuppression, enabling their collection by apheresis for later autotransplantation. Thirty-three courses of cyclophosphamide were given to 30 patients with malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma, or solid tumors. The neutrophil count was less than 0.5 x 10(9)/liter for a mean of 6.9 days (median 7 days), and fever occurred in 17 of 33 courses. Positive blood cultures occurred in two patients, one of whom died. The mean peak level of PB granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) was 1517 x 10(3)/liter (median 2447 x 10(3)/liter), a 14-fold increase above the mean in normal subjects. The peak occurred at a mean of 16.6 days (median 16 days) after cyclophosphamide, generally coinciding with the time to reach 1.0 x 10(9) neutrophils per liter. Normal or minimally involved bone marrow and a rapid rise in leukocyte count during recovery were independent variables correlated to the peak of the rebound increase in PB CFU-GM levels. Previous chemotherapy and the duration of neutropenia were additional independent variables in the group with peak PB CFU-GM levels of greater than 1000 x 10(3)/liter. The mean total CFU-GM collected after a mean of five aphereses was 43.8 x 10(4)/kg body weight (BW) (median 35.5 x 10(4)/kg BW), significantly correlated with the mononuclear cell yield. We conclude that single 4 g/m2 doses of cyclophosphamide effectively produce high levels of PBSC, particularly but not exclusively in patients with normal or minimally involved bone marrow and who have not had intensive recent chemotherapy. PMID:1970963

To, L B; Shepperd, K M; Haylock, D N; Dyson, P G; Charles, P; Thorp, D L; Dale, B M; Dart, G W; Roberts, M M; Sage, R E

1990-06-01

145

7 CFR 29.2301 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem. 29.2301 Section 29.2301 Agriculture Regulations...Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2301 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2010-01-01

146

7 CFR 29.2553 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem. 29.2553 Section 29.2553 Agriculture Regulations...u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2553 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2010-01-01

147

7 CFR 29.3059 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem. 29.3059 Section 29.3059 Agriculture Regulations...Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3059 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2010-01-01

148

7 CFR 29.1061 - Stem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem. 29.1061 Section 29.1061 Agriculture Regulations...Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1061 Stem. The midrib or large central vein of a tobacco leaf....

2010-01-01

149

Seasonality of Leaf Carbon Isotopic Composition and Leaf Water Isotopic Enrichment in a Mixed Evergreen Forest in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf carbon isotopic composition and leaf water isotopic enrichment reflect physiological processes and are important for linking local and regional scale processes to global patterns. We investigated how seasonality affects the isotopic composition of bulk leaf carbon, leaf sugar carbon, and leaf water hydrogen under a Mediterranean climate. Leaf and stem samples were collected monthly from four tree species (Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, and Quercus chrysolepis) at the James San Jacinto Mountain Reserve in southern California. Mean monthly bulk leaf carbon isotopic composition varied from -34.5 % in P. ponderosa to -24.7 % in P. lambertiana and became more depleted in 13C from the spring to the summer. Mean monthly leaf sugar varied from -29.3 % in P. ponderosa to -21.8 % in P. lambertiana and was enriched in 13C during the winter, spring and autumn, but depleted during the mid-summer. Leaf water hydrogen isotopic composition was 28.4 to 68.8 % more enriched in deuterium than source water and this enrichment was greater as seasonal drought progressed. These data indicate that leaf carbon and leaf water hydrogen isotopic composition provide sensitive measures that connect plant physiological processes to short-term climatic variability.

Santiago, L. S.; Sickman, J. O.; Goulden, M.; DeVan, C.; Pasquini, S. C.; Pivovaroff, A. L.

2011-12-01

150

STEM CELL REGULATION IN THE ARABIDOPSIS SHOOT APICAL MERISTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aerial structure of higher plants is generated dynamically throughout the life cycle through the activity of stem cells that are located at the growing shoot tip, the apical meristem. The stem cells continuously divide to renew themselves and provide cells for leaf, stem and flower formation. St...

151

Leaf life span spectrum of tropical woody seedlings: effects of light and ontogeny and consequences for survival  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Leaf life span is widely recognized as a key life history trait associated with herbivory resistance, but rigorous comparative data are rare for seedlings. The goal of this study was to examine how light environment affects leaf life span, and how ontogenetic development during the first year may influence leaf fracture toughness, lamina density and stem density that are relevant for herbivory resistance, leaf life span and seedling survival. Methods Data from three experiments encompassing 104 neotropical woody species were combined. Leaf life span, lamina and vein fracture toughness, leaf and stem tissue density and seedling survival were quantified for the first-year seedlings at standardized ontogenetic stages in shade houses and common gardens established in gaps and shaded understorey in a moist tropical forest in Panama. Mortality of naturally recruited seedlings till 1 year later was quantified in 800 1-m2 plots from 1994 to 2011. Key Results Median leaf life span ranged widely among species, always greater in shade (ranging from 151 to >1790 d in the understorey and shade houses) than in gaps (115–867 d), but with strong correlation between gaps and shade. Leaf and stem tissue density increased with seedling age, whereas leaf fracture toughness showed only a weak increase. All these traits were positively correlated with leaf life span. Leaf life span and stem density were negatively correlated with seedling mortality in shade, while gap mortality showed no correlation with these traits. Conclusions The wide spectrum of leaf life span and associated functional traits reflects variation in shade tolerance of first-year seedlings among coexisting trees, shrubs and lianas in this neotropical forest. High leaf tissue density is important in enhancing leaf toughness, a known physical defence, and leaf life span. Both seedling leaf life span and stem density should be considered as key functional traits that contribute to seedling survival in tropical forest understoreys. PMID:23532047

Kitajima, Kaoru; Cordero, Roberto A.; Wright, S. Joseph

2013-01-01

152

Discovering candidate genes that regulate resin canal number in Pinus taeda stems by integrating genetic analysis across environments, ages, and populations.  

PubMed

Genetically improving constitutive resin canal development in Pinus stems may enhance the capacity to synthesize terpenes for bark beetle resistance, chemical feedstocks, and biofuels. To discover genes that potentially regulate axial resin canal number (RCN), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4027 genes were tested for association with RCN in two growth rings and three environments in a complex pedigree of 520 Pinus taeda individuals (CCLONES). The map locations of associated genes were compared with RCN quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in a (P. taeda × Pinus elliottii) × P. elliottii pseudo-backcross of 345 full-sibs (BC1). Resin canal number was heritable (h(2) ˜ 0.12-0.21) and positively genetically correlated with xylem growth (rg ˜ 0.32-0.72) and oleoresin flow (rg ˜ 0.15-0.51). Sixteen well-supported candidate regulators of RCN were discovered in CCLONES, including genes associated across sites and ages, unidirectionally associated with oleoresin flow and xylem growth, and mapped to RCN QTLs in BC1. Breeding is predicted to increase RCN 11% in one generation and could be accelerated with genomic selection at accuracies of 0.45-0.52 across environments. There is significant genetic variation for RCN in loblolly pine, which can be exploited in breeding for elevated terpene content. PMID:25266813

Westbrook, Jared W; Walker, Alejandro R; Neves, Leandro G; Munoz, Patricio; Resende, Marcio F R; Neale, David B; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Huber, Dudley A; Kirst, Matias; Davis, John M; Peter, Gary F

2015-01-01

153

High-resolution DNA analysis of human embryonic stem cell lines reveals culture-induced copy number changes and loss of heterozygosity.  

PubMed

Prolonged culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can lead to adaptation and the acquisition of chromosomal abnormalities, underscoring the need for rigorous genetic analysis of these cells. Here we report the highest-resolution study of hESCs to date using an Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array containing 906,600 probes for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 946,000 probes for copy number variations (CNVs). Analysis of 17 different hESC lines maintained in different laboratories identified 843 CNVs of 50 kb-3 Mb in size. We identified, on average, 24% of the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) sites and 66% of the CNVs changed in culture between early and late passages of the same lines. Thirty percent of the genes detected within CNV sites had altered expression compared to samples with normal copy number states, of which >44% were functionally linked to cancer. Furthermore, LOH of the q arm of chromosome 16, which has not been observed previously in hESCs, was detected. PMID:20351689

Närvä, Elisa; Autio, Reija; Rahkonen, Nelly; Kong, Lingjia; Harrison, Neil; Kitsberg, Danny; Borghese, Lodovica; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Rasool, Omid; Dvorak, Petr; Hovatta, Outi; Otonkoski, Timo; Tuuri, Timo; Cui, Wei; Brüstle, Oliver; Baker, Duncan; Maltby, Edna; Moore, Harry D; Benvenisty, Nissim; Andrews, Peter W; Yli-Harja, Olli; Lahesmaa, Riitta

2010-04-01

154

Elm Leaf Beetle  

E-print Network

Elm leaf beetles damage all varieties of elm trees. Learn how to identify this insect and understand its biology and life cycle. There are suggestions for controlling elm leaf beetles, as well as a table of insecticides effective against...

Patrick, Carl D.

2002-05-22

155

Can Meristematic Activity Determine Variation in Leaf Size and Elongation Rate among Four Poa Species? A Kinematic Study1  

PubMed Central

We studied inherent variation in final leaf size among four Poa spp. that live at different elevations. The average final length of leaf 7 of the main stem of the smallest species (Poa alpina) was only one-half that of the largest species (Poa trivialis); it was correlated with leaf elongation rate, but not with the duration of leaf elongation. A faster rate of leaf elongation rate was associated with (a) larger size of the zone of cell expansion, and (b) faster rates of cell production (per cell file) in the meristem, which in turn were due to greater numbers of dividing cells, whereas average cell division rates were very similar for all species (except Poa annua). Also we found that the proliferative fraction equaled 1 throughout the meristem in all species. It was remarkable that rates of cell expansion tended to be somewhat higher in the species with slower growing leaves. We discuss the results by comparing the spatial and material viewpoints, which lead to different interpretations of the role of cell division. Although the presented data do not strictly prove it, they strongly suggest a regulatory role for cell division in determining differences in growth rate among the present four Poa spp. PMID:11027732

Fiorani, Fabio; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Bultynck, Lieve; Lambers, Hans

2000-01-01

156

Can meristematic activity determine variation in leaf size and elongation rate among four Poa species? A kinematic study.  

PubMed

We studied inherent variation in final leaf size among four Poa spp. that live at different elevations. The average final length of leaf 7 of the main stem of the smallest species (Poa alpina) was only one-half that of the largest species (Poa trivialis); it was correlated with leaf elongation rate, but not with the duration of leaf elongation. A faster rate of leaf elongation rate was associated with (a) larger size of the zone of cell expansion, and (b) faster rates of cell production (per cell file) in the meristem, which in turn were due to greater numbers of dividing cells, whereas average cell division rates were very similar for all species (except Poa annua). Also we found that the proliferative fraction equaled 1 throughout the meristem in all species. It was remarkable that rates of cell expansion tended to be somewhat higher in the species with slower growing leaves. We discuss the results by comparing the spatial and material viewpoints, which lead to different interpretations of the role of cell division. Although the presented data do not strictly prove it, they strongly suggest a regulatory role for cell division in determining differences in growth rate among the present four Poa spp. PMID:11027732

Fiorani, F; Beemster, G T; Bultynck, L; Lambers, H

2000-10-01

157

Gene expression analysis of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons carrying copy number variants of chromosome 15q11-q13.1  

PubMed Central

Background Duplications of the chromosome 15q11-q13.1 region are associated with an estimated 1 to 3% of all autism cases, making this copy number variation (CNV) one of the most frequent chromosome abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Several genes located within the 15q11-q13.1 duplication region including ubiquitin protein ligase E3A (UBE3A), the gene disrupted in Angelman syndrome (AS), are involved in neural function and may play important roles in the neurobehavioral phenotypes associated with chromosome 15q11-q13.1 duplication (Dup15q) syndrome. Methods We have generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from five different individuals containing CNVs of 15q11-q13.1. The iPSC lines were differentiated into mature, functional neurons. Gene expression across the 15q11-q13.1 locus was compared among the five iPSC lines and corresponding iPSC-derived neurons using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Genome-wide gene expression was compared between neurons derived from three iPSC lines using mRNA-Seq. Results Analysis of 15q11-q13.1 gene expression in neurons derived from Dup15q iPSCs reveals that gene copy number does not consistently predict expression levels in cells with interstitial duplications of 15q11-q13.1. mRNA-Seq experiments show that there is substantial overlap in the genes differentially expressed between 15q11-q13.1 deletion and duplication neurons, Finally, we demonstrate that UBE3A transcripts can be pharmacologically rescued to normal levels in iPSC-derived neurons with a 15q11-q13.1 duplication. Conclusions Chromatin structure may influence gene expression across the 15q11-q13.1 region in neurons. Genome-wide analyses suggest that common neuronal pathways may be disrupted in both the Angelman and Dup15q syndromes. These data demonstrate that our disease-specific stem cell models provide a new tool to decipher the underlying cellular and genetic disease mechanisms of ASD and may also offer a pathway to novel therapeutic intervention in Dup15q syndrome. PMID:25694803

2014-01-01

158

Leaf Epicuticular Waxes of the Eceriferum Mutants in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

Wild-type Arabidopsis leaf epicuticular wax (EW) occurs as a smooth layer over the epidermal surface, whereas stem EW has a crystalline microstructure. Wild-type EW load was more than 10-fold lower on leaves than on stems. Compared with the EW on wild-type stems, EW on wild-type leaves had a much higher proportion of their total EW load in the form of alkanes and 1-alcohols; a large reduction in secondary alcohols, ketones, and esters; and a chain-length distribution for major EW classes that was skewed toward longer lengths. The eceriferum (cer) mutations often differentially affected leaf and stem EW chemical compositions. For example, the cer2 mutant EW phenotype was expressed on the stem but not on the leaf. Compared to wild type, the amount of primary alcohols on cer9 mutants was reduced on leaves but elevated on stems, whereas an opposite differential effect for primary alcohols was observed on cer16 leaves and stems. Putative functions for CER gene products are discussed. The CER4 and CER6 gene products may be involved in fatty aldehyde reduction and C26 fatty acylcoenzyme A elongation, respectively. CER1, CER8, CER9, and CER16 gene products may be involved in EW substrate transfer. The CER3 gene product may be involved in release of fatty acids from elongase complexes. CER2 gene product may have regulatory functions. PMID:12228482

Jenks, M. A.; Tuttle, H. A.; Eigenbrode, S. D.; Feldmann, K. A.

1995-01-01

159

Mapping leaf surface landscapes.  

PubMed Central

Leaf surfaces provide the ecologically relevant landscapes to those organisms that encounter or colonize the leaf surface. Leaf surface topography directly affects microhabitat availability for colonizing microbes, microhabitat quality and acceptability for insects, and the efficacy of agricultural spray applications. Prior detailed mechanistic studies that examined particular fungi-plant and pollinator-plant interactions have demonstrated the importance of plant surface topography or roughness in determining the outcome of the interactions. Until now, however, it has not been possible to measure accurately the topography--i.e., the three-dimensional structure--of such leaf surfaces or to record precise changes in patterns of leaf surface elevation over time. Using contact mode atomic force microscopy, we measured three-dimensional coordinates of upper leaf surfaces of Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), a perennial plant, on leaves of two age classes. We then produced topographic maps of these leaf surfaces, which revealed striking differences between age classes of leaves: old leaves have much rougher surfaces than those of young leaves. Atomic force microscope measurements were analyzed by lag (1) autocorrelation estimates of leaf surfaces by age class. We suggest that the changes in topography result from removal of epicuticular lipids and that the changes in leaf surface topography influence phylloplane ecology. Visualizing and mapping leaf surfaces permit detailed investigations into leaf surface-mediated phenomena, improving our understanding of phylloplane interactions. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607676

Mechaber, W L; Marshall, D B; Mechaber, R A; Jobe, R T; Chew, F S

1996-01-01

160

Optimizing leaf widths for a multileaf collimator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multileaf collimator (MLC) is becoming a standard accessory of modern linac in shaping radiation fields. However, for a given target (projection), the radiation field shaped by an MLC has a stepwise boundary and is not identical to the desired field that exactly conforms to the target. That means there are always under-blocked and/or over-blocked areas. The total area of discrepancy depends on MLC leaf widths. The purpose of this study is to develop an optimization model for determining leaf widths so that the total area of discrepancy between MLC-shaped fields and the desired ones can be minimized. The optimization model regards leaf widths as variables, the total area of discrepancy between MLC-shaped fields and the desired fields as an objective function, and the total width of all leaves as a constraint. A problem described by the model is solved with the hybrid of a simulated annealing technique (ASA, Lester Ingber, 1993) and a gradient technique (DONLP2, P Spellucci, 2001). The performance of the optimization model was evaluated on 634 target fields continuously selected from the patient database of a treatment planning system. The lengths of these fields ranged from 3.9 to 38.7 cm and had an average of 15.3 cm. The total area of discrepancy was compared between an MLC with optimal leaf widths and a conventional MLC with the same number of leaf pairs. Optimal leaf widths were obtained for an MLC with total leaf pairs of 28, 40 and 60, respectively, which corresponded to three types of conventional MLCs. The optimal leaf width first decreases slightly and then nonlinearly increases with the distance away from the central line. Compared with the MLC with conventional leaf width arrangement, the MLCs with optimal leaf width arrangement reduced the total area of discrepancy by 11.1%, 28.6% and 25.0%, respectively. Optimizing leaf widths can either improve the conformity of MLC-shaped fields to the treatment targets when the number of leaf pairs does not change, or reduce the number of leaf pairs without sacrifice of field conformity.

Cui, Weijie; Dai, Jianrong

2009-05-01

161

The River of Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Greco et al. (2009) characterize the hair germ as a novel stop between bulge stem cell and transient amplifying cells during hair regeneration. The work implies stem cell states can be regulated to form different numbers of intermediate stops, depending on physiological requirements. PMID:19200797

Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Widelitz, Randall Bruce

2015-01-01

162

The inheritance of host plant effect on latency period of wheat leaf rust in spring wheat. I: Estimation of gene action and number of effective factors in F1, F2 and backcross generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosses were made between the highly susceptible Little Club and the partially resistant cultivars Westphal 12A, Akabozu and BH 1146 to obtain F1, F2 and backcross generations. Latency period (LP) was determined in plants inoculated at the young flag leaf stage with a monospore culture of race ‘Flamingo’ of wheat leaf rust. Broad sense heritability of LP in the F2

Th. Jacobs; L. H. M. Broers

1989-01-01

163

Number and proliferative capacity of human mesenchymal stem cells are modulated positively in multiple trauma patients and negatively in atrophic nonunions.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) participate in regenerative osteogenesis by generating bone-forming cells. To examine the proliferative capacity of MSC populations from bone marrow and their relationship to trauma severity (multiple trauma, monofracture, atrophic nonunion), we quantified colony properties of human MSCs in vitro. Serum levels of mediators associated with bone formation were also assessed. Fifty-five individuals were enrolled in this study (13 multiple trauma patients, 15 patients with monofracture, 20 patients with atrophic nonunions, 7 healthy volunteers). The colony forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay was used to quantify total colony number, mean cell density per colony, and mean colony area. MSC phenotype was established using flow cytometry and osteogenic differentiation. MSCs obtained from multiple-trauma patients yielded the highest reservoir. Significant differences in colony numbers of MSCs in female subjects were found between multiple-trauma patients (mean +/- SD 48 +/- 21 CFU-F/culture) and healthy volunteers (18.7 +/- 3.3 CFU-F/culture, P < 0.05), patients with monotrauma (15 +/- 10 CFU-F/culture, P < 0.05), and patients with atrophic nonunions (6.3 +/- 4.1 CFU-F/culture, P < 0.05). In male participants, significant differences were found between patients with nonunions (14 +/- 14 CFU-F/culture) and healthy volunteers (54 +/- 17 CFU-F/culture, P < 0.05) as well as multiple-trauma patients (59 +/- 25 CFU-F/culture, P < 0.05). The highest proliferative capacity (cell density) was seen in multiple-trauma patients. These data suggest that trauma severity and gender affect the reservoir and proliferation capacity of bone marrow-derived MSCs. PMID:17431529

Seebach, C; Henrich, D; Tewksbury, R; Wilhelm, K; Marzi, I

2007-04-01

164

Functional relationships between leaf hydraulics and leaf economic traits in response to nutrient addition in subtropical tree species.  

PubMed

Leaves can be both a hydraulic bottleneck and a safety valve against hydraulic catastrophic dysfunctions, and thus changes in traits related to water movement in leaves and associated costs may be critical for the success of plant growth. A 4-year fertilization experiment with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) addition was done in a semideciduous Atlantic forest in northeastern Argentina. Saplings of five dominant canopy species were grown in similar gaps inside the forests (five control and five N?+?P addition plots). Leaf lifespan (LL), leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf and stem vulnerability to cavitation, leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf_area) and K(leaf_mass)) and leaf turgor loss point (TLP) were measured in the five species and in both treatments. Leaf lifespan tended to decrease with the addition of fertilizers, and LMA was significantly higher in plants with nutrient addition compared with individuals in control plots. The vulnerability to cavitation of leaves (P50(leaf)) either increased or decreased with the nutrient treatment depending on the species, but the average P50(leaf) did not change with nutrient addition. The P50(leaf) decreased linearly with increasing LMA and LL across species and treatments. These trade-offs have an important functional significance because more expensive (higher LMA) and less vulnerable leaves (lower P50(leaf)) are retained for a longer period of time. Osmotic potentials at TLP and at full turgor became more negative with decreasing P50(leaf) regardless of nutrient treatment. The K(leaf) on a mass basis was negatively correlated with LMA and LL, indicating that there is a carbon cost associated with increased water transport that is compensated by a longer LL. The vulnerability to cavitation of stems and leaves were similar, particularly in fertilized plants. Leaves in the species studied may not function as safety valves at low water potentials to protect the hydraulic pathway from water stress-induced cavitation. The lack of rainfall seasonality in the subtropical forest studied probably does not act as a selective pressure to enhance hydraulic segmentation between leaves and stems. PMID:24284866

Villagra, Mariana; Campanello, Paula I; Bucci, Sandra J; Goldstein, Guillermo

2013-12-01

165

Assessing soybean leaf area and leaf biomass by spectral measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Red and photographic infrared spectral radiances were correlated with soybean total leaf area index, green leaf area index, chlorotic leaf area index, green leaf biomass, chlorotic leaf biomass, and total biomass. The most significant correlations were found to exist between the IR/red radiance ratio data and green leaf area index and/or green leaf biomass (r squared equals 0.85 and 0.86, respectively). These findings demonstrate that remote sensing data can supply information basic to soybean canopy growth, development, and status by nondestructive determination of the green leaf area or green leaf biomass.

Holben, B. N.; Tucker, C. J.; Fan, C. J.

1979-01-01

166

First report of leaf spot caused by Cladosporium herbarum on Centaurea solstitialis in Greece  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the summer of 2003, an epidemic of dying yellow starthistle (YST) plants was found near Kozani, Greece. Plants had necrotic tan-brown leaf spots on most of the lower leaves and on the decurrent leaf bases along the stems. Virtually all plants in a solid stand of YST (about 0.5 ha) showed disease ...

167

Organ shape and size: a lesson from studies of leaf morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of the shape and size of indeterminate organs, such as roots and stems, is directly related to the control of the shape and size of the cells in these organs, as predicted by orthodox cell theory. For example, the polarity-dependent growth of leaf cells directly affects the polar expansion of leaves. Thus, the control of leaf shape is related

Hirokazu Tsukaya

2003-01-01

168

Leaf Pack Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Leaf Pack Network (LPN) is a network of teachers and students investigating their local stream ecosystems by participating in the leaf pack experiment, which involves creating an artificial leaf pack (dry leaves in a mesh bag), immersing it in a stream for 3-4 weeks, and examining it for signs of aquatic insects as indicators of stream health. Participating classrooms share their data through the internet. This activity highlights the connection between streamside forests and the ecology of rivers and streams.

169

Age-related changes in auditory nerve-inner hair cell connections, hair cell numbers, auditory brain stem response and gap detection in UM-HET4 mice.  

PubMed

This study compared the timing of appearance of three components of age-related hearing loss that determine the pattern and severity of presbycusis: the functional and structural pathologies of sensory cells and neurons and changes in gap detection (GD), the latter as an indicator of auditory temporal processing. Using UM-HET4 mice, genetically heterogeneous mice derived from four inbred strains, we studied the integrity of inner and outer hair cells by position along the cochlear spiral, inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections, spiral ganglion neurons (SGN), and determined auditory thresholds, as well as pre-pulse and gap inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). Comparisons were made between mice of 5-7, 22-24 and 27-29months of age. There was individual variability among mice in the onset and extent of age-related auditory pathology. At 22-24months of age a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was restricted to the apical third of the cochlea and threshold shifts in the auditory brain stem response were minimal. There was also a large and significant loss of inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections and a significant reduction in GD. The expression of Ntf3 in the cochlea was significantly reduced. At 27-29months of age there was no further change in the mean number of synaptic connections per inner hair cell or in GD, but a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was found across all cochlear turns as well as significantly increased ABR threshold shifts at 4, 12, 24 and 48kHz. A statistical analysis of correlations on an individual animal basis revealed that neither the hair cell loss nor the ABR threshold shifts correlated with loss of GD or with the loss of connections, consistent with independent pathological mechanisms. PMID:25665752

Altschuler, R A; Dolan, D F; Halsey, K; Kanicki, A; Deng, N; Martin, C; Eberle, J; Kohrman, D C; Miller, R A; Schacht, J

2015-04-30

170

Polarized and specular reflectance variation with leaf surface features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The linearly polarized reflectance from a leaf depends on the characteristics of the leaf surface. In the present study the leaf reflectance of a number of plant species with varying surface characteristics was measured at the Brewster angle with a polarization photometer having 5 visible and near-infrared wavelength bands. We found that all leaf surfaces polarized incident light. Differences among species could be explained by variation in surface features. The results support our hypothesis that the polarized light is reflected by the leaf surface, not by its interior. Two mechanisms appeared responsible for the linearly polarized reflectance: (1) specular reflectance and (2) surface particle scattering. In most cases, large values of linearly polarized reflectance could be attributed to specular reflectance from the leaf surface. Attribution required knowledge of the optical dimensions of features on the leaf surface.

Grant, Lois; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

1993-01-01

171

Leaf development and morphogenesis.  

PubMed

The development of plant leaves follows a common basic program that is flexible and is adjusted according to species, developmental stage and environmental circumstances. Leaves initiate from the flanks of the shoot apical meristem and develop into flat structures of variable sizes and forms. This process is regulated by plant hormones, transcriptional regulators and mechanical properties of the tissue. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how these factors modulate leaf development to yield a substantial diversity of leaf forms. We discuss these issues in the context of leaf initiation, the balance between morphogenesis and differentiation, and patterning of the leaf margin. PMID:25371359

Bar, Maya; Ori, Naomi

2014-11-01

172

Deciduous leaf drop reduces insect herbivory.  

PubMed

Deciduous leaf fall is thought to be an adaptation that allows plants living in seasonal environments to reduce water loss and damage during unfavorable periods while increasing photosynthetic rates during favorable periods. Observations of natural variation in leaf shedding suggest that deciduous leaf fall may also allow plants to reduce herbivory. I tested this hypothesis by experimentally manipulating leaf retention for Quercus lobata and observing natural rates of herbivory. Quercus lobata is primarily deciduous although individuals show considerable natural variation in leaf retention. Oak saplings with no leaves through winter experienced reduced attack by cynipid gall makers the following spring. This pattern was consistent with the positive correlation between natural leaf persistence and gall numbers. These cynipids do not overwinter on the leaves that trees retain through winter, although they appear to use persistent leaves as oviposition cues. If these results are general for woody plants in continental temperate habitats, they suggest that an important and unrecognized consequence of deciduous leaf shedding may be a reduction in herbivore damage, and that this effect should be included in models of deciduous and evergreen behavior. PMID:17375327

Karban, Richard

2007-08-01

173

Relationships Between Angular Leaf Spot, Healthy Leaf Area, Effective Leaf Area and Yield of Phaseolus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three field experiments were carried out with the bean cultivar Carioca Comum to investigate the relationships among visual and virtual severity of angular leaf spot (caused by Phaeoisariopsis griseola), area under visual and virtual disease progress curves (AUDPC), healthy leaf area index on any given day (HLAI), healthy leaf area duration (HAD), healthy leaf area absorption (HAA), effective leaf area

W. C. Jesus Junior; F. X. R. Vale; R. R. Coelho; P. A. Paul; B. Hau; A. Bergamin Filho; L. Zambolim; R. D. Berger

2003-01-01

174

STEM Education Coalition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education Coalition is an educational lobbying group that promotes "policies to improve STEM education at all levels." A coalition consisting of 500 organizations, it aims to educate policymakers about the importance of STEM education in keeping the U.S. competitive in the global marketplace. Visitors can find testimony and letters from the Coalition to various lawmakers in the "Positions and Activities" tab, including Secretary of Education Arne Duncan, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, and President Obama himself. The "STEM Resources" tab has multiple links to fact sheets, report cards, and various reports that indicate the state of STEM education in the U.S. Visitors will also find an extensive number of panel discussions, commissions, and reports, beginning with a report from September 1996 on teaching and America's future to a more recent report titled "Tapping America's Potential: Gaining Momentum, Losing Ground."

175

STEM Career  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many groups and organizations in the United States working to encourage young people to enter STEM-related careers, and this website represents one of those endeavors. The STEM Career website was created by Professor Rich Feller of Colorado State University to help encourage young people to select just such a career path. The website contains updates on STEM career possibilities, and basic answers to questions like "Why STEM?" and "Why STEM Centric Career Development?" Visitors should also scan through the "STEM Disciplines" area on the homepage, as it contains resources about the job outlook for related STEM disciplines, such as biochemical engineering and engineering managers. Moving on, the site also features news updates from Professor Feller and his colleagues on subjects that include the ways in which corporations are promoting STEM education and women in STEM.

176

Isolation and characterization of a mung bean leaf polyphenol oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts from mung bean leaves, roots, stems and dark grown seedlings contained multiple forms of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) with subunit Mr values of 65 × 103, 59 × 103, 52 × 103, 47 × 103, 31 × 103 and 21 × 103. Only two of these forms were present in broken and intact leaf chloroplasts. A mature form of

Ron Shin; Tim Froderman; William H. Flurkey

1997-01-01

177

Leaf Hydraulics Lawren Sack1  

E-print Network

Leaf Hydraulics Lawren Sack1 and N. Michele Holbrook2 1 Department of Botany, University of Hawai influence rates of transpiration and photosynthesis. Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) varies more than 65. #12;Contents INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 LEAF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTANCE

Holbrook, N. Michele

178

Balanced cell proliferation and expansion is essential for flowering stem growth control.  

PubMed

The postembryonic development of aboveground plant organs relies on a continuous supply of cells from the shoot apical meristem. Previous studies of developmental regulation in leaves and flowers have revealed the crucial role of coordinated cell proliferation and differentiation during organogenesis. However, the importance of this coordination has not been examined in flowering stems. Very recently, we attempted to identify regulatory factors that maintain flowering stem integrity. We found that the increased cell number in clavata (clv) mutants and the decreased cell size in de-etiolated (det)3-1 resulted in flowering stems that were thicker and thinner, respectively, than in wild-type (WT) plants. Interestingly, in the cell proliferation- and cell expansion-defective double mutant clv det3-1, the flowering stems often exhibited severe cracking, resulting in exposure of their inner tissues. In this study, further quantification of the cellular phenotypes in the cotyledons and leaves revealed no differences between det3-1 and clv3 det3-1. Together, the above findings suggest that the clv3 mutation in a det3-1 background primarily affects flowering stems, while its effect on other organs is likely negligible. We propose that the coordination between cell proliferation and differentiation is not only important during leaf development, but also plays a role in the growth control of Arabidopsis flowering stems. PMID:25831425

Ferjani, Ali; Hanai, Kenya; Gunji, Shizuka; Maeda, Saori; Sawa, Shinichiro; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

2015-03-01

179

Yellow leaf blotch  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yellow leaf blotch occurs worldwide in temperate climates. The disease is reported from countries in Asia, Australasia, Oceania, Europe, North America, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. In the northern Great Plains of North America, it is often the major leaf disease on alfalfa....

180

ASCOCHYTA LEAF SPOT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascochyta leaf spot is a plant disease of wheat. It is often overlooked in association with other leaf spot diseases on wheat and is generally of minor economic importance in Europe, Japan, New Zealand, and North America. However, its distribution and frequency may be greater than realized, becaus...

181

Leaf cutter ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is much diversity between ants. Leaf cutter ants use their mandibles to cut leaf fragments and take them back to their home. They don't eat the leaves, but instead use them to grow fungus on. They then eat the fungus.

N/A N/A (None; )

2007-12-15

182

LEAF MARGIN INFLORESCENCE  

E-print Network

leaves · typical of smartweeds · typical of most biennials & some winter annuals · typical of many plant{ LEAF BLADE LEAF MARGIN PETIOLE INFLORESCENCE WS-27-W Guidelines for Submitting Digital Plant Assistant Professor of Weed Science Purdue University The accuracy of identifying a plant from digital

Holland, Jeffrey

183

Regeneration of peppermint and orange mint from leaf disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf disks from peppermint, spearmint, orange mint, lavender mint and Scotch spearmint were cultured on various Murashige-Skoog-based media in order to regenerate shoots. A significantly larger average number of orange mint leaf disks regenerated shoots on basal medium containing 44.4 µM benzyladenine (BA) and 250 ml l-1 coconut water (CW). Shoots regenerated from peppermint leaf disks cultured on basal medium

J. M. Van Eck; S. L. Kitto

1992-01-01

184

Stem Up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stem Up is a pilot program to aid the disadvantaged youth of Boyle Heights in Los Angeles. The intent of the program was to integrate STEM career pathways into schools and local communities. Visitors will find the K-12 Students tab near the top of the page to be filled with almost two dozen links for all levels of student learning about science and technology. Some of the sites include "Arrick Robotics", for 9-12 graders, "Extreme Science", for all ages, and "Fun Engineering" for kids aged 10-14. The "Boyle Heights" link is a great resource for residents of the LA neighborhood, as well as informative for those visitors unfamiliar with it. There is full contact information for the city and state representatives of the neighborhood, the Police Activities League, and a live theatre that performs outreach through theatre, and classical plays. The "Parents" link also provides a number of science and technology links that parents and kids can visit together.

185

TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON POTATO LEAF AND BRANCH DISTRIBUTION AND CANOPY PHOTOSYNTHETIC RATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mature potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) canopies are composed of leaves originating from main stem and axillary stem branches. Canopy leaf distribution and corresponding contribution to whole canopy photosynthetic rates has not been quantified. An experiment using six Soil-Plant-Atmospheric...

186

Stem Cell Task Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides an overview of the activities of an NIH task force established to move the stem cell research agenda forward. The section titled Scientific Research may be of particular interest to researchers in this area. It provides links to the Web sites of stem cell-related research at a number of NIH institutes, as well as an extensive information index, a FAQs page about stem cell research, information on funding opportunities, and much more.

187

Renal Stem Cells and Kidney Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Significant advances have been made in stem cell research over the past decade. A number of non-hematopoietic sources of stem\\u000a cells (or progenitor cells) have been identified including endothelial stem cells and neural stem cells. These discoveries\\u000a have been a major step towards the potential regeneration of organs for clinical applications using stem cells. The worldwide\\u000a shortage of donor kidneys

Takashi Yokoo; Akira Fukui; Kei Matsumoto; Tetsuya Kawamura

188

Human hair genealogies and stem cell latency  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Stem cells divide to reproduce themselves and produce differentiated progeny. A fundamental problem in human biology has been the inability to measure how often stem cells divide. Although it is impossible to observe every division directly, one method for counting divisions is to count replication errors; the greater the number of divisions, the greater the numbers of errors. Stem

Jung Yeon Kim; Simon Tavaré; Darryl Shibata

2006-01-01

189

STEM Sell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1994 and 2003, employment in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields grew by a remarkable 23 percent, compared with 17 percent in non-STEM fields, according to federal data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts continued strong growth in STEM job openings through 2014, with emphasis on life sciences, environmental…

Pantic, Zorica

2007-01-01

190

New perspectives in human stem cell therapeutic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but

Alan Trounson

2009-01-01

191

Estimating Near-Infrared Leaf Reflectance from Leaf Structural Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between near-infrared reflectance at 800 nm (NIRR) from leaves and characteristics of leaf structure known to affect photosynthesis was investigated in 48 species of alpine angiosperms. This wavelength was selected to discriminate the effects of leaf structure vs. chemical or water content on leaf reflectance. A quantitative model was first constructed correlating NIRR with leaf structural characteristics for

Michele R. Slaton; E. Raymond Hunt; William K. Smith

2001-01-01

192

Impact of plant architecture versus leaf quality on attack by leaf-tying caterpillars on five oak species.  

PubMed

Because shelter-building herbivorous insect species often consider structural features of their host plants in selecting construction sites, their probability of attack is likely to be a function of some combination of plant architectural traits and leaf quality factors. We tested the hypothesis that plant architecture, in the form of the number of touching leaves, influences interspecific variation in attack by leaf-tying caterpillars in five species of sympatric Missouri oaks (Quercus). We compared colonization on control branches, in which both architecture and leaf quality were potentially important, with colonization on experimental branches for which we controlled for the effects of architecture by creating equal numbers of artificial ties. Colonization of artificial ties was highly correlated with natural colonization on neighboring control branches, suggesting that leaf quality factors and not architecture influenced interspecific variation in attack by leaf-tying caterpillars. Of the leaf quality factors measured (water, protein-binding capacity, nitrogen, specific leaf area, pubescence, and toughness), nitrogen was the most explanatory. With the exception of white oak, natural leaf tie colonization was positively correlated with nitrogen availability (ratio of nitrogen to protein-binding capacity), and negatively correlated with protein-binding capacity of leaf extracts. Both host plant species and subgenus oak influenced the community composition of leaf-tying caterpillars and the non-tying symbionts colonizing the ties. Host plant differences in leaf nitrogen content were positively correlated with pupal weight of one of two caterpillar species reared on all five host plant species. Thus, interspecific differences in nitrogen, nitrogen availability, and protein-binding capacity of leaf extracts are the best predictors at this time of interspecific differences in attack by leaf-tying caterpillars, in turn affecting their success on individual host plants in the laboratory. PMID:19960353

Marquis, Robert J; Lill, John T

2010-05-01

193

Increased Cycling Cell Numbers and Stem Cell Associated Proteins as Potential Biomarkers for High Grade Human Papillomavirus+ve Pre-Neoplastic Cervical Disease  

PubMed Central

High risk (oncogenic) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer. Infections are common but most clear naturally. Persistent infection can progress to cancer. Pre-neoplastic disease (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia/CIN) is classified by histology (CIN1-3) according to severity. Cervical abnormalities are screened for by cytology and/or detection of high risk HPV but both methods are imperfect for prediction of which women need treatment. There is a need to understand the host virus interactions that lead to different disease outcomes and to develop biomarker tests for accurate triage of infected women. As cancer is increasingly presumed to develop from proliferative, tumour initiating, cancer stem cells (CSCs), and as other oncogenic viruses induce stem cell associated gene expression, we evaluated whether presence of mRNA (detected by qRT-PCR) or proteins (detected by flow cytometry and antibody based proteomic microarray) from stem cell associated genes and/or increased cell proliferation (detected by flow cytometry) could be detected in well-characterised, routinely collected cervical samples from high risk HPV+ve women. Both cytology and histology results were available for most samples with moderate to high grade abnormality. We found that stem cell associated proteins including human chorionic gonadotropin, the oncogene TP63 and the transcription factor SOX2 were upregulated in samples from women with CIN3 and that the stem cell related, cell surface, protein podocalyxin was detectable on cells in samples from a subset of women with CIN3. SOX2, TP63 and human gonadotrophin mRNAs were upregulated in high grade disease. Immunohistochemistry showed that SOX2 and TP63 proteins clearly delineated tumour cells in invasive squamous cervical cancer. Samples from women with CIN3 showed increased proliferating cells. We believe that these markers may be of use to develop triage tests for women with high grade cervical abnormality to distinguish those who may progress to cancer from those who may be treated more conservatively. PMID:25531390

Canham, Maurice; Charsou, Chara; Stewart, June; Moncur, Sharon; Hoodless, Laura; Bhatia, Ramya; Cong, Duanduan; Cubie, Heather; Busby-Earle, Camille; Williams, Alistair; McLoughlin, Victoria; Campbell, John D. M.; Cuschieri, Kate; Howie, Sarah

2014-01-01

194

Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plant–water environment at leaf flush  

PubMed Central

Leaf-wax n-alkanes 2H/1H ratios are widely used as a proxy in climate reconstruction. Although the broad nature of the relationship between n-alkanes ?2H values and climate is appreciated, the quantitative details of the proxy remain elusive. To examine these details under natural environmental conditions, we studied a riparian broadleaf angiosperm species, Populus angustifolia, growing on water with a constant ?2H value and monitored the ?2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes and of stem, leaf, stream, and atmospheric waters throughout the entire growing season. Here we found the ?2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes recorded only a 2-wk period during leaf flush and did not vary for the 19 weeks thereafter when leaves remained active. We found ?2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes of P. angustifolia record conditions earlier in the season rather than fully integrating the entire growing season. Using these data, we modeled precipitation ?2H values during the time of wax synthesis. We observed that the isotope ratios of this precipitation generally were 2H-enriched compared with mean annual precipitation. This model provides a mechanistic basis of the often-observed 2H-enrichment from the expected fractionation values in studies of broadleaf angiosperm leaf-wax ?2H. In addition, these findings may have implications for the spatial and temporal uses of n-alkane ?2H values in paleoapplications; when both plant community and growth form are known, this study allows the isolation of the precipitation dynamics of individual periods of the growing season. PMID:23359675

Tipple, Brett J.; Berke, Melissa A.; Doman, Christine E.; Khachaturyan, Susanna; Ehleringer, James R.

2013-01-01

195

Four-Leaf Clover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientist-in-training Summer Praetorius has an unusual skill—she is really, really good at spotting four-leaf clovers (Trifolium repens L.). A single gene causes the normally three-leafed clover to produce a fourth, supposedly lucky, leaf. As it turns out, good science depends on both close observation—a skill Praetorius uses to spot tiny shelled animals called foraminifera—and a little bit of luck. Ari Daniel Shapiro explains. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

196

STEM crisis or STEM surplus?  

E-print Network

The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce is a crucial driver of the U.S. economy. Over the last decade, there has been significant concern regarding the adequacy of the supply of STEM workers ...

Xue, Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

197

Stem Cell Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Center Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Information Frequently Asked Questions What are stem cells? ... U.S. policy? More FAQs Links to related resources Stem Cell Research Center for Regenerative Medicine NIH Stem Cell ...

198

Electronic Leaf Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article demonstrates the benefits of a direct application of technology into a science classroom by transferring a traditional activity, such as leaf identification, into an electronic format. The new dynamic medium possesses attributes that can enha

Carolyn Houston

2000-05-01

199

Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox 12 (ATHB12), a homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, regulates leaf growth by promoting cell expansion and endoreduplication.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox 12 (ATHB12), a homeodomain-leucine zipper class I (HD-Zip I) gene, is highly expressed in leaves and stems, and induced by abiotic stresses, but its role in development remains obscure. To understand its function during plant development, we studied the effects of loss and gain of function. Expression of ATHB12 fused to the EAR-motif repression domain (SRDX) - P35 S ::ATHB12SRDX (A12SRDX) and PATHB 12 ::ATHB12SRDX - slowed both leaf and root growth, while the growth of ATHB12-overexpressing seedlings (A12OX) was accelerated. Microscopic examination revealed changes in the size and number of leaf cells. Ploidy was reduced in A12SRDX plants, accompanied by decreased cell expansion and increased cell numbers. By contrast, cell size was increased in A12OX plants, along with increased ploidy and elevated expression of cell cycle switch 52s (CCS52s), which are positive regulators of endoreduplication, indicating that ATHB12 promotes leaf cell expansion and endoreduplication. Overexpression of ATHB12 led to decreased phosphorylation of Arabidopsis thaliana ribosomal protein S6 (AtRPS6), a regulator of cell growth. In addition, induction of ATHB12 in the presence of cycloheximide increased the expression of several genes related to cell expansion, such as EXPANSIN A10 (EXPA10) and DWARF4 (DWF4). Our findings strongly suggest that ATHB12 acts as a positive regulator of endoreduplication and cell growth during leaf development. PMID:25187356

Hur, Yoon-Sun; Um, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Sunghan; Kim, Kyunga; Park, Hee-Jung; Lim, Jong-Seok; Kim, Woo-Young; Jun, Sang Eun; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Lim, Jun; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Kim, Donggiun; Park, Jongbum; Kim, Gyung-Tae; Cheon, Choong-Ill

2015-01-01

200

Leaf to Landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One fundamental “problem” for maximizing carbon gain at the leaf and higher organizational levels entails the link between\\u000a light capture and leaf energy budgets. The balance between the two processes, however, depends on the environment. For example,\\u000a shade environments limit carbon gain due to low light levels, and so we would expect plants to display traits that maximize\\u000a light interception

Stanley D. Smith; Elke Naumburg; ÜLo Niinemets; Matthew J. Germino

201

Relationships between leaf pigment content and spectral reflectance across a wide range of species, leaf structures and developmental stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf pigment content can provide valuable insight into the physiological performance of leaves. Measurement of spectral reflectance provides a fast, nondestructive method for pigment estimation. A large number of spectral indices have been developed for estimation of leaf pigment content. However, in most cases these indices have been tested for only one or at most a few related species and

Daniel A. Sims; John A. Gamon

2002-01-01

202

Numbers, Numbers, Numbers!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s have some fun working on our math facts and putting numbers together to get new ones! Try out these games and see how you do-- First try to defeat this spaceship with your math fact skills: Spacey Math: A drill game where students are given a set of math facts to answer (can select addition, subtraction, multiplication, division). If you defeat the spaceship you can move on to helping save the poodles. They have to weigh in and they need to find out what numbers need to go on the other side of the scale to balance ...

M. Fisher

2007-12-04

203

Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

2008-03-01

204

Seasonal variation in the effectiveness of the leaf-feeding beetle Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and stem-galling moth Epiblema strenuana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) as biocontrol agents on the weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Variation in the effectiveness of biocontrol agents on the weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. was evaluated at two properties (Mount Panorama and Plain Creek) in Queensland, Australia for four years (1996-2000) using a pesticide exclusion experiment. At Mount Panorama, higher levels of defoliation by the leaf-feeding beetle Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister and galling by the moth Epiblema strenuana Walker in 1996-97 coincided with an above average summer rainfall, but in the following three years with below average summer rainfall the defoliation and galling levels were significantly lower. Biocontrol had significant negative impact on the weed only in 1996-97 with no major impact in the following three years. At Plain Creek, galling by E. strenuana was evident in all the four years, but varied significantly between years due to non-synchrony between P. hysterophorus germination and E. strenuana emergence. At Plain Creek biocontrol had limited impact on the weed in 1996-97 and 1997-98, with no significant impact in the following two years. Over the 4-year period, defoliation and galling resulted in 70% reduction in the soil seed bank at Mount Panorama, but the reduction in the soil seed bank at Plain Creek due to galling was not significant. Effectiveness of Z. bicolorata and E. strenuana was dependent on weather conditions and as a result had only limited impact on the weed in three out of four years. PMID:14641978

Dhileepan, K

2003-10-01

205

Response to dehydration and irrigation in invasive and native saplings: osmotic adjustment versus leaf shedding.  

PubMed

To clarify the mechanism underlying successful invasion by tree species into xeric sites on Japan's Bonin Islands, we compared the water use of an alien species, Psidium cattleianum, which is rapidly expanding on ridge sites with shallow soil, with that of a native species, Trema orientalis. We hypothesized that there is a trade-off between leaf shedding with low cavitation resistance (frequent xylem cavitation plus refilling ability) and leaf osmotic adjustment with high cavitation resistance (cessation of xylem cavitation plus canopy leaf retention), indicating contrasting strategies for drought tolerance and water use in semi-arid regions. We examined leaf turnover, leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential and water distribution in stem xylem conduits using cryo-scanning electron microscopy for the saplings of both species under three cycles of artificial drought and sudden pulse irrigation. Invasive P. cattleianum saplings were highly resistant to cavitation in stem xylem conduits, retained their leaves and exhibited effective leaf osmotic adjustment under the drought treatment. In contrast, native T. orientalis saplings exhibited xylem cavitation, conspicuous leaf shedding and less effective leaf osmotic adjustment under the drought treatment. Leaf gas exchange rate recovered more rapidly in P. cattleianum saplings than in T. orientalis saplings immediately following pulse irrigation after a period without irrigation, especially in the first drought cycle. Embolized conduits in T. orientalis were refilled by pulse irrigation, and leaf gas exchange rate recovered following refilling. The two tree species showed contrasting strategies for drought tolerance and water use along a trade-off axis. Cavitation avoidance and effective leaf osmotic adjustment in P. cattleianum saplings under drought conditions partially support their survival at the xeric ridge sites on the Bonin Islands. Our results help to explain the success of P. cattleianum in its invasion of a sub-arid environment. PMID:20368340

Yazaki, Kenichi; Sano, Yuzou; Fujikawa, Seizo; Nakano, Takashi; Ishida, Atsushi

2010-05-01

206

NAME PROJECT NUMBER AGENCY NAME TITLE Award Amt based  

E-print Network

MANAGEMENT OF KUDZU BUGS ON SOYBEAN IN GEORGIA $4,000 046583 PIONEER HI-BRED INATL BT SOYBEAN: EFFICACY RESISTANCE MOLECULAR MARKERS IN SOYBEAN FOR MANAGEMENT OF STEM FEEDING KUDZU BUGS AND LEAF FEEDING INSECTS

Arnold, Jonathan

207

A niche opportunity for stem cell therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-based therapies relies on the ability of the stem cells to both engraft and self-renew sufficiently in the bone marrow microenvironment. Previous studies identified that a number of components of bone contribute to the regulation of HSCs indicating that they participate in a stem cell ‘niche’. This niche is a dynamic microenvironment that changes

G B Adams; D T Scadden

2008-01-01

208

Cancer Stem Cells and Differentiation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancers arise from stem cells in adult tissues and the cells that make up a cancer reflect the same stem cell ? progeny ? differentiation progression observed in normal tissues. All adult tissues are made up of lineages of cells consisting of tissue stem cells and their progeny (transit-amplifying cells and terminally differentiated cells); the number of new cells produced

Stewart Sell

2006-01-01

209

STEM Thinking!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is a term seen almost daily in the news. In 2009, President Obama launched the Educate to Innovate initiative to move American students from the middle to the top of the pack in science and math achievement over the next decade (The White House, n.d.). Learning about the attributes of STEM…

Reeve, Edward M.

2015-01-01

210

Stem Cells and Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Center Can Stem Cells Help my Medical Condition? Stem Cell Information Frequently Asked Questions What are stem cells? ... U.S. policy? More FAQs Links to related resources Stem Cell Research Center for Regenerative Medicine NIH Stem Cell ...

211

STEM At Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

STEM (Science Technology Engineering & Math) at work, presented by the Florida Advanced Technological Education Center, includes a number of educational puzzles for use in the classroom. Puzzles include an energy audit exercise, measurement of air bag movement, and diesel fuel additive volatility.

212

Living in the Leaf Litter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from the museum's Musings newsletter for educators, provides some mind-boggling facts about leaf litter. It has an overview of what leaf litter is and how it's produced and a link for further research.

213

Physics strategies for sparing neural stem cells during whole-brain radiation treatments  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Currently, there are no successful long-term treatments or preventive strategies for radiation-induced cognitive impairments, and only a few possibilities have been suggested. One such approach involves reducing the dose to neural stem cell compartments (within and outside of the hippocampus) during whole-brain radiation treatments for brain metastases. This study investigates the fundamental physics issues associated with the sparing of neural stem cells during photon radiotherapy for brain metastases. Methods: Several factors influence the stem cell dose: intracranial scattering, collimator leakage, beam energy, and total number of beams. The relative importance of these factors is investigated through a set of radiation therapy plans, which are all variations of an initial 6 MV intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan designed to simultaneously deliver a whole-brain dose of 30 Gy and maximally reduce stem cell compartment dose. Additionally, an in-house leaf segmentation algorithm was developed that utilizes jaw motion to minimize the collimator leakage. Results: The plans are all normalized such that 50% of the PTV receives 30 Gy. For the initial 6 MV IMRT plan, 50% of the stem cells receive a dose greater than 6.3 Gy. Calculations indicate that 3.6 Gy of this dose originates from intracranial scattering. The jaw-tracking segmentation algorithm, used in conjunction with direct machine parameter optimization, reduces the 50% stem cell dose to 4.3 and 3.7 Gy for 6 and 10 MV treatment beams, respectively. Conclusions: Intracranial scattering alone is responsible for a large dose contribution to the stem cell compartment. It is, therefore, important to minimize other contributing factors, particularly the collimator leakage, to maximally reduce dose to these critical structures. The use of collimator jaw tracking in conjunction with modern collimators can minimize this leakage.

Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean; Hwang, Andrew; Barani, Igor J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

2011-10-15

214

Bacterial leaf spot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

215

PLATYSPORA LEAF SPOT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Platyspora leaf spot, caused by Comoclathris pentamera (P. Karst.) S. Ahmad (= Graphyllium pentamerum (P. Karst.) M.E. Barr; = Platyspora pentamera (P. Karst.) Wehm.) was first reported as a plant disease on wheat in 1971. The fungus previously was known only at high altitudes, where it persists on...

216

Science Nation: Leaf Sensor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Who might know more about what a plant needs than a farmer or a greenhouse owner? How about the plant itself? What if plants could tell us when they are thirsty? With funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), AgriHouse has developed a leaf sensor that is enabling plants to do just that.

217

Raspberry leaf curl virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Raspberry leaf curl virus (RLCV) is limited to hosts in the genus Rubus and is transmitted persistently by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola Oestlund. It is found only in North America, principally in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada and in the Rocky Mountain regions of...

218

A model for leaf initiation  

PubMed Central

A biophysical model is proposed for how leaf primordia are positioned on the shoot apical
meristem in both spiral and whorl phyllotaxes. Primordia are initiated by signals that propagate
in the epidermis in both azimuthal directions away from the cotyledons or the most recently
specified primordia. The signals are linear waves as inferred from the spatial periodicity of the
divergence angle and a temporal periodicity. The periods of the waves, which represent actively
transported auxin, are much smaller than the plastochron interval. Where oppositely directed
waves meet at one or more angular positions on the periphery of the generative circle, auxin
concentration builds and as in most models this stimulates local movement of auxin to
underlying cells, where it promotes polarized cell division and expansion. For higher order
spirals the wave model requires asymmetric function of auxin transport; that is, opposite wave
speeds differ. An algorithm for determination of the angular positions of leaves in common leaf
phyllotaxic configurations is proposed. The number of turns in a pattern repeat, number of leaves
per level and per pattern repeat, and divergence angle are related to speed of auxin transport and
radius of the generative circle. The rule for composition of Fibonacci or Lucas numbers
associated with some phyllotaxes is discussed. A subcellular model suggests how the shoot
meristem might specify either symmetric or asymmetric transport of auxin away from the
forming primordia that produce it. Biological tests that could make or break the mathematical
and molecular hypotheses are proposed. PMID:22212121

Abraham-Shrauner, Barbara; Pickard, Barbara G

2011-01-01

219

Hydraulic differences along the water transport system of South American Nothofagus species: do leaves protect the stem functionality?  

PubMed

Hydraulic traits were studied for six Nothofagus species from South America (Argentina and Chile), and for three of these species two populations were studied. The main goal was to determine if properties of the water conductive pathway in stems and leaves are functionally coordinated and to assess if leaves are more vulnerable to cavitation than stems, consistent with the theory of hydraulic segmentation along the vascular system of trees in ecosystems subject to seasonal drought. Vulnerability to cavitation, hydraulic conductivity of stems and leaves, leaf water potential, wood density and leaf water relations were examined. Large variations in vulnerability to cavitation of stems and leaves were observed across populations and species, but leaves were consistently more vulnerable than stems. Water potential at 50% loss of maximum hydraulic efficiency (P(50)) ranged from -0.94 to -2.44 MPa in leaves and from -2.6 to -5.3 MPa in stems across species and populations. Populations in the driest sites had sapwood and leaves more vulnerable to cavitation than those grown in the wettest sites. Stronger diurnal down-regulation in leaf hydraulic conductance compared with stem hydraulic conductivity apparently has the function to slow down potential water loss in stems and protect stem hydraulics from cavitation. Species-specific differences in wood density and leaf hydraulic conductance (K(Leaf)) were observed. Both traits were functionally related: species with higher wood density had lower K(Leaf). Other stem and leaf hydraulic traits were functionally coordinated, resulting in Nothofagus species with an efficient delivery of water to the leaves. The integrity of the more expensive woody portion of the water transport pathway can thus be maintained at the expense of the replaceable portion (leaves) of the stem-leaf continuum under prolonged drought. Compensatory adjustments between hydraulic traits may help to decrease the rate of embolism formation in the trees more vulnerable to cavitation. PMID:22684354

Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Campanello, Paula I; Montti, Lia; Jimenez-Castillo, Mylthon; Rockwell, Fulton A; Manna, Ludmila La; Guerra, Pedro; Bernal, Pablo Lopez; Troncoso, Oscar; Enricci, Juan; Holbrook, Michele N; Goldstein, Guillermo

2012-07-01

220

The triple oxygen isotope composition of leaf waters in Mpala, central Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The triple oxygen isotopic composition of water is an emerging tool for investigating the hydrological environment. The ?18O-?17O relationship differs during kinetic and equilibrium isotope fractionation, such that the 17O depletion can be sensitive to relative humidity (Rh) during kinetic fractionation, mixing among different pools, and to the specific mode of kinetic fractionation. It has been proposed that the ?18O-?17O relationship during evapotranspiration, as characterized by the slope ?(stem-leaf) on a ln(?17O+1) vs. ln(?18O+1) plot, is mainly controlled by Rh but not affected by other environmental conditions or by plant species. In order to understand the sensitivity of ?(stem-leaf) to Rh and the utility of 17O-excess (the deviation of ?17O from a reference slope) in the terrestrial biosphere as a tracer of Rh conditions today and in the past, this study expands the triple oxygen isotope measurements of leaf waters to additional species in a semiarid environment. Paired stem and leaf waters of Acacia and grasses were collected in the Mpala Research Center in central Kenya and analyzed for their triple oxygen isotope composition. Leaf waters that were sampled diurnally (8 sampling intervals between 6 am and 5 pm) exhibit a range in ?18O and 17O-excess values of 11.2‰ and 107 per meg respectively for Acacia brevispica, and 14.4‰ and 147 per meg for the grass Panicum maximum. Except for one sample collected at 7am, the ?(stem-leaf) values for grasses are systematically lower (0.0012 to 0.0110) than Acacia ?(stem-leaf) values at the corresponding time of day; this might be explained by the progressive evaporative isotopic enrichment and mixing processes of leaf water along parallel veins of grass leaves. Most of the triple oxygen isotope composition of the Acacia leaf waters can be predicted using Craig-Gordon model. We built a mass balance model of an evolving leaf water system from nonsteady-state to steady-state conditions during evapotranspiration to explain the diurnal 17O-excess variation of the Acacia leaf waters. The results from this model indicate that 17O-excess of the leaf waters may be affected by variations in stomatal conductance, leaf water volume, and water residence time, in addition to variations in Rh. Our study emphasizes that the triple oxygen isotope composition of leaf waters is controlled both physically by Rh conditions but also by the physiological responses of a plant to its environment. The triple oxygen isotope composition of grass leaf water is a result of both evapotranspiration and mixing processes, and thus species effects should be considered in the discussion of ?(stem-leaf)-Rh relationships. A better understanding of the ?(stem-leaf)-Rh relationships could provide a framework for interpreting variations of triple oxygen isotopes of tree cellulose or fossil tissues as proxies for paleo-hydrological change.

Li, S.; Levin, N.; Soderberg, K.; Dennis, K. J.; Caylor, K. K.

2013-12-01

221

Linking Xylem Hydraulic Conductivity and Vulnerability to the Leaf Economics Spectrum—A Cross-Species Study of 39 Evergreen and Deciduous Broadleaved Subtropical Tree Species  

PubMed Central

While the fundamental trade-off in leaf traits related to carbon capture as described by the leaf economics spectrum is well-established among plant species, the relationship of the leaf economics spectrum to stem hydraulics is much less known. Since carbon capture and transpiration are coupled, a close connection between leaf traits and stem hydraulics should be expected. We thus asked whether xylem traits that describe drought tolerance and vulnerability to cavitation are linked to particular leaf traits. We assessed xylem vulnerability, using the pressure sleeve technique, and anatomical xylem characteristics in 39 subtropical tree species grown under common garden conditions in the BEF-China experiment and tested for correlations with traits related to the leaf economics spectrum as well as to stomatal control, including maximum stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit at maximum stomatal conductance and vapor pressure deficit at which stomatal conductance is down-regulated. Our results revealed that specific xylem hydraulic conductivity and cavitation resistance were closely linked to traits represented in the leaf economic spectrum, in particular to leaf nitrogen concentration, as well as to log leaf area and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio but not to any parameter of stomatal conductance. The study highlights the potential use of well-known leaf traits from the leaf economics spectrum to predict plant species' drought resistance. PMID:25423316

Kröber, Wenzel; Zhang, Shouren; Ehmig, Merten; Bruelheide, Helge

2014-01-01

222

The enigma of effective pathlength for 18O enrichment in leaf water of conifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stable isotopes of oxygen (?18O) in tree ring cellulose provide valuable proxy information about past environments and climate. Mechanistic models have been used to clarify the important drivers of isotope fractionation and help interpret ?18O variation in tree rings. A critical component to these models is an estimate of leaf water enrichment. However, standard models seldom accurately predict 18O enrichment in conifer needles and Péclet corrections often require effective pathlengths (L) that seem unreasonable from the perspective of needle morphology (>0.5 m). To analyze the potential role of path length on the Péclet effect in conifers we carried out experiments in controlled environment chambers. We exposed seedlings of six species of conifer (Abies alba, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, P. sylvestris, Taxus bacata), that differ in needle morphology, to four different vapor pressure deficits (VPD), in order to modify transpiration rates (E) and leaf water 18O enrichment. Environmental and ?18O data (leaf, stem and chamber water vapor) were collected to parameterize leaf water models. Cross-sections of needles were sampled for an analysis of needle anatomy. Conifer needles have a single strand of vascular tissue making pathlength determinations through anatomical assessments possible. The six species differed in mesophyll distance (measured from endodermis to epidermis) and cell number, with Pinus and Picea species having the shortest distance and Abies and Taxus the longest (flat needle morphology). Other anatomical measures (transfusion distance, cell size etc.) did not differ significantly. A suberized strip was apparent in the endodermis of all species except Taxus and Abies. Conifer needles have a large proportion (from 0.2 to 0.4) of needle cross-sectional area in vascular tissues that may not be subject to evaporative enrichment. As expected, leaf water ?18O and E responded strongly to VPD and standard models (Craig-Gordon) overestimated leaf water ?18O. A single species-specific value for L could not be determined as the fractional difference between modeled and measured leaf water ?18O did not increase with E as theory predicts. Accounting for potentially unenriched water in vascular and transfusion tissues as well as a Péclet correction that allows the value for L to change with E (as in Song et al., 2013) produced accurate predictions of leaf water ?18O. Estimates of L (for a given E) were positively correlated with mean mesophyll thickness, which to our knowledge is the first time L has been related to a leaf anatomical measure. We repeated the experiment using young needles with much higher values for E, and found a continuing trend of reduced fractional difference with E, implying that Péclet corrections may need to be modified to predict conifer needle water over the range of needle phenology and physiology. Our study will help to better quantify effective pathlength and needle water ?18O in conifers, which are some of the most important organisms used for paleoclimate reconstruction.

Roden, J. S.; Kahmen, A.; Buchmann, N. C.; Siegwolf, R. T.

2013-12-01

223

Leaf drop in evergreen Ceanothus velutinus as a means of reducing herbivory.  

PubMed

Conventional explanations for deciduousness do not include losses to herbivory. However, a recent explanation posits that deciduous leaf drop allows trees to reduce their herbivore loads and that this benefit of the deciduous habit may partly offset lost opportunities for photosynthesis. Much of the damage caused by chewing herbivores occurs early in the season when adult insects colonize as new leaves are expanding; trees without leaves from previous leaf flushes at this time are less attractive and suffer less cost of herbivory. I tested this hypothesis using Ceanothus velutinus, an evergreen shrub that shows considerable individual variation in leaf retention. Stems that held more leaves through winter experienced more chewing damage the following season. Stems with leaves experimentally removed through winter also were less likely to receive chewing damage the following season. At least some herbivores in this system make oviposition decisions before new leaves have expanded, and old leaves may provide cues about the suitability of the stem. Holding leaves through winter increased the likelihood of herbivory, and experimental protection from herbivores caused 60% greater inflorescence production compared to unprotected stems. However, the cost of leaf retention was more than offset by an overall benefit. Stems that were allowed to keep winter leaves produced larger new leaves in summer and expanded them more rapidly in the season than stems with winter leaves experimentally removed. As a result, stems with leaves through winter experienced higher survival, four times as many inflorescences, and 40 times as many fruits as shoots that were experimentally defoliated. Losses to herbivores may be an unappreciated cost of leaf retention, and cost-benefit models of deciduous and evergreen behavior should include these losses. PMID:18831166

Karban, Richard

2008-09-01

224

Chemical approaches to studying stem cell biology.  

PubMed

Stem cells, including both pluripotent stem cells and multipotent somatic stem cells, hold great potential for interrogating the mechanisms of tissue development, homeostasis and pathology, and for treating numerous devastating diseases. Establishment of in vitro platforms to faithfully maintain and precisely manipulate stem cell fates is essential to understand the basic mechanisms of stem cell biology, and to translate stem cells into regenerative medicine. Chemical approaches have recently provided a number of small molecules that can be used to control cell self-renewal, lineage differentiation, reprogramming and regeneration. These chemical modulators have been proven to be versatile tools for probing stem cell biology and manipulating cell fates toward desired outcomes. Ultimately, this strategy is promising to be a new frontier for drug development aimed at endogenous stem cell modulation. PMID:23266890

Li, Wenlin; Jiang, Kai; Wei, Wanguo; Shi, Yan; Ding, Sheng

2013-01-01

225

Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

Schurer, Kees

1994-01-01

226

7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Leaf. Mature, thin, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

2010-01-01

227

7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Leaf. Mature, thin, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

2011-01-01

228

7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Leaf. Mature, thin, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

2014-01-01

229

7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Leaf. Mature, thin, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

2012-01-01

230

7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Leaf. Mature, thin, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

2013-01-01

231

Bioinformatic pipelines in Python with Leaf  

PubMed Central

Background An incremental, loosely planned development approach is often used in bioinformatic studies when dealing with custom data analysis in a rapidly changing environment. Unfortunately, the lack of a rigorous software structuring can undermine the maintainability, communicability and replicability of the process. To ameliorate this problem we propose the Leaf system, the aim of which is to seamlessly introduce the pipeline formality on top of a dynamical development process with minimum overhead for the programmer, thus providing a simple layer of software structuring. Results Leaf includes a formal language for the definition of pipelines with code that can be transparently inserted into the user’s Python code. Its syntax is designed to visually highlight dependencies in the pipeline structure it defines. While encouraging the developer to think in terms of bioinformatic pipelines, Leaf supports a number of automated features including data and session persistence, consistency checks between steps of the analysis, processing optimization and publication of the analytic protocol in the form of a hypertext. Conclusions Leaf offers a powerful balance between plan-driven and change-driven development environments in the design, management and communication of bioinformatic pipelines. Its unique features make it a valuable alternative to other related tools. PMID:23786315

2013-01-01

232

Patterns of hydraulic architecture and water relations of two tropical canopy trees with contrasting leaf phenologies: Ochroma pyramidale and Pseudobombax septenatum.  

PubMed

Many authors have attempted to explain the adaptive response of tropical plants to drought based on studies of water relations at the leaf level. Little attention has been given to the role of the xylem system in the control of plant water requirements. To evaluate this role, we studied the hydraulic architecture and water relations parameters of two tropical canopy trees with contrasting leaf phenologies: deciduous Pseudobombax septenatum (Jacq.) Dug and evergreen Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex lamb) Urban, both in the family Bombacaceae. The hydraulic architecture parameters studied include hydraulic conductivity, specific conductivity, leaf specific conductivity, and Huber value. Water relations parameters include leaf water potential, stem and leaf water storage capacitance, transpiration, stomatal conductance, and vulnerability of stems to cavitation and loss of hydraulic conductivity by embolisms. Compared to temperate trees, both species showed a pattern of highly vulnerable stems (50% loss of conductivity due to embolism at water potentials less than 1 MPa) with high leaf specific conductivities. The vulnerability of xylem to water-stress-induced embolism was remarkably similar for the two species but the leaf specific conductivity of petioles and leaf-bearing stems of the evergreen species, Ochroma (e.g., 9.08 and 11.4 x 10(-4) kg s(-1) m(-1) MPa(-1), respectively), were 3.4 and 2.3 times higher, respectively, than those of the deciduous species, Pseudobombax (e.g., 2.64 and 5.15 x 10(-4) kg s(-1) m(-1) MPa(-1), respectively). A runaway embolism model was used to test the ability of Ochroma and Pseudobombax stems to maintain elevated transpiration rates during the higher evaporative demand of the dry season. The percent loss of leaf area predicted by the runaway embolism model for stems of Pseudobombax ranged from 5 to 30%, not enough to explain the deciduous phenology of this tree species without analysis of root resistance or leaf and petiole vulnerability to embolism. PMID:14967698

Machado, J L; Tyree, M T

1994-03-01

233

Leaf-to-leaf distances in Catalan tree graphs  

E-print Network

We study the average leaf-to-leaf path lengths on ordered Catalan tree graphs with $n$ nodes and show that these are equivalent to the average length of paths starting from the root node. We give an explicit analytic formula for the average leaf-to-leaf path length as a function of separation of the leaves and study its asymptotic properties. At the heart of our method is a strategy based on an abstract graph representation of generating functions which we hope can be useful also in other contexts.

Andrew M. Goldsborough; Jonathan M. Fellows; Matthew Bates; S. Alex Rautu; George Rowlands; Rudolf A. Römer

2015-03-02

234

Leaf surface and histological perturbations of leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Helianthus annuus after exposure to simulated acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial injury to adaxial leaf surfaces of Phaseolus vulgaris and Helianthus annuus occurred near trichomes and stomata after exposure to simulated sulfate acid rain. Lesion frequency was not correlated with density of either stomata or trichomes but was correlated with degree of leaf expansion. The number of lesions per unit area increased with total leaf area. Results suggest that characteristics

Lance S. Evans; Nicholas F. Gmur; Filomena Da Costa

1977-01-01

235

Similarity on neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in transgenic brain tumor mouse models  

PubMed Central

Although it is believed that glioma is derived from brain tumor stem cells, the source and molecular signal pathways of these cells are still unclear. In this study, we used stable doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse brain tumor models (c-myc+/SV40Tag+/Tet-on+) to explore the malignant trans-formation potential of neural stem cells by observing the differences of neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in the tumor models. Results showed that chromosome instability occurred in brain tumor stem cells. The numbers of cytolysosomes and autophagosomes in brain tumor stem cells and induced neural stem cells were lower and the proliferative activity was obviously stronger than that in normal neural stem cells. Normal neural stem cells could differentiate into glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive and microtubule associated protein-2-positive cells, which were also negative for nestin. However, glial fibrillary acidic protein/nestin, microtubule associated protein-2/nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein/microtubule associated protein-2 double-positive cells were found in induced neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells. Results indicate that induced neural stem cells are similar to brain tumor stem cells, and are possibly the source of brain tumor stem cells. PMID:25206546

Qiao, Guanqun; Li, Qingquan; Peng, Gang; Ma, Jun; Fan, Hongwei; Li, Yingbin

2013-01-01

236

Extinction models for cancer stem cell therapy.  

PubMed

Cells with stem cell-like properties are now viewed as initiating and sustaining many cancers. This suggests that cancer can be cured by driving these cancer stem cells to extinction. The problem with this strategy is that ordinary stem cells are apt to be killed in the process. This paper sets bounds on the killing differential (difference between death rates of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells) that must exist for the survival of an adequate number of normal stem cells. Our main tools are birth-death Markov chains in continuous time. In this framework, we investigate the extinction times of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells. Application of extreme value theory from mathematical statistics yields an accurate asymptotic distribution and corresponding moments for both extinction times. We compare these distributions for the two cell populations as a function of the killing rates. Perhaps a more telling comparison involves the number of normal stem cells NH at the extinction time of the cancer stem cells. Conditioning on the asymptotic time to extinction of the cancer stem cells allows us to calculate the asymptotic mean and variance of NH. The full distribution of NH can be retrieved by the finite Fourier transform and, in some parameter regimes, by an eigenfunction expansion. Finally, we discuss the impact of quiescence (the resting state) on stem cell dynamics. Quiescence can act as a sanctuary for cancer stem cells and imperils the proposed therapy. We approach the complication of quiescence via multitype branching process models and stochastic simulation. Improvements to the ?-leaping method of stochastic simulation make it a versatile tool in this context. We conclude that the proposed therapy must target quiescent cancer stem cells as well as actively dividing cancer stem cells. The current cancer models demonstrate the virtue of attacking the same quantitative questions from a variety of modeling, mathematical, and computational perspectives. PMID:22001354

Sehl, Mary; Zhou, Hua; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Lange, Kenneth L

2011-12-01

237

Cellulose Synthase-Like D1 Is Integral to Normal Cell Division, Expansion, and Leaf Development in Maize1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The Cellulose Synthase-Like D (CslD) genes have important, although still poorly defined, roles in cell wall formation. Here, we show an unexpected involvement of CslD1 from maize (Zea mays) in cell division. Both division and expansion were altered in the narrow-organ and warty phenotypes of the csld1 mutants. Leaf width was reduced by 35%, due mainly to a 47% drop in the number of cell files across the blade. Width of other organs was also proportionally reduced. In leaf epidermis, the deficiency in lateral divisions was only partially compensated by a modest, uniform increase in cell width. Localized clusters of misdivided epidermal cells also led to the formation of warty lesions, with cell clusters bulging from the epidermal layer, and some cells expanding to volumes 75-fold greater than normal. The decreased cell divisions and localized epidermal expansions were not associated with detectable changes in the cell wall composition of csld1 leaf blades or epidermal peels, yet a greater abundance of thin, dense walls was indicated by high-resolution x-ray tomography of stems. Cell-level defects leading to wart formation were traced to sites of active cell division and expansion at the bases of leaf blades, where cytokinesis and cross-wall formation were disrupted. Flow cytometry confirmed a greater frequency of polyploid cells in basal zones of leaf blades, consistent with the disruption of cytokinesis and/or the cell cycle in csld1 mutants. Collectively, these data indicate a previously unrecognized role for CSLD activity in plant cell division, especially during early phases of cross-wall formation. PMID:22123901

Hunter, Charles T.; Kirienko, Daniel Hill; Sylvester, Anne W.; Peter, Gary F.; McCarty, Donald R.; Koch, Karen E.

2012-01-01

238

Stem cell mobilization.  

PubMed

Successful blood and marrow transplant (BMT), both autologous and allogeneic, requires the infusion of a sufficient number of hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells (HPCs) capable of homing to the marrow cavity and regenerating a full array of hematopoietic cell lineages in a timely fashion. At present, the most commonly used surrogate marker for HPCs is the cell surface marker CD34, identified in the clinical laboratory by flow cytometry. Clinical studies have shown that infusion of at least 2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg recipient body weight results in reliable engraftment as measured by recovery of adequate neutrophil and platelet counts approximately 14 days after transplant. Recruitment of HPCs from the marrow into the blood is termed mobilization, or, more commonly, stem cell mobilization. In Section I, Dr. Tsvee Lapidot and colleagues review the wide range of factors influencing stem cell mobilization. Our current understanding focuses on chemokines, proteolytic enzymes, adhesion molecules, cytokines and stromal cell-stem cell interactions. On the basis of this understanding, new approaches to mobilization have been designed and are now starting to undergo clinical testing. In Section II, Dr. Michele Cottler-Fox describes factors predicting the ability to mobilize the older patient with myeloma. In addition, clinical approaches to improving collection by individualizing the timing of apheresis and adjusting the volume of blood processed to achieve a desired product are discussed. Key to this process is the daily enumeration of blood CD34(+) cells. Newer methods of enumerating and mobilizing autologous blood HPCs are discussed. In Section III, Dr. John DiPersio and colleagues provide data on clinical results of mobilizing allogeneic donors with G-CSF, GM-CSF and the combination of both as relates to the number and type of cells collected by apheresis. Newer methods of stem cell mobilization as well as the relationship of graft composition on immune reconstitution and GVHD are discussed. PMID:14633793

Cottler-Fox, Michele H; Lapidot, Tsvee; Petit, Isabelle; Kollet, Orit; DiPersio, John F; Link, Dan; Devine, Steven

2003-01-01

239

ETIOLOGY AND HOST RANGE OF A CLOSTEROVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH PLUM BARK NECROSIS-STEM PITTING DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseased plum (Prunus salicina) cv. Black Beaut trees developed stem gumming, severe bark necrosis, and stem pitting symptoms on the woody cylinder of the main trunk and scaffold branches. The sucker shoots of the peach (Prunus persica) cv. Nemaguard understocks exhibited oak-leaf patterns, but lack...

240

Estimating Corn Leaf Chlorophyll Concentration from Leaf and Canopy Reflectance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers must balance the competing goals of supplying adequate N for their crops while minimizing N losses to the environment. To characterize the spatial variability of N over large fields, traditional methods (soil testing, plant tissue analysis, and chlorophyll meters) require many point samples. Because of the close link between leaf chlorophyll and leaf N concentration, remote sensing techniques have

C. S. T. Daughtry; C. L. Walthall; M. S. Kim; E. Brown de Colstoun; J. E. McMurtrey III

2000-01-01

241

LEAF GUI: User Manual (Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface)  

E-print Network

the structure of leaf veins and areoles. Citation to follow. Introduction The LEAF GUI software LEAF GUI: User Manual (Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface) #12;LEAF GUI User Manual Price et al. Index How to cite the LEAF GUI

Weitz, Joshua S.

242

First name Last name Matriculation number Exercise 1 (2+2+2 points)  

E-print Network

First name Last name Matriculation number 1 Exercise 1 (2+2+2 points) The following data structure represents binary trees only containing values in the inner nodes: data Tree a = Leaf | Node (Tree a) a (Tree of type Tree Int in Haskell would be: Node (Node Leaf 2 Leaf) 1 Leaf 1 # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # 2

Ábrahám, Erika

243

First name Last name Matriculation number Exercise 1 (2+2+2 points)  

E-print Network

First name Last name Matriculation number 1 Exercise 1 (2+2+2 points) The following data structure represents binary trees only containing values at the leaves: data Tree a = Node (Tree a) (Tree a) | Leaf Int in Haskell would be: Node (Node (Leaf 1) (Leaf 2)) (Leaf 3

Ábrahám, Erika

244

High Number of Memory T Cells Is Associated with Higher Risk of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains poorly understood in humans. Although T cell subsets have been identified to play a major role in disease initiation in rodents, clinical data on the effect of these different subsets are scarce and conflicting. To address this question, immunophenotyping analyses were performed on the graft in 210 patients. The onset of acute GVHD was retrospectively correlated with these subpopulations. In an adjusted analysis, only the absolute count of CD45lo/CD62Llo CD8(+) T cells (effector memory T cells) was significantly associated with the onset of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD. Thus, in contrast to experimental data, we found that the number of effector memory but not of naïve T cells was associated with the onset of GVHD. These results should be kept in mind while clinical trials, which aim to deplete naïve T cells, are underway in several institutions. PMID:25528387

Loschi, Michael; Porcher, Raphael; Peffault de Latour, Regis; Vanneaux, Valerie; Robin, Marie; Xhaard, Alienor; Sicre de Fontebrune, Flore; Larghero, Jerome; Socie, Gerard

2015-03-01

245

Dormancy in the stem cell niche  

PubMed Central

Tissues characterized by constant turnover contain post-mitotic, terminally differentiated cells originating from highly proliferative progenitors, which in turn derive from a relatively small population of stem cells. At the population level, self-renewal and differentiation are the possible outcomes of stem cell proliferation; overall, however, stem cells are quiescent if compared with their direct progeny. The recent discovery of a particularly quiescent, or dormant, subpopulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) raises a number of fundamental questions. As stem cell fate is influenced by the signals integrated by the stem cell niche, will dormant HSCs reside in specific dormant niches? Is the mechanism of dormancy common to multiple regenerating tissues or specific to the hematopoietic system? If cancer is maintained by a few cancer stem cells, do they also contain a subpopulation of dormant cells, and could this be exploited for therapeutic purposes? PMID:22429750

2012-01-01

246

Dormancy in the stem cell niche.  

PubMed

Tissues characterized by constant turnover contain post-mitotic, terminally differentiated cells originating from highly proliferative progenitors, which in turn derive from a relatively small population of stem cells. At the population level, self-renewal and differentiation are the possible outcomes of stem cell proliferation; overall, however, stem cells are quiescent if compared with their direct progeny. The recent discovery of a particularly quiescent, or dormant, subpopulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) raises a number of fundamental questions. As stem cell fate is influenced by the signals integrated by the stem cell niche, will dormant HSCs reside in specific dormant niches? Is the mechanism of dormancy common to multiple regenerating tissues or specific to the hematopoietic system? If cancer is maintained by a few cancer stem cells, do they also contain a subpopulation of dormant cells, and could this be exploited for therapeutic purposes? PMID:22429750

Sottocornola, Roberta; Lo Celso, Cristina

2012-01-01

247

BOREAS TE-5 Leaf Carbon Isotope Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. This documentation describes leaf carbon isotope data that were collected in 1993 and 1994 at the NSA and SSA OJP sites, the SSA OBS site, and the NSA UBS site. In addition, leaf carbon isotope data were collected in 1994 only at the NSA and SSA OA sites. These data was collected to provide seasonal integrated physiological information for 10 to 15 common species at these 6 BOREAS sites. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

2000-01-01

248

BOREAS TE-5 Leaf Gas Exchange Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. The leaf photosynthetic gas exchange data were collected in the BOREAS NSA and the SSA from 06-Jun- 1994 to 13-Sep- 1994 using a LI-COR 6200 portable photosynthesis system. The data were collected to compare the photosynthetic capacity, stomata] conductance, and leaf intercellular CO, concentrations among the major tree species at the BOREAS sites. The data are average values from diurnal measurements on the upper canopy foliage (sun leaves). The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

2000-01-01

249

Plasticity in sunflower leaf and cell growth under high salinity.  

PubMed

A group of sunflower lines that exhibit a range of leaf Na(+) concentrations under high salinity was used to explore whether the responses to the osmotic and ionic components of salinity can be distinguished in leaf expansion kinetics analysis. It was expected that at the initial stages of the salt treatment, leaf expansion kinetics changes would be dominated by responses to the osmotic component of salinity, and that later on, ion inclusion would impose further kinetics changes. It was also expected that differential leaf Na(+) accumulation would be reflected in specific changes in cell division and expansion rates. Plants of four sunflower lines were gradually treated with a relatively high (130 mm NaCl) salt treatment. Leaf expansion kinetics curves were compared in leaves that were formed before, during and after the initiation of the salt treatment. Leaf areas were smaller in salt-treated plants, but the analysis of growth curves did not reveal differences that could be attributed to differential Na(+) accumulation, since similar changes in leaf expansion kinetics were observed in lines with different magnitudes of salt accumulation. Nevertheless, in a high leaf Na(+) -including line, cell divisions were affected earlier, resulting in leaves with proportionally fewer cells than in a Na(+) -excluding line. A distinct change in leaf epidermal pavement shape caused by salinity is reported for the first time. Mature pavement cells in leaves of control plants exhibited typical lobed, jigsaw-puzzle shape, whereas in treated plants, they tended to retain closer-to-circular shapes and a lower number of lobes. PMID:24942979

Céccoli, G; Bustos, D; Ortega, L I; Senn, M E; Vegetti, A; Taleisnik, E

2015-01-01

250

Leaf Area and Above and Belowground Growth Responses of Loblolly Pine to Nutrient and Water Additions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2 x 2 nutrient and water factorial experiment with four replications was installed in an 8-yr-old stand of Ioblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) growing on an infertile, excessively drained sandy site in Scotland County, North Carolina. After the fourth year of treatment, estimated stem volume increment, total biomass production, and peak leaf area index (LAI) increased 152%, 99%, and

Timothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Phillip M. Dougherty; Lance W. Kress; John S. King

1998-01-01

251

7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. The...

2014-01-01

252

7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. The...

2013-01-01

253

7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. The...

2012-01-01

254

7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. The...

2010-01-01

255

7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. The...

2011-01-01

256

Exserohilum Leaf Spot on Tigergrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tigergrass (Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze ) is a popular ornamental grass grown throughout landscapes in South Florida. In the summer of 2006, a leaf spot was observed on tigergrass in the landscape and a commercial nursery in Homestead, FL. The causal agent of the leaf spot was isolated, cha...

257

How to pattern a leaf  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, an...

258

Stem cells, cancer, and cancer stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell biology has come of age. Unequivocal proof that stem cells exist in the haematopoietic system has given way to the prospective isolation of several tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells, the initial delineation of their properties and expressed genetic programmes, and the beginnings of their utility in regenerative medicine. Perhaps the most important and useful property of stem cells

Tannishtha Reya; Sean J. Morrison; Michael F. Clarke; Irving L. Weissman

2001-01-01

259

Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

260

29 CFR 780.516 - “Prior to the stemming process.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...employee engaged in stemming, the removal of the midrib from the tobacco leaf (McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op. Ass'n., 80 F. Supp. 953, affirmed 181 F. 2d 697), or in any operations on the tobacco which are performed after...

2014-07-01

261

29 CFR 780.516 - “Prior to the stemming process.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...employee engaged in stemming, the removal of the midrib from the tobacco leaf (McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op. Ass'n., 80 F. Supp. 953, affirmed 181 F. 2d 697), or in any operations on the tobacco which are performed after...

2013-07-01

262

29 CFR 780.516 - “Prior to the stemming process.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...employee engaged in stemming, the removal of the midrib from the tobacco leaf (McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op. Ass'n., 80 F. Supp. 953, affirmed 181 F. 2d 697), or in any operations on the tobacco which are performed after...

2010-07-01

263

29 CFR 780.516 - “Prior to the stemming process.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...employee engaged in stemming, the removal of the midrib from the tobacco leaf (McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op. Ass'n., 80 F. Supp. 953, affirmed 181 F. 2d 697), or in any operations on the tobacco which are performed after...

2012-07-01

264

29 CFR 780.516 - “Prior to the stemming process.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...employee engaged in stemming, the removal of the midrib from the tobacco leaf (McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op. Ass'n., 80 F. Supp. 953, affirmed 181 F. 2d 697), or in any operations on the tobacco which are performed after...

2011-07-01

265

Stem cells and the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, stem cells have been heralded as potential therapeutic agents to address a large number of degenerative diseases. Yet, in order to rationally utilize these cells as effective therapeutic agents, and\\/or improve treatment of stem-cell-associated malignancies such as leukemias and carcinomas, a better understanding of the basic biological properties of stem cells needs to be acquired. A major

Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

2007-01-01

266

Change in hydraulic properties and leaf traits in a tall rainforest tree species subjected to long-term throughfall exclusion in the perhumid tropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-scale replicated throughfall exclusion experiment was conducted in a pre-montane perhumid rainforest in Sulawesi (Indonesia) exposing the trees for two years to pronounced soil desiccation. The lack of regularly occurring dry periods and shallow rooting patterns distinguish this experiment from similar experiments conducted in the Amazonian rainforest. We tested the hypotheses that a tree's sun canopy is more affected by soil drought than its shade crown, making tall trees particularly vulnerable even under a perhumid climate, and that extended drought periods stimulate an acclimation in the hydraulic system of the sun canopy. In the abundant and tall tree species Castanopsis acuminatissima (Fagaceae), we compared 31 morphological, anatomical, hydraulic and chemical variables of leaves, branches and the stem together with stem diameter growth between drought and control plots. There was no evidence of canopy dieback. However, the drought treatment led to a 30 % reduction in sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity of sun canopy branches, possibly caused by the formation of smaller vessels and/or vessel filling by tyloses. Drought caused an increase in leaf size, but a decrease in leaf number, and a reduction in foliar calcium content. The ?13C and ?18O signatures of sun canopy leaves gave no indication of a permanent down-regulation of stomatal conductance during the drought, indicating that pre-senescent leaf shedding may have improved the water status of the remaining leaves. Annual stem diameter growth decreased during the drought, while the density of wood in the recently produced xylem increased in both the stem and sun canopy branches (marginally significant). The sun canopy showed a more pronounced drought response than the shade crown indicating that tall trees with a large sun canopy are more vulnerable to drought stress. We conclude that the extended drought prompted a number of medium- to long-term responses in the leaves, branches and the trunk, which may have reduced drought susceptibility. However, unlike a natural drought, our drought simulation experiment was carried out under conditions of high humidity, which may have dampened drought induced damages.

Schuldt, B.; Leuschner, C.; Horna, V.; Moser, G.; Köhler, M.; van Straaten, O.; Barus, H.

2011-08-01

267

Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Leaf Tissues of Cultivated Peanuts and Development of EST-SSR Markers and Gene Discovery  

PubMed Central

Peanut is vulnerable to a range of foliar diseases such as spotted wilt caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spots, southern stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii), and sclerotinia blight (Sclerotinia minor). In this study, we report the generation of 17,376 peanut expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from leaf tissues of a peanut cultivar (Tifrunner, resistant to TSWV and leaf spots) and a breeding line (GT-C20, susceptible to TSWV and leaf spots). After trimming vector and discarding low quality sequences, a total of 14,432 high-quality ESTs were selected for further analysis and deposition to GenBank. Sequence clustering resulted in 6,888 unique ESTs composed of 1,703 tentative consensus (TCs) sequences and 5185 singletons. A large number of ESTs (5717) representing genes of unknown functions were also identified. Among the unique sequences, there were 856 EST-SSRs identified. A total of 290 new EST-based SSR markers were developed and examined for amplification and polymorphism in cultivated peanut and wild species. Resequencing information of selected amplified alleles revealed that allelic diversity could be attributed mainly to differences in repeat type and length in the SSR regions. In addition, a few additional INDEL mutations and substitutions were observed in the regions flanking the microsatellite regions. In addition, some defense-related transcripts were also identified, such as putative oxalate oxidase (EU024476) and NBS-LRR domains. EST data in this study have provided a new source of information for gene discovery and development of SSR markers in cultivated peanut. A total of 16931 ESTs have been deposited to the NCBI GenBank database with accession numbers ES751523 to ES768453. PMID:19584933

Guo, Baozhu; Chen, Xiaoping; Hong, Yanbin; Liang, Xuanqiang; Dang, Phat; Brenneman, Tim; Holbrook, Corley; Culbreath, Albert

2009-01-01

268

Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Leaf Tissues of Cultivated Peanuts and Development of EST-SSR Markers and Gene Discovery.  

PubMed

Peanut is vulnerable to a range of foliar diseases such as spotted wilt caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spots, southern stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii), and sclerotinia blight (Sclerotinia minor). In this study, we report the generation of 17,376 peanut expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from leaf tissues of a peanut cultivar (Tifrunner, resistant to TSWV and leaf spots) and a breeding line (GT-C20, susceptible to TSWV and leaf spots). After trimming vector and discarding low quality sequences, a total of 14,432 high-quality ESTs were selected for further analysis and deposition to GenBank. Sequence clustering resulted in 6,888 unique ESTs composed of 1,703 tentative consensus (TCs) sequences and 5185 singletons. A large number of ESTs (5717) representing genes of unknown functions were also identified. Among the unique sequences, there were 856 EST-SSRs identified. A total of 290 new EST-based SSR markers were developed and examined for amplification and polymorphism in cultivated peanut and wild species. Resequencing information of selected amplified alleles revealed that allelic diversity could be attributed mainly to differences in repeat type and length in the SSR regions. In addition, a few additional INDEL mutations and substitutions were observed in the regions flanking the microsatellite regions. In addition, some defense-related transcripts were also identified, such as putative oxalate oxidase (EU024476) and NBS-LRR domains. EST data in this study have provided a new source of information for gene discovery and development of SSR markers in cultivated peanut. A total of 16931 ESTs have been deposited to the NCBI GenBank database with accession numbers ES751523 to ES768453. PMID:19584933

Guo, Baozhu; Chen, Xiaoping; Hong, Yanbin; Liang, Xuanqiang; Dang, Phat; Brenneman, Tim; Holbrook, Corley; Culbreath, Albert

2009-01-01

269

The basis for variation in leaf longevity of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any theory of leaf phenology must predict leaf longevity, leaf habit, leaf expansion and its timing among other variables. These phenological traits may be important keys to understand the response of trees to climatic change. Here I concentrate on and review two of these critical phenological traits, leaf longevity and leaf habit. Theories of leaf longevity were re-evaluated and leaf

Kihachiro Kikuzawa

1995-01-01

270

Genetic dissection of leaf development in Brassica rapa using a genetical genomics approach.  

PubMed

The paleohexaploid crop Brassica rapa harbors an enormous reservoir of morphological variation, encompassing leafy vegetables, vegetable and fodder turnips (Brassica rapa, ssp. campestris), and oil crops, with different crops having very different leaf morphologies. In the triplicated B. rapa genome, many genes have multiple paralogs that may be regulated differentially and contribute to phenotypic variation. Using a genetical genomics approach, phenotypic data from a segregating doubled haploid population derived from a cross between cultivar Yellow sarson (oil type) and cultivar Pak choi (vegetable type) were used to identify loci controlling leaf development. Twenty-five colocalized phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to natural variation for leaf morphological traits, leaf number, plant architecture, and flowering time were identified. Genetic analysis showed that four colocalized phenotypic QTLs colocalized with flowering time and leaf trait candidate genes, with their cis-expression QTLs and cis- or trans-expression QTLs for homologs of genes playing a role in leaf development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The leaf gene Brassica rapa KIP-related protein2_A03 colocalized with QTLs for leaf shape and plant height; Brassica rapa Erecta_A09 colocalized with QTLs for leaf color and leaf shape; Brassica rapa Longifolia1_A10 colocalized with QTLs for leaf size, leaf color, plant branching, and flowering time; while the major flowering time gene, Brassica rapa flowering locus C_A02, colocalized with QTLs explaining variation in flowering time, plant architectural traits, and leaf size. Colocalization of these QTLs points to pleiotropic regulation of leaf development and plant architectural traits in B. rapa. PMID:24394778

Xiao, Dong; Wang, Huange; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Zhao, Jianjun; Lin, Ke; Hou, Xilin; Bonnema, Guusje

2014-03-01

271

Genetic Dissection of Leaf Development in Brassica rapa Using a Genetical Genomics Approach1[W  

PubMed Central

The paleohexaploid crop Brassica rapa harbors an enormous reservoir of morphological variation, encompassing leafy vegetables, vegetable and fodder turnips (Brassica rapa, ssp. campestris), and oil crops, with different crops having very different leaf morphologies. In the triplicated B. rapa genome, many genes have multiple paralogs that may be regulated differentially and contribute to phenotypic variation. Using a genetical genomics approach, phenotypic data from a segregating doubled haploid population derived from a cross between cultivar Yellow sarson (oil type) and cultivar Pak choi (vegetable type) were used to identify loci controlling leaf development. Twenty-five colocalized phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to natural variation for leaf morphological traits, leaf number, plant architecture, and flowering time were identified. Genetic analysis showed that four colocalized phenotypic QTLs colocalized with flowering time and leaf trait candidate genes, with their cis-expression QTLs and cis- or trans-expression QTLs for homologs of genes playing a role in leaf development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The leaf gene BRASSICA RAPA KIP-RELATED PROTEIN2_A03 colocalized with QTLs for leaf shape and plant height; BRASSICA RAPA ERECTA_A09 colocalized with QTLs for leaf color and leaf shape; BRASSICA RAPA LONGIFOLIA1_A10 colocalized with QTLs for leaf size, leaf color, plant branching, and flowering time; while the major flowering time gene, BRASSICA RAPA FLOWERING LOCUS C_A02, colocalized with QTLs explaining variation in flowering time, plant architectural traits, and leaf size. Colocalization of these QTLs points to pleiotropic regulation of leaf development and plant architectural traits in B. rapa. PMID:24394778

Xiao, Dong; Wang, Huange; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Zhao, Jianjun; Lin, Ke; Hou, Xilin; Bonnema, Guusje

2014-01-01

272

Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.  

PubMed

Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations. The Aloe leaf consists of the pericyclic cells, found just below the plant's skin, and the inner central area of the leaf, i.e., the gel, which is used for cosmetic products. The pericyclic cells produce a bitter, yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones, phototoxic compounds that are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for cathartic effects. The gel contains polysaccharides, which can be acetylated, partially acetylated, or not acetylated. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for nonmedicinal use is 50 ppm or lower. Aloe-derived ingredients are used in a wide variety of cosmetic product types at concentrations of raw material that are 0.1% or less, although can be as high as 20%. The concentration of Aloe in the raw material also may vary from 100% to a low of 0.0005%. Oral administration of various anthraquinone components results in a rise in their blood concentrations, wide systemic distribution, accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and excretion in urine and feces; polysaccharide components are distributed systemically and metabolized into smaller molecules. aloe-derived material has fungicidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities, and has been effective in wound healing and infection treatment in animals. Aloe barbadensis (also known as Aloe vera)-derived ingredients were not toxic in acute oral studies using mice and rats. In parenteral studies, the LD(50) using mice was > 200 mg/kg, rats was > 50 mg/kg, and using dogs was > 50 mg/kg. In intravenous studies the LD(50) using mice was > 80 mg/kg, rats was > 15 mg/kg, and dogs was > 10 mg/kg. The 14-day no observed effect level (NOEL) for the Aloe polysaccharide, acemannan, in the diet of Sprague-Dawley rats, was 50,000 ppm or 4.1 to 4.6 g/kg day(-1). In a 3-month study using mice, Aloe vera (extracted in ethanol) given orally in drinking water at 100 mg/kg produced reproductive toxicity, inflammation, and mortality above that seen in control animals. Aloe vera extracted in methanol and given to mice at 100 mg/kg in drinking water for 3 months caused significant sperm damage compared to controls. Aloe barbadensis extracted with water and given to pregnant Charles Foster albino rats on gestational days (GDs) 0 through 9 was an abortifacient and produced skeletal abnormalities. Both negative and positive results were found in bacterial and mammalian cell genotoxicity assays using Aloe barbadensis-derived material, Aloe Ferox-derived material, and various anthraquinones derived from Aloe. Aloin (an anthraquinone) did not produce tumors when included in the feed of mice for 20 weeks, nor did aloin increase the incidence of colorectal tumors induced with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Aloe-emodin (an anthraquinone) given to mice in which tumor cells had been injected inhibited growth of malignant tumors. Other animal data also suggest that components of Aloe inhibit tumor growth and improve survival. Various in vitro assays also demonstrated anticarcinogenic activity of aloe-emodin. Diarrhea was the only adverse effect of note with the use of Aloe-derived ingredients to treat asthma, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, ulcers, skin disease, and cancer. Case reports include acute eczema, contact urticaria, and dermatitis in individuals who applied Aloe-derived ingredients topically. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel concluded that anthraquinone levels in the several Aloe Barbaden

2007-01-01

273

7 CFR 29.1163 - Smoking Leaf (H Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...degree of maturity, more open leaf structure in relation to the B Group...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in oil...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in...

2011-01-01

274

7 CFR 29.1163 - Smoking Leaf (H Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...degree of maturity, more open leaf structure in relation to the B Group...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in oil...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in...

2012-01-01

275

7 CFR 29.1163 - Smoking Leaf (H Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...degree of maturity, more open leaf structure in relation to the B Group...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in oil...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in...

2013-01-01

276

7 CFR 29.1163 - Smoking Leaf (H Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...degree of maturity, more open leaf structure in relation to the B Group...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in oil...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in...

2014-01-01

277

Leaf hydraulics II: vascularized tissues.  

PubMed

Current models of leaf hydration employ an Ohm's law analogy of the leaf as an ideal capacitor, neglecting the resistance to flow between cells, or treat the leaf as a plane sheet with a source of water at fixed potential filling the mid-plane, neglecting the discrete placement of veins as well as their resistance. We develop a model of leaf hydration that considers the average conductance of the vascular network to a representative areole (region bounded by the vascular network), and represent the volume of tissue within the areole as a poroelastic composite of cells and air spaces. Solutions to the 3D flow problem are found by numerical simulation, and these results are then compared to 1D models with exact solutions for a range of leaf geometries, based on a survey of temperate woody plants. We then show that the hydration times given by these solutions are well approximated by a sum of the ideal capacitor and plane sheet times, representing the time for transport through the vasculature and tissue respectively. We then develop scaling factors relating this approximate solution to the 3D model, and examine the dependence of these scaling factors on leaf geometry. Finally, we apply a similar strategy to reduce the dimensions of the steady state problem, in the context of peristomatal transpiration, and consider the relation of transpirational gradients to equilibrium leaf water potential measurements. PMID:24012489

Rockwell, Fulton E; Holbrook, N Michele; Stroock, Abraham D

2014-01-01

278

Isolation of 6-hydroxykynurenic acid from the tobacco leaf  

PubMed Central

1. 6-Hydroxykynurenic acid (4,6-dihydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid, 6-HKA) was isolated in crystalline form from both green and cured tobacco leaves. 2. A method for the determination of 6-HKA by paper chromatography and fluorimetry is described. 3. The content of 6-HKA in the flowers, stem and roots of the tobacco plant was much lower than that in the leaf. 4. The 6-HKA content increased throughout leaf development and senescence. 5. 6-HKA was detected in the leaves of plants representing 11 out of 27 families sampled. 6. 6-HKA was found to be devoid of antibacterial and antifungal activity, and was inactive in the Avena-coleoptile and cress-seed-germination tests. 7. The presence of 6-HKA is taken as evidence in plants of the tryptophan-catabolic pathway already known in mammals and micro-organisms. PMID:5665251

Macnicol, P. K.

1968-01-01

279

Costs of measuring leaf area index of corn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnitude of plant-to-plant variability of leaf area of corn plants selected from uniform plots was examined and four representative methods for measuring leaf area index (LAI) were evaluated. The number of plants required and the relative costs for each sampling method were calculated to detect 10, 20, and 50% differences in LAI using 0.05 and 0.01 tests of significance and a 90% probability of success (beta = 0.1). The natural variability of leaf area per corn plant was nearly 10%. Additional variability or experimental error may be introduced by the measurement technique employed and by nonuniformity within the plot. Direct measurement of leaf area with an electronic area meter had the lowest CV, required that the fewest plants be sampled, but required approximately the same amount of time as the leaf area/weight ratio method to detect comparable differences. Indirect methods based on measurements of length and width of leaves required more plants but less total time than the direct method. Unless the coefficients for converting length and width to area are verified frequently, the indirect methods may be biased. When true differences in LAI among treatments exceed 50% of mean, all four methods are equal. The method of choice depends on the resources available, the differences to be detected, and what additional information, such as leaf weight or stalk weight, is also desired.

Daughtry, C. S. T.; Hollinger, S. E.

1984-01-01

280

Evolution of leaf warbler songs (Aves: Phylloscopidae)  

PubMed Central

Songs in passerine birds are important for territory defense and mating. Speciation rates in oscine passerines are so high, due to cultural evolution, that this bird lineage makes up half of the extant bird species. Leaf warblers are a speciose Old-World passerine family of limited morphological differentiation, so that songs are even more important for species delimitation. We took 16 sonographic traits from song recordings of 80 leaf warbler taxa and correlated them with 15 potentially explanatory variables, pairwise, and in linear models. Based on a well-resolved molecular phylogeny of the same taxa, all pairwise correlations were corrected for relatedness with phylogenetically independent contrasts and phylogenetic generalized linear models were used. We found a phylogenetic signal for most song traits, but a strong one only for the duration of the longest and of the shortest element, which are presumably inherited instead of learned. Body size of a leaf warbler species is a constraint on song frequencies independent of phylogeny. At least in this study, habitat density had only marginal impact on song features, which even disappeared through phylogenetic correction. Maybe most leaf warblers avoid the deterioration through sound propagation in dense vegetation by singing from exposed perches. Latitudinal (and longitudinal) extension of the breeding ranges was correlated with most song features, especially verse duration (longer polewards and westwards) and complexity (lower polewards). Climate niche or expansion history might explain these correlations. The number of different element types per verse decreases with elevation, possibly due to fewer resources and congeneric species at higher elevations. PMID:25691998

Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Martens, Jochen; Fischer, Balduin S; Sun, Yue-Hua; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette; Päckert, Martin

2015-01-01

281

Evolution of leaf warbler songs (Aves: Phylloscopidae).  

PubMed

Songs in passerine birds are important for territory defense and mating. Speciation rates in oscine passerines are so high, due to cultural evolution, that this bird lineage makes up half of the extant bird species. Leaf warblers are a speciose Old-World passerine family of limited morphological differentiation, so that songs are even more important for species delimitation. We took 16 sonographic traits from song recordings of 80 leaf warbler taxa and correlated them with 15 potentially explanatory variables, pairwise, and in linear models. Based on a well-resolved molecular phylogeny of the same taxa, all pairwise correlations were corrected for relatedness with phylogenetically independent contrasts and phylogenetic generalized linear models were used. We found a phylogenetic signal for most song traits, but a strong one only for the duration of the longest and of the shortest element, which are presumably inherited instead of learned. Body size of a leaf warbler species is a constraint on song frequencies independent of phylogeny. At least in this study, habitat density had only marginal impact on song features, which even disappeared through phylogenetic correction. Maybe most leaf warblers avoid the deterioration through sound propagation in dense vegetation by singing from exposed perches. Latitudinal (and longitudinal) extension of the breeding ranges was correlated with most song features, especially verse duration (longer polewards and westwards) and complexity (lower polewards). Climate niche or expansion history might explain these correlations. The number of different element types per verse decreases with elevation, possibly due to fewer resources and congeneric species at higher elevations. PMID:25691998

Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Martens, Jochen; Fischer, Balduin S; Sun, Yue-Hua; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette; Päckert, Martin

2015-02-01

282

QTLs for shelf life in lettuce co-locate with those for leaf biophysical properties but not with those for leaf developmental traits.  

PubMed

Developmental and biophysical leaf characteristics that influence post-harvest shelf life in lettuce, an important leafy crop, have been examined. The traits were studied using 60 informative F9 recombinant inbed lines (RILs) derived from a cross between cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas) and wild lettuce (L. serriola acc. UC96US23). Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for shelf life co-located most closely with those for leaf biophysical properties such as plasticity, elasticity, and breakstrength, suggesting that these are appropriate targets for molecular breeding for improved shelf life. Significant correlations were found between shelf life and leaf size, leaf weight, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf stomatal index, and epidermal cell number per leaf, indicating that these pre-harvest leaf development traits confer post-harvest properties. By studying the population in two contrasting environments in northern and southern Europe, the genotype by environment interaction effects of the QTLs relevant to leaf development and shelf life were assessed. In total, 107 QTLs, distributed on all nine linkage groups, were detected from the 29 traits. Only five QTLs were common in both environments. Several areas where many QTLs co-located (hotspots) on the genome were identified, with relatively little overlap between developmental hotspots and those relating to shelf life. However, QTLs for leaf biophysical properties (breakstrength, plasticity, and elasticity) and cell area correlated well with shelf life, confirming that the ideal ideotype lettuce should have small cells with strong cell walls. The identification of QTLs for leaf development, strength, and longevity will lead to a better understanding of processability at a genetic and cellular level, and allow the improvement of salad leaf quality through marker-assisted breeding. PMID:17347132

Zhang, Fang Z; Wagstaff, Carol; Rae, Anne M; Sihota, Arinder K; Keevil, C William; Rothwell, Steve D; Clarkson, Graham J J; Michelmore, Richard W; Truco, María José; Dixon, Mark S; Taylor, Gail

2007-01-01

283

H-Isotopic Fractionation During Biosynthesis of Leaf Waxes in C3 Plants: Trees vs. Grasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies indicate that hydrogen isotope (D/H) ratios of higher-plant leaf waxes in lake sediments have great potential to be used as a proxy for reconstructing past source water isotope composition and/or relative humidity on continents. However, hydrogen isotopic fractionation during biosynthesis of leaf waxes in various terrestrial plants remains poorly understood. A recent study of 7 terrestrial and aquatic plant types from a single site in Massachusetts shows that D/H ratios among different plant types can vary as much as 70‰, with the largest difference occurring between tree and grasses (Hou et al., in review). This variability may have been caused by different degrees of evapotranspiration among different plant types (e.g., trees vs. grasses), but could also be attributed to different biosynthetic isotopic fractionation. We designed a series of growth chamber experiments to trace the sources of hydrogen isotopic difference between trees and grasses. Five tree species [white ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), spruce (Picea sp.) and white cedar (Thuja occidentalis)] and three grass species [orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), timothy weed (Phleum pratense), Foxtail (Setaria sp.)] were grown in a growth chamber under controlled conditions. Plants were irrigated with the same source water. We tracked hydrogen isotopic variation of water from source water to stem water to leaf water, and eventually to leaf waxes. Fifty-three leaf and stem samples were harvested. Water from these samples was vacuum-extracted and analyzed for D/H ratios, and compared with D/H ratios of corresponding leaf waxes. Our results allow us to determine whether evapotranspiration rates or intrinsic isotopic fractionation during biosynthesis was the dominant factor controlling the H isotopic ratios of leaf waxes in trees and grasses. Our results are also helpful for interpreting hydrogen isotopic variations of sedimentary leaf waxes.

Toney, J. L.; Hou, J.; Huang, Y.

2006-12-01

284

Leaf waxes in riparian trees: hydrogen isotopes, concentrations, and chain-length patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stable hydrogen isotope ratios of epicuticular leaf wax n-alkanes record aspects of a plant's ecophysiological conditions. However, it remains unclear as to whether n-alkane hydrogen isotope values (?2H) directly reflect environmental water (source water or tissue water) or environmental water in combination with a biochemical fractionation. Furthermore, it is uncertain if leaf n-alkane ?2H values reflect a single time interval during leaf expansion or if n-alkane ?2H values record the combination of inputs throughout the entire lifespan of a leaf. These different possibilities will influence how leaf wax biomarkers are interpreted in both ecological and environmental reconstruction contexts. To address these issues, we sampled leaves/buds, stems, and water sources of five common western U.S. riparian species under natural field conditions throughout the growing season. Riparian species were selected because the input water source is most likely to be nearly constant through the growing season. We found that species in this study demonstrated marked and systematic variations in n-alkane concentration, average chain length, and ?2H values. Intraspecific patterns were consistent: average chain lengths and ?2H values increased from bud opening through full leaf expansion with little variation during the remainder of the sampling interval, while leaf-wax concentration as a fraction of total biomass increased throughout the growing season. These data imply that leaf-wax ?2H values reflect multiple periods of wax growth and that the leaf wax is continually produced throughout a leaf's lifespan.

Tipple, B. J.; Ehleringer, J.; Doman, C.; Khachaturyan, S.

2011-12-01

285

Regulation of Brassica rapa chloroplast proliferation in vivo and in cultured leaf disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. To understand the regulatory mechanisms of chloroplast proliferation, chloroplast replication was studied in cultured leaf disks cut from plants of 25 species. In leaf disks from Brassica rapa var. perviridis, the number of chloroplasts per cell increased remarkably in culture. We examined chloroplast replication in this plant in vivo and in culture media with and without benzyladenine, a cytokinin.

F. Yagisawa; T. Mori; T. Higashiyama; H. Kuroiwa; T. Kuroiwa

2003-01-01

286

Leaf conductance and carbon gain under salt-stressed conditions S. Manzoni,2,3  

E-print Network

; published 29 December 2011. [1] Exposure of plants to salt stress is often accompanied by reductions in leaf to salt stress involves complex changes in plant morphology, physiology, and metabolism, and a large number of studies have focused on salt-stress effects on plant growth, leaf photosynthetic rates, CO2

Katul, Gabriel

287

Diffuse and specular characteristics of leaf reflectance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the evolution of current understanding of the mechanisms of leaf reflectance is reviewed. The use of measurements of polarized reflectance to separate leaf reflectance into diffuse and specular components is discussed. A section on the factors influencing leaf reflectance - leaf structure and physiological disturbances - is included along with discussion on the manner in which these influences are manifested.

Grant, Lois

1987-01-01

288

Stem Cell Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every living thing is made up of cells — including the human ... cells can become new cells like this. Blood Stem Cells When you hear about stem cell transplants, they ...

289

BOREAS TE-12 Leaf Gas Exchange Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS TE-12 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the reflectance, transmittance, and gas exchange of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of leaf gas exchange conducted in the SSA during the growing seasons of 1994 and 1995 using a portable gas exchange system. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Arkebauer, Timothy J.; Yang, Litao

2000-01-01

290

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L) flag leaf transcriptomes reveal molecular signatures of leaf development, senescence, and mineral dynamics.  

PubMed

Switchgrass flag leaves can be expected to be a source of carbon to the plant, and its senescence is likely to impact the remobilization of nutrients from the shoots to the rhizomes. However, many genes have not been assigned a function in specific stages of leaf development. Here, we characterized gene expression in flag leaves over their development. By merging changes in leaf chlorophyll and the expression of genes for chlorophyll biosynthesis and degradation, a four-phase molecular roadmap for switchgrass flag leaf ontogeny was developed. Genes associated with early leaf development were up-regulated in phase 1. Phase 2 leaves had increased expression of genes for chlorophyll biosynthesis and those needed for full leaf function. Phase 3 coincided with the most active phase for leaf C and N assimilation. Phase 4 was associated with the onset of senescence, as observed by declining leaf chlorophyll content, a significant up-regulation in transcripts coding for enzymes involved with chlorophyll degradation, and in a large number of senescence-associated genes. Of considerable interest were switchgrass NAC transcription factors with significantly higher expression in senescing flag leaves. Two of these transcription factors were closely related to a wheat NAC gene that impacts mineral remobilization. The third switchgrass NAC factor was orthologous to an Arabidopsis gene with a known role in leaf senescence. Other genes coding for nitrogen and mineral utilization, including ureide, ammonium, nitrate, and molybdenum transporters, shared expression profiles that were significantly co-regulated with the expression profiles of the three NAC transcription factors. These data provide a good starting point to link shoot senescence to the onset of dormancy in field-grown switchgrass. PMID:25173486

Palmer, Nathan A; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Horvath, David; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Waters, Brian; Tobias, Christian; Sarath, Gautam

2015-01-01

291

Experiments in Whole Leaf Photosynthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a simple experimental system, which uses radioactive carbon dioxide to study whole leaf photosynthesis under a variety of conditions. Other experiments and simple apparatus for the experiments are also described. (Author/RH)

Stewart, J. C.; And Others

1974-01-01

292

Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling using Fresnel's equation (Kumar and Silva, 1973) and Snell's Law successfully approximated the spectral curve for a 0.25-mm turgid oak leaf lying on a Halon background. Calculations were made for ten interfaces, air-wax, wax-cellulose, cellulose-water, cellulose-air, air-water, and their inverses. A water path of 0.5 mm yielded acceptable results, and it was found that assignment of more weight to those interfaces involving air versus water or cellulose, and less to those involving wax, decreased the standard deviation of the error for all wavelengths. Data suggest that the air-cell interface is not the only important contributor to the overall reflectance of a leaf. Results also argue against the assertion that the near infrared plateau is a function of cell structure within the leaf.

Parrish, J. B.

1985-01-01

293

Age-associated inflammation inhibits epidermal stem cell function  

PubMed Central

Altered stem cell homeostasis is linked to organismal aging. However, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Here we report novel alterations in hair follicle stem cells during skin aging, including increased numbers, decreased function, and an inability to tolerate stress. Performing high-throughput RNA sequencing on aging stem cells, cytokine arrays, and functional assays, we identify an age-associated imbalance in epidermal Jak–Stat signaling that inhibits stem cell function. Collectively, this study reveals a role for the aging epidermis in the disruption of cytokine and stem cell homeostasis, suggesting that stem cell decline during aging may be part of broader tumor-suppressive mechanisms. PMID:22972935

Doles, Jason; Storer, Mekayla; Cozzuto, Luca; Roma, Guglielmo; Keyes, William M.

2012-01-01

294

Reforming craniofacial orthodontics via stem cells  

PubMed Central

Stem cells are the most interesting cells in cell biology. They have the potential to evolve as one of the most powerful technologies in the future. The future refers to an age where it will be used extensively in various fields of medical and dental sciences. Researchers have discovered a number of sources from which stem cells can be derived. Craniofacial problems are very common and occur at all ages. Stem cells can be used therapeutically in almost every field of health science. In fact, many procedures will be reformed after stem cells come into play. This article is an insight into the review of the current researches being carried out on stem cells and its use in the field of orthodontics, which is a specialized branch of dentistry. Although the future is uncertain, there is a great possibility that stem cells will be used extensively in almost all major procedures of orthodontics.

Mohanty, Pritam; Prasad, N.K.K.; Sahoo, Nivedita; Kumar, Gunjan; Mohanty, Debapreeti; Sah, Sushila

2015-01-01

295

Placenta—an alternative source of stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem

Tiina Matikainen; Jarmo. Laine

2005-01-01

296

STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics. State-Level Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) state-level analysis provides policymakers, educators, state government officials, and others with details on the projections of STEM jobs through 2018. This report delivers a state-by-state snapshot of the demand for STEM jobs, including: (1) The number of forecast net new and…

Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle

2011-01-01

297

Generation of functional hemangioblasts from human embryonic stem cells  

E-print Network

Generation of functional hemangioblasts from human embryonic stem cells Shi-Jiang Lu1, Qiang Feng1 equivalent of the heman- gioblast was isolated using a mouse embryonic stem cell differ- entiation system12 for generating large numbers of these bipotential progenitors--known as hemangioblasts--from human embryonic stem

Cai, Long

298

Hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf wax n-alkanes in grasses are insensitive to transpiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed hydrogen isotope ratios of high-molecular weight n-alkanes ( ?D l) and oxygen isotope ratios of ?-cellulose ( ?18O C) for C 3 and C 4 grasses grown in the field and in controlled-environment growth chambers. The relatively firm understanding of 18O-enrichment in leaf water and ?-cellulose was used to elucidate fractionation patterns of ?D l signatures. In the different relative humidity environments of the growth chambers, we observed clear and predictable effects of leaf-water enrichment on ?18O C values. Using a Craig-Gordon model, we demonstrate that leaf water in the growth chamber grasses should have experienced significant D-enriched due to transpiration. Nonetheless, we found no effect of transpirational D-enrichment on the ?D l values. In field samples, we saw clear evidence of enrichment (correlating with relative humidity of the field sites) in both ?18O C and ?D l. These seemingly contrasting results could be explained if leaf waxes are synthesized in an environment that is isotopically similar to water entering plant roots due to either temporal or spatial isolation from evaporatively enriched leaf waters. For grasses in the controlled environment, there was no enrichment of source water, whereas enrichment of grass source water via evaporation from soils and/or stems was likely for grass samples grown in the field. Based on these results, evaporation from soils and/or stems appears to affect ?D l, but transpiration from leaves does not. Further evidence for this conclusion is found in modeling expected net evapotranspirational enrichment. A Craig-Gordon model applied to each of the field sites yields leaf water oxygen isotope ratios that can be used to accurately predict the observed ?18O C values. In contrast, the calculated leaf water hydrogen isotope ratios are more enriched than what is required to predict observed ?D l values. These calculations lend support to the conclusion that while ?18O C reflects both soil evaporation and transpiration, ?D l appears to only record evaporation from soils and/or stems. Therefore, the ?D of n-alkanes can likely be used to reconstruct the ?D of water entering a leaf, supporting the soil-enrichment model of Smith and Freeman (2006). In both the field and controlled studies, we found significant photosynthetic pathway effects on n-alkane ?D suggesting that biochemical pathways or plant phylogeny have a greater effect on leaf wax ?D than leaf-water enrichment in grasses.

McInerney, Francesca A.; Helliker, Brent R.; Freeman, Katherine H.

2011-01-01

299

Relationships of leaf dark respiration to leaf nitrogen, specific leaf area and leaf life-span: a test across biomes and functional groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on prior evidence of coordinated multiple leaf trait scaling, we hypothesized that variation among species in leaf\\u000a dark respiration rate (R\\u000a d) should scale with variation in traits such as leaf nitrogen (N), leaf life-span, specific leaf area (SLA), and net photosynthetic\\u000a capacity (A\\u000a max). However, it is not known whether such scaling, if it exists, is similar among

Peter B. Reich; Michael B. Walters; David S. Ellsworth; James M. Vose; John C. Volin; Charles GreshamWilliam; William D. Bowman

1998-01-01

300

STEM Attrition: College Students' Paths into and out of STEM Fields. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2014-001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Producing sufficient numbers of graduates who are prepared for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations has become a national priority in the United States. To attain this goal, some policymakers have targeted reducing STEM attrition in college, arguing that retaining more students in STEM fields in college is a…

Chen, Xianglei

2013-01-01

301

STEM Careers Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity includes a presentation with links to videos about scientists and engineers working with NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (from the Faces of GPM series), as well as other STEM careers videos, followed by a number of links to online career resources. It is designed to be used by students working at their own pace, choosing which videos and links they are interested in watching and exploring, but could also be used with a larger group. As part of the activity, students identify personal skills and abilities related to career interests and develop a career goal. Includes a student capture sheet with guiding questions.

302

Leaf exsertion, leaf elongation, and leaf senescence in Eriophorum vaginatum and Carex Bigelowii  

SciTech Connect

Most of the common sedges of arctic vegetation show a pattern of leaf production in which the exsertion and elongation of new leaves is more or less simultaneous with the senescence of old leaves. The present study was designed to increase our understanding of the variability sequential leaf production by arctic sedges, and to determine some of the controls on that variability. We did this in two ways: first, we compared the sequential patterns of leaf growth and senescence in E. vaginatum with those of Carex Bigelowii Torr. at two tussock tundra sites near Toolik Lake on the North Slope of Alaska. Second, we compared the responses of leaf growth in these species in control and fertilized plots and in two microenvironments thought to differ sharply in nutrient availability and total productivity. 29 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

Shaver, G.R.; Yandow, T.; Laundre, J.

1990-01-01

303

Inhibitors of oxidative enzymes affect water uptake and vase life of cut Acacia holosericea and Chamelaucium uncinatum stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cut Acacia holosericea (Velvet Leaf Wattle) foliage has a short vase life, possibly because of blockage in xylem vessels. We indirectly investigated a hypothesised role for peroxidase and phenoloxidase enzyme activities in xylem occlusion of Acacia stems by using their inhibitors. We also tested these inhibitors with cut Chamelaucium uncinatum (Geraldton waxflower), another woody stemmed cut flower.The peroxidase inhibitors used

Fisun G. Çelikel; Daryl C. Joyce; John D. Faragher

2011-01-01

304

Concerted action of two avirulent spore effectors activates Reaction to Puccinia graminis 1 (Rpg1)-mediated cereal stem rust resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The barley stem rust resistance gene Reaction to Puccinia graminis 1 (Rpg1), encoding a receptor-like kinase, confers durable resistance to the stem rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. The fungal urediniospores form adhesion structures with the leaf epidermal cells within 1 h of inocula...

305

STEM and Career Exploratory Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Districts face increasing pressure to improve students' mastery of curriculum in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Yet the number of students enrolling in science and math courses drops dramatically in middle and high school. At Sylvester Middle School, Chinook Middle School and Cascade Middle School of the…

Chase, Darrell

2010-01-01

306

Role of Oxidative Stress in Stem, Cancer, and Cancer Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The term ‘‘oxidative stress” refers to a cell’s state characterized by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress is one of the most important regulatory mechanisms for stem, cancer, and cancer stem cells. The concept of cancer stem cells arose from observations of similarities between the self-renewal mechanism of stem cells and that of cancer stem cells, but compared to normal stem cells, they are believed to have no control over the cell number. ROS have been implicated in diverse processes in various cancers, and generally the increase of ROS in cancer cells is known to play an important role in the initiation and progression of cancer. Additionally, ROS have been considered as the most significant mutagens in stem cells; when elevated, blocking self-renewal and at the same time, serving as a signal stimulating stem cell differentiation. Several signaling pathways enhanced by oxidative stress are suggested to have important roles in tumorigenesis of cancer or cancer stem cells and the self-renewal ability of stem or cancer stem cells. It is now well established that mitochondria play a prominent role in apoptosis and increasing evidence supports that apoptosis and autophagy are physiological phenomena closely linked with oxidative stress. This review elucidates the effect and the mechanism of the oxidative stress on the regulation of stem, cancer, and cancer stem cells and focuses on the cell signaling cascades stimulated by oxidative stress and their mechanism in cancer stem cell formation, as very little is known about the redox status in cancer stem cells. Moreover, we explain the link between ROS and both of apoptosis and autophagy and the impact on cancer development and treatment. Better understanding of this intricate link may shed light on mechanisms that lead to better modes of cancer treatment. PMID:24281098

Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Choi, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Cho, Ssang-Goo

2010-01-01

307

The integration of cell proliferation and growth in leaf morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent publications have assessed the outcome on leaf development of targeted manipulation of cell proliferation. The results of these investigations have awakened interest in the long-standing debate in plant biology on the precise role of cell division in morphogenesis. Does cell proliferation drive morphogenesis (cell theory) or is it subservient to a mechanism which acts at the

Andrew J. Fleming

2006-01-01

308

Seasonal polyphenism and leaf mimicry in the comma butterfly  

E-print Network

Seasonal polyphenism and leaf mimicry in the comma butterfly CHRISTER WIKLUND & BIRGITTA S 2003; final acceptance 21 December 2003; MS. number: 7774) The comma butterfly, Polygonia c as a result of high predation pressure. Although butterflies in temperate areas that start reproduction soon

Tullberg, Birgitta

309

In vitro organogenesis from leaf explants of Annona squamosa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoot formation was induced from excised leaf explants of Annona squamosa Linn. (custard apple) seedlings on a Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing benzylaminopurine and kinetin. Various auxins in combination with the above medium produced callusing of the explants. In an investigation of environmental factors affecting shoot induction it was seen that the maximum number of shoots were obtained

S. Nair; P. K. Gupta; M. V. Shirgurkar; A. F. Mascarenhas

1985-01-01

310

Assessing quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) in Brassica napus (oilseed rape) in young plants.  

PubMed

Quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus is difficult to assess in young plants due to the long period of symptomless growth of the pathogen from the appearance of leaf lesions to the appearance of canker symptoms on the stem. By using doubled haploid (DH) lines A30 (susceptible) and C119 (with quantitative resistance), quantitative resistance against L. maculans was assessed in young plants in controlled environments at two stages: stage 1, growth of the pathogen along leaf veins/petioles towards the stem by leaf lamina inoculation; stage 2, growth in stem tissues to produce stem canker symptoms by leaf petiole inoculation. Two types of inoculum (ascospores; conidia) and three assessment methods (extent of visible necrosis; symptomless pathogen growth visualised using the GFP reporter gene; amount of pathogen DNA quantified by PCR) were used. In stage 1 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in area of leaf lesions, distance grown along veins/petioles assessed by visible necrosis or by viewing GFP and amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. In stage 2 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. GFP-labelled L. maculans spread more quickly from the stem cortex to the stem pith in A30 than in C119. Stem canker symptoms were produced more rapidly by using ascospore inoculum than by using conidial inoculum. These results suggest that quantitative resistance against L. maculans in B. napus can be assessed in young plants in controlled conditions. Development of methods to phenotype quantitative resistance against plant pathogens in young plants in controlled environments will help identification of stable quantitative resistance for control of crop diseases. PMID:24454767

Huang, Yong-Ju; Qi, Aiming; King, Graham J; Fitt, Bruce D L

2014-01-01

311

Assessing Quantitative Resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans (Phoma Stem Canker) in Brassica napus (Oilseed Rape) in Young Plants  

PubMed Central

Quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus is difficult to assess in young plants due to the long period of symptomless growth of the pathogen from the appearance of leaf lesions to the appearance of canker symptoms on the stem. By using doubled haploid (DH) lines A30 (susceptible) and C119 (with quantitative resistance), quantitative resistance against L. maculans was assessed in young plants in controlled environments at two stages: stage 1, growth of the pathogen along leaf veins/petioles towards the stem by leaf lamina inoculation; stage 2, growth in stem tissues to produce stem canker symptoms by leaf petiole inoculation. Two types of inoculum (ascospores; conidia) and three assessment methods (extent of visible necrosis; symptomless pathogen growth visualised using the GFP reporter gene; amount of pathogen DNA quantified by PCR) were used. In stage 1 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in area of leaf lesions, distance grown along veins/petioles assessed by visible necrosis or by viewing GFP and amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. In stage 2 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. GFP-labelled L. maculans spread more quickly from the stem cortex to the stem pith in A30 than in C119. Stem canker symptoms were produced more rapidly by using ascospore inoculum than by using conidial inoculum. These results suggest that quantitative resistance against L. maculans in B. napus can be assessed in young plants in controlled conditions. Development of methods to phenotype quantitative resistance against plant pathogens in young plants in controlled environments will help identification of stable quantitative resistance for control of crop diseases. PMID:24454767

Huang, Yong-Ju; Qi, Aiming; King, Graham J.; Fitt, Bruce D. L.

2014-01-01

312

Understanding the effect of carbon status on stem diameter variations  

PubMed Central

Background Carbon assimilation and leaf-to-fruit sugar transport are, along with plant water status, the driving mechanisms for fruit growth. An integrated comprehension of the plant water and carbon relationships is therefore essential to better understand water and dry matter accumulation. Variations in stem diameter result from an integrated response to plant water and carbon status and are as such a valuable source of information. Methods A mechanistic water flow and storage model was used to relate variations in stem diameter to phloem sugar loading and sugar concentration dynamics in tomato. The simulation results were compared with an independent model, simulating phloem sucrose loading at the leaf level based on photosynthesis and sugar metabolism kinetics and enabled a mechanistic interpretation of the ‘one common assimilate pool’ concept for tomato. Key Results Combining stem diameter variation measurements and mechanistic modelling allowed us to distinguish instantaneous dynamics in the plant water relations and gradual variations in plant carbon status. Additionally, the model combined with stem diameter measurements enabled prediction of dynamic variables which are difficult to measure in a continuous and non-destructive way, such as xylem water potential and phloem hydrostatic potential. Finally, dynamics in phloem sugar loading and sugar concentration were distilled from stem diameter variations. Conclusions Stem diameter variations, when used in mechanistic models, have great potential to continuously monitor and interpret plant water and carbon relations under natural growing conditions. PMID:23186836

De Swaef, Tom; Driever, Steven M.; Van Meulebroek, Lieven; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Marcelis, Leo F. M.; Steppe, Kathy

2013-01-01

313

First Record of Alternaria simsimi Causing Leaf Spot on Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in Korea.  

PubMed

Leaf spot disease was observed in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) during 2009 and 2010 in Korea. The pathogen was identified as Alternaria simsimi based on morphological and cultural characteristics. The morphological identification was well supported by phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal DNA-internal transcribed spacer region. A. simsimi isolates caused spot symptoms on leaves and stems of sesame plants 2 wk after artificial inoculation, which were similar to those observed in the field. This is the first record of leaf spot disease in Korea caused by A. simsimi. PMID:25606015

Choi, Young Phil; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung Hun

2014-12-01

314

First Record of Alternaria simsimi Causing Leaf Spot on Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in Korea  

PubMed Central

Leaf spot disease was observed in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) during 2009 and 2010 in Korea. The pathogen was identified as Alternaria simsimi based on morphological and cultural characteristics. The morphological identification was well supported by phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal DNA-internal transcribed spacer region. A. simsimi isolates caused spot symptoms on leaves and stems of sesame plants 2 wk after artificial inoculation, which were similar to those observed in the field. This is the first record of leaf spot disease in Korea caused by A. simsimi. PMID:25606015

Choi, Young Phil; Paul, Narayan Chandra

2014-01-01

315

Rotatable stem and lock  

DOEpatents

A valve stem and lock include a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

Deveney, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sanderson, Stephen N. (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-01-01

316

Rotatable stem and lock  

DOEpatents

A valve stem and lock is disclosed which includes a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

Deveney, J.E.; Sanderson, S.N.

1981-10-27

317

Cell Stem Cell Perspective  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Perspective Genetic and Epigenetic Variations in iPSCs: Potential Causes Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA 5Harvard Stem Cell Institute, WAB-149G, 200.1016/j.stem.2013.07.001 The ability to reprogram somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (i

Zhang, Yi

318

Cell Stem Cell Perspective  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Perspective Identifying the Stem Cell of the Intestinal Crypt: Strategies.clevers@hubrecht.eu http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2012.09.009 Decades ago, two nonoverlapping crypt stem cell populations were proposed: Leblond's Crypt Base Columnar (CBC) cell and Potten's +4 cell. The identification

van Oudenaarden, Alexander

319

Stem cells in urology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem

Tamer Aboushwareb; Anthony Atala

2008-01-01

320

Stem Cell 101 What is a stem cell?  

E-print Network

Stem Cell 101 What is a stem cell? A stem cell is a parent cell in the body that has two specific into all types of tissue in the body ­ this is called differentiation. Where are stem cells found? There are two types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, found in embryos, and adult stem cells, which can

Minnesota, University of

321

Leaf-feeding larvae of Manduca sexta (Insecta, Lepidoptera) drastically reduce copy numbers of aadA antibiotic resistance genes from transplastomic tobacco but maintain intact aadA genes in their feces.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of insect larval feeding on the fate and genetic transformability of recombinant DNA from a transplastomic plant. Leaves of tobacco plants with an aadA antibiotic resistance gene inserted into their chloroplast genome were incubated with larvae of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera). The specifically designed Acinetobacter strain BD413 pBAB(2) was chosen to analyze the functional integrity of the aadA transgene for natural transformation after gut passages. No gene transfer was detected after simultaneous feeding of leaves and the Acinetobacter BD413 pBAB(2) as a recipient, even though 15% of ingested Acinetobacter BD413 cells could be recovered as viable cells from feces 6 h after feeding. Results with real-time PCR indicated that an average of 98.2 to 99.99% of the aadA gene was degraded during the gut passage, but the range in the number of aadA genes in feces of larvae fed with transplastomic leaves was enormous, varying from 5 x 10(6) to 1 x 10(9) copies.g(-1). DNA extracted from feces of larvae fed with transplastomic leaves was still able to transform externally added competent Acinetobacter BD413 pBAB(2) in vitro. Transformation frequencies with concentrated feces DNA were in the same range as those found with leaves (10(-4)-10(-6) transformants per recipient) or purified plasmid DNA (10(-3)-10(-7)). The presence of functionally intact DNA was also qualitatively observed after incubation of 30 mg freshly shed feces directly with competent Acinetobacter BD413 pBAB(2), demonstrating that aadA genes in feces have a potential to undergo further horizontal gene transfer under environmental conditions. PMID:17961486

Brinkmann, Nicole; Tebbe, Christoph C

2007-01-01

322

Leaf litter bags as an index to populations of northern two-lined salamanders (Eurycea bislineata)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern about recent amphibian declines has led to research on amphibian populations, but few statistically tested, standardized methods of counting amphibians exist. We tested whether counts of northern two-lined salamander larvae (Eurycea bislineata) sheltered in leaf litter bags--a relatively new, easily replicable survey technique--had a linear correlation to total number of larvae. Using experimental enclosures placed in streams, we compared number of salamanders found in artificial habitat (leaf litter bags) with total number of salamanders in each enclosure. Low numbers of the animals were found in leaf litter bags, and the relative amount of variation in the index (number of animals in leaf litter bags compared to total number of animals in stream enclosures) was high. The index of salamanders in leaf litter bags was not significantly related to total number of salamanders in enclosures for two-thirds of the replicates or with pooled replicates (P= 0.066). Consequently, we cannot recommend using leaf litter bags to index populations of northern two-lined salamanders.

Chalmers, R.J.; Droege, S.

2002-01-01

323

Stem cell therapy without the cells  

PubMed Central

As an example of the burgeoning importance of stem cell therapy, this past month the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) has approved $70 million to create a new network of stem cell clinical trial centers. Much work in the last decade has been devoted to developing the use of autologous and allogeneic adult stem cell transplants to treat a number of conditions, including heart attack, dementia, wounds, and immune system-related diseases. The standard model teaches us that adult stem cells exists throughout most of the body and provide a means to regenerate and repair most tissues through replication and differentiation. Although we have often witnessed the medical cart placed in front of the scientific horse in the development of stem cell therapies outside of academic circles, great strides have been made, such as the use of purified stem cells1 instead of whole bone marrow transplants in cancer patients, where physicians avoid re-injecting the patients with their own cancer cells.2 We most often think of stem cell therapy acting to regenerate tissue through replication and then differentiation, but recent studies point to the dramatic effects adult stem cells exert in the repair of various tissues through the release of paracrine and autocrine substances, and not simply through differentiation. Indeed, up to 80% of the therapeutic effect of adult stem cells has been shown to be through paracrine mediated actions.3 That is, the collected types of molecules released by the stem cells, called the secretome, or stem cell released molecules (SRM), number in the 100s, including proteins, microRNA, growth factors, antioxidants, proteasomes, and exosomes, and target a multitude of biological pathways through paracrine actions. The composition of the different molecule types in SRM is state dependent, and varies with cell type and conditions such as age and environment. PMID:24567776

Maguire, Greg

2013-01-01

324

Plant stem cells as innovation in cosmetics.  

PubMed

The stem cells thanks to their ability of unlimited division number or transformation into different cell types creating organs, are responsible for regeneration processes. Depending on the organism in which the stem cells exists, they divide to the plant or animal ones. The later group includes the stem cells existing in both embryo's and adult human's organs. It includes, among others, epidermal stem cells, located in the hair follicle relieves and also in its basal layers, and responsible for permanent regeneration of the epidermis. Temporary science looks for method suitable for stimulation of the epidermis stem cells, amongst the other by delivery of e.g., growth factors for proliferation that decrease with the age. One of the methods is the use of the plant cell culture technology, including a number of methods that should ensure growth of plant cells, issues or organs in the environment with the microorganism-free medium. It uses abilities of the different plant cells to dedifferentiation into stem cells and coming back to the pluripotent status. The extracts obtained this way from the plant stem cells are currently used for production of both common or professional care cosmetics. This work describes exactly impact of the plant stem cell extract, coming from one type of the common apple tree (Uttwiler Spätlauber) to human skin as one of the first plant sorts, which are used in cosmetology and esthetic dermatology. PMID:25362798

Moru?, Martyna; Baran, Monika; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena; Skotnicka-Graca, Urszula

2014-01-01

325

A RNA Modification Controls Cell Fate Transition in Mammalian Embryonic Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Article m6 A RNA Modification Controls Cell Fate Transition in Mammalian Embryonic Stem Cells differentiation. Accession Numbers GSE52681 GSE52600 Batista et al., 2014, Cell Stem Cell 15, 1­13 December 4, 2014 ª2014 Elsevier Inc. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2014.09.019 #12;Cell Stem Cell Article m6

Grant, Gregory

326

Hydraulic patterns and safety margins, from stem to stomata, in three eastern U.S. tree species.  

PubMed

Adequate water transport is necessary to prevent stomatal closure and allow for photosynthesis. Dysfunction in the water transport pathway can result in stomatal closure, and can be deleterious to overall plant health and survival. Although much is known about small branch hydraulics, little is known about the coordination of leaf and stem hydraulic function. Additionally, the daily variations in leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)), stomatal conductance and water potential (?(L)) have only been measured for a few species. The objective of the current study was to characterize stem and leaf vulnerability to hydraulic dysfunction for three eastern U.S. tree species (Acer rubrum, Liriodendron tulipifera and Pinus virginiana) and to measure in situ daily patterns of K(leaf), leaf and stem ?, and stomatal conductance in the field. Sap flow measurements were made on two of the three species to compare patterns of whole-plant water use with changes in K(leaf) and stomatal conductance. Overall, stems were more resistant to hydraulic dysfunction than leaves. Stem P50 (? resulting in 50% loss in conductivity) ranged from -3.0 to -4.2 MPa, whereas leaf P50 ranged from -0.8 to -1.7 MPa. Field ?(L) declined over the course of the day, but only P. virginiana experienced reductions in K(leaf) (nearly 100% loss). Stomatal conductance was greatest overall in P. virginiana, but peaked midmorning and then declined in all three species. Midday stem ? in all three species remained well above the threshold for embolism formation. The daily course of sap flux in P. virginiana was bell-shaped, whereas in A. rubrum sap flux peaked early in the morning and then declined over the remainder of the day. An analysis of our data and data for 39 other species suggest that there may be at least three distinct trajectories of relationships between maximum K(leaf) and the % K(leaf) at ?(min). In one group of species, a trade-off between maximum K(leaf) and % K(leaf) at ?(min) appeared to exist, but no trade-off was evident in the other two trajectories. PMID:21724585

Johnson, D M; McCulloh, K A; Meinzer, F C; Woodruff, D R; Eissenstat, D M

2011-06-01

327

Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of Careya arborea Roxb.  

PubMed Central

Objective To study detailed pharmacognostic profile of leaves and stem of Careya arborea (C. arborea) Roxb. (Lecthyidaceae), an important medicinal plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Leaf and stem samples of C. arborea were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, broadly obovate in shape, acuminate apex with crenate, dentate margin, petioles (0.1–1.8 cm) long. Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of median large size vascular bundle covered with fibrous bundle sheath, arrangement of xylem in cup shape and presence of cortical vascular bundle, patches of sclerenchyma, phloem fibers in groups and brown pigment containing cells in stem are some of the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study. Powder microscopy of leaf revealed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem with pitted vessels and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. The investigations also included leaf surface data; quantitative leaf microscopy and fluorescence analysis. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, swelling index, extractive values and ash values were also determined and results showed that total ash of the stem bark was about two times higher than leaf and water soluble extractive value of leaf and stem bark was two times higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Conclusions The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications. PMID:23569939

Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Sharma, Nisha; Rao, Ch V

2012-01-01

328

Effects of mechanical stress or abscisic acid on growth, water status and leaf abscisic acid content of eggplant seedlings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Container-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings were conditioned with brief, periodic mechanical stress or abscisic acid (ABA) in a greenhouse prior to outdoor exposure. Mechanical stress consisted of seismic (shaking) or thigmic (stem flexing) treatment. Exogenous ABA (10(-3) or 10(-4)M) was applied as a soil drench 3 days prior to outdoor transfer. During conditioning, only thigmic stress reduced stem elongation and only 10(-3) M ABA reduced relative growth rate (RGR). Both conditioning treatments increased leaf specific chlorophyll content, but mechanical stress did not affect leaf ABA content. Outdoor exposure of unconditioned eggplant seedlings decreased RGR and leaf-specific chlorophyll content, but tended to increase leaf ABA content relative to that of plants maintained in the greenhouse. Conditioning did not affect RGR of plants subsequently transferred outdoors, but did reduce stem growth. Seismic stress applied in the greenhouse reduced dry weight gain by plants subsequently transferred outdoors. Mechanical stress treatments increased leaf water potential by 18-25% relative to that of untreated plants.

Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.

1988-01-01

329

Leaf-inhabiting genera of the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales  

PubMed Central

The Gnomoniaceae are characterised by ascomata that are generally immersed, solitary, without a stroma, or aggregated with a rudimentary stroma, in herbaceous plant material especially in leaves, twigs or stems, but also in bark or wood. The ascomata are black, soft-textured, thin-walled, and pseudoparenchymatous with one or more central or eccentric necks. The asci usually have a distinct apical ring. The Gnomoniaceae includes species having ascospores that are small, mostly less than 25 ?m long, although some are longer, and range in septation from non-septate to one-septate, rarely multi-septate. Molecular studies of the Gnomoniaceae suggest that the traditional classification of genera based on characteristics of the ascomata such as position of the neck and ascospores such as septation have resulted in genera that are not monophyletic. In this paper the concepts of the leaf-inhabiting genera in the Gnomoniaceae are reevaluated using multiple genes, specifically nrLSU, translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-?), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) for 64 isolates. ITS sequences were generated for 322 isolates. Six genera of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae are defined based on placement of their type species within the multigene phylogeny. The new monotypic genus Ambarignomonia is established for an unusual species, A. petiolorum. A key to 59 species of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae is presented and 22 species of Gnomoniaceae are described and illustrated. PMID:19287541

Sogonov, M.V.; Castlebury, L.A.; Rossman, A.Y.; Mejía, L.C.; White, J.F.

2008-01-01

330

Survival, germination, and growth of Epichloe typhina and significance of leaf wounds and insects in infection of orchardgrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Epichloë typhina, [choke] is an important stroma-producing endophytic ascomycete that is responsible for significant yield loss in orchardgrass seed production fields. Although infections are presumed to occur through leaves and stems, details of the infection process and conditions that favor leaf ...

331

Life in the Leaf Litter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, Life in the Leaf Litter is a guide to the diversity of soil organisms and the crucial role that invertebrates play in woodland ecosystems. The booklet was based, in part, on a leaf litter survey conducted by the CBC's Metro Program and the Museum's Division of Invertebrate Zoology in Central Park's woodlands, which led to the discovery of a new genus and species of centipede, Nannarrup hoffmani. The booklet may be downloaded as a pdf or ordered free of charge.

332

Stem juice production of the C4 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)is enhanced by growth at double-ambient CO2 and high temperature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four sugarcane cultivars were grown for three months in sunlit greenhouses under [CO2] of 360 (ambient) and 720(doubled) ppm and at temperatures (T) of 1.5 (near ambient) and 6.0C higher than outside ambient T. Leaf area, stem juice, plant biomass, leaf CO2 exchange rate (CER) and activities of PEP ...

333

Estimating leaf biochemistry using the PROSPECT leaf optical properties model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biophysical, biochemical, and optical properties of 63 fresh leaves and 58 dry leaves were measured to investigate the potential of remote sensing to estimate the leaf biochemistry from space. Almost 2000 hemispherical reflectance and transmittance spectra were acquired from 400 nm to 2500 nm using a laboratory spectrophotometer. The amount of chlorophyll, water, protein, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and starch

S. Jacquemoud; S. L. Ustin; J. Verdebout; G. Schmuck; G. Andreoli; B. Hosgood

1996-01-01

334

cDNA-AFLP-based numerical comparison of leaf and root organ cDNAs in Catharanthus roseus.  

PubMed

Comparative transcriptome study of the leaf and root tissues of Catharanthus roseus is a prerequisite for causing any favorable tissue-specific change in the secondary metabolism of this species. This study was aimed at comparative analysis of the leaf and root cDNAs in C. roseus, using a cDNA-AFLP approach. Using 64 primer combinations (EcoRI and MseI), a total of 784 distinct transcriptionally-defined fragments (TDFs) could be detected in the root and leaf tissue transcript populations. The leaf tissue yielded a larger number of TDFs than the root tissue (556 versus 464), indicating a greater variety of expressing genes in the leaf. The leaf-specific TDFs (320) outnumbered the root-specific TDFs (228), indicating a higher number of leaf-specific functions and the relative complexity of the leaf tissue vis-à-vis the root tissue. Among the 236 TDFs that were detected in both types of tissues, 42 had nearly equal expression levels in both the tissues (L=R). Common TDFs having higher expression levels in the leaf (L>R; 124) outnumbered those having higher expression levels in the root (Lleaf transcriptome over the root transcriptome. PMID:22734886

Shukla, Ashutosh K; Shasany, Ajit K; Khanuja, Suman P S

2012-01-01

335

Stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify global research trends of stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrievals for stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease from 2002 to 2011 using the Web of Science. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed articles on stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease which were published and indexed in the Web of Science; (b) type of articles: original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material and news items; (c) year of publication: 2002–2011. Exclusion criteria: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) we excluded documents that were not published in the public domain; (c) we excluded a number of corrected papers from the total number of articles. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Type of literature; (2) annual publication output; (3) distribution according to journals; (4) distribution according to subject areas; (5) distribution according to country; (6) distribution according to institution; (7) comparison of countries that published the most papers on stem cell transplantation from different cell sources for treating Parkinson's disease; (8) comparison of institutions that published the most papers on stem cell transplantation from different cell sources for treating Parkinson's disease in the Web of Science from 2002 to 2011; (9) comparison of studies on stem cell transplantation from different cell sources for treating Parkinson's disease RESULTS: In total, 1 062 studies on stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease appeared in the Web of Science from 2002 to 2011, almost one third of which were from American authors and institutes. The number of studies on stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease had gradually increased over the past 10 years. Papers on stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease appeared in journals such as Stem Cells and Experimental Neurology. Although the United States published more articles addressing neural stem cell and embryonic stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease, China ranked first for articles published on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease. CONCLUSION: From our analysis of the literature and research trends, we found that stem cell transplantation for treating Parkinson's disease may offer further benefits in regenerative medicine. PMID:25709626

Li, Runhui

2012-01-01

336

Comparison of modeled and observed environmental influences on the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of leaf water in Phaseolus vulgaris L  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors describe how a model of stable isotope fractionation processes, originally developed by H. Craig and L.I. Gordon for evaporation of water from the ocean, can be applied to leaf transpiration. The original model was modified to account for turbulent conditions in the leaf boundary layer. Experiments were conducted to test the factors influencing the stable isotopic composition of leaf water under controlled environment conditions. At steady state, the observed leaf water isotopic composition was enriched above that of stem water with the extent of the enrichment dependent on the leaf-air vapor pressure difference (VPD) and the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor (AMV). The higher the VPD, the larger was the observed heavy isotope content of leaf water. At a constant VPD, leaf water was relatively enriched in heavy isotopes when exposed to AWV with a large heavy isotope composition. However, the observed heavy isotope composition of leaf water was always less than that predicted by the model. The extent of the discrepancy between the modeled and observed leaf water isotopic composition was a strong linear function of the leaf transpiration rate.

Flanagan, L.B.; Comstock, J.P.; Ehleringer, J.R. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States))

1991-06-01

337

7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf....

2010-01-01

338

7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf....

2011-01-01

339

7 CFR 29.3647 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Leaf. Ripe medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Ripe, medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Mature, medium body, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

2012-01-01

340

Leaf element concentrations of terrestrial plants across China are  

E-print Network

with leaf elements responsible for cell structure and enzymes. Main conclusions Leaf element concentrationsRESEARCH PAPER Leaf element concentrations of terrestrial plants across China are influenced cycles of terrestrial eco- systems are strongly affected by leaf element concentrations. Understanding

Slik, Ferry

341

7 CFR 29.3647 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Leaf. Ripe medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Ripe, medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Mature, medium body, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

2014-01-01

342

7 CFR 29.3647 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Leaf. Ripe medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Ripe, medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Mature, medium body, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

2010-01-01

343

7 CFR 29.3647 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Leaf. Ripe medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Ripe, medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Mature, medium body, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

2011-01-01

344

7 CFR 29.3647 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Leaf. Ripe medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Ripe, medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Mature, medium body, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

2013-01-01

345

SEMI-ROLLED LEAF1 Encodes a Putative Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Protein and Modulates Rice Leaf Rolling by Regulating the Formation of Bulliform Cells1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Leaf rolling is an important agronomic trait in rice (Oryza sativa) breeding and moderate leaf rolling maintains the erectness of leaves and minimizes shadowing between leaves, leading to improved photosynthetic efficiency and grain yields. Although a few rolled-leaf mutants have been identified and some genes controlling leaf rolling have been isolated, the molecular mechanisms of leaf rolling still need to be elucidated. Here we report the isolation and characterization of SEMI-ROLLED LEAF1 (SRL1), a gene involved in the regulation of leaf rolling. Mutants srl1-1 (point mutation) and srl1-2 (transferred DNA insertion) exhibit adaxially rolled leaves due to the increased numbers of bulliform cells at the adaxial cell layers, which could be rescued by complementary expression of SRL1. SRL1 is expressed in various tissues and is expressed at low levels in bulliform cells. SRL1 protein is located at the plasma membrane and predicted to be a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein. Moreover, analysis of the gene expression profile of cells that will become epidermal cells in wild type but probably bulliform cells in srl1-1 by laser-captured microdissection revealed that the expression of genes encoding vacuolar H+-ATPase (subunits A, B, C, and D) and H+-pyrophosphatase, which are increased during the formation of bulliform cells, were up-regulated in srl1-1. These results provide the transcript profile of rice leaf cells that will become bulliform cells and demonstrate that SRL1 regulates leaf rolling through inhibiting the formation of bulliform cells by negatively regulating the expression of genes encoding vacuolar H+-ATPase subunits and H+-pyrophosphatase, which will help to understand the mechanism regulating leaf rolling. PMID:22715111

Xiang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guang-Heng; Qian, Qian; Xue, Hong-Wei

2012-01-01

346

STEm Minority Graduate Program  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT The state of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in the United States has seen some unfavorable assessments over the past decade. In early February, 2010 the House of Representatives heard testimony on undergraduate and graduate education. The message from the panel, which included experts from academia, STEM-based industries, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) was dire and required an urgent response. The experts along with the committee���¢��������s chairperson, U. S. Representative Daniel Lipinski (D-IL) cited that the complexity of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics applications and coursework and the methodology utilized to teach these subjects are forcing students out of these disciplines. As the National Academies described in its 2007 report Rising Above the Gathering Storm, successful STEM education is not just an academic pursuit���¢��������it���¢��������s a necessity for competing in the knowledge-based economy that the United States had a key role in creating. The potential for action is being made available again as the America COMPETES Act of 2007 is up for reauthorization. Its initial focus was on STEM education at the K-12 levels, but efforts at the undergraduate and graduate levels are needed to retain students to fill the jobs left vacant as baby boomers retire. The Educational Advancement Alliance, Inc. (EAA) has for two decades created programs that have not only addressed the issues of ensuring that students are aptly prepared for college but have focused its efforts over the past decade on increasing the number of students who pursue degrees in STEM disciplines. For the EAA, the introduction of the wonders of science begins at the elementary and middle school level via the Learning Lab, a state-of-the-art mobile science laboratory that visits students in grades 4-6 at the various schools throughout Philadelphia and The Math/Tech Academy which meets on Saturdays for students in grades 5-7. For the past two years the EAA has assisted college graduates in their quest to attain advanced degrees in STEM by providing fellowships. The EAA continued this effort by recruiting and providing fellowships to students who aspired to continue their education at the graduate level. The fellowships provided funding for tuition, fees, books, technology, and stipends to assist with room, board, and living expenses during the academic year and salary, transportation, and living expenses to those students who secured internships with the Department of Energy. Additionally the EAA designed and implemented needed support systems to ensure successful completion of the Masters degree programs, including but not limited to membership in professional associations, attendance at industry and academic conferences, and professional development workshops, and tutorial assistance if needed. This program assisted over 80 students directly and society-at-large by helping to educate and develop future physicists, engineers, biostatisticians, and researchers who will have the necessary skillsets to fill the increasing numbers of positions that require such expertise.

Kaen E. Nicholas

2012-09-20

347

Kidney Injury, Stem Cells and Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Purpose This review summarizes the most recent advances in stem cell and regenerative approaches to treat kidney injury, and highlights areas of active controversy. Over the last year a number of findings have been reported that have brought this field much closer to clinical translation. Recent Findings Recent progress in regenerative nephrology includes the directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells to kidney fates, understanding the proliferative capacity of tubules after injury, the use of mesenchymal stem cells for kidney disease and tissue engineering approaches to renal replacement. Controversies persist, however, including whether adult epithelial stem cells exist at all, the best therapeutic strategy for the treatment of kidney injury and how to use mesenchymal stem cells optimally for the prevention of acute kidney injury. Summary While recent progress in kidney regeneration is very encouraging, current controversies must be resolved before clinical breakthroughs can occur. PMID:24231311

Humphreys, Benjamin D.

2014-01-01

348

Resistance in leaf blades assessed by counting conidia correlates with whole-plant-specific resistance in leaf sheaths in a compatible rice– Magnaporthe oryzae interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance in the leaf blades of rice plants against a virulent race of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae was quantitatively examined using a modified spot inoculation method. Numbers of conidia produced in the lesions were affected\\u000a by plant age and paralleled the frequency of resistance infection types, which is indicative of whole-plant-specific resistance\\u000a (WPSR), in the inoculated leaf sheaths

Hironori Koga; Koji Dohi; Reiko Yoshimoto; Masashi Mori

2008-01-01

349

Mesenchymal stem cells secreting angiopoietin-like-5 support efficient expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells without compromising their repopulating potential  

E-print Network

Clinical and preclinical applications of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are often limited by scarcity of cells. Expanding human HSCs to increase their numbers while maintaining their stem cell properties has therefore ...

Drake, Adam

350

The scaling of leaf area and mass: the cost of light interception increases with leaf size  

E-print Network

in support and structure. Some have proposed that mechanical support and dry mass investments per unit leafThe scaling of leaf area and mass: the cost of light interception increases with leaf size Rube (specific leaf area, SLA) is a key trait from physiological, ecological and biophysical perspectives

Minnesota, University of

351

Leaf respiration is differentially affected by leaf vs. stand-level night-time warming  

E-print Network

to temperature with the temperature coefficient of the reaction or Q10 (change in the rate of a reaction rate with a 10 C increase in leaf temperature) was 1.7 when the leaf temperature was manipulatedLeaf respiration is differentially affected by leaf vs. stand-level night-time warming K E V I N L

Saleska, Scott

352

Interaction between External and Internal Conditions in the Development of Photosynthetic Features in a Grass Leaf  

PubMed Central

Morphological and functional features were compared along a developing third leaf and fully expanded leaf from high-light- and low-light-acclimated seedlings of Lolium multiflorum. The young leaf contains a gradient of differentiating tissue, ranging from meristematic cells at the leaf base to mature tissue at the tip; this gradient can be related to the maturation of a functional photosynthetic apparatus. Along the fully expanded leaf, a decreasing gradient from tip to base is maintained for functional characteristics (net maximum photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity) and for a number of structural parameters (number of mesophyll cells and their external surface area, number of chloroplasts and their envelope area), irrespective of the light regime. In contrast, a constancy in the absolute intrachloroplastic lamellar content per plastid was revealed whatever the position in the leaf or irradiance received. However, the relative membrane content was lower in high-light chloroplasts due to their larger volume compared to low-light plastids (dilution effect). The longitudinal differences in functional and morphological characteristics are interpreted as the result of interaction between the internal gradient of differentiating tissue along a developing young leaf and the external light conditions during development. Images PMID:16661518

Prioul, Jean-Louis; Brangeon, Judy; Reyss, Agnès

1980-01-01

353

Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the past five or so years blueberry growers in south Mississippi have discovered the disease Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot on some of their blueberry plants. In the past this disease was considered to be of minor importance occurring infrequently on isolated farms. But in recent years it ...

354

Leaf Photosynthesis Under Drought Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic apparatus is resistant to drought. Net CO2 uptake of a leaf submitted to a mild desiccation decreases because of stomatal closure. As aresult, CO2 concentration in the chloroplast decreases in plants exposed to water shortage. This drop in the chloroplast CO2 concentration causes: (i) a decrease in photochemical yield of open PS II centers and, consequently, an increase

Gabriel Cornic; Angelo Massacci

355

XANTHOMONAS LEAF BLIGHT OF ONION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas leaf blight, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii, is a common foliar disease of onion. This extension bulletin presents a review of disease symptomology, etiology, epidemiology, and management. The association of environment, host, and cultural and disease severity ...

356

ZONATE LEAF SPOT (CAUSED BY CRISTULARIELLA MORICOLA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zonate leaf spot derives it name from the occurrence of large, circular leaf lesions with distinct concentric rings. Initially the leaf lesions are light tan in color and the concentric rings are symmetrical appearing as a ‘bulls eye’. Initial lesions are 5-10 mm in diameter and continue to expand...

357

Tree Branch Angle: Maximizing Effective Leaf Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a computer simulation of branching pattern and leaf cluster in Terminalia catappa, right and left branch angles were varied, and the effective leaf surface areas were calculated. Theoretical branch angles that result in maximum effective leaf area are close to the values observed in nature.

Hisao Honda; Jack B. Fisher

1978-01-01

358

7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture...37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2012-01-01

359

7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture...14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2010-01-01

360

7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2013-01-01

361

7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2011-01-01

362

7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture...14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2011-01-01

363

7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or...

2012-01-01

364

7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture...37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2011-01-01

365

7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2011-01-01

366

7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or...

2014-01-01

367

7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or...

2011-01-01

368

7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture...37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2010-01-01

369

7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2014-01-01

370

7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture...14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2013-01-01

371

7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2012-01-01

372

7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture...37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2013-01-01

373

7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2014-01-01

374

7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture...14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2014-01-01

375

7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture...14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2012-01-01

376

7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or...

2010-01-01

377

7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2010-01-01

378

7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture...37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2014-01-01

379

7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2012-01-01

380

7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or...

2013-01-01

381

Tansley review Leaf venation: structure, function,  

E-print Network

Tansley review Leaf venation: structure, function, development, evolution, ecology and applications, CA 90095, USA Contents Summary 983 I. Introduction 983 II. Overall structure of the leaf venation 983,agricultureandtechnology.Wesynthesizeclassicalconceptsandtherecentliteratureona wide range of aspects of leaf venation. We describe 10 major structural features that contribute

Sack, Lawren

382

7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2010-01-01

383

7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

2013-01-01

384

Bean leaf beetle management in soybean  

E-print Network

Bean leaf beetle management in soybean Erin W. Hodgson Department of Entomology Iowa State concerned about BPMV #12;Bean leaf beetle threshold for 1st generation adults (per 20 sweeps) Control $7 $8 for bivoltine or multivoltine regions · Use counts to help manage 2nd/3rd generations #12;Bean leaf beetle

Jurenka, Russell A.

385

Bean leaf beetle biology in soybean  

E-print Network

Bean leaf beetle biology in soybean Erin W. Hodgson Department of Entomology Iowa State University September 2009 #12;Outline · Description · Life cycle · Biology · Damage #12;Bean leaf beetle (BLB) · Cerotoma trifurcata ­ leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) · 5 mm long, oval shape · Typically dark

Jurenka, Russell A.

386

CORN LEAF CHLOROPHYLL STATUS FROM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf chlorophyll concentration is an indicator of plant N status. Subtle differences in canopy reflectance due to changes in leaf chlorophyll concentration are often overwhelmed by the large changes in reflectance associated with soil brightness and leaf area index (LAI). Our objective was to devel...

387

Modeling and visualization of leaf venation patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a class of biologically-motivated algorithms for generating leaf venation patterns. These algorithms simulate the interplay between three processes: (1) development of veins towards hormone (auxin) sources embedded in the leaf blade; (2) modification of the hormone source distribution by the proximity of veins; and (3) modification of both the vein pattern and source distribution by leaf growth. These

Adam Runions; Martin Fuhrer; Pavol Federl; Anne-Gaëlle Rolland-Lagan; Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz

2005-01-01

388

7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

2014-01-01

389

7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

2011-01-01

390

7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

2012-01-01

391

7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

2013-01-01

392

7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

2010-01-01

393

Growth and leaf physiology of monkeyflowers with different altitude ranges.  

PubMed

Every species is limited both geographically and ecologically to a subset of available habitats, yet for many species the causes of distribution limits are unknown. Temperature is thought to be one of the primary determinants of species distributions along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. This study examined leaf physiology and plant performance under contrasting temperature regimes of sister species of monkeyflower, Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii (Phrymaceae), that differ in altitude distribution to test the hypothesis that temperature is the primary determinant of differences in fitness versus altitude. Each species attained greatest aboveground biomass, net photosynthetic rate, and effective quantum yield of photosystem II when grown under temperatures characteristic of the altitudinal range center. Although both species exhibited greater stem length, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration in hot than in cold temperatures, these traits showed much greater reductions under cold temperature for M. cardinalis than for M. lewisii. Survival of M. lewisii was also sensitive to temperature, showing a striking decrease in hot temperatures. Within each temperature regime, the species native to that temperature displayed greatest growth and leaf physiological capacity. Populations from the altitude range center and range margin of each species were used to examine population differentiation, but central and marginal populations did not differ in most growth or leaf physiological responses to temperature. This study provides evidence that M. cardinalis and M. lewisii differ in survival, growth, and leaf physiology under temperature regimes characterizing their contrasting low and high altitude range centers, and suggests that the species' altitude range limits may arise, in part, due to metabolic limitations on growth that ultimately decrease survival and limit reproduction. PMID:16468056

Angert, Amy Lauren

2006-06-01

394

Light-controlled Leaf Expansion in Peas Grown under Different Light Conditions 1  

PubMed Central

Several photosystems control leaf expansion in Alaska peas (Pisum sativum). Phytochrome is known to control expansion in dark-grown peas. But plants exposed briefly to red light are insensitive to phytochrome, an insensitivity that is itself phytochrome-produced. Leaf expansion in these plants is promoted by 440 or 630 nm of light (probably mediated by protochlorophyll). Plants grown in white fluorescent light required simultaneous exposure to high intensity blue and yellow light for promotion of leaf expansion. Since these results parallel studies on light-controlled inhibition of stem elongation, shoot growth as a whole is coordinated by these photosystems. Such coordination might be a mechanism of plant competition for light. PMID:16659153

Elliott, William M.

1975-01-01

395

In vitro and in vivo expansion of stem cell populations.  

PubMed

Expansion of hemopoietic stem cells occurs in vivo following transplantation of limited numbers of bone marrow cells or of highly purified stem cells. Stem cell expansion can in principle be achieved in vitro and also be promoted in vivo by growth factor treatment, notably with thrombopoietin. Advances in identification of stromal elements, growth factors and culture conditions that stimulate immature hemopoietic stem cell proliferation may result in effective stem cell expansion protocols and contribute to efficient retrovirally mediated gene transfer. In vivo expansion of immature cells by growth factor treatment may both be a valid alternative and an adjuvant to in vitro expansion. PMID:9704482

Wagemaker, G

1998-01-01

396

7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 5 percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 10 percent. B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf...

2012-01-01

397

7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 5 percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 10 percent. B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf...

2014-01-01

398

7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 5 percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 10 percent. B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf...

2011-01-01

399

7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 5 percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 10 percent. B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf...

2013-01-01

400

7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 5 percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 10 percent. B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf...

2010-01-01

401

A detached-leaf method to evaluate late blight resistance in potato and tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a detached leaf method for evaluating potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) germplasm for reactions toPhytophthora infestans, the causal organism of late blight. Primary leaves from the third to the sixth node of potato plants, and the fourth to\\u000a sixth node of tomato plants were excised at the stem. Their petioles were inserted into 14

R. W. Goth; J. Keane

1997-01-01

402

Drought adaptation of stay-green sorghum is associated with canopy development, leaf anatomy, root growth, and water uptake  

PubMed Central

Stay-green sorghum plants exhibit greener leaves and stems during the grain-filling period under water-limited conditions compared with their senescent counterparts, resulting in increased grain yield, grain mass, and lodging resistance. Stay-green has been mapped to a number of key chromosomal regions, including Stg1, Stg2, Stg3, and Stg4, but the functions of these individual quantitative trait loci (QTLs) remain unclear. The objective of this study was to show how positive effects of Stg QTLs on grain yield under drought can be explained as emergent consequences of their effects on temporal and spatial water-use patterns that result from changes in leaf-area dynamics. A set of four Stg near-isogenic lines (NILs) and their recurrent parent were grown in a range of field and semicontrolled experiments in southeast Queensland, Australia. These studies showed that the four Stg QTLs regulate canopy size by: (1) reducing tillering via increased size of lower leaves, (2) constraining the size of the upper leaves; and (3) in some cases, decreasing the number of leaves per culm. In addition, they variously affect leaf anatomy and root growth. The multiple pathways by which Stg QTLs modulate canopy development can result in considerable developmental plasticity. The reduction in canopy size associated with Stg QTLs reduced pre-flowering water demand, thereby increasing water availability during grain filling and, ultimately, grain yield. The generic physiological mechanisms underlying the stay-green trait suggest that similar Stg QTLs could enhance post-anthesis drought adaptation in other major cereals such as maize, wheat, and rice. PMID:25381433

Borrell, Andrew K.; Mullet, John E.; George-Jaeggli, Barbara; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Hammer, Graeme L.; Klein, Patricia E.; Jordan, David R.

2014-01-01

403

Drought adaptation of stay-green sorghum is associated with canopy development, leaf anatomy, root growth, and water uptake.  

PubMed

Stay-green sorghum plants exhibit greener leaves and stems during the grain-filling period under water-limited conditions compared with their senescent counterparts, resulting in increased grain yield, grain mass, and lodging resistance. Stay-green has been mapped to a number of key chromosomal regions, including Stg1, Stg2, Stg3, and Stg4, but the functions of these individual quantitative trait loci (QTLs) remain unclear. The objective of this study was to show how positive effects of Stg QTLs on grain yield under drought can be explained as emergent consequences of their effects on temporal and spatial water-use patterns that result from changes in leaf-area dynamics. A set of four Stg near-isogenic lines (NILs) and their recurrent parent were grown in a range of field and semicontrolled experiments in southeast Queensland, Australia. These studies showed that the four Stg QTLs regulate canopy size by: (1) reducing tillering via increased size of lower leaves, (2) constraining the size of the upper leaves; and (3) in some cases, decreasing the number of leaves per culm. In addition, they variously affect leaf anatomy and root growth. The multiple pathways by which Stg QTLs modulate canopy development can result in considerable developmental plasticity. The reduction in canopy size associated with Stg QTLs reduced pre-flowering water demand, thereby increasing water availability during grain filling and, ultimately, grain yield. The generic physiological mechanisms underlying the stay-green trait suggest that similar Stg QTLs could enhance post-anthesis drought adaptation in other major cereals such as maize, wheat, and rice. PMID:25381433

Borrell, Andrew K; Mullet, John E; George-Jaeggli, Barbara; van Oosterom, Erik J; Hammer, Graeme L; Klein, Patricia E; Jordan, David R

2014-11-01

404

Leaf area dynamics of conifer forests  

SciTech Connect

Estimating the surface area of foliage supported by a coniferous forest canopy is critical for modeling its biological properties. Leaf area represents the surface area available for the interception of energy, the absorption of carbon dioxide, and the diffusion of water from the leaf to the atmosphere. The concept of leaf area is pertinent to the physiological and ecological dynamics of conifers at a wide range of spatial scales, from individual leaves to entire biomes. In fact, the leaf area of vegetation at a global level can be thought of as a carbon-absorbing, water-emitting membrane of variable thickness, which can have an important influence on the dynamics and chemistry of the Earth`s atmosphere over both the short and the long term. Unless otherwise specified, references to leaf area herein refer to projected leaf area, i.e., the vertical projection of needles placed on a flat plane. Total leaf surface area is generally from 2.0 to 3.14 times that of projected leaf area for conifers. It has recently been suggested that hemisurface leaf area, i.e., one-half of the total surface area of a leaf, a more useful basis for expressing leaf area than is projected area. This chapter is concerned with the dynamics of coniferous forest leaf area at different spatial and temporal scales. In the first part, we consider various hypotheses related to the control of leaf area development, ranging from simple allometric relations with tree size to more complex mechanistic models that consider the movement of water and nutrients to tree canopies. In the second part, we consider various aspects of leaf area dynamics at varying spatial and temporal scales, including responses to perturbation, seasonal dynamics, genetic variation in crown architecture, the responses to silvicultural treatments, the causes and consequences of senescence, and the direct measurement of coniferous leaf area at large spatial scales using remote sensing.

Margolis, H.; Oren, R.; Whitehead, D.; Kaufmann, M.R.

1995-07-01

405

Tête à Tête of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus in Single Nuclei  

PubMed Central

Since 1997 two distinct geminivirus species, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), have caused a similar yellow leaf curl disease in tomato, coexisted in the fields of southern Spain, and very frequently doubly infected single plants. Tomatoes as well as experimental test plants (e.g., Nicotiana benthamiana) showed enhanced symptoms upon mixed infections under greenhouse conditions. Viral DNA accumulated to a similar extent in singly and doubly infected plants. In situ tissue hybridization showed TYLCSV and TYLCV DNAs to be confined to the phloem in both hosts, irrespective of whether they were inoculated individually or in combination. The number of infected nuclei in singly or doubly infected plants was determined by in situ hybridization of purified nuclei. The percentage of nuclei containing viral DNA (i.e., 1.4% in tomato or 6% in N. benthamiana) was the same in plants infected with either TYLCSV, TYLCV, or both. In situ hybridization of doubly infected plants, with probes that discriminate between both DNAs, revealed that at least one-fifth of infected nuclei harbored DNAs from both virus species. Such a high number of coinfected nuclei may explain why recombination between different geminivirus DNAs occurs frequently. The impact of these findings for epidemiology and for resistance breeding concerning tomato yellow leaf curl diseases is discussed. PMID:15367638

Morilla, Gabriel; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Wege, Christina

2004-01-01

406

Mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana Altered in Epicuticular Wax and Leaf Morphology.  

PubMed Central

We report eight new mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana possessing altered leaf morphology and epicuticular wax. These were isolated from a T-DNA-mutagenized population using a visual screen for altered leaf reflectance, i.e. increased glaucousness or glossiness. The mutants were placed into three distinct classes based on alterations in overall plant morphology: knobhead (knb), bicentifolia (bcf), and wax. The four knb mutants formed callus-like growths in the axillary region of the rosette leaves and apical meristem, the two bcf mutants produced hundreds of narrow leaves, and the two wax mutants had leaves and stems that were more glossy than wild type and organs that fused during early development. Leaves of knb and bcf were more glaucous and abnormally shaped than wild type. Epicuticular wax crystals over knb and bcf leaf surfaces (where none were present on wild type) likely contributed to their more glaucous appearance. In contrast, the glossy appearance of the wax mutants was associated with a reduced epicuticular wax load on both leaves and stems. One representative from each phenotypic class was selected for detailed analyses of epicuticular wax chemistry. All three lines, knb1, bcf1, and wax1, had dramatic alterations in the total amounts and relative proportions of their leaf epicuticular wax constituents. PMID:12226189

Jenks, M. A.; Rashotte, A. M.; Tuttle, H. A.; Feldmann, K. A.

1996-01-01

407

Shoot biomass growth is related to the vertical leaf nitrogen gradient in Salix canopies.  

PubMed

Plant canopy optimization models predict that leaf nitrogen (N) distribution in the canopy will parallel the vertical light gradient, and numerous studies with many species have confirmed this prediction. Further, it is predicted that for a given canopy leaf area, a low vertical light extinction coefficient will promote rapid growth. Therefore, the ideal canopy of fast-growing plants should combine high leaf area index with a low light extinction coefficient; the latter being reflected in a flat vertical leaf N gradient throughout the canopy. Based on data from an experimental Salix stand (six varieties) grown on agricultural land in central Sweden, we tested the hypothesis that shoot growth is correlated with vertical leaf N gradient in canopies of hybrid willows bred for biomass production, which could have implications for Salix breeding. Tree improvement research requires screening of growth-related traits in large numbers of plants, but assessment of canopy leaf N gradients by chemical analysis is expensive, time-consuming and destructive. An alternative to analytical methods is to estimate leaf N gradients nondestructively with an optical chlorophyll meter (SPAD method). Here we provide a specific calibration for interpreting SPAD data measured in hybrid willows grown in biomass plantations on fertile agricultural land. Based on SPAD measurements, a significant and inverse relationship (r(2) = 0.88) was found between shoot biomass growth and vertical leaf N gradient across canopies of six Salix varieties. PMID:17669744

Weih, Martin; Rönnberg-Wästjung, Ann-Christin

2007-11-01

408

Algorithm for retrieving vegetative canopy and leaf parameters from multi- and hyperspectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years hyper-spectral data has been used to retrieve information about vegetative canopies such as leaf area index and canopy water content. For the environmental scientist these two parameters are valuable, but there is potentially more information to be gained as high spatial resolution data becomes available. We developed an Amoeba (Nelder-Mead or Simplex) based program to invert a vegetative canopy radiosity model coupled with a leaf (PROSPECT5) reflectance model and modeled for the background reflectance (e.g. soil, water, leaf litter) to a measured reflectance spectrum. The PROSPECT5 leaf model has five parameters: leaf structure parameter Nstru, chlorophyll a+b concentration Cab, carotenoids content Car, equivalent water thickness Cw and dry matter content Cm. The canopy model has two parameters: total leaf area index (LAI) and number of layers. The background reflectance model is either a single reflectance spectrum from a spectral library() derived from a bare area pixel on an image or a linear mixture of soil spectra. We summarize the radiosity model of a layered canopy and give references to the leaf/needle models. The method is then tested on simulated and measured data. We investigate the uniqueness, limitations and accuracy of the retrieved parameters on canopy parameters (low, medium and high leaf area index) spectral resolution (32 to 211 band hyperspectral), sensor noise and initial conditions.

Borel, Christoph

2009-05-01

409

The potential of biomonitoring of air quality using leaf characteristics of white willow (Salix alba L.).  

PubMed

In this study, we assess the potential of white willow (Salix alba L.) as bioindicator for monitoring of air quality. Therefore, shoot biomass, specific leaf area, stomatal density, stomatal pore surface, and stomatal resistance were assessed from leaves of stem cuttings. The stem cuttings were introduced in two regions in Belgium with a relatively high and a relatively low level of air pollution, i.e., Antwerp city and Zoersel, respectively. In each of these regions, nine sampling points were selected. At each sampling point, three stem cuttings of white willow were planted in potting soil. Shoot biomass and specific leaf area were not significantly different between Antwerp city and Zoersel. Microclimatic differences between the sampling points may have been more important to plant growth than differences in air quality. However, stomatal pore surface and stomatal resistance of white willow were significantly different between Zoersel and Antwerp city. Stomatal pore surface was 20% lower in Antwerp city due to a significant reduction in both stomatal length (-11%) and stomatal width (-14%). Stomatal resistance at the adaxial leaf surface was 17% higher in Antwerp city because of the reduction in stomatal pore surface. Based on these results, we conclude that stomatal characteristics of white willow are potentially useful indicators for air quality. PMID:20033771

Wuytack, Tatiana; Verheyen, Kris; Wuyts, Karen; Kardel, Fatemeh; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Samson, Roeland

2010-12-01

410

Choosing a STEM Career  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will view video clips about graduate and middle school students with interests in STEM careers and compare technologies from yesterday with today. They will explore careers on-line before writing about their futures as STEM professionals.

WPSU

2009-11-10

411

STEM Club Participation and STEM Schooling Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To develop a more robust understanding of the relationship between non-formal, school-based STEM activities and students' success and persistence in STEM fields, this study evaluates how math club participation influences math GPA and how science club participation influences science GPA. Additionally, this study evaluates how math or science…

Gottfried, Michael A.; Williams, Darryl N.

2013-01-01

412

Adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells have the capability to differentiate into a number of cell types including adipocytes. The adipocytic phenotype is characterized by intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets as well as transcription of adipocyte-specific genes. This paper details a basic protocol for adipogenic induction of bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived stem cells, as well as protocols for staining lipid accumulation and the transcriptional analysis of PPAR-? and aP2 by real-time RT-PCR. PMID:21431524

Fink, Trine; Zachar, Vladimir

2011-01-01

413

Mesenchymal stem cells engineered for cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that stem cell-based therapies hold tremendous promise for the treatment of human disease. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are emerging as promising anti-cancer agents which have an enormous potential to be utilized to treat a number of different cancer types. MSC have inherent tumor-trophic migratory properties, which allows them to serve as vehicles for

Khalid Shah

414

Understanding how the leaf physiology of mangrove plants differs from fresh water plants: a fundamental step to use cellulose as a proxy for sea level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the leaf water isotopic enrichment pattern of mangrove (halophytes) and hammock (glycophytes) plants as an attempt to explain why the ?18O of stem cellulose from mangrove and hammock species have no relationship with the ?18O of source water. A better understanding of leaf physiology of mangroves and its effect on the ?18O of stem cellulose is the first step in the process of developing an isotopic proxy for sea-level rise. Seawater is enriched in 18O relative to freshwater and this difference should be recorded in stem cellulose during its synthesis. Therefore, an enrichment in the oxygen isotope ratios of cellulose would reflect an increase in sea water levels. However, only ~40% of the 18O signal of stem cellulose comes from source water, the other ~60% comes from leaf water. Mangrove and hammock plants respond to environment conditions differently, which calls for a better understanding of leaf physiology and the ability to tease leaf physiolocal effects apart from the source water signal. We hypothesized that it’s likely that mangrove plants, having a greater proportion of water traveling simplastically, would have a longer water pathway from the xylem to the stomatal pore than hammock plants. According to the Peclet effect, this would cause lower isotopic enrichment of leaf water in mangroves compared to those of hammock species. This would explain previous measurements where ?18O of stem cellulose of mangrove was not as enriched as the expected. To test our hypothesis, a transect was selected across the 2 vegetation types (mangroves and hammocks). The parameters measured where: transpiration, temperature of the leaf, ambient temperature, relative humidity, ?18O of vapor, ?18O of stem water and ?18O of leaf water. With those parameters we calculated the effective length of the water pathway from the xylem to the stomatal pore. The results confirmed our hypothesis that mangrove leaves have a longer water pathway from the xylem to the stomatal pore compared to hammock leaves. The next step is to study how we could incorporate this knowledge of different length of water pathway between halophytes and glycophytes to better correlate the oxygen isotopic signature of stem cellulose and its source water. The ultimate goal is to make possible the use of the ?18O of stem cellulose as a tool to proxy sea level rise.

Ellsworth, P.; Sternberg, L. O.

2010-12-01

415

Umbilical Cord Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue\\u000a types (1–3). Generally, stem cells are categorized as one of three types: embryonic stem cells (ES), embryonic germ cells (EG), or adult\\u000a stem cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastula (Fig. 1). They

Kathy E. Mitchell

416

Cancer Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of cells within tumors with capabilities of self-renewal, differentiation, and tumorigenicity when transplanted into an animal host. A number of cell surface markers such as CD44, CD24, and CD133 are often used to identify and enrich CSCs. A regulatory network consisting of microRNAs and Wnt/?-catenin, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways controls the CSC properties. The clinical relevance of CSCs has been strengthened by emerging evidence, demonstrating that CSCs are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation treatment and that CSCs are very likely to be the origin of cancer metastasis. CSCs are believed to be an important target for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Herein we summarize the current understanding of CSCs, with a focus on the role of miRNA and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and discuss the clinical application of targeting CSCs for cancer treatment. PMID:22981632

Yu, Zuoren; Pestell, Timothy G.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Pestell, Richard G.

2012-01-01

417

Multipotent somatic stem cells contribute to the stem cell niche in the Drosophila testis.  

PubMed

Adult stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments, or niches, that have an important role in regulating stem cell behaviour. Therefore, tight control of niche number, size and function is necessary to ensure the proper balance between stem cells and progenitor cells available for tissue homeostasis and wound repair. The stem cell niche in the Drosophila male gonad is located at the tip of the testis where germline and somatic stem cells surround the apical hub, a cluster of approximately 10-15 somatic cells that is required for stem cell self-renewal and maintenance. Here we show that somatic stem cells in the Drosophila testis contribute to both the apical hub and the somatic cyst cell lineage. The Drosophila orthologue of epithelial cadherin (DE-cadherin) is required for somatic stem cell maintenance and, consequently, the apical hub. Furthermore, our data indicate that the transcriptional repressor escargot regulates the ability of somatic cells to assume and/or maintain hub cell identity. These data highlight the dynamic relationship between stem cells and the niche and provide insight into genetic programmes that regulate niche size and function to support normal tissue homeostasis and organ regeneration throughout life. PMID:18641633

Voog, Justin; D'Alterio, Cecilia; Jones, D Leanne

2008-08-28

418

Leaf hairs influence phytopathogenic fungus infection and confer an increased resistance when expressing a Trichoderma  -1,3-glucanase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf surface of a very large number of plant species are covered by trichomes. Non-glandular trichomes are specialized unicellular or multicellular structures that occur in many different plant species and function in xenobiotic detoxification and protecting the plant against pest attack. By analysing the susceptibility of trichome mutants, evidence is provided that indicates the influence of leaf trichomes on

Leticia Calo; Irene Garcia; Cecilia Gotor; Luis C. Romero

2006-01-01

419

Seasonal Conductivity and Embolism in the Roots and Stems of Two Clonal Ring-Porous Trees, Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae) and Rhus typhina (Anacardiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal xylem (wood) conductivity and embolism (air blockage) patterns were monitored in roots vs. stems of two clonal ring- porous tree species, Sassafras albidum and Rhus typhina, throughout 1996 and 1997. Stems of both species were 100% embolized in the early spring and became conductive by late June following leaf expansion and maturation of new earlywood vessels. Dyes indicated the

Laura L. Jaquish; Frank W. Ewers

2001-01-01

420

The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits – Vcmax and Jmax – to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: a meta-analysis and modeling study  

PubMed Central

Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between Vcmax and Jmax and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between Vcmax and Jmax and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of Vcmax and Jmax with leaf N, P, and SLA. Vcmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of Vcmax to leaf N. Jmax was strongly related to Vcmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm?2), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm?2 nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of Jmax to Vcmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting. PMID:25473475

Walker, Anthony P; Beckerman, Andrew P; Gu, Lianhong; Kattge, Jens; Cernusak, Lucas A; Domingues, Tomas F; Scales, Joanna C; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Wullschleger, Stan D; Woodward, F Ian

2014-01-01

421

STEM Education Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website houses the PBS collection of educational resources for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). A brief video introduces the idea that anyone who works and studies hard can have a successful career in a STEM field. Webinars and other forms of professional development are available, as well as links to other STEM websites.

2009-01-01

422

Hair Follicle Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workshop on Hair Follicle Stem Cells brought together investigators who have used a variety of approaches to try to understand the biology of follicular epithelial stem cells, and the role that these cells play in regulating the hair cycle. One of the main concepts to emerge from this workshop is that follicular epithelial stem cells are multipotent, capable of

Robert M. Lavker; Tung-Tien Sun; Hideo Oshima; Yann Barrandon; Masashi Akiyama; Corinne Ferraris; Genevieve Chevalier; Bertrand Favier; Colin A. B. Jahoda; Danielle Dhouailly; Andrei A. Panteleyev; Angela M. Christiano

2003-01-01

423

Understanding Embryonic Stem Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This indexed webcast video along with synchronized lecture slides is from Howard Hughes Medical Institute's 2006 Holiday LecturesPotent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration. Douglas A. Melton presents an introduction to stem cells, as well as answers to questions about the role of stem cells in the human body. This video requires RealPlayer 10.

Douglas A. Melton, Ph.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute; )

2008-04-10

424

Stem cell culture engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells have the capacity for self renewal and undergo multilineage differentiation. Stem cells isolated from both blastocysts and adult tissues represent valuable sources of cells for applications in cell therapy, drug screening and tissue engineering. While expanding stem cells in culture, it is critical to maintain their self?renewal and differentiation capacity. In generating particular cell types for specific applications,

Gargi Seth; Catherine M. Verfaillie

2005-01-01

425

Environmental modification of yield and nutrient composition of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaf number, dry weight, and nutrient composition of Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green leaves were compared following 9 days of treatment in a controlled environment room under various combinations of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF:350 vs 800 micromoles m-2 s-1), atmospheric CO2 level (ambient vs 1500 micromoles mol-1), and single-strength (1X:15 mM) vs double-strength (2X:30 mM) nitrogen (N) as NO3- alone or as NH4(+) + NO3- (1:5 molar ratio). CO2 enrichment greatly enhanced leaf number under all PPF and N conditions, but increased leaf dry weight only at high PPF. Conditions favoring high photosynthesis enhanced leaf starch content 3-fold, and protein content increased as much as 64% with 2X NH4(+)+NO3-. Free sugar content was 6 to 9% of leaf dry weight for all treatment combinations, while fat was 1.5 to 3.5%. Ash content varied from 15 to 20% of leaf dry weight. Modified controlled environments can be used to enhance the nutritional content as well as the yield of crops to be used for life support in space-deployed, self-sustaining human habitats. Leaf lettuce is a useful model crop for demonstrating the potential of nutritional value added by environmental manipulation.

Mitchell, C. A.; Chun, C.; Brandt, W. E.; Nielsen, S. S.

1997-01-01

426

HLA Association with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Outcome: The Number of Mismatches at HLA-A, B, -C, -DRB1, or -DQB1 Is Strongly Associated with Overall Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

HLA matching between the donor and recipient improves the success of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Because many patients in need of an unrelated transplant have only donors with mismatch, information is needed to evaluate the limits of HLA mismatching. We examined the association of survival, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and relapse with HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB, -DQB1, and

Pascale Loiseau; Marc Busson; Marie-Lorraine Balere; Anne Dormoy; Jean-Denis Bignon; Katia Gagne; Lucette Gebuhrer; Valérie Dubois; Isabelle Jollet; Monique Bois; Pascale Perrier; Dominique Masson; Agnès Moine; Léna Absi; Denis Reviron; Virginia Lepage; Ryad Tamouza; Antoine Toubert; Evelyne Marry; Zina Chir; Jean-Pierre Jouet; Didier Blaise; Dominique Charron; Colette Raffoux

2007-01-01

427

Isotopic characteristics of canopies in simulated leaf assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geologic history of closed-canopy forests is of great interest to paleoecologists and paleoclimatologists alike. Closed canopies have pronounced effects on local, continental and global rainfall and temperature patterns. Although evidence for canopy closure is difficult to reconstruct from the fossil record, the characteristic isotope gradients of the "canopy effect" could be preserved in leaves and proxy biomarkers. To assess this, we employed new carbon isotopic data for leaves collected in diverse light environments within a deciduous, temperate forest (Maryland, USA) and for leaves from a perennially closed canopy, moist tropical forest (Bosque Protector San Lorenzo, Panamá). In the tropical forest, leaf carbon isotope values range 10‰, with higher ?13Cleaf values occurring both in upper reaches of the canopy, and with higher light exposure and lower humidity. Leaf fractionation (?leaf) varied negatively with height and light and positively with humidity. Vertical 13C enrichment in leaves largely reflects changes in ?leaf, and does not trend with ?13C of CO2 within the canopy. At the site in Maryland, leaves express a more modest ?13C range (?6‰), with a clear trend that follows both light and leaf height. Using a model we simulate leaf assemblage isotope patterns from canopy data binned by elevation. The re-sampling (bootstrap) model determined both the mean and range of carbon isotope values for simulated leaf assemblages ranging in size from 10 to over 1000 leaves. For the tropical forest data, the canopy's isotope range is captured with 50 or more randomly sampled leaves. Thus, with a sufficient number of fossil leaves it is possible to distinguish isotopic gradients in an ancient closed canopy forest from those in an open forest. For very large leaf assemblages, mean isotopic values approximate the ?13C of carbon contributed by leaves to soil and are similar to observed ?13Clitter values at forested sites within Panamá, including the site where leaves were sampled. The model predicts a persistent ?1‰ difference in ?13Clitter for the two sites which is consistent with higher water availability in the tropical forests. This work provides a new framework for linking contemporary ecological observations to the geochemical record using flux-weighted isotope data and lends insights to the effect of forest architecture on organic and isotopic records of ancient terrestrial ecosystems.

Graham, Heather V.; Patzkowsky, Mark E.; Wing, Scott L.; Parker, Geoffrey G.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

2014-11-01

428

Leaf hydraulic conductance is coordinated with leaf morpho-anatomical traits and nitrogen status in the genus Oryza  

PubMed Central

Leaf hydraulic conductance (K leaf) is a major determinant of photosynthetic rate in plants. Previous work has assessed the relationships between leaf morpho-anatomical traits and K leaf with woody species, but there has been very little focus on cereal crops. The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa) and wild species (such as O. rufipogon cv. Griff), is ideal material for identifying leaf features associated with K leaf and gas exchange. Leaf morpho-anatomical traits, K leaf, leaf N content per leaf area, and CO2 diffusion efficiency were investigated in 11 Oryza cultivars. K leaf was positively correlated with leaf thickness and related traits, and therefore positively correlated with leaf mass per area and leaf N content per leaf area, and negatively with inter-veinal distance. K leaf was also positively correlated with leaf area and its related traits, and therefore negatively correlated with the proportion of minor vein length per area. In addition, coordination between K leaf and CO2 diffusion conductance in leaves was observed. We conclude that leaf morpho-anatomical traits and N content per leaf area strongly influence K leaf. Our results suggest that more detailed anatomical and structural studies are needed to elucidate the impacts of leaf feature traits on K leaf and gas exchange in grasses. PMID:25429002

Xiong, Dongliang; Yu, Tingting; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang

2015-01-01

429

Leaf hydraulic conductance is coordinated with leaf morpho-anatomical traits and nitrogen status in the genus Oryza.  

PubMed

Leaf hydraulic conductance (K leaf) is a major determinant of photosynthetic rate in plants. Previous work has assessed the relationships between leaf morpho-anatomical traits and K leaf with woody species, but there has been very little focus on cereal crops. The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa) and wild species (such as O. rufipogon cv. Griff), is ideal material for identifying leaf features associated with K leaf and gas exchange. Leaf morpho-anatomical traits, K leaf, leaf N content per leaf area, and CO2 diffusion efficiency were investigated in 11 Oryza cultivars. K leaf was positively correlated with leaf thickness and related traits, and therefore positively correlated with leaf mass per area and leaf N content per leaf area, and negatively with inter-veinal distance. K leaf was also positively correlated with leaf area and its related traits, and therefore negatively correlated with the proportion of minor vein length per area. In addition, coordination between K leaf and CO2 diffusion conductance in leaves was observed. We conclude that leaf morpho-anatomical traits and N content per leaf area strongly influence K leaf. Our results suggest that more detailed anatomical and structural studies are needed to elucidate the impacts of leaf feature traits on K leaf and gas exchange in grasses. PMID:25429002

Xiong, Dongliang; Yu, Tingting; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang

2015-02-01

430

iSTEM Summer Institute: An Integrated Approach to Teacher Professional Development inSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The importance of STEM education to our national prosperity and global competitiveness was recently reinforced by the Obama administration support for Change the Equation. Change the Equation is a multi-entity initiative formed in response to the rapidly increasing demand for STEM related careers and the potential lack of preparation by many Americans to be employed in these positions. To address the issue many are calling for increased emphasis on K-12 STEM education, as early preparation in STEM provides the foundation essential for further learning and competencies (National Research Council, 2007). Achieving and sustaining depth and breadth of K-12 STEM education is inextricably linked to ongoing professional development of K-12 educators. The need for teacher continuing education in STEM education and the link between teacher effectiveness and student preparation in STEM was the impetus behind our i- STEM professional development summer institute. The i-STEM initiative is a collaborative effort between business, industry, government, K-12, and higher education. Although the organization is working on a number of projects, including policy, research, communication, and collaborations, the i-STEM group has directed significant resources toward K-12 educator professional development opportunities in STEM. Our report focuses on the structure and impact of the intensive four-day i-STEM residential professional development institute which we designed to increase the capacity of grade 4-9 teachers to teach STEM content. We structured the summer institute using the outcome of a survey we conducted of grade 4-9 teachers’ to assess their STEM professional development needs, the extant literature on teacher development, the increasing need for a STEM informed society, and our desire to use evidence based practices to enhance teacher capacity to teach STEM content. We developed this investigation to determine if our summer institute influenced the participating teachers comfort with teaching STEM, efficacy for teaching STEM, content knowledge of STEM, inquiry implementation in STEM, and perceptions of STEM education. These parameters in-part have been gathered previously for specific areas of math or science education, but we are not aware of any study in which these variables have been attended to and assessed in the context of enhancing inservice teacher preparation to teach STEM. Therefore, our project provides a unique contribution to the literature because of our focus on STEM education and our adaptation and use of an array of assessment tools to measure the impact on our participants’ perceptions of teaching STEM, affective perspectives, and knowledge of the related content. Further, we are responding to the position of Putnam and Borko (2000) who contend there has been a dearth of attention paid toward creating teacher professional development experiences consistent with the teacher learning and investigations of the impact of the experience on the participating educators. Before we present our research and results, we discuss the relevant literature establishing the justification for our study. Following the presentation of our study results we discuss the related implications and directions for future research. We conclude with a discussion of study limitations and some closing remarks of our study contributions to the field of teacher professional development in STEM education.

Anne Seifert; Louis Nadelson

2012-04-01

431

Leaf Optical Properties in Higher Plants: Linking Spectral Characteristics with Plant Stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of studies have addressed responses of leaf spectral reflectance, transmittance, or absorptance to physiological stress. Stressors included dehydration, ozone, herbicides, disease, insufficient mycorrhizae and N fertilization, flooding and insects. Species included conifers, grasses, and broadleaved trees. Increased reflectance with maximum responses near 700 nm wavelength occurred in all cases. Varying the chlorophyll content in leaves or pigment extracts can simulate this effect. Thus, common optical responses to stress result from decreases in leaf chlorophyll contents or the capacity of chloroplasts to absorb light. Leaf optic can be quite sensitive to any stressor that alters soil-plant-atmosphere processes.

Carter, Gregory A.; Knapp, Alan K.

1999-01-01

432

Salinity effects on leaf anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing salinity led to substantially higher ratios of mesophyll surface area to leaf area (A\\/sup mes\\/\\/A) for Phaseolus vulgaris and Gossypium hirsutum and a smaller increase for Atriplex patula, a salt-tolerant species. The increase in internal surface for COâ absorption did not lead to higher COâ uptake rates, since the COâ resistance expressed on the basis of mesophyll cell wall

D. J. Longstreth; P. S. Nobel

1979-01-01

433

On Number Representation  

E-print Network

Place value numbers, such as the binary or decimal numbers can be represented by the end vertices (leaf or pendant vertices) of rooted symmetrical trees. Numbers that consist of at most a fixed number of digits are represented by vertices that are equidistant from the root vertex and the corresponding number representations do not depend on the distance from the root vertex. In this paper, we introduce place value number systems which are representable by rooted symmetrical trees and in which the representation of a number depends on the distance of the corresponding vertex from the root vertex. Such dependence activates the role of zero in such a way as to render its function equivalent to that of any other single digit number. Thus, in addition to being a place value holder, the digit zero (just as any other single digit numeral) affects the value of a number regardless of its position. For example 012 is different, in the new systems, from 12. As such, these new number systems could be thought of as a natural development for the role of zero. We also illustrate how addition is performed in these newly constructed number systems. In addition to being mathematical structures which could be of mathematical interest, these new number systems could possibly have applications in computing and computing security.

Rafael I. Rofa

2013-10-30

434

DNA Content of Beta vulgaris Chloroplasts during Leaf Cell Expansion.  

PubMed

During the growth of beet leaves from 2 to 3 to 25 to 30 centimeters, the leaf cells increase in size, the average number of chloroplasts per cell increases from 11 to 65 and the amount of chloroplast DNA per cell increases from 1100 to 1900 plastome copies. The average number of copies of the plastome per chloroplast decreases from 104 in 2 to 3-centimeter leaves to 29 in 25 to 30-centimeter leaves during a period when the chloroplasts undergo two to three rounds of division and increase diameter from 1.5 to 4.9 micrometers. This result is at variance with previously published studies of beet chloroplasts but agrees with the conclusions reached in more recent studies of pea and spinach and wheat leaf cell expansion. PMID:16662908

Tymms, M J; Scott, N S; Possingham, J V

1983-04-01

435

Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics What is a Stem Cell?  

E-print Network

Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics What is a Stem Cell? Stem cells are the starting point from to line blood vessels. All of these highly specialized cells have to grow from unspecialized stem cells. Stem cells produce new cells by dividing. In the right conditions, these new cells can then continue

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

436

Hematopoietic stem cells: an overview.  

PubMed

Considerable efforts have been made in recent years in understanding the mechanisms that govern hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) origin, development, differentiation, self-renewal, aging, trafficking, plasticity and transdifferentiation. Hematopoiesis occurs in sequential waves in distinct anatomical locations during development and these shifts in location are accompanied by changes in the functional status of the stem cells and reflect the changing needs of the developing organism. HSCs make a choice of either self-renewal or committing to differentiation. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation is considered to be critical to the maintenance of stem cell numbers. It is still under debate if HSC can rejuvenate infinitely or if they do not possess ''true" self-renewal and undergo replicative senescence such as any other somatic cell. Gene therapy applications that target HSCs offer a great potential for the treatment of hematologic and immunologic diseases. However, the clinical success has been limited by many factors. This review is intended to summarize the recent advances made in the human HSC field, and will review the hematopoietic stem cell from definition through development to clinical applications. PMID:25457002

Mosaad, Youssef Mohamed

2014-12-01

437

Canalization-based vein formation in a growing leaf.  

PubMed

Vein formation is an important process in plant leaf development. The phytohormone auxin is known as the most important molecule for the control of venation patterning; and the canalization model, in which cells experiencing higher auxin flux differentiate into specific cells for auxin transportation, is widely accepted. To date, several mathematical models based on the canalization hypothesis have been proposed that have succeeded in reproducing vein patterns similar to those observed in actual leaves. However, most previous studies focused on patterning in fixed domains, and, in a few exceptional studies, limited tissue growth - such as cell proliferation at leaf margins and small deformations without large changes in cell number - were dealt with. Considering that, in actual leaf development, venation patterning occurs in an exponentially growing tissue, whether the canalization hypothesis still applies is an important issue to be addressed. In this study, we first show through a pilot simulation that the coupling of chemical dynamics for canalization and tissue growth as independent models cannot reproduce normal venation patterning. We then examine conditions sufficient for achieving normal patterning in a growing leaf by introducing various constraints on chemical dynamics, tissue growth, and cell mechanics; in doing so, we found that auxin flux- or differentiation-dependent modification of the cell cycle and elasticity of cell edges are essential. The predictions given by our simulation study will serve as guideposts in experiments aimed at finding the key factors for achieving normal venation patterning in developing plant leaves. PMID:24632445

Lee, Sang-Woo; Feugier, Francois Gabriel; Morishita, Yoshihiro

2014-07-21

438

Jasmonates: Hormonal regulators or stress factors in leaf senescence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific cyclopentanone compounds such as (?)-jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester (JA-Me) or (+)-7-iso-jasmonic acid are\\u000a considered putative plant growth regulators for a number of reasons, including their ubiquitous occurrence in the plant kingdom,\\u000a structural specificity in physiological responses, and interaction with other phytohormones in the biological activities of\\u000a jasmonates. In this respect leaf senescence promotion is of particular

Benno Parthier

1990-01-01

439

Leaf drop affects herbivory in oaks.  

PubMed

Leaf phenology is important to herbivores, but the timing and extent of leaf drop has not played an important role in our understanding of herbivore interactions with deciduous plants. Using phylogenetic general least squares regression, we compared the phenology of leaves of 55 oak species in a common garden with the abundance of leaf miners on those trees. Mine abundance was highest on trees with an intermediate leaf retention index, i.e. trees that lost most, but not all, of their leaves for 2-3 months. The leaves of more evergreen species were more heavily sclerotized, and sclerotized leaves accumulated fewer mines in the summer. Leaves of more deciduous species also accumulated fewer mines in the summer, and this was consistent with the idea that trees reduce overwintering herbivores by shedding leaves. Trees with a later leaf set and slower leaf maturation accumulated fewer herbivores. We propose that both leaf drop and early leaf phenology strongly affect herbivore abundance and select for differences in plant defense. Leaf drop may allow trees to dispose of their herbivores so that the herbivores must recolonize in spring, but trees with the longest leaf retention also have the greatest direct defenses against herbivores. PMID:23774946

Pearse, Ian S; Karban, Richard

2013-11-01

440

Leaf trait dissimilarities between Dutch elm hybrids with a contrasting tolerance to Dutch elm disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Previous studies have shown that Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causative agent of Dutch elm disease (DED), is able to colonize remote areas in infected plants of Ulmus such as the leaf midrib and secondary veins. The objective of this study was to compare the performances in leaf traits between two Dutch elm hybrids ‘Groeneveld’ and ‘Dodoens’ which possess a contrasting tolerance to DED. Trait linkages were also tested with leaf mass per area (LMA) and with the reduced Young's modulus of elasticity (MOE) as a result of structural, developmental or functional linkages. Methods Measurements and comparisons were made of leaf growth traits, primary xylem density components, gas exchange variables and chlorophyll a fluorescence yields between mature plants of ‘Groeneveld’ and ‘Dodoens’ grown under field conditions. A recently developed atomic force microscopy technique, PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical mapping, was used to reveal nanomechanical properties of the cell walls of tracheary elements such as MOE, adhesion and dissipation. Key Results ‘Dodoens’ had significantly higher values for LMA, leaf tissue thickness variables, tracheary element lumen area (A), relative hydraulic conductivity (RC), gas exchange variables and chlorophyll a fluorescence yields. ‘Groeneveld’ had stiffer cell walls of tracheary elements, and higher values for water-use efficiency and leaf water potential. Leaves with a large carbon and nutrient investment in LMA tended to have a greater leaf thickness and a higher net photosynthetic rate, but LMA was independent of RC. Significant linkages were also found between the MOE and some vascular traits such as RC, A and the number of tracheary elements per unit area. Conclusions Strong dissimilarities in leaf trait performances were observed between the examined Dutch elm hybrids. Both hybrids were clearly separated from each other in the multivariate leaf trait space. Leaf growth, vascular and gas exchange traits in the infected plants of ‘Dodoens’ were unaffected by the DED fungus. ‘Dodoens’ proved to be a valuable elm germplasm for further breeding strategies. PMID:23264236

?urkovi?, Jaroslav; ?a?ová, Ingrid; Laga?a, Rastislav; Ku?erová, Veronika; Morav?ík, Michal; Priwitzer, Tibor; Urban, Josef; Dvo?ák, Milo?; Kraj?áková, Jana

2013-01-01

441

Plant stem cell niches.  

PubMed

Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis. PMID:22404469

Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

2012-01-01

442

Resistance in cotyledons, leaves, stems and bolls conferred by several B genes in Gossypium hirsutum L. as measured by races of Xanthomonas Malvacearum (E.F.Sm) Dows  

E-print Network

races of the pathogen, the B2, B and B genes were actually minor genes, each having small effect in an Empire WR background (Empire WR, an Upland line has the Stoneville B minor genes which confer leaf Sm tolerance and stem resistance) and added... the boll. Bird (6') reported that all Upland types had stem resistance, adding that the genes which cause stem resistance may or may not cause some degree of leaf tolerance. In Upland types (6) at least two major genes should be added to obtain boll...

Tayel, Mohamed Aly Fathalla

1967-01-01

443

On using the dosimetric leaf gap to model the rounded leaf ends in VMAT/RapidArc plans.  

PubMed

Partial transmission through rounded leaf ends of Varian multileaf collimators (MLC) is accounted for with a parameter called the dosimetric leaf gap (DLG). Verification of the value of the DLG is needed when the dose delivery is accompanied by gantry rotation in VMAT plans. We compared the doses measured with GAFCHROMIC film and an ionization chamber to treatment planning system (TPS) calculations to identify the optimum values of the DLG in clinical plans of the whole brain with metastases transferred to a phantom. We noticed the absence of a single value of the DLG that properly models all VMAT plans in our cohort (the optimum DLG varied between 0.93 ± 0.15 mm and 2.2 ± 0.2 mm). The former value is considerably different from the optimum DLG in sliding window plans (about 2.0 mm) that approximate IMRT plans. We further found that a single-value DLG model cannot accurately reproduce the measured dose profile even of a uniform static slit at a fixed gantry, which is the simplest MLC-delimited field. The calculation overestimates the measurement in the proximal penumbra, while it underestimates in the distal penumbra. This prompted us to expand the DLG parameter from a plan-specific number to a mathematical concept of the DLG being a function of the distance in the beam's eye view (BEV) between the dose point and the leaf ends. Such function compensates for the difference between the penumbras in a beam delimited with a rounded leaf MLC and delimited with solid jaws. Utilization of this concept allowed us generating a pair of step-and-shoot MLC plans for which we could qualitatively predict the value of the DLG providing best match to ionization chamber measurements. The plan for which the leafs stayed predominantly at positions requiring low values of the DLG (as seen in the profiles of 1D slits) yielded the combined DLG of 1.1 ± 0.2 mm, while the plan with leafs staying at positions requiring larger values of the DLG yielded the DLG 2.4 ± 0.2 mm. Considering the DLG to be a function of the distance (in BEV) between the dose point and the leaf ends allowed us to provide an explanation as to why conventional single-number DLG is plan-specific in VMAT plans. PMID:24710433

Szpala, Stanislaw; Cao, Fred; Kohli, Kirpal

2014-01-01

444

Time to reconsider stem cell induction strategies.  

PubMed

Recent developments in stem cell research suggest that it may be time to reconsider the current focus of stem cell induction strategies. During the previous five years, approximately, the induction of pluripotency in somatic cells, i.e., the generation of so-called 'induced pluripotent stem cells' (iPSCs), has become the focus of ongoing research in many stem cell laboratories, because this technology promises to overcome limitations (both technical and ethical) seen in the production and use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A rapidly increasing number of publications suggest, however, that it is now possible to choose instead other, alternative ways of generating stem and progenitor cells bypassing pluripotency. These new strategies may offer important advantages with respect to ethics, as well as to safety considerations. The present communication discusses why these strategies may provide possibilities for an escape from the dilemma presented by pluripotent stem cells (self-organization potential, cloning by tetraploid complementation, patenting problems and tumor formation risk). PMID:24710555

Denker, Hans-Werner

2012-01-01

445

MOLECULAR DETECTION OF A CLOSTEROVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH APRICOT STEM PITTING IN SOUTHERN ITALY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Electrophoretic analysis of cortical and leaf tissue extracts from apricot trees of cv. 'Tyrinthos' from Apulia (southern Italy) affected by stem pitting, contained multiple double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) species, the largest with an estimated size of 15 kbp. A segment of 590 nucleotides, showing seque...

446

Amnion-derived stem cells: in quest of clinical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the promising field of regenerative medicine, human perinatal stem cells are of great interest as potential stem cells\\u000a with clinical applications. Perinatal stem cells could be isolated from normally discarded human placentae, which are an ideal\\u000a cell source in terms of availability, the fewer number of ethical concerns, less DNA damage, and so on. Numerous studies have\\u000a demonstrated that

Toshio Miki

2011-01-01

447

Mobilization of Stem Cells\\/Progenitor Cells by Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A number of publications have provided evidence that exercise and physical activity are linked to the activation, mobilization,\\u000a and differentiation of various types of stem cells. Exercise may improve organ regeneration and function. This review characterizes\\u000a different stem and progenitor cells and their sources and summarizes mechanisms by which exercise contributes to stem-cell-induced\\u000a regeneration and adaptation in different tissues. The

Patrick Wahl; Wilhelm Bloch

448

Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells  

SciTech Connect

The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications.

Matikainen, Tiina [Program of Developmental and Reproductive Biology, Biomedicum Helsinki and Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Laine, Jarmo [Stem Cell and Transplantation Services, Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Kivihaantie 7, FIN 00310, Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: jarmo.laine@bts.redcoss.fi

2005-09-01

449

MicroRNAs as novel regulators of stem cell fate  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence in stem cell biology has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in cell fate specification, including stem cell self-renewal, lineage-specific differentiation, and somatic cell reprogramming. These functions are tightly regulated by specific gene expression patterns that involve miRNAs and transcription factors. To maintain stem cell pluripotency, specific miRNAs suppress transcription factors that promote differentiation, whereas to initiate differentiation, lineage-specific miRNAs are upregulated via the inhibition of transcription factors that promote self-renewal. Small molecules can be used in a similar manner as natural miRNAs, and a number of natural and synthetic small molecules have been isolated and developed to regulate stem cell fate. Using miRNAs as novel regulators of stem cell fate will provide insight into stem cell biology and aid in understanding the molecular mechanisms and crosstalk between miRNAs and stem cells. Ultimately, advances in the regulation of stem cell fate will contribute to the development of effective medical therapies for tissue repair and regeneration. This review summarizes the current insights into stem cell fate determination by miRNAs with a focus on stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and reprogramming. Small molecules that control stem cell fate are also highlighted. PMID:24179605

Choi, Eunhyun; Choi, Eunmi; Hwang, Ki-Chul

2013-01-01

450

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. I. The leaf-shaped antenna of the pupa from diapause to apolysis.  

PubMed

The antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus is a featherlike structure consisting of a central stem and ca. 120 side branches, which altogether carry about 70,000 olfactory sensilla. We investigate the development during the pupal phase. At the end of diapause, the antennal rudiment consists of a leaf-shaped, one-layered epidermal sac. It is supplied with oxygen via a central main trachea, which gives off numerous thin side branches. These are segmentally arranged into bundles which run to the periphery of the antennal blade. When the epidermis retracts from the pupal cuticle (apolysis; stage 1), it consists of cells which are morphologically uniform. The epidermal cells form a network of long, irregular basal protrusions (epidermal feet), which crisscross the antennal lumen. During the first day post-apolysis (stage 2), the antennal epidermis differentiates into alternating thick 'sensillogenic' and thin 'non-sensillogenic' areas arranged in stripes which run in parallel to the tracheal bundles. Numerous dark, elongated cells, which might be the sensillar stem cells, are scattered in the sensillogenic epithelium. A number of very early sensilla has been found at the distal edges of the sensillogenic stripes in positions which later will be occupied by sensilla chaetica. The whole antennal blade is enveloped by the transparent ecdysial membrane, consisting of the innermost layers of the pupal cuticle which are detached during apolysis. PMID:18620306

Keil, T A; Steiner, C

1990-01-01

451

Yield and leaf blade area comparisons of extra leafy to normal leafed maize (Zea mays L.)  

E-print Network

Inadequate information is available concerning the yield performance of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars with genotypes of greater than normal leaf areas. Such genotypes are called Extra-leafy or Leafy cultivars and have greater leaf production above...

Rushing, Ronald Wayne

1996-01-01

452

Seeing Stem Cells at Work In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Stem cell based-therapies are novel therapeutic strategies that hold key for developing new treatments for diseases conditions with very few or no cures. Although there has been an increase in the number of clinical trials involving stem cell-based therapies in the last few years, the long-term risks and benefits of these therapies are still unknown. Detailed in vivo studies are needed to monitor the fate of transplanted cells, including their distribution, differentiation, and longevity over time. Advancements in non-invasive cellular imaging techniques to track engrafted cells in real-time present a powerful tool for determining the efficacy of stem cell-based therapies. In this review, we describe the latest approaches to stem cell labeling and tracking using different imaging modalities. PMID:23975604

Srivastava, Amit K.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

2013-01-01

453

The PAWS and STEM reliability analysis programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The PAWS and STEM programs are new design/validation tools. These programs provide a flexible, user-friendly, language-based interface for the input of Markov models describing the behavior of fault-tolerant computer systems. These programs produce exact solutions of the probability of system failure and provide a conservative estimate of the number of significant digits in the solution. PAWS uses a Pade approximation as a solution technique; STEM uses a Taylor series as a solution technique. Both programs have the capability to solve numerically stiff models. PAWS and STEM possess complementary properties with regard to their input space; and, an additional strength of these programs is that they accept input compatible with the SURE program. If used in conjunction with SURE, PAWS and STEM provide a powerful suite of programs to analyze the reliability of fault-tolerant computer systems.

Butler, Ricky W.; Stevenson, Philip H.

1988-01-01

454

Cell Stem Cell Dear Student: Stem Cell Scientists' Advice  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Forum Dear Student: Stem Cell Scientists' Advice to the Next Generation Emily L on Stem Cells in Society, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 2Department of Family Practice, University of British@stanford.edu (C.T.S.) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.05.007 For the field of pluripotent stem cell biology

455

Alfalfa stem feedstock for IGCC power system fuel  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study has been completed for an integrated gasification combined cycle power generation (IGCC) system that involves a set of inter-related processes between the alfalfa separation plant and the power plant. The alfalfa fractionation process reduces the stem size, improves the bulk density for feeding and provides a uniform moisture feed. Alfalfa stem material was evaluated as a fuel for the system. The leaf meal, animal feed co-product is separated from the alfalfa plant. The pressurized gasification process is the RENUGAS{trademark} system licensed to Tampella Power Corporation. The adaptation of the process to alfalfa stems results in low-Btu fuel gas suitable for combustion turbines. The gasification process is expected to obtain very high carbon conversion, overcome ash agglomeration, control volatile alkali species, and remove particulate matter with a hot gas filter system. The collected ash residues are expected to be returned to the land that grew the alfalfa.

DeLong, M.M.; Onischak, M.; Schmid, M.R. [and others

1995-12-31

456

Compound leaf development in model plant species.  

PubMed

Plant leaves develop in accordance with a common basic program, which is flexibly adjusted to the species, developmental stage and environment. Two key stages of leaf development are morphogenesis and differentiation. In the case of compound leaves, the morphogenesis stage is prolonged as compared to simple leaves, allowing for the initiation of leaflets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how plant hormones and transcriptional regulators modulate compound leaf development, yielding a substantial diversity of leaf forms, focusing on four model compound leaf organisms: cardamine (Cardamine hirsuta), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), medicago (Medicago truncatula) and pea (Pisum sativum). PMID:25449728

Bar, Maya; Ori, Naomi

2015-02-01

457

Classification and quantification of leaf curvature  

PubMed Central

Various mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in polarity, cell division, and auxin response are characterized by certain types of leaf curvature. However, comparison of curvature for clarification of gene function can be difficult without a quantitative measurement of curvature. Here, a novel method for classification and quantification of leaf curvature is reported. Twenty-two mutant alleles from Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic lines deficient in leaf flatness were selected. The mutants were classified according to the direction, axis, position, and extent of leaf curvature. Based on a global measure of whole leaves and a local measure of four regions in the leaves, the curvature index (CI) was proposed to quantify the leaf curvature. The CI values accounted for the direction, axis, position, and extent of leaf curvature in all of the Arabidopsis mutants grown in growth chambers. Comparison of CI values between mutants reveals the spatial and temporal variations of leaf curvature, indicating the strength of the mutant alleles and the activities of the corresponding genes. Using the curvature indices, the extent of curvature in a complicated genetic background becomes quantitative and comparable, thus providing a useful tool for defining the genetic components of leaf development and to breed new varieties with leaf curvature desirable for the efficient capture of sunlight for photosynthesis and high yields. PMID:20400533

Liu, Zhongyuan; Jia, Liguo; Mao, Yanfei; He, Yuke

2010-01-01

458

Leaf traits within communities: context may affect the mapping of traits to function.  

PubMed

The leaf economics spectrum (LES) has revolutionized the way many ecologists think about quantifying plant ecological trade-offs. In particular, the LES has connected a clear functional trade-off (long-lived leaves with slow carbon capture vs. short-lived leaves with fast carbon capture) to a handful of easily measured leaf traits. Building on this work, community ecologists are now able to quickly assess species carbon-capture strategies, which may have implications for community-level patterns such as competition or succession. However, there are a number of steps in this logic that require careful examination, and a potential danger arises when interpreting leaf-trait variation among species within communities where trait relationships are weak. Using data from 22 diverse communities, we show that relationships among three common functional traits (photosynthetic rate, leaf nitrogen concentration per mass, leaf mass per area) are weak in communities with low variation in leaf life span (LLS), especially communities dominated by herbaceous or deciduous woody species. However, globally there are few LLS data sets for communities dominated by herbaceous or deciduous species, and more data are needed to confirm this pattern. The context-dependent nature of trait relationships at the community level suggests that leaf-trait variation within communities, especially those dominated by herbaceous and deciduous woody species, should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24279259

Funk, Jennifer L; Cornwell, William K

2013-09-01

459

Co-ordinated development of the leaf midrib xylem with the lamina in Nicotiana tabacum  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The water-transport capacity of leaf venation is positively related to the leaf-lamina area, because the number and diameter of vein-xylem conduits are controlled to match the lamina area. This study aimed to investigate how this co-ordinated relationship between the leaf-lamina area and vein-xylem characteristics is achieved by examining the midrib xylem of tobacco leaves. Methods The changes in the midrib-xylem characteristics over time were quantified using leaves with four different final lamina areas. The measured data were fitted to sigmoidal functions. From the constants of the fitted curves, the final values in mature leaves, maximal developmental rates (VDev) and developmental duration (TDev) were estimated for each of the xylem characteristics. Whether it is the lamina or the midrib xylem that drives the co-ordinated development was examined by lamina removal from unfolding leaves. The effects of the application of 0·1 % IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) to leaves with the laminas removed were also analysed. Key Results For both the leaf lamina and the midrib-xylem characteristics, the differences in final values among leaves with different lamina areas were more strongly associated with those in VDev. Notably, the VDev values of the midrib-xylem characteristics were related to those of the leaf-lamina area. By lamina removal, the conduit diameter was reduced but the number of conduits did not significantly change. By IAA application, the decrease in the conduit diameter was halted, and the number of conduits in the midrib xylem increased. Conclusions According to the results, the VDev values of the lamina area and the midrib-xylem characteristics changed in a co-ordinated manner, so that the water-transport capacity of the midrib xylem was positively related to the leaf-lamina area. The results also suggest that IAA derived from the leaf lamina plays a crucial role in the development of the leaf venation. PMID:22589329

Taneda, Haruhiko; Terashima, Ichiro

2012-01-01

460

Effect of Leaf Rolling on Gas Exchange and Leaf Temperature of Andropogon gerardii and Spartina pectinata  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of leaf rolling on CO, and water vapor exchange of two C, prairie grasses with contrasting patterns of leaf rolling. Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem) is a drought-resistant species with predominantly hypostomatal leaves that fold (adaxial surface inward) in response to low leaf water potential, while leaves of Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass), a mesic species, are epistomatal

Scott A. Heckathorn; Evan H. DeLucia

1991-01-01